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Sample records for separator characterization studies

  1. Phase separation in thermal systems: a lattice Boltzmann study and morphological characterization.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yanbiao; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Li, Hua

    2011-10-01

    We investigate thermal and isothermal symmetric liquid-vapor separations via a fast Fourier transform thermal lattice Boltzmann (FFT-TLB) model. Structure factor, domain size, and Minkowski functionals are employed to characterize the density and velocity fields, as well as to understand the configurations and the kinetic processes. Compared with the isothermal phase separation, the freedom in temperature prolongs the spinodal decomposition (SD) stage and induces different rheological and morphological behaviors in the thermal system. After the transient procedure, both the thermal and isothermal separations show power-law scalings in domain growth, while the exponent for thermal system is lower than that for isothermal system. With respect to the density field, the isothermal system presents more likely bicontinuous configurations with narrower interfaces, while the thermal system presents more likely configurations with scattered bubbles. Heat creation, conduction, and lower interfacial stresses are the main reasons for the differences in thermal system. Different from the isothermal case, the release of latent heat causes the changing of local temperature, which results in new local mechanical balance. When the Prandtl number becomes smaller, the system approaches thermodynamical equilibrium much more quickly. The increasing of mean temperature makes the interfacial stress lower in the following way: σ=σ(0)[(T(c)-T)/(T(c)-T(0))](3/2), where T(c) is the critical temperature and σ(0) is the interfacial stress at a reference temperature T(0), which is the main reason for the prolonged SD stage and the lower growth exponent in the thermal case. Besides thermodynamics, we probe how the local viscosities influence the morphology of the phase separating system. We find that, for both the isothermal and thermal cases, the growth exponents and local flow velocities are inversely proportional to the corresponding viscosities. Compared with the isothermal case, the

  2. Whey protein isolate gel for separation: A formation, characterization, and application study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Jiunn Yeong

    performance of WPI monolith for continuous bed chromatography. Nonetheless the WPI monolith may be used to separate different protein molecules based on protein-protein interaction between WPI and protein molecules to be separated.

  3. Airborne rotary separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drnevich, R. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle mission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various fuels and fuel combinations with the objective of minimizing the weight and increase the ready alert capability of the plane. Fuels will be used to provide energy as well as act as heat sinks for the on-board heat rejection system. Fuel energy was used to provide power for air separation as well as to produce refrigeration for liquefaction of oxygen enriched air, besides its primary purpose of vehicle propulsion. The heat generated in the cycle was rejected to the fuel and water which is also carried on board the vehicle.The fuels that were evaluated include JP4, methane, and hydrogen. Hydrogen served as a comparison to the JP4 and methane cases.

  4. Gradient chromatofocusing. versatile pH gradient separation of proteins in ion-exchange HPLC: characterization studies.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lian; Anderson, David J

    2002-11-01

    A new chromatofocusing technique called gradient chromatofocusing is characterized. Gradient chromatofocusing generates linear pH gradients on anion-exchange columns with inexpensive low molecular mass buffer components via HPLC gradient mixing. Gradient chromatofocusing results are compared with that of conventional chromatofocusing in the chromatography of several proteins on a Mono P column, including beta-lactoglobulin A and B, ovalbumin, BSA, and conalbumin. Gradient chromatofocusing shows superior performance, with resolution increases greater than 3-fold being realized for the entire protein mixture and up to 25-fold for a particular protein pair. This performance superiority arises from inherent advantages in the gradient chromatofocusing technique in optimizing conditions pertinent to separation, including buffer concentration and pH gradient slope. These resolution gains arise from both increases in separation factor and decreases in peak width achieved with the pH gradient chromatofocusing technique through the manipulation of buffer concentration and the pH gradient profile. Gradient chromatofocusing is also compared with conventional NaCl gradient ion-exchange chromatography using the same Mono P column, demonstrating 3-fold resolution gains, resulting from a 3-fold decrease in peak width. The present work demonstrates the significantly improved performance that gradient chromatofocusing has in protein separations compared to other ion-exchange chromatographic techniques. Mechanisms for the various effects are discussed.

  5. Impedance Study for BEPC Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feng; Tang, Chuanxiang

    1997-05-01

    This paper focuses on the impedance studies for the separator. The impedance measurement results show that the shunt impedances of trapped modes in the separator are very small, and find that the load connected to the plates can damp some modes. The field distributions of these modes are also presented. Its wake is also calculated by using 3-D MAFIA. The relations between its wake with separator length, separator width, and etc are studied in detail.

  6. Study of dogfish (Scyliorhinus caniculus) deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase alpha and beta. Extraction, separation, characterization and changes during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, M; Chevaillier, P

    1980-01-01

    DNA polymerase activity was extracted from testis cells of the dogfish Scyliorhinus caniculus. On a sucrose gradient, two main peaks could be separated, corresponding to DNA polymerases beta (3.8 S) and alpha (7.5 S). DNA polymerase gamma could also be detected when poly(A) . (dT)12 was used as template. The properties of alpha and beta polymerases of this primitive vertebrate were similar to those generally described, especially in mammals. The beta enzyme was highly sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, however, and could use poly(dT) . poly(A) as template. Polymerase alpha was present in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids. Activity was maximal in spermatocytes. DNA polymerase beta was present in all testis cells with similar activities in spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Decreased activities were observed during spermiogenesis. Some activity remained associated with the chromatin fraction of mature sperm cells. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:7194042

  7. Characterization of Polymer Phase Separation of Reacting Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yontz, D. J.; Hsu, S. L.; Gier, D.; Lidy, W.; Mazor, M.

    1997-03-01

    The degree of phase separation and size of the hard domains and soft domains that form in polyurethanes are highly dependent on the temperature at which phase separation occurs. This current study has focused on a polyurea urethane synthesized from toluene diisocyanate (TDI), water, and PPO. The temperature of this very exothermic system increases from room temperature to well over 100 ^circC in less than two minutes. This rise in temperature, especially during the first several minutes in which molecular weight buildup and phase separation compete, plays a significant role in the development of the final phase separated morphology. Samples prepared isothermally displayed a morphology that differed from that of the samples prepared with the inherent temperature profile. The evidence has shown that the phase separation process of this system cannot be predicted easily. Our experimental data have shown that competition between the rate of reaction and the phase separation rate is crucial to the production of this heterogeneous morphology. Infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses have proved to be instrumental in the characterization of the structures produced.

  8. Airborne rotary air separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  9. LISA Propulsion Module Separation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a space-borne gravitational wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Each spacecraft is delivered to it operational orbit by a propulsion module. Because of the strict thermal and mass balancing requirements of LISA, the baseline mission concept requires that the propulsion module separate from the sciencecraft after delivery. The only propulsion system currently baselined for the sciencecraft are micronewton level thrusters, such as FEEP or colloid thrusters, that are used to balance the 30-40 microN of solar radiation pressure and provide the drag-free and attitude control of the spacecraft. Due to these thrusters limited authority, the separation of the propulsion module from the sciencecraft must be well controlled to not induce a large tip-off rotation of the sciencecraft. We present here the results of a design study of the propulsion module separation system that is shown to safely deliver the LISA sciencecraft to its final operational orbit.

  10. LISA Propulsion Module Separation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a space-borne gravitational wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Each spacecraft is delivered to it operational orbit by a propulsion module. Because of the strict thermal and mass balancing requirements of LISA, the baseline mission concept requires that the propulsion module separate from the sciencecraft after delivery. The only propulsion system currently baselined for the sciencecraft are micronewton level thrusters, such as FEEP or colloid thrusters, that are used to balance the 30-40 microN of solar radiation pressure and provide the drag-free and attitude control of the spacecraft. Due to these thrusters limited authority, the separation of the propulsion module from the sciencecraft must be well controlled to not induce a large tip-off rotation of the sciencecraft. We present here the results of a design study of the propulsion module separation system that is shown to safely deliver the LISA sciencecraft to its final operational orbit.

  11. Characterization of Phase Separation Propensity for Amorphous Spray Dried Dispersions.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Daniel; Yin, Shawn; Pan, Duohai; Crull, George; Timmins, Peter; Vig, Balvinder

    2017-02-06

    A generalized screening approach, applying isothermal calorimetry at 37 °C 100% RH, to formulations of spray dried dispersions (SDDs) for two active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) (BMS-903452 and BMS-986034) is demonstrated. APIs 452 and 034, with similar chemotypes, were synthesized and promoted during development for oral dosing. Both APIs were formulated as SDDs for animal exposure studies using the polymer hydroxypropylmethlycellulose acetyl succinate M grade (HPMCAS-M). 452 formulated at 30% (wt/wt %) was an extremely robust SDD that was able to withstand 40 °C 75% RH open storage conditions for 6 months with no physical evidence of crystallization or loss of dissolution performance. Though 034 was a chemical analogue with similar physical chemical properties to 452, a physically stable SDD of 034 could not be formulated in HPMCAS-M at any of the drug loads attempted. This study was used to develop experience with specific physical characterization laboratory techniques to evaluate the physical stability of SDDs and to characterize the propensity of SDDs to phase separate and possibly crystallize. The screening strategy adopted was to stress the formulated SDDs with a temperature humidity screen, within the calorimeter, and to apply orthogonal analytical techniques to gain a more informed understanding of why these SDDs formulated with HPMCAS-M demonstrated such different physical stability. Isothermal calorimetry (thermal activity monitor, TAM) was employed as a primary stress screen wherein the SDD formulations were monitored for 3 days at 37 °C 100% RH for signs of phase separation and possible crystallization of API. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) were all used to examine formulated SDDs and neat amorphous drug. 452 SDDs formulated at 30% (wt/wt %) or less did not show phase separation behavior upon

  12. Photovoltaic solar panels of crystalline silicon: Characterization and separation.

    PubMed

    Dias, Pablo Ribeiro; Benevit, Mariana Gonçalves; Veit, Hugo Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Photovoltaic panels have a limited lifespan and estimates show large amounts of solar modules will be discarded as electronic waste in a near future. In order to retrieve important raw materials, reduce production costs and environmental impacts, recycling such devices is important. Initially, this article investigates which silicon photovoltaic module's components are recyclable through their characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersion spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Next, different separation methods are tested to favour further recycling processes. The glass was identified as soda-lime glass, the metallic filaments were identified as tin-lead coated copper, the panel cells were made of silicon and had silver filaments attached to it and the modules' frames were identified as aluminium, all of which are recyclable. Moreover, three different components segregation methods have been studied. Mechanical milling followed by sieving was able to separate silver from copper while chemical separation using sulphuric acid was able to detach the semiconductor material. A thermo gravimetric analysis was performed to evaluate the use of a pyrolysis step prior to the component's removal. The analysis showed all polymeric fractions present degrade at 500 °C.

  13. Characterization of Glass Fiber Separator Material for Lithium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Frank, H.

    1984-01-01

    Characterization studies were carried out on a glass fiber paper that is currently employed as a separator material for some LiSOCl2 primary cells. The material is of the non-woven type made from microfilaments of E-type glass and contains an ethyl acrylate binder. Results from extraction studies and tensile testing revealed that the binder content and tensile strength of the paper were significantly less than values specified by the manufacturer. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the presence of clusters of impurities many of which were high in iron content. Results of emission spectroscopy revealed high overall levels of iron and leaching, followed by atomic absorption measurements, revealed that essentially all of this iron is soluble in SOCl2.

  14. Separator Materials Used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries Characterized and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium (Ni/Cd) and nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) secondary alkaline batteries are vital to aerospace applications. Battery performance and cycle life are significantly affected by the type of separators used in those batteries. A team from NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch developed standardized testing procedures to characterize and evaluate new and existing separator materials to improve performance and cycle life of secondary alkaline batteries. Battery separators must function as good electronic insulators and as efficient electrolyte reservoirs. At present, new types of organic and inorganic separator materials are being developed for Ni/Cd and Ni/H2 batteries. The separator material previously used in the NASA standard Ni/Cd was Pellon 2505, a 100-percent nylon-6 polymer that must be treated with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to bond the fibers. Because of stricter Environmental Protection Agency regulation of ZnCl2 emissions, the battery community has been searching for new separators to replace Pellon 2505. As of today, two candidate separator materials have been identified; however, neither of the two materials have performed as well as Pellon 2505. The separator test procedures that were devised at Lewis are being implemented to expedite the search for new battery separators. The new test procedures, which are being carried out in the Separator Laboratory at Lewis, have been designed to guarantee accurate evaluations of the properties that are critical for sustaining proper battery operation. These properties include physical and chemical stability, chemical purity, gas permeability, electrolyte retention and distribution, uniformity, porosity, and area resistivity. A manual containing a detailed description of 12 separator test procedures has been drafted and will be used by the battery community to evaluate candidate separator materials for specific applications. These standardized procedures will allow for consistent, uniform

  15. Separator Materials Used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries Characterized and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium (Ni/Cd) and nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) secondary alkaline batteries are vital to aerospace applications. Battery performance and cycle life are significantly affected by the type of separators used in those batteries. A team from NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch developed standardized testing procedures to characterize and evaluate new and existing separator materials to improve performance and cycle life of secondary alkaline batteries. Battery separators must function as good electronic insulators and as efficient electrolyte reservoirs. At present, new types of organic and inorganic separator materials are being developed for Ni/Cd and Ni/H2 batteries. The separator material previously used in the NASA standard Ni/Cd was Pellon 2505, a 100-percent nylon-6 polymer that must be treated with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to bond the fibers. Because of stricter Environmental Protection Agency regulation of ZnCl2 emissions, the battery community has been searching for new separators to replace Pellon 2505. As of today, two candidate separator materials have been identified; however, neither of the two materials have performed as well as Pellon 2505. The separator test procedures that were devised at Lewis are being implemented to expedite the search for new battery separators. The new test procedures, which are being carried out in the Separator Laboratory at Lewis, have been designed to guarantee accurate evaluations of the properties that are critical for sustaining proper battery operation. These properties include physical and chemical stability, chemical purity, gas permeability, electrolyte retention and distribution, uniformity, porosity, and area resistivity. A manual containing a detailed description of 12 separator test procedures has been drafted and will be used by the battery community to evaluate candidate separator materials for specific applications. These standardized procedures will allow for consistent, uniform

  16. Characterizing spin-charge separation using Bragg spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Seth T.; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Hulet, Randall G.

    2015-05-01

    One dimensional systems of fermions are predicted by Luttinger liquid theory to have different dispersion relations for the spin and charge excitations. Spin-charge separation has been previously seen in quantum wire tunneling experiments. Ultracold atoms, however, provide a highly tunable and precise system to directly observe this phenomenon. We propose to realize such a system with fermionic 6Li in a 2-D optical lattice, measuring the spin and charge dispersion relations using Bragg spectroscopy. Bragg spectroscopy offers the ability to probe a large region of the excitation spectrum, since it does not change the internal state of the atoms and total momentum transfer is adjustable. By exploiting the tunability of interactions, via a Feshbach resonance, and the adjustability of the optical potential, we will characterize spin-charge separation under a wide range of experimental parameters. Work supported by ARO, ONR, NSF, and The Welch Foundation.

  17. Oligothiophene/graphene supramolecular ensembles managing light induced processes: preparation, characterization, and femtosecond transient absorption studies leading to charge-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, A.; Gobeze, H. B.; Petsalakis, I. D.; Zhao, S.; Shinohara, H.; D'Souza, F.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-09-01

    Advances in organic synthetic chemistry combined with the exceptional electronic properties of carbon allotropes, particularly graphene, is the basis used to design and fabricate novel electron donor-acceptor ensembles with desired properties for technological applications. Thiophene-based materials, which are mainly thiophene-containing polymers, are known for their notable electronic properties. In this frame moving from polymer to oligomer forms, new fundamental information would help for a better understanding of their electrochemical and photophysical properties. Furthermore, a successful combination of their electronic properties with those of graphene is a challenging goal. In this study, two oligothiophene compounds, which consist of three and nine thiophene-rings and are abbreviated 3T and 9T, respectively, were synthesized and noncovalently associated with liquid phase exfoliated few-layered graphene sheets (abbreviated eG), thus forming donor-acceptor 3T/eG and 9T/eG nanoensembes. Markedly, intra-ensemble electronic interactions between the two components in the ground and excited states were evaluated with the aid of UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, redox assays revealed the one-electron oxidation of 3T accompanied by one-electron reduction due to eG in 3T/eG, whereas there were two reversible one-electron oxidations of 9T accompanied by one-electron reduction of eG9T/eG. The electrochemical band gap for the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles were calculated and verified, in which the negative free-energy change for the charge-separated state of 3T/eG and 9T/eGvia the singlet excited state of 3T and 9T, respectively, were thermodynamically favorable. Finally, the results of transient pump-probe spectroscopy studies at the femtosecond time scale were supportive of charge transfer type interactions in the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles. The estimated rates for intra-ensemble charge separation were found to be 9.52 × 109 s-1 and 2.2 × 1011 s-1

  18. Study Of Phase Separation In Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.; Smith, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes an experimental study of effect of hydroxide content on phase separation in soda/silica glasses. Ordinary and gel glasses melted at 1,565 degree C, and melts stirred periodically. "Wet" glasses produced by passing bubbles of N2 saturated with water through melts; "dry" glasses prepared in similar manner, except N2 dried before passage through melts. Analyses of compositions of glasses performed by atomic-absorption and index-of-refraction measurements. Authors conclude hydroxide speeds up phase separation, regardless of method (gel or ordinary) by which glass prepared. Eventually helps material scientists to find ways to control morphology of phase separation.

  19. Study Of Phase Separation In Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.; Smith, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes an experimental study of effect of hydroxide content on phase separation in soda/silica glasses. Ordinary and gel glasses melted at 1,565 degree C, and melts stirred periodically. "Wet" glasses produced by passing bubbles of N2 saturated with water through melts; "dry" glasses prepared in similar manner, except N2 dried before passage through melts. Analyses of compositions of glasses performed by atomic-absorption and index-of-refraction measurements. Authors conclude hydroxide speeds up phase separation, regardless of method (gel or ordinary) by which glass prepared. Eventually helps material scientists to find ways to control morphology of phase separation.

  20. Comparative Study of Airfoil Flow Separation Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Nick; Kahouli, Waad; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    Airfoil flow separation impacts a multitude of applications including turbomachinery, wind turbines, and bio-inspired micro-aerial vehicles. In order to achieve maximum performance, some devices operate near the edge of flow separation, and others use dynamic flow separation advantageously. Numerous criteria exist for predicting the onset of airfoil flow separation. This talk presents a comparative study of a number of such criteria, with emphasis paid to speed and accuracy of the calculations. We evaluate the criteria using a two-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method, which allows for rapid analysis (on the order of seconds instead of days for a full Navier-Stokes solution) and design of optimal airfoil geometry and kinematics. Furthermore, dynamic analyses permit evaluation of dynamic stall conditions for enhanced lift via leading edge vortex shedding, commonly present in small flapping-wing flyers such as the bumblebee and hummingbird.

  1. Physical model studies of water column separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autrique, R.; Rodal, E.; Sánchez, A.; Carmona, L.

    2012-11-01

    Results of physical model studies of water column separation following an upstream valve closure in a horizontal pipe are presented, using three dimensionless parameters: the magnitude of the transient, M, or the ratio between the Joukowsky pressure and the initial absolute head; ΔHr, or the ratio between the maximum overpressure and the Joukowsky pressure, and tcr, the duration of the vapor cavity relative to the pipeline period. Conclusions are derived, aiming to a better understanding of water column separation extreme pressures and to the establishment of useful preliminary design guidelines.

  2. Case Study: A Separation of Powers Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Steve

    1986-01-01

    Presents a case study involving students in the issue of separation of powers as applied to the 1952 Immigration and Nationality Act. Students examine the case of Jagdish Rai Chadha, an immigrant threatened with deportation whose problems resulted in 1983 U.S. Supreme Court decision declaring legislative veto provision of Immigration and…

  3. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Paul; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Czerwinski, Ken

    2015-11-16

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas – surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  4. Polymerization and phase separation studies in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateshan, Karthik

    In technology, a thermosetting polymer's electrical, thermal and mechanical properties are modified by incorporating an elastomer phase in its matrix. This is achieved by phase separation of the dissolved elastomer during the course of polymerization until the liquid vitrifies. The phase separation mechanism and nature of interface formed determine the negative effect of phase separation on polymerization and the transition of mass-controlled kinetics to diffusion-controlled kinetics. This thesis provides an experimental study of polymerization, phase separation and vitrification processes by using real time measurements of dielectric relaxation, calorimetric changes, elastic constants and thermal conductivity of diepoxide-amine mixtures with and without the phase separating amine-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile elastomer. The results are discussed in general terms of mutual slowing of molecular diffusion and polymerization, and of the development of diffused interfaces between regions of elastomer and polymer matrix, that form as a result of, (i) high degree of spatial heterogeneity in the intermingled regions of non-stoichiometric amounts of polymer and elastomer, (ii) high degree of compatibility between the elastomer and polymer matrix and (iii) large size of the elastomer and polymer molecules. The consequence of molecular diffusional constraints and manifestation of spatial heterogeneity is confirmed by the appearance of Johari-Goldstein relaxation which acts as the precursor for the significantly broadened alpha-relaxation and higher values of dielectric permittivity in the frequency range of 1 kHz and greater. Spatial heterogeneity in the intermingled regions of non-stoichiometric amounts of polymer and elastomer is also confirmed by calorimetry studies. With increasing diffusional limitation, the total heat of polymerization varies from values obtained for stoichiometric amounts of reactants with no change in calorimetric peak temperature. Furthermore

  5. Development and characterization of a bilayer separator for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosong

    2011-10-01

    A battery separator is placed between the positive and negative electrodes to prevent electric contact of the electrodes while maintaining good ionic flow. The most commonly used separators for lithium-ion batteries are porous polyolefin membranes. However, they generally do not have good dimentional stability at elevated temperatures. In this study, a bilayer separator has been formed directly on an anode. This bilayer separator comprised a ceramic layer and a porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layer. Coin cells with this type of separators showed stable cycling performance at room temperature. They also showed significantly improved rate capabilities compared to the reference cell with a conventional polyolefin separator. An oven test has been used to characterize the cells thermal stability. Charged cells were kept in an oven at 150 °C and their voltage drop was recorded. The reference cell with a conventioal separator failed within about 50 min, while no noticeable voltage drop was observed for the cells with the new bilayer separator within the measured 2 h.

  6. EXTRACELLULAR ENZYME SYSTEM UTILIZED BY THE FUNGUS CHRYSOSPORIUM LIGNORUM FOR THE BREAKDOWN OF CELLULOSE. I. STUDIES ON THE ENZYME PRODUCTION. II. SEPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE CELLULASE PEAKS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    sources. The enzymes studied, namely cellulase , xylanase, mannanase, beta-glucosidase and aryl-beta-glucosidase, were all found in good yield in the...culture solution only when cellulose was used as carbon source. The production of cellulase and mannanase was not observed on xylan and only traces of... cellulase peaks (CMC activity) from culture solutions of the fungus Chrysosporium lignorum has also been demonstrated on a DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column. The

  7. Laboratory studies of water column separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autrique, R.; Rodal, E.

    2013-12-01

    Results of experimental studies of water column separation following an upstream valve closure are presented. Different geometrical arrangements with transparent PVC pipes are installed immediately downstream of the closing valve, namely, horizontal pipes, vertical pipes flowing down, and humpback profile pipes, the last two being used in order to obtain full pipe section vapor cavities. Maximum over pressures at water column rejoining, and maximum cavity lengths and duration, are compared with theoretical values and with previous experiments with horizontal pipes. Good agreement is found between theory and experiments, and interesting visual material is obtained.

  8. Structural Characterization of Phase Separation in Fe-Cr: A Current Comparison of Experimental Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Odqvist, Joakim; Colliander, Magnus Hörnqvist; Thuvander, Mattias; Steuwer, Axel; Westraadt, Johan E.; King, Stephen; Hedström, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Self-assembly due to phase separation within a miscibility gap is important in numerous material systems and applications. A system of particular interest is the binary alloy system Fe-Cr, since it is both a suitable model material and the base system for the stainless steel alloy category, suffering from low-temperature embrittlement due to phase separation. Structural characterization of the minute nano-scale concentration fluctuations during early phase separation has for a long time been considered a major challenge within material characterization. However, recent developments present new opportunities in this field. Here, we present an overview of the current capabilities and limitations of different techniques. A set of Fe-Cr alloys were investigated using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), atom probe tomography, and analytical transmission electron microscopy. The complementarity of the characterization techniques is clear, and combinatorial studies can provide complete quantitative structure information during phase separation in Fe-Cr alloys. Furthermore, we argue that SANS provides a unique in-situ access to the nanostructure, and that direct comparisons between SANS and phase-field modeling, solving the non-linear Cahn Hilliard equation with proper physical input, should be pursued.

  9. Characterizing Continuous Functions in Terms of Separated Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The following theorem is proved: let f : X --> Y and suppose points are closed in Y (that is, singleton sets are closed in Y ). Then, f is continous if and only if f[1] preserves separated sets. We also give a counter example in the event points are not closed in Y.

  10. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    NREL scientists studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells by determining the junction structure across the solar device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates a p-n junction structure at the interface between titanium dioxide and perovskite. In addition, minority-carrier transport within the devices operates under diffusion/drift. Clarifying the fundamental junction structure provides significant guidance for future research and development. This NREL study points to the fact that improving carrier mobility is a critical factor for continued efficiency gains in perovskite solar cells.

  11. SAPO-34 Membranes for N-2/CH4 separation: Preparation, characterization, separation performance and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, SG; Zong, ZW; Zhou, SJ; Huang, Y; Song, ZN; Feng, XH; Zhou, RF; Meyer, HS; Yu, M; Carreon, MA

    2015-08-01

    SAPO-34 membranes were synthesized by several routes towards N-2/CH4 separation. Membrane synthesis parameters including water content in the gel, crystallization time, support pore size, and aluminum source were investigated. High performance N-2-selective membranes were obtained on 100-nm-pore alumina tubes by using Al(i-C3H7O)(3) as aluminum source with a crystallization time of 6 h. These membranes separated N-2 from CH, with N-2 permeance as high as 500 GPU with separation selectivity of 8 at 24 degrees C. for a 50/50 N-2/CH4 mixture. Nitrogen and CH, adsorption isotherms were measured on SAPO-34 crystals. The N-2 and CH, heats of adsorption were 11 and 15 kJ/mol, respectively, which lead to a preferential adsorption of CE-H-4 over N-2 in the N-2/CH4 mixture. Despite this, the SAPO-34 membranes were selective for N-2 over CH4 in the mixture because N-2 diffuses much faster than CH4 and differences in diffusivity played a more critical role than the competitive adsorption. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that the required N-2/CH4 selectivity would be 15 in order to maintain a CH4 loss below 10%. For small nitrogen-contaminated gas wells, our current SAPO-34 membranes have potential to compete with the benchmark technology cryogenic distillation for N-2 rejection. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved,

  12. Shale oil value enhancement research: Separation characterization of shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a new technology for manufacturing valuable marketable products form shale oil. Phase-I objectives are to identify desirable components in shale oil, develop separations techniques for those components, identify market needs and to identify plausible products manufacturable from raw shale oil to meet those needs. Another objective is to conduct preliminary process modeling and economic analysis of selected process sequences and product slates, including an estimation of process, costs and profitability. The end objective of Phase-I is to propose technically and economically attractive separations and conversion processes for small-scale piloting in the optional Phase-II. Optional Phase-II activities include the pilot-scale test of the Shale Oil Native Products Extraction (SO-NPX) technology and to produce specification products. Specific objectives are to develop the engineering data on separations processing, particularly those in which mixtures behave non-ideally, and to develop the conversion processes for finishing the separations concentrates into specification products.The desired process scenarios will be developed and economic analysis will be performed on the process scenarios. As a result of the process simulation and economic analysis tasks, a product manufacture and test marketing program shall be recommended for the optional Phase-III. Optional Phase-III activities are to manufacture specification products and to test market those products in order to ensure market acceptability. The activities involve the assembling of the technical, market and economic data needed for venture evaluation. The end objective is to develop the private sector interest to carry this technology forward toward commercialization.

  13. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, Y. I.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1983-01-01

    Porous plugs serve as both entropy rejection devices and phase separation components separating the vapor phase on the downstream side from liquid Helium 2 upstream. The liquid upstream is the cryo-reservoir fluid needed for equipment cooling by means of Helium 2, i.e Helium-4 below its lambda temperature in near-saturated states. The topics outlined are characteristic lengths, transport equations and plug results.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROLENSING PLANETS WITH MODERATELY WIDE SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Cheongho

    2009-08-01

    In future high-cadence microlensing surveys, planets can be detected through a new channel of an independent event produced by the planet itself. The two populations of planets to be detected through this channel are wide-separation planets and free-floating planets. Although they appear as similar short timescale events, the two populations of planets are widely different in nature and thus distinguishing them is important. In this paper, we investigate the lensing properties of events produced by planets with moderately wide separations from host stars. We find that the lensing behavior of these events is well described by the Chang-Refsdal lensing, and the shear caused by the primary not only produces a caustic but also makes the magnification contour elongated along the primary-planet axis. The elongated magnification contour implies that the light curves of these planetary events are generally asymmetric, and thus the asymmetry can be used to distinguish the events from those produced by free-floating planets. The asymmetry can be noticed from the overall shape of the light curve and thus can hardly be missed unlike the very short duration central perturbation caused by the caustic. In addition, the asymmetry occurs regardless of the event magnification, and thus the bound nature of the planet can be identified for majority of these events. The close approximation of the lensing light curve to that of the Chang-Refsdal lensing implies that the analysis of the light curve yields only the information about the projected separation between the host star and the planet.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of microporous inorganic membranes for propylene/propane separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoli

    Membrane-based gas separation is promising for efficient propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) separation with low energy consumption and minimum environment impact. Two microporous inorganic membrane candidates, MFI-type zeolite membrane and carbon molecular sieve membrane (CMS) have demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability. Application of these membranes into C3H6/C3H 8 separation has not been well investigated. This dissertation presents fundamental studies on membrane synthesis, characterization and C3H 6/C3H8 separation properties of MFI zeolite membrane and CMS membrane. MFI zeolite membranes were synthesized on α-alumina supports by secondary growth method. Novel positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) techniques were used to non-destructively characterize the pore structure of these membranes. PAS reveals a bimodal pore structure consisting of intracrystalline zeolitic micropores of ~0.6 nm in diameter and irregular intercrystalline micropores of 1.4 to 1.8 nm in size for the membranes. The template-free synthesized membrane exhibited a high permeance but a low selectivity in C3H 6/C3H8 mixture separation. CMS membranes were synthesized by coating/pyrolysis method on mesoporous gamma-alumina support. Such supports allow coating of thin, high-quality polymer films and subsequent CMS membranes with no infiltration into support pores. The CMS membranes show strong molecular sieving effect, offering a high C3H 6/C3H8 mixture selectivity of ~30. Reduction in membrane thickness from 500 nm to 300 nm causes an increase in C3H8 permeance and He/N2 selectivity, but a decrease in the permeance of He, N 2 and C3H6 and C3H6/C 3H8 selectivity. This can be explained by the thickness dependent chain mobility of the polymer film resulting in final carbon membrane of reduced pore size with different effects on transport of gas of different sizes, including possible closure of C3H6-accessible micropores. CMS membranes demonstrate excellent C3H6/C 3H8 separation

  16. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of mixed matrix membranes for gas separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanfeng

    2007-12-01

    Mixed-matrix membranes were prepared from Matrimid RTM and mesoporous ZSM-5 nanoparticles containing crystalline ZSM-5. The mesoporous ZSM-5 has both micropores (0.54 nm) and mesopores (2.7 nm), which were confirmed by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, and TEM. The Young's moduli and glass transition temperatures of mixed-matrix membranes are higher than those of pure MatrimidRTM membranes, suggesting that the polymer chains may penetrate into the mesopores. The ideal selectivity for H2/N2 separation increased from 79.6 for pure Matrimid RTM to 143 at 10% loading, while the selectivity of O2/N 2 increased from 6.6 for pure MatrimidRTM to 10.4 at 20% loading. The ideal H2/CH4 separation factor increased from 83.3 to 169 at 20% loading. The results suggest that the mesopores of the ZSM-5 material can provide good interfacial contact between the nanoparticles and the polymer, since the polymer chains can penetrate into the mesopores. The micropores of ZSM-5 crystals can provide size and shape selectivity. A carbon aerogel was prepared by carbonizing a resorcinol-formaldehyde polymer gel at 800°C. Nitrogen adsorption shows the obtained carbon aerogel has both micropores (0.54 nm) and mesopores (2.14 nm). Zeolite A and zeolite Y nanocrystals were grown in the mesopores of the carbon aerogel, resulting in carbon aerogel-zeolite composites. TEM confirmed the existence of nanosize zeolite crystals in the carbon aerogel matrix. Higher selectivity for the CO2/CH4, O2/N2 and H2/N 2 separation were obtained for carbon aerogel-zeolite, carbon aerogel-zeolite-Matrimid RTM membranes. The small pore diameter of zeolite A and the affinity between the CO2 and zeolite crystals make it perfect for CO 2/CH4 separation. Short single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) functionalized with carboxylic acid groups were made and incorporated into MatrimidRTM to form mixed-matrix membranes. SEM images of mixed-matrix membranes cross-sections showed good dispersion and interfacial contact. Pure gas

  18. Interactions Between Antigens and Nanoemulsion Adjuvants: Separation and Characterization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Chan, Michelle Y; Fedor, Dawn M; Phan, Tony; V, Lucien Barnes; Kramer, Ryan M

    2017-01-01

    Determining the association of vaccine components in a formulation is of interest for designing and optimizing well characterized vaccines. Three methods are described to assess interactions between protein antigens and oil-in-water nanoemulsion adjuvants. The methods include (1) ultracentrifugation to measure free versus adjuvant-associated protein, (2) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to qualitatively assess existing interactions, and (3) Native PAGE as a means to visualize the formulation run in its native state on a polyacrylamide gel. As with many techniques, the methods alone are not definitive, but data from multiple orthogonal assays can provide a more complete picture of protein-adjuvant interactions.

  19. Precision formation flying at megameter separations for exoplanet characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Martin, Stefan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian; Rahman, Zahidul H.; Seubert, Carl R.; Noecker, Martin Charles; Purcell, George H.

    2016-06-01

    Starshade missions offer a near-term capability to measure the spectra of Earth-sized exoplanets, searching for possible bio-indicators. To function, a starshade and telescope separated by approximately 50 Mm must align to the meter-level on the line to the target star. From the telescope's perspective, this alignment in turn requires sensing the bearing between target star and starshade to approximately 1 milli-arcsecond (5 nrad). Previously, several fine bearing sensors have been proposed based on pupil images of the starshade's shadow. In this paper, a fine bearing sensor is presented based on measuring in the focal plane the bearing between a laser beacon on the starshade and the diffracted centroid of the target star that "leaks" around the starshade outside the science wavelengths. Coarse and medium bearing sensors are also introduced that allow for autonomous operation. The performance of extended Kalman filters using the bearing sensors is presented, as well as deadbanding performance in science mode.

  20. A Regenerable VOC Control System (RVCS) for Characterizing Properties of Sorbents Used in Separation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolek, Sara D.; Monje, Oscar A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design, method of operation, and testing of a regenerable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) control system that characterizes properties of sorbents used in separation technologies.

  1. Preparation and characterization of composite membrane for high temperature gas separation

    SciTech Connect

    Ilias, S.; King, F.G.; Su, N.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop thin film palladium membranes for separation of hydrogen in high temperature applications. The authors plan to use electroless plating to deposit thin palladium films on microporous ceramic and silver substrates and then characterize the membrane in terms of permeability and selectivity for gas separation. To accomplish the research objective, the project requires three tasks: Development of a process for composite membrane fabrication; Characterization of composite membrane; and Development of theoretical model for hydrogen gas separation. The experimental procedures are described.

  2. Characterization and separation of ash from CANMET coprocessing residue by oil phase agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.; Coleman, R.D.; Toll, R.; Pleizier, G.; Deslandes, Y.; Sparks, B.D.; Ikura, M.

    1993-12-31

    CANMET`s coal/heavy oil coprocessing unit yields a solid residue that contains most of the ash originally associated with the feed coal as well as reacted catalyst solids. Removal of these ash solids would make it possible to recycle the material to extinction, thereby increasing production of lighter oils. In this investigation the authors have used surface characterization techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to characterize toluene insoluble solids associated with the pitch residue, in order to evaluate the separation potential using oil phase agglomeration techniques. Washability studies using float-sink tests were also carried out to determine empirically the level of ash separation attainable. Based on the results of these studies several tests were carried out to beneficiate the organic matter in the residue pitch, by using liquid phase agglomeration techniques. Levels of ash rejection in these tests ranged from 20% to 40%. SEM and EDXA analysis of the agglomerated product and the reject material and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis of the ash from both materials suggest that most of the iron from added catalyst is retained in the agglomerates.

  3. Characterization and separation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia cells using on-chip dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan Unni, Harikrishnan; Hartono, Deny; Yue Lanry Yung, Lin; Mah-Lee Ng, Mary; Pueh Lee, Heow; Cheong Khoo, Boo; Lim, Kian-Meng

    2012-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been shown to have significant potential for the characterization of cells and could become an efficient tool for rapid identification and assessment of microorganisms. The present work is focused on the trapping, characterization, and separation of two species of Cryptosporidium (C. parvum and C. muris) and Giardia lambia (G. lambia) using a microfluidic experimental setup. Cryptosporidium oocysts, which are 2-4 μm in size and nearly spherical in shape, are used for the preliminary stage of prototype development and testing. G. lambia cysts are 8–12 μm in size. In order to facilitate effective trapping, simulations were performed to study the effects of buffer conductivity and applied voltage on the flow and cell transport inside the DEP chip. Microscopic experiments were performed using the fabricated device and the real part of Clausius—Mossotti factor of the cells was estimated from critical voltages for particle trapping at the electrodes under steady fluid flow. The dielectric properties of the cell compartments (cytoplasm and membrane) were calculated based on a single shell model of the cells. The separation of C. muris and G. lambia is achieved successfully at a frequency of 10 MHz and a voltage of 3 Vpp (peak to peak voltage). PMID:22662073

  4. Design, development and characterization of microfluidic media for continuous size-based separation of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devendra, Raghavendra

    Microfluidics is a growing field of research in separations. Microfluidic technologies offer a greater control over system properties with an efficient performance while providing a potential for integration of several processes into one micro-total-analysis system. While several conventional separation technologies have been miniaturized to micro-scale techniques, there is an effort to develop novel processes that take advantage of the features of micro-scale flows, such as similarities in pore-species dimensions and the ability to tailor the geometric structures of the stationary phase to specific applications. In certain cases, the geometric structure of the pore space drives the separative displacement; the advances in microfabrication allow greater control over the geometry as well as the surface chemistry of the media. It is convenient and possible to integrate the microstructure into main separation channel and design autonomous continuous flow separation systems on a lab-on-achip platform. A promising approach to develop passive and continuous flow microfluidic separation devices is to design periodic arrays of obstacles that cause different species to move in different directions within the device, also known as vector chromatography. The principle of separation of small particles in such periodic microstructures is based on the mobility of particles. The mobility of a particle is based on its size, the geometry of the stationary phase and the viscosity of the suspending phase. In the first part of this thesis, we present a study of diffusive transport in periodic anisotropic systems. We designed and fabricated anisotropic periodicities in microfluidic devices and characterized the mobilities in principal directions by directly measuring the one dimensional diffusivities through experiments. In anisotropic periodic microstructures, the mobility has unequal components, by virtue of which the velocity of the particle does not remain collinear with the

  5. Magnetic separation studies on ferruginous chromite fine to enhance Cr:Fe ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sunil Kumar; Banerjee, P. K.; Suresh, Nikkam

    2015-03-01

    The Cr:Fe ratio (chromium-to-iron mass ratio) of chromite affects the production of chrome-based ferroalloys. Although the literature contains numerous reports related to the magnetic separation of different minerals, limited work concerning the application of magnetic separation to fine chromite from the Sukinda region of India to enhance its Cr:Fe ratio has been reported. In the present investigation, magnetic separation and mineralogical characterization studies of chromite fines were conducted to enhance the Cr:Fe ratio. Characterization studies included particle size and chemical analyses, X-ray diffraction analysis, automated mineral analysis, sink-and-float studies, and magnetic susceptibility measurements, whereas magnetic separation was investigated using a rare earth drum magnetic separator, a rare earth roll magnetic separator, an induced roll magnetic separator, and a wet high-intensity magnetic separator. The fine chromite was observed to be upgraded to a Cr:Fe ratio of 2.2 with a yield of 55.7% through the use of an induced roll magnetic separator and a feed material with a Cr:Fe ratio of 1.6.

  6. Structural characterization of bacterial lipopolysaccharides with mass spectrometry and on- and off-line separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Kilár, Anikó; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Kocsis, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this review is the application of mass spectrometry to the structural characterization of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), also referred to as "endotoxins," because they elicit the strong immune response in infected organisms. Recently, a wide variety of MS-based applications have been implemented to the structure elucidation of LPS. Methodological improvements, as well as on- and off-line separation procedures, proved the versatility of mass spectrometry to study complex LPS mixtures. Special attention is given in the review to the tandem mass spectrometric methods and protocols for the analyses of lipid A, the endotoxic principle of LPS. We compare and evaluate the different ionization techniques (MALDI, ESI) in view of their use in intact R- and S-type LPS and lipid A studies. Methods for sample preparation of LPS prior to mass spectrometric analysis are also described. The direct identification of intrinsic heterogeneities of most intact LPS and lipid A preparations is a particular challenge, for which separation techniques (e.g., TLC, slab-PAGE, CE, GC, HPLC) combined with mass spectrometry are often necessary. A brief summary of these combined methodologies to profile LPS molecular species is provided.

  7. Characterization of Printed Circuit Boards for Metal and Energy Recovery after Milling and Mechanical Separation

    PubMed Central

    Bizzo, Waldir A.; Figueiredo, Renata A.; de Andrade, Valdelis F.

    2014-01-01

    The proper disposal of electrical and electronic waste is currently a concern of researchers and environmental managers not only because of the large volume of such waste generated, but also because of the heavy metals and toxic substances it contains. This study analyzed printed circuit boards (PCBs) from discarded computers to determine their metal content and characterized them as solid waste and fuel. The analysis showed that PCBs consist of approximately 26% metal, made up mainly of copper, lead, aluminum, iron and tin, as well as other heavy metals such as cadmium and nickel. Comparison with the results of other studies indicated that the concentration of precious metals (gold and silver) has declined over time. Analysis of the leachate revealed high concentrations of cadmium and lead, giving the residue the characteristics of hazardous waste. After milling the PCBs, we found that larger amounts of metal were concentrated in smaller fractions, while the lightest fraction, obtained by density separation, had a gross calorific value of approximately 11 MJ/kg, although with a high ash content. Milling followed by density separation proved potentially useful for recovery of metals and energy-rich fractions. PMID:28788692

  8. Preparation and characterization of N-methylene phosphonic and quaternized chitosan composite membranes for electrolyte separations.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Arunima; Kumar, Arvind; Shahi, Vinod K

    2006-11-15

    Chitosan was functionalized either by introducing a phosphonic acid group or by quaternization of existing primary ammonium groups in order to make it a water-soluble material. Functionalized chitosans and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based nanoporous charged membranes were prepared in aqueous media and gelated in methanol at 10 degrees C to tailor their pore structure. These membranes were extensively characterized for their physicochemical, electrochemical, and permeation characteristics using FTIR, TGA, DSC, water content, ion-exchange capacity, ionic transport properties, and membrane permeability studies. N-Methylene phosphonic chitosan (NMPC)/PVA-based membranes exhibited mild cation selectivity and quaternized chitosan (QC)/PVA composite membranes had mild anion selectivity, while a blend of NMPC-QC/PVA membranes exhibited weak cation selectivity because of formation of zwitterionic structure. Viscosity measurements and interaction studies for individual and mixed solutions of NMPC and QC were carried out for the prediction of charge interactions between -PO3H2 and -N+(CH3)3 groups and effect on molecular weight due to functionalization. Elaborate electrochemical and permeation experiments were conducted in order to predict suitability of these membranes for the separation of mono- and bivalent electrolytes based on their hydrated ionic radius, and it was found that among all the synthesized membranes, PC/QC-30 had the highest relative permeability, which may extend its suitability for electrolyte separations. Observations were correlated with equivalent pore radius of the different membranes as estimated by membrane permeability measurements.

  9. Extraction, separation, and intramolecular carbon isotope characterization of athabasca oil sands acids in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Jason M E; Pakdel, Hooshang; Savard, Martine M; Simard, Marie-Christine; Smirnoff, Anna

    2012-12-04

    Here we report a novel approach to extract, isolate, and characterize high molecular weight organic acids found in the Athabasca oil sands region using preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) followed by thermal conversion/elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TC/EA-IRMS). A number of different "naphthenic acids" surrogate standards were analyzed as were samples from the bitumen-rich unprocessed McMurray Formation, oil sands process water, groundwater from monitoring wells, and surface water from the Athabasca River. The intramolecular carbon isotope signature generated by online pyrolysis (δ(13)C(pyr)) showed little variation (±0.6‰) within any given sample across a large range of mass fractions separated by PCGC. Oil sand, tailings ponds, and deep McMurray Formation groundwater were significantly heavier (up to ∼9‰) compared to surface water and shallow groundwater samples, demonstrating the potential use of this technique in source apportionment studies.

  10. Characterization of a new mobility separation tool: HRIMS as differential mobility analyzer.

    PubMed

    Bouza, Marcos; López-Vidal, Silvia; Pisonero, Jorge; Bordel, Nerea; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-12-01

    High resolution ion mobility spectrometer (HRIMS) is a new instrument that uses parallel plate Differential Mobility Analysis as principle of separation. Gas phase analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been performed for the characterization of this new mobility system using an UV-lamp for ionization. Studies of the effect of temperature and the presence of a desiccant are detailed. Identification of the different peaks obtained with an electrometer was successfully carried out for a group of alcohols, aromatic compounds and ketones (ethanol, 1-propanol, isopropanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 2-octanone, benzene, toluene, xylene and bromobenzene) following a modified Millikan equation. Moreover, the investigation of the discrimination capabilities within the different VOCs families as well as the mobility dependence with molecular mass was successfully achieved.

  11. Characterization of Polysulfone Membranes Prepared with Thermally Induced Phase Separation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiron, L. G.; Pintilie, Ș C.; Vlad, M.; Birsan, I. G.; Baltă, Ș

    2017-06-01

    Abstract Membrane technology is one of the most used water treatment technology because of its high removal efficiency and cost effectiveness. Preparation techniques for polymer membranes show an important aspect of membrane properties. Generally, polysulfone (PSf) and polyethersulfone (PES) are used for the preparation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. Polysulfone (PSf) membranes have been widely used for separation and purification of different solutions because of their excellent chemical and thermal stability. Polymeric membranes were obtained by phase inversion method. The polymer solution introduced in the nonsolvent bath (distilled water) initiate the evaporation of the solvent from the solution, this phenomenon has a strong influence on the transport properties. The effect of the coagulation bath temperature on the membrane properties is of interest for this study. Membranes are characterized by pure water flux, permeability, porosity and retention of methylene blue. The low temperature of coagulation bath improve the membrane’s rejection and its influence was most notable.

  12. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  13. Study on preparation and separation of Konjac oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wenjie; Sun, Yuanming; Huang, Huan; Yang, Youhui; Peng, Shuhui; Xiong, Bo; Pan, Tingtiao; Xu, Zhenlin; He, Mingxiang; Pang, Jie

    2013-02-15

    To study the preparation and separation of Konjac oligosaccharides, Konjac Glucomannan was degraded by the combination of γ-irradiation and β-mannanase, and then the degradation product was separated by ultrafiltration. To our interest, for most of Konjac oligosaccharides obtained by this method, the molecular mass was lower than 2200 Da. In addition, the 1000 Da molecular weight cut off membrane could effectively separate the Konjac oligosaccharides. In conclusion, the combination of γ-irradiation and β-mannanase was an efficient method to obtain Konjac oligosaccharides, and the oligosaccharides of molecular mass lower than 1000 Da could be effectively separated by ultrafiltration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remotely detected NMR for the characterization of flow and fast chromatographic separations using organic polymer monoliths.

    PubMed

    Teisseyre, Thomas Z; Urban, Jiri; Halpern-Manners, Nicholas W; Chambers, Stuart D; Bajaj, Vikram S; Svec, Frantisek; Pines, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    An application of remotely detected magnetic resonance imaging is demonstrated for the characterization of flow and the detection of fast, small molecule separations within hypercrosslinked polymer monoliths. The hyper-cross-linked monoliths exhibited excellent ruggedness, with a transit time relative standard deviation of less than 2.1%, even after more than 300 column volumes were pumped through at high pressure and flow. Magnetic resonance imaging enabled high-resolution intensity and velocity-encoded images of mobile phase flow through the monolith. The images confirm that the presence of a polymer monolith within the capillary disrupts the parabolic laminar flow profile that is characteristic of mobile phase flow within an open tube. As a result, the mobile phase and analytes are equally distributed in the radial direction throughout the monolith. Also, in-line monitoring of chromatographic separations of small molecules at high flow rates is shown. The coupling of monolithic chromatography columns and NMR provides both real-time peak detection and chemical shift information for small aromatic molecules. These experiments demonstrate the unique power of magnetic resonance, both direct and remote, in studying chromatographic processes.

  15. Preparation and characterization of a Lithium-ion battery separator from cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongfeng; Wang, Xiwen; Liang, Yun

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing the desired properties for stretch monolayer separators used in Lithium-ion batteries has been a challenge. In the present study a cellulose nanofiber/PET nonwoven composite separator is successfully fabricated, using a wet-laid nonwoven (papermaking) process, which can attain optimal properties in wettability, mechanical strength, thermal resistance, and electrochemical performance simultaneously. The PET nonwoven material, which is fabricated from ultrafine PET fibers by a wet-laid process, is a mechanical support layer. The porous structure of the composite separator was created by cellulose nanofibers coating the PET in a papermaking process. Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), which are an eco-friendly sustainable resource, have been drawing considerable attention due to their astounding properties, such as: incredible specific surface area, thermal and chemical stability, high mechanical strength and hydrophilicity. The results show that the CNF separator exhibits higher porosity (70%) than a PP (polypropylene) separator (40%). The CNF separator can also be wetted by electrolyte in a few seconds while a PP separator cannot be entirely wetted after 1 min. The CNF separator has an electrolyte uptake of 250%, while a PP separator has only 65%. Another notable finding is that the CNF separator has almost no shrinkage when exposed to 180 °C for 1 h, whereas a PP separator shrinks by more than 50%. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows that the CNF separator has a higher melting point than a PP separator. These findings all indicate that the CNF 29 separator will be more favorable than stretch film for use in Lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  17. Computational study of porous materials for gas separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-Chiang

    Nanoporous materials such as zeolites, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are used as sorbents or membranes for gas separations such as carbon dioxide capture, methane capture, paraffin/olefin separations, etc. The total number of nanoporous materials is large; by changing the chemical composition and/or the structural topologies we can envision an infinite number of possible materials. In practice one can synthesize and fully characterize only a small subset of these materials. Hence, computational study can play an important role by utilizing various techniques in molecular simulations as well as quantum chemical calculations to accelerate the search for optimal materials for various energy-related separations. Accordingly, several large-scale computational screenings of over one hundred thousand materials have been performed to find the best materials for carbon capture, methane capture, and ethane/ethene separation. These large-scale screenings identified a number of promising materials for different applications. Moreover, the analysis of these screening studies yielded insights into those molecular characteristics of a material that contribute to an optimal performance for a given application. These insights provided useful guidelines for future structural design and synthesis. For instance, one of the screening studies indicated that some zeolite structures can potentially reduce the energy penalty imposed on a coal-fired power plant by as much as 35% compared to the near-term MEA technology for carbon capture application. These optimal structures have topologies with a maximized density of pockets and they capture and release CO2 molecules with an optimal energy. These screening studies also pointed to some systems, for which conventional force fields were unable to make sufficiently reliable predictions of the adsorption isotherms of different gasses, e.g., CO2 in MOFs with open-metal sites. For these systems, we

  18. Separation efficiency in a whirlpool surface tension separator, separating faeces and toilet paper for nutrient recovery--pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Vinnerås, B

    2004-01-01

    The main proportion of the plant nutrients in waste from society can be recycled in two unpolluted fractions if the urine and the faeces are collected separately. By using urine-diverting toilets combined with a whirlpool surface tension faecal separator, it is possible to achieve this. If the separator is installed correctly, with a gradual bend to minimise disintegration of the particles, it is possible to collect approximately 92% nitrogen, 86% phosphorus and 76% potassium of the content excreted in the faeces in a small separated fraction that only contains 10% of the flushwater used. The faecal separation is a robust system with no moving parts, which is not significantly affected by the flushwater volume, and almost no water is separated to the separated solids if neither toilet paper nor faeces are flushed.

  19. Advanced Characterization of Molecular Interactions in TALSPEAK-like Separations Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Kenneth; Guelis, Artem; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Sinkov, Sergey

    2015-10-21

    Combining unit operations in advanced aqueous reprocessing schemes brings obvious process compactness advantages, but at the same time greater complexity in process design and operation. Unraveling these interactions requires increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and unique approaches for adequate analysis and characterization that probe molecular scale interactions. Conventional slope analysis methods of solvent extraction are too indirect to provide much insight into such interactions. This project proposed the development and verification of several analytical tools based on studies of TALSPEAK-like aqueous processes. As such, the chemistry of trivalent fission product lanthanides, americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium and uranium figure prominently in these studies. As the project was executed, the primary focus fell upon the chemistry or trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The intent of the investigation was to compare and contrast the results from these various complementary techniques/studies to provide a stronger basis for predicting the performance of extractant/diluent mixtures as media for metal ion separations. As many/most of these techniques require the presence of metal ions at elevated concentrations, it was expected that these studies would take this investigation into the realm of patterns of supramolecular organization of metal complexes and extractants in concentrated aqueous/organic media. We expected to advance knowledge of the processes that enable and limit solvent extraction reactions as a result of the application of fundamental chemical principles to explaining interactions in complex media.

  20. Characterization of Athabasca Asphaltenes Separated Physically and Chemically Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundarain Hurtado, Jesus Leonardo

    Athabasca asphaltenes were characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with synchrotron radiation. Two methods were used to separate asphaltenes from Athabasca bitumen. Conventional chemical separation by precipitation with n-pentane, and physical separation realized by passing bitumen through a zirconia membrane with a 20 nm average pore size. The Athabasca permeates and chemically separated samples were dispersed in 1-methylnaphtalene and n-dodecane, with temperature and asphaltene concentration ranges of 50-310 °C and 1-8 wt. %, respectively. Two approaches were also taken in the analysis of the SAXS emissions. A model-independent approach provided radii of gyration and scattering coefficients. A model-dependent fit provided size distributions for asphaltenes aggregates assuming that they are dense and spherical. Physically and chemically separated asphaltenes showed significant differences in nominal size and structure, and their structural properties exhibited different temperature dependencies. The results challenge the merits of using chemically separated asphaltene properties as a basis for asphaltene property prediction in crude oil/bitumen.

  1. Characterization of Physically and Chemically Separated Athabasca Asphaltenes Using Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Amundaraín Hurtado, Jesús Leonardo; Chodakowski, Martin; Long, Bingwen; Shaw, John M.

    2012-02-07

    Athabasca asphaltenes were characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Two methods were used to separate asphaltenes from the Athabasca bitumen: namely, chemical separation by precipitation with n-pentane and physical separation by nanofiltration using a zirconia membrane with a 20 nm average pore size. The permeate and chemically separated samples were diluted in 1-methylnaphtalene and n-dodecane prior to SAXS measurements. The temperature and asphaltene concentration ranges were 50-310 C and 1-10.4 wt %, respectively. Model-independent analysis of SAXS data provided the radius of gyration and the scattering coefficients. Model-dependent fits provided size distributions for asphaltenes assuming that they are dense and spherical. Model-independent analysis for physically and chemically separated asphaltenes showed significant differences in nominal size and structure, and the temperature dependence of structural properties. The results challenge the merits of using chemically separated asphaltene properties as a basis for asphaltene property prediction in hydrocarbon resources. While the residuals for model-dependent fits are small, the results are inconsistent with the structural parameters obtained from model-independent analysis.

  2. Fundamental study of phosphor separation by controlling magnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Kohei; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-01

    The phosphor wastes consist of phosphors with different emission colors, green (LAP), red (YOX), blue (BAM) and white (HP). It is required to recover and reuse the rare earth phosphors with high market value. In this study, we tried to separate the phosphor using the magnetic separation by HTS bulk magnet utilizing the differences of magnetic susceptibility by the type of phosphors. We succeeded in the successive separation of HP with low market value from YOX and BAM including the rare earth using the magnetic Archimedes method. In this method, vertical and radial components of the magnetic force were used.

  3. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  4. Device for two-dimensional gas-phase separation and characterization of ion mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Keqi; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-12-12

    The present invention relates to a device for separation and characterization of gas-phase ions. The device incorporates an ion source, a field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzer, an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) drift tube, and an ion detector. In one aspect of the invention, FAIMS operating voltages are electrically floated on top of the IMS drift voltage. In the other aspect, the FAIMS/IMS interface is implemented employing an electrodynamic ion funnel, including in particular an hourglass ion funnel. The present invention improves the efficiency (peak capacity) and sensitivity of gas-phase separations; the online FAIMS/IMS coupling creates a fundamentally novel two-dimensional gas-phase separation technology with high peak capacity, specificity, and exceptional throughput.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Cross-linked Phospholipid Bilayer Capillary Coatings for Protein Separations

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Ross, Eric E.; Aspinwall, Craig A.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of protein and peptide mixtures via capillary electrophoresis is hindered by non-specific adsorption of analytes to the capillary walls, resulting in poor separations and quantitative reproducibility. Phospholipid bilayer (PLB) coatings are very promising for improving protein and peptide separations due to the native resistance to non-specific protein adsorption offered by PLBs; however, these coatings display limited chemical and temporal stability. Here, we show the preparation and characterization of a highly cross-linked, polymerized phospholipid capillary coating prepared using bis-SorbPC. Poly(bis-SorbPC) PLB coatings are prepared in situ within fully enclosed fused silica capillaries via self assembly and radical polymerization. Polymerization of the PLB coating stabilizes the membrane against desorption from the surface and migration in an electric field, improves the temporal and chemical stability, and allows for the separation of both cationic and anionic proteins, while preserving the native resistance to non-specific protein adsorption of natural PLBs. PMID:17373774

  6. Dielectric barrier discharge ionization in characterization of organic compounds separated on thin-layer chromatography plates.

    PubMed

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Babij, Michał; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    A new method for on-spot detection and characterization of organic compounds resolved on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates has been proposed. This method combines TLC with dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI), which produces stable low-temperature plasma. At first, the compounds were separated on TLC plates and then their mass spectra were directly obtained with no additional sample preparation. To obtain good quality spectra the center of a particular TLC spot was heated from the bottom to increase volatility of the compound. MS/MS analyses were also performed to additionally characterize all analytes. The detection limit of proposed method was estimated to be 100 ng/spot of compound.

  7. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  8. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-15

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  9. Preparation and characterization of monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres as the matrix for protein separation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongjun; Wan, Guangping; Zhao, Junlong; Liu, Jiawei; Bai, Quan

    2016-11-04

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a kind of efficient separation technology and has been used widely in many fields. Micro-sized porous silica microspheres as the most popular matrix have been used for fast separation and analysis in HPLC. In this paper, the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres with controllable size and structure were successfully synthesized with polymer microspheres as the templates and characterized. First, the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) microspheres (PGMA-EDMA) were functionalized with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) to generate amino groups which act as a catalyst in hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to form Si-containing low molecular weight species. Then the low molecular weight species diffused into the functionalized PGMA-EDMA microspheres by induction force of the amino groups to form polymer/silica hybrid microspheres. Finally, the organic polymer templates were removed by calcination, and the large-porous silica microspheres were obtained. The compositions, morphology, size distribution, specific surface area and pore size distribution of the porous silica microspheres were characterized by infrared analyzer, scanning-electron microscopy, dynamic laser scattering, the mercury intrusion method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the agglomeration of the hybrid microspheres can be overcome when the templates were functionalized with TEPA as amination reagent, and the yield of 95.7% of the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres can be achieved with high concentration of polymer templates. The resulting large-porous silica microspheres were modified with octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) and the chromatographic evaluation was performed by separating the proteins and the digest of BSA. The baseline separation of seven kinds of protein standards was achieved, and the column delivered a better performance when separating BSA digests

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Thiazolium-Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, Patrick C; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Yeary, Joshua S; Oyola, Yatsandra; Jiang, Deen; Dai, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel thiazolium-bis(triflamide) based ionic liquids has been synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids such as thermal stability, phase transitions, and infrared spectra were analysed and compared to the imidazolium-based congeners. Several unique classes of ancillary substitutions are examined with respect to impacts on overall structure, in addition to their carbon dioxide absorption properties in supported ionic-liquid membranes for gas separation.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Thiazolium-Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, PC; Mahurin, SM; Fulvio, PF; Yeary, JS; Oyola, Y; Jiang, DE; Dai, S

    2012-09-05

    A series of novel thiazolium-bis(triflamide) based ionic liquids has been synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids such as thermal stability, phase transitions, and infrared spectra were analyzed and compared to the imidazolium-based congeners. Several unique classes of ancillary substitutions are examined with respect to impacts on overall structure, in addition to their carbon dioxide absorption properties in supported ionic-liquid membranes for gas separation.

  12. Size-separation characterization of starch and glycogen for biosynthesis-structure-property relationships.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert G

    2011-02-01

    Starch and glycogen are highly branched polymers of glucose of great importance to humans in managing and mitigating nutrition-related diseases, especially diabetes and obesity, and in industrial uses, for example in food and paper-making. Size-separation characterization using multiple-detection size-exclusion chromatography (SEC, also known as gel-permeation chromatography, GPC) is able to furnish substantial amounts of information on the relationships between the biosynthesis, processing, structure, and properties of these biopolymers, and achieves superior characterization for use in industrial product and process improvements. Multi-detector SEC is able to give much more information about structure than simple averages such as total molecular weight or size; the detailed information yielded by this technique has already given new information on important biosynthesis-structure-property reactions, and has considerable potential in this field in the future. However, it must be used with care to avoid artifacts arising from incomplete dissolution of the substrate and shear scission during separation. It is also essential in interpreting data to appreciate that this size-separation technique can only ever give size distributions, never true molecular weight distributions. Other size-separation techniques, particularly field-flow fractionation, require substantial technical development to be used on undegraded native starches.

  13. Mechanical modeling of battery separator based on microstructure image analysis and stochastic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongyi; Zhu, Min; Marcicki, James; Yang, Xiao Guang

    2017-03-01

    A microstructure-based modeling method is developed to predict the mechanical behaviors of lithium-ion battery separators. Existing battery separator modeling methods cannot capture the structural features on the microscale. To overcome this issue, we propose an image-based microstructure Representative Volume Element (RVE) modeling method, which facilitates the understanding of the separators' complex macro mechanical behaviors from the perspective of microstructural features. A generic image processing workflow is developed to identify different phases in the microscopic image. The processed RVE image supplies microstructural information to the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Both mechanical behavior and microstructure evolution are obtained from the simulation. The evolution of microstructure features is quantified using the stochastic microstructure characterization methods. The proposed method successfully captures the anisotropic behavior of the separator under tensile test, and provides insights into the microstructure deformation, such as the growth of voids. We apply the proposed method to a commercially available separator as the demonstration. The analysis results are validated using experimental testing results that are reported in literature.

  14. Hemicelluloses prior to aspen chemithermomechanical pulping: pre-extraction, separation, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Hou, Qingxi; Mao, Changbin; Yuan, Zhirun; Li, Kecheng

    2012-05-16

    A portion of hemicelluloses and acetic acid can be pre-extracted with dilute sulfuric acid prior to the aspen chemithermomechanical pulp process. The streams collected from the second press-impregnation stage after acid pre-extraction contain a significant amount of acid pre-extracted hemicelluloses. Most of the total sugars obtained from the pressate were xylan, in which xylan was further hydrolyzed to sugar monomers under the acid pre-extraction condition. To fully understand the characteristics of hemicelluloses yielded prior to pulping, the pre-extracted hemicelluloses were separated and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis in this study. Most of the FT-IR bonds from the hemicelluloses agreed well with the other two spectra of birch xylan and CA0050 xylan, except a new absorption at 1734 cm(-1) contributed to acetyl groups. The hemicelluloses obtained from acid pre-extraction began to decompose significantly at about 225 °C, slightly lower in comparison with organosolv and alkaline hemicelluloses reported in the literature.

  15. Characterization of an incipiently separated shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyer, A.-M.; Dussauge, J.-P.; Krämer, E.

    2017-03-01

    The turbulence structure in a shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction at incipient separation was investigated in order to get insight into turbulence generation and amplification mechanisms in such flow fields. The flow along a two-dimensional 11.5° compression corner was studied experimentally at a Mach number of M=2.53 and with a momentum-thickness Reynolds number of Re_{θ }=5370. From hot-wire boundary layer traverses and surface heat-flux density fluctuation measurements with the fast-response atomic layer thermopile, the turbulence structure and amplification was described. Space-time correlations of the mass-flux fluctuations across the boundary layer and the surface heat-flux density fluctuations were measured to further characterize the development of the turbulence structure across the interaction. The large-scale boundary layer structures are concealed by shock-related effects in the strongly disturbed shock-foot region. Shortly downstream, however, large-scale structures dominate the signal again, just as in the incoming flow. A mechanism explaining this behavior is suggested.

  16. Characterization of Linearly Separable Boolean Functions: A Graph-Theoretic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yanyi; Zhang, Xianda

    2016-04-05

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for studying Boolean function in a graph-theoretic perspective. In particular, we first transform a Boolean function f of n variables into an induced subgraph Hf of the n-dimensional hypercube, and then, we show the properties of linearly separable Boolean functions on the basis of the analysis of the structure of Hf. We define a new class of graphs, called hyperstar, and prove that the induced subgraph Hf of any linearly separable Boolean function f is a hyperstar. The proposal of hyperstar helps us uncover a number of fundamental properties of linearly separable Boolean functions in this paper.

  17. Study on three-dimensional separation in diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapaul, Elbert; Durbin, Paul

    2009-11-01

    A family of three-dimensional diffusers having the same adverse pressure gradient but varying inlet aspect ratios have been studied by detached eddy simulation and Reynolds averaged computation. They provide a geometry for fundamental study of three-dimensional, turbulent separation. The diffuser has a rectangular cross section with two flared walls. RANS computations used the the standard k-φ and SST turbulence models. Experimental results of Cherry et al provide a reference against which the DES was validated. The SST model has been observed to be overly sensitive to inlet channel aspect ratio. Separation is observed to switch from top to the side wall at higher expansion ratios, while DES predicts separation to stay on the top wall. The recirculating region predicted by the model changes sides even for very small side angles. In a symmetrically--sloped diffuser the model does not predict a symmetric separation at higher side angles. The Reynolds stress models predict symmetric separation, so some of the shortcomings to the SST formulation emerge from the eddy viscosity assumption.

  18. Parental separation and pediatric cancer: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Sally; Carlsen, Kathrine; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Bastian, Gro Samsø; Lund, Lasse Wegener; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer. In a nationwide cohort, we compared the risk for ending cohabitation of the parents of 2450 children (aged 0-20 years) given a diagnosis of cancer with the risk of parents of 44 853 randomly selected, gender- and age-matched cancer-free children. We adjusted for socioeconomic position and demographic factors. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for separation were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model. The parents of children with cancer did not have a higher risk for separation than the general population (rate ratio: 1.00 [95% confidence interval: 0.91-1.10]). Separate analyses according to type of cancer and survival of the child similarly yielded null results. Experiencing cancer in a child does not seem to be a risk factor for separation. Our study will allow clinicians to reassure parents and to support them in facing the trauma of cancer in their child.

  19. Characterization of Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Separations in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    DOE PAGES

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Venkata BS; ...

    2015-10-28

    We report on the development and characterization of a new traveling wave-based Structure for Lossless Ion Manipulations (TW-SLIM) for ion mobility separations (IMS). The TW-SLIM module uses parallel arrays of rf electrodes on two closely spaced surfaces for ion confinement, where the rf electrodes are separated by arrays of short electrodes, and using these TWs can be created to drive ion motion. In this initial work, TWs are created by the dynamic application of dc potentials. The capabilities of the TW-SLIM module for efficient ion confinement, lossless ion transport, and ion mobility separations at different rf and TW parameters aremore » reported. The TW-SLIM module is shown to transmit a wide mass range of ions (m/z 200–2500) utilizing a confining rf waveform (~1 MHz and ~300 Vp-p) and low TW amplitudes (<20 V). Additionally, the short TW-SLIM module achieved resolutions comparable to existing commercially available low pressure IMS platforms and an ion mobility peak capacity of ~32 for TW speeds of <210 m/s. TW-SLIM performance was characterized over a wide range of rf and TW parameters and demonstrated robust performance. In conclusion, the combined attributes of the flexible design and low voltage requirements for the TW-SLIM module provide a basis for devices capable of much higher resolution and more complex ion manipulations.« less

  20. Characterization of Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Separations in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Venkata BS; Webb, Ian K.; Deng, Liulin; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Anderson, Gordon A.; Prost, Spencer A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-10-28

    We report on the development and characterization of a new traveling wave-based Structure for Lossless Ion Manipulations (TW-SLIM) for ion mobility separations (IMS). The TW-SLIM module uses parallel arrays of rf electrodes on two closely spaced surfaces for ion confinement, where the rf electrodes are separated by arrays of short electrodes, and using these TWs can be created to drive ion motion. In this initial work, TWs are created by the dynamic application of dc potentials. The capabilities of the TW-SLIM module for efficient ion confinement, lossless ion transport, and ion mobility separations at different rf and TW parameters are reported. The TW-SLIM module is shown to transmit a wide mass range of ions (m/z 200–2500) utilizing a confining rf waveform (~1 MHz and ~300 Vp-p) and low TW amplitudes (<20 V). Additionally, the short TW-SLIM module achieved resolutions comparable to existing commercially available low pressure IMS platforms and an ion mobility peak capacity of ~32 for TW speeds of <210 m/s. TW-SLIM performance was characterized over a wide range of rf and TW parameters and demonstrated robust performance. In conclusion, the combined attributes of the flexible design and low voltage requirements for the TW-SLIM module provide a basis for devices capable of much higher resolution and more complex ion manipulations.

  1. Characterization of Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Separations in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Ahmed M; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Webb, Ian K; Deng, Liulin; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Anderson, Gordon A; Prost, Spencer A; Norheim, Randolph V; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Smith, Richard D

    2015-11-17

    We report on the development and characterization of a traveling wave (TW)-based Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (TW-SLIM) module for ion mobility separations (IMS). The TW-SLIM module uses parallel arrays of rf electrodes on two closely spaced surfaces for ion confinement, where the rf electrodes are separated by arrays of short electrodes, and using these TWs can be created to drive ion motion. In this initial work, TWs are created by the dynamic application of dc potentials. The capabilities of the TW-SLIM module for efficient ion confinement, lossless ion transport, and ion mobility separations at different rf and TW parameters are reported. The TW-SLIM module is shown to transmit a wide mass range of ions (m/z 200-2500) utilizing a confining rf waveform (∼1 MHz and ∼300 Vp-p) and low TW amplitudes (<20 V). Additionally, the short TW-SLIM module achieved resolutions comparable to existing commercially available low pressure IMS platforms and an ion mobility peak capacity of ∼32 for TW speeds of <210 m/s. TW-SLIM performance was characterized over a wide range of rf and TW parameters and demonstrated robust performance. The combined attributes of the flexible design and low voltage requirements for the TW-SLIM module provide a basis for devices capable of much higher resolution and more complex ion manipulations.

  2. Development and characterization of porous silver-incorporated hydroxyapatite ceramic for separation and elimination of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Ning, Xiaoshan; Xiao, Qunfang; Chen, Kexin; Zhou, Heping

    2007-04-01

    A novel filter material for separating and eliminating microorganisms in water and gas was fabricated by incorporating silver ions into porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics prepared by a starch additive technique. The porous ceramics reveal a microstructure of both large and small pores. Microorganism separating and eliminating properties of the porous silver-incorporated HA ceramics (PHA-Ag) were investigated by bacterial and viral filtration tests. The PHA-Ag demonstrated excellent separating and antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli and the mechanisms were studied. Adsorption of bacterial cells to the HA and the barricading effect of small pores contribute to the separating property of PHA-Ag, while the Ag+ ions equip the ceramics with antibacterial property. Furthermore, the PHA-Ag exhibited an observable virus-eliminating property and its probable mechanism was also discussed.

  3. Protein hydrogen exchange studied by the fragment separation method.

    PubMed

    Englander, J J; Rogero, J R; Englander, S W

    1985-05-15

    The potential of hydrogen-exchange studies for providing detailed information on protein structure and structural dynamics has not yet been realized, largely because of the continuing inability to correlate measured exchange behavior with the parts of a protein that generate that behavior. J. Rosa and F. M. Richards (1979, J. Mol. Biol. 133, 399-416) pioneered a promising approach to this problem in which tritium label at exchangeable proton sites can be located by fragmenting the protein, separating the fragments, and measuring the label carried by each fragment. However, severe losses of tritium label during the fragment separation steps have so far rendered the results ambiguous. This paper describes methods that minimize losses of tritium label during the fragment separation steps and correct for losses that do occur so that the label can be unambiguously located and even quantified. Steps that promote adequate fragment isolation are also described.

  4. Protein Hydrogen Exchange Studied by the Fragment Separation Method

    PubMed Central

    Englander, Joan J.; Rogero, Jose R.; Englander, S. Walter

    2012-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen-exchange studies for providing detailed information on protein structure and structural dynamics has not yet been realized, largely because of the continuing inability to correlate measured exchange behavior with the parts of a protein that generate that behavior. J. Rosa and F. M. Richards (1979, J. Mol. Biol. 133, 399–416) pioneered a promising approach to this problem in which tritium label at exchangeable proton sites can be located by fragmenting the protein, separating the fragments, and measuring the label carried by each fragment. However, severe losses of tritium label during the fragment separation steps have so far rendered the results ambiguous. This paper describes methods that minimize losses of tritium label during the fragment separation steps and correct for losses that do occur so that the label can be unambiguously located and even quantified. Steps that promote adequate fragment isolation are also described. PMID:2992314

  5. On-line separator for {gamma}-spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Popeko, A. G.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chepigin, V. I.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Malyshev, O. N.; Shutov, A. V.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Yeremin, A. V.; Dorvaux, O.; Hauschild, K.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.

    2008-05-12

    We report about R and D of the new separator for spectroscopic studies which we plan to install at the beam of the modernized U400R FLNR cyclotron and which will allow to realize new possibilities of the JINR-IN2P3 collaboration project GABRIELA.

  6. On-line separator for γ-spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popeko, A. G.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chepigin, V. I.; Dorvaux, O.; Hauschild, K.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Malyshev, O. N.; Shutov, A. V.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Yeremin, A. V.

    2008-05-01

    We report about R&D of the new separator for spectroscopic studies which we plan to install at the beam of the modernized U400R FLNR cyclotron and which will allow to realize new possibilities of the JINR-IN2P3 collaboration project GABRIELA [1, 2].

  7. Molecular Dynamics Study of Polymer Separation Using a Nanofluidic Staircase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Frederick, Jr.; Forrey, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    The diffusive behavior of isolated polymer chains in a nanofluidic staircase has recently been studied experimentally [Strychalski et al., Macromolecules, 45(3), 1602, (2012); Stavis et al., Lab Chip, 12(19), 1174, (2012)] and by simulation [Phelan et al., in preparation, (2012)]. Chains are observed to exhibit spontaneous 1-D biased diffusion from regions of high to low confinement, without the use of external forces, under conditions where the local confinement lies in either the Odijk or de Gennes regimes. The transport mechanism is that of a Brownian motor, where the polymer free energy is used to generate directed transport using thermal fluctuations and the biased structural features of the device. The nanostaircase has potential for a number of applications in polymer measurement science and transport, an important one of which could be separations. To study this, we examine polymer separation in the nanofluidic staircase using the molecular dynamics simulation software LAMMPS. Length based separations of linear polymers as applicable to DNA separations are the main topic of the study, but the effect of more complex architectures such as branching are also examined.

  8. Study site characterization. Chapter 2

    Treesearch

    Chris Potter; Richard. Birdsey

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of the main site characterization requirements at landscape-scale sampling locations. The overview is organized according to multiple "Site Attribute" headings that require descriptions throughout a given study site area, leading ultimately to a sufficient overall site characterization. Guidance is provided to describe the major...

  9. Millions of Multiples: Detecting and Characterizing Close-separation Binary Systems in Synoptic Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terziev, Emil; Law, Nicholas M.; Arcavi, Iair; Baranec, Christoph; Bloom, Joshua S.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H. K.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kraus, Adam L.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Riddle, Reed; Sullivan, Mark; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.

    2013-06-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. Based on a technique from weak-lensing analysis, we have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to ≈1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations, and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <11% false-positive rate, measures the detected binaries' position angles within 1° to 4° (depending on signal-to-noise ratio and separation), and separations within 25%, and weakly constrains their contrast ratios. When applied to the full PTF data set, we estimate that BinaryFinder will discover and characterize ~450,000 physically associated binary systems with separations <2 arcsec and magnitudes brighter than mR = 18. New wide-field synoptic surveys with high sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolution, such as LSST, will allow BinaryFinder to reliably detect millions of very faint binary systems with separations as small as 0.1 arcsec.

  10. MILLIONS OF MULTIPLES: DETECTING AND CHARACTERIZING CLOSE-SEPARATION BINARY SYSTEMS IN SYNOPTIC SKY SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Terziev, Emil; Law, Nicholas M.; Arcavi, Iair; Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Kraus, Adam L.; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran O.; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. Based on a technique from weak-lensing analysis, we have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to Almost-Equal-To 1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations, and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <11% false-positive rate, measures the detected binaries' position angles within 1 Degree-Sign to 4 Degree-Sign (depending on signal-to-noise ratio and separation), and separations within 25%, and weakly constrains their contrast ratios. When applied to the full PTF data set, we estimate that BinaryFinder will discover and characterize {approx}450,000 physically associated binary systems with separations <2 arcsec and magnitudes brighter than m{sub R} = 18. New wide-field synoptic surveys with high sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolution, such as LSST, will allow BinaryFinder to reliably detect millions of very faint binary systems with separations as small as 0.1 arcsec.

  11. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization in Characterization of Organic Compounds Separated on Thin-Layer Chromatography Plates

    PubMed Central

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Babij, Michał; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    A new method for on-spot detection and characterization of organic compounds resolved on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates has been proposed. This method combines TLC with dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI), which produces stable low-temperature plasma. At first, the compounds were separated on TLC plates and then their mass spectra were directly obtained with no additional sample preparation. To obtain good quality spectra the center of a particular TLC spot was heated from the bottom to increase volatility of the compound. MS/MS analyses were also performed to additionally characterize all analytes. The detection limit of proposed method was estimated to be 100 ng/spot of compound. PMID:25170762

  12. New design studies for TRIUMF's ARIEL High Resolution Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, J. A.; Baartman, R.; Marchetto, M.

    2016-06-01

    As part of its new Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory (ARIEL), TRIUMF is designing a novel High Resolution Separator (HRS) (Maloney et al., 2015) to separate rare isotopes. The HRS has a 180° bend, separated into two 90° magnetic dipoles, bend radius 1.2 m, with an electrostatic multipole corrector between them. Second order correction comes mainly from the dipole edge curvatures, but is intended to be fine-tuned with a sextupole component and a small octupole component in the multipole. This combination is designed to achieve 1:20,000 resolution for a 3 μm (horizontal) and 6 μm (vertical) emittance. A design for the HRS dipole magnets achieves both radial and integral flatness goals of <10-5. A review of the optical design for the HRS is presented, including the study of limiting factors affecting separation, matching and aberration correction. Field simulations from the OPERA-3D (OPERA) [2] models of the dipole magnets are used in COSY Infinity (COSY) (Berz and Makino, 2005) [3] to find and optimize the transfer maps to 3rd order and study residual nonlinearities to 8th order.

  13. Chromatographic selectivity study of 4-fluorophenylacetic acid positional isomers separation.

    PubMed

    Chasse, Tyson; Wenslow, Robert; Bereznitski, Yuri

    2007-07-13

    Unique properties of the fluorine atom stimulate widespread use and development of new organofluorine compounds in agrochemistry, biotechnology and pharmacology applications. However, relatively few synthetic methods exhibit a high degree of fluorination selectivity, which ultimately results in the presence of structurally related fluorinated isomers in the synthetic product. This outcome is undesirable from a pharmaceutical perspective as positional isomers possess different reactivity, biological activity and toxicity as compared to the desired product. It is advantageous to control positional isomers in the early stages of the synthetic process, as rejection and analysis of these isomers will likely become more difficult in later stages. The current work reports the development of a chromatographic analysis of 2- and 3-fluorophenylacetic acid positional isomer impurities in 4-fluorophenylacetic acid (4-FPAA), a building block in the synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. The method is employed as a part of a Quality by Design Approach to control purity of the starting material in order to eliminate the presence of undesirable positional isomers in the final drug substance. During method development, a wide range of chromatographic conditions and structurally related positional isomer probe molecules were exploited in an effort to gain insight into the specifics of the separation mechanism. For the systems studied it was shown that the choice of organic modifier played a key role in achieving acceptable separation. Further studies encompassed investigation of temperature influence on retention and selectivity of the FPAA isomers separation. Thermodynamic analysis of these data showed that the selectivity of the 2- and 4- fluorophenylacetic acids separation was dominated by an enthalpic process, while the selectivity of the 4- and 3-fluorophenylacetic acids separation was exclusively entropy driven (Delta(DeltaH degrees approximately 0). Studies of

  14. Characterization of micro- and nanophase separation of dentin bonding agents by stereoscopy and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Yamauti, Monica; Osorio, Estrella; Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Raquel

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of solvents on the phase separation of four commercial dental adhesives. Four materials were tested: Clearfil™ SE Bond (CSE), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3), and One-Up Bond F Plus (OUB). Distilled water or ethanol was used as a solvent (30 vol%) for microphase separation studies, by stereoscopy. For nanophase images, the mixtures were formulated with two different solvent concentrations (2.5 versus 5 vol%) and observed by atomic force microscopy. Images were analyzed by using MacBiophotonics ImageJ to measure the area of bright domains. Macrophase separations, identified as a loss of clarity, were only observed after mixing the adhesives with water. Nanophase separations were detected with all adhesive combinations. The area of bright domains ranged from 132 to 1,145 nm² for CSE, from 15 to 285 nm² for CPB, from 149 to 380 nm² for CS3, and from 26 to 157 nm² for OUB. In water-resins mixtures, CPB was the most homogeneous and OUB showed the most heterogeneous phase formation. In ethanol-resin mixtures, CSE attained the most homogeneous structure and OUB showed the most heterogeneous phase. Addition of 5 vol% ethanol to resins decreased the nanophase separation when compared with the control materials.

  15. Novel nanocomposite Kevlar fabric membranes: Fabrication characterization, and performance in oil/water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimnezhad, Hanieh; Rajabi, Laleh; Salehi, Ehsan; Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf; Azimi, Sara

    2014-02-01

    Nanocomposite membranes with hydrophilic surface were fabricated for separation of oil (n-hexane) from oil/water emulsion. Three different nanomaterials namely, para-aminobenzoate alumoxane (PAB-A), boehmite-epoxide and polycitrate alumoxane (PC-A) were coated on the Kevlar fabric (support), according to a three-step dip-coating protocol. FTIR, SEM, TEM, UV/vis spectrophotometer, and wettability analyses were used to characterize the composite membranes. The three coating layers interacted chemically with one another and also physically with the Kevlar fabric. Water uptake measurements indicated that the membrane is a hydrophilic one. SEM and TEM analyses showed the smooth surface of the composite membrane and three-dimensional dendrimeric hyper-branched structure of (PC-A), respectively. A dead-end filtration setup was applied to test the membranes performance under natural gravity force. Effect of pH as an important variable affecting separation process was investigated with the neutral pH provided the optimum condition for the separation. Oil rejection and permeate fluxes were also monitored. The optimum flux and rejection obtained, were 7392 (Lm-2 h-1) and 89.06% at pH 7, respectively. Fouling occurred as a gel layer on the membrane surface. The deposited oil droplets on the surface of the membrane were successfully washed away with satisfactory permeate flux recovery (FRR = 88.88% at neutral pH), using hot distilled water and acidic solution as eluents.

  16. Heterogeneous glycoform separation by process chromatography: I: Monomer purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xu, Xuankuo; Shupe, Alan; Yang, Rong; Bai, Kevin; Das, Tapan; Borys, Michael C; Li, Zheng Jian

    2015-07-24

    Fc fusion proteins with high and low sialylation were purified and separated by preparative ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Heterogeneity in sialylation and glycosylation led to variation in surface charge and hydrophobicity, and resulted in multiple distinct glycoform populations in response to various purification conditions. Monomer with high sialic acid content has higher surface charge and adsorbs stronger to ion-exchange resin, while the less sialylated monomer interacts more favorably with hydrophobic resin. Extensive biophysical characterization was carried out for purified monomers at different level of sialylation. In general, different monomeric glycoforms have different surface charge and hydrophobicity, different thermal stability, and different aggregation propensity. The surface charge corresponds well with sialic acid content, as evidenced by electrophoresis, N-link domain analysis, and zeta potential results. The sialylation also contributes to minor modification of protein size, molecular mass and tertiary structure. Notably, fluorescence emission spectra and thermal transition became less distinguishable when the monomers containing low and high sialic acid were prepared in high ionic strength solution. Such finding reiterates the fact that the electrostatic forces, which are largely dependent on sialic acid content of protein, plays a dominant role in many intra- and inter-molecular interactions. Overall, the characterization data agreed well with separation behaviors and provided valuable insight to control of glycoform profile in purification process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Separation, characterization and anticancer activities of a sulfated polysaccharide from Undaria pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Han, Yun; Wu, Jun; Liu, Tingting; Hu, Youdong; Zheng, Qiusheng; Wang, Binsheng; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Xia

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate separation, characterization and anticancer activities of a sulfated polysaccharide (SPUP) from Undaria pinnatifida. Firstly, polysaccharide from U. pinnatifida was separated by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephacryl S-400 column chromatography. As results, SPUP was obtained with the yield of 19.42%. Then, SPUP was characterized using chemical analysis, gas chromatography, size-exclusion HPLC chromatography, UV-vis spectra and FT-IR spectrum. The content of total sugar, uronic acid, protein and sulfate radical were 80.48%, 3.21%, 7.12% and 29.14%, respectively. SPUP was a heteropolysaccharide composed of fucose, glucose and galactose in a molar percentage of 27.15:19.34:53.51 with molecular weight of 97.9 kDa. Finally, the strongly against breast cancer activity of SPUP was confirmed by DMBA-induced breast cancer rats model. AS results, SPUP can significantly restrain breast abnormal enlargement, prolong tumor latency and reduced tumor incidence. Immunomodulatory activity and regulating abnormal sex hormones level might contribute to its anticancer activities.

  18. Hydrodynamic size-based separation and characterization of protein aggregates from total cell lysates

    PubMed Central

    Tanase, Maya; Zolla, Valerio; Clement, Cristina C; Borghi, Francesco; Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Rodriguez-Navarro, Jose Antonio; Roda, Barbara; Zattoni, Andrea; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Santambrogio, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe a protocol that uses hollow-fiber flow field-flow fractionation (FFF) coupled with multiangle light scattering (MALS) for hydrodynamic size-based separation and characterization of complex protein aggregates. The fractionation method, which requires 1.5 h to run, was successfully modified from the analysis of protein aggregates, as found in simple protein mixtures, to complex aggregates, as found in total cell lysates. In contrast to other related methods (filter assay, analytical ultracentrifugation, gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography), hollow-fiber flow FFF coupled with MALS allows a flow-based fractionation of highly purified protein aggregates and simultaneous measurement of their molecular weight, r.m.s. radius and molecular conformation (e.g., round, rod-shaped, compact or relaxed). The polyethersulfone hollow fibers used, which have a 0.8-mm inner diameter, allow separation of as little as 20 μg of total cell lysates. In addition, the ability to run the samples in different denaturing and nondenaturing buffer allows defining true aggregates from artifacts, which can form during sample preparation. The protocol was set up using Paraquat-induced carbonylation, a model that induces protein aggregation in cultured cells. This technique will advance the biochemical, proteomic and biophysical characterization of molecular-weight aggregates associated with protein mutations, as found in many CNS degenerative diseases, or chronic oxidative stress, as found in aging, and chronic metabolic and inflammatory conditions. PMID:25521790

  19. Protein pI shifts due to posttranslational modifications in the separation and characterization of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kan; Zhao, Jia; Lubman, David M; Miller, Fred R; Barder, Timothy J

    2005-05-01

    Proteins from breast cancer cell lines are characterized using a 2-D liquid separation technique in which protein pI is used as the first-dimension separation parameter. To effect this protein pI separation, chromatofocusing(CF) is employed whereby a pH gradient is generated on-column using a weak anion exchange medium with the intact proteins fractionated and collected every 0.2 pH unit. It is demonstrated that the pI for expressed intact proteins as generated by CF is an important parameter for identification and characterization of the actual protein modifications occurring in the cancer cell. For most proteins, the experimentally determined pI is very close to that predicted by the databases. In other cases, however, where the pI is observed to be shifted from the expected value, it is shown that this shift is often correlated to protein modifications. The modifications that cause such shifts include truncations and deletions often observed in cancer cells or phosphorylations that can shift the pI by several pH units. It is also shown that the effects of phosphorylation on the observed shift can vary depending upon the protein and the amount of phosphorylation. Moreover, large changes in the pI are often observed for proteins with a pI above 7.0 upon phosphorylation, whereas little change is observed for proteins with a pI of approximately 5.0. The expressed protein's pI value thus becomes an important parameter together with the intact MW value, peptide map, and MS/MS results for identification of the presence and type of posttranslational modifications occurring in the cancer cell.

  20. Computational Study of Separating Flow in a Planar Subsonic Diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DalBello, Teryn; Dippold, Vance, III; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.

    2005-01-01

    A computational study of the separated flow through a 2-D asymmetric subsonic diffuser has been performed. The Wind Computational Fluid Dynamics code is used to predict the separation and reattachment behavior for an incompressible diffuser flow. The diffuser inlet flow is a two-dimensional, turbulent, and fully-developed channel flow with a Reynolds number of 20,000 based on the centerline velocity and the channel height. Wind solutions computed with the Menter SST, Chien k-epsilon, Spalart-Allmaras and Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress turbulence models are compared with experimentally measured velocity profiles and skin friction along the upper and lower walls. In addition to the turbulence model study, the effects of grid resolution and use of wall functions were investigated. The grid studies varied the number of grid points across the diffuser and varied the initial wall spacing from y(sup +) = 0.2 to 60. The wall function study assessed the applicability of wall functions for analysis of separated flow. The SST and Explicit Algebraic Stress models provide the best agreement with experimental data, and it is recommended wall functions should only be used with a high level of caution.

  1. Characterization of low-temperature cofired ceramic tiles as platforms for gas chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Darko, Ernest; Thurbide, Kevin B; Gerhardt, Geoff C; Michienzi, Joseph

    2013-06-04

    A gas chromatography (GC) column is fabricated within a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) tile, and its analytical properties are characterized. By using a dual-spiral design, a 100 μm wide square channel up to 15 m in length is produced within an 11 cm × 5.5 cm LTCC tile. The channel is dynamically coated with an OV-101 stationary phase that is cross-linked with dicumyl peroxide. While the uncoated LTCC tiles were able to separate a mixture of n-alkanes, the peak shapes were broad (base width of ~2 min) and tailing. In contrast to this, the coated LTCC tiles produced sharp (base width of ~8-10 s), symmetrical, well-resolved peaks for the same analytes. By using a 7.5 m long channel, about 15,000 plates were obtained for a dodecane test analyte. Further, the coated LTCC tiles were found to produce plate heights that were about 3-fold smaller than those obtained from a conventional capillary GC column of similar length, dimension, and coating operated under the same conditions. As a result, test analyte separations were slightly improved in the LTCC tiles, and their overall performance fared well. In terms of temperature programming, it was found that a series of n-alkanes separated on the LTCC tile provided a cumulative peak capacity of around 54 peaks when using C₈ to C₁₃ as analyte markers. Results indicate that LTCC tiles provide a viable and useful alternative platform for performing good quality GC separations.

  2. Brachytherapy source characterization for improved dose calculations using primary and scatter dose separation.

    PubMed

    Russell, Kellie R; Tedgren, Asa K Carlsson; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2005-09-01

    In brachytherapy, tissue heterogeneities, source shielding, and finite patient/phantom extensions affect both the primary and scatter dose distributions. The primary dose is, due to the short range of secondary electrons, dependent only on the distribution of material located on the ray line between the source and dose deposition site. The scatter dose depends on both the direct irradiation pattern and the distribution of material in a large volume surrounding the point of interest, i.e., a much larger volume must be included in calculations to integrate many small dose contributions. It is therefore of interest to consider different methods for the primary and the scatter dose calculation to improve calculation accuracy with limited computer resources. The algorithms in present clinical use ignore these effects causing systematic dose errors in brachytherapy treatment planning. In this work we review a primary and scatter dose separation formalism (PSS) for brachytherapy source characterization to support separate calculation of the primary and scatter dose contributions. We show how the resulting source characterization data can be used to drive more accurate dose calculations using collapsed cone superposition for scatter dose calculations. Two types of source characterization data paths are used: a direct Monte Carlo simulation in water phantoms with subsequent parameterization of the results, and an alternative data path built on processing of AAPM TG43 formatted data to provide similar parameter sets. The latter path is motivated of the large amounts of data already existing in the TG43 format. We demonstrate the PSS methods using both data paths for a clinical 192Ir source. Results are shown for two geometries: a finite but homogeneous water phantom, and a half-slab consisting of water and air. The dose distributions are compared to results from full Monte Carlo simulations and we show significant improvement in scatter dose calculations when the collapsed

  3. Brachytherapy source characterization for improved dose calculations using primary and scatter dose separation

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Kellie R.; Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa K.; Ahnesjoe, Anders

    2005-09-15

    In brachytherapy, tissue heterogeneities, source shielding, and finite patient/phantom extensions affect both the primary and scatter dose distributions. The primary dose is, due to the short range of secondary electrons, dependent only on the distribution of material located on the ray line between the source and dose deposition site. The scatter dose depends on both the direct irradiation pattern and the distribution of material in a large volume surrounding the point of interest, i.e., a much larger volume must be included in calculations to integrate many small dose contributions. It is therefore of interest to consider different methods for the primary and the scatter dose calculation to improve calculation accuracy with limited computer resources. The algorithms in present clinical use ignore these effects causing systematic dose errors in brachytherapy treatment planning. In this work we review a primary and scatter dose separation formalism (PSS) for brachytherapy source characterization to support separate calculation of the primary and scatter dose contributions. We show how the resulting source characterization data can be used to drive more accurate dose calculations using collapsed cone superposition for scatter dose calculations. Two types of source characterization data paths are used: a direct Monte Carlo simulation in water phantoms with subsequent parameterization of the results, and an alternative data path built on processing of AAPM TG43 formatted data to provide similar parameter sets. The latter path is motivated of the large amounts of data already existing in the TG43 format. We demonstrate the PSS methods using both data paths for a clinical {sup 192}Ir source. Results are shown for two geometries: a finite but homogeneous water phantom, and a half-slab consisting of water and air. The dose distributions are compared to results from full Monte Carlo simulations and we show significant improvement in scatter dose calculations when the

  4. Separability studies of construction and demolition waste recycled sand.

    PubMed

    Ulsen, Carina; Kahn, Henrique; Hawlitschek, Gustav; Masini, Eldon A; Angulo, Sérgio C

    2013-03-01

    The quality of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) is strictly related to the content of porous and low strength phases, and specifically to the patches of cement that remain attached to the surface of natural aggregates. This phase increases water absorption and compromises the consistency and strength of concrete made from recycled aggregates. Mineral processing has been applied to CDW recycling to remove the patches of adhered cement paste on coarse recycled aggregates. The recycled fine fraction is usually disregarded due to its high content of porous phases despite representing around 50% of the total waste. This paper focus on laboratory mineral separability studies for removing particles with a high content of cement paste from natural fine aggregate particles (quartz/feldspars). The procedure achieved processing of CDW by tertiary impact crushing to produce sand, followed by sieving and density and magnetic separability studies. The attained results confirmed that both methods were effective in reducing cement paste content and producing significant mass recovery (80% for density concentration and 60% for magnetic separation). The production of recycled sand contributes to the sustainability of the construction environment by reducing both the consumption of raw materials and disposal of CDW, particularly in large Brazilian centers with a low quantity of sand and increasing costs of this material due to long transportation distances.

  5. Chromatographic Studies of Protein-Based Chiral Separations.

    PubMed

    Bi, Cong; Zheng, Xiwei; Azaria, Shiden; Beeram, Sandya; Li, Zhao; Hage, David S

    2016-09-01

    The development of separation methods for the analysis and resolution of chiral drugs and solutes has been an area of ongoing interest in pharmaceutical research. The use of proteins as chiral binding agents in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been an approach that has received particular attention in such work. This report provides an overview of proteins that have been used as binding agents to create chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and in the use of chromatographic methods to study these materials and protein-based chiral separations. The supports and methods that have been employed to prepare protein-based CSPs will also be discussed and compared. Specific types of CSPs that are considered include those that employ serum transport proteins (e.g., human serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein), enzymes (e.g., penicillin G acylase, cellobiohydrolases, and α-chymotrypsin) or other types of proteins (e.g., ovomucoid, antibodies, and avidin or streptavidin). The properties and applications for each type of protein and CSP will also be discussed in terms of their use in chromatography and chiral separations.

  6. Chromatographic Studies of Protein-Based Chiral Separations

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Cong; Zheng, Xiwei; Azaria, Shiden; Beeram, Sandya; Li, Zhao; Hage, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of separation methods for the analysis and resolution of chiral drugs and solutes has been an area of ongoing interest in pharmaceutical research. The use of proteins as chiral binding agents in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been an approach that has received particular attention in such work. This report provides an overview of proteins that have been used as binding agents to create chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and in the use of chromatographic methods to study these materials and protein-based chiral separations. The supports and methods that have been employed to prepare protein-based CSPs will also be discussed and compared. Specific types of CSPs that are considered include those that employ serum transport proteins (e.g., human serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein), enzymes (e.g., penicillin G acylase, cellobiohydrolases, and α-chymotrypsin) or other types of proteins (e.g., ovomucoid, antibodies, and avidin or streptavidin). The properties and applications for each type of protein and CSP will also be discussed in terms of their use in chromatography and chiral separations. PMID:28344977

  7. Uranium dioxide in Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids with DMSO: Dissolution, separation, and structural characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Aining; Chu, Taiwei

    2016-11-01

    UO2 can be successfully dissolved in imidazolium-based Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids (ILs) with the help of DMSO. Spectroscopic studies and X-ray diffraction show that UO2Cl42- is the principal product. The dissolved uranyl species can be easily separated from the ILs via a combination of crystallization and solvent extraction. Moreover, even if 15.2 wt% of the rare-earth elements of Sm, Eu, and Gd, compared with the total amount of uranium and the rare-earth elements, exist in the IL, only uranium-containing crystals would be selectively formed and separated from the system. The solvents of acetone and acetonitrile could be used to separate the rare-earth elements from uranium in the IL with the help of imidazolium chloride. Considering the complete process from the dissolution of UO2 and some rare-earth oxides to the separation of uranium and rare-earth elements in the IL, the facile approach is promising for the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  8. Characterization of microparticle separation utilizing electrokinesis within an electrodeless dielectrophoresis chip.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chi-Han; Pan, Jia-Cheng; Chien, Liang-Ju; Lin, Yu-Ying; Lin, Jr-Lung

    2013-02-27

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing electrokinesis in an electrodeless dielectrophoresis chip to separate and concentrate microparticles such as biosamples. Numerical simulations and experimental observations were facilitated to investigate the phenomena of electrokinetics, i.e., electroosmosis, dielectrophoresis, and electrothermosis. Moreover, the proposed operating mode can be used to simultaneously convey microparticles through a microfluidic device by using electroosmotic flow, eliminating the need for an additional micropump. These results not only revealed that the directions of fluids could be controlled with a forward/backward electroosmotic flow but also categorized the optimum separating parameters for various microparticle sizes (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μm). Separation of microparticles can be achieved by tuning driving frequencies at a specific electric potential (90 Vpp·cm(-1)). Certainly, the device can be designed as a single automated device that carries out multiple functions such as transportation, separation, and detection for the realization of the envisioned Lab-on-a-Chip idea.

  9. Characterization of enhanced-fluidity liquid hydrophilic interaction chromatography for the separation of nucleosides and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Philibert, Gwenaëlle S; Olesik, Susan V

    2011-11-11

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is a liquid chromatographic separation mechanism commonly used for polar biological molecules. The use of enhanced-fluidity liquid chromatography (EFLC) with mixtures of methanol/water/carbon dioxide is compared to acetonitrile/water mobile phases for the separation of nucleosides and nucleotides under HILIC conditions. Enhanced-fluidity liquid chromatography involves using common mobile phases with the addition of substantial proportions of a dissolved gas which provides greater mobile phase diffusivity and lower viscosity. The impact of varying several experimental parameters, including temperature, addition of base, salt, and CO₂ was studied to provide optimized HILIC separations. Each of these parameters plays a key role in the retention of the analytes, which demonstrates the complexity of the retention mechanism in HILIC. The tailing of phosphorylated compounds was overcome with the use of phosphate salts and the addition of a strong base; efficiency and peak asymmetry were compared with the addition of either triethylamine (TEA), 1,4-diazabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (DABCO) or 1,5-diazabicyclo [4.3.0] non-5-ene (DBN). DBN and DABCO both led to increased efficiency and lower peak asymmetry; DBN provided the best results. Sodium chloride and carbon dioxide were added to enhance the selectivity between the analytes, giving a successful isocratic separation of nucleosides and nucleotides within 8 min. The retention mechanism involved in EFL-HILIC was explored by varying the temperature and the mole fraction of CO₂. These studies showed that partitioning was the dominant mechanism. The thermodynamics study confirmed that the solvent strength is maintained in EFLC and that a change in entropy was mainly responsible for the improved selectivity. The selectivity using methanol/water/carbon dioxide varied greatly compared to that obtained with acetonitrile/water. Finally while this study highlights the optimization of EFL

  10. Characterization of thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin-Chuan; Chen, Chih-Chun; Young, Kung-Chia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we developed a fully thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood. Spiral microchannels were manufactured on a PMMA substrate using a micromilling machine, and a commercial polycarbonate membrane was bonded between two thermoplastic substrates. To achieve an excellent bonding between the commercial membrane and the thermoplastic substrates, we used a two-step injection and curing procedure of UV adhesive into a ring-shaped structure around the microchannel to efficiently prevent leakage during blood filtration. We performed multiple filtration experiments using human blood to compare the influence of three factors on separation efficiency: hematocrit level (40%, 23.2%, and 10.9%), membrane pore size (5 μm, 2 μm, and 1 μm), and flow rate (0.02 ml/min, 0.06 ml/min, 0.1 ml/min). To prevent hemolysis, the pressure within the microchannel was kept below 0.5 bars throughout all filtration experiments. The experimental results clearly demonstrated the following: (1) The proposed microfiltration chip is able to separate white blood cells and red blood cells from whole human blood with a separation efficiency that exceeds 95%; (2) no leakage occurred during any of the experiments, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of bonding a commercial membrane with a thermoplastic substrate using UV adhesive in a ring-shaped structure; (3) separation efficiency can be increased by using a membrane with smaller pore size, by using diluted blood with lower hematocrit, or by injecting blood into the microfiltration chip at a lower flow rate.

  11. An experimental study of mushroom shaped stall cells. [on finite wings with separated flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelmann, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Surface patterns characterized by a pair of counter-rotating swirls have been observed in connection with the conduction of surface flow visualization experiments involving test geometries with separated flows. An example of this phenomenon occurring on a finite wing with trailing edge stall has been referred to by Winkelmann and Barlow (1980) as 'mushroom shaped'. A description is presented of a collection of experimental results which show or suggest the occurrence of mushroom shaped stall cells on a variety of test geometries. Investigations conducted with finite wings, airfoil models, and flat plates are considered, and attention is given to studies involving the use of bluff models, investigations of shock induced boundary layer separation, and mushroom shaped patterns observed in a number of miscellaneous cases. It is concluded that the mushroom shaped stall cell appears commonly in separated flow regions.

  12. Thermodynamic Studies to Support Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng

    2015-09-01

    This milestone report summarizes the data obtained in FY15 on the complexation of HEDTA with Np(V) and U(VI) in a temperature range from 25 to 70°C. The results show the effect of temperature on the chemical speciation of Np(V) and U(VI) in the modified TALSPEAK Process, and help to evaluate the effectiveness of the process when the operation envelope (e.g., temperature) varies. Eventually, the results from this study will help to achieve a better control of the separation process based on the HEDTA/HEH[EHP] combination.

  13. Separating and characterizing functional alkane degraders from crude-oil-contaminated sites via magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinzi; Zhao, Xiaohui; Li, Hanbing; Jia, Jianli; Liu, Yueqiao; Ejenavi, Odafe; Ding, Aizhong; Sun, Yujiao; Zhang, Dayi

    Uncultivable microorganisms account for over 99% of all species on the planet, but their functions are yet not well characterized. Though many cultivable degraders for n-alkanes have been intensively investigated, the roles of functional n-alkane degraders remain hidden in the natural environment. This study introduces the novel magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation (MMI) technology in Nigerian soils and successfully separates functional microbes belonging to the families Oxalobacteraceae and Moraxellaceae, which are dominant and responsible for alkane metabolism in situ. The alkR-type n-alkane monooxygenase genes, instead of alkA- or alkP-type, were the key functional genes involved in the n-alkane degradation process. Further physiological investigation via a BIOLOG PM plate revealed some carbon (Tween 20, Tween 40 and Tween 80) and nitrogen (tyramine, l-glutamine and d-aspartic acid) sources promoting microbial respiration and n-alkane degradation. With further addition of promoter carbon or nitrogen sources, the separated functional alkane degraders significantly improved n-alkane biodegradation rates. This suggests that MMI is a promising technology for separating functional microbes from complex microbiota, with deeper insight into their ecological functions and influencing factors. The technique also broadens the application of the BIOLOG PM plate for physiological research on functional yet uncultivable microorganisms.

  14. Parametric Studies of Flow Separation using Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Boundary Layer separation causes the airfoil to stall and therefore imposes dramatic performance degradation on the airfoil. In recent years, flow separation control has been one of the active research areas in the field of aerodynamics due to its promising performance improvements on the lifting device. These active flow separation control techniques include steady and unsteady air injection as well as suction on the airfoil surface etc. This paper will be focusing on the steady and unsteady air injection on the airfoil. Although wind tunnel experiments revealed that the performance improvements on the airfoil using injection techniques, the details of how the key variables such as air injection slot geometry and air injection angle etc impact the effectiveness of flow separation control via air injection has not been studied. A parametric study of both steady and unsteady air injection active flow control will be the main objective for this summer. For steady injection, the key variables include the slot geometry, orientation, spacing, air injection velocity as well as the injection angle. For unsteady injection, the injection frequency will also be investigated. Key metrics such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient, total pressure loss and total injection mass will be used to measure the effectiveness of the control technique. A design of experiments using the Box-Behnken Design is set up in order to determine how each of the variables affects each of the key metrics. Design of experiment is used so that the number of experimental runs will be at minimum and still be able to predict which variables are the key contributors to the responses. The experiments will then be conducted in the 1ft by 1ft wind tunnel according to the design of experiment settings. The data obtained from the experiments will be imported into JMP, statistical software, to generate sets of response surface equations which represent the statistical empirical model for each of the metrics as

  15. Parametric Studies of Flow Separation using Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Boundary Layer separation causes the airfoil to stall and therefore imposes dramatic performance degradation on the airfoil. In recent years, flow separation control has been one of the active research areas in the field of aerodynamics due to its promising performance improvements on the lifting device. These active flow separation control techniques include steady and unsteady air injection as well as suction on the airfoil surface etc. This paper will be focusing on the steady and unsteady air injection on the airfoil. Although wind tunnel experiments revealed that the performance improvements on the airfoil using injection techniques, the details of how the key variables such as air injection slot geometry and air injection angle etc impact the effectiveness of flow separation control via air injection has not been studied. A parametric study of both steady and unsteady air injection active flow control will be the main objective for this summer. For steady injection, the key variables include the slot geometry, orientation, spacing, air injection velocity as well as the injection angle. For unsteady injection, the injection frequency will also be investigated. Key metrics such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient, total pressure loss and total injection mass will be used to measure the effectiveness of the control technique. A design of experiments using the Box-Behnken Design is set up in order to determine how each of the variables affects each of the key metrics. Design of experiment is used so that the number of experimental runs will be at minimum and still be able to predict which variables are the key contributors to the responses. The experiments will then be conducted in the 1ft by 1ft wind tunnel according to the design of experiment settings. The data obtained from the experiments will be imported into JMP, statistical software, to generate sets of response surface equations which represent the statistical empirical model for each of the metrics as

  16. Hyper-X Stage Separation Trajectory Validation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Bose, David M.; McMinn, John D.; Martin, John G.; Strovers, Brian K.

    2003-01-01

    An independent twelve degree-of-freedom simulation of the X-43A separation trajectory was created with the Program to Optimize Simulated trajectories (POST II). This simulation modeled the multi-body dynamics of the X-43A and its booster and included the effect of two pyrotechnically actuated pistons used to push the vehicles apart as well as aerodynamic interaction forces and moments between the two vehicles. The simulation was developed to validate trajectory studies conducted with a 14 degree-of-freedom simulation created early in the program using the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanics Systems (ADAMS) simulation software. The POST simulation was less detailed than the official ADAMS-based simulation used by the Project, but was simpler, more concise and ran faster, while providing similar results. The increase in speed provided by the POST simulation provided the Project with an alternate analysis tool. This tool was ideal for performing separation control logic trade studies that required the running of numerous Monte Carlo trajectories.

  17. Blending Study of MgO-Based Separator Materials for Thermal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.; ANDAZOLA, ARTHUR H.

    2002-06-01

    The development and testing of a new technique for blending of electrolyte-binder (separator) mixes for use in thermal batteries is described. The original method of blending such materials at Sandia involved liquid Freon TF' as a medium. The ban on the use of halogenated solvents throughout much of the Department of Energy complex required the development of an alternative liquid medium as a replacement. The use of liquid nitrogen (LN) was explored and developed into a viable quality process. For comparison, a limited number of dry-blending tests were also conducted using a Turbula mixer. The characterization of pellets made from LN-blended separators involved deformation properties at 530 C and electrolyte-leakage behavior at 400 or 500 C, as well as performance in single-cells and five-cell batteries under several loads. Stack-relaxation tests were also conducted using 10-cell batteries. One objective of this work was to observe if correlations could be obtained between the mechanical properties of the separators and the performance in single cells and batteries. Separators made using three different electrolytes were examined in this study. These included the LiCl-KCl eutectic, the all-Li LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte, and the low-melting LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic. The electrochemical performance of separator pellets made with LN-blended materials was compared to that for those made with Freon T P and, in some cases, those that were dry blended. A satisfactory replacement MgO (Marinco 'OL', now manufactured by Morton) was qualified as a replacement for the standard Maglite 'S' MgO that has been used for years but is no longer commercially available. The separator compositions with the new MgO were optimized and included in the blending and electrochemical characterization tests.

  18. Experimental study of two separating turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagabushana, K. A.; Simpson, R. L.; Agarwal, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed study of two strong adverse pressure gradient flows, one with a free-stream velocity of 35 m/sec, at throat (producing a Re sub theta of 27000 at detachment) and another with free-stream velocity of 22 m/sec, at throat (producing a Re sub theta of 19000 at detachment) is presented. In these examples flows separate slowly and reattach very rapidly over a very short distance in a streamwise direction. In the backflow region, there appears to be a semi-logarithmically flat region in the streamwise fluctuating velocity component, u', which spreads over a definite range of y/delta. In power spectra, the flow variables phi sub upsilon upsilon (kappa sub 1 delta)/ -uv bar sub max vs. kappa sub 1 delta forms a unique set of scaling parameters for adverse pressure gradient flows. Experimental results show good agreement with previous studies.

  19. Synthesis, pervaporation and gas separation studies of polyaniline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.; Su, T.M.

    1995-12-01

    Membranes have been successfully produced from blends of polyaniline/polyacrylic acid and polyaniline/polyimide. The uniqueness of these membranes is the incorporation of {open_quotes}polymer dopants{close_quotes} in polyaniline. Conductivity measurements show that polyacrylic acid dopes the polyaniline. Pervaporation of water and water/acetic acid mixtures were performed using polyaniline and its polyacrylic acid blend. An improved flux over the polyaniline base form is observed. Polyaniline/polyimide blends were synthesized for gas permeability studies. These blends combine improved thermal stability relative to polyaniline with greater gas selectivity relative to polyimide. The blend shows an increase in permeability for all gases studied over both, polyaniline base and polyimide, while maintaining comparable separation factors.

  20. The optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes: Separation, characterization, and measurement in suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Richard M.

    The one dimensional structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) gives rise to optical phenomena that differ from bulk materials. This dissertation studies the separation of SWNTs dissolved in aqueous media using surfactant molecules, and the measurement of their intrinsic optical properties including absorption and emission. The SWNTs were separated from the bundled form using mechanical processing techniques such as sonication and centrifugation. A processing study, which isolated the effects of sonication frequency, sonication power, and centrifugation speed, was performed to determine the factors that lead to the best separation. The results of this study suggest that the suspensions are a mixture of individual tubes and small bundles. Prior determinations of intrinsic nanotube properties based on the assumption of isolated nanotubes will have to be revisited. The transient absorption spectrum was measured for the S11 subband region using monochromatic pump excitation at wavelengths corresponding to S22 subband transitions, where the exciting pump fluence was sufficient to create many excitons on a single nanotube. The transient decay kinetics followed a linear dependence that was proportional to 1/ t on a log-log scale with a slope of -0.5, which is consistent with the diffusion limited recombination of excitons in one dimension. This result suggests that the decay of photoexcitations in nanotubes is initially governed by two-body kinetics, which becomes a one-body process only in the long time limit. Our work refutes the one-electron model for the excited state relaxation of nanotubes proposed by others. When the transient decay was studied as a function of the initial exciton population, the diffusion coefficient was found to be a different constant value at each initial population. Local thermalization of the surrounding medium may cause this difference, as thermal relaxation occurs on a time scale that is longer than that of exciton recombination in

  1. Numerical Study of Control of Flow Separation Over a Ramp with Nanosecond Plasma Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. G.; Khoo, B. C.; Cui, Y. D.; Zhao, Z. J.; Li, J.

    2016-06-01

    The nanosecond plasma discharge actuator driven by high voltage pulse with typical rise and decay time of several to tens of nanoseconds is emerging as a promising active flow control means in recent years and is being studied intensively. The characterization study reveals that the discharge induced shock wave propagates through ambient air and introduces highly transient perturbation to the flow. On the other hand, the residual heat remaining in the discharge volume may trigger the instability of external flow. In this study, this type of actuator is used to suppress flow separation over a ramp model. Numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the interaction of the discharge induced disturbance with the external flow. It is found that the flow separation region over the ramp can be reduced significantly. Our work may provide some insights into the understanding of the control mechanism of nanosecond pulse actuator.

  2. Model system studies with a phase separated membrane bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  3. Phase separated membrane bioreactor - Results from model system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial simulation.

  4. Phase separated membrane bioreactor - Results from model system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial simulation.

  5. Phase separated membrane bioreactor: Results from model system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  6. Phase separated membrane bioreactor: results from model system studies.

    PubMed

    Petersen, G R; Seshan, P K; Dunlop, E H

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial [correction of terrestial] simulation.

  7. Feasibility studies for separation processes using environmentally sensitive hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Sassi, A.P.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    Temperature- and pH-sensitive hydrogels can be used to separate or concentrate proteins from dilute solution. Two possible separation processes are discussed here. Experimental partitioning data are used to compare the efficiencies of neutral, weakly acidic, weakly basic, and polyampholytic poly-N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer gels for separating cytochrome c from ovalbumin. For each process, attention is given to the influence of the solute partition coefficient and swelling equilibria on process efficiency.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a porous and hydrophobic cellulose-based composite for efficient and fast oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangyun; Xu, Shimei; Tan, Yun; Du, Juan; Wang, Jide

    2016-04-20

    Oily wastewater is generated in diverse industrial processes, and its treatment has become crucial due to increasing environmental concerns. Herein, silanized cellulose was prepared by sol-gel reaction between microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS) using for oil-water separation. The silanized cellulose was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). A higher mass ratio of HDTMS to MCC made silanized cellulose become looser, and showed lower water absorbency. The silanized cellulose exhibited specific separation performance towards vegetable oil-water mixture (not for mineral oil-water mixture) with separation efficiency of 99.93%. Moreover, the separation was fast with a water flux of 4628.5Lm(-2)h(-1). The separation efficiency still remained at 99.77% even after recycling for 10 times.

  9. Characterizing uncertainties for quantifying bathymetry change between time-separated multibeam echo-sounder surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Thierry; Mitchell, Neil C.; Ramsay, A. Tony S.

    2008-05-01

    Changes of bathymetry derived from multibeam sonars are useful for quantifying the effects of many sedimentary, tectonic and volcanic processes, but depth changes also require an assessment of their uncertainty. Here, we outline and illustrate a simple technique that aims both to quantify uncertainties and to help reveal the spatial character of errors. An area of immobile seafloor is mapped in each survey, providing a common 'benchmark'. Each survey dataset over the benchmark is filtered with a simple moving-averaging window and depth differences between the two surveys are collated to derive a difference histogram. The procedure is repeated using different length-scales of filtering. By plotting the variability of the differences versus the length-scale of the filter, the different effects of spatially uncorrelated and correlated noise can be deduced. The former causes variability to decrease systematically as predicted by the Central Limit Theorem, whereas the remaining variability not predicted by the Central Limit Theorem then represents the effect of spatially correlated noise. Calculations made separately for different beams can reveal whether problems are due to heave, roll, etc., which affect inner and outer beams differently. We show how the results can be applied to create a map of uncertainties, which can be used to remove insignificant data from the bathymetric change map. We illustrate the technique by characterizing changes in nearshore bed morphology over one annual cycle using data from a subtidal bay, bedrock headland and a banner sand bank in the Bristol Channel UK.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Fractions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae I. Chemical and Chromatographic Separation

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, B.; Sobeslavsky, O.; Caldes, G.; Chanock, R. M.

    1966-01-01

    Prescott, B. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Md.), O. Sobeslavsky, G. Caldes, and R. M. Chanock. Isolation and characterization of fractions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. I. Chemical and chromatographic separation. J. Bacteriol. 91:2117–2125. 1966.—Fractionation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, cultured on a beef heart infusion-horse serum-yeast extract medium, was carried out by chemical and chromatographic procedures. The chemical method yielded eight fractions consisting of lipid, carbohydrates, and proteins. Four protein-rich fractions were isolated by chromatographing a supernatant fluid of sonically treated organisms on Sephadex G-25. The 12 fractions were tested for serological and antigenic activity in vitro and in vivo. The lipid fraction was serologically active and the relative order of activity of the protein fractions appeared to depend on the amount of lipid present in the molecule. The highly serologically active Sephadex G-25 protein fraction 1 prepared chromatographically contained 15% lipid in the molecule, whereas the less serologically active protein fraction 2 prepared by chemical means contained 2% lipid. The acetone-extracted lipid fraction was chromatographed on thin-layer chromatography plates and found to consist of nine fractions. Serological activity was associated with only the first three spots above the origin. Lipid extracted from the protein fractions seemed to be similar to the acetone-extracted lipid from the sediment of the sonically treated organisms. PMID:5943931

  11. Molecular dynamics study of phase separation in fluids with chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Raishma; Puri, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first d=3 molecular dynamics (MD) study of phase-separating fluid mixtures (AB) with simple chemical reactions (A⇌B). We focus on the case where the rates of forward and backward reactions are equal. The chemical reactions compete with segregation, and the coarsening system settles into a steady-state mesoscale morphology. However, hydrodynamic effects destroy the lamellar morphology which characterizes the diffusive case. This has important consequences for the phase-separating structure, which we study in detail. In particular, the equilibrium length scale (ℓ(eq)) in the steady state suggests a power-law dependence on the reaction rate ε:ℓ(eq)∼ε(-θ) with θ≃1.0.

  12. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  13. Characterization and complete separation of major cyclolinopeptides in flaxseed oil by reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lao, Ying W; Mackenzie, Kim; Vincent, William; Krokhin, Oleg V

    2014-07-01

    Organoleptic properties of flaxseed oil deteriorate during storage due to methionine oxidation in its major cyclolinopeptides. Cyclolinopeptide E was previously identified as being responsible for the manifestation of bitter taste with flaxseed oil ageing. We developed a chromatographic procedure to monitor the oxidation of major cyclic peptides in flaxseed oil. We also used liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and high-efficiency core-shell reversed-phase sorbents to study the separation of cyclolinopeptides in detail. The Kinetex(TM) family of stationary phases (C8, C18, phenyl-hexyl) was tested, along with the standard porous Luna(TM) C18(2) media. We found that only the phenyl-hexyl stationary phase allows for complete resolution of major cyclolinopeptides, thus permitting direct UV monitoring of degree of conversion for cyclolinopeptide B into C and L into E. We also report, for the first time, a significant effect of peak splitting for some methionine S-oxide (Mso) containing cyclolinopeptides, which most likely appear due to diastereomerization. This results in poor separation efficiency for cyclolinopeptides F, G, and E, and gives baseline resolution of diastereomeric pairs for cyclolinopeptides I and P. Thus, a single oxidation of cyclolinopeptide N yields three distinct chromatographic peaks corresponding to cyclolinopeptide T (cyclo-MsoLMPFFWV, reported for the first time) and pair of cyclolinopeptide I (cyclo-MLMsoPFFWV) diastereomers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Analytical and preparative separation of PEGylated lysozyme for the characterization of chromatography media.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Anna; Christel, Jessica; Boettinger, Heiner; Mueller, Egbert

    2010-01-08

    The effect of PEGylation on cation exchange chromatography was studied with poly(ethylene glycol) of different chain lengths (5kDa, 10kDa and 30kDa) using lysozyme as a model system. A stable binding via reduction of a Schiff base was formed during random PEGylation on lysine residues with methoxy-PEG-aldehyde. A purification method for PEGylated proteins using cation exchange chromatography was developed, and different isoforms of mono-PEGylated lysozyme were isolated. TSKgel SP-5PW and Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M showed the best performance of all tested cation exchange resins, and the separation of PEGylated lysozyme could be also scaled up to semi-preparative level. Size-exclusion chromatography, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used for analysis. Separated mono-PEGylated lysozyme of different sizes was used to determine dynamic binding capacities (DBC) and selectivity of cation exchange chromatography resins. An optimization of binding conditions resulted in a more than 20-fold increase of DBC for Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M with 30kDa mono-PEGylated lysozyme.

  15. Mixing quality characterization in separation process tanks. Part 2: Solids-suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear criticality safety in Separations canyon facilities is maintained primarily by control of the concentration of fissile materials in process equipment. Confidence in the attainment of this goal is clearly dependent upon how a measurement of solids concentration from the local sampling technique relates to concentrations elsewhere in the vessel, and on the quality of mixing prevailing under operating conditions. Clarification was therefore needed of the relationship between the local concentration of solids found at the present regular sampling point, and the prevailing maximum and average throughout the vessel. An experimental study was performed to document the quality of mixing for dilute solids suspension in an aqueous phase in baffled, paddle-agitated, cylindrical tanks used in Separations canyon facilities. Measurements were made for those variables that are capable of adjustments in the full scale: namely impeller speed, height of the total liquid, and number of impellers on the shaft. Appropriate total liquid levels and minimum impeller speed for just complete suspension of solids were established for the full scale operation. The effects of particle size distribution and mean concentration of solids are demonstrated, and conditions under which the regular single sampling point gives results comparable to the average of variously placed measurements around the vessel are identified. Solids distribution in the radial and axial directions were examined and some recurring trends have been identified. A simplified mass balance and coil impediment calculations indicate the need for new sampling techniques to explore the region around and between the impellers.

  16. Functional characterization of human thymocyte subpopulations separated by density gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, H M; Lee, J W; Cohen, A; Gelfand, E W

    1984-01-01

    A bovine serum albumin gradient was used to separate two populations of human thymocytes--a minority population (8%) of large thymocytes (LT) and a majority population (92%) of small thymocytes (ST). Fifty per cent of LT cells were in the S, G2 or M phases of the cell cycle compared to 5% of ST cells and 15% of unfractionated thymocytes. LT cells proliferated in response to T cell mitogens and included all of the T colony precursor cells (TCPC). In contrast, ST cells proliferated with mitogens only in the presence of added T cell growth factors and contained none of the thymocyte TCPC. ST cells neither helped nor suppressed the function of LT cells in any assay. This separation technique has provided a rapid method for isolating functionally distinct thymic lymphocyte subpopulations and permitted a further definition of the TCPC in the human thymus. Furthermore it should prove useful in studies of thymocytes at different stages of the cell cycle. PMID:6607793

  17. Human small-intestinal β-galactosidases. Separation and characterization of three forms of an acid β-galactosidase

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Nils-Georg

    1971-01-01

    1. An acid β-galactosidase, optimum pH4.0–4.5, in the human small-intestinal mucosa was separated and characterized. 2. Autolysis of mucosal homogenates at acid pH inactivated the lactase and hetero β-galactosidase; the total activity of the acid β-galactosidase was only slightly depleted, but a greater proportion of the enzyme was solubilized by this treatment. 3. Separation on a Sephadex G-200 column revealed that the acid β-galactosidase could occur in at least three different forms, probably representing monomer, dimer and octamer or polymer of the enzyme. 4. The properties of the different forms of the acid β-galactosidase were studied with regard to pH optimum, Km, rate of hydrolysis of different substrates, and sensitivity to p-chloromercuribenzoate and tris as inhibitors. All these properties were the same for the different forms of the enzyme. 5. The acid β-galactosidase hydrolyses lactose as well as hetero β-galactosides and contributes to the lactase activity of intestinal biopsies also when measured at pH 6. This enzyme may therefore be responsible for a considerable part of the residual lactase activity found in lactose-intolerant patients. PMID:5117032

  18. Synthesis and characterization of novel stationary phases for small scale liquid chromatographic separations of proteins and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutanu, Daniela

    The emerging field of nanotechnology strictly requires the micro-scaling of the available separation technology and the design of novel devices for separations of molecules of interest. The separation of proteins and nanoparticles is challenging due to their relatively large size, non-specific adherence to surfaces and instability in many solvents. This dissertation presents the synthesis and characterization of novel stationary phases for use in separations of proteins or nanoparticles in both capillary and microchip formats. In order to separate blood proteins with high specificity, a DNA aptamer selected for alpha-thrombin was employed as an affinity component of the stationary phases. Silica surfaces and organic monoliths were modified with the aptamer via an azlactone linkage and have demonstrated highly efficient separations of thrombin from a mixture in the microscale. The high efficiency of the protein separation (HETP = 276 mum, RS = 1.7) is comparable with macroscale results using antibodies as the affinity factor. Novel hybrid inorganic-organic polysilsesquioxane stationary phases were synthesized by way of surfactant templated polymerization of bridged alcoxy-silyl ethane monomers, in presence of sodium hydroxide. The novel materials were successful in size exclusion separation of polystyrene standards with molecular diameters of 0.3-2.4 nm. A hybrid inorganic-organic polysilsesquioxane sorbent also proved useful for small scale separations of triphenyl phosphine protected gold nanoparticles, based on a sorptive mechanism instead of a size exclusion mechanism. Polysilsesquioxanes were easily synthesized in-situ inside fused silica capillary columns and PMMA microchip channels in order to facilitate integration with a micro-reactor. The novel stationary phases proved efficient for separation of proteins and nanoparticles in the micro-scale format and can further be utilized for online purification and separation of these difficult compounds.

  19. Groundwater flux characterization using distributed temperature sensing: Separating advection from thermal conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Knobbe, S.; Butler, J. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Direct measurement of groundwater flux is difficult to obtain in the field so hydrogeologists often use easily-detectable environmental tracers, such as heat or chemicals, as an indirect way to characterize flux. Previously, we developed a groundwater flux characterization (GFC) probe by using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) to monitor the temperature responses to active heating in a well. The temperature responses were consistent with the hydraulic conductivity profiles determined at the same location, and provided high-resolution information (approx. 1.5 cm) about vertical variations in horizontal flux through the screen. One of the key assumptions in the previous GFC approach was that the vertical variations in the thermal conductivity of the aquifer materials near the well are negligible, so that the temperature differences with depth are primarily a result of groundwater flux instead of thermal conduction. Although this assumption is likely valid for wells constructed with an artificial filter pack, it might become questionable for wells with natural filter packs (such as the wells constructed by direct push where the sediments are allowed to directly collapse onto the well screen). In this work, we develop a new procedure for separating advection from thermal conduction during GFC measurement. In addition to the normal open-screen GFC profiling, an impermeable sleeve was used so that heating tests could be performed without advective flow entering the well. The heating tests under sleeved conditions were primarily controlled by the thermal conduction around the well, and therefore could be used to remove the impact of thermal conduction from the normal GFC results obtained under open-screen conditions. This new procedure was tested in a laboratory sandbox, where a series of open-screen and sleeved GFC tests were performed under different flow rates. Results indicated that for the tested range of rates (Darcy velocity 0 - 0.78 m/d), the relation between

  20. Surgery and parental separation as potential risk factors for abnormal eating attitudes-longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Eytan; Stein, Daniel; Canetti, Laura; Gur, Eitan

    2008-11-01

    Due to the susceptibility of eating disorders (ED) to stressful life events, we wanted to examine longitudinally whether two childhood adversities: (1) surgery and (2) parental separation, will affect abnormal eating attitudes in adolescents. Consecutively for 4 years, the eating attitude test (EAT-26) and the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2) questionnaires were administered to students from grades 7th through 10th and 8th through 11th. Multilevel analysis revealed that parental separation and oral or cosmetic dermatologic surgeries were significantly correlated with EAT-26 and EDI-2 scores throughout the 4 years of the study. Post-hoc interpretation suggests a connection between (A) chirurgic intervention in the oral cavity and problematic eating attitudes, and (B) cosmetic dermatologic surgery and greater awareness to body appearance-a feature which might characterize adolescents who are prone to develop ED.

  1. SIPCAn (Separation, Isolation, Purification, Characterization, and Analysis): A One-Term, Integrated Project for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dintzner, Matthew R.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Pulkrabek, Kimberly A.; Arena, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    SIPCAn, an acronym for separation, isolation, purification, characterization, and analysis, is presented as a one-term, integrated project for the first-term undergraduate organic laboratory course. Students are assigned two mixtures of unknown organic compounds--a mixture of two liquid compounds and a mixture of two solid compounds--at the…

  2. SIPCAn (Separation, Isolation, Purification, Characterization, and Analysis): A One-Term, Integrated Project for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dintzner, Matthew R.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Pulkrabek, Kimberly A.; Arena, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    SIPCAn, an acronym for separation, isolation, purification, characterization, and analysis, is presented as a one-term, integrated project for the first-term undergraduate organic laboratory course. Students are assigned two mixtures of unknown organic compounds--a mixture of two liquid compounds and a mixture of two solid compounds--at the…

  3. Thermomorphic phase separation in ionic liquid-organic liquid systems--conductivity and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Berg, Rolf W; van Hal, Roy; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2005-08-21

    Electrical conductivity, FT-Raman and NMR measurements are demonstrated as useful tools to probe and determine phase behavior of thermomorphic ionic liquid-organic liquid systems. To illustrate the methods, consecutive conductivity measurements of a thermomorphic methoxyethoxyethyl-imidazolium ionic liquid/1-hexanol system are performed in the temperature interval 25-80 degrees C using a specially constructed double-electrode cell. In addition, FT-Raman and 1H-NMR spectroscopic studies performed on the phase-separable system in the same temperature interval confirm the mutual solubility of the components in the system, the liquid-liquid equilibrium phase diagram of the binary mixture, and signify the importance of hydrogen bonding between the ionic liquid and the hydroxyl group of the alcohol.

  4. A study of the separation of particles from gases

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.L. II; Masudi, H.

    1995-03-01

    Cyclones are the simplest and most reliable means of particles and gas separation. They also function as a method of air pollution control and as a cost efficient way of doing so. These basic machines have been in use for many years, and based on advances in technology, cyclones have now been designed for specific applications and conditions. These applications are restricted by inherent properties of the construction of the cyclone, and the materials being separated within the cyclone.

  5. Quantitative Characterizations of Ultrashort Echo (UTE) Images for Supporting Air-Bone Separation in the Head

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Cao, Yue; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina; Feng, Mary; Grodzki, David M.; Balter, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate separation of air and bone is critical for creating synthetic CT from MRI to support Radiation Oncology workflow. This study compares two different ultrashort echo-time sequences in the separation of air from bone, and evaluates post-processing methods that correct intensity nonuniformity of images and account for intensity gradients at tissue boundaries to improve this discriminatory power. CT and MRI scans were acquired on 12 patients under an institution review board-approved prospective protocol. The two MRI sequences tested were ultra-short TE imaging using 3D radial acquisition (UTE), and using pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA). Gradient nonlinearity correction was applied to both MR image volumes after acquisition. MRI intensity nonuniformity was corrected by vendor-provided normalization methods, and then further corrected using the N4itk algorithm. To overcome the intensity-gradient at air-tissue boundaries, spatial dilations, from 0 to 4 mm, were applied to threshold-defined air regions from MR images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, by comparing predicted (defined by MR images) versus “true” regions of air and bone (defined by CT images), were performed with and without residual bias field correction and local spatial expansion. The post-processing corrections increased the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) from 0.944 ± 0.012 to 0.976 ± 0.003 for UTE images, and from 0.850 ± 0.022 to 0.887 ± 0.012 for PETRA images, compared to without corrections. When expanding the threshold-defined air volumes, as expected, sensitivity of air identification decreased with an increase in specificity of bone discrimination, but in a non-linear fashion. A 1-mm air mask expansion yielded AUC increases of 1% and 4% for UTE and PETRA images, respectively. UTE images had significantly greater discriminatory power in separating air from bone than PETRA images. Post-processing strategies improved the

  6. Quantitative characterizations of ultrashort echo (UTE) images for supporting air-bone separation in the head.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Cao, Yue; Lawrence, Theodore S; Tsien, Christina; Feng, Mary; Grodzki, David M; Balter, James M

    2015-04-07

    Accurate separation of air and bone is critical for creating synthetic CT from MRI to support Radiation Oncology workflow. This study compares two different ultrashort echo-time sequences in the separation of air from bone, and evaluates post-processing methods that correct intensity nonuniformity of images and account for intensity gradients at tissue boundaries to improve this discriminatory power. CT and MRI scans were acquired on 12 patients under an institution review board-approved prospective protocol. The two MRI sequences tested were ultra-short TE imaging using 3D radial acquisition (UTE), and using pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA). Gradient nonlinearity correction was applied to both MR image volumes after acquisition. MRI intensity nonuniformity was corrected by vendor-provided normalization methods, and then further corrected using the N4itk algorithm. To overcome the intensity-gradient at air-tissue boundaries, spatial dilations, from 0 to 4 mm, were applied to threshold-defined air regions from MR images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, by comparing predicted (defined by MR images) versus 'true' regions of air and bone (defined by CT images), were performed with and without residual bias field correction and local spatial expansion. The post-processing corrections increased the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) from 0.944 ± 0.012 to 0.976 ± 0.003 for UTE images, and from 0.850 ± 0.022 to 0.887 ± 0.012 for PETRA images, compared to without corrections. When expanding the threshold-defined air volumes, as expected, sensitivity of air identification decreased with an increase in specificity of bone discrimination, but in a non-linear fashion. A 1 mm air mask expansion yielded AUC increases of 1 and 4% for UTE and PETRA images, respectively. UTE images had significantly greater discriminatory power in separating air from bone than PETRA images. Post-processing strategies improved the

  7. Quantitative characterizations of ultrashort echo (UTE) images for supporting air-bone separation in the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Cao, Yue; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina; Feng, Mary; Grodzki, David M.; Balter, James M.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate separation of air and bone is critical for creating synthetic CT from MRI to support Radiation Oncology workflow. This study compares two different ultrashort echo-time sequences in the separation of air from bone, and evaluates post-processing methods that correct intensity nonuniformity of images and account for intensity gradients at tissue boundaries to improve this discriminatory power. CT and MRI scans were acquired on 12 patients under an institution review board-approved prospective protocol. The two MRI sequences tested were ultra-short TE imaging using 3D radial acquisition (UTE), and using pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition (PETRA). Gradient nonlinearity correction was applied to both MR image volumes after acquisition. MRI intensity nonuniformity was corrected by vendor-provided normalization methods, and then further corrected using the N4itk algorithm. To overcome the intensity-gradient at air-tissue boundaries, spatial dilations, from 0 to 4 mm, were applied to threshold-defined air regions from MR images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, by comparing predicted (defined by MR images) versus ‘true’ regions of air and bone (defined by CT images), were performed with and without residual bias field correction and local spatial expansion. The post-processing corrections increased the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) from 0.944 ± 0.012 to 0.976 ± 0.003 for UTE images, and from 0.850 ± 0.022 to 0.887 ± 0.012 for PETRA images, compared to without corrections. When expanding the threshold-defined air volumes, as expected, sensitivity of air identification decreased with an increase in specificity of bone discrimination, but in a non-linear fashion. A 1 mm air mask expansion yielded AUC increases of 1 and 4% for UTE and PETRA images, respectively. UTE images had significantly greater discriminatory power in separating air from bone than PETRA images. Post-processing strategies improved the

  8. Separation and characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hordeins by free zone capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lookhart, G L; Bean, S R; Jones, B L

    1999-06-01

    Extraction conditions, separation conditions, and capillary rinsing protocols were optimized for the separation of barley hordeins by free zone capillary electrophoresis. Stable hordein extracts were obtained with a single 5 min extraction after the albumins and globulins were removed. Hordeins had to be reduced for optimal resolution. Optimum separation conditions for hordein separations were 100 mM phosphate-glycine buffer containing 20% acetonitrile and 0.05% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. The addition of zwitterionic sulfobetaine detergents containing hydrocarbon tails of eight and ten carbons slightly improved the resolution of the separations, but not enough to warrant their use on a routine basis. The migration positions of the hordein subclasses were determined by two- dimensional reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography x free zone capillary electrophoresis mapping. The hordein subclasses formed clusters similar to those of wheat gliadins. Separation-to-separation repeatability was good, with migration time relative standard deviations < 1% for a 15-run period. For routine discrimination of cultivars, a 2 min post-separation rinse with 500 mM acetic acid was necessary to prevent protein build-up on the capillary walls. An example of successfully differentiating barley cultivars using this technique is shown.

  9. Source separation of household waste: A case study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Ying; Wu Songwei; Wang Yunlong; Wu Weixiang Chen Yingxu

    2008-07-01

    A pilot program concerning source separation of household waste was launched in Hangzhou, capital city of Zhejiang province, China. Detailed investigations on the composition and properties of household waste in the experimental communities revealed that high water content and high percentage of food waste are the main limiting factors in the recovery of recyclables, especially paper from household waste, and the main contributors to the high cost and low efficiency of waste disposal. On the basis of the investigation, a novel source separation method, according to which household waste was classified as food waste, dry waste and harmful waste, was proposed and performed in four selected communities. In addition, a corresponding household waste management system that involves all stakeholders, a recovery system and a mechanical dehydration system for food waste were constituted to promote source separation activity. Performances and the questionnaire survey results showed that the active support and investment of a real estate company and a community residential committee play important roles in enhancing public participation and awareness of the importance of waste source separation. In comparison with the conventional mixed collection and transportation system of household waste, the established source separation and management system is cost-effective. It could be extended to the entire city and used by other cities in China as a source of reference.

  10. Compact high resolution isobar separator for study of exotic decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchepunov, V.; Piechaczek, A.; Carter, H. K.; Batchelder, J. C.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2009-05-01

    A compact isobar separator, based on the Multi-Pass-Time-of-Flight (MTOF) principle, is developed. A mass resolving power (MRP) of 110,000 (FWHM) is achieved as spectrometer with a transmission of 50 - 80%. The transverse beam acceptance and the energy acceptance are 42 π mm mrad and about ± 2.5%. Operated as a separator, molecules of N2 and CO with δM/M = 1/2500 or 10.433 MeV were separated with a Bradbury Nielsen gate. In that mode of operation, the MRP (FWHM) is about 40,000 after 120 laps. To inject radioactive ion beams into the separator, and to further improve its MRP, cooler and buncher RF quadrupoles were designed^1 and tested. A bunch width of 30 ns at 1% of the peak height (FWHM = 9 ns) and a transmission in DC mode of 75 -- 80 % were achieved. With such bunch parameters, MRPs of ˜ 400,000 (FWHM) are expected for the MTOF separator. At HRIBF, it will provide pure samples of exotic nuclides around ^100Sn, of neutron deficient rare-earth nuclei and of neutron-rich nuclei. Incidental measurements of mass differences will determine Qβ values with accuracies of ˜ 1%. ^1 V. Shchepunov and V. Kozlovskiy et al., to be published

  11. Experimental Study of Unsteady Separation in a Laminar Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Andrew; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Santos, Leo

    2016-11-01

    Separation, caused by an adverse pressure gradient, can be a major problem to aircraft. Reversing flow occurs in separated regions and an investigation of how this backflow forms is of interest due to the fact that this could be used as a means of initiating flow control. Specifically, backflow can bristle shark scales which may be linked to a passive, flow actuated separation control mechanism. An experiment was conducted in a water tunnel to replicate separation, with a focus on the reversing flow development near the wall within a laminar boundary layer. Using a rotating cylinder, an adverse pressure gradient was induced creating a separated region over a flat plate. In this experiment the boundary layer grows to sizes great enough that the scale of the flow is increased, making it more measurable to DPIV. In the future, this research can be utilized to better understand flow control mechanisms such as those enabled by shark skin. Funding from Army Research Office and NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  12. Improving class separability using extended pixel planes: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Orlov, Nikita V.; Eckley, D. Mark; Shamir, Lior; Goldberg, Ilya G.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we explored class separability in feature spaces built on extended representations of pixel planes (EPP) produced using scale pyramid, subband pyramid, and image transforms. The image transforms included Chebyshev, Fourier, wavelets, gradient and Laplacian; we also utilized transform combinations, including Fourier, Chebyshev and wavelets of the gradient transform, as well as Fourier of the Laplacian transform. We demonstrate that all three types of EPP promote class separation. We also explored the effect of EPP on suboptimal feature libraries, using only textural features in one case and only Haralick features in another. The effect of EPP was especially clear for these suboptimal libraries, where the transform-based representations were found to increase separability to a greater extent than scale or subband pyramids. EPP can be particularly useful in new applications where optimal features have not yet been developed. PMID:23074356

  13. Improving class separability using extended pixel planes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Nikita V; Eckley, D Mark; Shamir, Lior; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2012-09-01

    In this work we explored class separability in feature spaces built on extended representations of pixel planes (EPP) produced using scale pyramid, subband pyramid, and image transforms. The image transforms included Chebyshev, Fourier, wavelets, gradient and Laplacian; we also utilized transform combinations, including Fourier, Chebyshev and wavelets of the gradient transform, as well as Fourier of the Laplacian transform. We demonstrate that all three types of EPP promote class separation. We also explored the effect of EPP on suboptimal feature libraries, using only textural features in one case and only Haralick features in another. The effect of EPP was especially clear for these suboptimal libraries, where the transform-based representations were found to increase separability to a greater extent than scale or subband pyramids. EPP can be particularly useful in new applications where optimal features have not yet been developed.

  14. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  15. New peak broadening parameter for the characterization of separation capability in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sursyakova, Viktoria V; Rubaylo, Anatoly I

    2015-02-01

    The influence of separation conditions on peak broadening is usually estimated by the number of theoretical plates. Using the data available in literature and experimental data, it is shown that in pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis the plate number is not directly related to the separation capability of conditions used. The experiments at different electrolyte flow velocities demonstrate that a higher plate number (the best separation efficiency) can be obtained with a lower peak resolution. Since ions are separated by electrophoresis due to the difference in electrophoretic mobilities, the peak width in terms of electrophoretic mobility is suggested as a new peak broadening parameter describing the separation capability of the conditions used. The parameter can be calculated using the tailing factor and the temporal peak width at 5% of the peak height. A simple equation for the resolution calculation is derived using the parameter. The advantage of the peak width in terms of mobility over other parameters is shown. The new parameter is recommended to be used not only in pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis but also in general capillary electrophoresis when in a number of runs the virtual separative migration distance and separation capability of the conditions used change widely.

  16. Separation-Individuation and Adjustment to College: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.

    1992-01-01

    College students completed measures of separation-individuation and college adjustment as first-year students (n=130) and again as juniors (n=81). Revealed significant increases in individuation from parents over time along most, but not all, dimensions of individuation. Gender-specific patterns were found. In general, independence from parents in…

  17. Traumatic separation of epiphyses. An experimental study in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, L S; Volpon, J B; Goncalves, R P

    1988-11-01

    Four types of physeal fracture-separations, defined by the Salter-Harris classification, were created experimentally in the proximal physis of the right tibia of immature rats. The four types are: Type I, pure epiphyseal separation; Type II, separation of the epiphysis with a metaphyseal fracture; Type III, partial epiphyseal separation with a vertical fracture of the epiphysis; and Type IV, vertical epiphyseal and metaphyseal fractures. A sham operation performed on the left tibia served as the control. The animals were killed at various intervals up to 25 days after the operation. The findings were assessed by roentgenographic, histologic, and vessel injection methods. For Types I and II morphometric analyses were also performed. The influence of various types of lesions on the growth rate and the healing process was documented. For Types I and II lesions there was a transitory growth arrest and an increased thickening of the zone of hypertrophic cells. The alterations regressed after Day 15, and by day 25, a nearly normal plate was seen. For Type III lesions an angular deformity of the tibia occurred that increased with time. For Type IV lesions, a step-off developed on the articular surface that became more severe with time. Early vascular anastomoses between the epiphysis and the metaphysis led to the formation of bone bridges in Type III and Type IV lesions.

  18. Using a Microscale Approach to Rapidly Separate and Characterize Three Photosynthetic Pigment Species from Fern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayudhya, Theppawut Israsena Na; Posey, Frederick T.; Tyus, Jessica C.; Dingra, Nin N.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid separation of three photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll "a" and "b" and xanthophyll) from fern ("Polystichum acrostichoides") is described using microscale solvent extraction and traditional thin layer chromatography that minimizes use of harmful chemicals and lengthy procedures. The experiment introduces…

  19. Using a Microscale Approach to Rapidly Separate and Characterize Three Photosynthetic Pigment Species from Fern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayudhya, Theppawut Israsena Na; Posey, Frederick T.; Tyus, Jessica C.; Dingra, Nin N.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid separation of three photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll "a" and "b" and xanthophyll) from fern ("Polystichum acrostichoides") is described using microscale solvent extraction and traditional thin layer chromatography that minimizes use of harmful chemicals and lengthy procedures. The experiment introduces…

  20. A parametric study for high-efficiency gas-liquid separator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagdewe, S.; Kwoon, J. K.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, D. S.; Kwak, K. M.; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

    2008-09-01

    A gas liquid centrifugal separator is widely used in industry on account of its simple geometry and little maintenance. These separators have considerable advantages over filters, scrubbers or precipitators in term of compact design, lower pressure drop and higher capacity. A gas liquid centrifugal separator is a device that utilizes centrifugal forces and low pressure caused by rotational motion to separate liquid from gas by density differences. Efficient and reliable separation is required for the optimum operation. These separators are often operated at less than peak efficiency due to the entrainment of separated liquid through an outlet pipe which is closely associated with the very complicated flow phenomena involved. Design parameters such as length of the separation space, vane exit angle, inlet to outlet diameter ratio, models for separation efficiency and pressure drop as a function of physical dimensions are not available in literature. This leaves the designer with very little to go on except known designs and experimentation. The aim of present study is to perform a parametric study to get higher efficiency for gas-liquid separator. A parametric study has been carried out with the help of CFD tools to analyze a separation performance of a centrifugal separator by varying the length of separator space. The best design parameters are analyzed based upon obtained results, tangential velocities, vortices, total pressure losses. From the present study several attempts are made to improve the performance of conventional centrifugal separators.

  1. Separation and Partial Characterization of Two Ribonucleic Acid Polymerases from Pea Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Glicklich, Daniel; Jendrisak, Jerome J.; Becker, Wayne M.

    1974-01-01

    Two DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (ribonucleoside triphosphate:RNA nucleotidyl transferase, EC 2.7.7.6) have been isolated from pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings. The enzymes were solubilized by sonication in high salt buffer and were separated by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose using a linear salt gradient. Polymerase I eluted at 0.10 m (NH4)2SO4, accounted for about 10% of the recovered activity and was completely insensitive to α-amanitin. Polymerase II eluted at 0.14 m (NH4)2SO4, accounted for the remaining 90% of recovered activity and was strongly inhibited by α-amanitin. Both enzymes preferred denatured to native DNA as template, both showed an absolute requirement of divalent cation, and both were sensitive to the ionic strength of the assay medium. The developing pea seedling seems a promising system for studies of possible changes in relative activities and roles of multiple RNA polymerases during eukaryotic development. PMID:16658887

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of magnetically separable hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Samarpita; Srivastava, Suneel K; Singh, Shiv B

    2012-10-21

    The hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure photocatalyst has successfully been prepared by the reduction of nickel chloride hexahydrate using hydrazine hydrate through the solvothermal process at 140 °C followed by surface modification of the product by the reflux method at 110 °C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the 'as prepared' sample consists of face centered cubic Ni and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO without any traces of impurity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the formation of nickel nanoparticles under solvothermal conditions. These nickel nanoparticles, when subjected to reflux, formed the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel nanostructure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies also confirmed the presence of zinc oxide in the hybrid nanostructure. The growth mechanism for the development of the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure has also been proposed. The appearance of the hysteresis loop, in the as-prepared Ni/ZnO hybrid nanostructure, demonstrated its ferromagnetic character at room temperature. The hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure also acts as an efficient photocatalyst in the degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet light irradiation. It is observed that the catalytic efficiency of the hybrid nanocatalyst is better compared to pure zinc oxide. Most importantly, the Ni/ZnO catalyst could also be easily separated, simply by applying an external magnetic field, and reused.

  3. Study of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) Using Largely Separated Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-31

    waves, flares and CMEs. From spacecraft largely separated, we observe SEPs and related solar activities with multiple points of view. The major results...missions. SEPs are accelerated by flare reconnections and CME-driven shocks. The characteristics of SEPs depend on their solar sources (Reames 1999... solar EUV waves, which is considered as the lateral expansions of CME-driven shocks. We also all sources of sympathetic flaring that may produce the

  4. Dirac equation in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes: Intrinsic characterization of separability in all dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariglia, Marco; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David

    2011-07-01

    We intrinsically characterize separability of the Dirac equation in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes in all dimensions. Namely, we explicitly demonstrate that, in such spacetimes, there exists a complete set of first-order mutually commuting operators, one of which is the Dirac operator, that allows for common eigenfunctions which can be found in a separated form and correspond precisely to the general solution of the Dirac equation found by Oota and Yasui [Phys. Lett. BPYLBAJ0370-2693 659, 688 (2008)10.1016/j.physletb.2007.11.057]. Since all the operators in the set can be generated from the principal conformal Killing-Yano tensor, this establishes the (up-to-now) missing link among the existence of hidden symmetry, presence of a complete set of commuting operators, and separability of the Dirac equation in these spacetimes.

  5. Practical utilization of spICP-MS to study sucrose density gradient centrifugation for the separation of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Monique E; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Winchester, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is shown to be a practical technique to study the efficacy of rate-zonal sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC) separations of mixtures of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in liquid suspension. spICP-MS enabled measurements of AuNP size distributions and particle number concentrations along the gradient, allowing unambiguous evaluations of the effectiveness of the separation. Importantly, these studies were conducted using AuNP concentrations that are directly relevant to environmental studies (sub ng mL(-1)). At such low concentrations, other techniques [e.g., dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM)] do not have adequate sensitivity, highlighting the inherent value of spICP-MS for this and similar applications. In terms of the SDGC separations, a mixture containing three populations of AuNPs, having mean diameters of 30, 80, and 150 nm, was fully separated, while separations of two other mixtures (30, 60, 100 nm; and 20, 50, 100 nm) were less successful. Finally, it is shown that the separation capacity of SDGC can be overwhelmed when particle number concentrations are excessive, an especially relevant finding in view of common methodologies taken in nanotechnology research. Graphical Abstract Characterization of the separation of a gold nanoparticle mixture by sucrose density gradient centrifugation by conventional and single particle ICP-MS analysis.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of new biopolymeric microcapsules containing DEHPA-TOPO extractants for separation of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Outokesh, Mohammad; Tayyebi, Ahmad; Khanchi, Alireza; Grayeli, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Ghodrat

    2011-01-01

    A novel microcapsule adsorbent for separation of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions was developed by immobilizing the di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid-trioctyl phosphine oxide extractants in the polymeric matrix of calcium alginate. Physical characterization of the microcapsules was accomplished by scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric techniques. Equilibrium experiments revealed that both ion exchange and solvent extraction mechanisms were involved in the adsorption of [Formula: see text] ions, but the latter prevailed in a wider range of acid concentration. According to the results of kinetics study, at low acidity level, the rate controlling step was slow chemical reaction of [Formula: see text] ions with the microdroplets of extractant, whereas it changed to intraparticle diffusion at higher acid concentration. The study also attempted identification of the diffusion paths of the ions within the microcapsules, and the mechanism of change of mass transfer rate during the uptake process. The prepared microcapsules preserved their entire capacity after three cycles of adsorption, and their breakthrough behaviour was well fitted by a new formula derived from shrinking core model.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of magnetically separable hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, Samarpita; Srivastava, Suneel K.; Singh, Shiv B.

    2012-09-01

    The hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure photocatalyst has successfully been prepared by the reduction of nickel chloride hexahydrate using hydrazine hydrate through the solvothermal process at 140 °C followed by surface modification of the product by the reflux method at 110 °C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the `as prepared' sample consists of face centered cubic Ni and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO without any traces of impurity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the formation of nickel nanoparticles under solvothermal conditions. These nickel nanoparticles, when subjected to reflux, formed the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel nanostructure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies also confirmed the presence of zinc oxide in the hybrid nanostructure. The growth mechanism for the development of the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure has also been proposed. The appearance of the hysteresis loop, in the as-prepared Ni/ZnO hybrid nanostructure, demonstrated its ferromagnetic character at room temperature. The hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure also acts as an efficient photocatalyst in the degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet light irradiation. It is observed that the catalytic efficiency of the hybrid nanocatalyst is better compared to pure zinc oxide. Most importantly, the Ni/ZnO catalyst could also be easily separated, simply by applying an external magnetic field, and reused.The hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure photocatalyst has successfully been prepared by the reduction of nickel chloride hexahydrate using hydrazine hydrate through the solvothermal process at 140 °C followed by surface modification of the product by the reflux method at 110 °C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the `as prepared' sample consists of face

  8. Test Procedures for Characterizing, Evaluating, and Managing Separator Materials used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guasp, Edwin; Manzo, Michelle A.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary alkaline batteries, such as nickel-cadmium and silver-zinc, are commonly used for aerospace applications. The uniform evaluation and comparison of separator properties for these systems is dependent upon the measurement techniques. This manual presents a series of standard test procedures that can be used to evaluate, compare, and select separator materials for use in alkaline batteries. Detailed test procedures evaluating the following characteristics are included in this manual: physical measurements of thickness and area weight, dimensional stability measurements, electrolyte retention, resistivity, permeability as measured via bubble pressure, surface evaluation via SEM, chemical stability, and tensile strength.

  9. Liquid effluent study characterization data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    During the development of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), public comments were received regarding reduction of the discharge of liquid effluents into the soil column. As a result, the US Department of Energy (DOE), with concurrence of the Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE)and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), committed to a special project designed to document the discharge history and the charter of Hanford Site liquid discharges. The results of this project will be used in determining the need for additional waste stream analysis, and/or to negotiate additional milestones pertaining to such discharges in the Tri-Party Agreement. Wastestream sampling data collected prior to October 1989 were reported in the Waste Stream Characterization Report. Preliminary Stream-specific Reports were prepared which evaluated that data and proposed dangerous waste designations for each stream. This document contains the wastestream sampling and analysis data collected as part of the liquid effluent study. Data contained in this report were obtained from samples collected from October 1989 through March 1990. Information is presented on the wastestreams that have been sampled, the parameters analyzed, and the dates and times at which the samples were collected. This information will be evaluated in the final Stream-Specific Reports. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  11. An experimental study of separated flow on a finite wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelmann, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    The flow field associated with the formation of a mushroom shaped trailing edge stall cell on a low-aspect-ratio (AR = 4.0) wing was investigated in a series of low speed wind tunnel tests (Reynolds number based on 15.2 cm chord = 480,000). Flow field surveys of the separation bubble and wake of a partially stalled and fully stalled wing were completed using a hot-wire probe, a split-film probe, and a directional sensitive pressure probe. A new color video display technique was developed to display the flow field survey data. Photographs were obtained of surface oil flow patterns and smoke flow visualization

  12. Characterization and reduction of flow separation in jet pumps for laminar oscillatory flows.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Michael A G; Oosterhuis, Joris P; Bühler, Simon; Wilcox, Douglas; van der Meer, Theo H

    2016-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the oscillatory flow through tapered cylindrical tube sections (jet pumps). The asymmetric shape of jet pumps results in a time-averaged pressure drop that can be used to suppress Gedeon streaming in closed-loop thermoacoustic devices. However, previous work has shown that flow separation in the diverging flow direction counteracts the time-averaged pressure drop. In this work, the characteristics of flow separation in jet pumps are identified and coupled with the observed jet pump performance. Furthermore, it is shown that the onset of flow separation can be shifted to larger displacement amplitudes by designs that have a smoother transition between the small opening and the tapered surface of the jet pump. These design alterations also reduce the duration of separated flow, resulting in more effective and robust jet pumps. To make the proposed jet pump designs more compact without reducing their performance, the minimum big opening radius that can be implemented before the local minor losses have an influence on the jet pump performance is investigated. To validate the numerical results, they are compared with experimental results for one of the proposed jet pump designs.

  13. Preparation and characterization of monoliths covalently bonded chelating groups for capillary electrochromatographic separation of metal ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Ren; Huang, Kuan-Pin; Huang, Bao-Yu; Liu, Chuen-Ying

    2009-08-21

    In this work, a novel polymer-based monolithic column was prepared using an o-phthalaldehyde-l-phenylalanine Schiff base complex as the reactive center and a mixture of methanol and n-propanol as the porogen. The monolithic column was employed for the separation of a metal ion mixture including Pb(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cr(III), Fe(III) and Cr(VI). Tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) was used as a mobile phase additive to enhance the separation efficiency of metal ions by EDTA precomplexation. Using a phosphate buffer (20 mM, pH 3.0), TBAB (10 mM), MeOH (15%, v/v), an applied voltage of -15 kV, and detection at 220 nm, the metal ion mixture was satisfactorily resolved. The average theoretical plate number was 17,900 plates/m. The separation was also carried out in the absence of TBAB, leading to dissimilar elution order and shorter retention time. The separation behavior of the monolithic column was also compared with that of the blank polymer. The unique properties of the monolithic column might be mediated by a combination of electrophoretic behavior and chromatographic retention involving hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions, as well as ligand exchange.

  14. Spectro-microscopic Characterization of Physical Properties and Phase Separations in Individual Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OBrien, R. E.; Wang, B.; Neu, A.; Kelly, S. T.; Lundt, N.; Epstein, S. A.; MacMillan, A.; You, Y.; Laskin, A.; Nizkorodov, S.; Bertram, A. K.; Moffet, R.; Gilles, M.

    2013-12-01

    The phase state and liquid-liquid phase separations of ambient and laboratory generated aerosol particles were investigated using (1) scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) coupled to a relative humidity (RH) controlled in-situ chamber and (2) environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The phase states of the particles were determined from measurements of their size and optical density. A comparison is made between the observed phase states of ambient samples and of laboratory generated aerosols to determine how well laboratory samples represent the phase of ambient samples. In addition, liquid-liquid phase separations in laboratory generated particles were investigated. Preliminary results showing that liquid-liquid phase separations occur at RH's between the deliquescence and efflorescence points and that the organic phase surrounds the inorganic phase will be presented. The STXM/NEXAFS technique provides insight into the degree of mixing at the deliquescence point and the degree of phase separation for particles of atmospherically relevant sizes.

  15. Characterization and Control of Separated Entrance Flow in a Branched Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C. J.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of the flow downstream of the inlet of a rectangular channel that is branched along the entire span of the side wall of a primary channel of the same height is investigated experimentally in an air facility. Of particular interest is the formation and scaling of a separated flow domain downstream of the entrance plane into the secondary channel and its interaction with the flow surfaces at speeds up to M = 0 . 4 . The separation is actively controlled using a spanwise array of fluidic actuators on the primary channel's surface upstream of the inlet plane of the secondary duct. The effects of the actuation on the evolution of the separation and attachment of the vorticity layer between upstream surface of the primary duct and the surface of the secondary duct downstream of the branched inlet in the presence of a strong confined adverse pressure gradient are investigated using particle image velocimetry coupled with detailed static surface pressure distributions. The effects of the controlled separation within the secondary channel on the global flow within the primary duct and on flow split between primary and secondary channels are assessed, and it is demonstrated that actuation can effect significant changes in the flow fractions between the channels. Copyright 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of fish gelatin-gum arabic complex coacervates as influenced by phase separation temperature.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Mohammad; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Yoon, Won-Byong; Chung, Donghwa

    2015-08-01

    The rheological and structural characteristics of fish gelatin (FG)-gum arabic (GA) complex coacervate phase, separated from an aqueous mixture of 1% FG and 1% GA at pH 3.5, were investigated as influenced by phase separation temperature. Decreasing the phase separation temperature from 40 to 10 °C lead to: (1) the formation of a coacervate phase with a larger volume fraction and higher biopolymer concentrations, which is more viscous, more structural resistant at low shear rates, more shear-thinning at high shear rates, and more condensed in microstructure, (2) a solid-like elastic behavior of the phase separated at 10 °C at a high oscillatory frequency, (3) the increase in gelling and melting temperatures of the coacervate phase (3.7-3.9 °C and 6.2-6.9 °C, respectively), (4) the formation of a more rigid and thermo-stable coacervate gel. The coacervate phase is regarded as a homogeneously networked biopolymer matrix dispersed with water vacuoles and its gel as a weak physical gel reinforced by FG-GA attractive electrostatic interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fenton-like degradation of Methylene Blue using paper mill sludge-derived magnetically separable heterogeneous catalyst: Characterization and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoqiang; Chen, Ziwen; Fang, Fei; He, Yuefeng; Sun, Haili; Shi, Huixiang

    2015-09-01

    For the paper industry, the disposal and management of the yielded sludge are a considerable challenge. In our work, the paper mill sludge-derived magnetically separable heterogeneous catalyst (PMS-Fe-380) was prepared easily through a facile synthesis method. The morphology and structure of PMS-Fe-380 were fully characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis. The catalytic activity of PMS-Fe-380 was evaluated by degradation of Methylene Blue (MB). The reusability and stability of PMS-Fe-380 were evaluated in five repeated runs, which suggested that PMS-Fe-380 manifested excellent stability of catalytic activity. Moreover, leaching tests indicated that the leached iron is negligible (<0.5mg/L). This study provides an alternative environmentally friendly reuse method for paper mill sludge and a novel catalyst PMS-Fe-380 that can be considered as a promising heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Characterization of induced struvite formation from source-separated urine using seawater and brine as magnesium sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bianxia; Giannis, Apostolos; Zhang, Jiefeng; Chang, Victor W-C; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) precipitation is widely used for nutrient recovery from source-separated urine in view of limited natural resources. Spontaneous struvite formation depletes the magnesium in hydrolyzed urine so that additional magnesium source is required to produce induced struvite for P-recovery. The present study investigated the morphology and purity of induced struvite crystals obtained from hydrolyzed urine by using seawater and desalination brine as low cost magnesium sources. The results demonstrated that both seawater and brine were effective magnesium sources to recover phosphorus from hydrolyzed urine. Crystals obtained from synthetic and real urine were revealed that the morphology was feather and coffin shape, respectively. Structural characterization of the precipitates confirmed that crystallized struvite was the main product. However, co-precipitates magnesium calcite and calcite were observed when seawater was added into synthetic and real urine, respectively. It was found that the presence of calcium in the magnesium sources could compromise struvite purity. Higher struvite purity could be obtained with higher Mg/Ca ratio in the magnesium source. Comparative analysis indicated that seawater and brine had similar effect on the crystallized struvite purity.

  19. A review of exosome separation techniques and characterization of B16-F10 mouse melanoma exosomes with AF4-UV-MALS-DLS-TEM.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kevin E; Manangon, Eliana; Hood, Joshua L; Wickline, Samuel A; Fernandez, Diego P; Johnson, William P; Gale, Bruce K

    2014-12-01

    Exosomes participate in cancer metastasis, but studying them presents unique challenges as a result of their small size and purification difficulties. Asymmetrical field flow fractionation with in-line ultraviolet absorbance, dynamic light scattering, and multi-angle light scattering was applied to the size separation and characterization of non-labeled B16-F10 exosomes from an aggressive mouse melanoma cell culture line. Fractions were collected and further analyzed using batch mode dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and compared with known size standards. Fractogram peak positions and computed radii show good agreement between samples and across fractions. Ultraviolet absorbance fractograms in combination with transmission electron micrographs were able to resolve subtle heterogeneity of vesicle retention times between separate batches of B16-F10 exosomes collected several weeks apart. Further, asymmetrical field flow fractionation also effectively separated B16-F10 exosomes into vesicle subpopulations by size. Overall, the flow field flow fractionation instrument combined with multiple detectors was able to rapidly characterize and separate exosomes to a degree not previously demonstrated. These approaches have the potential to facilitate a greater understanding of exosome function by subtype, as well as ultimately allow for "label-free" isolation of large scale clinical exosomes for the purpose of developing future exosome-based diagnostics and therapeutics.

  20. Separation and characterization of the immunostimulatory components in unpolished rice black vinegar (kurozu).

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masahito; Obara, Kyoko; Ozono, Mami; Furuyashiki, Maiko; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Yasuo; Fukase, Koichi; Fujimoto, Yukari; Shigehisa, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Unpolished rice black vinegar (kurozu), a traditional Japanese vinegar, is considered to have beneficial health effects. Kurozu is produced via a static fermentation process involving the saccharification of rice by Aspergillus oryzae, alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria such as Acetobacter pasteurianus. Since this process requires about 6 months' fermentation and then over a year of aging, most of these organisms die during the production process and so microbial components, which might stimulate the innate immune system, are expected to be present in the vinegar. In this study, we investigated whether microbial components are present in kurozu, and after confirming this we characterized their immunostimulatory activities. Lyophilized kurozu stimulated murine spleen cells to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, at least in part, via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and the Nod-like receptors NOD1 and 2. The active components associated with TLR2 activation were concentrated by Triton X-114-water phase partitioning and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Octyl Sepharose. TLR4-activating components were also enriched by these methods. The concentrated preparation stimulated murine spleen cells to produce TNF-α and interferon (IFN)-γ. These results indicate that long-term fermented kurozu contains immunostimulatory components and that the TLR2 and TLR4-activating immunostimulatory components of kurozu are hydrophobic. These components might be responsible for the beneficial health effects of kurozu.

  1. A Scoping Review of Qualitative Studies about Children Experiencing Parental Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a scoping review of qualitative studies about children's experiences and feelings during times of parental separation. The purpose of the review was to explore children's feelings and attitudes about their parents' separation and how their voices are heard during times of parental separation. The scoping review examined 44…

  2. A Scoping Review of Qualitative Studies about Children Experiencing Parental Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a scoping review of qualitative studies about children's experiences and feelings during times of parental separation. The purpose of the review was to explore children's feelings and attitudes about their parents' separation and how their voices are heard during times of parental separation. The scoping review examined 44…

  3. Phase separation of binary mixtures in shear flow: A numerical study

    PubMed

    Corberi; Gonnella; Lamura

    2000-12-01

    The phase-separation kinetics of binary fluids in shear flow is studied numerically in the framework of the continuum convection-diffusion equation based on a Ginzburg-Landau free energy. Simulations are carried out for different temperatures both in d=2 and 3. Our results confirm the qualitative picture put forward by the large-N limit equations studied by Corberi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3852 (1998)]. In particular, the structure factor is characterized by the presence of four peaks whose relative oscillations give rise to a periodic modulation of the behavior of the rheological indicators and of the average domains sizes. This peculiar pattern of the structure factor corresponds to the presence of domains with two characteristic thicknesses, whose relative abundance changes with time.

  4. Characterization of cation exchanger stationary phases applied for the separations of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-01-01

    Cation exchange chromatography (CEX) is a well established strategy for the characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The optimization of mobile phase conditions is well described in the literature, but there is a lack of information about CEX stationary phases for the analysis of therapeutic proteins. The aim of this study was to compare five state-of-the-art CEX stationary phases based on the retention, selectivity and resolving power achieved in pH- and salt-gradient modes, with various therapeutic mAbs and their variants. The Sepax Antibodix WCX-NP3, Thermo MAbPac SCX-10 RS, YMC BioPro SP-F, Waters Protein-Pak Hi Res SP and Agilent Bio mAb NP1.7 SS were considered in this study. In terms of retention, the YMC Bio Pro SP-F material was the less retentive one, while the Agilent Bio mAb NP1.7 SS provides the highest retention. Regarding the selectivity achieved between the main mAbs isoforms and their variants, the Thermo MabPac SCX column generally gave the highest selectivity. Finally, it was hard to rank columns in term of kinetic performance since their performance is strongly solute (mAb) and elution mode (pH or salt gradient) dependent. However, the highest resolution--in most cases--was observed on the strong cation exchanger YMC Bio Pro SP-F material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of magnetic ion-exchange composites for protein separation from biosuspensions.

    PubMed

    Käppler, Tobias E; Hickstein, Birgit; Peuker, Urs A; Posten, Clemens

    2008-06-01

    Downstream processing is a major issue in biotechnological production. A multitude of unit operations with nonsatisfying yield are often used to reach the desired product purity. Direct recovery technologies such as high-gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) are advantageous because of their ability to separate the desired product in early stages from crude cultivation broths. However, the use of magnetic particles to capture valuable biotechnological products is often linked to the drawback that support particles are expensive and not available in greater quantities. This current work presents new composite magnetic particles that can be used in biotechnology. They are manufactured by a spray drying process. During this process, the nanosized magnetite particles as well as functional ion-exchange nanoparticles are integrated into one particle in which they are linked by a matrix polymer. The production procedure is flexible, scalable, and therefore economical. These particles have good adsorption capacities of up to 85 mg/g adsorbed protein and good binding kinetics. They are resistant to harsh conditions such as short ultrasonic treatment or extreme pHs. In order to test their usefulness in biosuspensions, model proteins were separated using these particles. The anion and cation exchanger particles separated lysozyme (LZ) or BSA from cultivation suspensions. The selectivity of recovery was dependent on other proteins present as is usual for ion-exchange binding mechanisms.

  6. Separation and characterization of lignin from bio-ethanol production residue.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guowan; Li, Shujun; Wang, Lu; Ren, Shixue; Fang, Guizhen

    2013-05-01

    In order to develop an adequate method to separate lignin from bio-ethanol production residue, solvent extraction was conducted by using benzyl alcohol, dioxane and ethanol. Compared to the conventional alkali-solution and acid-isolation method, benzyl alcohol and dioxane extraction could reach higher lignin yield of 71.55% and 74.14% respectively. FTIR and XRD analysis results indicate that sodium hydroxide solution dissolved most of the lignin in the raw material. However, the low lignin yield by this method may be attributed to the products loss during the complex separation process. GPC and (1)H NMR results revealed that the dioxane-lignin had closer molecular weight with alkali-lignin, lower S/G ratio (0.22) and higher OHPh/OHAl ratio (0.45) with respect to benzyl alcohol-lignin. The results divulge that the lignin products separated from bio-ethanol production residue by dioxane extraction had fairly potential application with better chemical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the Axial Jet Separator with a CO2/Helium Mixture: Toward GC-AMS Hyphenation.

    PubMed

    Salazar, G; Agrios, K; Eichler, R; Szidat, S

    2016-02-02

    Development of interfaces for sample introduction from high pressures is important for real-time online hyphenation of chromatographic and other separation devices with mass spectrometry (MS) or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Momentum separators can reduce unwanted low-density gases and introduce the analyte into the vacuum. In this work, the axial jet separator, a new momentum interface, is characterized by theory and empirical optimization. The mathematical model describes the different axial penetration of the components of a jet-gas mixture and explains the empirical results for injections of CO2 in helium into MS and AMS instruments. We show that the performance of the new interface is sensitive to the nozzle size, showing good qualitative agreement with the mathematical model. Smaller nozzle sizes are more preferable due to their higher inflow capacity. The CO2 transmission efficiency of the interface into a MS instrument is ∼ 14% (CO2/helium separation factor of 2.7). The interface receives and delivers flows of ∼ 17.5 mL/min and ∼ 0.9 mL/min, respectively. For the interfaced AMS instrument, the ionization and overall efficiencies are 0.7-3% and 0.1-0.4%, respectively, for CO2 amounts of 4-0.6 μg C, which is only slightly lower compared to conventional systems using intermediate trapping. The ionization efficiency depends on to the carbon mass flow in the injected pulse and is suppressed at high CO2 flows. Relative to a conventional jet separator, the transmission efficiency of the axial jet separator is lower, but its performance is less sensitive to misalignments.

  8. Preparation and characterization of composite membrane for high temperature gas separation. Quarterly technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ilias, S.; King, F.G.

    1994-12-31

    To develop a new class of permselective inorganic membranes, the authors have identified electroless plating as a potential route to deposit a thin metal film on a porous substrate. Electroless plating is a controlled autocatalytic deposition of continuous film on the surface of a substrate by the interactions of a metal salt and a chemical reducing agent. This method can give thin films of metals, alloys and composites on both conducting and nonconducting surfaces. The objective of this project is to develop thin film palladium membranes for separation of hydrogen in high temperature applications. The authors plan to use electroless plating to deposit thin palladium films on microporous ceramic and silver substrates. They plan to characterize the membrane in terms of permeability and selectivity for gas separation. To accomplish the research objective, the project requires three tasks: Development of a process for composite membrane formation; Characterization of fabricated composite membrane; and Development of theoretical model for hydrogen gas separation. During this quarter, the authors attempted to measure the diffusivity and permeability of hydrogen gas through the palladium composite membrane. While running the diffusion measurements at elevated temperature and pressure, leakage of hydrogen was observed. This is a serious problem and it needs to be resolved. Currently, they are working on this problem. During this quarter, they also designed a diffusion cell to test thin-film palladium membrane in tubular structure. The diffusion cell is being fabricated and assembled by a local machine shop.

  9. CO2 Capture and Separations Using MOFs: Computational and Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiamei; Xie, Lin-Hua; Li, Jian-Rong; Ma, Yuguang; Seminario, Jorge M; Balbuena, Perla B

    2017-04-10

    This Review focuses on research oriented toward elucidation of the various aspects that determine adsorption of CO2 in metal-organic frameworks and its separation from gas mixtures found in industrial processes. It includes theoretical, experimental, and combined approaches able to characterize the materials, investigate the adsorption/desorption/reaction properties of the adsorbates inside such environments, screen and design new materials, and analyze additional factors such as material regenerability, stability, effects of impurities, and cost among several factors that influence the effectiveness of the separations. CO2 adsorption, separations, and membranes are reviewed followed by an analysis of the effects of stability, impurities, and process operation conditions on practical applications.

  10. Oxidation, characterization, and separation of non-pertechnetate species in Hanford wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, N.C.

    1997-10-01

    Under DOE`s privatization initiative, Lockheed Martin and British Nuclear Fuels Limited are preparing to stabilize the caustic tank waste generated from plutonium production at the Hanford Site. Pretreatment of Hanford tank waste will separate it into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The scope of the technetium problem is indicated by its inventory in the waste: {approximately}2000 kg. Technetium would normally exist as the pertechnetate anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, in aqueous solution. However, evidence obtained at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) indicates that the combination of radiolysis, heat, organic complexants, and time may have reduced and complexed a significant fraction of the technetium in the tank waste. These species are in a form that is not amenable to current separation techniques based on pertechnetate removal. Thus, it is crucial that methods be developed to set technetium to pertechnetate so these technologies can meet the required technetium decontamination factor. If this is not possible, then alternative separation processes will need to be developed to remove these non-pertechnetate species from the waste. The simplest, most cost-effective approach to this problem is to convert the non-pertechnetate species to pertechnetate. Chemical, electrochemical, and photochemical oxidation methods, as well as hydrothermal treatment, are being applied to Hanford waste samples to ensure that the method works on the unknown technetium species in the waste. The degree of oxidation will be measured by determining the technetium distribution coefficient, {sup Tc}K{sub d}, between the waste and Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin, and comparing it to the true pertechnetate K{sub d} value for the waste matrix. Other species in the waste, including all the organic material, could be oxidized by these methods, thus selective oxidation is desirable to minimize the cost, time, and secondary waste generation.

  11. Characterization of a Reversible Thermoresponsive Gel and Its Application to Oligonucleotide Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,J.; Gassman, M.; Chen, X.; Burger, C.; Rong, L.; Ying, Q.; Chu, B.

    2007-01-01

    Pluronic mixtures of F87 (E{sub 61}P{sub 40}E{sub 61}) and F127 (E{sub 99}P{sub 69}E{sub 99}), with E and P being poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide), respectively, have been used as effective separation media for the separation of small charged biomacromolecules, such as oligonulceotide fragments, by microchip electrophoresis. The temperature-dependent solubility of the middle block (P{sub 40} or P{sub 69}) enables a convenient micelle formation of the triblock copolymer by self-assembly, forming ordered gel-like macrolattice structures at high polymer concentrations or high temperatures. Laser light scattering (LLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to investigate the solution behavior, including the gel structure. Micelles of the F87/F127 mixture solution at different weight ratios almost had a constant hydrodynamic radius of about 10.6 nm, except for the pure F87 solution with a hydrodynamic radius size of about 6.3 nm. The aggregation number of the micelle increased from {approx}5 to {approx}17 with an increase in the F127 content in the solution. On the basis of the SAXS results, the macrolattice symmetry of the gel-like structure could be determined. Two kinds of ordered gel structures were observed: body-centered cubic (bcc, F87-rich region) and face-centered cubic (fcc, F127-rich region). There was a transition region between them whose structure had not yet been resolved. The cubic lattice constant decreased with increasing F87 content in the mixture. Under optimized conditions, oligonucleotide sizing markers ranging from 10 to 32 bases could be separated within 40 s with one-base resolution by microchip electrophoresis.

  12. Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Separation by Polarity or Shape for the Characterization of Sugar-Based Nonionic Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Katzenmeyer, Bryan C; Hague, Shayna F; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2016-01-05

    Mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were interfaced with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and ion mobility (IM) separation to characterize a complex nonionic surfactant, consisting of a methylated glucose core (glucam) conjugated with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO(n)) branches that were partially esterified with stearic acid to form ethoxylated glucam (PEO(n)-glucam) stearates. Reverse-phase LC-MS afforded fast separation according to polarity into five major fractions. Accurate mass measurements of the ions in the mass spectra extracted from these fractions enabled conclusive identification of six components in the surfactant, including PEO(n)-glucam mono-, di-, and tristearates as well as free and esterified PEO(n) as byproducts. MS/MS experiments provided corroborating evidence for the fatty acid content in each fraction based on the number of stearic acid losses observed. With IM-MS, the total surfactant ions were separated according to charge and shape into four distinct bands. Extracted mass spectra confirmed the presence of two disaccharide stearates in the surfactant, which were undetectable by LC-MS. PEO(n)-glucam tristearates were, however, not observed upon IM-MS. Hence, LC-MS and IM-MS unveiled complementary compositional insight. With each method, certain components were particularly well separated from other ingredients (by either polarity or shape), to be detected with confidence. Consequently, combined LC-MS and IM-MS offer a superior approach for the characterization of surfactants and other amphiphilic polymers and for the differentiation of similarly composed amphiphilic blends. It is finally noteworthy that NH4(+) charges minimized chemical noise in MS mode and Li(+) charges maximized the fragmentation efficiency in MS/MS mode.

  13. Separation and characterization of alpha-chain subunits from tilapia (Tilapia zillii) skin gelatin using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shulin; Tang, Lanlan; Su, Wenjin; Weng, Wuyin; Osako, Kazufumi; Tanaka, Munehiko

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-chain subunits were separated from tilapia skin gelatin using ultrafiltration, and the physicochemical properties of obtained subunits were investigated. As a result, α1-subunit and α2-subunit could be successfully separated by 100 kDa MWCO regenerated cellulose membranes and 150 kDa MWCO polyethersulfone membranes, respectively. Glycine was the most dominant amino acid in both α1-subunit and α2-subunit. However, the tyrosine content was higher in α2-subunit than in α1-subunit, resulting in strong absorption near 280 nm observed in the UV absorption spectrum. Based on the DSC analysis, it was found that the glass transition temperatures of gelatin, α1-subunit and α2-subunit were 136.48 °C, 126.77 °C and 119.43 °C, respectively. Moreover, the reduced viscosity and denaturation temperature of α1-subunit were higher than those of α2-subunit, and the reduced viscosity reached the highest when α-subunits were mixed with α1/α2 ratio of approximately 2, suggesting that α1-subunit plays a more important role in the thermostability of gelatin than α2-subunit.

  14. Model of municipal solid waste source separation activity: a case study of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Li, Zhen-Shan; Fu, Hui-Zhen

    2011-02-01

    One major challenge faced by Beijing is dealing with the enormous amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated, which contains a high percentage of food waste. Source separation is considered an effective means of reducing waste and enhancing recycling. However, few studies have focused on quantification of the mechanism of source separation activity. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish a mathematical model of source separation activity (MSSA) that correlates the source separation ratio with the following parameters: separation facilities, awareness, separation transportation, participation atmosphere, environmental profit, sense of honor, and economic profit. The MSSA consisted of two equations, one related to the behavior generation stage and one related to the behavior stability stage. The source separation ratios of the residential community, office building, and primary and middle school were calculated using the MSSA. Data for analysis were obtained from a 1-yr investigation and a questionnaire conducted at 128 MSW clusters around Beijing. The results revealed that office buildings had an initial separation ratio of 80% and a stable separation ratio of 65.86%, whereas residential communities and primary and middle schools did not have a stable separation ratio. The MSSA curve took on two shapes. In addition, internal motivations and the separation transportation ratio were found to be key parameters of the MSSA. This model can be utilized for other cities and countries.

  15. Parametric study on phase separation of binary mixtures in a lid driven cavity: A DPD study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gidituri, Harinadha; Anand, Vijay; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Vedantam, Srikanth

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the phase separation behavior of binary mixtures in two dimensional periodic and lid driven cavity domains using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The effect of DPD parameters like repulsion coefficient, dissipative coefficient, cut-off radius, and weight function exponent on domain size growth has been studied. The phase separation is delayed for low values of repulsion coefficient. Under these conditions, a few clusters of the dispersed phase are distributed in a continuous phase. This is because of weak inter-particle repulsion. As we increase the repulsion coefficient value, this behavior disappears. The domain growth rate is also observed to increase with an increase in the value of the dissipation coefficient as well as cut-off radius. Finally, the dynamics of phase separation in the lid driven cavity problem are significantly different when compared to that in the periodic domain, due to the formation of a stable vortex in the cavity. The vortex results in a dynamic equilibrium between clustering and separation. The distribution of cluster sizes is studied as a function of the driven cavity parameters.

  16. Study on Separation of Structural Isomer with Magneto-Archimedes method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Mori, T.; Akiyama, Y.; Mishima, F.; Nishijima, S.

    2017-09-01

    Organic compounds are refined by separating their structural isomers, however each separation method has some problems. For example, distillation consumes large energy. In order to solve these problems, new separation method is needed. Considering organic compounds are diamagnetic, we focused on magneto-Archimedes method. With this method, particle mixture dispersed in a paramagnetic medium can be separated in a magnetic field due to the difference of the density and magnetic susceptibility of the particles. In this study, we succeeded in separating isomers of phthalic acid as an example of structural isomer using MnCl2 solution as the paramagnetic medium. In order to use magneto-Archimedes method for separating materials for food or medicine, we proposed harmless medium using oxygen and fluorocarbon instead of MnCl2 aqueous solution. As a result, the possibility of separating every structural isomer was shown.

  17. Formation and characterization of asymmetric polyimide hollow fiber membranes for gas separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausi, Dominic Thomas

    Ultra-thin and virtually defect-free polyimide hollow fiber membranes were formed using a "dry/wet" type spinning solution. Fibers were spun from the commercially available polyimide, Matrimidsp{°ler}, using a dry-jet, wet quench spinning apparatus. Spin dopes were comprised of volatile and non-volatile solvents, polymer, and non-solvent. The influence of dope composition, spinning parameters, and dehydration procedures on the membrane morphology and performance was investigated. Without post-treatment, the fibers exhibited skin thicknesses less than 1000 A and Osb2/Nsb2 selectivities within 90% of those determined for dense, solution-cast films. The 250 mum O.D./125 mum I.D. fibers were spun at take-up rates comparable to those used in commercial processes and had macrovoid-free morphologies. A new characterization technique has also been developed where a permeating gas is held at constant transmembrane pressure while the average pressure in the porous support of an asymmetric membrane is varied. This alters the mean free path of gas molecules permeating through the substructure while maintaining a constant driving force for permeation. This technique characterizes the magnitude of the substructure resistance and its pressure dependence, thereby providing a means to compare the morphologies of different membrane samples. Well defined composite-laminate membranes were constructed to validate this technique, which was subsequently used to characterize the substructures of the hollow fiber membranes formed in this work. Two additional rapid characterization techniques have been developed for use before fiber dehydration (i.e., wet fibers). These techniques probe the membrane skin layer with aqueous solutions of disperse dyes and poly(ethylene glycol), respectively. Fiber skin integrity can be characterized using these techniques prior to lengthy downstream processing (i.e., solvent exchange, drying, and post-treatment), providing quick elucidation of membrane skin

  18. Location and characterization of two widely separated glucocorticoid response elements in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, D.D.; Magnuson, M.A.; Granner, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Chimeric genes were constructed by fusion of various regions of the 5'-flanking sequence from the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK) gene to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-coding sequence and to simian virus 40 splice and polyadenylation sequences. These were used to demonstrate that two glucocorticoid regulatory elements (GREs) combine to confer glucocorticoid responsiveness upon the PEPCK gene in H4IIE hepatoma cells. Both elements, distal one whose 5' boundary is located between -1264 and -1111 base pairs and a proximal one located between -468 and -420 base pairs relative to the transcription initiation site, act independently, in various positions and orientations, and upon the heterologous thymidine kinase promoter. Each element accounts for half of the maximal response of the chimeric genes. Therefore, two widely separated enhancerlike elements contribute equally to the response of the PEPCK gene to glucocorticoid hormones. Neither of the PEPCK GREs contains the TGTTCT consensus sequence associated with most other GREs.

  19. Location and characterization of two widely separated glucocorticoid response elements in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, D D; Magnuson, M A; Granner, D K

    1988-01-01

    Chimeric genes were constructed by fusion of various regions of the 5'-flanking sequence from the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK) gene to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-coding sequence and to simian virus 40 splice and polyadenylation sequences. These were used to demonstrate that two glucocorticoid regulatory elements (GREs) combine to confer glucocorticoid responsiveness upon the PEPCK gene in H4IIE hepatoma cells. Both elements, a distal one whose 5' boundary is located between -1264 and -1111 base pairs and a proximal one located between -468 and -420 base pairs relative to the transcription initiation site, act independently, in various positions and orientations, and upon the heterologous thymidine kinase promoter. Each element accounts for half of the maximal response of the chimeric genes. Therefore, two widely separated enhancerlike elements contribute equally to the response of the PEPCK gene to glucocorticoid hormones. Neither of the PEPCK GREs contains the TGTTCT consensus sequence associated with most other GREs. Images PMID:3422101

  20. Immunological and biological characterization of Coxiella burnetii, phases I and II, separated from host components.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J C; Peacock, M G; McCaul, T F

    1981-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, phase I and II, cells cultivated in the yolk sac of chicken embryos were separated from host cell components by two cycles of isopycnic Renografin gradient centrifugation. Initial steps in the purification of viable C. burnetii involved differential centrifugation and sedimentation through an aqueous solution of 30% sucrose and 7.6% Renografin. After the first, but not the second, cycle of Renografin gradient centrifugation, the cells were passed through microfilter glass filters which facilitated the removal of host components. The integrity of morphologically different cell variants was maintained during purification procedures by suspending highly purified C. burnetii in phosphate-buffered saline-sucrose solutions. C. burnetii, phases I and II, obtained by these methods appeared to be free from host cell components by serological methods while retaining morphological integrity and infectivity for yolk sacs and experimental animals. Average yields of C. burnetii were 2.83, 1.5, and 0.84 mg (dry weight) per yolk sac of the Ohio strain (phase I), 9 Mile strain (phase I), and 9 Mile strain (phase II), respectively. Recovery of phase I cells averaged about 70%, whereas the recovery of phage II cells was approximately 40%. The temporal sequence of phase I and II antibody response was demonstrated in infected and vaccinated animals. Also, no antibody response in mice and guinea pigs to yolk sac antigens was detectable after two injections of vaccine or viable cells. Importantly, this is the first report of the separation of viable phase II cells of C. burnetii free of host components. Images PMID:7251150

  1. Characterization of Sulfonated Diels-Alder Poly(phenylene) Membranes for Electrolyte Separators in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhijiang; Lawton, Jamie S.; Sun, Che-Nan; Chen, Jihua; Bright, Michael I.; Jones, Amanda M.; Papandrew, Alex B.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2014-09-03

    Here, sulfonated Diels-Alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP) membranes were synthesized and characterized as potential electrolyte separators for vanadium redox flow batteries. The SDAPP membranes studied had ion exchange capacities of 1.4, 1.8 and 2.3 meq/g. Transmission electron microscopy imaging shows that the ionic domains in SDAPP are roughly 0.5 nm in dimension, while Nafion has a hydrophilic phase width of around 5 nm. The sulfuric acid uptake by SDAPP was higher than that for Nafion, but the materials had similar water uptake from solutions of various sulfuric acid concentrations. In equilibration with sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from 0–17.4 mol·kg-1, SDAPP with a IEC of 2.3 meq/g had the highest conductivity, ranging from 0.21 to 0.05 S·cm-1, while SDAPP with a IEC of 1.8 had conductivity close to Nafion 117, ranging from 0.11 to 0.02 S·cm-1. With varying sulfuric acid concentration and temperature, vanadium permeability in SDAPP is positively correlated to the membrane's IEC. The vanadium permeability of SDAPP 2.3 is similar to that of Nafion, but permeability values for SDAPP 1.8 and SDAPP 1.4 are substantially lower. The vanadium permeation decreases with increasing electrolyte sulfuric acid concentration. Lastly, vanadium diffusion activation energy is about 20 kJ·mol-1 in both SDAPP and Nafion.

  2. A lipoprotein characterizing obstructive jaundice. I. Method for quantitative separation and identification of lipoproteins in jaundiced subjects

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, D.; Alaupovic, P.; Furman, R. H.

    1969-01-01

    Three immunochemically and electrophoretically distinct lipoproteins, LP-A, LP-B, and LP-X,1 were isolated from the low density lipoprotein fraction (1.006-1.063 g/ml) in plasma from patients with biliary obstruction by a separation procedure which combines ultracentrifugation, heparin precipitation, and ethanol fractionation. This method, here described, permits the quantitative determination of individual plasma lipoprotein families on the basis of their protein moieties, rather than on the basis of their lipid moieties or density. The chemical composition of the unique lipoprotein, LP-X, was similar to that of an abnormal lipoprotein, OLP, isolated by Russ et al. (29) and by Switzer (30). In obstructive jaundice plasma, the combined LP-X and LP-B accounted for 98% and the LP-A for only 2% of the total protein content of the LDL fraction. This study indicates that the plasma lipoprotein pattern in obstructive jaundice is characterized by (a) a decreased concentration of HDL, (b) an increased concentration of LDL, and (c) the presence in the LDL fraction of varying amounts of a specific lipoprotein, LP-X, immunochemically and chemically distinct from LP-A and LP-B. LP-X, with its characteristically high content of unesterified cholesterol and phospholipids, is primarily responsible for the unusual protein and lipid content of the LDL fraction. Screening tests in 61 patients with various forms of jaundice indicated that a characteristic immunoelectrophoretic precipitin are between plasma samples and purified antibodies to LP-X was observed only in patients with obstructive jaundice. This simple immunochemical test may represent a valuable new tool in the differential diagnosis of obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice. Images PMID:4978447

  3. 2.5D constructs for characterizing phase separated polymer blend surface morphology in tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Marszalek, Jolanta E; Simon, Carl G; Thodeti, Charles; Adapala, Ravi Kumar; Murthy, Ananth; Karim, Alamgir

    2013-05-01

    Previously, we used 2D films to identify an annealed PCL-PDLLA phase-separated blend morphology which provided nanoscale surface texture and patterning that stimulated osteoblast differentiation. In order to translate these 2D surface nanopatterning effects to the walls of 3D salt-leached scaffolds, the blend phase morphology of scaffold walls must be characterized. For salt-leached scaffolds, NaCl is used as a porogen, which may affect phase separation in PCL-PDLLA blends. However, it is not possible to characterize the surface blend morphology of 3D scaffold walls using standard approaches such as AFM or optical microscopy, since scaffolds are too rough for AFM and do not transmit light for optical microscopy. We introduce a 2.5D approach that mimics the processing conditions of 3D salt-leached scaffolds, but has a geometry amenable to surface characterization by AFM and optical microscopy. For the 2.5D approach, PCL-PDLLA blend films were covered with NaCl crystals prior to annealing. The presence of NaCl significantly influenced blend morphology in PCL-PDLLA 2.5D constructs causing increased surface roughness, higher percent PCL area on the surface and a smaller PCL domain size. During cell culture on 2.5D constructs, osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) and dermal endothelial cell (MDEC) adhesion were enhanced on PCL-PDLLA blends that were annealed with NaCl while chondrogenic cell (ATDC5) adhesion was diminished. This work introduces a 2.5D approach that mimicked 3D salt-leached scaffold processing, but enabled characterization of scaffold surface properties by AFM and light microscopy, to demonstrate that the presence of NaCl during annealing strongly influenced polymer blend surface morphology and cell adhesion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Corrosion study in the chemical air separation (MOLTOX trademark ) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Doohee; Wong, Kai P.; Archer, R.A.; Cassano, A.A.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies aimed at solving the corrosion problems encountered during operation of the MOLTOX{trademark} pilot plant. These studies concentrated on the screening of commercial and developmental alloys under conditions simulating operation conditions in this high temperature molten salt process. Process economic studies were preformed in parallel with the laboratory testing to ensure that an economically feasible solution would be achieved. In addition to the above DOE co-funded studies, Air Products and Chemicals pursued proprietary studies aimed at developing a less corrosive salt mixture which would potentially allow the use of chemurgically available alloys such as stainless steels throughout the system. These studies will not be reported here; however, the results of corrosion tests in the new less corrosive salt mixtures are reported. Because our own studies on salt chemistry impacts heavily on the overall process and thereby has an influence on the experimental work conducted under this contract, some of the studies discussed here were impacted by our own proprietary data. Therefore, the reasons behind some of the experiments presented herein will not be explained because that information is proprietary to Air Products. 14 refs., 42 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Structural characterization of synthetic polymers and copolymers using multidimensional mass spectrometry interfaced with thermal degradation, liquid chromatography and/or ion mobility separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawani, Nadrah

    This dissertation focuses on coupling mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to thermal degradation, liquid chromatography (LC) and/or ion mobility (IM) spectrometry for the characterization of complex mixtures. In chapter II, an introduction of the history and the principles of MS and LC are discussed. Chapter III illustrates the materials and instrumentation used to complete this dissertation. Polyethers have been characterized utilizing MS/MS, as presented in Chapter IV and Chapter VI. Diblock copolymers of polyethylene oxide and polycaprolactone, PEO-b-PCL, have been characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-Q/ToF) and LC-MS/MS (Chapter V). Thermoplastic elastomers have been characterized by thermal degradation using an atmospheric solids analysis probe (ASAP) and ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), as discussed in Chapter VII. Interfacing separation techniques with mass spectrometry permitted the detection of species present with low concentration in complex materials and improved the sensitivity of MS. In chapter IV, the fragmentation mechanisms in MS/MS experiments of cyclic and linear poly(ethylene oxide) macroinitiators are discussed. This study aimed at determining the influence of end groups on the fragmentation pathways. In the study reported in Chapter V, ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was interfaced with MS and MS/MS to achieve the separation and in-depth characterization and separation of amphiphilic diblock copolymers (PEO- b-PCL) in which the architecture of the PEO block is linear or cyclic. Applying UPLC-MS and UPLC-MS/MS provides fast accurate information about the number and type of the blocks in the copolymers. Chapter VI reports MS/MS and IM-MS analyses which were performed to elucidate the influence of molecular size and collision energy on the fragmentation pathways of polyethers subjected to collisionally activated

  6. Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

  7. Isolation of murine postnatal brain microglia for phenotypic characterization using magnetic cell separation technology.

    PubMed

    Harms, Ashley S; Tansey, Malú G

    2013-01-01

    To shorten the time between brain harvesting and microglia isolation, and characterization, we utilized the MACS(®) neural dissociation kit followed by OctoMACS(®) CD11b magnetic bead isolation technique to positively select for brain microglia expressing the pan-microglial marker CD11b, a key subunit of the membrane attack complex (MAC). This protocol yields a viable and highly pure (>95%) microglial population of approximately 500,000 cells per pup that is amenable for in vitro characterization within hours or days after being harvested from brain tissue. Primary microglia from C57Bl/6 mice were plated for next-day analyses of morphology and cellular markers by immunocytochemistry or for analysis of gene expression under resting or LPS-stimulated conditions. The ease of isolation enables investigators to perform molecular and cellular analyses without having to wait 1-2 weeks to isolate microglia by conventional methods involving mechanical agitation to dislodge these from astrocyte beds.

  8. Capillary electrophoretic separation of humic substances using hydroxyethyl cellulose as a buffer additive and its application to characterization of humic substances in a river water sample.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Kawana, Jun; Hoshino, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a concise tool for the investigation of the transition of humic substances in environmental water. The separation of water-soluble humic substances was achieved rapidly and effectively by capillary electrophoresis using a polyacrylamide-coated capillary and a phosphate electrophoretic buffer solution (pH 7.0) containing hydroxyethyl cellulose. The separation mechanism was assessed using the ultrafiltration technique. The effect of the complexation of humic substances with metal ions was studied by using the proposed method. When Fe(III) ions or EDTA was added to the sample solution of fulvic acid, a distinct change in the electropherogram pattern based on the conformational change of fulvic acid was observed. The successful application of the proposed method to the characterization of humic substances in a river water sample was also demonstrated.

  9. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from U.S. pecans by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Katherine S; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wells, M Lenny; Greenspan, Phillip; Pegg, Ronald B

    2014-05-14

    The phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) of pecans possess bioactive properties, which might be useful in retarding the onset of and ameliorating the status of certain chronic disease states. There is a general lack of information in the literature regarding such compounds, especially the PACs. Crude phenolic extracts pooled from eight commercially significant cultivars were selected based on their relatively high antioxidant capacities. The pooled extracts were separated via Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into five ethanolic low-molecular-weight (LMW) fractions and one acetonic high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction. The preparations were then characterized using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and diol-phase HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in order to determine the key constituents present in the LMW and HMW fractions, respectively. As previously observed in pecan nutmeat, ellagic acid and (+)-catechin were found to be the major phenolics in the LMW fractions. The last eluting LMW fraction did not contain phenolic acids; rather it possessed PAC monomers and dimers. The HMW fraction comprised a majority of its PACs as dimers; yet, monomers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, and hexamers were also separated and characterized.

  10. Factors Moderating Children's Adjustment to Parental Separation: Findings from a Community Study in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Dunn, Judy; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Golding, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Research findings show that there is marked variability in children's response to parental separation, but few studies identify the sources of this variation. This prospective longitudinal study examines the factors modifying children's adjustment to parental separation in a community sample of 5,635 families in England. Children's…

  11. Characterization of the PVC phenomena in the exhaust of a cyclone dust separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdabadi, P. A.; Griffiths, A. J.; Syred, N.

    1994-06-01

    A laboratory scale cyclone dust separator with swirl numbers varying from 3.043 to 1.790 was used to examine the effects of different downstream pipework configurations, flowrates and swirl numbers upon the size, shape, and position of the precessing vortex core. Also examined was the effect the precessing vortex core had on the reverse flow zone, and the relationship between the two. It was concluded that the reverse flow zone displaced the central vortex core to create the precessing vortex core. The reverse flow zone would then provide feedback for the precessing vortex core, and precess around the central axis about 30 degrees behind the precessing vortex core (P.V.C). The size and position of the P.V.C was effected by changes in Reynolds number, and any additions of downstream systems to the cyclone would also affect the strength of the P.V.C. The P.V.C would squeeze and accelerate the flow through a constriction set up between the outer limits of the core and of the exit diameter wall. Spiral engulfment vortices were produced on the outside of the flow and served as the initial entrainment mechanism for external flow.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of PLGA Shell Microcapsules Containing Aqueous Cores Prepared by Internal Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Abulateefeh, Samer R; Alkilany, Alaaldin M

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of microcapsules consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer shell and aqueous core is a clear challenge and hence has been rarely addressed in literature. Herein, aqueous core-PLGA shell microcapsules have been prepared by internal phase separation from acetone-water in oil emulsion. The resulting microcapsules exhibited mean particle size of 1.1 ± 0.39 μm (PDI = 0.35) with spherical surface morphology and internal poly-nuclear core morphology as indicated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The incorporation of water molecules into PLGA microcapsules was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Aqueous core-PLGA shell microcapsules and the corresponding conventional PLGA microspheres were prepared and loaded with risedronate sodium as a model drug. Interestingly, aqueous core-PLGA shell microcapsules illustrated 2.5-fold increase in drug encapsulation in comparison to the classical PLGA microspheres (i.e., 31.6 vs. 12.7%), while exhibiting sustained release behavior following diffusion-controlled Higuchi model. The reported method could be extrapolated to encapsulate other water soluble drugs and hydrophilic macromolecules into PLGA microcapsules, which should overcome various drawbacks correlated with conventional PLGA microspheres in terms of drug loading and release.

  13. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata flower extract separated fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, Karuppiah; Priya, Sethuraman

    2017-05-01

    Cassia auriculata L., the flower aqueous extract was fractionated by separating funnel using n-hexane (A1), chloroform (A2), ethyl acetate (A3) and triple distilled water (A4). The A4 fraction was concentrated and determined the presence of preliminary phytochemicals such as tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates and polyphenolic compounds. These phytochemical compounds acted as reducing as well as a stabilizing agent in the green synthesis of Ag NPs from aqueous silver ions. Initially, the colour change and UV-vis absorbance surface Plasmon resonance strong, wide band located at 435 nm has confirmed the synthesis of Ag NPs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Ag NPs shows a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The observed values were calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation to theoretical confirms the particle size of 18 nm. The surface morphology of Ag NPs was viewed by HRTEM, the particles are spherical and triangle shapes with sizes from 10 to 35 nm. Further, the Ag NPs was effective catalytic activity in the reduction of highly environmental polluted organic compounds of 4-nitrophenol and methyl orange. The green synthesis of Ag NPs seems to eco-friendly, cost-effective, conventional one spot synthesis and greater performance of catalytic degradation of environmentally polluted organic dyes.

  14. Ordered macroporous quercetin molecularly imprinted polymers: Preparation, characterization, and separation performance.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yonggang; Liu, Qin; Ye, Lifang; Wu, Quanzhou; He, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    Ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared by a combination of the colloidal crystal templating method and the molecular imprinting technique by using SiO2 colloidal crystal as the macroporogen, quercetin as the imprinting template, acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and tetrahydrofuran as the solvent. Scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements show that the ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers have a more regular macroporous structure, a narrower pore distribution and a greater porosity compared with the traditional bulk molecularly imprinted polymers. The kinetic and isothermal adsorption behaviors of the polymers were investigated. The results indicate that the ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers have a faster intraparticle mass transfer process and a higher adsorption capacity than the traditional bulk molecularly imprinted polymers. The ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers were further employed as a sorbent for a solid-phase extraction. The results show that the ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers can effectively separate quercetin from the Gingko hydrolysate.

  15. Hyperbranched polyglycerol-grafted titanium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, derivatization, characterization, size separation, and toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hongmei; Maruyama, Kyouhei; Amano, Tsukuru; Murakami, Takashi; Komatsu, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    We have been developing surface functionalization of various nanoparticles including nanodiamond and iron oxide nanoparticles in view of biomedical applications. In this context, TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NP) are functionalized with polyglycerol (PG) to provide water-dispersible TiO2-PG, which is further derivatized through multi-step organic transformations. The resulting TiO2-PG and its derivatives are fully characterized by various analyses including solution-phase 1H and 13C NMR. TiO2-PG was size-tuned with centrifugation by changing the acceleration and duration. At last, no cytotoxicity of TiO2 NP, TiO2-PG, and TiO2-PG functionalized with RGD peptide was observed under dark conditions.

  16. Density Functional Reactivity Theory Characterizes Charge Separation Propensity in Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shubin; Ess, Daniel H.; Schauer, Cynthia

    2011-04-20

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions occur in many biological and artificial solar energy conversion processes. In these reactions the electron is often transferred to a site distant to the proton acceptor site. In this work, we employ the dual descriptor and the electrophilic Fukui function from density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) to characterize the propensity for an electron to be transferred to a site other than the proton acceptor site. The electrophilic regions of hydrogen bond or van der Waal reactant complexes were examined using these DFRT descriptors to determine the region of space to which the electron is most likely to be transferred. This analysis shows that in PCET reactions the electrophilic region of the reactant complex does not include the proton acceptor site.

  17. Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Roux, Filippus S.; McLaren, Melanie; Rosales-Guzman, Carmelo; Zhang, Yingwen; Mouane, Othmane; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Konrad, Thomas; Forbes, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    High-dimensional entanglement with spatial modes of light promises increased security and information capacity over quantum channels. Unfortunately, entanglement decays due to perturbations, corrupting quantum links that cannot be repaired without performing quantum tomography on the channel. Paradoxically, the channel tomography itself is not possible without a working link. Here we overcome this problem with a robust approach to characterize quantum channels by means of classical light. Using free-space communication in a turbulent atmosphere as an example, we show that the state evolution of classically entangled degrees of freedom is equivalent to that of quantum entangled photons, thus providing new physical insights into the notion of classical entanglement. The analysis of quantum channels by means of classical light in real time unravels stochastic dynamics in terms of pure state trajectories, and thus enables precise quantum error correction in short- and long-haul optical communication, in both free space and fibre.

  18. Size separation method for absorption characterization in brown carbon: Application to an aged biomass burning sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, Robert A.; Young, Cora J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of brown carbon (BrC) in atmospheric aerosols is derived from biomass burning (BB) and is primarily composed of extremely low volatility organic carbons. We use two chromatographic methods to compare the contribution of large and small light-absorbing BrC components in aged BB aerosols with UV-vis absorbance detection: (1) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and (2) reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We observe no evidence of small molecule absorbers. Most BrC absorption arises from large molecular weight components (>1000 amu). This suggests that although small molecules may contribute to BrC absorption near the BB source, analyses of aerosol extracts should use methods selective to large molecular weight compounds because these species may be responsible for long-term BrC absorption. Further characterization with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to SEC demonstrates an underestimation of the molecular size determined through MS as compared to SEC.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE - AN IMPROVED SORBENT FOR STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; Missimer, D.

    2010-12-21

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. An inorganic sorbent, monosodium titanate (MST), is currently used to remove {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides, while a caustic-side solvent extraction process is used for removing {sup 134,137}Cs. A new peroxotitanate material, modified MST, or mMST, has recently been developed and has shown increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the current baseline material, MST. This paper describes recent results focused on further characterization of this material.

  20. SANS study of phase separation in solid {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.P.; Nagler, S.E.; Adams, E.D.; Wignall, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    Small angle neutron scattering has been used to study phase separation in a quantum alloy, solid {sup 3}He{sub x}-{sup 4}He{sub 1{minus}x}. The onset of phase separation is marked by a dramatic increase in the measured scattering. A simple interpretation of the results suggests that the late-stage phase separation kinetics are dominated by an increase in the concentration of {sup 3}He atoms in preexisting precipitate regions.

  1. Study of Solar Energetics (SEPs) Using Largely Separated Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-29

    solar -data/ solar -features/ solar - flares /x-rays/goes. b CME time is the appearance in LASCO C2 or SECCHI COR2 field of view. CME times are taken from...distribution unlimited. 2. What flare and CME parameters control the occurrence of solar proton events? (Park et al. 2014, JGR) In this study we...examine the occurrence probabilities of solar proton events (SPEs) and their 12 peak fluxes depending on both flare and coronal mass ejection (CME

  2. A feasibility study of magnetic separation of magnetic nanoparticle for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y C; Han, S; Hong, S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently reported that a UK company has developed a naturally non-toxic magnetoferritin to act as a draw solute for drawing water in forward osmosis process. The gist of this technology is the utilization of the magnetic nanoparticle and high-gradient magnetic separation for draw solute separation and reuse. However, any demonstration on this technology has not been reported yet. In this study, a feasibility test of magnetic separation using magnetic nanoparticle was therefore performed to investigate the possibility of magnetic separation in water treatment such as desalination. Basically, a magnetic separation system consisted of a column packed with a bed of magnetically susceptible wools placed between the poles of electromagnet and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle was used as a model nanoparticle. The effect of nanoparticle size to applied magnetic field in separation column was experimentally investigated and the magnetic field distribution in a magnet gap and the magnetic field gradient around stainless steel wool wire were analyzed through numerical simulation. The amount of magnetic nanoparticle captured in the separator column increased as the magnetic field strength and particle size increased. As a result, if magnetic separation is intended to be used for draw solute separation and reuse, both novel nanoparticle and large-scale high performance magnetic separator must be developed.

  3. Placement and characterization of pairs of luminescent molecules in spatially separated regions of nanostructured thin films.

    PubMed

    Minoofar, Payam N; Hernandez, Raquel; Chia, Shinye; Dunn, Bruce; Zink, Jeffrey I; Franville, Anne-Christine

    2002-12-04

    Methods of making mesostructured sol-gel silicate thin films containing two different molecules deliberately placed in two different spatially separated regions in a one-step, one-pot preparation are developed and demonstrated. When the structure-directing agent is the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, the structure is 2-D hexagonal with lattice spacings between 31.6 and 42.1 angstroms depending on the dopant molecules and their concentrations. The three general strategies that are used to place the molecules are philicity (like dissolves like), bonding, and bifunctionality. These strategies take advantage of the different chemical and physical properties of the regions of the films. These regions are the inorganic silicate framework, the hydrophobic organic interior of the micelles, and the ionic interface between them. Luminescent molecules that possess the physical and chemical properties appropriate for the desired strategies are chosen. Lanthanide and ruthenium complexes with condensable trialkoxysilane groups are incorporated into the silicate framework. 1,4-Naphthoquinone, pyrene, rhodamine 6G and coumarin 540A, and lanthanides with no condensable trialkoxysilanes occupy the hydrophobic core of micelles by virtue of their hydrophobicity. The locations of the molecules are determined by luminescence spectroscopy and by luminescence lifetime measurements. In all cases, the long-range order templated into the thin film is verified by X-ray diffraction. The simultaneous placement of two molecules in the structured film and the maintenance of long-range order require a delicate balance among film preparation methodology, design of the molecules to be incorporated in specific regions, and concentrations of all of the species.

  4. Preparation and characterization of superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption and separation of vanillin in food samples.

    PubMed

    Ning, Fangjian; Peng, Hailong; Dong, Liling; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin; Xiong, Hua

    2014-11-19

    Novel water-compatible superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (M-MIPs) were prepared by coating superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with MIPs in a methanol-water reaction system. The M-MIPs were used for the selective adsorption and separation of vanillin from aqueous solution. The M-MIPs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicated that a core-shell structure of M-MIPs was obtained by coating a layer of silica and MIPs on the surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The obtained M-MIPs possess a loose and porous structure and can be rapidly separated from the solution using a magnet. The adsorption experiments showed that the binding capacity of the M-MIPs was significantly higher than that of the superparamagnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (M-NIPs). Meanwhile, the adsorption of M-MIPs reached equilibrium within 100 min, and the apparent maximum adsorption quantity (Qmax) and dissociation constant (Kd) were 64.12 μmol g(-1) and 58.82 μmol L(-1), respectively. The Scatchard analysis showed that homogeneous binding sites were formed on the M-MIP surface. The recoveries of 83.39-95.58% were achieved when M-MIPs were used for the pre-concentration and selective separation of vanillin in spiked food samples. These results provided the possibility for the separation and enrichment of vanillin from complicated food matrices by M-MIPs.

  5. Dissipative particle dynamics study of phase separation in binary fluid mixtures in periodic and confined domains.

    PubMed

    Gidituri, Harinadha; Anand, D Vijay; Vedantam, Srikanth; Panchagnula, Mahesh V

    2017-08-21

    We investigate the phase separation behavior of binary mixtures in two-dimensional periodic and confined domains using dissipative particle dynamics. Two canonical problems of fluid mechanics are considered for the confined domains: square cavity with no-slip walls and lid-driven cavity with one driven wall. The dynamics is studied for both weakly and strongly separating mixtures and different area fractions. The phase separation process is analyzed using the structure factor and the total interface length. The dynamics of phase separation in the square cavity and lid-driven cavity are observed to be significantly slower when compared to the dynamics in the periodic domain. The presence of the no-slip walls and the inertial effects significantly influences the separation dynamics. Finally, we show that the growth exponent for the strongly separating case is invariant to changes in the inter-species repulsion parameter.

  6. Dissipative particle dynamics study of phase separation in binary fluid mixtures in periodic and confined domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gidituri, Harinadha; Anand, D. Vijay; Vedantam, Srikanth; Panchagnula, Mahesh V.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the phase separation behavior of binary mixtures in two-dimensional periodic and confined domains using dissipative particle dynamics. Two canonical problems of fluid mechanics are considered for the confined domains: square cavity with no-slip walls and lid-driven cavity with one driven wall. The dynamics is studied for both weakly and strongly separating mixtures and different area fractions. The phase separation process is analyzed using the structure factor and the total interface length. The dynamics of phase separation in the square cavity and lid-driven cavity are observed to be significantly slower when compared to the dynamics in the periodic domain. The presence of the no-slip walls and the inertial effects significantly influences the separation dynamics. Finally, we show that the growth exponent for the strongly separating case is invariant to changes in the inter-species repulsion parameter.

  7. Separation Distress of a Chinese-American Toddler at Preschool: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jeanette Allison

    This case study describes the separation distress experienced by Mei Mei, a 2-year-old Chinese-American female toddler at a midwestern university laboratory preschool. The toddler, who could not speak English, was undergoing the first substantial separation from her parents. The toddler was observed over a 9-week period, during which behaviors…

  8. A Mass Spectrometry Study of Isotope Separation in the Laser Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suen, Timothy Wu

    Accurate quantification of isotope ratios is critical for both preventing the development of illicit weapons programs in nuclear safeguards and identifying the source of smuggled material in nuclear forensics. While isotope analysis has traditionally been performed by mass spectrometry, the need for in situ measurements has prompted the development of optical techniques, such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry (LAMIS). These optical measurements rely on laser ablation for direct solid sampling, but several past studies have suggested that the distribution of isotopes in the ablation plume is not uniform. This study seeks to characterize isotope separation in the laser plume through the use of orthogonal-acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A silver foil was ablated with a Nd:YAG at 355 nm at an energy of 50 muJ with a spot size of 71 mum, for a fluence of 1.3 J/cm2 and an irradiance of 250 MW/cm2. Flat-plate repellers were used to sample the plume, and a temporal profile of the ions was obtained by varying the time delay on the high-voltage pulse. A spatial profile along the axis of the plume was generated by changing the position of the sample, which yielded snapshots of the isotopic composition with time. In addition, the reflectron time-of-flight system was used as an energy filter in conjunction with the repellers to sample slices of the laser plasma orthogonal to the plume axis. Mass spectrometry of the plume revealed a fast ion distribution and a slow ion distribution. Measurements taken across the entire plume showed the fast 109Ag ions slightly ahead in both space and time, causing the 107Ag fraction to drop to 0.34 at 3 mus, 4 mm from the sample surface. Although measurements centered on the near side of the plume did not show isotope separation, the slow ions on the far side of the plume included much more 109Ag than 107Ag. In addition to examining the isotope content of the ablation

  9. On-line separation and characterization of hyaluronan oligosaccharides derived from radical depolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Bo; Li, Lingyun; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyl radicals are widely implicated in the oxidation of carbohydrates in biological and industrial processes and are often responsible for their structural modification resulting in functional damage. In this study, the radical depolymerization of the polysaccharide hyaluronan was studied in a reaction with hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton Chemistry. A simple method for isolation and identification of the resulting non-sulfated oligosaccharide products of oxidative depolymerization was established. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides were analyzed using ion-pairing reversed phase high performance liquid chromotography coupled with tandem electrospray mass spectrometry. The sequence of saturated hyaluronan oligosaccharides having even- and odd-numbers of saccharide units, afforded through oxidative depolymerization, were identified. This study represents a simple, effective ‘fingerprinting’ protocol for detecting the damage done to hyaluronan by oxidative radicals. This study should help reveal the potential biological outcome of reactive-oxygen radical-mediated depolymerization of hyaluronan. PMID:23768593

  10. Source separation of municipal solid waste: The effects of different separation methods and citizens' inclination-case study of Changsha, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haibin; Yang, Yan; Jiang, Wei; Song, Mengjie; Wang, Ying; Xiang, Tiantian

    2017-02-01

    A case study on the source separation of municipal solid waste (MSW) was performed in Changsha, the capital city of Hunan Province, China. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of different separation methods and compare their effects with citizens' attitudes and inclination. An effect evaluation method based on accuracy rate and miscellany rate was proposed to study the performance of different separation methods. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted to determine citizens' attitudes and inclination toward source separation. Survey result shows that the vast majority of respondents hold consciously positive attitudes toward participation in source separation. Moreover, the respondents ignore the operability of separation methods and would rather choose the complex separation method involving four or more subclassed categories. For the effects of separation methods, the site experiment result demonstrates that the relatively simple separation method involving two categories (food waste and other waste) achieves the best effect with the highest accuracy rate (83.1%) and the lowest miscellany rate (16.9%) among the proposed experimental alternatives. The outcome reflects the inconsistency between people's environmental awareness and behavior. Such inconsistency and conflict may be attributed to the lack of environmental knowledge. Environmental education is assumed to be a fundamental solution to improve the effect of source separation of MSW in Changsha. Important management tips on source separation, including the reformation of the current pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) system, are presented in this work. A case study on the source separation of municipal solid waste was performed in Changsha. An effect evaluation method based on accuracy rate and miscellany rate was proposed to study the performance of different separation methods. The site experiment result demonstrates that the two-category (food waste and other waste) method achieves the

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of coal liquefaction process streams using normal-phase separation with uv diode array detection

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, D.J.; McKinney, D.E.; Hou, Lei; Hatcher, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrated the considerable potential of using two-dimensional, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with normal-phase separation and ultraviolet (UV) diode array detection for the examination of filtered process liquids and the 850{degrees}F{sup {minus}} distillate materials derived from direct coal liquefaction process streams. A commercially available HPLC column (Hypersil Green PAH-2) provided excellent separation of the complex mixture of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal-derived process streams process. Some characteristics of the samples delineated by separation could be attributed to processing parameters. Mass recovery of the process derived samples was low (5--50 wt %). Penn State believes, however, that, improved recovery can be achieved. High resolution mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) also were used in this study to characterize the samples and the HPLC fractions. The GC/MS technique was used to preliminarily examine the GC-elutable portion of the samples. The GC/MS data were compared with the data from the HPLC technique. The use of an ultraviolet detector in the HPLC work precludes detecting the aliphatic portion of the sample. The GC/MS allowed for identification and quantification of that portion of the samples. Further development of the 2-D HPLC analytical method as a process development tool appears justified based on the results of this project.

  12. Localization and characterization of X chromosome inversion breakpoints separating Drosophila mojavensis and Drosophila arizonae.

    PubMed

    Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2007-01-01

    Ectopic exchange between transposable elements or other repetitive sequences along a chromosome can produce chromosomal inversions. As a result, genome sequence studies typically find sequence similarity between corresponding inversion breakpoint regions. Here, we identify and investigate the breakpoint regions of the X chromosome inversion distinguishing Drosophila mojavensis and Drosophila arizonae. We localize one inversion breakpoint to 13.7 kb and localize the other to a 1-Mb interval. Using this localization and assuming microsynteny between Drosophila melanogaster and D. arizonae, we pinpoint likely positions of the inversion breakpoints to windows of less than 3000 bp. These breakpoints define the size of the inversion to approximately 11 Mb. However, in contrast to many other studies, we fail to find significant sequence similarity between the 2 breakpoint regions. The localization of these inversion breakpoints will facilitate future genetic and molecular evolutionary studies in this species group, an emerging model system for ecological genetics.

  13. A YAC contig map of plasmodium falciparum chromosome 4: Characterization of a DNA amplification between two recently separated isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, J.P.; Triglia, T.; Cowman, A.F.

    1995-03-20

    We have generated a physical map of Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 4 using yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). The map is defined by a YAC contig spanning approximately 1.05 Mb, which has been restriction mapped to a resolution of 30 kb and is punctuated by 22 sequence-tagged sites. The physical information obtained has enabled us to compare and contrast the structure of chromosome 4 in detail between FCR3 and B8, two recently separated isolates of P. falciparum, leading to characterization of a novel chromosome polymorphism occurring in a subtelomeric region. Comparison of chromosomes 4 from 10 different isolates has shown that chromosome size polymorphisms are restricted to both subtelomeric regions. These analyses provide a high-resolution physical map that will be important to complement genetic analysis of this human pathogen. 42 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A protocol for exosome isolation and characterization: evaluation of ultracentrifugation, density-gradient separation, and immunoaffinity capture methods.

    PubMed

    Greening, David W; Xu, Rong; Ji, Hong; Tauro, Bow J; Simpson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are 40-150 nm extracellular vesicles that are released from a multitude of cell types, and perform diverse cellular functions including intercellular communication, antigen presentation, and transfer of tumorigenic proteins, mRNA and miRNA. Exosomes are important regulators of the cellular niche, and their altered characteristics in many diseases, such as cancer, suggest their importance for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, and as drug delivery vehicles. Exosomes have been purified from biological fluids and in vitro cell cultures using a variety of strategies and techniques. In this chapter, we reveal the protocol and key insights into the isolation, purification and characterization of exosomes, distinct from shed microvesicles and apoptotic blebs. Using the colorectal cancer cell line LIM1863 as a cell model, a comprehensive evaluation of exosome isolation methods including ultracentrifugation (UC-Exos), OptiPrep™ density-based separation (DG-Exos), and immunoaffinity capture using anti-EpCAM-coated magnetic beads (IAC-Exos) were examined. All exosome isolation methodologies contained 40-150 nm vesicles based on electron microscopy, and positive for exosome markers (Alix, TSG101, HSP70) based on immunoblotting. This protocol employed a proteomic profiling approach to characterize the protein composition of exosomes, and label-free spectral counting to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in exosome isolation. Based on the number of MS/MS spectra identified for exosome markers and proteins associated with their biogenesis, trafficking, and release, IAC-Exos was shown to be the most effective method to isolate exosomes. However, the use of density-based separation (DG-Exos) provides significant advantages for exosome isolation when the use of immunoaffinity capture is limited (due to antibody availability and suitability of exosome markers).

  15. Magnetically separable Cu2O/chitosan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and visible-light photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chunhua; Xiao, Ling; Chen, Chunhua; Cao, Qihua

    2015-04-01

    A novel magnetically-separable visible-light-induced photocatalyst, Cu2O/chitosan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite (Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NC), was prepared via a facile one-step precipitation-reduction process by using magnetic chitosan chelating copper ions as precursor. The structure and properties of Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, BET, VSM, XPS and UV-vis/DRS. The photocatalytic activity of Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs was evaluated by decolorization of reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B) under visible light irradiation. The characterization results indicated that Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs exhibited relatively large specific surface areas and special dimodal pore structure because Cu2O was wrapped in chitosan matrix embedded with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The tight combination of magnetic Fe3O4 and semiconductor Cu2O through chitosan made the nanocomposites show good superparamagnetism and photocatalytic activity. It was found that X-3B could be decolorized more efficiently in acidic media than in neutral or alkaline media. The decolorization of X-3B was ascribed to the synergistic effect of photocatalysis and adsorption. Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs could be easily separated from the solution by an external magnet, and the decolorization rates of X-3B were still above 87% after five reaction cycles, indicating that Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs had excellent reusability and stability.

  16. Alternative dry separation of PM10 from soils for characterization by kinetic extraction: example of new Caledonian mining soils.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Camille; Gunkel-Grillon, Peggy; Laporte-Magoni, Christine; Serres, Arnaud; Quiniou, Thomas; Rocca, François; Monna, Fabrice; Losno, Remi; van Oort, Folkert; Chateau, Carmela

    2016-12-01

    A simple new device for dry separation of fine particulate matter from bulk soil samples is presented here. It consists of a stainless steel tube along which a nitrogen flow is imposed, resulting in the displacement of particles. Taking into account particle transport, fluid mechanics, and soil sample composition, a tube 6-m long, with a 0.04-m diameter, was found best adapted for PM10 separation. The device rapidly produced several milligrams of particulate matter, on which chemical extractions with EDTA were subsequently performed to study the kinetic parameters of extractable metals. New Caledonian mining soils were chosen here, as a case-study. Although the easily extracted metal pool represents only 0.5-6.4 % of the total metal content for the elements studied (Ni, Co, Mn), the total concentrations are extremely high. This pool is therefore far from negligible, and can be troublesome in the environment. This dry technique for fine particle separation from bulk parent soil eliminates the metal-leaching risks inherent in wet filtration and should therefore ensure safe assessment of environmental quality in fine-textured, metal-contaminated soils.

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of separate graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, M.; Kalyar, M. A.; Raza, Z. A.

    2016-10-01

    Graphene, being a unique carbon allotrope with a structure that is one atom thick, is known as a mysterious material in the current era due to its strange nature. It has attained global attention due to its amazing mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties. Recent progress has revealed that materials built with graphene can have a limitless impact on nanocomposites, electronic, optoelectronic and energy storage devices as well as chemical sensors. In the present study, graphite flakes were chemically oxidized in graphite oxide via the modified Hummers’ method, i.e. without adding sodium nitrate. The graphite oxide was exfoliated in distilled water by using an ultrasonic bath to fabricate graphene oxide nanosheets. The graphene was acquired through an inexpensive and large-scale production route to eliminate functional groups containing oxygen by using hydrazine monohydrate as a reducing agent. The reduced graphene oxide obtained through this route contained residual oxygen-functional groups which can act as active sites for gas molecular interaction and be used in a variety of applications like gas sensing. The prepared samples were analyzed using the dynamic light scattering technique, UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  18. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  19. The synthesis, characterization and application of iron oxide nanocrystals in magnetic separations for arsenic and uranium removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, John Thomas

    Arsenic and uranium in the environment are hazardous to human health and require better methods for detection and remediation. Nanocrystalline iron oxides offer a number of advantages as sorbents for water purification and environmental remediation. First, highly uniform and crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (nMAG) were prepared using thermal decomposition of iron salts in organic solutions; for the applications of interest in this thesis, a central challenge was the adaptation of these conventional synthetic methods to the needs of low infrastructure and economically disadvantaged settings. We show here that it is possible to form highly uniform and magnetically responsive nanomaterials using starting reagents and equipment that are readily available and economical. The products of this approach, termed the 'Kitchen Synthesis', are of comparable quality and effectiveness to laboratory materials. The narrow size distributions of the iron oxides produced in the laboratory synthesis made it possible to study the size-dependence of the magnetic separation efficiency of nanocrystals; generally as the diameter of particles increased they could be removed under lower applied magnetic fields. In this work we take advantage of this size-dependence to use magnetic separation as a tool to separate broadly distributed populations of magnetic materials. Such work makes it possible to use these materials in multiplexed separation and sensing schemes. With the synthesis and magnetic separation studies of these materials completed, it was possible to optimize their applications in water purification and environmental remediation. These materials removed both uranium and arsenic from contaminated samples, and had remarkably high sorption capacities --- up to 12 wt% for arsenic and 30 wt% for uranium. The contaminated nMAG is removed from the drinking water by either retention in a sand column, filter, or by magnetic separation. The uranium adsorption process was also utilized

  20. Factors moderating children's adjustment to parental separation: findings from a community study in England.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Helen; Dunn, Judy; O'connor, Thomas G; Golding, Jean

    2006-04-01

    Research findings show that there is marked variability in children's response to parental separation, but few studies identify the sources of this variation. This prospective longitudinal study examines the factors modifying children's adjustment to parental separation in a community sample of 5,635 families in England. Children's behavioral/emotional problems were assessed when children were aged 47 and 81 months; marital quality, maternal depression, socioeconomic circumstances, and demographic variables were assessed prior to the separation from maternal report. Results indicated that 346 mothers separated from their partners in the 3-year period. Preseparation differences were found for measures of family process and parent risk factors, with effect sizes ranging from small to trivial. Parental separation was associated with a significant but modest increase in behavioral/emotional problems, independent of marital quality, maternal depression, socioeconomic circumstances, and demographic variables. Moderation analyses showed that children of cohabiting parents had a greater increase in adjustment problems following parental separation than children of married parents. Further research elucidating the factors that moderate children's adjustment to parental separation is needed to improve our understanding of who may most likely benefit from preventive interventions.

  1. A Study of Laminar Separation Bubble in the Concave Region of an Airfoil Using Laser Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan; Meyers, James F.; Dagenhart, John R.; Harvey, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Laser velocimetry (LV) was used to study the nature of laminar separation bubbles in the concave region of a 1.83-meter airfoil model which was tested in the NASA Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. Three component, coincident data from LV measurements including histograms of particle velocity, mean velocity profiles, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stresses within the shear layer were used to determine the locations of laminar separation, transition, and turbulent reattachment. Boundary-layer parameters determined from velocity profiles were used to compare the results with existing empirical relations for describing the laminar separation bubble.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Surface Difference Effect on Gas Separation by Zeolite Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Koichi; Kobayashi, Yasunori; Morito, Hideaki; Takami, Seiichi; Kubo, Momoji; Belosludov, Rodion; Miyamoto, Akira

    2000-07-01

    The permeation of CO2/N2 gas mixture through zeolite membranes was investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) study. MD calculation successfully reproduced the experimental results of CO2/N2 separation by NaY membrane. Furthermore, the surface difference effect on gas separation was examined using the NaA zeolite (100) surface and its (111) surface. The CO2/N2 separation factor of the (111) surface was much lower than that of the (100) surface. This was caused by the difference in surface structure, since the pore structures of both models were the same.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Hydrophilically Modified PVDF Membranes by a Novel Nonsolvent Thermally Induced Phase Separation Method.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ningen; Xiao, Tonghu; Cai, Xinhai; Ding, Lining; Fu, Yuhua; Yang, Xing

    2016-11-18

    In this study, a nonsolvent thermally-induced phase separation (NTIPS) method was first proposed to fabricate hydrophilically-modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes to overcome the drawbacks of conventional thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) methods. Hydrophilically-modified PVDF membranes were successfully prepared by blending in hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at 140 °C. A series of PVDF/PVA blend membranes was prepared at different total polymer concentrations and blend ratios. The morphological analysis via SEM indicated that the formation mechanism of these hydrophilically-modified membranes was a combined NIPS and TIPS process. As the total polymer concentration increased, the tensile strength of the membranes increased; meanwhile, the membrane pore size, porosity and water flux decreased. With the PVDF/PVA blend ratio increased from 10:0 to 8:2, the membrane pore size and water flux increased. The dynamic water contact angle of these membranes showed that the hydrophilic properties of PVDF/PVA blend membranes were prominently improved. The higher hydrophilicity of the membranes resulted in reduced membrane resistance and, hence, higher permeability. The total resistance Rt of the modified PVDF membranes decreased significantly as the hydrophilicity increased. The irreversible fouling related to pore blocking and adsorption fouling onto the membrane surface was minimal, indicating good antifouling properties.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Hydrophilically Modified PVDF Membranes by a Novel Nonsolvent Thermally Induced Phase Separation Method

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ningen; Xiao, Tonghu; Cai, Xinhai; Ding, Lining; Fu, Yuhua; Yang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a nonsolvent thermally-induced phase separation (NTIPS) method was first proposed to fabricate hydrophilically-modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes to overcome the drawbacks of conventional thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) methods. Hydrophilically-modified PVDF membranes were successfully prepared by blending in hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at 140 °C. A series of PVDF/PVA blend membranes was prepared at different total polymer concentrations and blend ratios. The morphological analysis via SEM indicated that the formation mechanism of these hydrophilically-modified membranes was a combined NIPS and TIPS process. As the total polymer concentration increased, the tensile strength of the membranes increased; meanwhile, the membrane pore size, porosity and water flux decreased. With the PVDF/PVA blend ratio increased from 10:0 to 8:2, the membrane pore size and water flux increased. The dynamic water contact angle of these membranes showed that the hydrophilic properties of PVDF/PVA blend membranes were prominently improved. The higher hydrophilicity of the membranes resulted in reduced membrane resistance and, hence, higher permeability. The total resistance Rt of the modified PVDF membranes decreased significantly as the hydrophilicity increased. The irreversible fouling related to pore blocking and adsorption fouling onto the membrane surface was minimal, indicating good antifouling properties. PMID:27869711

  5. Characterization of blood components separated from donated whole blood after an overnight holding at room temperature with the buffy coat method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fa Qiang; Kang, Wei; Peng, Yu; Wang, Wei Ming

    2011-10-01

    With buffy coat (BC) processing of whole blood (WB) donations, increase in WB storage time to facilitate overnight holding before the separation of blood components would be a logistically attractive development. This study undertakes a comparative in vitro characterization of blood components prepared from WB samples that were either processed within 8 hours or stored overnight at room temperature before processing by the BC method. The WB units (400 mL) collected were either processed within 8 hours (fresh blood) or stored overnight (overnight blood) at room temperature. WB units were separated into individual-component red blood cells (RBCs), BC, and plasma. The in vitro quality of these blood components (RBCs, pooled platelet concentrates [PCs], and plasma) was analyzed during storage. Levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were found to be significantly lower immediately after processing, compared with the fresh WB samples, in RBCs that had been separated from an overnight-hold sample. However, this difference was not apparent after 14 days of storage. In pooled PCs, measurements for glucose, lactate, PO(2), PCO(2), extent of shape change, and hypotonic shock response were similar. The platelet yield in PCs prepared from an overnight-hold WB sample was significantly higher, while CD62P expression and annexin V binding were lower (p < 0.05). For frozen plasma (FP), no significant differences were observed for the coagulation factors (F)II, FVII, FV, F IX, FX, and FXI; fibrinogen; and von Willebrand factor content between the 8- and 24-hour FP. The FVIII was the component that was most sensitive to the prolongation of production time and it only had 80% of the activity of the 8-hour FP. These data suggest that blood components (RBCs, pooled PCs, and FP) separated from WB that has been stored overnight at room temperature by the BC method are of acceptable quality. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Separation and partial characterization of enzymes catalyzing delta-aminolevulinic acid formation in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Rieble, S; Beale, S I

    1991-09-01

    Formation of the universal tetrapyrrole precursor, delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), from glutamate via the five-carbon pathway requires three enzymes: glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamyl-tRNA reductase, and glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA) aminotransferase. All three enzymes were separated from extracts of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and two of them, glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and GSA aminotransferase, were partially characterized. After an initial high speed centrifugation and differentiatial ammonium sulfate fractionation of cell extract, the enzymes were separated by successive affinity chromatography on Reactive Blue 2-Sepharose and 2',5'-ADP-agarose. All three enzyme fractions were required to reconstitute ALA formation from glutamate. The apparent native molecular masses of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and GSA aminotransferase were determined by gel filtration chromatography to be 63 and 98 kDa, respectively. Neither glutamyl-tRNA synthetase nor GSA aminotransferase activity was affected by hemin concentrations up to 10 and 30 microM, respectively, and neither activity was affected by protochlorophyllide concentrations up to 2 microM. GSA aminotransferase was inhibited 50% by 0.5 microM gabaculine. The gabaculine inhibition was reversible for up to 1 h after its addition, if the gabaculine was removed by gel filtration before the enzyme was incubated with substrate. However, irreversible inactivation was obtained by preincubating the enzyme at 30 degrees C either for several hours with gabaculine alone or for a few minutes with both gabaculine and GSA. Neither pyridoxal phosphate nor pyridoxamine phosphate significantly affected the activity of GSA aminotransferase at physiologically relevant concentrations, and neither of these compounds reactivated the gabaculine-inactivated enzyme. It was noted that the presence of pyridoxamine phosphate in the ALA assay mixture produced a false positive color reaction even in the absence of enzyme.

  7. Child temperament moderates the impact of parental separation on adolescent mental health: The trails study.

    PubMed

    Sentse, Miranda; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2011-02-01

    The potential effect of parental separation during early adolescence on adolescent externalizing and internalizing problems was investigated in a longitudinal sample of adolescents (n = 1274; mean age = 16.27; 52.3% girls). Pre-separation mental health problems were controlled for. Building on a large number of studies that overall showed a small effect of parental separation, it was argued that separation may only or especially have an effect under certain conditions. It was examined whether child temperament (effortful control and fearfulness) moderates the impact of parental separation on specific mental health domains. Hypotheses were derived from a goal-framing theory, with a focus on goals related to satisfying the need for autonomy and the need to belong. Controlling for the overlap between the outcome domains, we found that parental separation led to an increase in externalizing problems but not internalizing problems when interactions with child temperament were ignored. Moreover, child temperament moderated the impact of parental separation, in that it was only related to increased externalizing problems for children low on effortful control, whereas it was only related to increased internalizing problems for children high on fearfulness. The results indicate that person-environment interactions are important for understanding the development of mental health problems and that these interactions can be domain-specific.

  8. Factor Study for the Separator Plate of Mcfc Having Uniform Stiffness at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Jun, Joong-Hwan

    A molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is composed of several stacks of unit cells. A unit cell is composed of two electrodes and a matrix that is inserted between separator plates. Separator plates should properly contact the electrodes to reduce the electricity loss arising from contact resistance. To this end, a pressure of about 2 kgf/cm2 is usually applied on the top of the stack, which results in the separator plates being somewhat compacted. Furthermore, the stiffness of the separator plates becomes degraded at elevated temperatures due to softening of the plate materials. Therefore, a nonuniform temperature distribution across the separator plates induced by exothermic reactions of the oxidant and reactant gases leads to a non-uniform plate stiffness. This study has firstly evaluated the change in separator plate stiffness as temperature changes by applying pressure to the plates. Secondly, using the Taguchi method, several design factors that affect stiffness have been investigated to determine which has the most influence. Based on these results, a new design for the separators, which allows for uniform stiffness at elevated temperatures, has been proposed.

  9. The association between parental separation during childhood and obesity in adulthood: a Danish twin study

    PubMed Central

    Kyvik, K. O.; Heitmann, B. L.; Vámosi, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The purpose of this study was to examine if parental separation during childhood is associated with obesity in adulthood. Methods A co‐twin case–control study of 146 adult same‐sexed twin pairs with discordant body mass index (BMI) (i.e. one of the twins should have a BMI of 20–25 kg/m2, and the co‐twin's BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was selected from Danish Twin Registry (DTR). In total of 236 eligible twin individuals participated in the study. Childhood parental separation (defined as separation from one of the biological parents, regardless of the reason for separation) for at least one year prior to age 17 was self‐reported. The statistical analysis includes logistic and linear regression models using STATA 13.0. Results There were no differences in the odds of developing obesity in adulthood between the twin who stayed with a father and the co‐twin who was separated from him for at least 1 year prior to age 17 [OR = 1.22, 95%CI (0.46–3.34), p = 0.65]. Separation from a mother also showed no differences in the odds for developing obesity [OR = 0.90, 95%CI (0.32–2.46), p = 0.82]. Conclusions Because of the limited number of discordant twin pairs for childhood parental separation, we cannot provide evidence to suggest that separation from parents in childhood was associated with developing obesity in adulthood. Further studies of pooling discordant twins from several countries should be considered. PMID:28090349

  10. Study of role of meniscus and viscous forces during liquid-mediated contacts separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Prabin

    Menisci may form between two solid surfaces with the presence of an ultra-thin liquid film. When the separation operation is needed, meniscus and viscous forces contribute to an adhesion leading stiction, high friction, possibly high wear and potential failure of the contact systems, for instance microdevices, magnetic head disks and diesel fuel injectors. The situation may become more pronounced when the contacting surfaces are ultra-smooth and the normal load is small. Various design parameters, such as contact angle, initial separation height, surface tension and liquid viscosity, have been investigated during liquid-mediated contact separation. However, how the involved forces will change roles for various liquid is of interest and is necessary to be studied. In this study, meniscus and viscous forces due to water and liquid lubricants during separation of two flat surfaces are studied. Previously established mathematical model for meniscus and viscous forces during flat on flat contact separation is simulated. The effect of meniscus and viscous force on critical meniscus area at which those forces change role is studied with different liquid properties for flat on flat contact surfaces. The roles of the involved forces at various meniscus areas are analyzed. Experiments are done in concerns to studying the effect of surface roughness on contact angle. The impact of liquid properties, initial separation heights and contact angle on critical meniscus area for different liquid properties are analyzed. The study provides a fundamental understanding of the forces of the separation process and its value for the design of interfaces. The effect of surface roughness and liquid properties on contact angle are studied.

  11. Study of the separation efficiency of a demister vane with response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianzhi; Jin, Baosheng; Zhong, Zhaoping

    2007-08-17

    Numerical simulations of a demister vane with various geometries and operating conditions were performed to study the separation efficiency. The numerical solutions were carried out using commercial CFD code Fluent 6.1. A prediction model of the separation efficiency was obtained based on response surface methodology by means of the statistical software program Minitab V14. The results show that not only the vane spacing and flue gas velocity, but also vane height (including height of curve and upright region) and vane turning angles, play an important role in influencing the separation efficiency. Compared with some experimental and simulative conclusions, the results indicate that present prediction model can estimate the effects of different geometries and operation conditions on the separation efficiency, and can direct the optimum design of demisters.

  12. Overcoming Coulombic Traps: Geometry and Electronic Characterizations of Light-Induced Separated Spins at the Bulk Heterojunction Interface.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Yasuhiro; Miura, Taku

    2015-01-02

    Recent progress is overviewed on experimental elucidations of fundamental molecular functions of the light-energy conversions by the photoactive layers of the organic photovoltalic (OPV) cells by means of the time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Positions and orientations of the unpaired electrons and electronic coupling matrix elements are clarified in photoinduced, primary charge-separated (CS) states. Connections between the molecular geometries and the electronic couplings have been characterized for the initial CS states to elucidate how the structure, orbital delocalization, and molecular libration play roles on exothermic carrier dissociation via a vibrationally relaxed charge-transfer complex with prevention of the energy-wasting charge recombination. Superior functions to biological molecules are presented for the efficient photocurrent generations induced by orbital delocalization and by shallow trap depths at polymer-stacking domains. The above structural and electronic characteristics of the primary electron-hole pairs are essential to evaluations, designs, and developments of the efficient solar cells using organic molecules.

  13. Colloidal Defect-Free Silicalite-1 Single Crystals: Preparation, Structure Characterization, Adsorption, and Separation Properties for Alcohol/Water Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Mouzon, Johanne; Farzaneh, Amirfarrokh; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Grahn, Mattias; Hedlund, Jonas

    2015-08-04

    In this work, colloidal silicalite-1 single crystals are for the first time synthesized using fluoride as mineralizing agent at near neutral pH. SEM, TEM, DLS, XRD, solid-state (29)Si MAS NMR, and adsorption/desorption experiments using nitrogen, water, n-butanol, and ethanol as adsorbates were used to characterize the crystals. The single crystals have a platelike habit with a length of less than 170 nm and an aspect ratio (length/width) of about 1.2, and the thickness of the crystals is less than 40 nm. Compared with silicalite-1 crystals grown using hydroxide as mineralizing agent, the amount of structural defects in the lattice is significantly reduced and the hydrophobicity is increased. Membrane separation and adsorption results show that the synthesized defect-free crystals present high selectivity to alcohols from alcohol/water mixtures. The n-butanol/water adsorption selectivities were ca. 165 and 14 for the defect-free crystals and a reference sample containing defects, respectively, illustrating the improvement in n-butanol/water selectivity by eliminating the polar silanol defects.

  14. Separation and characterization of nitrated variants of the major birch pollen allergen by CZE-ESI-μTOF MS.

    PubMed

    Gusenkov, Sergey; Ackaert, Chloé; Stutz, Hanno

    2013-09-01

    A CZE-ESI-TOF MS method has been optimized for the separation and identification of nitrated variants of the major birch pollen allergen from Betula verrucosa, isoform 1a (Bet v 1a). In-house nitration of recombinant Bet v 1a was done by peroxynitrite. As a BGE, 10 mmol/L ammonium bicarbonate with pH 7.50 provided best resolution. Nebulizer gas pressure and sheath liquid flow rate of 0.4 bar and 6 μL/min, respectively, maintained CZE selectivity and constituted stable electrospray conditions. A sheath liquid composition of 75% v/v methanol with 0.1% v/v formic acid in ultrapure water resulted in highest signal intensities. Alternatively, methanol could be replaced by 50% v/v isopropanol. Two modified allergen products derived from reaction mixtures that contained different amounts of the nitration reagent were compared by the elaborated CZE-ESI-TOF MS method. Up to twelve different Bet v 1a variants with one- to sixfold nitration could be distinguished. Several allergen fractions of equivalent nitration grade were resolved. Their different migration times indicate site-specific nitration with concomitant differences in pI and maybe also in hydrodynamic radius. The method allows for a characterization of in-house nitrated allergen samples that are intended for testing the postulated enhanced allergenicity of nitrated Bet v 1a variants. © 2013 The Authors. Electrophoresis published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Separation and characterization of nitrated variants of the major birch pollen allergen by CZE-ESI-μTOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Gusenkov, Sergey; Ackaert, Chloé; Stutz, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    A CZE-ESI-TOF MS method has been optimized for the separation and identification of nitrated variants of the major birch pollen allergen from Betula verrucosa, isoform 1a (Bet v 1a). In-house nitration of recombinant Bet v 1a was done by peroxynitrite. As a BGE, 10 mmol/L ammonium bicarbonate with pH 7.50 provided best resolution. Nebulizer gas pressure and sheath liquid flow rate of 0.4 bar and 6 μL/min, respectively, maintained CZE selectivity and constituted stable electrospray conditions. A sheath liquid composition of 75% v/v methanol with 0.1% v/v formic acid in ultrapure water resulted in highest signal intensities. Alternatively, methanol could be replaced by 50% v/v isopropanol. Two modified allergen products derived from reaction mixtures that contained different amounts of the nitration reagent were compared by the elaborated CZE-ESI-TOF MS method. Up to twelve different Bet v 1a variants with one- to sixfold nitration could be distinguished. Several allergen fractions of equivalent nitration grade were resolved. Their different migration times indicate site-specific nitration with concomitant differences in pI and maybe also in hydrodynamic radius. The method allows for a characterization of in-house nitrated allergen samples that are intended for testing the postulated enhanced allergenicity of nitrated Bet v 1a variants. PMID:23857337

  16. Fast separation, characterization, and speciation of gold and silver nanoparticles and their ionic counterparts with micellar electrokinetic chromatography coupled to ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Franze, Bastian; Engelhard, Carsten

    2014-06-17

    In this study, a method for separation, size characterization, and speciation of gold and silver nanoparticles was developed through the use of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the first time. Figures of merit in this proof-of-principle study include peak area precision of 4-6%, stable migration times (1.4% with internal standard), and capillary recoveries on the order of 72-100% depending on species and nanoparticle size, respectively. Detection limits are currently in the sub-microgram per liter range. For example, a total of 1500 50-nm-sized gold nanoparticles were successfully detected. After careful optimization, MEKC-ICP-MS was used to separate engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) of different composition. Speciation analysis of ENPs and free metal ions in solution was feasible using a complexing agent (penicillamine). Gold speciation analysis of a dietary supplement, which contained approximately 6-nm-sized gold nanoparticles, was demonstrated.

  17. a Conceptual Design Study of a Next Generation Separator for the In-Flight Separation of Superheavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenberg, Gottfried; Gupta, Mohini; Geissel, Hans; Heinz, Sophia; Hofmann, Sigurd; Plass, Wolfgang R.; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Weick, Helmut; Winkler, Martin

    2013-06-01

    After more than 25 years of the successful operation of SHIP in heavy-and superheavy element research, it is due time for the development of a next-generation in-flight separator for fusion and transfer products, primarily for heavy and superheavy elements. This work is triggered by new developments including accelerators for beams of highest intensity, the availability of strong beams of radioactive isotopes at near Coulomb barrier energies, and the recent developments for efficient ion catcher-cooler systems with the capability of mass identification and measurement.

  18. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-03

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime.

  19. Separation and characterization of the aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation stimulated by ADP-Fe2+ in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Esterbauer, H; Cheeseman, K H; Dianzani, M U; Poli, G; Slater, T F

    1982-01-01

    1. Methods using t.l.c. and high-pressure liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) have been used to separate the complex variety of substances possessing a carbonyl function that are produced during lipid peroxidation. 2. The major type of lipid peroxidation studied was the ADP-Fe2+-stimulated peroxidation of rat liver microsomal phospholipids. Preliminary separation of the polar and non-polar products was achieved by t.l.c.: further separation and identification of individual components was performed by h.p.l.c. Estimations were performed on microsomal pellets and the supernatant mixture after incubation of microsomes for 30 min at 37 degrees C. 3. The polar fraction was larger than the non-polar fraction when expressed as nmol of carbonyl groups/g of liver. In the non-polar supernatant fraction the major contributors were n-alkanals (31% of the total), alpha-dicarbonyl compounds (22%) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (37%) with the extraction method used. 4. Major individual contributors to the non-polar fraction were found to be propanal, 4-hydroxynonenal, hexanal and oct-2-enal. Other components identified include butanal, pent-2-enal, hex-2-enal, hept-2-enal, 4-hydroxyoctenal and 4-hydroxyundecenal. The polar carbonyl fraction was less complex than the non-polar fraction, although the identities of the individual components have not yet been established. 5. Since these carbonyl compounds do not react significantly in the thiobarbituric acid reaction, which largely demonstrates the presence of malonaldehyde, it is concluded that considerable amounts of biologically reactive carbonyl derivatives are released in lipid peroxidation and yet may not be picked up by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. PMID:7159389

  20. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from dry-blanched peanut skins by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kerr, William L; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Swanson, Ruthann B; Pegg, Ronald B

    2014-08-22

    A large variety of phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and their esters), stilbenes (trans-resveratrol and trans-piceatannol), flavan-3-ols (e.g., (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and their polymers {the proanthocyanidins, PACs}), other flavonoids (e.g., isoflavones, flavanols, and flavones, etc.) and biflavonoids (e.g., morelloflavone), were identified in dry-blanched peanut skins (PS) by this study. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was applied to separate and identify the phenolic constituents. Reversed-phase HPLC was employed to separate free phenolic compounds as well as PAC monomers, dimers, and trimers. PACs with a degree of polymerization (DP) of >4 were chromatographed via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Tentative identification of the separated phenolics was based solely on molecular ions and MS(n) fragmentation patterns acquired by ESI-MS in the negative-ion mode. The connection sequence of PAC oligomers (DP <5) could be deduced mainly through characteristic quinone methide (QM) cleavage ions. When the DP reached 6, only a proportion of the flavan-3-ols could be ascertained in the PACs because of the extremely complicated fragmentation patterns involved. The identification of free phenolic acids, stilbenes, and flavonoids was achieved by authentic commercial standards and also by published literature data. Quantification was performed based on peak areas of the UV (free phenolic compounds) or fluorescence (PACs) signals from the HPLC chromatograms and calibration curves of commercial standards. Overall, PS contain significantly more PACs compared to free phenolic compounds.

  1. Impaired neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus is associated with pattern separation deficits: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-09-01

    The separation of input patterns received from the entorhinal cortex (EC) by the dentate gyrus (DG) is a well-known critical step of information processing in the hippocampus. Although the role of interneurons in separation pattern efficiency of the DG has been theoretically known, the balance of neurogenesis of excitatory neurons and interneurons as well as its potential role in information processing in the DG is not fully understood. In this work, we study separation efficiency of the DG for different rates of neurogenesis of interneurons and excitatory neurons using a novel computational model in which we assume an increase in the synaptic efficacy between excitatory neurons and interneurons and then its decay over time. Information processing in the EC and DG was simulated as information flow in a two layer feed-forward neural network. The neurogenesis rate was modeled as the percentage of new born neurons added to the neuronal population in each time bin. The results show an important role of an optimal neurogenesis rate of interneurons and excitatory neurons in the DG in efficient separation of inputs from the EC in pattern separation tasks. The model predicts that any deviation of the optimal values of neurogenesis rates leads to different decreased levels of the separation deficits of the DG which influences its function to encode memory.

  2. Numerical study on the suppression of shock induced separation on the non-adiabatic wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Doug-Bong

    2000-12-01

    A numerical model is constructed to simulate the interaction of supersonic ( M=2.4) oblique shock wave / turbulent boundary layer on a strongly heated wall. The heated wall temperature is two times higher than the adiabatic wall temperature and the shock wave is strong enough to induce boundary layer separation. The turbulence model is Spalart-Allmaras model. The comparison of the wall pressure distribution with the experimental data ensures the validity of this numerical model. The effect of strong wall heating enlarges the separation region upstream and downstream. In order to eliminate the separation, wall bleeding is applied at the shock foot position. As a result of the parametric study, the best position of the bleeding slot is selected. The position of the bleeding is very important for the separation suppression. If the bleeding is applied upstream of shock foot, then separation reoccurs after the bleeding slot. If the bleeding is applied downstream of shock foot, the upstream boundary layer is little influenced and still separated. The bleeding vent width is about same as the upstream boundary layer thickness and suction mass flow is 20 to 80 % of the flow rate in the upstream boundary layer. The bleeding mass flow rate is very sensitive to the bleeding vent position if we fix the vent outlet pressure. The final configuration of the shock reflection pattern approaches to the non-viscous value when wall bleeding is applied at the shock impinging point.

  3. An experimental study on ferromagnetic nickel nanowires functionalized with antibodies for cell separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ning; Wang, Hongjun; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a cell separation technique has been explored using antibody-functionalized Ni nanowires. An antibody (anti-CD31) against mouse endothelial cells (MS1) was conjugated to the Ni nanowire surface through self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and chemical covalent reactions. The measured cytotoxicity was negligible on the CD-31 antibody-functionalized nanowires by the tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay. The use of functionalized nanowires for magnetically separating MS1 cells revealed that the cell separation yield was closely related to cell concentration and the nanowire/cell ratio. Cell separation yield using functionalized Ni nanowires was compared with that using commercial magnetic beads. Considering the volume difference of the material used between the beads and nanowires, antibody-functionalized nanowires showed an obvious advantage in cell separation. Further study on the effect of Ni nanowires on MS1 cells for extended culture confirmed that cell morphology remained comparable to control cells with a lower proliferation rate. This work demonstrates that antibody-functionalized Ni nanowires provide an effective means to separate target cells.

  4. Experimental study on the flow separation and self-excited oscillation phenomenon in a rectangular duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Bing; Wang, Zhen-Guo; Fan, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    To study the characteristics of flow separation and self-excited oscillation of a shock train in a rectangular duct, a simple test case has been conducted and analyzed. The high-speed Schlieren technique and high-frequency pressure measurements have been adopted to collect the data. The experimental results show that there are two separation modes in the duct under M3 incoming condition. The separation mode switch has great effects on the flow effects, such as the pressure distribution, the standard deviation distribution and so on. The separation mode switch can be judged by the history of pressure standard deviation. When it comes to the self-excited oscillation of a shock train, the frequency contents in the undisturbed region, the intermittent region, and the separated bubble have been compared. It was found that the low-frequency disturbance induced by the upstream shock foot motions can travel downstream and the frequency will be magnified by the separation bubble. The oscillation of the small shock foot and the oscillation of the large shock foot are associated with each other rather than oscillating independently.

  5. Parental separation in childhood and self-reported psychological health: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2016-12-30

    The aim of the present study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and self-reported psychological health, adjusting for social capital, social support, civil status and economic stress in childhood. A cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in the autumn of 2012 in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and self-reported psychological health (GHQ12) were investigated using logistic regressions. A 16.1% proportion of all men 22.4% of all women reported poor psychological health. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18 years, the corresponding prevalence among women was 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with poor self-rated psychological health among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4, and among women with this experience at ages 0-4, 10-14 and 15-18. These significant associations remained throughout the multiple analyses. The results support the notion that the experience of parental separation/divorce in childhood may influence psychological health in adulthood, particularly if it is experienced in the age interval 0-4 years.

  6. A Charge Separation Study to Enable the Design of a Complete Muon Cooling Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, C.; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Johnson, Rolland P.; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Neuffer, David; Yonehara, K.

    2013-12-01

    The most promising designs for 6D muon cooling channels operate on a specific sign of electric charge. In particular, the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) and Rectilinear RFOFO designs are the leading candidates to become the baseline 6D cooling channel in the Muon Accelerator Program (MAP). Time constraints prevented the design of a realistic charge separator, so a simplified study was performed to emulate the effects of charge separation on muons exiting the front end of a muon collider. The output of the study provides particle distributions that the competing designs will use as input into their cooling channels. We report here on the study of the charge separator that created the simulated particles.

  7. Separation and/or divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio: preliminary results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    DeKeseredy, Walter S; Joseph, Carolyn

    2006-03-01

    A rapidly growing social scientific literature shows that many women are at great risk of being killed, beaten, or psychologically abused when they exit or try to leave their marital and/or cohabiting partners. However, less than a handful of studies have examined male-to-female sexual assaults during and after separation or divorce. Furthermore, the bulk of the limited empirical work on this problem was done in urban areas. Thus, the main objective of this article is to help fill two major research gaps by presenting the preliminary results of an ongoing exploratory study of separation and/or divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio.

  8. Self-propelled rods exhibit a phase-separated state characterized by the presence of active stresses and the ejection of polar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Sebastian; Deutsch, Andreas; Peruani, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    We study collections of self-propelled rods (SPR) moving in two dimensions for packing fractions less than or equal to 0.3. We find that in the thermodynamical limit the SPR undergo a phase transition between a disordered gas and a novel phase-separated system state. Interestingly, (global) orientational order patterns—contrary to what has been suggested—vanish in this limit. In the found novel state, the SPR self-organize into a highly dynamical, high-density, compact region—which we call aggregate—which is surrounded by a disordered gas. Active stresses build inside aggregates as a result of the combined effect of local orientational order and active forces. This leads to the most distinctive feature of these aggregates: constant ejection of polar clusters of SPR. This novel phase-separated state represents a novel state of matter characterized by large fluctuations in volume and shape, related to mass ejection, and exhibits positional as well as orientational local order. SPR systems display new physics unseen in other active matter systems.

  9. Is early separation anxiety a specific precursor of panic disorder-agoraphobia? A community study.

    PubMed

    Silove, D; Harris, M; Morgan, A; Boyce, P; Manicavasagar, V; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Wilhelm, K

    1995-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine memories of early separation anxiety symptoms in a community sample of women at heightened risk to neurotic disorder. The chief finding was that subjects with a lifetime history of panic disorder-agoraphobia (PD-Ag) returned statistically higher scores on a retrospective measure of early separation anxiety compared to subjects with either generalized anxiety or other phobic disorders, a result which was not accounted for by differences in neuroticism or General Health Questionnaire scores. Although limited by its retrospective design and the problem of co-morbidity in subclassifying the anxiety disorders, the present study does provide added support for the hypothesis--endorsed by DSM-III-R--that there is a developmental link between early separation anxiety and panic disorder.

  10. Liquid chromatographic separation in metal-organic framework MIL-101: a molecular simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongqiao; Chen, Yifei; Jiang, Jianwen

    2013-02-05

    A molecular simulation study is reported to investigate liquid chromatographic separation in metal-organic framework MIL-101. Two mixtures are considered: three amino acids (Arg, Phe, and Trp) in aqueous solution and three xylene isomers (p-, m-, and o-xylene) dissolved in hexane. For the first mixture, the elution order is found to be Arg > Phe > Trp. The hydrophilic Arg has the strongest interaction with the polar mobile phase (water) and the weakest interaction with the stationary phase (MIL-101), and thus transports at the fastest velocity. Furthermore, Arg forms the largest number of hydrogen bonds with water and possesses the largest hydrophilic solvent-accessible surface area. For the second mixture, the elution order is p-xylene > m-xylene > o-xylene, consistent with available experimental observation. With the largest polarity as compared to p- and m-xylenes, o-xylene interacts the most strongly with the stationary phase and exhibits the slowest transport velocity. For both mixtures, the underlying separation mechanism is elucidated from detailed energetic and structural analysis. It is revealed that the separation can be attributed to the cooperative solute-solvent and solute-framework interactions. This simulation study, for the first time, provides molecular insight into liquid chromatographic separation in a MOF and suggests that MIL-101 might be an interesting material for the separation of industrially important liquid mixtures.

  11. An experimental study of flow separation over a flat plate with 2D transverse grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Emily Michelle

    Nature has long been an inspiration for research in engineering. In particular, the biological surfaces of aquatic swimmers have been studied for their potential as drag reducing surfaces. The hydrodynamic benefit of riblets, or grooves embedded parallel to the flow, which appear on many aquatic biological surfaces, have been well documented and implemented in practical engineering applications. However the skin of dolphins is embedded with grooves that run perpendicular to the flow of water over their bodies. It is theorized that the transverse grooves present on dolphin skin trap vortices between them, creating a partial slip condition over the surface and inducing turbulence augmentation in the boundary layer, thus controlling boundary layer separation over the dolphin's skin. Similarly, sharks are covered with scales that are flexible at the base and capable of bristling, forming grooves running transverse to the flow. It is theorized that the scales bristle when encountering a reversing flow, thereby trapping vortices between the scales and, similarly, delaying boundary layer separation. In an attempt to test this hypothesis and study these affects, a spinning cylinder was used in a water tunnel to induce separation over a flat plate with 2 mm, rectangular transverse grooves and sinusoidal grooves of similar scaling. The results were compared to tripped, turbulent boundary layer separation occurring over a flat plate without grooves using time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The strength of the adverse pressure gradient was varied, and the observed delay in flow separation and other affects upon the boundary layer are discussed.

  12. Characterization of Acp, a Peptidoglycan Hydrolase of Clostridium perfringens with N-Acetylglucosaminidase Activity That Is Implicated in Cell Separation and Stress-Induced Autolysis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Camiade, Emilie; Peltier, Johann; Bourgeois, Ingrid; Couture-Tosi, Evelyne; Courtin, Pascal; Antunes, Ana; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Dupuy, Bruno; Pons, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the characterization of the first known peptidoglycan hydrolase (Acp) produced mainly during vegetative growth of Clostridium perfringens. Acp has a modular structure with three domains: a signal peptide domain, an N-terminal domain with repeated sequences, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The purified recombinant catalytic domain of Acp displayed lytic activity on the cell walls of several Gram-positive bacterial species. Its hydrolytic specificity was established by analyzing the Bacillus subtilis peptidoglycan digestion products by coupling reverse phase-high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, which displayed an N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. The study of acp expression showed a constant expression during growth, which suggested an important role of Acp in growth of C. perfringens. Furthermore, cell fractionation and indirect immunofluorescence staining using anti-Acp antibodies revealed that Acp is located at the septal peptidoglycan of vegetative cells during exponential growth phase, indicating a role in cell separation or division of C. perfringens. A knockout acp mutant strain was obtained by using the insertion of mobile group II intron strategy (ClosTron). The microscopic examination indicated a lack of vegetative cell separation in the acp mutant strain, as well as the wild-type strain incubated with anti-Acp antibodies, demonstrating the critical role of Acp in cell separation. The comparative responses of wild-type and acp mutant strains to stresses induced by Triton X-100, bile salts, and vancomycin revealed an implication of Acp in autolysis induced by these stresses. Overall, Acp appears as a major cell wall N-acetylglucosaminidase implicated in both vegetative growth and stress-induced autolysis. PMID:20190047

  13. SEPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TETROL METABOLITES OF BENZO[A]PYRENE-DNA ADDUCTS USING HPLC AND SOLID-MATRIX ROOM TEMPERATURE LUMINESCENCE. (R824100)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Four tetrols of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts were separated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographic fractions containing a given tetrol were readily characterized with solid-matrix room temperature luminescence techniques. So...

  14. SEPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TETROL METABOLITES OF BENZO[A]PYRENE-DNA ADDUCTS USING HPLC AND SOLID-MATRIX ROOM TEMPERATURE LUMINESCENCE. (R824100)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Four tetrols of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts were separated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographic fractions containing a given tetrol were readily characterized with solid-matrix room temperature luminescence techniques. So...

  15. Synthesis, separation, and characterization of amphiphilic sulfated oligosaccharides enabled by reversed-phase ion pairing LC and LC-MS methods.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Amanda M; Kerns, Robert J

    2011-12-13

    Synthesis of amphiphilic oligosaccharides is problematic because traditional methods for separating and purifying oligosaccharides, including sulfated oligosaccharides, are generally not applicable to working with amphiphilic sugars. We report here RPIP-LC and LC-MS methods that enable the synthesis, separation, and characterization of amphiphilic N-arylacyl O-sulfonated aminoglycosides, which are being pursued as small-molecule glycosaminoglycan mimics. The methods described in this work for separating and characterizing these amphiphilic saccharides are further applied to a number of uses: monitoring the progression of sulfonation reactions with analytical RP-HPLC, characterizing sulfate content for individual molecules with ESI-MS, determining the degree of sulfation for products having mixed degrees of sulfation with HPLC and LC-MS, and purifying products with benchtop C18 column chromatography. We believe that the methods described here will be broadly applicable to enabling the synthesis, separation, and characterization of amphiphilic, sulfated, and phosphorylated oligosaccharides and other types of molecules substituted to varying degrees with both anionic and hydrophobic groups.

  16. Non-ionic, thermo-responsive DEA/DMA nanogels: synthesis, characterization, and use for DNA separations by microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xihua; Sun, Mingyun; Barron, Annelise E

    2011-05-15

    Thermo-responsive polymer "nanogels" (crosslinked hydrogel particles with sub-100 nm diameters) are intriguing for many potential applications in biotechnology and medicine. There have been relatively few reports of electrostatically neutral, thermosensitive nanogels comprising a high fraction of hydrophilic co-monomer. Here we demonstrate the syntheses and characterization of novel, non-ionic nanogels based on random N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEA)/N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) copolymers, made by free-radical, surfactant-free dispersion polymerization. The volume-phase transition temperatures of these DEA/DMA nanogels are strongly affected by co-monomer composition, providing a way to "tune" the phase transition temperature of these non-ionic nanogels. While DEA nanogels (comprising no DMA) can be obtained at 70 °C by standard emulsion precipitation, DEA/DMA random co-polymer nanogels can be obtained only in a particular range of temperatures, above the initial phase transition temperature and below the critical precipitation temperature of the DEA/DMA copolymer, controlled by co-monomer composition. Increasing percentages of DMA in the nanogels raises the phase transition temperature, and attenuates and broadens it as well. We find that concentrated DEA/DMA nanogel dispersions are optically clear at room temperature. This good optical clarity was exploited for their use in a novel DNA sieving matrix for microfluidic chip electrophoresis. An ultrafast, high-efficiency dsDNA separation was achieved in less than 120 s for dsDNA ranging from 75 bp to 15,000 bp.

  17. The John Charnley Award: an accurate and sensitive method to separate, display, and characterize wear debris: part 1: polyethylene particles.

    PubMed

    Billi, Fabrizio; Benya, Paul; Kavanaugh, Aaron; Adams, John; Ebramzadeh, Edward; McKellop, Harry

    2012-02-01

    Numerous studies indicate highly crosslinked polyethylenes reduce the wear debris volume generated by hip arthroplasty acetabular liners. This, in turns, requires new methods to isolate and characterize them. We describe a method for extracting polyethylene wear particles from bovine serum typically used in wear tests and for characterizing their size, distribution, and morphology. Serum proteins were completely digested using an optimized enzymatic digestion method that prevented the loss of the smallest particles and minimized their clumping. Density-gradient ultracentrifugation was designed to remove contaminants and recover the particles without filtration, depositing them directly onto a silicon wafer. This provided uniform distribution of the particles and high contrast against the background, facilitating accurate, automated, morphometric image analysis. The accuracy and precision of the new protocol were assessed by recovering and characterizing particles from wear tests of three types of polyethylene acetabular cups (no crosslinking and 5 Mrads and 7.5 Mrads of gamma irradiation crosslinking). The new method demonstrated important differences in the particle size distributions and morphologic parameters among the three types of polyethylene that could not be detected using prior isolation methods. The new protocol overcomes a number of limitations, such as loss of nanometer-sized particles and artifactual clumping, among others. The analysis of polyethylene wear particles produced in joint simulator wear tests of prosthetic joints is a key tool to identify the wear mechanisms that produce the particles and predict and evaluate their effects on periprosthetic tissues.

  18. Characterization and application of a semi-automated separation and analysis technique for polychlorinated biphenyls in Great Lakes wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) are toxic, persistent compounds in the environment. The non-ortho substituted PCB congeners comprise most of the Ah receptor-mediated PCH toxicity in aquatic systems. The proportion of the most toxic congeners to the total concentration of PCBs is suspected to vary in the environment, but these congeners are difficult to quantify. The studies described here focus on the development and use of a semi-automated separation of the non-ortho substituted congeners from interferences using porous graphitic carbon (PGC). The PGC method developed it faster and uses less solvent than previous separations based on carbon columns. This method is both precise and accurate, with no discernable interferences. Results obtained from this method can be used with TCDD equivalency factors (TEFs) to calculate TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) derived from PCBs. The PGC method was used successfully to measure PCB congeners in eggs of fish-eating birds. Variability in TEQ and PCB concentrations among eggs within a double-crested cormorant colony was investigated. No significant differences in concentrations of PCBs to TEQs were observed among eggs from nests with different reproductive outcomes; therefore, concentrations of TEQs and PCBs could not be related to reproductive success of nests within a single colony. TEQs determined in an H4IIE bioassay for EROD activity were significantly greater than TEQs calculated from concentrations of PCB congeners. In another study, concentrations of TEQs and PCBs in red-breasted merganser eggs collected 13 years apart were compared. Concentrations of TEQs and PCBs declined significantly between 1977 and 1990, but the ratio of TEQ to total PCBH did not change.

  19. Study on magnetic separation for decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by using superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Susumu; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko

    2014-09-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused the diffusion of radioactive cesium over the wide area. We examined the possibility of applying magnetic separation method using the superconducting magnet, which can process a large amount of the soil in high speed, to the soil decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Clay minerals are classified as 2:1 and 1:1 types by the difference of their layer structures, and these types of minerals are respectively paramagnetic and diamagnetic including some exception. It is known that most of the radioactive cesium is strongly adsorbed on the clay, especially on 2:1 type clay minerals. It is expected that the method which can separate only 2:1 type clay minerals selectively from the mixture clay minerals can enormously contribute to the volume reduction of the contaminated soil. In this study, the components in the clay before and after separation were evaluated to estimate the magnetic separation efficiency by using X-ray diffraction. From the results, the decontamination efficiency and the volume reduction ratio were estimated in order to examine the appropriate separation conditions for the practical decontamination of the soil.

  20. X2000 advanced avionics characterization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, L.; Meyer, D.; Nicolich, N.; Steele, R.; Uchenik, I.; Vines, K.

    2003-01-01

    The characterization study has shown that adjustments in an application's data accesses can easily create a performance difference of three or more times in actual applications. In general, by iterating over a small portion of a data set rather than its entirety, execution can remain within cache thereby producing a performance increase. Additionally, the approaches used in performing I/O can make a major performance difference.

  1. On-line separator for {gamma}-spectroscopic studies at FLNR JINR

    SciTech Connect

    Popeko, A. G.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chepigin, V. I.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Malyshev, O. N.; Shutov, A. V.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Yeremin, A. V.; Dorvaux, O.; Hauschild, K.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.

    2007-05-22

    A JINR - IN2P3 collaboration project named 'GABRIELA' aimed at the nuclear spectroscopy of transfermium elements using the recoil separator VASSILISSA was launched in 2004 at JINR in Dubna. In the close future the FLNR cyclotron U400M will go through a major upgrade with the goal to deliver heavy ion beams at the energy close to the Coulomb barrier in a new experimental area. Here we report about R and D of the new separator for spectroscopic studies which we plan to install at the beam of the modernized accelerator and which will allow to realize new possibilities of the GABRIELA project.

  2. On-line separator for γ-spectroscopic studies at FLNR JINR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popeko, A. G.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chepigin, V. I.; Dorvaux, O.; Hauschild, K.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Malyshev, O. N.; Shutov, A. V.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Yeremin, A. V.

    2007-05-01

    A JINR — IN2P3 collaboration project named "GABRIELA" aimed at the nuclear spectroscopy of transfermium elements using the recoil separator VASSILISSA was launched in 2004 at JINR in Dubna. In the close future the FLNR cyclotron U400M will go through a major upgrade with the goal to deliver heavy ion beams at the energy close to the Coulomb barrier in a new experimental area. Here we report about R&D of the new separator for spectroscopic studies which we plan to install at the beam of the modernized accelerator and which will allow to realize new possibilities of the GABRIELA project.

  3. A study of the effects of numerical dissipation on the calculation of supersonic separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuruvila, G.; Anderson, J. D., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive investigation of the effect of numerical dissipation on the calculation of supersonic, separated flow over a rearward-facing step is carried out. The complete two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved by means of MacCormack's standard explicit, unsplit, time-dependent, finite difference method. A fourth-order numerical dissipation term is added explicitly. The magnitude of this term is progressively varied, and its consequences on the flowfield calculations are identified and studied. For a cold-wall, heat transfer case, numerical dissipation had a major effect on the results, particularly in the separated region. However, rather dramatically for an adiabatic wall case, numerical dissipation had virtually no effect on the results. The role of grid size on both the influence of numerical dissipation, and on the overall accuracy of the separated flow solutions is discussed.

  4. A study of the effects of numerical dissipation on the calculation of supersonic separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuruvila, G.; Anderson, J. D., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive investigation of the effect of numerical dissipation on the calculation of supersonic, separated flow over a rearward-facing step is carried out. The complete two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved by means of MacCormack's standard explicit, unsplit, time-dependent, finite difference method. A fourth-order numerical dissipation term is added explicitly. The magnitude of this term is progressively varied, and its consequences on the flowfield calculations are identified and studied. For a cold-wall, heat transfer case, numerical dissipation had a major effect on the results, particularly in the separated region. However, rather dramatically for an adiabatic wall case, numerical dissipation had virtually no effect on the results. The role of grid size on both the influence of numerical dissipation, and on the overall accuracy of the separated flow solutions is discussed.

  5. Numerical study of particle deposition and scaling in dust exhaust of cyclone separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. W.; Li, Q.; Zhao, Y. L.; Wang, J. J.; Jin, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    The solid particles accumulation in the dust exhaust cone area of the cyclone separator can cause the wall wear. This undoubtedly prevents the flue gas turbine from long period and safe operation. So it is important to study the mechanism how the particles deposited and scale on dust exhaust cone area of the cyclone separator. Numerical simulations of gas-solid flow field have been carried out in a single tube in the third cyclone separator. The three-dimensionally coupled computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology and the modified Discrete Phase Model (DPM) are adopted to model the gas-solid two-phase flow. The results show that with the increase of the operating temperature and processing capacity, the particle sticking possibility near the cone area will rise. The sticking rates will decrease when the particle diameter becomes bigger.

  6. Removal of Separable Organic From Tank 241-C-103 Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-05-16

    This study is based on previous evaluations/proposals for removing the floating organic layer in C-103. A practical method is described with assumptions, cost and schedule estimates, and risks. Proposed operational steps include bulk organic removal, phase separation, organic washing and offsite disposal, followed by an in-situ polishing process.

  7. Are Attitudes toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study with Primary Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether attitude toward writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude toward reading for young beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). We individually administered to each child a 24-item attitude measure that contained…

  8. Are Attitudes toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study with Primary Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether attitude toward writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude toward reading for young beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). We individually administered to each child a 24-item attitude measure that contained…

  9. Separation-Individuation Conflict as a Model for Understanding Distressed Caregivers: Psychodynamic and Cognitive Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jonathon M.; DelMaestro, Susan G.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses Project Assist, a project designed to study efficacy of time-limited psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral therapies for experienced and recent caregivers. Claims Project Assist offers psychotherapy that can assist caregivers in separating their own emotions, identity, and well-being from those of care receiver, a process which appears…

  10. Component and state separation in DMPC/DSPC lipid bilayers: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed Central

    Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina I; Sugár, István P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a two-state, two-component, Ising-type model is used to simulate the lateral distribution of the components and gel/fluid state acyl chains in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DSPC) lipid bilayers. The same model has been successful in calculating the excess heat capacity curves, the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) threshold temperatures, the most frequent center-to-center distances between DSPC clusters, and the fractal dimensions of gel clusters (Sugar, I. P., T. E. Thompson, and R. L. Biltonen, 1999. Biophys. J. 76:2099-2110). Depending on the temperature and mole fraction the population of the cluster size is either homogeneous or inhomogeneous. In the inhomogeneous population the size of the largest cluster scales with the size of the system, while the rest of the clusters remain small with increasing system size. In a homogeneous population, however, every cluster remains small with increasing system size. For both compositional and fluid/gel state clusters, threshold temperatures-the so-called percolation threshold temperatures-are determined where change in the type of the population takes place. At a given mole fraction, the number of percolation threshold temperatures can be 0, 1, 2, or 3. By plotting these percolation threshold temperatures on the temperature/mole fraction plane, the diagrams of component and state separation of DMPC/DSPC bilayers are constructed. In agreement with the small-angle neutron scattering measurements, the component separation diagram shows nonrandom lateral distribution of the components not only in the gel-fluid mixed phase region, but also in the pure gel and pure fluid regions. A combined diagram of component and state separation is constructed to characterize the lateral distribution of lipid components and gel/fluid state acyl chains in DMPC/DSPC mixtures. While theoretical phase diagrams of two component mixtures can be constructed only in the case of

  11. Nanoscale Phase Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy Thin Films Studied Using Atom Probe Tomography. Comparison Of Experiments And Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Ramanan, Sathvik; Walvekar, Sarita K.; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2014-11-21

    Tailored metal alloy thin film-oxide interfaces generated using molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) deposition of alloy thin films on a single crystalline oxide substrate can be used for detailed studies of irradiation damage response on the interface structure. However presence of nanoscale phase separation in the MBE grown alloy thin films can impact the metal-oxide interface structure. Due to nanoscale domain size of such phase separation it is very challenging to characterize by conventional techniques. Therefor laser assisted atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized to study the phase separation in epitaxial Cr0.61Mo0.39, Cr0.77Mo0.23, and Cr0.32V0.68 alloy thin films grown by MBE on MgO(001) single crystal substrates. Statistical analysis, namely frequency distribution analysis and Pearson coefficient analysis of experimental data was compared with similar analyses conducted on simulated APT datasets with known extent of phase separation. Thus the presence of phase separation in Cr-Mo films, even when phase separation was not clearly observed by x-ray diffraction, and the absence of phase separation in the Cr-V film were thus confirmed.

  12. Nanoscale phase separation in epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V alloy thin films studied using atom probe tomography: Comparison of experiments and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, A.; Ramanan, S.; Walvekar, S.; Bowden, M. E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kaspar, T. C.; Kurtz, R. J.

    2014-11-21

    Tailored metal alloy thin film-oxide interfaces generated using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) deposition of alloy thin films on a single crystalline oxide substrate can be used for detailed studies of irradiation damage response on the interface structure. However, the presence of nanoscale phase separation in the MBE grown alloy thin films can impact the metal-oxide interface structure. Due to nanoscale domain size of such phase separation, it is very challenging to characterize by conventional techniques. Therefore, laser assisted atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized to study the phase separation in epitaxial Cr{sub 0.61}Mo{sub 0.39}, Cr{sub 0.77}Mo{sub 0.23}, and Cr{sub 0.32}V{sub 0.68} alloy thin films grown by MBE on MgO(001) single crystal substrates. Statistical analysis, namely frequency distribution analysis and Pearson coefficient analysis of experimental data was compared with similar analyses conducted on simulated APT datasets with known extent of phase separation. Thus, the presence of phase separation in Cr-Mo films, even when phase separation was not clearly observed by x-ray diffraction, and the absence of phase separation in the Cr-V film were confirmed.

  13. Herbs and spices: characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.

    PubMed

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-09

    Herbs and spices are used worldwide as food flavoring, thus determination of their identity, origin, and quality is mandatory for safe human consumption. An analysis strategy based on separative (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and non-separative (HS-SPME-MS) approaches is proposed for the volatile fraction of herbs and spices, for quality control and to quantify the aromatic markers with a single analysis directly on the plant material as such. Eight-to-ten lots of each of the following herbs/spices were considered: cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry), American peppertree (Schinus molle L.), black pepper and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Homogeneity, origin, and chemotypes of the investigated lots of each herb/spice were defined by fingerprinting, through statistical elaboration with principal component analysis (PCA). Characterizing aromatic markers were directly quantified on the solid matrix through multiple headspace extraction-HS-SPME (MHS-SPME). Reliable results were obtained with both separative and non-separative methods (where the latter were applicable); the two were in full agreement, RSD% ranging from 1.8 to 7.7% for eugenol in cloves, 2.2-18.4% for carvacrol+thymol in thyme, and 3.1-16.8% for thujones in sage.

  14. The use of coarse, separable, condensed-phase organic carbon particles to characterize desorption resistance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Y.Z.; Kochetkov, A.; Reible, D.D.

    2007-07-15

    Physical separations were employed to characterize the source of desorption-resistant behavior for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in laboratory- and field-contaminated sediments. Size and density separation of laboratory-contaminated sediments did not effectively separate the amorphous-phase (volatile) and condensed-phase (nonvolatile) organic carbon as measured by thermal oxidation at 375 {sup o}C. These separations also did not result in sediment fractions with significantly different desorption characteristics as measured by apparent partition coefficients. Coarse particles from a field-contaminated sediment from Utica Harbor (UH; Utica, NY, USA), however, could be directly separated into sandy fractions and organic fractions that were composed of woody organic matter, charcoal or charred vegetative matter, and coal-like and coal-cinder particles. Chemical analysis showed that coal-like (glassy, nonporous) and coal-cinder (porous, sintered) particles exhibited very high PAH concentrations and high apparent partition coefficients. These particles also exhibited significantly higher condensed-phase (nonvolatile) organic carbon contents as defined by thermal oxidation at 375{sup o}C. The apparent partition coefficients of PAHs in the coal-cinder particles were a good indication of the apparent partition coefficients in the desorption-resistant fraction of UH sediment, indicating that the coarse particles provided a reasonable characterization of the desorption-resistance phenomena in these sediments even though the coarse fractions represented less than 25% of the organic carbon in the whole sediment.

  15. Semisynthesis and spectral characterization of 5-methylpyranopelargonidin and 4-methylfuropelargonidin and their separation and detection in strawberry fruit wine.

    PubMed

    Kurka, Ondřej; Kučera, Lukáš; Pelantová, Helena; Kuzma, Marek; Havlíček, Vladimír; Bednář, Petr

    2017-08-11

    Condensation of anthocyanins and their aglycons with small organic molecules yields more stable natural dyes, e.g. pyranoanthocyanins arising spontaneously in various food products. Reaction of pelargonidin with acetone produces two isomeric anthocyanidin dyes - 5-methylpyranopelargonidin and 4-methylfuropelargonidin. A robust semipreparative liquid chromatographic method was developed to isolate both derivatives from a simple aged solution of pelargonidin in methanol: acetone: 37% aqueous hydrochloric acid (1:1:0.008, v/v/v). Detailed interpretation of mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra allowed to assign structures of both dyes in isolated fractions. A fast UHPLC-MS method was optimized for the control of their production in the reaction mixture. Use of reversed stationary phase and acidic mobile phases in gradient mode allowed separation of both isomers in less than one minute. Fragmentation of both dyes after collision activated dissociation in collision cell was studied comprehensively and the observed processes were compared with data from quantum calculations (computational chemistry utilizing DFT methods). When comparing both isomers, retro-Diels-Alder fragmentation appears preferred in furo-derivative, while small losses (i.e. methane and water molecules) were more pronounced in pyrano-derivative. Both studied isomeric dyes were found in laboratory prepared strawberry fruit wine and their content was compared with major present anthocyanins and their derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pseudo-stationary separation materials for highly parallel separations.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anup K.; Palmer, Christopher

    2005-05-01

    Goal of this study was to develop and characterize novel polymeric materials as pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography. Fundamental studies have characterized the chromatographic selectivity of the materials as a function of chemical structure and molecular conformation. The selectivities of the polymers has been studied extensively, resulting in a large body of fundamental knowledge regarding the performance and selectivity of polymeric pseudostationary phases. Two polymers have also been used for amino acid and peptide separations, and with laser induced fluorescence detection. The polymers performed well for the separation of derivatized amino acids, and provided some significant differences in selectivity relative to a commonly used micellar pseudostationary phase. The polymers did not perform well for peptide separations. The polymers were compatible with laser induced fluorescence detection, indicating that they should also be compatible with chip-based separations.

  17. Size characterization of silver nanoparticles after separation from silver ions in environmental water using magnetic reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Yang, Yuan; Li, Haipu; Ding, Ru; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2017-09-07

    This study involved the synthesis of magnetic reduced graphene oxide (M-rGO) using a co-precipitation method and examined its resultant adsorption properties for mixtures containing silver ions and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The results indicate that M-rGO preferentially adsorbs silver ions in mixtures containing AgNPs, enabling the size characterization of smaller AgNPs (<60nm) at ultra-trace concentration levels to be more attainable. The sorbents after adsorption could be easily recovered through an external magnet. The AgNPs retained in solution were characterized using single-particle ICPMS (SP-ICPMS). The adsorption behavior of silver ions on M-rGO was well fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model, with the conclusion that the adsorption of silver ions occurred primarily through the chemical bond effect and the heterogeneous surface of the sorbent. Finally, the application of M-rGO with the approach developed herein to actual environmental water samples was successful. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Design and characterization of materials with microphase-separated surface patterns for screening osteoblast response to adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingkono, Gracy A.

    Combinatorial techniques have changed the paradigm of materials research by allowing efficient screening of complex materials problems with large, multidimensional parameter spaces. The focus of this thesis is to demonstrate combinatorial methods (CM) and high-throughput methods (HTM) applied to biomaterials design, characterization, and screening. In particular, this work focuses on screening the effects of biomaterial surface features on adherent bone cell cultures. Polymeric biomaterials were prepared on two-dimensional combinatorial libraries that systematically varied the size and shape of chemically-distinct microstructural patterns. These libraries were generated from blends of biodegradable polyurethanes and polyesters prepared with thickness, composition and temperature gradient techniques. Characterization and screening were performed with high-throughput optical and fluorescence microscopy. A unique advance of this work is the application of data mining techniques to identify the controlling structural features that affect cell behavior from among the myriad variety of metrics from the microscope images. Libraries were designed to exhibit chemically-distinct cell-adhesive versus non-adhesive microstructural domains that improve library performance compared to previous implementations that had employed only modest chemical differences. Improving adhesive contrast should minimize combination of effects of chemistry and physical structure, making data interpretation simpler. To accomplish this, a method of blending and crosslinking cell-non-adhesive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with cell-adhesive poly(·-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed. The behavior of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells cultured on the PCL-PEG libraries were observed, equivalent to thousands of distinct chemistries and microstructures. Cell spreading area, shape, and density upon adhesion on surface patterns are observed in this study. Characterization of the surface library and screening of

  19. Severe congenital malformations, family functioning and parents' separation/divorce: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Côté, S M; Boivin, M; Tremblay, R E

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the association of a severe congenital malformation (SCM) with postnatal family functioning and parents' separation/divorce and to examine if this association might be moderated by birth order of the child and parental level of education. SCM refers to malformations that, without medical intervention, cause handicap or death. Using the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, an ongoing population-based birth cohort study initiated in 1998, we compared 1675 families of children with and without a SCM to identify if having a child with a SCM was associated with maternal perception of family functioning. We examined if an SCM was associated with parents' separation and examined parents' education level and birth order of the children to evaluate whether these factors had any moderating effect on the results. There were no significant differences in family functioning between families with and without a SCM child at 5 and 17 months. At 5 months, family functioning was significantly better (P = 0.03) for families with a SCM firstborn child than for families with a SCM child that is not firstborn. For parental separation, no significant differences were observed at 5 and 29 months and 4 years. No significant moderating effects were observed for birth order and parental education on parental separation. Families of children with a SCM do not appear to be at higher risk of family dysfunction within the first 17 months after birth nor of parental separation within the first 4 years after birth. Family functioning tends to be worst in families where the child with SCM is the second or subsequent child born. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Feasibility study of the separation of chlorinated films from plastic packaging wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2010-04-15

    This study describes the possible separation of chlorinated plastic films (PVC and PVDC) from other heavy plastic packaging waste (PPW) by selective twist formation and gravity separation. Twists formation was mechanically induced in chlorinated plastic films, whereas twist formation did not occur in PS and PET films. After twist formation, all the films had the apparent density of less than 1.0 g/cm{sup 3} and floated in water even though the true density was more than 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}. However, the apparent density of the PS and the PET films increased with agitation to more than 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}, whereas that of chlorinated plastic films was kept less than 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}. The main reason would be the air being held inside the chlorinated plastic films which was difficult to be removed by agitation. Simple gravity separation after twist formation was applied for artificial film with 10 wt.% of the chlorinated films and real PPW films with 9 wt.% of the chlorinated films. About 76 wt.% of the artificial PPW films and 75 wt.% of real PPW films after the removal of PP and PE were recovered as settling fraction with 4.7 wt.% and 3.0 wt.% of chlorinated plastic films, respectively. These results indicate that simple gravity separation process after twist formation can be used to reduce the chlorinated plastic concentration from mixed heavy PPW films.

  1. Semi-industrial experimental study on bauxite separation using a cell-column integration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning-ning; Zhou, Chang-chun; Cong, Long-fei; Cao, Wen-long; Zhou, You

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic-static micro-bubble flotation column (FCSMC) is a highly efficient mineral processing equipment. In this study, a cell-column (FCSMC) integration process was investigated for the separation of bauxite and its feasibility was analyzed on a theoretical basis. The properties of low-grade bauxite ore from Henan Province, China were analyzed. Parameters such as reagent dosage, scraping bubble time, and pressure of the circulating pump during the sorting process were investigated and optimized to improve the flotation efficiency. On the basis of these parameters, continuous separation experiments were conducted. Bauxite concentrate with an aluminum-to-silicon (A/S) mass ratio of 6.37 and a 77.63wt% recovery rate were achieved via a flow sheet consisting of "fast flotation using a flotation cell, one roughing flotation and one cleaning flotation using flotation columns". Compared with the full-flotation-cells process, the cell-column integration process resulted in an increase of the A/S ratio by 0.41 and the recovery rate by 17.58wt%. Cell-column integration separation technology represents a new approach for the separation of middle-to-low-grade bauxite ore.

  2. A fracture mechanics study of the phase separating planar electrodes: Phase field modeling and analytical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haftbaradaran, H.; Maddahian, A.; Mossaiby, F.

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that phase separation could severely intensify mechanical degradation and expedite capacity fading in lithium-ion battery electrodes during electrochemical cycling. Experiments have frequently revealed that such degradation effects could be substantially mitigated via reducing the electrode feature size to the nanoscale. The purpose of this work is to present a fracture mechanics study of the phase separating planar electrodes. To this end, a phase field model is utilized to predict how phase separation affects evolution of the solute distribution and stress profile in a planar electrode. Behavior of the preexisting flaws in the electrode in response to the diffusion induced stresses is then examined via computing the time dependent stress intensity factor arising at the tip of flaws during both the insertion and extraction half-cycles. Further, adopting a sharp-interphase approximation of the system, a critical electrode thickness is derived below which the phase separating electrode becomes flaw tolerant. Numerical results of the phase field model are also compared against analytical predictions of the sharp-interphase model. The results are further discussed with reference to the available experiments in the literature. Finally, some of the limitations of the model are cautioned.

  3. Analysis of Mtwo rotary instrument separation during endodontic therapy: a retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan-Nan; Ge, Jiu-Yu; Xie, Si-Jing; Chen, Ge; Zhu, Min

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the incidence of instrument separation (IS) and the factors influencing it, when associated with Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany) during endodontic therapy. A retrospective study involving a total of 24,108 root canals (11,036 endodontic treated teeth) was conducted at Nanjing Stomatology Hospital between January 2011 and March 2013. The information included were tooth type, root canal curvature, number of fractured instruments, length of the separated fragments, and the distance from broken tip to apex. The incidence of IS was observed to be 2.2 % according to the number of teeth and 1.0 % according to the number of root canals. Many of the separated fragments were 2-4 mm in length and the mean length was 3.07 ± 1.46 mm, and 78.4 % of fractures occurred in the apex. The mean length of separated fragments in severely curved canals was maximum, while ultra-severe curved canals was observed to be minimum. Mtwo instruments demonstrated an extremely low fracture rate during endodontic therapy. Molar teeth (especially lower molars) and the degree of canal curvature had a significant effect on the incidence of IS.

  4. Feasibility study of the separation of chlorinated films from plastic packaging wastes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the possible separation of chlorinated plastic films (PVC and PVDC) from other heavy plastic packaging waste (PPW) by selective twist formation and gravity separation. Twists formation was mechanically induced in chlorinated plastic films, whereas twist formation did not occur in PS and PET films. After twist formation, all the films had the apparent density of less than 1.0g/cm(3) and floated in water even though the true density was more than 1.0g/cm(3). However, the apparent density of the PS and the PET films increased with agitation to more than 1.0g/cm(3), whereas that of chlorinated plastic films was kept less than 1.0g/cm(3). The main reason would be the air being held inside the chlorinated plastic films which was difficult to be removed by agitation. Simple gravity separation after twist formation was applied for artificial film with 10wt.% of the chlorinated films and real PPW films with 9wt.% of the chlorinated films. About 76wt.% of the artificial PPW films and 75wt.% of real PPW films after the removal of PP and PE were recovered as settling fraction with 4.7wt.% and 3.0wt.% of chlorinated plastic films, respectively. These results indicate that simple gravity separation process after twist formation can be used to reduce the chlorinated plastic concentration from mixed heavy PPW films.

  5. Optimisation of magnetic separation: a case study for soil washing at a heavy metals polluted site.

    PubMed

    Sierra, C; Martínez-Blanco, D; Blanco, Jesús A; Gallego, J R

    2014-07-01

    Sandy loam soil polluted with heavy metals (As, Cu, Pb and Zn) from an ancient Mediterranean Pb mining and metallurgy site was treated by means of wet high-intensity magnetic separation to remove some of the pollutants therein. The treated fractions were chemically analysed and then subjected to magnetic characterisation, which determined the high-field specific (mass), magnetic susceptibility (κ) and the specific (mass) saturation magnetisation (σS), through isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM) curves. From the specific values of κ and σS, a new expression to assess the performance of the magnetic separation operation was formulated and verified by comparison with the results obtained by traditional chemical analysis. The magnetic study provided valuable information for the exhaustive explanation of the operation, and the deduced mathematical expression was found to be appropriate to estimate the performance of the separation operation. From these results we determined that magnetic soil washing was effective for the treatment of the contaminated soil, concentrating the majority of the heavy metals and peaking its separation capacity at 60% of the maximum output voltage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation and characterization of liquid two-phase systems for the separation of crystal mixtures by interfacial partitioning.

    PubMed

    Hoeben, Martijn A; van Hee, Pim; van der Lans, Rob G J M; Kwant, Gerard; van der Wielen, Luuk A M

    2006-03-05

    The interfacial partitioning behavior of ampicillin and phenylglycine crystals in different two-phase systems has been investigated. The two-phase systems employed are water/dodecane, water/1-butanol, and water/pentane/methanol. By means of partition experiments and microscopic imaging, it has been shown that the mechanism of separation strongly depends on the choice of the two-phase system. While water/dodecane features a mechanism of sheer competitive adsorption at the interface, separation in water/1-butanol is mainly due to partitioning into both liquid phases, leading to a higher degree of separation. Experiments with water/pentane/methanol have illustrated the large potential of three-component systems, as slight variations in the composition can have large effects on the separation.

  7. Guide to collagen characterization for biomaterial studies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Leah C; Zuena, Erin; Perez-Ramirez, Bernardo; Kaplan, David L

    2008-10-01

    The structure and remodeling of collagen in vivo is critical to the pathology and healing of many human diseases, as well as to normal tissue development and regeneration. In addition, collagen matrices in the form of fibers, coatings, and films are used extensively in biomaterial and biomedical applications. The specific properties of these matrices, both in terms of physical and chemical characteristics, have a direct impact on cellular adhesion, spreading, and proliferation rates, and ultimately on the rate and extent of new extracellular matrix formation in vitro or in vivo. In recent studies, it has also been shown that collagen matrix structure has a major impact on cell and tissue outcomes related to cellular aging and differentiation potential. Collagen structure is complex because of both diversity of source materials, chemistry, and structural hierarchy. With such significant impact of collagen features on biological outcomes, it becomes essential to consider an appropriate set of analytical tools, or guide, so that collagens attained from commercial vendors are characterized in a comparative manner as an integral part of studies focused on biological parameters. The analysis should include as a starting point: (a) structural detail-mainly focused on molecular mass, purity, helical content, and bulk thermal properties, (b) chemical features-mainly focused on surface elemental analysis and hydrophobicity, and (c) morphological features at different length scales. The application of these analytical techniques to the characterization of collagen biomaterial matrices is critical in order to appropriately correlate biological responses from different studies with experimental outcomes in vitro or in vivo. As a case study, the analytical tools employed for collagen biomaterial studies are reviewed in the context of collagen remodeling by fibroblasts. The goal is to highlight the necessity of understanding collagen biophysical and chemical features as a

  8. Characterization of Diesel Fuel by Chemical Separation Combined with Capillary Gas Chromatography (GC) Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Moran, James J.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Wright, Bob W.

    2011-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform a preliminary investigation of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of diesel fuels to evaluate whether the technique could distinguish between the diesel samples from different sources/locations. The ability to differentiate or correlate diesel samples could be valuable for detecting fuel tax evasion schemes. Two fractionation techniques were used to isolate the n-alkanes from the fuel. Both δ13C and δD values for the n-alkanes were then determined by CSIA in each sample. Plots of δD versus δ13C with sample n-alkane points connected in order of increasing carbon number gave well separated clusters with characteristic shapes for each sample. Principal components analysis (PCA) with δ13C, δD, or combined δ13C and δD data on the yielded scores plots that could clearly differentiate the samples, thereby demonstrating the potential of this approach for fingerprinting fuel samples using the δ13C and δD values.

  9. A flow separation study over a shortfin mako shark pectoral fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Michael; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Smith, Drew; Motta, Philip

    2011-11-01

    Many animals possess performance enhancing mechanisms, such as the denticles found on the skin of the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus). The shortfin mako, one of the fastest sharks on the planet, is covered by small, tooth-like scales that vary in bristling capability. Previous biological findings have shown that the scales increase in flexibility from the leading to trailing edge over the pectoral fin. As this fin is a primary control surface, the scale bristling may provide a mechanism for separation control that leads to decreased drag and increased maneuverability. Such findings can potentially lead to the development of similar micro-scale mechanisms to improve the efficiency of aerospace design. A left pectoral fin (71 cm span) was tested in a water tunnel facility under static and dynamic conditions. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was used to characterize the flow over the fin. Various angles of attack at two speeds were tested (Re of 44,500 and 68,000). Two chord-wise locations, approximately mid-span where three-dimensional effects were minimized, were viewed to analyze the flow. After the initial testing, the fin was painted to eliminate the effect of the scales and retested to observe flow separation. Supported by REU SITE EEC grant number 1062611.

  10. Supercooling transition in phase separated manganite thin films: An electrical transport study

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sandeep; Kumar, Pawan; Siwach, P. K.; Singh, H. K.; Tyagi, Pawan Kumar

    2014-05-26

    The impact of variation in the relative fractions of the ferromagnetic metallic and antiferromagnetic/charge ordered insulator phases on the supercooling/superheating transition in strongly phase separated system, La{sub 5/8−y}Pr{sub y}Ca{sub 3/8}MnO{sub 3} (y ≈ 0.4), has been studied employing magnetotransport measurements. Our study clearly shows that the supercooling transition temperature is non-unique and strongly depends on the magneto-thermodynamic path through which the low temperature state is accessed. In contrast, the superheating transition temperature remains constant. The thermo-magnetic hysteresis, the separation of the two transitions and the associated resistivity, all are functions of the relative fraction of the coexisting phases.

  11. [The study of characteristics of absorption and separation of different glycoside on macropore resins].

    PubMed

    Bi, Yue-qi; Hou, Shi-xiang; Mao, Sheng-jun; Song, Ying-xin

    2003-03-01

    To study the absorption and separation of different glycoside on different macropore resins. Take baikal skullcap root, cape jasmine fruit and white peony root as samples and study the different characterstics of absorption and separation of these samples on macropore resins such as D101 and so on. The static absorption effect of the the three aglycones on six different macropore resins is baicalin > lactiflorin > gardoside. Their elution are 75% CH3OH, 25% CH3OH, and 45% CH3OH. Their elution rates are 60%, 93%, and 93%. Similar molecules may not have similar absorption abilities on same macropore resins, but the effect of absorption has something to do with the structures of the molecules, the more double-bonds the molecules have, the greater the absorption force the resins have.

  12. Characterization and Beneficiation Studies of a Low Grade Bauxite Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. S.; Das, B.

    2014-10-01

    A low grade bauxite sample of central India was thoroughly characterized with the help of stereomicroscope, reflected light microscope and electron microscope using QEMSCAN. A few hand picked samples were collected from different places of the mine and were subjected to geochemical characterization studies. The geochemical studies indicated that most of the samples contain high silica and low alumina, except a few which are high grade. Mineralogically the samples consist of bauxite (gibbsite and boehmite), ferruginous mineral phases (goethite and hematite), clay and silicate (quartz), and titanium bearing minerals like rutile and ilmenite. Majority of the gibbsite, boehmite and gibbsitic oolites contain clay, quartz and iron and titanium mineral phases within the sample as inclusions. The sample on an average contains 39.1 % Al2O3 and 12.3 % SiO2, and 20.08 % of Fe2O3. Beneficiation techniques like size classification, sorting, scrubbing, hydrocyclone and magnetic separation were employed to reduce the silica content suitable for Bayer process. The studies indicated that, 50 % by weight with 41 % Al2O3 containing less than 5 % SiO2 could be achieved. The finer sized sample after physical beneficiation still contains high silica due to complex mineralogical associations.

  13. Microgravity electrophoresis: A study of the factors that affect free-fluid separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Electrophoresis experiments have been performed in the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle. Test particles (fixed human and rabbit erythrocytes) migrated as expected in a static column and test macromolecules (human serum albumin, ovalbumin, hemoglobin A, and Pneumococcus polysaccharide 6B) migrated as expected in a continuous flow apparatus. The concentrations studied exceeded those that can be used in free-fluid separation and purification processes at unit gravity.

  14. In situ studies of phase separation and crystallization directed by Marangoni instabilities during spin-coating.

    PubMed

    Toolan, Daniel T W; Pullan, Nikki; Harvey, Michael J; Topham, Paul D; Howse, Jonathan R

    2013-12-23

    Results of a pioneering study are presented in which for the first time, crystallization, phase separation and Marangoni instabilities occurring during the spin-coating of polymer blends are directly visualized, in real-space and real-time. The results provide exciting new insights into the process of self-assembly, taking place during spin-coating, paving the way for the rational design of processing conditions, to allow desired morphologies to be obtained.

  15. Separation, fractionation, concentration, and drying of food products: A technical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    Researchers have investigated a new approach that separates juice into pulp and serum (liquid) fractions. The fractions are then processed individually and more efficiently to reduce the water content. Finally, the fractions are recombined at the site of use to obtain conventional or new products. Efforts to date have included laboratory and on-site studies of several fractionation schemes using energy-efficient membrane-based microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and hyperfiltration processes. These processes are used in combination with more conventional separation, concentration, and recombination methods such as centrifugation, vacuum evaporation, and homogenization. This technical case study provides an overview of the entire DOE/NFPA R D project and highlights the on-site testing of an advanced processing scheme for tomato juice. This scheme involves separation (centrifugation), concentration (hyperfiltration and evaporation), and recombination (homogenization) processes. The document is aimed at making field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and to private industry in a timely manner. The case study discusses project status; summarizes field testing efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of applications, energy savings, and preliminary economics.

  16. Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles: a comparative study based on silica and polydopamine coating for magnetic bio-separation platforms.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ferat; Turan, Eylem; Tumturk, Hayrettin; Demirel, Gokhan

    2012-12-07

    Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) offer tremendous opportunities in a large range of applications in biomedicine due to their superior magnetic properties, biocompatibility and suitability for modification. In most cases, these characteristic features are determined by their shell chemistry and morphology. Herein, we demonstrate a comparative study of silica and polydopamine (PDOP) coating onto MNP surfaces based on synthesis, characterization and usage in a bio-separation platform. It was found that monodispersed MNPs may be easily obtained on silica coating of varying shell thickness, whereas a continuous PDOP layer observed around the MNPs prevents the formation of the dispersed form. On the other hand, PDOP coated MNPs exhibited better superparamagnetic behavior and biological modification ability compared to the silica coated form.

  17. Characterization on the phase separation behavior of styrene-butadiene rubber/polyisoprene/organoclay ternary blends under oscillatory shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianggui; Dong, Xia; Liu, Wei; Xing, Qian; Zou, Fasheng; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Dujin; Liang, Aimin; Li, Chuanqing; Xie, Ximing

    2015-09-01

    The present work investigated the influence of organoclay (organo-montmorillonite, OMMT) on the phase separation behavior and morphology evolution of solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (SSBR)/low vinyl content polyisoprene (LPI) blends with rheological methodology. It was found that the incorporation of OMMT not only reduced the droplet size of the dispersion phase, slowed down the phase separation kinetics, also enlarged the processing miscibility window of the blends. The determination on the wetting parameters indicated that due to the oscillatory shear effect, the OMMT sheets might localize at the interface between the two phases and act as compatibilizer or rigid barrier to prevent domain coarsening, resulting in slow phase separation kinetics, small droplet size, and stable morphology. The analysis of rheological data by the Palierne model provided further confirmation that the addition of OMMT can decrease the interfacial tension and restrict the relaxation of melt droplets. Therefore, a vivid "sea-fish-net" model was proposed to describe the effect of OMMT on the phase separation behavior of SSBR/LPI blends, in which the OMMT sheets acted as the barrier (net) to slow down the domain coarsening/coalescence in phase separation process of SSBR/LPI blends.

  18. Characterization of Charge Separation in the Array of Micromachined UltraSonic Electrospray (AMUSE) Ion Source for Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Dixon, R. Brent; Muddiman, David C.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2009-01-01

    An initial investigation into the effects of charge separation in the Array of Micromachined UltraSonic Electrospray (AMUSE) ion source is reported in order to gain understanding of ionization mechanisms and to improve analyte ionization efficiency and operation stability. In RF-only mode, AMUSE ejects on average, an equal number of slightly positive and slightly negative charged droplets due to random charge fluctuations, providing inefficient analyte ionization. Charge separation at the nozzle orifice is achieved by the application of an external electric field. By bringing the counter electrode close to the nozzle array, strong electric fields can be applied at relatively low DC potentials. It has been demonstrated, through a number of electrode/electrical potential configurations that increasing charge separation leads to improvement in signal abundance, signal-to-noise ratio, and signal stability. PMID:19525123

  19. Experimental parametric study of jet vortex generators for flow separation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, Gregory

    1991-01-01

    A parametric wind-tunnel study was performed with jet vortex generators to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation associated with low-speed turbulence flow over a two-dimensional rearward-facing ramp. Results indicate that flow-separation control can be accomplished, with the level of control achieved being a function of jet speed, jet orientation (with respect to the free-stream direction), and orifice pattern (double row of jets vs. single row). Compared to slot blowing, jet vortex generators can provide an equivalent level of flow control over a larger spanwise region (for constant jet flow area and speed). Dye flow visualization tests in a water tunnel indicated that the most effective jet vortex generator configurations produced streamwise co-rotating vortices.

  20. Simulation of π0-γ Separation Study for Proposed CMS Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Ashim; Jain, Shilpi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Majumder, Gobinda

    2016-10-01

    The Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS detector is going to be upgraded in the high luminosity running as the energy of the present Electromagnetic Calorimeter (PbWO4) will degrade in the high luminosity (luminosity 1034 cm -2 s -1) running due to extensive radiation (hadron flux 1013neutrons cm,-2). Shashlik Electromagnetic Calorimeter which consists of alternate layers of 1.5 mm LYSO(Ce) crystal plates and 2.5 mm Tungsten absorbers, was a proposal for high luminosity running. One of the performance points for any electromagnetic calorimeter is the ability to separate π0 s from true photons, since final states with photons are a clean and one of the most important final states in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The objective of this project is to study the possibility of π0 and γ separation in the Shashlik detector using Multivariate Analysis (MVA) technique.

  1. A study of multistage/multifunction column for fine particle separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Shiao-Hung

    1996-07-01

    The overall objective of the research program is to explore the potential application of a new invention involving a multistage column equipped with vortex-inducing loop-flow contactors (hereafter referred to as the multistage column) for fine coal cleaning process. The research work will identify the design parameters and their effects on the performance of the separation process. The results of this study will provide an engineering basis for further development of this technology in coal cleaning and in the general areas of fluid/particle separation. In the last quarter, we investigated the fine coal beneficiation behaviors in the multistage column and the conventional column. In this quarter, we have initiated the wastewater treatment tests program to verify the multifunction features of the multistage column. We also performed data analysis of the bubble sizes using a model based on the unified proportionality equation. 7 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. On the atomistic mechanisms of alkane (methane-pentane) separation by distillation: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Dirk

    2007-11-01

    Insights into the liquid-vapor transformation of methane-pentane mixtures were obtained from transition path sampling molecular dynamics simulations. This case study of the boiling of non-azeotropic mixtures demonstrates an unprejudiced identification of the atomistic mechanisms of phase separation in the course of vaporization which form the basis of distillation processes. From our simulations we observe spontaneous segregation events in the liquid mixture to trigger vapor nucleation. The formation of vapor domains stabilizes and further promotes the separation process by preferential evaporation of methane molecules. While this discrimination holds for all mixtures of different composition studied, a full account of the boiling process requires a more complex picture. At low methane concentration the nucleation of the vapor domains includes both methane and pentane molecules. The pentane molecules, however, tend to form small aggregates and undergo rapid re-condensation within picoseconds to nanoseconds scales. Accordingly, two aspects of selectivity accounting for methane-pentane separation in the course of liquid-vapor transformations were made accessible to molecular dynamics simulations: spontaneous segregation in the liquid phase leading to selective vapor nucleation and growth favoring methane vaporization and selective re-condensation of pentane molecules.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunyan; Persson, Bo

    2008-03-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load [1-4]. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches to zero. The present results may be very important for soft solids, e.g., rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderate high loads without plastic deformation of the solids. References: [1] C. Yang and B.N.J. Persson, arXiv:0710.0276, (to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.) [2] B.N.J. Persson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 125502 (2007) [3] L. Pei, S. Hyun, J.F. Molinari and M.O. Robbins, J. Mech. Phys. Sol. 53, 2385 (2005) [4] M. Benz, K.J. Rosenberg, E.J. Kramer and J.N. Israelachvili, J. Phy. Chem. B.110, 11884 (2006)

  4. An Experimental Study of Flow Separation Control by Shortfin Mako Shark Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afroz, Farhana; Lang, Amy; Motta, Philip; Habegger, Maria

    2013-11-01

    The shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a fast swimmer and has incredible turning agility. Shark skin is covered with flexible scales and this bristling capability may result in a unique Boundary Layer Control (BLC) method to reduce drag. It is hypothesized that scales bristle when the flow above it is reversed, and between the bristled scales embedded micro-vortices form in the cavities which induce boundary layer mixing and aid in delaying flow separation. To testify this hypothesis, samples of mako shark skin have been tested in a water tunnel under various strengths of adverse pressure gradient (APG). Laminar and turbulent separation over shark skin was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-DPIV) system, where the APG was generated and varied using a rotating cylinder. Then shark skin results were compared with that of a flat plate data for a given amount of APG. The study reveals that shark skin is capable of controlling both laminar and turbulent flow separation. Support under NSF grant 0932352 is gratefully acknowledged. First author Farhana Afroz was also supported by a scholarship through the Alabama EPSCoR Graduate Research Scholars Program.

  5. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from the fat layer on the density gradient separated bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Insausti, Carmen L; Blanquer, Miguel Blanquer; Olmo, Luis Meseguer; López-Martínez, María C; Ruiz, Xavier Férez; Lozano, Francisco J Rodríguez; Perianes, Valentín Cabañas; Funes, Consuelo; Nicolás, Francisco J; Majado, María J; Jiménez, José M Moraleda

    2012-01-20

    The density gradient centrifugation method was originally designed for the isolation of mononuclear peripheral blood cells and rapidly adapted to fractionate bone marrow (BM) cells. This method involves the use of gradient density solutions with low viscosity and low osmotic pressure that allows erythrocytes and more mature cells gravitate to the bottom at a density fraction superior to 1.080 g/dL; mononuclear cells (MNCs) held in the plasma-solution to interphase at a density between 1.053 and 1.073 g/dL; plasma, dilution medium and anticoagulant to occupy a density less than 1.050 g/dL and the fat cells to float due to their very low density. BM-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are usually obtained after the separation and cultures of BM-MNCs from the plasma-solution interphase, which is traditionally considered the only source of progenitor cells (hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic). In this study evidences that MSCs could be isolated from the very low-density cells of the fat layer are presented. In addition, we demonstrated that the MSCs obtained from these cells have similar immunophenotypic characteristics, and similar proliferative and differentiation potential to those obtained from the MNCs at plasma-solution interphase. The method represents a simple and cost effective way to increase the MSCs yield from each BM donor, without the need to look for other sources, additional manipulation of cells, and risks of contamination or disturbances of the potential of differentiation. These cells might serve as a complementary source of MSCs to facilitate preclinical and clinical application in tissue engineering and cell therapy.

  6. Development of Multiscale Materials in Microfluidic Devices: Case Study for Viral Separation from Whole Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surawathanawises, Krissada

    Separation and concentration of nanoscale species play an important role in various fields such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and environmental science. Inevitably, the separation efficiency strongly affects the quality of downstream detections or productions. Innovations in materials science that can separate bionanoparticles efficiently and do not require complex setups, reagents or external fields are highly demanded. This work focuses on developing new materials for the affinity separation of bio-nanoparticles such as viruses or macromolecules from a complex mixture, such as whole blood. To enhance the interaction between target nanoparticles and the capture bed, methods to produce porous matrices with a uniform pore size matching the dimension of targets are studied. Furthermore, regarding viral separation from whole blood, macroporous materials are further patterned into microarrays to allow multiscale separation. Considering the needs in resource-limited settings, these materials are integrated with microfluidic technologies to reduce the volume of samples and reagents, simplify operating processes, and enable the use of inexpensive and portable components. Beyond the application of viral separation as demonstrated in the work, the fundamental study of macroporous material formation and transport in these materials also shed light to the separation of many other nanospecies in multiscale materials. Specifically, two macroporous materials, based on template synthesis, are created in this work. The first type employs porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films as the template to create hexagonal arrays of nanoposts. However, pore sizes and interpore distances (cell size) of ordered porous AAO films are limited by the conventional fabrication process. Moreover, the process usually yields defective pore morphologies and large pore and cell size distributions. To overcome these limitations, a patterning method using nanobead indentation on aluminum substrate

  7. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  8. Characterizing the resolution and accuracy of a second-generation traveling-wave ion mobility separator for biomolecular ions.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yueyang; Hyung, Suk-Joon; Ruotolo, Brandon T

    2011-09-07

    High-accuracy, high-resolution ion mobility measurements enable a vast array of important contemporary applications in biological chemistry. With the recent advent of both new, widely available commercial instrumentation and also new calibration datasets tailored for the aforementioned commercial instrumentation, the possibilities for extending such high performance measurements to a diverse set of applications have never been greater. Here, we assess the performance characteristics of a second-generation traveling-wave ion mobility separator, focusing on those figures of merit that lead to making measurements of collision cross-section having both high precision and high accuracy. Through performing a comprehensive survey of instrument parameters and settings, we find instrument conditions for optimized drift time resolution, cross-section resolution, and cross-section accuracy for a range of peptide, protein and multi-protein complex ions. Moreover, the conditions for high accuracy IM results are significantly different from those optimized for separation resolution, indicating that a balance between these two metrics must be attained for traveling wave IM separations of biomolecules. We also assess the effect of ion heating during IM separation on instrument performance.

  9. Synthesis and Photophysical Characterization of an Artificial Photosynthetic Reaction Center Exhibiting Acid-Responsive Regulation of Charge Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahk, Ian

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a photoprotective regulatory mechanism essential to the robustness of the photosynthetic apparatus of green plants. Energy flow within the low-light adapted reaction centers is dynamically optimized to match the continuously fluctuating light conditions found in nature. Activated by compartmentalized decreases in pH resulting from photosynthetic activity during periods of elevated photon flux, NPQ induces rapid thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy that would otherwise overwhelm the apparatus's ability to consume it. Consequently, the frequency of charge separation decreases and the formation of potentially deleterious, high-energy intermediates slows, thereby reducing the threat of photodamage by disallowing their accumulation. Herein is described the synthesis and photophysical analysis of a molecular triad that mimics the effects of NPQ on charge separation within the photosynthetic reaction centers. Steady-state absorption and emission, time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopies were used to demonstrate reversible quenching of the first singlet excited state affecting the quantum yield of charge separation by approximately one order of magnitude. As in the natural system, the populations of unquenched and quenched states and, therefore, the overall yields of charge separation were found to be dependent upon acid concentration.

  10. Electrical characterization of standard and radiation-hardened RCA CDP1856D 4-BIT, CMOS, bus buffer/separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Tests performed to determine accuracy and efficiency of bus separators used in microprocessors are presented. Functional, AC parametric, and DC parametric tests were performed in a Tektronix S-3260 automated test system. All the devices passed the functional tests and yielded nominal values in the parametric test.

  11. A multichannel gel electrophoresis and continuous fraction collection apparatus for high-throughput protein separation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Megan; Nordmeyer, Robert A; Cornell, Earl; Dong, Ming; Biggin, Mark D; Jin, Jian

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate a direct interface between protein separation by PAGE and protein identification by mass spectrometry, we developed a multichannel system that continuously collects fractions as protein bands migrate off the bottom of gel electrophoresis columns. The device was constructed using several short linear gel columns, each of a different percent acrylamide, to achieve a separation power similar to that of a long gradient gel. A "Counter Free-Flow" elution technique then allows continuous and simultaneous fraction collection from multiple channels at low cost. We demonstrate that rapid, high-resolution separation of a complex protein mixture can be achieved on this system using SDS-PAGE. In a 2.5 h electrophoresis run, for example, each sample was separated and eluted into 48-96 fractions over a mass range of approximately 10-150 kDa; sample recovery rates were 50% or higher; each channel was loaded with up to 0.3 mg of protein in 0.4 mL; and a purified band was eluted in two to three fractions (200 microL/fraction). Similar results were obtained when running native gel electrophoresis, but protein aggregation limited the loading capacity to about 50 microg per channel and reduced resolution.

  12. A multi-channel gel electrophoresis and continuous fraction collection apparatus for high throughput protein separation and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Megan; Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Cornell, Earl; Dong, Ming; Biggin, Mark D.; Jin, Jian

    2009-10-02

    To facilitate a direct interface between protein separation by PAGE and protein identification by mass spectrometry, we developed a multichannel system that continuously collects fractions as protein bands migrate off the bottom of gel electrophoresis columns. The device was constructed using several short linear gel columns, each of a different percent acrylamide, to achieve a separation power similar to that of a long gradient gel. A Counter Free-Flow elution technique then allows continuous and simultaneous fraction collection from multiple channels at low cost. We demonstrate that rapid, high-resolution separation of a complex protein mixture can be achieved on this system using SDS-PAGE. In a 2.5 h electrophoresis run, for example, each sample was separated and eluted into 48-96 fractions over a mass range of 10-150 kDa; sample recovery rates were 50percent or higher; each channel was loaded with up to 0.3 mg of protein in 0.4 mL; and a purified band was eluted in two to three fractions (200 L/fraction). Similar results were obtained when running native gel electrophoresis, but protein aggregation limited the loading capacity to about 50 g per channel and reduced resolution.

  13. Study of the Pressure Rise Across Shock Waves Required to Separate Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Coleman Dup; Lange, Roy H

    1952-01-01

    Results are presented of a dimensional study and an experimental investigation of the pressure rise across a shock wave which causes separation of the boundary layer on a flat plate. The experimental part of the investigation was conducted at a Mach number of 3.03 for a Reynolds number range of 2 x 10 (sup) 6 to 19 x 10 (sup) 6. The available experimental data are compared with the predictions of the present study, and the significance of the results obtained is discussed relative to certain practical design problems.

  14. Separation and characterization of NOM by high-performance liquid chromatography and on-line three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, F C; Evans, R D; Dillon, P J

    2003-08-15

    By using high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence detection, we measured fluorescence properties of natural organic matter (NOM) as a function of molecular size (MS) and polarity. The work was carried out with Suwannee River Fulvic Acid, Aldrich Humic Acid, and a naturally occurring river NOM sample. Significant differences in fluorescence maximum pattern were found as NOM was separated chromatographically based on MS and polarity. There existed a strong relationship between MS, fluorescence pattern, and polarity. Humic-, fulvic-, and protein-like fluorescence fractions had distinct hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature. The results suggest that HPSEC may be better for characterizing major fulvic-like fluorescence and smaller MS fractions but not those having humic- and protein-like fluorescence and larger MS, which may be strongly adsorbed onto the HPSEC column because of their hydrophobic nature. This study has significant implications for further understanding the nature of NOM and its complexation with trace metals.

  15. Chromatographic enrichment and subsequent separation of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins from natural seeps and molecular characterization by positive electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Putman, Jonathan C; Rowland, Steven M; Corilo, Yuri E; McKenna, Amy M

    2014-11-04

    We report a novel chromatographic method to enrich and separate nickel and vanadyl porphyrins from a natural seep sample and combine molecular level characterization by positive-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Vanadyl and nickel porphyrin model compound elution from primary secondary amine (PSA) stationary phase combined with UV-vis spectroscopy confirms enrichment and subsequent fractionation of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins into polarity-based subfractions. A more than 100-fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio for nickel porphyrins enables unequivocal elemental composition assignment confirmed by isotopic fine structure for all isotopes >1% relative abundance, and the first mass spectral identification of (61)Ni porphyrin isotopologues derived from natural seeps. Oxygen-containing vanadyl porphyrins and sulfur-containing vanadyl porphyrins are isolated in the same fraction simultaneously from the same sample. We provide the first chromatographic evidence of carboxylic acid functionalities peripheral to the porphyrin core, in agreement with previous studies.

  16. Further theoretical studies of modified cyclone separator as a diesel soot particulate emission arrester.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, N; Bose, P K

    2009-10-01

    Soot particulate emission reduction from diesel engine is one of the most emerging problems associated with the exhaust pollution. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) hold out the prospects of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions but the question of the reliable regeneration of filters still remains a difficult hurdle to overcome. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from design complexity, cost, regeneration problem and energy demands. This study presents a computer aided theoretical analysis for controlling diesel soot particulate emission by cyclone separator--a non contact type particulate removal system considering outer vortex flow, inner vortex flow and packed ceramic fiber filter at the end of vortex finder tube. Cyclone separator with low initial cost, simple construction produces low back pressure and reasonably high collection efficiencies with reduced regeneration problems. Cyclone separator is modified by placing a continuous ceramic packed fiber filter placed at the end of the vortex finder tube. In this work, the grade efficiency model of diesel soot particulate emission is proposed considering outer vortex, inner vortex and the continuous ceramic packed fiber filter. Pressure drop model is also proposed considering the effect of the ceramic fiber filter. Proposed model gives reasonably good collection efficiency with permissible pressure drop limit of diesel engine operation. Theoretical approach is predicted for calculating the cut size diameter considering the effect of Cunningham molecular slip correction factor. The result shows good agreements with existing cyclone and DPF flow characteristics.

  17. Are Attitudes Toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study With Primary Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether or not attitude towards writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude towards reading for young, beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). Each child was individually administered a 24 item attitude measure, which contained 12 items assessing attitude towards writing and 12 parallel items for reading. Students also wrote a narrative about a personal event in their life. A factor analysis of the 24 item attitude measure provided evidence that generally support the contention that writing and reading attitudes are separable constructs for young beginning writers, as it yielded three factors: a writing attitude factor with 9 items, a reading attitude factor with 9 parallel items, and an attitude about literacy interactions with others factor containing 4 items (2 items in writing and 2 parallel items in reading). Further validation that attitude towards writing is a separable construct from attitude towards reading was obtained at the third-grade level, where writing attitude made a unique and significant contribution, beyond the other two attitude measures, to the prediction of three measures of writing: quality, length, and longest correct word sequence. At the first-grade level, none of the 3 attitude measures predicted students’ writing performance. Finally, girls had more positive attitudes concerning reading and writing than boys. PMID:22736933

  18. Defective germanene as a high-efficiency helium separation membrane: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Chang, Xiao; He, Daliang; Xue, Qingzhong; Li, Xiaofang; Jin, Yakang; Zheng, Haixia; Ling, Cuicui

    2017-03-01

    Development of low energy cost membranes for separating helium from natural gas is highly desired. Using van der Waals-corrected first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we theoretically investigate the helium separation performance of divacancy-defective germanene. The 555 777 divacancy-defective germanene presents a 0.53 eV energy barrier for helium, which is slightly larger than the energy threshold value of gas molecule penetration of a membrane (0.5 eV). Thus, the 555 777 divacancy-defective germanene is difficult for helium to permeate, except under high temperature or pressure. However, the 585 divacancy-defective germanene presents a surmountable energy barrier (0.27 eV) for helium, and it shows extremely high helium selectivities relative to other studied gas molecules. Especially, the He/Ne selectivity can be as high as 1 × 104 at room temperature. Together with the acceptable permeance for helium, the 585 divacancy-defective germanene can be used for helium separation with remarkably good performance.

  19. Numerical study of secondary separation in glancing shock/turbulent boundary layer interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaras, Argyris G.; Stanewsky, Egon

    1992-07-01

    Experimentally it has been found that in moderate strength glancing shock/turbulent boundary layer interactions, as they occur, e.g., in supersonic and hypersonic intakes, a secondary separation line appears in the surface flow pattern. In the present paper, a flow of this type, studied at the Pennsylvania State University, is simulated numerically. It is shown that if the turbulence model of Baldwin and Lomax is applied according to the physics of the flow, the resulting solution agrees very well with the experimental evidence (wall pressure, skin friction, flow angle). Then, post-processing of the solution reveals that in this type of interaction the secondary separation phenomenon is similar to that observed in flows around bodies at high incidence. Furthermore, it has been found that the secondary separation adversely affects the conical nature of the flow. The dynamic characteristics of the conical vortex which are known to appear in these types of flow change in such a way that the various flow parameters exhibit a variation along conical rays in the region of the conical vortex, instead of remaining constant, a requirement for a purely conical flow.

  20. Defective germanene as a high-efficiency helium separation membrane: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Chang, Xiao; He, Daliang; Xue, Qingzhong; Li, Xiaofang; Jin, Yakang; Zheng, Haixia; Ling, Cuicui

    2017-03-01

    Development of low energy cost membranes for separating helium from natural gas is highly desired. Using van der Waals-corrected first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we theoretically investigate the helium separation performance of divacancy-defective germanene. The 555 777 divacancy-defective germanene presents a 0.53 eV energy barrier for helium, which is slightly larger than the energy threshold value of gas molecule penetration of a membrane (0.5 eV). Thus, the 555 777 divacancy-defective germanene is difficult for helium to permeate, except under high temperature or pressure. However, the 585 divacancy-defective germanene presents a surmountable energy barrier (0.27 eV) for helium, and it shows extremely high helium selectivities relative to other studied gas molecules. Especially, the He/Ne selectivity can be as high as 1 × 10(4) at room temperature. Together with the acceptable permeance for helium, the 585 divacancy-defective germanene can be used for helium separation with remarkably good performance.

  1. Separation and characterization of a salt-dependent pectin methylesterase from Citrus sinensis var. Valencia fruit tissue.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Randall G; Savary, Brett J; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Fishman, Marshall L; Chau, Hoa K; Baker, Robert A; Grohmann, Karel

    2003-03-26

    A pectin methylesterase (PME) from sweet orange fruit rag tissue, which does not destabilize citrus juice cloud, has been characterized. It is a salt-dependent PME (type II) and exhibits optimal activity between 0.1 and 0.2 M NaCl at pH 7.5. The pH optimum shifted to a more alkaline range as the salt molarity decreased (pH 8.5-9.5 at 50 mM NaCl). It has an apparent molecular mass of 32.4 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography, an apparent molecular mass of 33.5 kDa as determined by denaturing electrophoresis, and a pI of 10.1 and exhibits a single activity band after isoelectric focusing (IEF). It has a K(m) of 0.0487 mg/mL and a V(max) of 4.2378 nkat/mg of protein on 59% DE citrus pectin. Deblocking the N-terminus revealed a partial peptide composed of SVTPNV. De-esterification of non-calcium-sensitive pectin by 6.5% increased the calcium-sensitive pectin ratio (CSPR) from 0.045 +/- 0.011 to 0.829 +/- 0.033 but had little, if any, effect on pectin molecular weight. These properties indicate this enzyme will be useful for studying the PME mode of action as it relates to juice cloud destabilization.

  2. Glycoform Separation and Characterization of Cetuximab Variants by Middle-up Off-Line Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-UV/Electrospray Ionization-MS.

    PubMed

    Biacchi, Michael; Gahoual, Rabah; Said, Nassur; Beck, Alain; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle; François, Yannis-Nicolas

    2015-06-16

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are highly complex glycoproteins that present a wide range of microheterogeneities that requires multiple analytical methods for full structure assessment and quality control. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CZE-MS) couplings, especially by electrospray ionization (ESI), appear to be really attractive methods for the characterization of biological samples. However, due to the presence of non- or medium volatile salts in the background electrolyte (BGE), online CZE-ESI-MS coupling is difficult to implement for mAbs isoforms separation. Here, we report an original strategy to perform off-line CZE-ESI-MS using CZE-UV/fraction collection technology to perform CZE separation, followed by ESI-MS infusion of the different fractions using the capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization (CESI) interface as the nanoESI infusion platform. As the aim is to conserve electrophoretic resolution and complete compatibility with ESI-MS without sample treatment, hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) coated capillary was used to prevent analyte adsorption and asymmetric CZE conditions involving different BGE at both ends of the capillary have been developed. The efficiency of our strategy was validated with the separation of Cetuximab charge variant by the middle-up approach. Molecular weights were measured for six charge variants detected in the CZE separation of Cetuximab subunits. The first three peaks correspond to Fc/2 variants with electrophoretic resolution up to 2.10, and the last three peaks correspond to F(ab')2 variants with average electrophoretic resolution of 1.05. Two Fc/2 C-terminal lysine variants were identified and separated. Moreover, separation of Fc/2 fragments allowed the glycoprofiling of the variants with the characterization of 7 different glycoforms. Regarding the F(ab')2 domain, 8 glycoforms were detected and separated in three different peaks following the presence of N-glycolyl neuraminic acid residues in some

  3. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  4. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  5. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  6. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  7. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  8. Numerical study of insulator-based dielectrophoresis method for circulating tumor cell separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaamoo, Mohammad; Aghilinejad, Arian; Chen, Xiaolin

    2017-02-01

    Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is known as a powerful technique for separation and manipulation of bioparticles. In recent years, iDEP designs using arrays of insulating posts have shown promising results towards reaching high-efficient bioparticles manipulation. However, there is still an essential need for providing comprehensive design guidelines and further optimizing such devices. In this research, we utilized numerical simulation to study, in detail, insulating posts iDEP technique with the specific application of bioparticles separation. To achieve this, we first developed a robust numerical model to predict the electric and fluid flow fields' distribution, and how bioparticles are being manipulated inside the system. This enabled us to study the fundamental principles of such an iDEP method. In the next step, different design aspects of insulating posts iDEP were investigated. Specifically, we focused on the effect of posts geometry and configuration on the systems' key operation criteria such as the effectiveness of the electric field non-uniformity, the flow velocity distribution and shear stress rates. Furthermore, we studied how different electrodes' setup may affect the electric field distribution and consequently the device performance. Finally, the developed numerical tool was used to demonstrate separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from white blood cells (WBCs). For this purpose, MDA-231 breast cancer cells and Granulocytes were chosen as an indicator of CTCs ad WBCs. Our developed numerical model and presented results lay the groundwork for design and fabrication of high-efficient insulating posts iDEP microchips.

  9. A numerical and experimental study of the effects of dynamic roughness on laminar leading edge separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Peter D.

    The aircraft industry, as a whole, has been deeply concerned with improving the aerodynamic efficiency of current and future flight vehicles, particularly in the commercial and military markets. However, of particular interest to the field of aerodynamics is the elusive concept of a workable flow control mechanism. Effective flow control is a concept which if properly applied can increase aerodynamic efficiency. Various concepts and ideas to obtain successful flow control have been studied in an attempt to reap these rewards. Some examples include boundary layer blowing (steady and periodic), suction, and compliant walls for laminar flow control. The overall goal of flow control is to increase performance by increasing lift, reducing drag, and delaying or eliminating leading edge separation. The specific objectives of flow control are to (1) delay or eliminate flow separation, (2) delay boundary layer transition, and (3) and reduce skin friction drag. The purpose of this research is to investigate dynamic roughness as a novel method of flow control technology for external boundary layer flows. As opposed to standard surface roughness, dynamic roughness incorporates small time dependent perturbations to the surface of the airfoil. These surface perturbations are actual humps and/or ridges on the surface of the airfoil that are on the scale of the laminar boundary, and oscillate with an unsteady motion. Research has shown that this can provide a means to modify the instantaneous and mean velocity profile near the wall and favorably control the existing state of the boundary layer. Several flow control parameters were studied including dynamic roughness frequency, amplitude, and geometry. The results of this study have shown, both numerically and experimentally, that dynamic roughness can provide an effective means for eliminating both a short and long laminar separation bubble and possibly prove a viable alternative in effective flow control, hence reaping some of

  10. Map Separates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps are printed using up to six colors (black, blue, green, red, brown, and purple). To prepare your own maps or artwork based on maps, you can order separate black-and-white film positives or negatives for any color printed on a USGS topographic map, or for one or more of the groups of related features printed in the same color on the map (such as drainage and drainage names from the blue plate.) In this document, examples are shown with appropriate ink color to illustrate the various separates. When purchased, separates are black-and-white film negatives or positives. After you receive a film separate or composite from the USGS, you can crop, enlarge or reduce, and edit to add or remove details to suit your special needs. For example, you can adapt the separates for making regional and local planning maps or for doing many kinds of studies or promotions by using the features you select and then printing them in colors of your choice.

  11. Branched polymers characterized by comprehensive two-dimensional separations with fully orthogonal mechanisms: molecular-topology fractionation×size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Edam, Rob; Mes, Edwin P C; Meunier, David M; Van Damme, Freddy A; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2014-10-31

    Polymer separations under non-conventional conditions have been explored to obtain a separation of long-chain branched polymers from linear polymers with identical hydrodynamic size. In separation media with flow-through channels of the same order as the size of the analyte molecules in solution, the separation and the elution order of polymers are strongly affected by the flow rate. At low flow rates, the largest polymers are eluted last. At high flow rates, they are eluted first. By tuning the channel size and flow rate, conditions can be found where separation becomes independent of molar mass or size of linear polymers. Long-chain branched polymers did experience lower migration rates under these conditions and can be separated from linear polymers. This type of separation is referred to as molecular-topology fractionation (MTF) at critical conditions. Separation by comprehensive two-dimensional molecular-topology fractionation and size-exclusion chromatography (MTF×SEC) was used to study the retention characteristics of MTF. Branching selectivity was demonstrated for three- and four-arm "star" polystyrenes of 3-5×10(6)g/mol molar mass. Baseline separation could be obtained between linear polymer, Y-shaped molecules, and X-shaped molecules in a single experiment at constant flow rate. For randomly branched polymers, the branching selectivity inevitably results in an envelope of peaks, because it is not possible to fully resolve the huge numbers of different branched and linear polymers of varying molar mass. It was concluded that MTF involves partial deformation of polymer coils in solution. The increased coil density and resistance to deformation can explain the different retention behavior of branched molecules.

  12. Reducing Societal Obesity: Establishing a Separate Exercise Model through Studies of Group Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Puterbaugh, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The past 50 years has brought attention to high and increasing levels of human obesity in most of the industrialized world. The medical profession has noticed, has evaluated, and has developed models for studying, preventing, and reversing obesity. The current model prescribes activity in specific quantities such as days, minutes, heart rates, and footfalls. Although decreased levels of activity have come from changes revolving around built environments and social networks, the existing medical model to lower body weights by increasing activity remains individually prescriptive. It is not working. The study of societal obesity precludes the individual and must involve group behavioral studies. Such studies necessitate acquiring separate tools and, therefore, require a significant change in the evaluation and treatment of obesity. Finding groups with common activities and lower levels of obesity would allow the development of new models of land use and encourage active lifestyles through shared interests. PMID:27429800

  13. Experimental and Model Studies on Continuous Separation of 2-Phenylpropionic Acid Enantiomers by Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Centrifugal Contactor Separators.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kewen; Zhang, Pangliang; Yin, Shuangfeng

    2016-03-01

    Multistage enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) of 2-phenylpropionic acid (2-PPA) enantiomers using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as extractant was studied experimentally in a counter-current cascade of centrifugal contactor separators (CCSs). Performance of the process was evaluated by purity (enantiomeric excess, ee) and yield (Y). A multistage equilibrium model was established on the basis of single-stage model for chiral extraction of 2-PPA enantiomers and the law of mass conservation. A series of experiments on the extract phase/washing phase ratio (W/O ratio), extractant concentration, the pH value of aqueous phase, and the number of stages was conducted to verify the multistage equilibrium model. It was found that model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. The model was applied to predict and optimize the symmetrical separation of 2-PPA enantiomers. The optimal conditions for symmetric separation involves a W/O ratio of 0.6, pH of 2.5, and HP-β-CD concentration of 0.1 mol L(-1) at a temperature of 278 K, where eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach up to 37% and Yeq (equal yield) to 69%. By simulation and optimization, the minimum number of stages was evaluated at 98 and 106 for eeeq > 95% and eeeq > 97%.

  14. Separation and sampling of ice nucleation chamber generated ice particles by means of the counterflow virtual impactor technique for the characterization of ambient ice nuclei.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Ludwig; Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Frank, Fabian; Nillius, Björn; Worringen, Annette; Kandler, Konrad; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, the German research foundation (DFG) research group called Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT (FOR 1525, project STR 453/7-1) was established with the objective to achieve a better understanding concerning heterogeneous ice formation. The presented work is part of INUIT and aims for a better microphysical and chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles that have the potential to act as ice nuclei (IN). For this purpose a counterflow virtual impactor (Kulkarni et al., 2011) system (IN-PCVI) was developed and characterized in order to separate and collect ice particles generated in the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH; Bundke et al., 2008) and to release their IN for further analysis. Here the IN-PCVI was used for the inertial separation of the IN counter produced ice particles from smaller drops and interstitial particles. This is realized by a counterflow that matches the FINCH output flow inside the IN-PCVI. The choice of these flows determines the aerodynamic cut-off diameter. The collected ice particles are transferred into the IN-PCVI sample flow where they are completely evaporated in a particle-free and dry carrier air. In this way, the aerosol particles detected as IN by the IN counter can be extracted and distributed to several particle sensors. This coupled setup FINCH, IN-PCVI and aerosol instrumentation was deployed during the INUIT-JFJ joint measurement field campaign at the research station Jungfraujoch (3580m asl). Downstream of the IN-PCVI, the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ALABAMA; Brands et al., 2011) was attached for the chemical analysis of the atmospheric IN. Also, number concentration and size distribution of IN were measured online (TROPOS) and IN impactor samples for electron microscopy (TU Darmstadt) were taken. Therefore the IN-PCVI was operated with different flow settings than known from literature (Kulkarni et al., 2011), which required a further characterisation of its cut

  15. Development of a perfusion ion-exchange chromatography method for the separation of soybean proteins and its application to cultivar characterization.

    PubMed

    Heras, J M; Marina, M L; García, M C

    2007-06-15

    A perfusion ion-exchange chromatography method has been designed, for the first time, for the separation of soybean proteins and its application to the characterization of soybean cultivars. For that purpose, the gradient, the mobile phase composition (buffer concentration, buffer pH, and elution salt), and the temperature were optimized. The method consisted of a two-step gradient (0% B for 2 min and from 0 to 50% B in 10 min) being mobile phase A a 2 0mM borate buffer (pH 9) and mobile phase B a 20 mM borate buffer (pH 9) containing 1M sodium chloride. The procedure used for the preparation of sample solutions was significantly simpler than that proposed by other authors and basically consisted of dissolving in water. This method enabled the separation of soybean proteins from a soybean protein isolate in 11 peaks in about 9 min. The method was used to separate soybean proteins in different commercial soybeans. In general, the 11 peaks yielded by the soybean protein isolate were also observed in the chromatograms of all soybeans. However, the area percentages of every peak in every soybean enabled the differentiation between soybeans. Moreover, the method was also used to separate soybean proteins in the proteic fractions obtained from every soybean. Multivariate methods were used for patterns recognition and the classification of samples.

  16. Study on a novel process for the separation of phospholipids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol from egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Su, Yujie; Tian, Ying; Yan, Ruhui; Wang, Chenying; Niu, Fuge; Yang, Yanjun

    2015-07-01

    A novel process for effective separation of phospholipids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol from fresh egg yolk has been developed and validated in this study. Ethanol was the only organic solvent used in the whole procedure. Following initial separation of protein and total lipids by ethanol, most of solidified triacylglycerol was removed from total lipids by low temperature treatment of ethanol extracts within 10 h. Then, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was used to remove cholesterol from the remaining ethanol extracts and recycling of β-CD was also studied to obtain cholesterol and reusable β-CD powder. The highest cholesterol removal rate of nearly 99 % was obtained at β-CD: cholesterol molar ratio of 5:1, water addition of 15 g/g β-CD and reacting temperature of 50 °C. Ethanol in residual ethanol extracts was removed for obtaining phospholipids by rotary evaporation. The phospholipids produced in this procedure without cholesterol could be safety used as emulsifiers in food or cosmetic industry.

  17. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  18. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  19. Multi-instrument remote sensor characterization study

    SciTech Connect

    Riese, C.; Best, L.; McLaughlin, S.; Eaton, F.; Hines, J.; Peterman, R.

    1996-12-31

    During April 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, sponsored a Ground-Based Remote Sensor Characterization Study at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) near Erie, Colorado. The BAO is a 300-meter instrumented tower used as a ground-truth profile device for calibrating tower mounted in-situ or ground-based remote sensors. The following remote sensors were evaluated: 915 MHZ Boundary Layer Radar Profiler; Phased Array Sodar; Fixed-Beam Sodar; and 2.7 GHz FM-CW Backscatter Radar Profiler. This paper examines the excellent agreement among these various instruments and the BAO tower using traditional comparative graphic plots and tables. Data were collected at the BAO site continuously over a one-month period. The variety of synoptic weather features and diurnal inversion cycles during the month made the comparisons particularly useful for objective data comparison analyses. The relationship between the remote sensor data and current issues of air pollution meteorology such as tropospheric ozone management strategies is also examined.

  20. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine stability, solubility, octanol...

  1. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine stability, solubility, octanol...

  2. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine stability, solubility, octanol...

  3. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine stability, solubility, octanol...

  4. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine stability, solubility, octanol...

  5. Numerical study of lift augmentation in massively separated turbulent flows with forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Andrew Gregory

    At high angles of attack the flow over any lifting body experiences massive separation. The resulting shear layers naturally tend to roll up into large vortical structures. The presence and motion of these structures has a significant impact on the continuing flowfield development. By applying an artificial forcing to the shedding shear layer the rollup can be intensified or reduced, and the entire vorticity field may be altered. Control of these vortical structures by forcing to enhance lift has been the goal of numerous investigations, and some progress has been made in understanding how an unsteady forcing can be used to advantage. This study describes work done in determining the effectiveness of using computational simulations to model massively separated, turbulent unsteady flowfields subject to small-amplitude mechanical forcing. Algorithm development and validation highlight certain concerns that arise in the modeling of such unsteady flowfields using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, and questions of grid density, numerical diffusion, timestep size, and turbulence modeling are addressed with a suite of sample calculations. Simulation of flowfields undergoing mechanical forcing by flap is accomplished using an overset grid methodology with the flow solver. Excellent agreement is demonstrated for flow over a NACA 63sb3-018 airfoil with a small flap placed near the leading edge separation point. Computed values of the unforced lift and drag coefficients agree with given experimental values to less than 2%. Forcing frequencies for the experimental configuration were in the range of global shedding frequency, and the maximum variation of the aerodynamic coefficients was seen when the forcing frequency was equal to the shedding frequency. Excellent agreement with experiment is also found for the cases involving forcing, and the data is used to explain the effect of forcing in terms of a global receptivity mechanism.

  6. An fMRI study of the brain responses of traumatized mothers to viewing their toddlers during separation and play.

    PubMed

    Schechter, Daniel S; Moser, Dominik A; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel; Hao, XueJun; Duan, Yunsuo; Yu, Shan; Gunter, Benjamin; Murphy, David; McCaw, Jaime; Kangarlu, Alayar; Willheim, Erica; Myers, Michael M; Hofer, Myron A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2012-11-01

    This study tested whether mothers with interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) vs healthy controls (HC) would show greater limbic and less frontocortical activity when viewing young children during separation compared to quiet play. Mothers of 20 children (12-42 months) participated: 11 IPV-PTSD mothers and 9 HC with no PTSD. During fMRI, mothers watched epochs of play and separation from their own and unfamiliar children. The study focused on comparison of PTSD mothers vs HC viewing children in separation vs play, and viewing own vs unfamiliar children in separation. Both groups showed distinct patterns of brain activation in response to viewing children in separation vs play. PTSD mothers showed greater limbic and less frontocortical activity (BA10) than HC. PTSD mothers also reported feeling more stressed than HC when watching own and unfamiliar children during separation. Their self-reported stress was associated with greater limbic and less frontocortical activity. Both groups also showed distinct patterns of brain activation in response to viewing their own vs unfamiliar children during separation. PTSD mothers' may not have access to frontocortical regulation of limbic response upon seeing own and unfamiliar children in separation. This converges with previously reported associations of maternal IPV-PTSD and atypical caregiving behavior following separation.

  7. An fMRI study of the brain responses of traumatized mothers to viewing their toddlers during separation and play

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Dominik A.; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel; Hao, XueJun; Duan, Yunsuo; Yu, Shan; Gunter, Benjamin; Murphy, David; McCaw, Jaime; Kangarlu, Alayar; Willheim, Erica; Myers, Michael M.; Hofer, Myron A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether mothers with interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) vs healthy controls (HC) would show greater limbic and less frontocortical activity when viewing young children during separation compared to quiet play. Mothers of 20 children (12–42 months) participated: 11 IPV-PTSD mothers and 9 HC with no PTSD. During fMRI, mothers watched epochs of play and separation from their own and unfamiliar children. The study focused on comparison of PTSD mothers vs HC viewing children in separation vs play, and viewing own vs unfamiliar children in separation. Both groups showed distinct patterns of brain activation in response to viewing children in separation vs play. PTSD mothers showed greater limbic and less frontocortical activity (BA10) than HC. PTSD mothers also reported feeling more stressed than HC when watching own and unfamiliar children during separation. Their self-reported stress was associated with greater limbic and less frontocortical activity. Both groups also showed distinct patterns of brain activation in response to viewing their own vs unfamiliar children during separation. PTSD mothers’ may not have access to frontocortical regulation of limbic response upon seeing own and unfamiliar children in separation. This converges with previously reported associations of maternal IPV-PTSD and atypical caregiving behavior following separation. PMID:22021653

  8. TANK 4 CHARACTERIZATION, SETTLING, AND WASHING STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-09-29

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an

  9. A study on the characterization of dustfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Mustafa; Boybay, Mustafa

    A study was conducted of the dustfall around Elaziǧ cement plant in Turkey. The work concentrated, particularly, on the characterization of particles. The soluble, insoluble, ignitable and unignitable fractions of particles were determined. The composition of dust pollution and its variation with meteorological parameters, location and seasons, and the chemical and mineralogical composition, and trace element contents of particles were also studied. The experimental work was carried out at seven sampling station for 15 months. The average rate of dust deposition over the area was 36.37 gm -2 month -1. The rates of deposition for insoluble (in water) and ignitable (at 900°C) particles are 26.95 and 8.51 gm -2 month -1, respectively. The equilibrium pH of solutions shows that the particles deposited are rather alkaline in character. During the warm season the mean pH value is 8.63, during the cold season it is 6.49. The reduction of pH may be caused by acidic oxides such as SO 2 originating from combustion processes. Calcium, silicon, aluminiun and iron are the main constituents of the particles. The general view of composition is similar to cement or its raw materials. The XRD analysis shows that crystalline compounds are calcite, quartz, albite, muscovite, chlorite, edenite, dicalcium silicate and, possibly, other cement compounds and hydration products. The ratios of heavy metals such as Pb, Mn, Ni and Co are significant. The maximum concentration of lead was found to be 3600 mg kg -1.

  10. Separation and partial characterization of smooth muscle contractile material in the venom of the scorpion Heterometrus bengalensis.

    PubMed

    Kar, P K; Sarangi, B; Datta, A; Gomes, A; Lahiri, S C

    1983-01-01

    A smooth muscle contractile material was separated from crude venom of the scorpion Heterometrus bengalensis (found in Eastern India) by solvent extraction, gel filtration and thin layer chromatography. Smooth muscle contractile material could be extracted, in descending order of efficiency, with methanol, butanol, ethanol and acetone. The contractile material separated by gel filtration (Sephadex G-25) when further extracted, using the Folch procedure, showed a single spot in thin layer chromatography with one solvent system. Rechromatography of an eluate from this spot with another solvent system resolved it into three spots (SL1, SL2 and SL3, the mixture being designated as Substance L) which could be visualized either with iodine vapour, ninhydrin or molybdenum reagent. Eluates from the three spots contracted guinea-pig ileum which had been pretreated with antagonists of ACh, histamine, 5-HT and prostaglandins. Substance L and its fractions (SL1, SL2 and SL3) contain inorganic phosphorus, amino nitrogen and amino sugar, which point to the likelihood of their being glycophosphatides.

  11. Environmental niche separation between native and non-native benthic invertebrate species: Case study of the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Jänes, Holger; Herkül, Kristjan; Kotta, Jonne

    2017-09-15

    Knowledge and understanding of geographic distributions of species is crucial for many aspects in ecology, conservation, policy making and management. In order to reach such an understanding, it is important to know abiotic variables that impact and drive distributions of native and non-native species. We used an existing long-term macrobenthos database for species presence-absence information and biomass estimates at different environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea. Region specific abiotic variables (e.g. salinity, depth) were derived from previously constructed bathymetric and hydrodynamic models. Multidimensional ordination techniques were then applied to investigate potential niche space separation between all native and non-native invertebrates in the northern Baltic Sea. Such an approach allowed to obtain data rich and robust estimates of the current native and non-native species distributions and outline important abiotic parameters influencing the observed pattern. The results showed clear niche space separation between native and non-native species. Non-native species were situated in an environmental space characterized by reduced salinity, high temperatures, high proportion of soft seabed and decreased depth and wave exposure whereas native species displayed an opposite pattern. Different placement of native and non-native species along the studied environmental niche space is likely to be explained by the differences in their evolutionary history, human mediated activities and geological youth of the Baltic Sea. The results of this study can provide early warnings and effectively outline coastal areas in the northern Baltic Sea that are prone to further range expansion of non-native species as climate change is expected to significantly reduce salinity and increase temperature in wide coastal areas, both supporting the disappearance of native and appearance of non-native species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In situ nanomanipulators as a tool to separate individual tobermorite crystals for AFM studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianhe; Holzer, Lorenz; Kägi, Ralf; Winnefeld, Frank; Keller, Bruno

    2007-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of cementitious materials are limited, mainly due to the lack of appropriate sample preparation techniques. In porous autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is produced in its crystalline form, tobermorite. The crystals are lath-like with a length of several micrometers. In this work, we demonstrate the application of nanomanipulators to separate an individual tobermorite crystal from the bulk AAC for subsequent AFM investigations. The nanomanipulators are operated directly in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). We studied the interaction between moisture and the tobermorite surface under controlled relative humidity (RH). The results of topography and adhesion force measurements with AFM suggest that the surface of tobermorite is hydrophobic, which contrasts the macroscopic material properties (e.g. moisture transport in capillary pores).

  13. Study on the Correlation between Humidity and Material Strains in Separable Micro Humidity Sensor Design

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Incidents of injuries caused by tiles falling from building exterior walls are frequently reported in Taiwan. Humidity is an influential factor in tile deterioration but it is more difficult to measure the humidity inside a building structure than the humidity in an indoor environment. Therefore, a separable microsensor was developed in this study to measure the humidity of the cement mortar layer with a thickness of 1.5–2 cm inside the external wall of a building. 3D printing technology is used to produce an encapsulation box that can protect the sensor from damage caused by the concrete and cement mortar. The sensor is proven in this study to be capable of measuring temperature and humidity simultaneously and the measurement results are then used to analyze the influence of humidity on external wall tile deterioration. PMID:28481300

  14. Transient absorption studies of the primary charge separation in photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, B.; Walker, L.A. II; Yocum, C.F.; Sension, R.J.

    1996-02-01

    Femtosecond transient absorption studies of the primary charge separation in photosystem II (PSII) are presented. A careful study of the dependence of the observed signal on laser intensity demonstrates that the multiple excitation of reaction centers produces additional fast components not observed at low excitation energy. In the regime where the observed signals are linear with excitation energy, a 20 {+-} 2 ps rise of the pheophytin anion absorption, bleach of the pheophytin Q{sub {chi}} absorption, and appearance of the chlorophyll cation absorption are observed. Three different protocols, involving varying exposure of the PSII complex to the detergent Triton X-100, are used to prepare D1-D2-cyt b{sub 559} complexes from spinach. The kinetic signals are independent of the method of sample preparation. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Simulation of π0-γ separation study for proposed CMS forward electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Roy, Ashim; Jain, Shilpi; Banerjee, Sunanda; ...

    2016-11-11

    The Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS detector is going to be upgraded in the high luminosity running as the energy of the present Electromagnetic Calorimeter (PbWO4) will degrade in the high luminosity (luminosity 1034 cm-2 s-1) running due to extensive radiation (hadron flux 1013 neutrons cm,-2). Shashlik Electromagnetic Calorimeter which consists of alternate layers of 1.5 mm LYSO(Ce) crystal plates and 2.5 mm Tungsten absorbers, was a proposal for high luminosity running. One of the performance points for any electromagnetic calorimeter is the ability to separate π0 s from true photons, since final states with photons are a cleanmore » and one of the most important final states in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. As a result, the objective of this project is to study the possibility of π0 and γ separation in the Shashlik detector using Multivariate Analysis (MVA) technique.« less

  16. Numerical study of three-dimensional separation and flow control at a wing/body junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Lakshmanan, Balakrishnan

    1989-01-01

    The problem of three-dimensional separation and flow control at a wing/body junction has been investigated numerically using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The numerical code employs an algebraic grid generation technique for generating the grid for unmodified junction and an elliptic grid generation technique for filleted fin junction. The results for laminar flow past a blunt fin/flat plate junction demonstrate that after grid refinement, the computations agree with experiment and reveal a strong dependency of the number of vortices at the junction on Mach number and Reynolds number. The numerical results for pressure distribution, particle paths and limiting streamlines for turbulent flow past a swept fin show a decrease in the peak pressure and in the extent of the separated flow region compared to the laminar case. The results for a filleted juncture indicate that the streamline patterns lose much of their vortical character with proper filleting. Fillets with a radius of three and one-half times the fin leading edge diameter or two times the incoming boundary layer thickness, significantly weaken the usual necklace interaction vortex for the Mach number and Reynolds number considered in the present study.

  17. Separation of chiral nanotubes with an opposite handedness by chiral oligopeptide adsorption: A molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Raffaini, Giuseppina; Ganazzoli, Fabio

    2015-12-18

    The separation of enantiomeric chiral nanotubes that can form non-covalent complexes with an unlike stability upon adsorption of chiral molecules is a process of potential interest in different fields and applications. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we report in this paper a theoretical study of the adsorption and denaturation of an oligopeptide formed by 16 chiral amino acids having a helical structure in the native state on both the inner and the outer surface of the chiral (10, 20) and (20, 10) single-walled carbon nanotubes having an opposite handedness, and of the armchair (16, 16) nanotube with a similar diameter for comparison. In the final adsorbed state, the oligopeptide loses in all cases its native helical conformation, assuming elongated geometries that maximize its contact with the surface through all the 16 amino acids. We find that the complexes formed by the two chiral nanotubes and the chosen oligopeptide have a strongly unlike stability both when adsorption takes place on the outer convex surface of the nanotube, and when it occurs on the inner concave surface. Thus, our molecular simulations indicate that separation of chiral, enantiomeric carbon nanotubes for instance by chromatographic methods can indeed be carried out using oligopeptides of a sufficient length.

  18. Compressible DNS study of separation bubbles for flow past a low pressure turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Rajesh; Deshpande, Suresh; Narasimha, Roddam

    2014-11-01

    A representative low pressure turbine blade T106A is subjected to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) study for low Reynolds Number (Re = 51831 based on inflow velocity and axial chord) and angle of incidence (45.5 deg from the axial chord). The DNS code used here solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations and uses a semi-kinetic energy preserving scheme. A hybrid grid is used for the computational domain, with a very fine wall-bounded boundary layer grid near the surface of the blade and an unstructured grid for rest of the domain. Total grid size for the current simulation is around 160 million. In the mean flow, a long but shallow separation bubble is found near the trailing edge. However, the instantaneous flow reveals a train of bubbles at this location. These instantaneous bubbles continually break and merge in time. The presence of these separation bubbles make the flow very complicated, as the bubbles are responsible for tripping the otherwise laminar flow to a transitional state. Skin friction and heat transfer co-efficient are also computed over the blade to understand the effect of these bubbles on parameters of engineering importance. Supported by a GATET funded project on DNS of turbomachinery blading. The Param Yuva-II at CDAC was utilized for the simulations.

  19. Kinetics study of phase separation in polyacrylic acid/nematic LC system by optical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Maria; Krolikowski, Z.

    2002-06-01

    Thin polymer layers containing liquid crystal LC of non- linear optical properties were obtained from polyacrylic acid. Samples were produced by phase separation as a consequence of chemical polymerization (PIPS method) resulting in precipitation of liquid crystals in the form of droplets in a polymer matrix being formed. Films were produced in variable conditions of polymerization time and temperature and different content of an initiator (1 - 3 wt%). They contained of 10 - 40 wt% of LC. The cell thickness was constant and equal to 20 micrometers . Systems obtained in this way were subjected to thermo-optical and electro-optical studies, morphological structure investigation and DSC analysis. The polymerization time has a significant influence on the size and number of LC droplets. The presence of benzoyl peroxide can cause partial destruction of LC properties which is reflected by a decrease of isotropization temperature TI of the liquid crystal. An increase of the initiator amount shortens the time of polymerization (ti), while process enthalpy ((Delta) H) increases. Hence, the liquid crystal separation time decreases as well. Films prepared by this method present good electro-optical properties. Rise and decay times of orientation are short and equal to 2 - 17 ms (depending on driving voltage applied) and about 80 ms, respectively. Threshold voltage for the best sample is equal to 5 V. Optimal conditions are found: LC content equals 20%, wt(i) equals 1%, polymerization temperature Tp equals 100 - 110 degree(s)C.

  20. Key parameters for behaviour related to source separation of household organic waste: A case study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Huong, Luong Thi Mai

    2017-03-01

    Proper management of food waste, a major component of municipal solid waste (MSW), is needed, especially in developing Asian countries where most MSW is disposed of in landfill sites without any pretreatment. Source separation can contribute to solving problems derived from the disposal of food waste. An organic waste source separation and collection programme has been operated in model areas in Hanoi, Vietnam, since 2007. This study proposed three key parameters (participation rate, proper separation rate and proper discharge rate) for behaviour related to source separation of household organic waste, and monitored the progress of the programme based on the physical composition of household waste sampled from 558 households in model programme areas of Hanoi. The results showed that 13.8% of 558 households separated organic waste, and 33.0% discharged mixed (unseparated) waste improperly. About 41.5% (by weight) of the waste collected as organic waste was contaminated by inorganic waste, and one-third of the waste disposed of as organic waste by separators was inorganic waste. We proposed six hypothetical future household behaviour scenarios to help local officials identify a final or midterm goal for the programme. We also suggested that the city government take further actions to increase the number of people participating in separating organic waste, improve the accuracy of separation and prevent non-separators from discharging mixed waste improperly.

  1. Fundamental Characterization Studies of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phivilay, Somphonh Peter

    Solar powered photocatalytic water splitting has been proposed as a method for the production of sustainable, non-carbon hydrogen fuel. Although much technological progress has been achieved in recent years in the discovery of advanced photocatalytic materials, the progress in the fundamental scientific understanding of such novel, complex mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalysts has significantly lagged. One of the major reasons for this slow scientific progress is the limited number of reported surface characterization studies of the complex bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalyst systems. Although photocatalytic splitting of water by bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride materials involves both bulk (generation of excited electrons and holes) and surface phenomena (reaction of H2O with excited electrons and holes at the surface), the photocatalysis community has almost completely ignored the surface characteristics of such complex bulk photocatalysts and correlates the photocatalytic properties with bulk properties. Some of the most promising photocatalyst systems (NaTaO3, GaN, (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) and TaON) were investigated to establish fundamental bulk/surface structure photoactivity relationships. The bulk molecular and electronic structures of the photocatalysts were determined with Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) and transient PL spectroscopy were provided insight into how recombination of photogenerated electrons is related to the photocatalysis activity. The chemical states and atomic compositions of the surface region of the photocatalysts were determined with high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (˜1-3 nm) and high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (˜0.3 nm). The new insights obtained from surface characterization clarified the role of La and Ni promoters species for the NaTaO3 photocatalyst system. The La2O3 additive was found to be a structural promoter that stabilizes small NaTaO3 nanoparticles (NPs

  2. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalavadia, Mital A.; Smith, Leon E.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Mace, Emily K.; Deshmukh, Nikhil S.

    2016-03-01

    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL, and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. The core of the HEVA methodology, the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, serves as an indirect method for the measurement of total neutron emission from the cylinder. A method for measuring the intrinsic efficiency of this “non-traditional” neutron signature and the results from a benchmark experiment are presented. Also discussed are potential perturbing effects on the non-traditional signature, including short-lived activation of materials in the HEVA module. Modeling and empirical results are presented to demonstrate that such effects are expected to be negligible for the envisioned implementation scenario. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  3. Brief characterization of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) immunoglobulin G (IgG) separated from serum on protein A.

    PubMed

    Borucinska, J D; Ayoub, I; Garmendia, A E

    1996-10-01

    Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) immunoglobulin fraction was separated from whole serum by Protein A Sepharose chromatography. In serum electrophoresis, this fraction had a gamma motility; when electrophoresed on a polyacrylamide gel with sodium dodecyl sulfate it resolved into two protein bands of approximately 52 and 25 kilodaltons, respectively. These bands were consistent with molecular weights of known heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in other closely related species. Furthermore, the putative muskrat immunoglobulins had a strong cross-reactivity with mouse IgG1, IgG3, and kappa chain in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We propose, that the proteins bound to the Protein A Sepharose represent muskrat immunoglobulins of the IgG class.

  4. Characterization and mechanical separation of metals from computer Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) based on mineral processing methods.

    PubMed

    Sarvar, Mojtaba; Salarirad, Mohammad Mehdi; Shabani, Mohammad Amin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel mechanical process is proposed for enriching metal content of computer Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). The PCBs are crushed and divided into three different size fractions namely: -0.59, +0.59 to 1.68 and +1.68 mm. Wet jigging and froth flotation methods are selected for metal enrichment. The coarse size fraction (+1.68 mm) is processed by jigging. The plastic free product is grinded and screened. The oversized product is separated as the first concentrate. It was rich of metal because the grinding process was selective. The undersized product is processed by froth flotation. Based on the obtained results, the middle size fraction (+0.59 to 1.68 mm) and the small size fraction (-0.59 mm) are processed by wet jigging and froth flotation respectively. The wet jigging process is optimized by investigating the effect of pulsation frequency and water flow rate. The results of examining the effect of particle size, solid to liquid ratio, conditioning time and using apolar collector showed that collectorless flotation is a promising method for separating nonmetals of PCBs. 95.6%, 97.5% and 85% of metal content of coarse size, middle size and small size fraction are recovered. The grades of obtained concentrates were 63.3%, 92.5% and 75% respectively. The total recovery is calculated as 95.64% and the grade of the final concentrate was 71.26%. Determining the grade of copper and gold in the final product reveals that 4.95% of copper and 24.46% of gold are lost during the concentration. The major part of the lost gold is accumulated in froth flotation tail.

  5. Separated Shoulder

    MedlinePlus

    Separated shoulder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A separated shoulder is an injury to the ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments ...

  6. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds and triterpenoid saponins in licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) using mobile phase-dependent reversed-phase×reversed-phase comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Song, Wei; Ji, Shuai; Wang, Qi; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2015-07-10

    Licorice is one of the most popular herbal medicines worldwide. It contains a big array of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, coumarins, and diphenylethanones). Due to high structural diversity, low abundance, and co-elution with licorice saponins, these phenolic compounds are difficult to be separated by conventional chromatography. In this study, a mobile phase-dependent reversed-phase×reversed phase comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (RP×RP 2DLC) method was established to separate phenolic compounds in licorice (the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis). Organic solvents in the mobile phase were optimized to improve orthogonality of the first and second dimensions, and a synchronized gradient mode was used to improve chromatographic resolution. Finally, licorice extracts were eluted with methanol/water/formic acid in the first dimension (Acquity CSH C18 column), and acetonitrile/water/formic acid in the second dimension (Poroshell Phenyl-Hexyl column). By using this 2DLC system, a total of 311 compounds were detected within 40min. The practical and effective peak capacity was 1329 and 524, respectively, and the orthogonality was 79.8%. The structures of 21 selected unknown compounds were tentatively characterized by mass spectrometry, and 8 of them were discovered from G. uralensis for the first time. The mobile phase-dependent 2DLC/MS system could benefit the separation and characterization of natural products in complicated herbal extracts.

  7. Particle size effects in particle-particle triboelectric charging studied with an integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system

    SciTech Connect

    Bilici, Mihai A.; Toth, Joseph R.; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Lacks, Daniel J.

    2014-10-15

    Fundamental studies of triboelectric charging of granular materials via particle-particle contact are challenging to control and interpret because of foreign material surfaces that are difficult to avoid during contacting and measurement. The measurement of particle charge itself can also induce charging, altering results. Here, we introduce a completely integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system that charges particles solely by interparticle interactions and characterizes their charge on line. Particles are contacted in a free-surface fluidized bed (no reactor walls) with a well-controlled fountain-like flow to regulate particle-particle contact. The charged particles in the fountain are transferred by a pulsed jet of air to the top of a vertically-oriented electrostatic separator consisting of two electrodes at oppositely biased high voltage. The free-falling particles migrate towards the electrodes of opposite charge and are collected by an array of cups where their charge and size can be determined. We carried out experiments on a bidisperse size mixture of soda lime glass particles with systematically varying ratios of concentration. Results show that larger particles fall close to the negative electrode and smaller particles fall close to the positive electrode, consistent with theory and prior experiments that larger particles charge positively and smaller particles charge negatively. The segregation of particles by charge for one of the size components is strongest when its collisions are mostly with particles of the other size component; thus, small particles segregate most strongly to the negative sample when their concentration in the mixture is small (and analogous results occur for the large particles). Furthermore, we find additional size segregation due to granular flow, whereby the fountain becomes enriched in larger particles as the smaller particles are preferentially expelled from the fountain.

  8. Particle size effects in particle-particle triboelectric charging studied with an integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilici, Mihai A.; Toth, Joseph R.; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Lacks, Daniel J.

    2014-10-01

    Fundamental studies of triboelectric charging of granular materials via particle-particle contact are challenging to control and interpret because of foreign material surfaces that are difficult to avoid during contacting and measurement. The measurement of particle charge itself can also induce charging, altering results. Here, we introduce a completely integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system that charges particles solely by interparticle interactions and characterizes their charge on line. Particles are contacted in a free-surface fluidized bed (no reactor walls) with a well-controlled fountain-like flow to regulate particle-particle contact. The charged particles in the fountain are transferred by a pulsed jet of air to the top of a vertically-oriented electrostatic separator consisting of two electrodes at oppositely biased high voltage. The free-falling particles migrate towards the electrodes of opposite charge and are collected by an array of cups where their charge and size can be determined. We carried out experiments on a bidisperse size mixture of soda lime glass particles with systematically varying ratios of concentration. Results show that larger particles fall close to the negative electrode and smaller particles fall close to the positive electrode, consistent with theory and prior experiments that larger particles charge positively and smaller particles charge negatively. The segregation of particles by charge for one of the size components is strongest when its collisions are mostly with particles of the other size component; thus, small particles segregate most strongly to the negative sample when their concentration in the mixture is small (and analogous results occur for the large particles). Furthermore, we find additional size segregation due to granular flow, whereby the fountain becomes enriched in larger particles as the smaller particles are preferentially expelled from the fountain.

  9. Parental separation in childhood, social capital, and suicide thoughts and suicide attempts: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2015-09-30

    Studies of the association between parental separation in childhood and suicide thoughts and attempts are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and ever having had suicide thoughts and ever having made suicide attempt, adjusting for social capital and other covariates. In 2012 a cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and ever having considered suicide or having made suicide attempt were analysed by logistic regression. Overall, 12.1% of the men and 15.5% of the women had experienced suicide thoughts, and 3.2% of the men and 5.3% of the women had ever tried committing suicide. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18, and among women 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was with few exceptions significantly associated with ever having had suicide thoughts with the highest odds ratios for those who had experienced parental separation during ages 0-4 years. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with suicide attempts among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4 and 15-18, and among women at any age 0-18.

  10. Study the influence factors to the adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from green tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, Lan Huong; Tran, Trung Kien; Van Quyet, Chu; Phi, Nguyen Thien

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work is applying adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from extract solution of green tea by-product. The older leaves and stem of green tea tree are collected from Hiep Khanh Tea Company (Hoabinh province, Vietnam). In this study, two kinds of adsorbent (silicagel, active carbon) were applied for the adsorption process in batch stirring vessel. The factors that affected to the process productivity were investigated: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, duration time, stirring speed. The process has been empirically described with statistical models obtained by Design of Experiments. The results indicated that active carbon was verified to offer good adsorption productivity (more than 95%), much more effective than silicagel (with only about 20%). From the model, the most affected factor to the process could be seen as solid/liquid ratio.

  11. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment.

  12. Multidisciplinary study of phase separation in a supersaturated Ni-Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haydn . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Epperson, J.E. )

    1990-07-01

    The subject of {gamma}{prime} precipitation in a Ni-12.5 at. % Si alloy has been studied by modern diffraction and scattering techniques in the small-angle and large angle regimes, and by transmission electron microscopy. Special attention is placed upon the mechanism and kinetic evolution of {gamma}{prime} precipitates as a function of ageing conditions. Methods are shown for the determination of interdiffusion coefficient, the interfacial energy and the coherent solubility. The strain effect, due to lattice mismatch, on the spatial correlation and preferred alignment of precipitates is addressed. Scaling law for the particle growth has been tested against the current theories. Results obtained from the three mutually beneficial techniques are shown to be consistent, thereby allowing an integral view of the phase separation process in this system. 29 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Colloidally separated samples from Allende residues - Noble gases, carbon and an ESCA-study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, U.; Kronenbitter, J.; Flores, J.; Chang, S.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented which strengthen the hypothesis of heterogeneity among the carbon- and nitrogen-bearing phases of the Allende meteorite. These data also highlight the possibility of performing physical separations yielding samples in which some of the noble gas- and carbon-bearing phases are extraordinarily predominant over others. The conclusion, based on mass and isotope balance arguments, that a significant portion of the carbonaceous matter in Allende is likely to be gas-poor or gas-free need not weaken the case for carbonaceous carriers for the major noble gas components. The concept that acid-soluble carbonaceous phases contain a multiplicity of components, each of which may have formed under a multiplicity of different physical-chemical conditions, is reemphasized by the results of the present study.

  14. A numerical study of the unsteady leading edge separation bubble on an oscillating airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreskovsky, J. P.; Shamroth, S. J.; Briley, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary study of the unsteady viscous flow in the region of an airfoil leading edge was performed, in which the interaction between the viscous and inviscid flow fields is neglected. The solution method uses the finite difference form of the governing equations throughout the separated flow field and incorporates a transition model based on the integral turbulence kinetic energy equation. The validity of the numerical procedure is verified by making comparisons with analytical solutions to several test problems, including unsteady flow over a plate oscillating in its own plane. The method was then applied to the problem of unsteady viscous flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil oscillating sinusoidally in pitch. The flow field characteristics were in qualitative agreement with experimental results. The bubble moved forward on the airfoil and decreased in size as incidence was increased. Viscous flow in the leading edge region was found to be quasi-steady, while bubble height varied inversely with Reynolds number.

  15. Adult separation anxiety disorder in complicated grief: an exploratory study on frequency and correlates.

    PubMed

    Gesi, Camilla; Carmassi, Claudia; Shear, Katherine M; Schwartz, Theresa; Ghesquiere, Angela; Khaler, Julie; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Complicated grief (CG) has been the subject of increasing attention in the past decades but its relationship with separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD) is still controversial. The aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence and clinical significance of adult SEPAD in a sample of help-seeking individuals with CG. 151 adults with CG, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of (CG) treatment to that of interpersonal therapy, were assessed by means of the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), the Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27), the Grief Related Avoidance Questionnaire (GRAQ), the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ), and the Impact of Events Scale (IES). 104 (68.9%) individuals with CG were considered to have SEPAD (ASA-27 score ≥22). Individuals with SEPAD were more likely to have reported a CG related to the loss of another close relative or friend (than a parent, spouse/partner or a child) (p=.02), as well as greater scores on the ICG (p=<.001), PDEQ (p=.004), GRAQ (p<.001), intrusion (p<.001) and avoidance (p=<.001) IES subscales, HAM-D (p<.001) and WSAS (p=.006). ASA-27 total scores correlated with ICG (p<.0001), PDEQ (p<.001) GRAQ (p<.0001) scores and both the IES intrusion (p<.0001) and IES avoidance (p<.0001) subscale scores. People with SEPAD had higher rates of lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (p=.04) and panic disorder (PD) (p=.01). SEPAD is highly prevalent among patients with CG and is associated with greater symptom severity and impairment and greater comorbidity with PTSD and PD. Further studies will help to confirm and generalize our results and to determine whether adult SEPAD responds to CG treatment and/or moderates CG treatment response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Splitter imperfections in annular split-flow thin separation channels: experimental study of nonspecific crossover.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Stephen; Decker, Keith; Nakamura, Masayuki; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Moore, Lee R; Zborowski, Maciej

    2003-12-01

    The separation performance of a split-flow thin (SPLITT) separation device depends on uniformity of channel thickness and the precise placement of the flow splitters at fixed distances between the channel walls. The observation of nonspecific crossover, that is, the transport of sample materials across the channel thickness without the influence of an applied field, has routinely been taken to indicate the presence of irregularities in splitter shape or placement. Computational fluid dynamics software may be used to predict the influence of splitter imperfections on nonspecific crossover, where it is assumed that sample transport is by convection alone. A previous study has shown how small inlet splitter imperfections can account for the relatively low levels of nonspecific crossover observed with typical annular SPLITT devices. This study, however, could not distinguish between the possible sources of nonspecific crossover; hydrodynamic lift or shear-induced diffusion could have contributed. To confirm the validity of the computational approach, a series of experiments has been carried out on a channel having a deliberately and severely bent splitter. Nonspecific crossover was measured for a range of inlet and outlet flow rate ratios, with the bent splitter placed at both the channel inlet and outlet. The severity of the splitter distortion was sufficient to produce significant nonspecific crossover over a wide range of flow conditions. Good agreement was found between experiment and prediction based on computational fluid dynamics, with experiment generally showing only slightly higher crossover than prediction. The quantitative agreement for this extreme case suggests that the contribution to nonspecific crossover due to geometrical imperfections can be well described using computational fluid dynamics.

  17. Initial study of dry ultrafine coal beneficiation utilizing triboelectric charging with subsequent electrostatic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Link, T.A.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Elstrodt, R.H.; Haden, N.H.

    1990-10-01

    A novel, dry process using electrostatics to beneficiate ultrafine coal is being developed by the Coal Preparation Division at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. The historical concept of triboelectricity and its eventual use as a means of charging coal for electrostatic separation will be discussed. Test data from a first-generation and a second-generation Tribo-Electrostatic separator are presented showing the effects of feed particle size, separator voltage, solids concentration in air, and particle velocity on separation performance. 10 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Study of the Application of Separation Control by Unsteady Excitation to Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, J. D.; Crouch, J. D.; Stoner, R. C.; Sakurai, S.; Seidel, G. E.; Feifel, W. M.; Rush, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides a preliminary assessment of the potential benefits of applying unsteady separation control to transport aircraft. Estimates are given for some of the costs associated with a specific application to high-lift systems. High-leverage areas for future research were identified during the course of the study. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a coarse screening of potential applications within the aerodynamics discipline. Potential benefits were identified and in some cases quantified in a preliminary way. Phase 2 concentrated on the application to the wing high-lift system, deemed to have the greatest potential benefit for commercial transports. A team of experts, including other disciplines (i.e. hydraulic, mechanical, and electrical systems, structures, configurations, manufacturing, and finance), assessed the feasibility, benefits, and costs to arrive at estimates of net benefits. In both phases of the study, areas of concern and areas for future research were identified. In phase 3 of this study, the high-leverage areas for future research were prioritized as a guide for future efforts aimed at the application of active flow control to commercial transport aircraft.

  19. Separation and characterization of bufadienolides in toad skin using two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Jin, Hongli; Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Jianqiang; Guo, Xiujie; Wang, Jixia; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Xiuli; Tao, Yanduo; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Deliang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-07-15

    Bufadienolides possess various bioactivities especially antitumor. Due to the high structural diversity, the separation of bufadienolides often suffers from coelution problem on conventional RP columns. In this work, an off-line two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D-NPLC×RPLC) method was developed to separate and characterize bufadienolides in toad skin. Several RP and NP columns were evaluated with five reference bufadienlides. The XUnion C18 and XAmide columns exhibited superior chromatographic performances for bufadienlide separation, and were selected in RPLC and NPLC, respectively. RPLC was used in the second-dimension for the good compatibility with MS, while NPLC was adopted in the first-dimension. The orthogonality of the 2D-NPLC×RPLC system was investigated by the geometric approach using fifteen bufadienolide mixtures. The result was 49.6%, demonstrating reasonable orthogonality of this 2D-LC system. By combining the 2D-LC system with MS, 64 bufadienlides including 33 minor ones and 11 pairs of isomers in toad skin were identified. This off-line 2D-NPLC×RPLC allowed to solve the coelution problem of bufadienlides in one-dimension RPLC, and thus facilitated the identification significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved tryptic digestion assisted with an acid-labile anionic surfactant for the separation and characterization of glycopeptide glycoforms of a proteolytic-resistant glycoprotein by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Albert; Giménez, Estela; Benavente, Fernando; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Certain glycoproteins are rather difficult to digest due to compacted tertiary or quaternary structures. In a previous study, a capillary LC coupled to TOF-MS (μLC-TOF-MS) method was developed for the detection and characterization of the glycopeptide glycoforms of human transferrin (Tf), a proteolytic resistant glycoprotein, in serum samples. After immunoaffinity purification, Tf was digested with trypsin in the presence of RapiGest(®) and μLC-TOF-MS analyses permitted to detect the N413 and N611 glycopeptide glycoforms. Conversely, the use of this surfactant, albeit mandatory to quantitatively digest the isolated Tf, proved detrimental to CE-TOF-MS analysis due to its interaction with the inner surface of the silica capillary walls. As CE is usually regarded as an interesting alternative to other separation techniques (low consumption of reagents, excellent separation efficiency, and reduced analysis times), in this work, the undesirable interferences of the surfactant have been removed to allow the correct separation and detection of Tf glycoforms by CE-TOF-MS. Moreover, the digestion protocol described by the RapiGest(®) manufacturer has been modified to minimize desialylation of Tf glycopeptide glycoforms. The new developed CE-TOF-MS methodology has been then compared with the former μLC-TOF-MS by means of sensitivity and separation efficiency of Tf glycopeptide glycoforms in the standard glycoprotein. Additionally, Tf glycopeptide glycoforms from serum of healthy volunteers and patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation have also been analyzed following the developed methodology.

  1. Characterization of groundwater flow and transport in the General Separations Area, Savannah River Plant: Effect of groundwater withdrawals on the Tuscaloosa-Congaree aquifer head reversal in H Area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, C.P.; Duffield, G.M.; Shaw, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) has maintained a number of sites used for land disposal of various waste materials. The General Separations Area at SRP, located between the Upper Three Runs and Four Mile Creeks, has served as an active area for waste storage for about thirty years. The Tuscaloosa aquifer, which lies beneath the General Separations Area, is a water source for SRP and the surrounding area. The isolation of the Tuscaloosa aquifer has been maintained by an upward hydraulic gradient from the Tuscaloosa aquifer to the overlying Congaree aquifer. This upward gradient is referred to as a hydraulic head reversal in the General Separations Area, i.e., hydraulic heads in the upper Tuscaloosa are higher than hydraulic heads in the Congaree. This head reversal has declined in recent years due to increased groundwater pumping in the upper and lower Tuscaloosa formations. The objective of this investigation is to assess the effects of pumping within the General Separations Area on the Congaree/upper Tuscaloosa head reversal. Methods of maintaining future Tuscaloosa aquifer isolation through the optimization of groundwater withdrawal location and rate were studied. Steady-state and transient groundwater flow models were used to characterize past and potential future groundwater conditions. Future groundwater conditions were simulated for a variety of pumping scenarios.

  2. Experimental Study Of ExoMars Sub-And Transonic Aerodynamics And Heat Shield Separation In HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeb, D.; Guilhan, A.; Augenstein, E.

    2011-05-01

    In the framework of the ESA ExoMars project an experimental investigation has been conducted in the transonic DNW wind tunnel HST with two emphases. First the static aerodynamic behaviour of the complete descent module has been investigated in the sub- to transonic flow regime, duplicating reference flight trajectory conditions through the Martian atmosphere. Therefore force and moment coefficients have been derived by means of a six component internal balance with additional pressure signals to enable base pressure corrections. The second main objective was the aerodynamic characterization of the staging process between the capsule’s heat shield and its back cover at corresponding trajectory flight conditions. For this attempt models were available for the capsule’s single parts after separation, e.g. heat shield and back cover. These components have been investigated individually to characterize its behaviour after completion of the separation process as well as to gain reference data to compare to the behaviour during the actual staging process. This flight phase has been simulated in detail by thoroughly modifying the orientation of the separating models to each other. This was enabled by a modular distance between the separating components and modification of the angle of attack. Beside force and moment measurements on the heat shield, the back cover has been equipped with 12 static as well as 12 dynamic pressure sensors. This paper gives an overview of selected results gathered during this test campaign. The measured coefficients for the complete descent module as well as for the separating models are analyzed comparing typical capsule configuration behaviour. Depending on the distance between the separating models clear interferences are evident in both force and pressure signals.

  3. Development of bacteriorhodopsin analogues and studies of charge separated excited states in the photoprocesses of linear polyenes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil K; Hota, Prasanta K

    2007-01-01

    Development of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) analogues employing chromophore substitution technique for the purpose of characterizing the binding site of bR and generating bR analogues with novel opto-electronic properties for applications as photoactive element in nanotechnical devices are described. Additionally, the photophysical and photochemical properties of variously substituted diarylpolyenes as models of photobiologically relevant linear polyenes are discussed. The role of charge separated dipolar excited states in the photoprocesses of linear polyenes is highlighted.

  4. Effect of UV-ozone treatment on poly(dimethylsiloxane) membranes: surface characterization and gas separation performance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ywu-Jang; Qui, Hsuan-zhi; Liao, Kuo-Sung; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2010-03-16

    A thin SiO(x) selective surface layer was formed on a series of cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membranes by exposure to ultraviolet light at room temperature in the presence of ozone. The conversion of the cross-linked polysiloxane to SiO(x) was monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, contact angle analysis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The conversion of the cross-linked polysiloxane to SiO(x) increased with UV-ozone exposure time and cross-linking agent content, and the surface possesses highest conversion. The formation of a SiO(x) layer increased surface roughness, but it decreased water contact angle. Gas permeation measurements on the UV-ozone exposure PDMS membranes documented interesting gas separation properties: the O(2) permeability of the cross-linked PDMS membrane before UV-ozone exposure was 777 barrer, and the O(2)/N(2) selectivity was 1.9; after UV-ozone exposure, the permeability decreased to 127 barrer while the selectivity increased to 5.4. The free volume depth profile of the SiO(x) layer was investigated by novel slow positron beam. The results show that free volume size increased with the depth, yet the degree of siloxane conversion to SiO(x) does not affect the amount of free volume.

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of the metacercaria of Paragonimus caliensis, as a separate species from P. mexicanus in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Chea, Roderico; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana Eugenia; Castro, Ruth; Blair, David; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-04-01

    The trematode Paragonimus mexicanus is the etiological agent of paragonimiasis, a food-borne zoonotic disease in Latin America. This species, as well as Paragonimus caliensis, have been reported from Costa Rica, but it is not known if the two are synonymous. Two types of Paragonimus metacercariae from freshwater pseudothelphusid crabs from several localities in Costa Rica were recognized by light microscopy. Morphologically, these corresponded to descriptions of P. mexicanus and P. caliensis. Metacercariae of the former species lacked a membrane or cyst and their bodies were yellow in color. Those of P. caliensis were contained in a transparent thin cyst and were pink in color. Morphotypes of metacercariae were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the number and distribution of papillae in the ventral sucker, three morphotypes were found for P. mexicanus and two for P. caliensis. Analysis of DNA sequences (nuclear ribosomal 28S and ITS2 genes, and partial mitochondrial cox1 gene) confirmed the presence of P. mexicanus and provided the first molecular data for P. caliensis. The two species are phylogenetically distinct from each other and distant from the Asian species. The confirmation of P. caliensis as a separate species from P. mexicanus raises several questions about the ecology, biological diversity, and epidemiology of the genus Paragonimus in Costa Rica.

  6. Separation and characterization of trypsin and carboxypeptidase B-digested products of Met-Lys-human proinsulin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z H; Du, X; Tang, J G

    1999-02-01

    Met-Lys-human proinsulin could be converted into insulin in vitro with the treatment of trypsin and carboxypeptidase B (CPB). Under less effective conditions, the enzymatic reaction does not proceed perfectly, and two main bands have been identified by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. These two main products were thus separated and purified by DEAE-Sephadex A25 chromatography in a Tris-isopropanol system with an NaCl gradient. The isopropanol and NaCl were removed by a second DEAE-Sephadex column. Native-PAGE, mass spectrometric, and amino acid composition analyses indicate that one fraction of these two major products contains human insulin and desB30-insulin and that the other fraction is a mixture of human insulin analogs, which have one more basic amino acid than human insulin owing to the unsuitable amount of proteases, especially the lack of CPB. Furthermore, both receptor binding assay and radioimmunoassay have been utilized for the activity determination, and both fractions display almost full biological activity with porcine insulin as the standard. Present results provide further evidence for the quality control of recombinant human insulin production.

  7. Recalled separation anxiety and gender atypicality in childhood: a study of Canadian heterosexual and homosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Gothreau, Laura M; Bartlett, Nancy H; Vasey, Paul L

    2011-12-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that elevated childhood separation anxiety is associated with female-typical childhood behavior and identity by comparing retrospective reports of heterosexual and homosexual men and women (N = 399). Participants completed measures of recalled childhood separation anxiety and childhood gender-atypical behavior and identity. Heterosexual men reported significantly less childhood separation anxiety relative to all other groups. Childhood gender atypicality was significantly positively correlated with childhood separation anxiety among homosexual men, but not among members of other participant groups. Discussion focused on the implications of these findings for the proposed hypothesis as well as future directions for research examining the bases of developmental associations among sex, sexual orientation, gender atypicality, and childhood separation anxiety.

  8. Neurophysiological Characterization of Subacute Stroke Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamola, Giuseppe; Fanciullacci, Chiara; Sgherri, Giada; Bertolucci, Federica; Panarese, Alessandro; Micera, Silvestro; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0) and at 3 months after the acute event (t1). Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within 3 months in subcortical patients. PMID:27899888

  9. Distress, support, and relationship satisfaction during military-induced separations: a longitudinal study among spouses of Dutch deployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Andres, Manon

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine (a) how life stress, work-family conflict, social support, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction develop over the course of military-induced separations; (b) what best predicts relationship satisfaction after being separated for several months; and (c) whether the effects were mediated by spousal interaction. Longitudinal data were collected among 153 spouses of Dutch military personnel before, during, and after military-induced separations. Analyses demonstrated a significant decrease in relationship satisfaction, psychological distress, and social support over time. Controlling for predeployment levels of relationship satisfaction, work-family conflict, social support, psychological distress, and spousal interaction made significant contributions to the explanation of relationship satisfaction after military-induced separations. However, the effects on relationships varied for each stage of the work-related spousal separation. Hence, clinical implications for psychological service delivery suggested by these findings are impacted by the stage of the work-related spousal separation. Specifically, before the separation, services might focus upon balancing work and family demands; during the separation, services that facilitate building networks are important; and finally, communication remains the key service focus upon reunion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Design, synthesis, characterization and study of novel conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wu

    1997-06-24

    After introducing the subject of conjugated polymers, the thesis has three sections each containing a literature survey, results and discussion, conclusions, and experimental methods on the following: synthesis, characterization of electroluminescent polymers containing conjugated aryl, olefinic, thiophene and acetylenic units and their studies for use in light-emitting diodes; synthesis, characterization and study of conjugated polymers containing silole unit in the main chain; and synthesis, characterization and study of silicon-bridged and butadiene-linked polythiophenes.

  11. 300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-15

    Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ``green`` material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ``green`` soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction.

  12. [Historical study of separation technology innovation in the field of pharmaceutical science].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Koji; Nishitani, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The separation of organic compounds has been carried out using the method of distillation and recrystallization since the 17th century.1st separation technology innovation (1950s to 1960s). After World War II, the science of separating organic compounds evolved to the use of paper or column chromatography. 2nd separation technology innovation (1960s to 1980s). In the 1960s, thin-layer chromatograpy (TLC) was developed. TLC is a convenient analytical technique for organic compounds. Separation methods for organic compounds using column chromatography and preparative TLC were carried out as practical applications. Gas chromatography (GC) was also introduced in the 1960s. GC is a useful analytical method for a mixture of various volatile organic compounds. Many GC instruments with new kinds of sensors were developed. Gas chromatography of nonbenzenoid organometallic compounds and metal complexes was successfully conducted by the author. 3rd separation technology innovation (1980s to 1990s). In the 1980s, high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) was developed. HPLC analytical methods were useful for various kinds of organic compounds. In the 1990s, LC-MS and LC-NMR instruments were introduced for biomedical products. 4th separation technology innovation (1990s to present). Several new ionization methods for mass-spectrometry (electrospray, matrix-aided lazer desorption ionization, etc) are applied for proteins and biomedical products. Several new separation technologies (supercritical field chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, field-flow fractionization, etc.) are now being developed.

  13. The Separation-Individuation Process and Culture: A Study on Taiwan's College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    The separation-individuation process of individuals is mediated by cultural factors of the society to which the individuals belong. Since the Chinese culture emphasizes collectivism rather than the individualism of Western culture, it is believed that there are differences in the separation-individuation process of individuals between the two…

  14. Separate disciplines: The study of behavior and the study of the psyche

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A.

    1986-01-01

    The study of behavior differs fundamentally from the study of the psyche and logically cannot share the same discipline. However, while disciplines might be defined through technical exercises, they function through exercises of political power. The evolution of a discipline, though based on field and laboratory data interpreted within a specific paradigm and justified publicity by its utility to solve personal and social problems, follows a course of development in the political arenas of the academies and the professions. We happen to have a discipline, roughly connoted by the label “behavior analysis,” without an academic home (the present ones haphazardly tolerate our activities), without a professional organization (the present one lobbies only “for behavior analysis”), and without a true professional name (the present one implies an approach not a discipline). No scientific community lasts long without a supporting professional infrastructure. In explicitly asserting ourselves as a discipline, we confront a number of difficult issues such as continuing to work in departments antithetical to behaviorism and a number of problems such as what we call ourselves to identify our professional and scientific concerns. (For example, we need a term descriptive of our science in its broad sense. That term is not psychology. Too many people persist in maintaining its commitment to cognitivism. On whatever term we agree, “behavior” should constitute its stem, for our efforts focus there, not in the putative underlying psyche or its current cognitive update.) The focus of our concerns and the solutions of our problems rest on one issue: Will our discipline prosper most as a branch of psychology or as an independent discipline? Slowly, but surely, our actions demonstrate that the latter is the preferred option, but these actions, though fortuitous, occur almost by accident. By specifically programming to achieve an independent professional status we increase the

  15. Purification and characterization of large and small subunits of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase expressed separately in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Smrcka, A V; Ramage, R T; Bohnert, H J; Jensen, R G

    1991-04-01

    Procedures were developed for 95 and 80% purification to homogeneity of the large subunit (L) and small subunit (S) of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (L8S8) from Synechococcus PCC 6301, each expressed separately in Escherichia coli. Purified L had a low specific activity in the absence of S (0.075 mumol CO2 fixed/mg holoenzyme/min). Following elution on a Pharmacia Superose 6 or 12 gel filtration column, 50% of the purified L appeared as the octamer, L8. The rest was in equilibrium with lower polymeric species and/or was retained on the column. Large and small subunits assembled rapidly into the L8S8 holoenzyme that had high specific activities, 6.2 and 3.1 mumol CO2 fixed/mg holoenzyme/min for the homologous Synechococcus L8S8 and the hybrid Synechococcus L-pea S L8S8, respectively. The CO2 dependence for carbamylation of L8 was compared to that of L8S8 as a function of pH and CO2 concentration. The pH dependence indicated an apparent pKa for L8 of 8.28 and for L8S8 of 8.15, suggesting that S may influence the pKa of the lysine involved in carbamylation. The Kact for CO2 at pH 8.4 were similar for L8 (13.5 microM) and L8S8 (15.5 microM). L8 bound 2-[14C]carboxy-D-arabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate (CABP) tightly so that most of the bound [14C]CABP survived gel filtration. A major amount of the L8-[14C]CABP complex appeared as larger polymeric aggregates when eluted in the presence of E. coli protein.

  16. Partition separation and characterization of the polyhydroxyalkanoates synthase produced from recombinant Escherichia coli using an aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Lan, John Chi-Wei; Yeh, Chun-Yi; Wang, Chih-Chi; Yang, Yu-Hsuan; Wu, Ho-Shing

    2013-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are renewable and biodegradable polyesters which can be synthesized either by numerous of microorganisms in vivo or synthase in vitro. The synthesis of PHAs in vitro requires an efficient separation for high yield of purified enzyme. The recombinant Escherichia coli harboring phaC gene derived from Ralstonia eutropha H16 was cultivated in the chemically defined medium for overexpression of synthase in the present work. The purification and characteristics of PHA synthase from clarified feedstock by using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) was investigated. The optimized concentration of ATPS for partitioning PHA synthase contained polyethylene glycol 6000 (30%, w/w) and potassium phosphate (8%, w/w) with 3.25 volume ratio in the absence of NaCl at pH 8.7 and 4°C. The results showed that the partition coefficient of enzyme activity and protein content are 6.07 and 0.22, respectively. The specific activity, selectivity, purification fold and recovery of phaC(Re) achieved 1.76 U mg⁻¹, 29.05, 16.23 and 95.32%, respectively. Several metal ions demonstrated a significant effect on activity of purified enzyme. The purified enzyme displayed maximum relative activity as operating condition at pH value of 7.5 and 37°C. As compared to conventional purification processes, ATPS can be a promising technique applied for rapid recovery of PHA synthase and preparation of large quantity of PHA synthase on synthesis of P(3HB) in vitro. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultracapacitor separator

    DOEpatents

    Wei, Chang; Jerabek, Elihu Calvin; LeBlanc, Jr., Oliver Harris

    2001-03-06

    An ultracapacitor includes two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. The electrolyte is a polar aprotic organic solvent and a salt. The porous separator comprises a wet laid cellulosic material.

  18. Visualized study on the interaction between single bubbles and curved solid surface in flotation separation process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liwei; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Jingjing; Li, Yanpeng; Meng, Qinglong

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been devoted to bubble-curved solid surface interaction in water, which is critical to the separation of suspended particles by air flotation. For this purpose, two particular stages of the interaction (collision and attachment) have been examined visually using high-speed photography in a laboratory-scale flotation column. The effects of the surface material and surfactant concentration on these two stages have been also studied quantitatively. The considered solid materials are the cleaned glass as hydrophilic surface and Teflon as hydrophobic surface. The experimental results show that the presence of surfactant significantly affects the collision and rebound process of a gas bubble, while there is no obvious effect of the surface material on the rebound process. An increase in surfactant concentration has been observed to suppress the rebound number and maximal distance of the bubble from the surface. Moreover, the three-phase contact time of the bubble is a strong function of the surfactant concentration and surface hydrophobicity as well as of the bubble diameter. Another important finding is that the bubble attachment is only observed at the hydrophobic Teflon surface below the surfactant CMC (critical micelle concentration). Results of this study are relevant for deep understanding of the attachment mechanism and to determine the proper conditions for a selective flotation process.

  19. Separating stressor influences from environmental variability: eight case studies from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Clements, Will; Gerritsen, Jeroen; Hatch, Audrey; Jepson, Paul; Reynoldson, Trefor; Thom, Ronald M.

    2001-12-03

    It can be difficult to unambiguously establish the influences of a particular stressor or group of stressors in a complex ecosystem, except, perhaps, when the effects are extreme (Luoma and Carter, 1991). Yet this is a critical problem we face when attempting to understand the influences of human activities on ecosystems. Single experiments or studies are rarely adequate to establish cause and effect in complex ecosystems, and many of the individual approaches available to demonstrate stressor effects have important inadequacies. A multi-faceted body of work is usually at the center of most examples where stressor effects are explained. In this chapter seven case studies are presented where effects or influences of multiple stressors were explained and separated from natural variability. The goal of this chapter is to demonstrate that identification of stressor effects is tractable, although not necessarily simple; and to illustrate some specific strategies that have worked. We also present one case study where the quest for cause and effect is just beginning, to illustrate the range of challenges involved as a body of work begins to be established. The examples are from several different fields of ecology, they cover a variety of scales and a mix of disciplines.

  20. Spatial characterization of hot melt extruded dispersion systems using thermal atomic force microscopy methods: the effects of processing parameters on phase separation.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Jonathan G; Qi, Sheng; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2014-07-01

    In this study we explore the use of nano-scale localized thermal analysis (LTA) and transition temperature microcopy (TTM) as a novel combined approach to studying phase separation in HME dispersions of cyclosporine A in Eudragit EPO. Modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC), attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, nano-LTA and TTM were performed on raw materials and dispersions prepared by hot melt extrusion (HME) and spin coating. For samples prepared by HME, two mixing temperatures (110°C and 150°C) and residence times (5 and 15 min) were investigated. Spin coated samples showed an intermediate T g for the mixed systems consistent with molecular dispersion formation. The HME samples prepared at 110°C showed evidence of inhomogeneity using MTDSC and FTIR, while those produced at 150°C h showed evidence for the formation of a single phase system using MTDSC. The nanothermal methods, however, indicated the presence of phase separated cyclosporine A at the higher preparation temperature while the TTM was able to map regions of differing penetration temperatures, indicating the presence of compositionally inhomogeneous regions in all but the high processing temperature/high residence time samples. TTM is a potentially important new method for studying phase separation and that such separation may remain undetected or poorly understood using conventional bulk analytical techniques.

  1. Carrier separation and transport in perovskite solar cells studied by nanometre-scale profiling of electrical potential

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; To, Bobby; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Luther, Joseph M.; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Padture, Nitin P.; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2015-01-01

    Organometal–halide perovskite solar cells have greatly improved in just a few years to a power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. This technology shows unprecedented promise for terawatt-scale deployment of solar energy because of its low-cost, solution-based processing and earth-abundant materials. We have studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells—which are the fundamental mechanisms of device operation and critical factors for power output—by determining the junction structure across the device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates p–n junction structure at the TiO2/perovskite interfaces and minority-carrier diffusion/drift operation of the devices, rather than the operation mechanism of either an excitonic cell or a p-i-n structure. Combining the potential profiling results with solar cell performance parameters measured on optimized and thickened devices, we find that carrier mobility is a main factor that needs to be improved for further gains in efficiency of the perovskite solar cells. PMID:26411597

  2. Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells Studied by Nanometre-Scale Profiling of Electrical Potential

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; ...

    2015-09-28

    Organometal–halide perovskite solar cells have greatly improved in just a few years to a power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. This technology shows unprecedented promise for terawatt-scale deployment of solar energy because of its low-cost, solution-based processing and earth-abundant materials. We have studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells—which are the fundamental mechanisms of device operation and critical factors for power output—by determining the junction structure across the device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. Moreover, the distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates p–n junction structure at the TiO2/perovskite interfacesmore » and minority-carrier diffusion/drift operation of the devices, rather than the operation mechanism of either an excitonic cell or a p-i-n structure. When we combined the potential profiling results with solar cell performance parameters measured on optimized and thickened devices, we find that carrier mobility is a main factor that needs to be improved for further gains in efficiency of the perovskite solar cells.« less

  3. Carrier separation and transport in perovskite solar cells studied by nanometre-scale profiling of electrical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; To, Bobby; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Luther, Joseph M.; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Padture, Nitin P.; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2015-09-01

    Organometal-halide perovskite solar cells have greatly improved in just a few years to a power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. This technology shows unprecedented promise for terawatt-scale deployment of solar energy because of its low-cost, solution-based processing and earth-abundant materials. We have studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells--which are the fundamental mechanisms of device operation and critical factors for power output--by determining the junction structure across the device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates p-n junction structure at the TiO2/perovskite interfaces and minority-carrier diffusion/drift operation of the devices, rather than the operation mechanism of either an excitonic cell or a p-i-n structure. Combining the potential profiling results with solar cell performance parameters measured on optimized and thickened devices, we find that carrier mobility is a main factor that needs to be improved for further gains in efficiency of the perovskite solar cells.

  4. Carrier separation and transport in perovskite solar cells studied by nanometre-scale profiling of electrical potential.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; To, Bobby; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; Luther, Joseph M; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Padture, Nitin P; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M

    2015-09-28

    Organometal-halide perovskite solar cells have greatly improved in just a few years to a power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. This technology shows unprecedented promise for terawatt-scale deployment of solar energy because of its low-cost, solution-based processing and earth-abundant materials. We have studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells-which are the fundamental mechanisms of device operation and critical factors for power output-by determining the junction structure across the device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates p-n junction structure at the TiO2/perovskite interfaces and minority-carrier diffusion/drift operation of the devices, rather than the operation mechanism of either an excitonic cell or a p-i-n structure. Combining the potential profiling results with solar cell performance parameters measured on optimized and thickened devices, we find that carrier mobility is a main factor that needs to be improved for further gains in efficiency of the perovskite solar cells.

  5. Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells Studied by Nanometre-Scale Profiling of Electrical Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; To, Bobby; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Luther, Joseph M.; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Padture, Nitin P.; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2015-09-28

    Organometal–halide perovskite solar cells have greatly improved in just a few years to a power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. This technology shows unprecedented promise for terawatt-scale deployment of solar energy because of its low-cost, solution-based processing and earth-abundant materials. We have studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells—which are the fundamental mechanisms of device operation and critical factors for power output—by determining the junction structure across the device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. Moreover, the distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates p–n junction structure at the TiO2/perovskite interfaces and minority-carrier diffusion/drift operation of the devices, rather than the operation mechanism of either an excitonic cell or a p-i-n structure. When we combined the potential profiling results with solar cell performance parameters measured on optimized and thickened devices, we find that carrier mobility is a main factor that needs to be improved for further gains in efficiency of the perovskite solar cells.

  6. Chiral separability of boron cluster species studied by screening approaches utilizing polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Mangelings, D; Vander Heyden, Y; Vespalec, R

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the screening steps of chiral separation strategies with polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases were applied on boron cluster compounds in normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) and polar organic solvents chromatography (POSC). Since the screening steps were initially developed to analyze organic compounds, their applicability for boron clusters was investigated. Overall, the screening steps in NPLC were applicable for the separation of zwitterions, while for anions mostly no elution was observed. A hypothesis for the latter behavior is precipitation of anions in the nonpolar mobile phases. Ten out of 11 compounds could be partially or baseline separated on the NPLC screening systems. In POSC, all zwitterions were separated on at least one of the screening systems, with an overall lower retention as in NPLC. Anions were detected but not separated in the majority of the experiments. Also their retention on the chiral stationary phases was very limited. This study showed that the chiral discrimination potential of chemically modified polysaccharides is meaningful for chiral separations of structurally chiral boron cluster species, but needs further systematic research, in which recognition mechanisms should be further explored. In addition, some unusual peaks also indicated that conditions with a high separation efficiency must first be searched for some of the tested systems. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Detailed characterization of the kinetic performance of first and second generation silica monolithic columns for reversed-phase chromatography separations.

    PubMed

    Cabooter, Deirdre; Broeckhoven, Ken; Sterken, Roman; Vanmessen, Alison; Vandendael, Isabelle; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Deridder, Sander; Desmet, Gert

    2014-01-17

    The kinetic performance of commercially available first generation and prototype second generation silica monoliths has been investigated for 2.0mm and 3.0-3.2mm inner diameter columns. It is demonstrated that the altered sol-gel process employed for the production of second generation monoliths results in structures with a smaller characteristic size leading to an improved peak shape and higher efficiencies. The permeability of the columns however, decreases significantly due to the smaller throughpore and skeleton sizes. Scanning electron microscopy pictures suggest the first generation monoliths have cylindrical skeleton branches, whereas the second generation monoliths rather have skeleton branches that resemble a single chain of spherical globules. Using recently established correlations for the flow resistance of cylindrical and globule chain type monolithic structures, it is demonstrated that the higher flow resistance of the second generation monoliths can be entirely attributed to their smaller skeleton sizes, which is also evident from the external porosity that is largely the same for both monolith generations (ɛe∼0.65). The recorded van Deemter plots show a clear improvement in efficiency for the second generation monoliths (minimal plate heights of 13.6-14.1μm for the first and 6.5-8.2μm for the second generation, when assessing the plate count using the Foley-Dorsey method). The corresponding kinetic plots, however, indicate that the much reduced permeability of the second generation monoliths results in kinetic performances (time needed to achieve a given efficiency) which are only better than those of the first generation for plate counts up to N∼45,000. For more complex samples (N≥50,000), the first generation monoliths can intrinsically still provide faster analysis due to their high permeability. It is also demonstrated that - despite the improved efficiency of the second generation monoliths in the practical range of separations (N=10

  8. Electrokinetic study on the oil flotation of oxidized coal. [Separation from ash materials and pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Sun, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the electrokinetic behavior of oxidized coals and of hydrocarbon emulsion droplets of flotation reagents to indicate the feasibility of separating the oxidized coals from ash materials and pyrite by an oil flotation process. The effects of surfactants and hydrolyzed metal ions were also included. The electrokinetic behavior of the oxidized coals and the hydrocarbon emulsion droplets were studied by an electrophoresis technique. Generally the isoelectric point (IEP) of the coals decreased with increasing degree of oxidation. A model of selective flotation of oxidized coal is postulated on the basis of the electrokinetic results. This model simply states that in the presence of a suitable amount of collector and frother, the optimal selective flotation of oxidized coal will occur at the IEP of the oxidized coal. To achieve this condition at the coal surface, it is necessary to adsorb heavy metal hydroxide ions prior to flotation and to absorb hydrocarbon oil droplets containing positively charged organic functional groups during flotation. Oxidized coal becomes more hydrophobic at its IEP because most of its surface is relatively non-polarizable surfaces and remain in suspension even when they are at an IEP. 14 figures.

  9. Structure and function of an inorganic-organic separator for electrochemical cells: Preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of a new separator material for electrochemical cells has been investigated. Investigation into details of the separator structure showed it to be multilayered and to consist mainly of a quasi-impervious organic skin, a porous region of mixed organic and inorganic material, and an area of nonuniformly treated substrate. The essential feature of the coating (slurry) is believed to be interconnected pores which allow ionic conductivity. The interconnected pores are believed to be formed by the interaction of the plasticizer and inorganic fibers. The major failure mode of silver zinc cells using such a separator (zinc nodules shorting adjacent plates) was investigated.

  10. An experimental study of ice-bed separation during glacial sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Benjamin Brett

    Separation of sliding ice from hard beds plays a central role in theories of subglacial hydrology, sediment transport, and quarrying of subglacial bedrock. Despite a half-century of interest in cavities at glacier beds, there are no data establishing relationships among steady cavity size, bed geometry, sliding speed, and effective pressure. Field studies are complicated by unsteady behavior and various factors that are poorly known, including the local effective pressure at the bed, bedrock geometry, and cavity size. A laboratory ring-shear device allows sliding and ice-bed separation to be studied experimentally. The apparatus drags a ring of ice (0.9 m O.D., 0.2 m wide, 0.2 m thick) across a stepped, rigid bed. The steps are 0.18 m long and 0.027 m high along the ice-ring centerline, with treads inclined uniformly 8° up-flow. Sliding speed and effective pressure are controlled, while cavity volume and bed and wall temperatures are recorded. A glycol-water mixture, which is regulated to +/-0.01°C with an external circulator, keeps ice at the melting temperature and melt rates low. Post-experimental measurements of the ice ring's basal topography provide reconstructions of cavity geometries. Ice c-axis orientations are measured throughout the ice ring using a Rigsby (universal) stage. Monotonic cavity growth towards a larger, steady size in response to increased sliding speeds was expected. Instead, cavities initially grew past their steady-state volume, followed by a series of progressively dampened oscillations above and below steady dimensions before reaching a steady size. Steady-state cavities initiated at step edges and had slightly curved roofs. Experimental cavity lengths were accurately predicted by a model based on Kamb's (1987) theory of glacial surging and a new model incorporating Nye's (1953) borehole closure theory. The c-axes of ice crystals at shear strains ≥ 1 formed steeply inclined, multi-maximum fabrics similar to those measured in ice at

  11. Separating Leaves from Trunks and Branches with Dual-Wavelength Terrestrial Lidar Scanning: Improving Canopy Structure Characterization in 3-D Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Howe, G.; Martel, J.; Hewawasam, K.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.; Wang, Z.; Yang, X.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Woodcock, C.; Jupp, D.; Schaefer, M.; Culvenor, D.; Newnham, G.; Lowell, J.

    2013-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter characterizing forest structure, used in models regulating the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the land and the atmosphere. However, optical methods in common use cannot separate leaf area from the area of upper trunks and branches, and thus retrieve only plant area index (PAI), which is adjusted to LAI using an appropriate empirical woody-to-total index. An additional problem is that the angular distributions of leaf normals and normals to woody surfaces are quite different, and thus leafy and woody components project quite different areas with varying zenith angle of view. This effect also causes error in LAI retrieval using optical methods. Full-waveform scans at both the NIR (1064 nm) and SWIR (1548 nm) wavelengths from the new terrestrial Lidar, the Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar (DWEL), which pulses in both wavelengths simultaneously, easily separate returns of leaves from trunks and branches in 3-D space. In DWEL scans collected at two different forest sites, Sierra National Forest in June 2013 and Brisbane Karawatha Forest Park in July 2013, the power returned from leaves is similar to power returned from trunks/branches at the NIR wavelength, whereas the power returned from leaves is much lower (only about half as large) at the SWIR wavelength. At the SWIR wavelength, the leaf scattering is strongly attenuated by liquid water absorption. Normalized difference index (NDI) images from the waveform mean intensity at the two wavelengths demonstrate a clear contrast between leaves and trunks/branches. The attached image shows NDI from a part of a scan of an open red fir stand in the Sierra National Forest. Leaves appear light, while other objects are darker.Dual-wavelength point clouds generated from the full waveform data show weaker returns from leaves than from trunks/branches. A simple threshold classification of the NDI value of each scattering point readily separates leaves from trunks and

  12. Risk of severe mental disorders in adults separated temporarily from their parents in childhood: the Helsinki birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Räikkönen, Katri; Lahti, Marius; Heinonen, Kati; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Eriksson, Johan G

    2011-03-01

    In a large, prospective epidemiological study we tested whether exposure to severe early life stress increases the risk of severe mental disorders in adulthood, and whether childhood socioeconomic background and sex modify these associations. Among the 12,747 participants of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-1944, 1719 were recorded as separated temporarily from their parents in childhood. The separations took place during World War II when Finnish children were voluntarily evacuated unaccompanied by their parents to temporary foster care abroad (mean age at and length of separation 4.6 and 1.7 years, respectively). Severe mental disorders were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death Registers between years 1969 and 2004. Compared to the non-separated, the separated had higher risks of mental, substance use and personality disorder (P-values ≤ 0.05). The risk of any mental and substance use disorder was, however, highest in the separated and lowest in the non-separated with an upper childhood socioeconomic background; individuals with a lower childhood socioeconomic background showed an intermediate risk regardless of their separation status (P-values for interactions ≤ 0.05). Temporary separation from parents poses a risk of severe mental disorders later in life. Children with an upper childhood socioeconomic background may be particularly sensitive to this type of early life stress, while for children with a lower childhood socioeconomic background it may not add to the risk already associated with lower socioeconomic position in childhood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma characterization studies for materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1995-12-31

    New applications for plasma processing of materials require a more detailed understanding of the fundamental processes occurring in the processing reactors. We have developed reactors offering specific advantages for materials processing, and we are using modeling and diagnostic techniques for the characterization of these reactors. The emphasis is in part set by the interest shown by industry pursuing specific plasma processing applications. In this paper we report on the modeling of radio frequency plasma reactors for use in materials synthesis, and on the characterization of the high rate diamond deposition process using liquid precursors. In the radio frequency plasma torch model, the influence of specific design changes such as the location of the excitation coil on the enthalpy flow distribution is investigated for oxygen and air as plasma gases. The diamond deposition with liquid precursors has identified the efficient mass transport in form of liquid droplets into the boundary layer as responsible for high growth, and the chemical properties of the liquid for the film morphology.

  14. Separation of polymeric topoisomers in a microchannel device: a Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessier, Frederic; Slater, Gary W.

    2001-03-01

    Polymer molecules come in a variety of topological flavors, from simple linear chains to branched, ring, or even more intricate knotted or catenane structures. This aspect of polymer chains is increasingly recognized as a key factor in biological processes, in particular those associated with DNA manipulation; specialized enzymes regularly induce DNA topological changes in the course of replication, recombination and packaging. Separating molecules of different topologies is important to assess the activity of those enzymes, and it has previously been achieved via gel electrophoresis. However, in the wake of the current trend towards lab-on-a-chip technologies, we present simulation results for the separation of topoisomers in an entropic trap array, a microdevice etched on a silicon wafer recently used to separate DNA by size(J. Han, S. W. Turner and H. G. Craighead, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 1688 (1999). We show that topology-based separation for linear, ring and branched polymers is indeed possible in such a device.

  15. Experimental study and numerical simulation of flow separation control with pulsed nanosecond discharge actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correale, Guiseppe; Popov, Ilya; Nikipelov, Andrey; Pancheshnyi, Sergey; Hulshoff, Seo; Veldhuis, Leo; Starikovskiy, Andrey; neqlab Team; TUDelft Team

    2011-10-01

    Active flow separation control with a nanosecond pulse plasma actuator, which is essentially a simple electrode system on the surface of an airfoil, introducing low-energy gas discharge into the boundary layer, with little extra weight and no mechanical parts, was performed in wind-tunnel experiments on various airfoil models. In stall conditions the significant lift increase up to 30% accompanied by drag reduction (up to 3 times) was observed. The critical angle of attack shifted up to 5{7 degrees. Schlieren imaging shown the shock wave propagation and formation of large-scale vortex structure in the separation zone, which led to separation elimination. The experimental work is supported by numerical simulations of the phenomena. The formation of vortex similar to that observed in experiments was simulated in the case of laminar leading edge separation. Model simulations of free shear layer shown intensification of shear layer instabilities due to shock wave to shear layer interaction.

  16. Gel Separation of Isozymes To Study Relatedness of Common Bean Cultivars from ARound the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Paul; Oxley, Mary; Ealing, Ben

    2002-01-01

    Explains a three week laboratory experiment on the gel separation of peroxidase, which is the most well-known isozyme, from beans. Includes suggestions on the laboratory management. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  17. Gel Separation of Isozymes To Study Relatedness of Common Bean Cultivars from ARound the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Paul; Oxley, Mary; Ealing, Ben

    2002-01-01

    Explains a three week laboratory experiment on the gel separation of peroxidase, which is the most well-known isozyme, from beans. Includes suggestions on the laboratory management. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  18. Process study and exergy analysis of a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wendong; Duan, Jiao; Mao, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    In order to resolve the problems of the current air separation process such as the complex process, cumbersome operation and high operating costs, a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy is proposed in this paper, which is based on high-efficiency heat exchanger network and chemical packing separation technology. The operating temperature range of LNG cold energy is widened from 133K-203K to 113K-283K by high-efficiency heat exchanger network and air separation pressure is declined from 0.5MPa to about 0.35MPa due to packing separation technology, thereby greatly improve the energy efficiency. Both the traditional and novel air separation processes are simulated with air handling capacity of 20t·h-1. Comparing with the traditional process, the LNG consumption is reduced by 44.2%, power consumption decrease is 211.5 kWh per hour, which means the annual benefit will be up to 1.218 million CNY. And the exergy efficiency is also improved by 42.5%.

  19. Charge separation and energy transfer in the photosystem II core complex studied by femtosecond midinfrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pawlowicz, N P; Groot, M-L; van Stokkum, I H M; Breton, J; van Grondelle, R

    2007-10-15

    The core of photosystem II (PSII) of green plants contains the reaction center (RC) proteins D1D2-cytb559 and two core antennas CP43 and CP47. We have used time-resolved visible pump/midinfrared probe spectroscopy in the region between 1600 and 1800 cm(-1) to study the energy transfer and charge separation events within PSII cores. The absorption difference spectra in the region of the keto and ester chlorophyll modes show spectral evolution with time constants of 3 ps, 27 ps, 200 ps, and 2 ns. Comparison of infrared (IR) difference spectra obtained for the isolated antennas CP43 and CP47 and the D1D2-RC with those measured for the PSII core allowed us to identify the features specific for each of the PSII core components. From the presence of the CP43 and CP47 specific features in the spectra up to time delays of 20-30 ps, we conclude that the main part of the energy transfer from the antennas to the RC occurs on this timescale. Direct excitation of the pigments in the RC evolution associated difference spectra to radical pair formation of PD1+PheoD1- on the same timescale as multi-excitation annihilation and excited state equilibration within the antennas CP43 and CP47, which occur within approximately 1-3 ps. The formation of the earlier radical pair ChlD1+PheoD1-, as identified in isolated D1D2 complexes with time-resolved mid-IR spectroscopy is not observed in the current data, probably because of its relatively low concentration. Relaxation of the state PD1+PheoD1-, caused by a drop in free energy, occurs in 200 ps in closed cores. We conclude that the kinetic model proposed earlier for the energy and electron transfer dynamics within the D1D2-RC, plus two slowly energy-transferring antennas C43 and CP47 explain the complex excited state and charge separation dynamics in the PSII core very well. We further show that the time-resolved IR-difference spectrum of PD1+PheoD1- as observed in PSII cores is virtually identical to that observed in the isolated D1D2-RC

  20. Cytotoxicity and bioavailability studies on a decoction of Oldenlandia diffusa and its fractions separated by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Ganbold, Munkhchimeg; Barker, James; Ma, Ren; Jones, Lucy; Carew, Mark

    2010-09-15

    Oldenlandia diffusa is a traditional Chinese herbal remedy with known cytotoxic activity in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the study was to identify the most cytotoxic constituents of a water extract (a decoction is traditionally used as a treatment) by HPLC and activity-guided fractionation. The bioavailability of the decoction and certain fractions, and the mode of cell death induced by these mixtures, were also investigated. A decoction of O. diffusa was prepared and separated by HPLC into eleven fractions (F1-11) for testing on the growth of HL60 leukaemia cells; two of the most active fractions were also tested on Caco-2 colon cancer cells. Cell viability was measured by trypan blue exclusion, DNA content (Cyquant NF assay) and neutral red uptake. Evidence of apoptosis was gained from cells stained with the nuclear dye DAPI, and detection of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by Western blot. Fraction 9 was found to be the most active fraction, and, along with the decoction, induced apoptosis. Cells stained with DAPI showed a decrease in cell size and nuclear fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. Detection of cleaved PARP further confirmed induction of apoptosis by O. diffusa decoction and fraction 9. The bioavailability of O. diffusa was investigated by production of post-absorption samples using Caco-2 intestinal epithelial monolayers. Addition of post-absorption samples (taken from the basolateral side after 3h incubation with the decoction on the apical side) inhibited the growth of HL60 cells, and suggested a degree of bioavailability. The constituents in fraction 9 were further separated by HPLC and eight major compounds were identified by LC-MS: two of these were ursolic acid (UA) and its enantiomer oleanolic acid (OA). Concentrations of UA and OA in the decoction were then calculated by reference to the area of the peaks of UA and OA found in F9. The post-absorption sample of F9 contained six of the eight constituents in the original pre

  1. Percutaneous Dual-Switching Monopolar Radiofrequency Ablation Using a Separable Clustered Electrode: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Tae Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of dual-switching monopolar (DSM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to retrospectively compare the results with those of single-switching monopolar (SSM) RFA in a historical control group. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, with informed consent obtained from all patients. Fifty-two HCC patients who underwent DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode and dual-generators were prospectively enrolled. Technical parameters, complications, technical success, technical effectiveness, and local tumor progression (LTP) rates were evaluated by means of post-procedural and follow-up imaging. Thereafter, the outcome of DSM-RFA was compared with those of 249 retrospectively included HCC patients treated with SSM-RFA. Results There were two major complications (3.8%, 2/52) including pleural and pericardial effusion in the DSM-RFA group. The DSM-RFA yielded a 100% technical success rate, a 98.1% technical effectiveness rate, and a 4.3% 2-year LTP rate. In a retrospective comparison between the two groups, DSM-RFA created significantly larger ablation volume (4.20 ± 2.07 cm3/min vs. 3.03 ± 1.99 cm3/min, p < 0.01), and delivered higher energy (1.43 ± 0.37 kcal/min vs. 1.25 ± 0.50 kcal/min, p < 0.01) per given time, than SSM-RFA. There was no significant difference in major procedure-related complications (3.8% vs. 4.4%) and technical effectiveness rate (98.1% vs. 96.4%) between the two groups (p = 1.00). In addition, the 2-year LTP rate of DSM-RFA and SSM-RFA were 4.3% and 10.1%, respectively (p = 0.15). Conclusion DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode is safe and provides high local tumor control and good preliminary clinical outcome for small HCCs, which are at least comparable to those of SSM-RFA. PMID:28860897

  2. A Comparative Study of Microphase Separation of Polyurethane Multiblock Copolymers with Different Soft Segment Chemistries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Rebeca; Choi, Taeyi; Weksler, Jadwiga; Padsalgikar, Ajay; Xu, Lichong; Siedlecki, Christopher; Runt, James

    2008-03-01

    We focus in this study on three series of chemically well-defined polyurethanes (PUs) with the same hard segments (MDI-BDO) but different soft segment chemistries of interest in biomedical applications: 1000 g/mol aliphatic polycarbonate, polytetramethylenoxide and a mixed macrodiol of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyhexamethylenoxide. Using quantitative small-angle X-ray scattering we demonstrate that the degree of hard/soft segment demixing varies greatly between the materials. For example, the PDMS-based copolymers exhibit a three phase, core-shell morphology, while the other copolymers exhibit a typical two phase structure. Additional analysis was conducted with a number of experimental probes including FTIR to assess inter- and intracomponent hydrogen bonding, and tapping mode AFM to characterize the nanoscale morphology.

  3. Experimental study of pedestrian inflow in a room with a separate entrance and exit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Song, Weiguo; Fu, Libi; Fang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian inflow process frequently occurs in various pedestrian facilities in our daily life. Great importance should be attached to the study of this process. In this paper, we explore the pedestrian inflow process in a room with a separate entrance and exit. Two kinds of experiments are conducted: experiment 1 has no inactive persons and primarily focuses on analyzing the features of the normal pedestrian inflow process and analyzing the representative spatial parameters in the steady state, while experiment 2 involves the influence of the inactive persons. In order to quantitatively discuss the distribution of pedestrians in the steady state, we adopt several analytical methods, such as the Voronoi diagram method, proxemics, and point pattern analysis. Some features of the inflow process are captured. The distribution of pedestrians in the steady state is not uniform. The proxemics and attraction to the exit are both considered to affect pedestrians' distribution in the inflow process. The presence of inactive persons may have an impact on both the inflow and outflow processes. Practical suggestions are provided for the managers of pedestrian facilities.

  4. Separating stages of arithmetic verification: An ERP study with a novel paradigm.

    PubMed

    Avancini, Chiara; Soltész, Fruzsina; Szűcs, Dénes

    2015-08-01

    In studies of arithmetic verification, participants typically encounter two operands and they carry out an operation on these (e.g. adding them). Operands are followed by a proposed answer and participants decide whether this answer is correct or incorrect. However, interpretation of results is difficult because multiple parallel, temporally overlapping numerical and non-numerical processes of the human brain may contribute to task execution. In order to overcome this problem here we used a novel paradigm specifically designed to tease apart the overlapping cognitive processes active during arithmetic verification. Specifically, we aimed to separate effects related to detection of arithmetic correctness, detection of the violation of strategic expectations, detection of physical stimulus properties mismatch and numerical magnitude comparison (numerical distance effects). Arithmetic correctness, physical stimulus properties and magnitude information were not task-relevant properties of the stimuli. We distinguished between a series of temporally highly overlapping cognitive processes which in turn elicited overlapping ERP effects with distinct scalp topographies. We suggest that arithmetic verification relies on two major temporal phases which include parallel running processes. Our paradigm offers a new method for investigating specific arithmetic verification processes in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atomic-force-microscopy studies of phase separations in macromolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. G.; Malkin, A. J.; McPherson, A.

    1998-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to visualize events arising from the formation of intervening metastable phases at the surfaces of macromolecular crystals growing from solution. Crystals investigated were of the proteins canavalin, thaumatin, lipase, xylanase, and catalase, crystals of transfer RNA, and crystals of satellite tobacco mosaic virus. Two types of aggregates were observed. The first were small, linear and branched aggregates, perhaps fractile in structure. These were incorporated into growing crystals as impurities, and they produced defects of various kinds. The second aggregate form we infer to be liquid-protein droplets which were particularly evident in freshly mixed protein-precipitant solutions. Droplets, upon sedimentation, have two possible fates. In some cases they immediately restructured as crystalline multilayer stacks whose development was guided by and contiguous with the underlying lattice. These contributed to the ordered growth of the crystal by serving as sources of growth steps. In other cases, liquid-protein droplets formed distinct microcrystals, somehow discontinuous with the underlying lattice, and these were subsequently incorporated into the growing substrate crystal with the formation of defects. Scarring experiments with the AFM tip indicated that liquid-protein droplets with the potential to rapidly crystallize were a consequence of concentration instabilities near the crystal's surfaces. The AFM study suggests that phase separation and the appearance of aggregates having limited order is a common occurrence in supersaturated macromolecular solutions such as the protein-precipitant solutions used for crystallization.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and reactivity study of ethoxytriisothiocyanatosilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurjaspreet; Promila, Saroa, Amandeep; Sharma, Geetika; Kalra, Pooja

    2017-07-01

    This paper defines the synthesis of ethoxytriisothiocyanatosilane (EtO)Si(NCS)4 and its novel silicon (IV) complexes (5-8). Silane 4 constitutes a unique class of silicon source with three reactive Si-NCS functionality. The synthesis of silicon complexes were carried out by reacting the 4 with four ligands viz. 2-hydroxy-5-methylazobenzene HL1, benzatriazoleHL2, 2-picolinic acid HL3and2-((3-methylpyridin-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol HL4. Compounds 5-8 were well characterized by1H, 13C, 29Si NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The redox properties of the complexes were investigated by electrochemical method using cyclic voltammetry.

  7. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: an in vivo electrochemical study.

    PubMed

    Womersley, Jacqueline S; Hsieh, Jennifer H; Kellaway, Lauriston A; Gerhardt, Greg A; Russell, Vivienne A

    2011-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT) in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1) in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100) was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of maternal separation impaired the function of striatal

  8. Pervaporation separation of binary organic-aqueous liquid mixtures using crosslinked PVA membranes. I. Characterization of the reaction between PVA and PAA

    SciTech Connect

    Jiwon Rhim; Kewho Lee . Membranes and Separation Lab.); Minyoung Sohn; Hyeokjong Joo . Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering)

    1993-10-20

    For the purpose of the water-selective membrane material development for pervaporation separation, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was crosslinked with a low molecular weight of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The crosslinking reactions between PVA and PAA were characterized through IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests when varying the reaction conditions, that is, time, temperature, amounts of cross-linking agents, PAA. It was found that the crosslinking reaction was fast: in other words, that the reaction mainly occurred at the initial step of each reaction condition. The best reaction conditions for preparing the crosslinked PVA membranes were found to be: reaction time not over 1 h, reaction temperature in the range of 150-180 C. PAA contents of 15-20 wt% were found satisfactory with respect to the application areas.

  9. Spontaneous formation of stable capillary bridges for firming compact colloidal microstructures in phase separating liquids: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tian-Le; Wang, Yu U

    2012-02-07

    Computer modeling and simulations are performed to investigate capillary bridges spontaneously formed between closely packed colloidal particles in phase separating liquids. The simulations reveal a self-stabilization mechanism that operates through diffusive equilibrium of two-phase liquid morphologies. Such mechanism renders desired microstructural stability and uniformity to the capillary bridges that are spontaneously formed during liquid solution phase separation. This self-stabilization behavior is in contrast to conventional coarsening processes during phase separation. The volume fraction limit of the separated liquid phases as well as the adhesion strength and thermodynamic stability of the capillary bridges are discussed. Capillary bridge formations in various compact colloid assemblies are considered. The study sheds light on a promising route to in situ (in-liquid) firming of fragile colloidal crystals and other compact colloidal microstructures via capillary bridges.

  10. Performance of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models in Predicting Separated Flows: Study of the Hump Flow Model Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelli, Daniele; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2012-01-01

    Separation can be seen in most aerodynamic flows, but accurate prediction of separated flows is still a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The behavior of several Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models in predicting the separated ow over a wall-mounted hump is studied. The strengths and weaknesses of the most popular RANS models (Spalart-Allmaras, k-epsilon, k-omega, k-omega-SST) are evaluated using the open source software OpenFOAM. The hump ow modeled in this work has been documented in the 2004 CFD Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control. Only the baseline case is treated; the slot flow control cases are not considered in this paper. Particular attention is given to predicting the size of the recirculation bubble, the position of the reattachment point, and the velocity profiles downstream of the hump.

  11. Pore size, zinc penetration, and zinc diffusion studies on PPQ/CA separators. Research and development report

    SciTech Connect

    Angres, I.; Parkhurst, W.

    1981-02-02

    Studies were performed of some properties of co-polymeric polyphenylquinoxaline/cellulose acetate (PPQ/CA-60/40) membranes that are candidate separator materials for secondary alkaline batteries. Pore size measurements were obtained by bubble pressure, mercury porosimetry and electron microscopy methods. Zinc penetration measurements and measurements of zinc ion diffusion through the membrane were obtained in aqueous potassium hydroxide media using standardized electrolysis methods. For comparison purposes, dendrite penetration and zinc diffusion measurements were also obtained for two conventional cellulosic separator materials. It was concluded that the methods chosen are valid and useful for assessing the quality of separator materials. It was also concluded that PPQ/CA-60/40 membranes compare favorably with conventional separator materials.

  12. Preparation and characterization of open-tubular capillary column modified with graphene oxide nanosheets for the separation of small organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin-Yin; Niu, Xiao-Ying; Dong, Ya-Lei; Zhang, Hui-Ge; Li, Xi; Chen, Hong-Li; Chen, Xing-Guo

    2013-04-05

    A novel coated capillary was prepared by immobilizing graphene oxide (GO) on the fused-silica capillary (75 μm i.d.) which was derivatized by 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The bare capillary, APTMS modified capillary (NH2-capillary) and GO coated capillary (GO-capillary) were characterized by streaming potentials (SPs), fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that the capillary was successfully modified with GO sheets via covalent bonding and electrostatic effect. Compared with bare capillary, greater separation efficiency was achieved by GO-capillary column as a result of the increasing interactions between the small organic molecules and the inner wall of the GO-capillary column originated from the π-π electrostatic stacking. For three consecutive runs, the intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of migration time and peak areas were 0.6-4.3% and 2.8-9.3%, respectively. The inter-day relative standard deviations of migration time and peak areas were 0.2-8.3% and 4.5-9.6%. Additionally, one GO-capillary column could be used for more than 100 runs with no observable changes on the separation efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Study on directional separation of picroside II from extract of traditional Chinese medicine by molecularly imprinted technology].

    PubMed

    Yi, Li-Na; Li, Ke-Qin; Wang, Qiu-Juan; Liu, Qing-Shan; Guo, Qing-Long

    2013-07-01

    Picroside II, separated from Chinese herbal medicine, is an active compound with neroprotective activity. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have high affinity toward template molecules synthesized by molecularly imprinted technology for its specific combined sites, which can overcome the shortcomings of traditional separation methods, such as complex operation and low efficiency. In this paper, MIPs were prepared by precipitation polymerization with picroside II as the template molecule, 1-vinylimidazole (1-Vinyl) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker. The morphology of MIPs was characterized by scanning electronmicroscope (SEM) and its static adsorption capacity was measured by the scatchard equation. The results showed that picroside II MIPs have spherical shape, and most of them are uniform in size. Furthermore, the maximum binding capacity (Q(max)) of MIPs is 3.02 mg x g(-1), higher than that of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). This result indicated that picroside II MIPs with good morphology and high targeted affinity toward the template molecules can be prepared by precipitation polymerization, which can be used to separate picroside II and its analogies from extract of Chinese herbal medicine. In addition, this method has the advantages of good environment and simple operation, which might offer a novel method for the efficient separation of picroside II in the traditional herbal medicines.

  14. Hydrologic Characterization Study at Wildcat Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasaki, K.; Onishi, C. T.; Goto, J.; Moriya, T.; Ueta, K.; Kiho, K.

    2011-12-01

    A dedicated field site has been developed to further the understanding of, and to develop the characterization technology for, fault zone hydrology in the hills east of Berkeley, California across the Wildcat Fault. The Wildcat is believed to be a strike-slip fault and a member of the Hayward Fault System, with over 10 km of displacement. So far, several ~2-4-m deep trenches were cut, a number of surface-based geophysical surveys were conducted, and four ~150-m deep fully cored boreholes were drilled at the site; one on the east side and two on the west side of the suspected fault trace. The inclined fourth hole was drilled to penetrate the Wildcat. Geologic analysis results from these trenches and boreholes indicated that the geology was not always what was expected: while confirming some earlier, published conclusions about Wildcat, they have also led to some unexpected findings. The lithology at the Wildcat Fault area mainly consists of chert, shale, silt and sandstone, extensively sheared and fractured with gouge and cataclasite zones observed at several depths. Wildcat near the field site appears to consist of multiple fault planes with the major fault planes filled with unconsolidated pulverized rock instead of clay gouge. The pressure and temperature distributions indicate a downward hydraulic gradient and a relatively large geothermal gradient. Various types of borehole logging were conducted but there were no obvious correlations between boreholes or to hydrologic properties. Using the three other boreholes as observation wells, hydrologic cross-hole pumping tests were conducted in the fourth borehole. The hydraulic test data suggest the dual properties of the hydrologic structure of the fault zone: high permeability along the plane and low permeability across it, and the fault planes may be compartmentalizing aquifers. No correlation was found between fracture frequency and flow. Long term pressure monitoring over multiple seasons was shown to be very

  15. Fundamental study of the separation of homopolymers from block copolymers by liquid chromatography with preloaded adsorption promoting barriers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfu; Pearce, Eric; Lyons, John W; Murray, Dan; Chatterjee, Tirtha; Meunier, David M

    2016-12-02

    A fundamental study of the separation of homopolymers from polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) by liquid chromatography with preloaded discrete and continuous adsorption promoting barriers was performed. The impact of barrier composition on the separation of block copolymers (BCP) was studied by a dual detection (ultraviolet (UV) and evaporated light scattering (ELSD) detectors) system that enabled monitoring both barrier composition and BCP separation simultaneously. The separation of homopolymers from BCP by preloaded discrete adsorption promoting barriers was validated via a series of control experiments by blending known amounts of homopolymers PS or PMMA with PS-b-PMMA, and the resulting chromatograms were free from co-elution of homopolymers and BCP. Quantitation of homopolymers and BCP by ELSD was also demonstrated. The influence of BCP chemical composition on the separation by preloaded discrete adsorption promoting barriers was investigated. Results showed a PS-b-PMMA having 90wt% PMMA co-eluted with homopolymer PMMA, whereas PS-b-PMMA samples having lower amounts of PMMA block could be separated from homopolymer PMMA, successfully. Attempts at using a preloaded solvent gradient for separating homopolymers from block copolymers were unsuccessful. UV detection of the solvent gradient revealed significant deviation in solvent composition compared to the nominally loaded gradient. This deviation was due to the interaction of strong desorption solvent with column stationary phase. As such, the barrier composition in the preloaded gradient method was not as expected. Therefore, one can obtain undesired separation results by preloaded solvent gradients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of capillary-channeled polymer fiber stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography protein separations: Comparative analysis with a packed-bed column.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Dwella M; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2006-12-15

    Capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers are investigated as reversed-phase (RP) stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography of proteins. A comparative analysis of column characteristics for polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) C-CP fiber columns and a conventional packed-bed (C4-derivatized silica) column has been undertaken. Five proteins (ribonuclease A, cytochrome c, lysozyme, myoglobin, bovine serum albumin) were used to investigate the separation characteristics under typical RP gradient conditions. Column performance was compared under standard (identical) and optimized RP chromatographic conditions. The gradient compositions utilized with the C-CP fiber columns are similar to those used with conventional columns, employing flow rates in the 1-6 mL/min range and gradient rates of approximately 1%/min. The packed-bed column was operated as prescribed by the column manufacturer. The retention factor (k'), separation factor (alpha), resolution (Rs), asymmetry factor (As), elution order, and peak capacity values of a four protein separations performed on the C-CP fiber columns are compared to the same separation on the C4 column. One unique feature observed here is the lessening of the percentage of organic modifier necessary to elute the proteins from the fiber phases with increased linear velocity. The potential contribution of the different stationary phases to protein denaturation was evaluated through a spectrophotometric enzymatic activity assay. The repeatability of retention times under both sets of conditions for six consecutive injections of lysozyme on each C-CP fiber column is < or =1.5% RSD. The column-to-column reproducibility of retention times for three columns of each fiber type is also < or =1.5% RSD. The overall performance of the C-CP fiber columns was comparable to the conventional column used in these studies. Basic characteristics demonstrated here suggested further developments in the areas of ultrafast protein

  17. Growth, characterization, and application of well-defined separated GaN-based pyramid array on micropatterned sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhenhuan; Li, Yufeng; Su, Xilin; Feng, Lungang; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Minyan; Ding, Wen; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Ye; Guo, Maofeng; Yun, Feng; Lee, S. W. Ricky

    2017-09-01

    We tried to obtain microstructures on a three-dimensional (3D) micropatterned substrate by laser drilling. The influences of the dimensions of the drilling holes on the morphology and the material quality of the grown structures were studied. Uniform micropyramid arrays with relatively low dislocation density can be achieved by adjusting the laser drilling parameters. The internal quantum efficiency was estimated to be improved by a factor of 3 for a pyramid structure compared with that of planar LEDs. We fabricated 5 × 7 mm2 flexible LEDs employing the pyramid structure and the devices exhibited good flexibility without performance reduction after bending.

  18. Atomic level characterization in corrosion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Philippe; Maurice, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Atomic level characterization brings fundamental insight into the mechanisms of self-protection against corrosion of metals and alloys by oxide passive films and into how localized corrosion is initiated on passivated metal surfaces. This is illustrated in this overview with selected data obtained at the subnanometre, i.e. atomic or molecular, scale and also at the nanometre scale on single-crystal copper, nickel, chromium and stainless steel surfaces passivated in well-controlled conditions and analysed in situ and/or ex situ by scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A selected example of corrosion modelling by ab initio density functional theory is also presented. The discussed aspects include the surface reconstruction induced by hydroxide adsorption and formation of two-dimensional (hydr)oxide precursors, the atomic structure, orientation and surface hydroxylation of three-dimensional ultrathin oxide passive films, the effect of grain boundaries in polycrystalline passive films acting as preferential sites of passivity breakdown, the differences in local electronic properties measured at grain boundaries of passive films and the role of step edges at the exposed surface of oxide grains on the dissolution of the passive film. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  19. Atomic level characterization in corrosion studies.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Philippe; Maurice, Vincent

    2017-07-28

    Atomic level characterization brings fundamental insight into the mechanisms of self-protection against corrosion of metals and alloys by oxide passive films and into how localized corrosion is initiated on passivated metal surfaces. This is illustrated in this overview with selected data obtained at the subnanometre, i.e. atomic or molecular, scale and also at the nanometre scale on single-crystal copper, nickel, chromium and stainless steel surfaces passivated in well-controlled conditions and analysed in situ and/or ex situ by scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A selected example of corrosion modelling by ab initio density functional theory is also presented. The discussed aspects include the surface reconstruction induced by hydroxide adsorption and formation of two-dimensional (hydr)oxide precursors, the atomic structure, orientation and surface hydroxylation of three-dimensional ultrathin oxide passive films, the effect of grain boundaries in polycrystalline passive films acting as preferential sites of passivity breakdown, the differences in local electronic properties measured at grain boundaries of passive films and the role of step edges at the exposed surface of oxide grains on the dissolution of the passive film.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Sibutramine characterization and solubility, a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Penieres Carrillo, Guillermo; Arroyo Razo, Gabriel; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René

    2013-04-01

    Solubility data from sibutramine (SBA) in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Sibutramine was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction technique. Solubility data were obtained by the saturation method. The van't Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility values and the ideal solvent activity coefficient. No polymorphic phenomena were found from the X-ray diffraction analysis, even though this compound is a racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers. Theoretical calculations showed that the polarisable continuum model was able to reproduce the solubility and stability of sibutramine molecule in gas phase, water and a family of alcohols at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. Dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in water values as physical parameters were used in those theoretical calculations for explaining that behavior. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and good agreement was obtained. Sibutramine solubility increased from methanol to 1-octanol in theoretical and experimental results.

  1. Life cycle assessment of a household solid waste source separation programme: a Swedish case study.

    PubMed

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-10-01

    The environmental impact of an extended property close source-separation system for solid household waste (i.e., a systems for collection of recyclables from domestic properties) is investigated in a residential area in southern Sweden. Since 2001, households have been able to source-separate waste into six fractions of dry recyclables and food waste sorting. The current system was evaluated using the EASEWASTE life cycle assessment tool. Current status is compared with an ideal scenario in which households display perfect source-separation behaviour and a scenario without any material recycling. Results show that current recycling provides substantial environmental benefits compared to a non-recycling alternative. The environmental benefit varies greatly between recyclable fractions, and the recyclables currently most frequently source-separated by households are often not the most beneficial from an environmental perspective. With optimal source-separation of all recyclables, the current net contribution to global warming could be changed to a net-avoidance while current avoidance of nutrient enrichment, acidification and photochemical ozone formation could be doubled. Sensitivity analyses show that the type of energy substituted by incineration of non-recycled waste, as well as energy used in recycling processes and in the production of materials substituted by waste recycling, is of high relevance for the attained results.

  2. DNS study of large-scale structures in a separated turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Mizobuchi, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Yuichi

    2011-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a separated flat-plate turbulent boundary layer have been carried out. The inlet data are prescribed by DNSs of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer with the rescaling-recycling method; blowing and suction are imposed at the upper boundary for producing a separation bubble. The Reynolds numbers at the inlet are set to be Reθ =300, 600 and 900, where Reθ is the Reynolds number based on the freestream velocity and the momentum thickness. Particular attention is given to large- scale structures existing in a separated region. Results indicate that large-scale organized structures of the streamwise velocity fluctuation appear in a detached shear layer when a large separated region is formed. The latter structures consist of positive and negative regions alternating in the spanwise direction with a spacing of about 2 ~ 3δ99 (δ99 denotes the 99% boundary layer thickness at the inlet), which become more apparent with increasing Reynolds number. They are most likely associated with large-scale spanwise meandering of the separation line. There is also close relationship between the large-scale structures and vortical structures, the latter tending to form vortex clusters where hairpin-like vortices are also observed.

  3. Neptunium separations

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, J.F.

    1983-05-09

    Two procedures for the separation of Np are presented; the first involves separation of /sup 239/Np from irradiated /sup 238/U, and the second involves separation of /sup 237/Np from a solution representing that from a dissolved fuel element.

  4. The experimental study of a high efficiency hydrocyclone for oil/water separation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, M.; Jie, H.; Xia, Z.; Ren, F.

    1993-12-31

    Hydrocyclone is a centrifugal separation device. Because of their small size, low mean residence tie and high efficiency, hydrocyclones have a potential attraction for oily sewage treatment on offshore oil platforms and ocean-going vessels. Up to now, there have been many problems to be solved on liquid-liquid hydrocyclones. An experimental rig has been set up in the laboratory at Daqing Petroleum Institute. After the theoretical and experimental research for nearly two years, a high efficiency hydrocyclone has been designed. The effect of key parameters (pressure P, flowrate Q{sub i} and split ratio F, etc.) on separation performance has been examined. Preliminary oil field experiments have been satisfactory. The research work on liquid-liquid separation hydrocyclones has a profound significance.

  5. Study and Analysis of Heat Transfer Limitation of Separated Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Qizheng; Mou, Kai

    2002-01-01

    satellite and spacecraft. evaporator, heat isolation and condenser along the axial direction. The working fluid absorbs heat and evaporates in evaporator, and then the vapor flows to condenser and gives out heat. The condensed liquid is pumped to evaporator by wick. By the circulation, the heat can by transferred continuously. heat pipe as follow: - Vapor-liquid two phase flow inside pipe; - The manner of latent heat to transfer heat; - Automatic circulation by working fluid flowing - A certain extent of vacuum. and the traditional heat pipe, that is, the vapor fluid and liquid fluid flow along the same direction. So it is obviously that the separated heat pipe has special internal heat transfer characteristic and crisis. This paper has regard for the heat transfer crisis of the separated heat pipe, and meanwhile relevant calculation and analysis have been done. 1. FLOW TYPE OF THE WORKING FLUID IN SEPARATED HEAT PIPE 2. HEAT TRANSFER CRISIS IN THE EVAPORATOR 3. CARRYING PHENOMENON INSIDE SEPARATED HEAT PIPE 4. THE STAGNANT FLOW PHENOMENON AND THE BACKWARD FLOW PHENOMENON IN EVAPORATOR CONCLUSION transfer limitation of location burn-out, and the heat transfer limitation of flow unconventionality in erective pipe. The carrying phenomenon can occurs not only in evaporator but also in condenser of separated heat pipe. It is in the evaporator that should take place the heat transfer limitation of liquid film dry-out at first. Then with the increasing of heat flux, the heat transfer limitation of location burn-out would happen. In order to avoid the heat transfer limitation of flow unconventionality in erective pipe, the length and diameter of the outflow tube and inflow tube must be reasonably calculated to control the flow velocity of the working fluid inside pipe. Key words:Separated Heat PipeHeat Transfer LimitationDry-OutCarryingStagnancy

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Microporous Dihydroxyl-Functionalized Triptycene-Diamine-Based Polyimide for Natural Gas Membrane Separation.

    PubMed

    Alaslai, Nasser; Ma, Xiaohua; Ghanem, Bader; Wang, Yingge; Alghunaimi, Fahd; Pinnau, Ingo

    2017-09-01

    An intrinsically microporous polyimide is synthesized in m-cresol by a one-pot high-temperature condensation reaction of 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and newly designed 2,6 (7)-dihydroxy-3,7(6)-diaminotriptycene (DAT1-OH). The 6FDA-DAT1-OH polyimide is thermally stable up to 440 °C, shows excellent solubility in polar solvents, and has moderately high Brunauer-Teller-Emmett (BET) surface area of 160 m(2) g(-1) , as determined by nitrogen adsorption at -196 °C. Hydroxyl functionalization applied to the rigid 3D triptycene-based diamine building block results in a polyimide that exhibits moderate pure-gas CO2 permeability of 70 Barrer combined with high CO2 /CH4 selectivity of 50. Mixed-gas permeation studies demonstrate excellent plasticization resistance of 6FDA-DAT1-OH with impressive performance as potential membrane material for natural gas sweetening with a CO2 permeability of 50 Barrer and CO2 /CH4 selectivity of 40 at a typical natural gas well partial pressure of 10 atm. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Studies on the antigenic specificity of Mycobacterium leprae. I. Isoelectric and chromatofocusing separation.

    PubMed

    Ibegbu, C; Mandock, O; Kale, V; Navalkar, R G

    1987-04-01

    Cell sonicates of Mycobacterium leprae and other mycobacteria were subjected to isoelectric focusing and chromatofocusing to evaluate their protein antigens and to determine if the patterns were significantly different. Isoelectric focusing showed that the proteins of all mycobacteria focused within the pH range of 3.5 to 5.5, except those of M. leprae which extended beyond 5.5 to 6.5. These studies have indicated for the first time that the protein antigens of mycobacteria are acidic in nature. Comparison between the proteins of untreated and autoclaved M. leprae showed distinct differences between the two preparations, in respect of loss of some antigens in the autoclaved M. leprae sonicate. This indicates that the bands that were not visible in the autoclaved M. leprae were those of heat-labile proteins. It is possible, however, that the absent bands could have been of a low order of intensity and hence were not discernible. On the other hand, the proteins could have coagulated due to the heat treatment, thus causing confirmational changes or ionic interactions with membrane components, due to their acidic nature. It is possible that the proteins in the autoclaved M. leprae are the ones that possess immunogenic properties since the protective ability of heat-killed M. leprae has already been established. Chromatofocusing studies have confirmed the isoelectric focusing data in respect of the number of antigens and their respective protein content, besides permitting the availability of the various fractions for further biological characterization.

  8. A look inside 'black box' hydrograph separation models: A study at the hydrohill catchment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, C.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Gu, W.

    2001-01-01

    Runoff sources and dominant flowpaths are still poorly understood in most catchments; consequently, most hydrograph separations are essentially 'black box' models where only external information is used. The well-instrumented 490 m2 Hydrohill artificial grassland catchment located near Nanjing (China) was used to examine internal catchment processes. Since groundwater levels never reach the soil surface at this site, two physically distinct flowpaths can unambiguously be defined: surface and subsurface runoff. This study combines hydrometric, isotopic and geochemical approaches to investigating the relations between the chloride, silica, and oxygen isotopic compositions of subsurface waters and rainfall. During a 120 mm storm over a 24 h period in 1989, 55% of event water input infiltrated and added to soil water storage; the remainder ran off as infiltration-excess overland flow. Only about 3-5% of the pre-event water was displaced out of the catchment by in-storm rainfall. About 80% of the total flow was quickflow, and 10% of the total flow was pre-event water, mostly derived from saturated flow from deeper soils. Rain water with high ??18O values from the beginning of the storm appeared to be preferentially stored in shallow soils. Groundwater at the end of the storm shows a wide range of isotopic and chemical compositions, primarily reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of the new and mixed pore waters. High chloride and silica concentrations in quickflow runoff derived from event water indicate that these species are not suitable conservative tracers of either water sources or flowpaths in this catchment. Determining the proportion of event water alone does not constrain the possible hydrologic mechanisms sufficiently to distinguish subsurface and surface flowpaths uniquely, even in this highly controlled artificial catchment. We reconcile these findings with a perceptual model of stormflow sources and flowpaths that explicitly accounts for water, isotopic

  9. Thermodynamic study of an unusual chiral separation. Propranolol enantiomers on an immobilized cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Fornstedt, T.; Sajonz, P.; Guiochon, G. |

    1997-02-12

    The thermodynamics of interaction of (R)- and (S)-propranolol between an acetic acid buffer (pH = 4.7 and 5.5) and the protein cellobiohydrolase I immobilized on silica gel was studied between 5 and 45{degree}C. The equilibrium data were fitted to a biLangmuir adsorption isotherm with excellent agreement. One of the two Langmuir contributions is the same for both enantiomers and accounts for the nonspecific interactions between these compounds and most sites on the surfaces (type-I, nonselective sites). It has a large saturation capacity. The second contribution accounts for the chiral selective interactions (type-II sites). It has a lower monolayer capacity than the first. The interaction enthalpy and entropy on type-I sites are -1.1 kcal/mol and +0.1 cal/(mol K), respectively. For type-II sites, they are -1.9 kcal/mol and -2.6 cal/(mol K), respectively, for (R)-propranolol and +1.6 kcal/mol and +11.6 cal/(mol K), respectively, for (S)-propranolol at pH = 5.5. This explains why at this pH the retention time of the less-retained R enantiomer decreases with increasing temperature, while the retention time of the S enantiomer increases, causing a large increase of the separation factor when the temperature is raised from 5 to 45{degree}C. The saturation capacity of the chiral contributions depends strongly on the pH, and the retention times of both enantiomers decrease with increasing temperature at pH = 4.7. 46 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Separating the Idea from the Action: A sLORETA Study.

    PubMed

    Rakusa, Martin; Busan, Pierpaolo; Battaglini, Piero Paolo; Zidar, Janez

    2017-08-14

    Simple imaginary movements activate similar cortical and subcortical areas to actual movements, chiefly in the sensory-motor network. However, only a few studies also examined the imagery of more skilful movements such as reaching. Ten volunteers performed reaching movements or imagined the same movements. EEG was simultaneously recorded and analysed with sLORETA, which compared the preparation for actual and imagined reaching with respect to their baseline and between tasks. Major differences between them were found at three time intervals after target presentation, always in favour of the actual reaching condition. The first one was from 160 to 220 msec in the frontal and parietal regions. The second difference was evident from 220 to 320 msec in the premotor cortex. The third difference was evident from 320 msec, mainly in the perirolandic region. Also, the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices were widely involved, in both tasks. We suggest the existence of two separate systems which may work together during actual reaching programming. The first one involves structures such as the premotor cortex, supplementary motor area and primary motor cortex, together with the parietal and occipital cortex. This system may integrate extrinsic target coordinates with proprioceptive information from the reaching arm and pre-stored programs in the associative motor cortex. It is activated strongly and involves more cortical areas in actual than imagined reaching. The second system, common to both tasks, involves anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, with the possible role of contributing awareness and focusing the various components of the process.

  11. Study on the hydrocyclonic separation of waste plastics with different density.

    PubMed

    Yuan, H; Fu, S; Tan, W; He, J; Wu, K

    2015-11-01

    The recycling of waste plastics is an important aspect in the recycling of solid waste. Based on the difference in density, PET and PVC particles was separated with help of the centrifugal sedimentation and shearing dispersion in a hydrocyclone. Through tests and CFD simulation, the relationship between the separating efficiency and pressure drop and split ratio has been investigated. Test results show that the Newton efficiency can reach above 80%, i.e. the purity of PVC could reach 93.2% while the purity of PET could reach 94.5%.

  12. Study on the separation performance of the multi-channel reduced graphene oxide membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongjiao; Li, Chun; Fan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jiesheng; Yuan, Guang; Song, Xinxiang; Chen, Jing; Li, Zhangde

    2016-10-01

    The multi-channel reduced graphene oxide membranes with separation function have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal reduction method and vacuum filtration. In the as-synthesized membranes, the size, number, and type of the nanochannels can be controlled by the reduced temperature. The flux and retention rate of solution are investigated by filtering different size dye molecules. The interception and adsorption effect in the separation process are discussed. Furthermore, the sizes of the nanochannels in the membranes prepared by the different reduced temperatures are estimated. The results indicate that the multi-channel reduced graphene oxide membranes have potential application in water purification area.

  13. Theoretical study of the 2A2-2B2 separation of the alkali superoxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sodupe, Mariona; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The computed 2A2-2B2 separations of the alkali superoxides are in good agreement with those deduced from electron-spin resonance spectra. The calculations definitively show that the ground state of CsO2 is 2A2. The larger than expected separation for CsO2, based on the trend from LiO2 to RbO2, is attributed primarily to the differential effects of core relaxation. The CsO2 dissociation energy is computed to be 42.7 kcal/mol, with an uncertainty conservatively estimated as +/- 4 kcal/mol.

  14. Characterization of separability and entanglement in (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional systems by single-qubit and single-qutrit unitary transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-15

    We investigate the geometric characterization of pure state bipartite entanglement of (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional composite quantum systems. To this aim, we analyze the relationship between states and their images under the action of particular classes of local unitary operations. We find that invariance of states under the action of single-qubit and single-qutrit transformations is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability. We demonstrate that in the (2xD)-dimensional case the von Neumann entropy of entanglement is a monotonic function of the minimum squared Euclidean distance between states and their images over the set of single qubit unitary transformations. Moreover, both in the (2xD)- and in the (3xD)-dimensional cases the minimum squared Euclidean distance exactly coincides with the linear entropy [and thus as well with the tangle measure of entanglement in the (2xD)-dimensional case]. These results provide a geometric characterization of entanglement measures originally established in informational frameworks. Consequences and applications of the formalism to quantum critical phenomena in spin systems are discussed.

  15. Separation from family and its impact on the mental health of Sudanese refugees in Australia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Savic, Michael; Chur-Hansen, Anna; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Moore, Vivienne

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the impact of separation from family members on the mental health and wellbeing of Sudanese refugees in Australia, and the coping strategies used. In-depth interviews were conducted with Sudanese community representatives and health workers, primary and mental health care practitioners, health service managers and policy makers. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Separation was perceived as having a negative impact on the mental health of Sudanese refugees in Australia, and manifested in concern about the safety of relatives abroad and in changing roles. The pressure to send money home emerged as a high priority for Sudanese refugees, often superseding local concerns. Several strategies were used to bridge the separation gap, including maintaining contact through the use of information communication technologies, and family-reunification. Separation from family can be an ongoing source of stress and sadness among refugees in countries such as Australia. While resettling refugees are actively taking steps to cope with the impact of separation, awareness of the issue in mainstream services appears to be low. Separation from family continues to affect refugees' lives in countries of resettlement. While it may be difficult to alter the course of the monumental circumstances that cause forced migration, service providers can support refugees' coping abilities by understanding these global-local intersections. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Inhibiting the shuttle effect of Li-S battery with a graphene oxide coating separator: Performance improvement and mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Chen, Fang; Gao, Yang; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Qiang; Jiao, Zheng; Zhao, Bing; Chen, Zhiwen

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide (GO) is integrated on commercial polypropylene separator by tape casting method and sandwiched between a sulfur cathode and the separator as a shuttle inhibitor of the Li-S battery. The issues of lithium polysulfides dissolution and shuttle effect are inhibited distinctly, and significant improvements not only in the active material utilization but also in capacity retention are observed. What's more, the improvement mechanism is studied in detail. The results demonstrate that the sulfur and polysulfide species in separator and electrolyte for the cell with GO-coating separator are much less than that with the pristine separator. The GO membrane still maintains three-dimensional porous and flexible structure with a few lithium polysulfides and Li2S2/Li2S nanoparticles anchored on the surface and inter-layers of GO sheets after long cycles. And the active materials are significantly localized within the cathode structure after GO-coating. In addition, less sulfate species, lithium salts, polysulfides and other insoluble species are identified on the cathode and separator after long-term cycling.

  17. Study of the separation limits of continuous solid support free liquid-liquid chromatography: separation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Goll, Johannes; Frey, Andreas; Minceva, Mirjana

    2013-04-05

    Sequential centrifugal partition chromatography (sCPC) is a cyclic solid support-free liquid-liquid chromatographic process, in which a continuously introduced feed mixture is separated into two sequentially collected product streams. The few experimental demonstrations of this concept already revealed its potential for the preparative separation of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In this work not only the possibilities, but also the limits of the sCPC technology are explored. A feed mixture consisting of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, whose molecular structure differs in only one double bond, was selected for this purpose. The sCPC unit operating parameters needed for a complete separation of the feed mixture were selected using the recently published approach, which uses the partition coefficient of the feed components and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the system as input data. A complete separation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with the solvent system heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water:1/1/1/1 (v/v/v/v) was achieved, although the separation factor was only 1.32. The sCPC unit separation performance was successfully simulated using the cell model.

  18. Characterizing Student Expectations: A Small Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a small empirical study (n = 130), in which undergraduate students in the Business Faculty of a UK university were asked to express views and expectations relating to the study of a mathematics. Factor analysis is used to identify latent variables emerging from clusters of the measured variables and these are…

  19. Effects of mercury on spermatogenesis studied by velocity sedimentation cell separation and serial mating.

    PubMed

    Lee, I P; Dixon, R L

    1975-07-01

    Recently the potential toxicity of environmental mercury has become a major concern. Human tissues contain mercury due to daily environmental exposure. Nearly all of the mercury contaminating food is in the form of methylmercury complexes, due to the biotransformation of inorganic mercury. This report compares the reproductive effects of methylmercury hydroxide and mercuric chloride in male mice. The mercuric compounds were administered intraperitoneally once at a dose of 1 mg/kg (based on Hg++ concentration), or spermatogenic cells were exposed in vitro to Hg+ concentrations ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-8)M. Spermatogenic cells were separated for biochemical studies using the velocity sedimentation technique, and in vivo serial mating was used to assess fertility. The effects of CH3Hg+ or Hg++ on the uptake of 3H-thymidine by spermatogonia, 3H-uridine by early elongated spermatids, and 3H-L-leucine by late elongated spermatids were studied. These in vitro experiments indicated that at 1-(-3) m CH2HgOH reduced thymidine incorporation by spermatogonia by 40%, uridine incorporation by elongated spermatids by 39% and L-leucine incorporation by late elongated spermatids by 40%. Results obtained with HgCl2 were similar but of lesser magnitude. In vivo administration of CH3HgOH and HgCl2 significantly inhibited the uptake of thymidine, uridine and L-leucine by their respective spermatogenic cells. Fertility profiles obtained from serial mating studies indicated that the primary effect of CH3HgOH was on spermatogonial cells, premeiotic spermatocytes and early elongated spermatids, with no apparent effect on spermatozoa in testis, peididymis or vas deferentia. HgCl2 also primarily affected spermatogonial and premeiotic cells, but the effect was less than that seen with CH3HgOH. Statistical analysis indicated significant antifertility effects. Inhibition of uptake of thymidine and uridine was well correlated with the functionality of these cells as reflected in the fertility

  20. Characterizing Low Molecular Weight Organic Matter in Arctic Polygonal Tundra Soils to Identify Biogeochemical Hotspots Using a Dual-Separation, High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, M.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Iversen, C. M.; Hettich, R.

    2016-12-01

    Reliably modeling biogeochemical processes (e.g. decomposition, plant-microbial competition for nutrients) across spatial or temporal scales requires elucidating the chemical composition of low molecular weight (LMW) dissolved soil organic matter (DOM). Our understanding is limited, however, by the wide-ranging physicochemical properties and high fluxes of these compounds, posing major challenges in detection, isolation, and quantification. Here, we developed and evaluated a sensitive, non-targeted approach to characterize LMW DOM in the Arctic, a unique system that is warming at a rate twice that of the global average and may have significant feedbacks to global C and N cycles. Soil cores were collected from a continuous permafrost, polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska (71° 16' N) and sectioned into 5 cm increments. Water and salt extracts from each section were filtered and injected onto C18 reversed-phase or zwitterionic-type hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ZIC-pHILIC) columns for separation. LMW DOM profiles were obtained using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and unique features, known and unknown, were characterized by LC retention time, accurate mass (m/z), and molecular fragmentation pattern. Coupling two orthogonal chromatographic separations with HRMS enabled the characterization of hundreds of analytes in a single measurement providing enhanced, high-throughput coverage of LMW DOM from soil extracts. The complexity and relative/absolute intensities of LMW DOM features (e.g. organic acids, amino sugars, peptides) varied across polygon type (high- or low-centered), extract condition, and with depth, providing an information-rich, molecular signal of LMW DOM availability across scales. Comprehensively profiling this complex mixture of small molecules of both biotic and abiotic origin provides a chemical signature of biological function, allowing for more reliable predictions of how discrete, molecular-scale processes may control

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a new cation exchanger-zirconium(IV)iodotungstate: separation and determination of metal ion contents of synthetic mixtures, pharmaceutical preparations and standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Syed A; Alimuddin; Islam, Aminul

    2009-12-15

    Samples of zirconium(IV)iodotungstate have been synthesized under varying mixing order and ratios of aqueous solution of potassium iodate, sodium tungstate and zirconium oxychloride at pH 1. A tentative formula was proposed on the basis of chemical composition, FTIR and thermogravimetric studies. The material shows a capacity of 0.68 meq g(-1) (for K+) which can be retained up to 200 degrees C. pH titration data reveal its monofunctional behavior. The distribution coefficient values of metal ions have been determined in various solvent systems. A number of important and analytically difficult quantitative separations of metal ions have been achieved using columns packed with this exchanger. In order to demonstrate practical utility of this material, Hg2+ and Pb2+ have been selectively separated and determined in the synthetic mixtures. Assay of Al3+ and Mg2+ in commercial tablets and analysis of lead in the standard reference material have also been attempted.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic copper fiber sintered felt with a 3D space network structure and their oil-water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinyi; Yuan, Wei; Chen, Wenjun; Xu, Xiaotian; Tang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    This study reports the fabrication of a novel stable superhydrophobic and superoleophylic porous metal material on a copper fiber sintered felt (CFSF) substrate via a simple solution-immersion method. Oxidation and modification times are two important factors related to the level of hydrophobicity; oxidation for 1 h and modification for 24 h are appropriate to build a superhydrophobic CFSF surface with a water contact angle of 152.83° and a kerosene contact angle of 0°. The stability and high temperature resistance of superhydrophobic CFSF were studied. A novel device was designed to measure the water repellent ability of the treated CFSF. The results indicated that the water repellent ability of superhydrophobic CFSF was almost constant after 40 cycles of sanding. Both the water contact angle and the microstructure of the modified CFSF surface remained nearly unchanged after experiencing ultrasonic vibration for 1 min. The modified CFSF surface maintains super hydrophobicity after being treated at 180 °C for 1 h. The separation efficiencies for different types of oils and organic solvents (kerosene, chloroform, n-hexane and gasoline) are more than 96%. The modified CFSF retains a high robustness of separation efficiency even after it is recycled for the separation of kerosene and water for more than 10 times.

  3. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with a Six-Year-Old Boy with Separation Anxiety Disorder: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dia, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in a six-year-old boy who was having at least one panic attack a day. It uses a four-phased program that includes a psychoeducational approach. The outcome studies demonstrated how CBT shows promise as a treatment modality with…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with a Six-Year-Old Boy with Separation Anxiety Disorder: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dia, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in a six-year-old boy who was having at least one panic attack a day. It uses a four-phased program that includes a psychoeducational approach. The outcome studies demonstrated how CBT shows promise as a treatment modality with…

  6. A Case Study of Institutional Divorce: The Separation of a Community College From a University. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Joanne

    This case study examined the separation of a community college from a local university where both had functioned as one for 20 years. The study used Robert Yin's model of investigating a "real-life" situation and several sources of data including: informal interviews, field notes, and archival data. In addition, the metaphor of…

  7. Exposure to parental separation in childhood and later parenting quality as an adult: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Myron D; John Horwood, L; Fergusson, David M; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has documented that exposure to parental separation/divorce during childhood can be associated with long-term consequences into adulthood. This study sought to extend this literature by examining associations between childhood exposure to parental separation/divorce and later parenting behavior as an adult in a New Zealand birth cohort. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. Information about exposure to parental separation and divorce was gathered annually from birth to 15 years. At the 30-year follow-up, all cohort members who had become parents (biological or nonbiological) were assessed on several parenting dimensions (sensitivity, warmth, overreactivity, inconsistency, quality of child management, and physical punishment). The analyses showed that exposure to more frequent parental separation in childhood and adolescence was associated with lower levels of parental sensitivity and warmth, greater overreactivity, and an increased use of physical punishment as a parent, after controlling for a wide range of family socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and individual child characteristics. The findings suggest that as exposure to parental separation increases, so does the likelihood of experiencing multiple developmental challenges in childhood and adolescence. As an adult, these life-course experiences can have small but significant associations with the quality of parenting behavior. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. Comparison study of solid/liquid separation techniques for oilfield pit closures

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.; Field, S.D.; Osterman, M.C.

    1987-07-01

    Vacuum filtration, belt-press filtration, screw-press filtration, and centrifuging techniques were evaluated in full-scale experiments for use in oilfield waste volume reduction. Centrifuging and belt-press filtration proved applicable to oilfield pit cleanups. Also, an effective chemical conditioning (coagulation and flocculation) was found for deliquoring seven types of oilfield waste slurries before separation.

  9. A Study of Pulsed Blowing Effect on Flow Separation over Flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yankui; Zhou, Ping; Li, Qian

    2015-11-01

    With the development of the modern aircraft, such as tailless flying configuration, traditional flaps are also the main control surfaces for flight controlling. However, the efficiency of the flap is not only descent quickly due to flow separation over itself under higher deflection angle of flap, but also is evidently influenced by the flow coming down from the upstream wing. A novel flow control technique to improve the flow separation over the flap by pulsed blowing is investigated in this paper by wind tunnel test under Reynolds number of 0.6* 10E6 2.4* 10E6. To begin with, the control performance for flow separation over the flap is very sensitive to the blowing position and direction and the flow separation can be recovered by the pulsed blowing evidently. Secondly, the pulsed blowing efficiency is 30% higher than that of continuous blowing with the same consumption. In addition, the pulsed blowing efficiency increases quickly with the increasing of pulsed blowing frequency and keep constant gradually when the pulsed blowing Stroul number is bigger than 0.6. National Natural Science Foundation of China (11272035).

  10. Studies of hadron-electron separators for the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ambats, I.; Bortz, D.; Connolly, A.

    1995-05-25

    Two possible upgrades, a shower maximum detector and a presampler, designed to improve the low energy electron/hadron separation capabilities of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter are described and test-beam results are reported. The presampler can also be used to correct for energy loss of particles traversing the dead material in front of the calorimeter.

  11. The Dynamics of Integration and Separation: ERP, MEG, and Neural Network Studies of Immediate Repetition Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, David E.; Tian, Xing; Curran, Tim; O'Reilly, Randall C.; Woroch, Brion

    2008-01-01

    This article presents data and theory concerning the fundamental question of how the brain achieves a balance between integrating and separating perceptual information over time. This theory was tested in the domain of word reading by examining brain responses to briefly presented words that were either new or immediate repetitions. Critically,…

  12. The Dynamics of Integration and Separation: ERP, MEG, and Neural Network Studies of Immediate Repetition Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, David E.; Tian, Xing; Curran, Tim; O'Reilly, Randall C.; Woroch, Brion

    2008-01-01

    This article presents data and theory concerning the fundamental question of how the brain achieves a balance between integrating and separating perceptual information over time. This theory was tested in the domain of word reading by examining brain responses to briefly presented words that were either new or immediate repetitions. Critically,…

  13. Fundamental Studies of Subsonic and Transonic Flow Separation. Part I. First Phase Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    Tullahoma, Tennessee, Nov. 26~30, 1973. 46 AEDC·TR-75-95 21. Dudziniski I Thomas J. and Krause, Lloyd N., "Effect of Inlet Geometry on Flow Angle...Stratford, B. S., "The Prediction of Separation of the Turbulent Boundary Layer," J. Fluid Mech. 5, 1958. 25. Nash, J. F., QUincey , V. G and Callinan, J

  14. TANK 7 CHARACTERIZATION AND WASHING STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2010-02-04

    A 3-L PUREX sludge sample from Tank 7 was characterized and then processed through a series of inhibited water washes to remove oxalate, sodium, and other soluble ions. Current plans use Tank 7 as one of the feed sources for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7). Tank 7 is high in oxalate due to the oxalic acid cleaning of the sludge heels from Tanks 5 and 6 and subsequent transfer to Tank 7. Ten decant and nine wash cycles were performed over a 47 day period at ambient temperature. Initially, seven decants and seven washes were completed based on preliminary estimates of the number of wash cycles required to remove the oxalate in the sludge. After reviewing the composition data, SRNL recommended the completion of 2 or 3 more decant/wash cycles to ensure all of the sodium oxalate had redissolved. In the first 7 washes, the slurry oxalate concentration was 12,300 mg/kg (69.6% oxalate removal compared to 96.1% removal of the other soluble ions). After all ten decants were complete, the slurry oxalate concentration was 3,080 mg/kg (89.2% oxalate removal compared to 99.0% of the other soluble ions). The rate of dissolution of oxalate increased significantly with subsequent washes until all of the sodium oxalate had been redissolved after seven decant/wash cycles. The measured oxalate concentrations agreed very well with LWO predictions for washing of the Tank 7 sample. Highlights of the analysis and washing of the Tank 7 sample include: (1) Sodium oxalate was detected in the as-received filtered solids. 95% of the oxalate was insoluble (undissolved) in the as-received slurry. (2) No sodium oxalate was detected in the post-wash filtered solids. (3) Sodium oxalate is the last soluble species that redissolves during washing with inhibited water. In order to significantly reduce the sodium oxalate concentration, the sludge must be highly washed, leaving the other soluble anions and cations (including sodium) very low in concentration. (4) The post-wash slurry had 1% of the soluble anions

  15. Separation of small metabolites and lipids in spectra from biopsies by diffusion-weighted HR-MAS NMR: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Diserens, G; Vermathen, M; Precht, C; Broskey, N T; Boesch, C; Amati, F; Dufour, J-F; Vermathen, P

    2015-01-07

    High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR allows metabolic characterization of biopsies. HR-MAS spectra from tissues of most organs show strong lipid contributions that are overlapping metabolite regions, which hamper metabolite estimation. Metabolite quantification and analysis would benefit from a separation of lipids and small metabolites. Generally, a relaxation filter is used to reduce lipid contributions. However, the strong relaxation filter required to eliminate most of the lipids also reduces the signals for small metabolites. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate different diffusion editing techniques in order to employ diffusion differences for separating lipid and small metabolite contributions in the spectra from different organs for unbiased metabonomic analysis. Thus, 1D and 2D diffusion measurements were performed, and pure lipid spectra that were obtained at strong diffusion weighting (DW) were subtracted from those obtained at low DW, which include both small metabolites and lipids. This subtraction yielded almost lipid free small metabolite spectra from muscle tissue. Further improved separation was obtained by combining a 1D diffusion sequence with a T2-filter, with the subtraction method eliminating residual lipids from the spectra. Similar results obtained for biopsies of different organs suggest that this method is applicable in various tissue types. The elimination of lipids from HR-MAS spectra and the resulting less biased assessment of small metabolites have potential to remove ambiguities in the interpretation of metabonomic results. This is demonstrated in a reproducibility study on biopsies from human muscle.

  16. Phase separation of polymer mixtures induced by light and heat: a comparative study by light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochi, Yuki; Kawakubo, Rie; Van-Pham, Dan-Thuy; Kitamura, Yuki; Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Norisuye, Tomohisa; Tran-Cong-Miyata, Qui

    2015-12-01

    Phase separation of binary blends composed of a polystyrene derivative (PS) and poly (vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was experimentally induced by two different methods: heating and UV light irradiation. Using laser light scattering combined with the temperature jump (T-jump) technique, it was demonstrated that in the case of heating, the mixture undergoes phase separation via the nucleation-and-growth (NG) and the spinodal decomposition (SN) processes under shallow and deep quenches, respectively. Particularly, the crossover from the spinodal decomposition to the nucleation-and-growth process was observed at long time under a deep T-jump by light-scattering experiments. On the other hand, in the photo-crosslink case, the PS/PVME blends undergo a nucleation-and-growth process upon irradiation with weak light intensity, whereas the mixture exhibits the spinodal decomposition under irradiation with strong light intensity. From the analysis of the light-scattering data obtained for the blends under the photo-crosslink, the kinetic data reveal the suppression of morphologies having large characteristic length scales. This feature clearly differs from the phase separation induced by heating where no mode-suppression process was observed. It was also found that distribution of the characteristic length scales (the regularity) of the morphology becomes narrow as the phase separation proceeds for reacting blends, whereas it becomes broader as the phase separation proceeds by heating, revealing the important roles of reaction in the suppression of fluctuations with long wavelengths. These experimental results establish a method to control the length scales and the regularity of the morphology of polymer blends by chemical reaction.

  17. Medical Separation Among Careerists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    unprecedented rate . This study examines the correlation between deployment tempo and medical separation rates for Marines who have shown an intention to remain...separated, I find that the increased deployment tempo in the post- 9/11 era leads to decreases in medical separation rates , particularly among those...at an unprecedented rate . This study examines the correlation between deployment tempo and medical separation rates for Marines who have shown an