Science.gov

Sample records for sepetiba rj brasil

  1. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  2. Radium mass balance and submarine groundwater discharge in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Christian J.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Moore, Willard S.

    2012-11-01

    Radium-226 and 228Ra activities were determined in water samples from within and adjacent to Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in 1998, 2005 and 2007. Surface waters in Sepetiba Bay were substantially higher in 226Ra and 228Ra compared to ocean end member samples. Using the residence time of water in the bay we calculated the flux required to maintain the observed enrichment over the ocean end members. We then applied a radium mass balance to estimate the volume of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the bay. The estimates of SGD into Sepetiba Bay (in 1010 L day-1) were 2.56, 3.75, and 1.0, respectively for 1998, 2005, and 2007. These estimates are equivalent to approximately 1% of the total volume of the bay each day or 50 L m-2 day-1. It is likely that a substantial portion of the SGD in Sepetiba Bay consists of infiltrated seawater. This large flux of SGD has the potential to supply substantial quantities of nutrients, carbon and metals into coastal waters. The SGD found here is greater than what is typically found in SGD studies along the eastern United States and areas with similar geologic characteristics. Considering there are many coastal areas around the world like Sepetiba Bay, this could revise upward the already important contribution of SGD to coastal as well as oceanic budgets.

  3. A system dynamics model for the environmental management of the Sepetiba Bay Watershed, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal Neto, Alexandre de C; Legey, Luiz F L; González-Araya, Marcela Cecilia; Jablonski, Silvio

    2006-11-01

    In the recent past, the Sepetiba Bay watershed, located in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil has experienced rapid industrial development and population growth, as well as an increase in water pollution and environmental degradation. To analyze the complex interrelationships among the agents affecting the Sepetibza Bay environment, a system dynamics model was developed. The model builds on extensive studies conducted for the watershed, and simulates different hypotheses of economic growth and of demographic expansion. Thus, it can be used as a decision support tool for the identification of investment priorities and policy analyses under various scenarios. In order to provide a comprehensive approach to the environmental management of the Sepetiba Bay watershed, the model had to consider only the most relevant aspects of the behavior and the key interactions among agents operating in the watershed. In this article, the model's structure is presented together with some of its main results.

  4. Combined SEM/AVS and attenuation of concentration models for the assessment of bioavailability and mobility of metals in sediments of Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; dos Santos, José Osman; Dantas, Elizabeth; Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; Silva Filho, Emmanoel V; Wasserman, Julio Cesar

    2013-03-15

    This study proposes a new methodology to study contamination, bioavailability and mobility of metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) using chemical and geostatistics approaches in marine sediments of Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil). The chemical model of SEM (simultaneously extracted metals)/AVS (acid volatile sulfides) ratio uses a technique of cold acid extraction of metals to evaluate their bioavailability, and the geostatistical model of attenuation of concentrations estimates the mobility of metals. By coupling the two it was observed that Sepetiba Port, the urban area of Sepetiba and the riverine discharges may constitute potential sources of metals to Sepetiba Bay. The metals are concentrated in the NE area of the bay, where they tend to have their lowest mobility, as shown by the attenuation model, and are not bioavailable, as they tend to associate with sulfide and organic matter originated in the mangrove forests of nearby Guaratiba area.

  5. Mutagen and Oncogen Study on RJ-4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    human risk may be made with greater confidence. The interpretations of data outlined in this section are based primarily on criteria developed for each...used as a positive control for the nonactivation studies at a final concentration of 0.5 pl/ml. Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), which requires metabolic...evaluate the test chemical, RJ-4, for its ability to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in human diploid WI-38 cells blocked in G1 phase. MATERIALS Test

  6. Assessment of heavy metals in Egretta thula: case study: Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A P

    2011-02-01

    This study focuses on metals analysis in kidney and liver tissues of Egretta thula which were collected prostrate or newly dead in Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 2005 and October 2008. Kidney and liver were collected and analysed to evaluate heavy metal pollution. High values and widest range were detected for all metals in liver and kidney tissues. Geometric mean differences from metals concentrations for Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Cr, respectively, were found in both organs. Results from linear regression analysis were non-significant in kidney (r = -0.79975, P = 0.10428), and in liver (r = -0.53193, P = 0.35618). With ANOVA analysis for metal accumulation differences (kidney*liver), at the 0.05 level, the results were significantly different (F = 33.17676, P = 0.00000; F = 12.47880, P = 0.00000). These results indicate that Sepetiba Bay shows worrying levels of metals in this study with E. thula, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health.

  7. Analysis of the Body Distribution of Absorbed Dose in the Organs of Three Species of Fish from Sepetiba Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; dos Santos Gouvea, Rita de Cássia; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The body distribution of Polonium-210 in three fishes from the Sepetiba Bay (Macrodon ancylodon, Micropogonias furnieri and Mugil curema) has been studied under the approach of the Department of Energy of the United States of America (DOE) that set the limit of absorbed dose rate in biota equal to 3.5×103 μGy/y, and that also established the relation between dose rate (D) and radionuclide concentration (c) on a fish muscle fresh weight basis, as follows: D = 5.05 E×N×C, assuming that the radionuclide distribution is homogenous among organs. Two hypotheses were tested here, using statistical tools: 1) is the body distribution of absorbed dose homogenous among organs? and 2) is the body distribution of absorbed dose identical among studied fishes? It was concluded, as expected, that the distribution among organs is heterogeneous; but, unexpectedly, that the three fishes display identical body distribution pattern, although they belong to different trophic levels. Hence, concerning absorbed dose calculation, the statement that data distribution is homogenous must be understood merely as an approximation, at least in the case of Polonium-210.

  8. Analysis of the Body Distribution of Absorbed Dose in the Organs of Three Species of Fish from Sepetiba Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Santos Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-08-07

    The body distribution of Polonium-210 in three fishes from the Sepetiba Bay (Macrodon ancylodon, Micropogonias furnieri and Mugil curema) has been studied under the approach of the Department of Energy of the United States of America (DOE) that set the limit of absorbed dose rate in biota equal to 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y, and that also established the relation between dose rate (D) and radionuclide concentration (c) on a fish muscle fresh weight basis, as follows: D = 5.05 ExNxC, assuming that the radionuclide distribution is homogenous among organs. Two hypotheses were tested here, using statistical tools: 1) is the body distribution of absorbed dose homogenous among organs? and 2) is the body distribution of absorbed dose identical among studied fishes? It was concluded, as expected, that the distribution among organs is heterogeneous; but, unexpectedly, that the three fishes display identical body distribution pattern, although they belong to different trophic levels. Hence, concerning absorbed dose calculation, the statement that data distribution is homogenous must be understood merely as an approximation, at least in the case of Polonium-210.

  9. A thaumatin-like protein, Rj4, controls nodule symbiotic specificity in soybean.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaki; Shiro, Sokichi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Mori-Hosokawa, Satomi; Sasaki-Yamagata, Harumi; Sayama, Takashi; Nishioka, Miki; Takahashi, Masakazu; Ishimoto, Masao; Katayose, Yuichi; Kaga, Akito; Harada, Kyuya; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Saeki, Yuichi; Umehara, Yosuke

    2014-09-01

    Soybeans exhibit a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soil bacteria of the genera Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer/Sinorhizobium in a unique organ, the root nodule. It is well known that nodulation of soybean is controlled by several host genes referred to as Rj (rj) genes. Among these genes, a dominant allele, Rj4, restricts nodulation with specific bacterial strains such as B. elkanii USDA61 and B. japonicum Is-34. These incompatible strains fail to invade the host epidermal cells as revealed by observations using DsRed-labeled bacteria. Here, we describe the molecular identification of the Rj4 gene by using map-based cloning with several mapping populations. The Rj4 gene encoded a thaumatin-like protein (TLP) that belongs to pathogenesis-related (PR) protein family 5. In rj4/rj4 genotype soybeans and wild soybeans, we found six missense mutations and two consecutive amino acid deletions in the rj4 gene as compared with the Rj4 allele. We also found, using hairy root transformation, that the rj4/rj4 genotype soybeans were fully complemented by the expression of the Rj4 gene. Whereas the expression of many TLPs and other PR proteins is induced by biotic/abiotic stress, Rj4 gene expression appears to be constitutive in roots including root nodules.

  10. Acid Volatile Sulfides (avs) and the Bioavailability of Trace Metals in the Channel of the SÃO Francisco River, Sepetiba Bay - de Janeiro-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, Christiane; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Marinho, Matheus; Quaresma, Tássia; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-01

    Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro.The San Francisco channel comes from the Guandu River and empties into Sepetiba Bay and is the main contributor of freshwater to the estuarine system. The Guandu River system/channel of San Francisco receives contribution of domestic and industrial effluents, which go largely to Sepetiba Bay. This work aimed to evaluate the .This work aimed to evaluate the ratio SEM/AVS as a way of predicting bioavailability trace metals from industrial sewage, mainly, in the estuarine system of Sepetiba. This model is based on the property of some Divalent metal cations (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), by presenting a low solubility constant, are removed from the soluble fraction by precipitation, forming secondary metal sulfides. Were held four transects, made up of three points each, the coast line to the center of the Bay. The surface sediment was collected with a van Veen sampler type ,packed in glass jars and kept frozen until analysis.The determination of SEM/AVS followed the methodology described by Allen et al. (1991). The variation between sulfide 159.88 ± 0.05 µmol/g on 12 points. The metals that entered the sum of simultaneous extraction were: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn ranging from: 6.47 ± 0.11 µmol/g on sum.The means (± standard deviation) ratio SEM/AVS per transect were: 1.04 ± 1.20 (transect 1); 0.48 ± 0.53 (transect 2); 1.26 ± 1.32 (transect 3) and 0.18 ± 0.14 (transect 4). Only transects 1 and 3 had higher results than 1 , meaning that there are more divalent metal sulfides in the environment. This means that only the sulfides would not be capable of complex and may reflect the potential bioavailability of these in the aquatic environment. There is no statistical

  11. 75 FR 75205 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights...,\\1\\ CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant limited overhead trackage rights to R.J... original notices, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC--Acquisition and...

  12. Identification of Bradyrhizobium elkanii Genes Involved in Incompatibility with Soybean Plants Carrying the Rj4 Allele

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Omar M.; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sato, Shusei

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses between leguminous plants and soil bacteria known as rhizobia are of great importance to agricultural production and nitrogen cycling. While these mutualistic symbioses can involve a wide range of rhizobia, some legumes exhibit incompatibility with specific strains, resulting in ineffective nodulation. The formation of nodules in soybean plants (Glycine max) is controlled by several host genes, which are referred to as Rj genes. The soybean cultivar BARC2 carries the Rj4 gene, which restricts nodulation by specific strains, including Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA61. Here we employed transposon mutagenesis to identify the genetic locus in USDA61 that determines incompatibility with soybean varieties carrying the Rj4 allele. Introduction of the Tn5 transposon into USDA61 resulted in the formation of nitrogen fixation nodules on the roots of soybean cultivar BARC2 (Rj4 Rj4). Sequencing analysis of the sequence flanking the Tn5 insertion revealed that six genes encoding a putative histidine kinase, transcriptional regulator, DNA-binding transcriptional activator, helix-turn-helix-type transcriptional regulator, phage shock protein, and cysteine protease were disrupted. The cysteine protease mutant had a high degree of similarity with the type 3 effector protein XopD of Xanthomonas campestris. Our findings shed light on the diverse and complicated mechanisms that underlie these highly host-specific interactions and indicate the involvement of a type 3 effector in Rj4 nodulation restriction, suggesting that Rj4 incompatibility is partly mediated by effector-triggered immunity. PMID:26187957

  13. 75 FR 49377 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...-012-AD; Amendment 39-16387; AD 2010-16-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... has been identified regarding the interchanging of wing links on all BAe 146 & AVRO 146-RJ...

  14. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC, wherein R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company) seeks to lease from RJC Railroad Property and to operate...

  15. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and... prior approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines...

  16. 75 FR 52818 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-- Trackage Rights... Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) has agreed to grant additional limited overhead trackage rights \\1\\ to R.J. Corman... Louisville, Ky., a distance of approximately 17 miles.\\2\\ \\1\\ The original rights were obtained by...

  17. Rj4, a Gene Controlling Nodulation Specificity in Soybeans, Encodes a Thaumatin-Like Protein But Not the One Previously Reported.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Yang, Shengming; Liu, Jinge; Zhu, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Rj4 is a dominant gene in soybeans (Glycine max) that restricts nodulation by many strains of Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The soybean-B. elkanii symbiosis has a low nitrogen-fixation efficiency, but B. elkanii strains are highly competitive for nodulation; thus, cultivars harboring an Rj4 allele are considered favorable. Cloning the Rj4 gene is the first step in understanding the molecular basis of Rj4-mediated nodulation restriction and facilitates the development of molecular tools for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation in soybeans. We finely mapped the Rj4 locus within a small genomic region on soybean chromosome 1, and validated one of the candidate genes as Rj4 using both complementation tests and CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout experiments. We demonstrated that Rj4 encodes a thaumatin-like protein, for which a corresponding allele is not present in the surveyed rj4 genotypes, including the reference genome Williams 82. Our conclusion disagrees with the previous report that Rj4 is the Glyma.01G165800 gene (previously annotated as Glyma01g37060). Instead, we provide convincing evidence that Rj4 is Glyma.01g165800-D, a duplicated and unique version of Glyma.01g165800, that has evolved the ability to control symbiotic specificity.

  18. Road Marking Extraction Using a MODEL&DATA-DRIVEN Rj-Mcmc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervieu, A.; Soheilian, B.; Brédif, M.

    2015-03-01

    We propose an integrated bottom-up/top-down approach to road-marking extraction from image space. It is based on energy minimization using marked point processes. A generic road marking object model enable us to define universal energy functions that handle various types of road-marking objects (dashed-lines, arrows, characters, etc.). A RJ-MCMC sampler coupled with a simulated annealing is applied to find the configuration corresponding to the minimum of the proposed energy. We used input data measurements to guide the sampler process (data driven RJ-MCMC). The approach is enhanced with a model-driven kernel using preprocessed autocorrelation and inter-correlation of road-marking templates, in order to resolve type and transformation ambiguities. The method is generic and can be applied to detect road-markings in any orthogonal view produced from optical sensors or laser scanners from aerial or terrestrial platforms. We show the results an ortho-image computed from ground-based laser scanning.

  19. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil... a last known address of Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, and...

  20. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R...), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  1. 76 FR 31459 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...-208-AD; Amendment 39-16705; AD 2011-11-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA..., prompted by a crack found at the top of the Nose Landing Gear (NLG) oleo, BAE Systems Operations) Ltd...

  2. 75 FR 53855 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...-226-AD; Amendment 39-16423; AD 2010-18-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Applicability that have been modified to freighter configuration in accordance with BAE Systems modification...

  3. 75 FR 12158 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Limited Model Avro 146-RJ and BAe 146 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... fleet wide problem has been identified regarding the interchanging of wing links on all BAe 146 &...

  4. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R... acquisition transaction is related to the notice of exemption in Docket No. FD 35364, R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-- Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC, in which R....

  5. Results of the radiological survey at 31 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ003)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 31 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ003), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  6. Results of the radiological survey at 37 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ002)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Th derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 37 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ002), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  7. Results of the radiological survey at 27 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ004)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 27 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ004), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  8. A Putative Type III Secretion System Effector Encoded by the MA20_12780 Gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 Causes Incompatibility with Rj4 Genotype Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Hashimoto, Syougo; Okizaki, Kouhei; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Yamakawa, Takeo

    2015-09-01

    The nodulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Is-34 is restricted by Rj4 genotype soybeans (Glycine max). To identify the genes responsible for this incompatibility, Tn5 mutants of B. japonicum Is-34 that were able to overcome this nodulation restriction were obtained. Analysis of the Tn5 mutants revealed that Tn5 was inserted into a region containing the MA20_12780 gene. In addition, direct disruption of this gene using marker exchange overcame the nodulation restriction by Rj4 genotype soybeans. The MA20_12780 gene has a tts box motif in its upstream region, indicating a possibility that this gene encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein. Bioinformatic characterization revealed that the MA20_12780 protein contains the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease domain of the C48 peptidase (ubiquitin-like protease 1 [Ulp1]) family. The results of the present study indicate that a putative T3SS effector encoded by the MA20_12780 gene causes the incompatibility with Rj4 genotype soybeans, and they suggest the possibility that the nodulation restriction of B. japonicum Is-34 may be due to Rj4 genotype soybeans recognizing the putative T3SS effector (MA20_12780 protein) as a virulence factor.

  9. Evaluation of microplastics in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, Brazil, an area of mussels farming.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Silva, Melanie L; Marques, Mônica Regina C; de Araújo, Fábio V

    2016-09-15

    Once non-biodegradable, microplastics remain on the environment absorbing toxic hydrophobic compounds making them a risk to biodiversity when ingested or filtered by organisms and entering in the food chain. To evaluate the potential of the contamination by microplastics in mussels cultivated in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, waters of three stations were collected during a rain and dry seasons using a plankton net and later filtered. Microplastics were quantified and characterized morphologically and chemically. The results showed a high concentration of microplastics in both seasons with diversity of colors, types and sizes. Synthetic polymers were present in all samples. The presence of microplastics was probably due to a high and constant load of effluent that this area receives and to the mussel farming activity that use many plastic materials. Areas with high concentrations of microplastics could not be used for mussel cultivation due to the risk of contamination to consumers.

  10. Spatial-temporal analysis of marine debris on beaches of Niterói, RJ, Brazil: Itaipu and Itacoatiara.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Melanie Lopes; de Araújo, Fábio Vieira; Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Sales, Alessandro Souza

    2015-03-15

    In many areas of the world, studies of marine debris are conducted with an emphasis on analyzing their composition, quantification and distribution on sandy beaches. However, in Brazil, studies are still restricted to some areas of the coast, and the quantities and the spatial and temporal patterns are unknown. To enhance the marine debris information in these areas, we selected the Itaipu and Itacoatiara beaches in Niterói, RJ, to collect, quantify and qualify the solid residues present in their sands. We collected 12 samples and recorded 118.39 kg of residues in Itaipu and 62.94 kg in Itacoatiara. At both beaches, the largest portion of debris was located on the upper part of the beach. Several debris items were related to food and drink consumption on the beaches, which indicated the contribution of beach users to pollution. Most of the debris was plastic. The greatest amount of debris was found at Itaipu in January and February and at Itacoatiara in January and March, months related to both the holiday season and abundant rainfall. The results demonstrated the necessity to implement an Environmental Education project for these areas to reduce its degradation.

  11. [The domestic violence against the elderly within the Family Health Program of Niterói (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Apratto Júnior, Paulo Cavalcante

    2010-09-01

    This article investigates the magnitude and characteristics of violence against the elderly by trusted people at Ilha da Conceição, Niterói--RJ registered at the Family Health Program. A domestic survey interviewed 343 individuals with 60 years or more, selected by a simple random sample. To identify the violence it was used the Conflict Tactics Scales. Information about identification, demographics and socio-economics characteristics were obtained using the National Health Interview Survey. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used to evaluate mental health. In order to evaluate the functional capacity, the Health Assessment Questionnaire was used. In cases of alcohol suspicion among men, it was used the instrument CAGE. To female elder or caregivers, the TWEAK instrument was used. 43% reported at least one episode of psychological violence. Physical violence was reported by 9.6% of the interviewed, 6.1% reported serious physical violence in this period. The prevalence of different modalities of violence was higher among the youngest individuals, with higher scholarity, among those who have one of the pathologies that characterize the elderly as having a vulnerability (depression and/or urinary incontinence/fecal and/or diabetes and/or rheumatism) and those living with the greatest number of individuals.

  12. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins (Monimiaceae) in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Fernanda da S; Callado, Cátia H; Pereira-Moura, Maria Verônica L; Lima, Helena R P

    2010-12-01

    This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS) and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS) formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalariform perforation plates, wood parenchyma scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the greater diameters of their branches. Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.

  13. The Morsárjökull rock avalanche in the southern part of the Vatnajökull glacier, south Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sæmundsson, Şorsteinn; Sigurősson, Ingvar A.; Pétursson, Halldór G.; Decaulne, Armelle; Jónsson, Helgi P.

    2010-05-01

    On the 20th of March 2007 a large rock avalanche fell on Morsárjökull, one of the outlet glaciers from the southern part of the Vatnajökull ice cap, in south Iceland. This is considered to be one of the largest rock avalanches which have occurred in Iceland during the last decades. It is believed that it fell in two separate stages, the main part fell on the 20th of March and the second and smaller one, on the 17th of April 2007. The Morsárjökull outlet glacier is about 4 km long and surrounded by up to 1000 m high valley slopes. The outlet glacier is fed by two ice falls which are partly disconnected to the main ice cap of Vatnajökull, which indicates that the glacier is mainly fed by ice avalanches. The rock avalanche fell on the eastern side of the uppermost part of the Morsárjökull outlet glacier and covered about 1/5 of the glacier surface, an area of about 720,000 m2. The scar of the rock avalanche is located on the north face of the headwall above the uppermost part of the glacier. It is around 330 m high, reaching from about 620 m up to 950 m, showing that the main part of the slope collapsed. It is estimated that about 4 million m3 of rock debris fell on the glacier, or about 10 million tons. The accumulation lobe is up to 1.6 km long, reaching from 520 m a.s.l., to about 350 m a.s.l. Its width is from 125 m to 650 m, or on average 480 m. The total area which the lobe covers is around 720.000 m2 and its mean thickness 5.5 m. The surface of the lobe shows longitudinal ridges and grooves and narrow flow-like lobes, indicating that the debris mass evolved down glacier as a mixture of a slide and debris flow. The debris mass is coarse grained and boulder rich. Blocks over 5 to 8 m in diameter are common on the edges of the lobe up to 1.6 km from the source. No indication was observed of any deformation of the glacier surface under the debris mass. The first glaciological measurements of Morsárjökull outlet glacier were carried out in the year 1896

  14. “And they told two friends…and so on”: RJ Reynolds’ viral marketing of Eclipse and its potential to mislead the public

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S J; Ling, P M

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore viral marketing strategies for Eclipse cigarettes used by the RJ Reynolds Company (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA). Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and multimedia materials. Results The failure of RJ Reynolds’ (RJR) 1988 “smokeless” cigarette, Premier, was in part due to widespread bad word of mouth about the product’s flavour, quality and difficulty of use. In 1994 RJR introduced an updated version of Premier, the ostensibly “reduced risk” Eclipse cigarette. RJR developed viral marketing channels to promote Eclipse using (1) exploratory interviews to motivate consumers to spread the word about Eclipse prior to market release, (2) promotional videos featuring positive feedback from test group participants to portray majority consensus among triers, (3) “Tupperware”-like parties for Eclipse where participants received samples to pass around in their social circles and (4) the Eclipse website’s bulletin board as a forum for potential users to discuss the brand in their own words. These strategies targeted the brand’s likeliest adopters, recruited informal and credible representatives of the product unaffiliated with RJR, and controlled the information spread about the product. Conclusions Viral marketing techniques may be particularly useful to promote new tobacco products such as Eclipse that have limited appeal and need a highly motivated audience of early adopters and acceptors. Such techniques help evade the mass rejection that could follow mass promotion, circumvent marketing restrictions, and allow tobacco companies to benefit from health claims made by consumers. Cigarette manufacturers must be held accountable for perceived health benefits encouraged by all promotional activities including viral marketing. PMID:18332064

  15. [Domestic violence against children and prospects for intervention of the Family Health Program: the experience of the Family Doctor Program/Niterói (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Pedro Carlos Xavier da; Moraes, Claudia Leite

    2011-07-01

    This study seeks to estimate the prevalence of psychological and physical violence practiced against children in the family environment among clients of the Family Medical Program in Niterói (RJ). It also discloses some potential opportunities for action in the prevention, early detection and monitoring of families experiencing violence. This population-based survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews with parents or legal sponsors of 278 children registered in 27 teams of the Family Health Program. The population studied was randomly selected among children up to ten years of age. The Brazilian version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales - CTSPC was employed to assess the occurrence of this type of violence. Psychological aggression occurred in 96.7% (CI 95%: 94.7-98.8) of the households, and corporal punishment occurred in 93.8% (CI 95%: 92.0-96.7). Minor physical violence was reported by 51.4% (CI 95%: 45.5-57.3) of the respondents, and severe physical maltreatment by 19.8% (CI 95%: 15.1-24.5) of them. Although the mother was the foremost perpetrator of all kinds of maltreatment, most of the children were abused by both parents. In view of these results, domestic violence against children should be seen as a main concern for the Family Health Program.

  16. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  17. Qualitative analysis of the magnetic data collected by the Embrace MagNet in comparison to absolute measurements made by Intermagnet in Vassouras-RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sony Su; Moro, Juliano; Araujo Resende, Laysa Cristina; Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    The Embrace Magnetometer Network (Embrace MagNet) is a network of three-axis fluxgate magnetometers using single bars with high level of magnetic saturation, covered with two copper coils, one for the excitation and the second for sensing the external field. It is planned to cover most of the Easter Southern American longitudinal sector in order to fulfill the gap for magnetic measurement available on-line. The availability of fast internet, reliable energy supply and easy access were the key point for deciding the location of the magnetometer stations of the network. Up to now, the main characteristic of this network is the severe sensibility matching process among all the magnetometers composing it. Now, in order to validate the magnetic data collected by the elements of the Embrace MagNet in comparison to absolute measurements, we performed a study about the correlation between the data collected by the fluxgate magnetometer provided by Embrace MagNet and an absolute magnetometer installed by Intermagnet in the same observatory. For this study, we have used data collected in Vassouras-RJ, in Brazil, covering the period from June to December 2015. The analysis consist of: (a) selecting the 5 quietest days and the 5 most disturbed days of each month based on the Kp index; (b) deducing the local midnight value from the data collected by both instruments; (c) correlating the data collected by the variometer with the absolute measurement day-by-day; (d) grouping the results as Winter (June, July, and August), Equinox (September and October) and Summer (November and December); (e) obtaining the linear correlations factor for each group. The averaged correlation factors and the daily variations of the magnetic data are presented and discussed in terms of the magnetic activity and the season variation.

  18. An ice-contact rhythmite (turbidite) succession deposited during the November 1996 catastrophic outburst flood (jökulhlaup), Skeiðarárjökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Andrew J.; Knudsen, Óskar

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents new evidence of coarse-grained deposition from a turbulent suspension within a low-energy `slack-water' location during a recent well-documented, volcanically related, high-magnitude glacier outburst flood or jökulhlaup, Skeiðarárjökull, Iceland. This study uses established spatial and temporal constraints on processes observed during the November 1996 jökulhlaup to interpret resultant flood sediments. Coarse-grained sediments were deposited within flood slack-water conditions from suspension load by repeated turbulent flow pulses with durations of seconds-minutes. Depositional processes are thought to be analogous to turbidity currents. A minimum thickness of 15 m of rhythmites record suspended sediment dynamics at a conduit mouth during the late rising and early falling stages of the jökulhlaup. The morphology and sedimentology of deposits in a large ice-walled chamber are consistent with previous models proposed for bar deposition during cataclysmic floods. Flood flows within subglacial conduits and ice-walled open channels were sufficiently powerful to carry material up to boulder size in suspension. Macro-turbulent flows carried huge quantities of suspended sediment to high levels within the main outlet channel. High-frequency, short-duration flow pulses entering a complex ice-walled channel geometry generated highly unsteady and non-uniform flows capable of both erosional and depositional work. This study lends support to the deposition of multiple rhythmites per flood under main flow slack-water conditions. Identification of high-magnitude jökulhlaups in the ice-marginal sedimentary record will depend on the identification and correct interpretation of feeder channel and slack-water turbidite sediments. The results described here may also have application to rhythmic deposits formed by large turbulent flows in other environmental settings.

  19. [Medical assessments and measurements in ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Mill, Jose Geraldo; Pinto, Karina; Griep, Rosane Härter; Goulart, Alessandra; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Maestri, Marcelo K; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Oliveira, Ilka; Fuchs, Sandra C; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The article describes assessments and measurements performed in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Some assessments including anthropometric assessment, casual blood pressure measurement, and ankle-brachial index have an established clinical application while others including pulse wave velocity, heart rate variability, and carotid intima-media thickness have no established application and do not have reference values for healthy Brazilian population but may be important predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure measurement following postural change maneuver was included in the ELSA-Brasil because it has not been much tested in epidemiological studies. Innovative approaches were developed for assessing the ankle-brachial index using an automatic device instead of the mercury column to measure blood pressure and for assessing the anterior-posterior diameter of the right lobe of the liver by ultrasound for quantitative assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. All ELSA-Brasil subjects were younger (35 years or more) than those included in other cohorts studying subclinical atherosclerosis. The inclusion of younger individuals and a variety of assessments make the ELSA-Brasil a relevant epidemiology study nationwide and worldwide.

  20. The geomorphology and ground penetrating radar survey results of the Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull surge-type glaciers, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karušs, Jānis; Lamsters, Kristaps; Běrziņš, Dāvids

    2015-04-01

    Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull are surge-type outlet glaciers of the Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland (Björnsson et al., 2003). The forefield of Múlajökull comprises the active drumlin field of more than 110 drumlins (Johnson et al., 2010; Jónsson et al., 2014) and therefore is an excellent area for studies of glacial geomorphology, subglacial topography and ice structures. This work describes preliminary results obtained during the expedition to Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull glaciers in August, 2014. In the research ground penetrating radar (GPR) Zond 12-e was used. GPR measurements were performed on both outlet glaciers using 38 MHz and 75 MHz antenna systems. During data acquisition 2000 ns time window was used, while length of profiles was determined using GPS device Garmin GPS-76. In total approximately 3 km of GPR profiles were recorded. GPR signals propagation speed in glacier ice was determined using reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In obtained radarogramms it was possible to trace reflections from the glacier bed till depth of approximately 144 m as well as numerous prominent reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In one of the obtained radarogramms possible subglacial channel below Múlajökull glacier was identified. Also feature of subglacial topography that resembles drumlin was identified. The area of abundant infiltrated water was distinguished close to the ice margin in the radarogramm obtained on Þjórsárjökull suggesting successive supraglacial meltwater infiltration towards glacier margin. During the field work numerous radial crevasses, supraglacial channels and moulins were observed in the marginal zone of Múlajökull. The forefield of Múlajökull mainly consist of subglacial landforms (drumlins, flutes and crevasse-fill ridges), end moraines and sandur plains. Flutes and crevasse-fill ridges were found superimposed on drumlins in places. Till macrofabric was measured close to the

  1. Glacial and climatic evolution from the Little Ice Age last Maximum to the present in Tröllaskagi Peninsula (North Iceland): the case of Gljúlfurárjökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, Jose; Andres, Nuria; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier (65°42'48'' N, 18°39'13'' W; 980 m), located at the headwall of the Skiðadalur valley, on the Tröllaskagi peninsula (N. Iceland). This is one of many small glaciers situated on the bottom of the Tröllaskagi valleys. This glacier is one of the few "clean" glaciers, i.e. not covered with boulders, as is the case with most of the glaciers on this peninsula. This makes the glacier especially sensitive to climate change, and it has retreated and advanced many times since its last maximum during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum in the mid- 19th century (Caseldine and Stötter, 1993), leaving a large number of moraine ridges. This paper analyses the change in this glacier from the LIA up to the present day, with reference to the variations in the surface, ELA and volume. Lichenometry and geomorphological field analysis were used to establish the exact limits of the glacier during the LIA last maximum. An aerial photo from 1946 and two orthophotos from 2000 and 2013 were also used. Using photointerpretation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the aerial photos were georeferenced to delimit the glacier in different years, analyse the surface and volume variations, and calculate the ELA for each date. The ELA analysis was carried out using the method: Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR 0.67). The results obtained with this method are: Little Ice Age Maximum: 945 m a.s.l. (almost the same ELA proposed by Caseldine and Stötter, 1993) 1946: 970 m a.s.l. 2000: 980 m a.s.l. 2013: 990 m a.s.l. The ice volume lost from LIA to 2000 was: 111.68 hm3 Reference Caseldine, C., Stötter, J., 1993. "Little Ice Age" glaciation of Tröllaskagi Peninsula, northern Iceland: Climatic implications for reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Holocene 3: 357-366. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  2. [Design and implementation of the ELSA-Brasil biobank: a prospective study in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fedeli, Ligia M; Castilhos, Cristina; Vidigal, Pedro G; Maniero, Viviane; Leite, Claudia M; Pimentel, Robercia A; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.

  3. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. [Routines of organization of clinical tests and interviews in the ELSA-Brasil investigation center].

    PubMed

    Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Pinto, Karina Araújo; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana; Caetano, Edna I; Albuquerque, Liliane da Silva; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA-Brasil (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a prospective cohort study with extensive assessments throughout time. This article describes the routine of clinical tests and interviews performed with participants and the structuring of the Research Center physical space and teams. The ELSA-Brasil assumes that participants will be present at the Research Center to have the tests and interviews performed, according to standard protocols developed by this study. Considering the multiplicity of activities involved, each with specific needs for standardization, several predetermined orders of clinical tests and interviews were created. This ensured a high standard of quality in data collection without harm to participants' comfort. Each participant was previously assigned to a specific sequence of clinical tests and interviews with a predefined arrival time, mean length of stay of five to six hours and departure time.

  5. Seismic waether over Brasil during the Chile earthquake/tsunami of September 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kherani, Esfhan; Klausner, Virginia

    2016-07-01

    During an earthquake and tsunami, the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere hosts varieities of disturbances. We refer, this phenomena, as seismic weather, drawing anology from the space weather. In this work, we study the seismic weather over Brasil, associated with the September Chile eqarthquake/tsunami. We aim to simulate this seismic weather for which the seismogenic magnetic and airglow disturbances over Brasil are already reported. We employ the Seismic-Atmsopheric-Ionospheric coupling model (SAI) developed by us, to study this seismic weather. The Earth's surface displacement obtained from seismometer is consisdered as an input to the model which them trigger the Acoustic-Gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and subsequent magnetic and airglow disturbances in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupled system. The results provide better understanding of coupling arising from the Rayleigh wave forcing.

  6. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  7. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects.

  8. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  9. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa.

    PubMed

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2008-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

  10. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Bensenor, Isabela M; Carvalho, Marilia S; Chor, Dóra; Duncan, Bruce B; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Mota, Eduardo L A; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Szklo, Moyses

    2012-02-15

    Although low- and middle-income countries still bear the burden of major infectious diseases, chronic noncommunicable diseases are becoming increasingly common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. However, information is generally scant in these countries regarding chronic disease incidence, social determinants, and risk factors. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information with respect to the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In this report, the authors delineate the study's objectives, principal methodological features, and timeline. At baseline, ELSA-Brasil enrolled 15,105 civil servants from 5 universities and 1 research institute. The baseline examination (2008-2010) included detailed interviews, clinical and anthropometric examinations, an oral glucose tolerance test, overnight urine collection, a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, echocardiography, measurement of pulse wave velocity, hepatic ultrasonography, retinal fundus photography, and an analysis of heart rate variability. Long-term biologic sample storage will allow investigation of biomarkers that may predict cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Annual telephone surveillance, initiated in 2009, will continue for the duration of the study. A follow-up examination is scheduled for 2012-2013.

  11. [The teaching of history at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marieta de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    This work analyzes the trajectory of the history course at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil between 1939 and 1964/1965. Special emphasis is placed on the period between 1955 and 1965, when there was the separation of the history and geography courses, through to the onset of the reorganization of the schools and institutes of the university. The Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia was a benchmark for the other schools of philosophy in the country, as well as being a reference in the development of the history of education in Brazil. The approach adopted is geared to the field of the history of the historiography, with a focus on the study of the trajectories, institutions and relationship networks.

  12. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish.

  13. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  14. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  15. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-01-01

    Background Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. Objective To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Methods Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. Results From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% −3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). Conclusion There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting. PMID:25424165

  16. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  17. Assimilation of Aerosols from Biomass Burning by the Radiative Transfer Model Brasil-Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. R.; Souza, J. G.; Martins, F. R.; Pereira, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR is the main tool used by the Earth System Science Centre from the National Institute for Space Research (CCST / INPE) for solar energy resource assessment. Due to large and frequent events of burning biomass in Brazil there is a need to improve the aerosol representation in this model, mainly during the dry season (September - November) in Northern and Central Brazil. The standard aerosol representation in this model is inadequate to capture these events. It is based on the mean monthly climatological horizontal visibility with latitudinal values based on coarse global observation data. To improve the aerosol representation, climatological data of daily horizontal visibility from National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) was used to generate monthly averages from 1999 to 2012. To do a better representation of aerosols from burning biomass events, from megacities aerosol generation, and from transport processes, horizontal visibility estimates performed using aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm data from MACC Project Reanalysis model were used to adjust the aerosol representation in regions were the simple horizontal visibility fails. A methodology to generate these new visibility data from the Reanalysis was made and the resulting data was compared with the average horizontal visibility to implement a new corrected database. The solar irradiation simulated by the model using this new aerosol representation proved to be better than the previous version of the model in all regions with high aerosol loading.

  18. Improvements in the detection efficiency model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The detection efficiency (DE) is the most important performance gauge of a lightning detection network (LDN). Moreover, the main motivation for evaluating the DE of a LDN is to separate the geographical variations of the CG lightning parameters from the variations regarding the network performance. A review of previous relative DE techniques and simple methods to correct the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash density maps is presented. In addition, recent improvements in the flash DE model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) are discussed. The DE estimated values are based on the sensor individual DE probability functions, which are derived from a large amount of CG stroke data provided by the network considering different distances from the sensor and specific peak current ranges. The new approach provides better results when compared with the previous developments, since the calculation of the sensor DE probability functions neglects the lightning data provided by the minimum number of reporting sensors. Hence it is possible to minimize the unrealistic enhancement of the DE closer to the network boundaries ("border effect") without affecting significantly the performance inside the network. The main result is a more realistic correction of the CG flash density maps, particularly at the outermost network areas, leading to an improvement in the model sensitivity.

  19. Factors associated with leisure time physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants: Ecological model.

    PubMed

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the study was identify the prevalence and factors associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adult participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The LTPA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), long version. A hierarchical ecological model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPA distributed across blocks. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. In men, being more educated, having a high family income, living in environments with conditions and opportunities for PA, being retired and being overweight were positively associated, while current smoking, obesity and abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. Among women, being over 60years old, being more educated, having a high family income, living in an environment with conditions and opportunities for PA practice and being retired were positively associated, while being overweight, obese and having abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. The proposed ecological model explains the LTPA through the social, physical and personal environment and highlights gender differences in physical activity.

  20. "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program: characterization and evolution between 2004 and 2012.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Caetano, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    The "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program (PFPB) aims to improve access to medicines, offering subsidized products. It is structured in an arrangement involving public and private sectors. The paper described the organization and expansion of the PFPB and examined the reference price (RP) of the medicines paid by the government, between 2004 and 2012. It is an exploratory study of quantitative and qualitative approach, developed from the literature review and analysis of public documents. Quantitative data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Electronic System of Citizens Information Services. The PFPB is organized in two delivery models: public owned facilities (Rede Própria) and accredited private retail pharmacies (Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular-ATFP). The ATFP has allowed its own expansion, from 2006. Antihypertensives, antidiabetics and antiasthmatics were exempt from copayment, since 2011. The expansion of the ATFP Program was significant, for facilities and covered municipalities, 750% and 528%, respectively. The RP was reduced by 33.6% on average (ranging from 23-52%) for medicines available since the beginning of the ATFP. The expansion was performed with the actions hitherto unprecedented, as copayment and accreditation of private retail pharmacies.

  1. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects.

  2. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  3. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay.

  4. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  5. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  6. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  7. Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR = 1.63, 95% IC = 1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR = 0.96, 95% IC = 0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR = 0.94, 95% IC = 0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement. PMID:24989981

  8. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  9. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  10. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  11. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    PubMed

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2), and platelet, hemoglobin, and creatinine beyond reference values. The RIs are mean platelet volume (MPV): 8.9-11.8 fL, platelet distribution width (PDW): 9.6-15.3 fL, platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR): 15.6-39.5%. These parameters were not significantly affected by age, gender, smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse. However, significant differences were found among self-rated race/color groups. Standardization of measurement procedures and the establishment of healthy-associated PVI RIs are essential to be able to support clinical decision-making from laboratorial test results. This study at the baseline of the ELSA Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  12. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  13. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  14. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  15. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. Objective To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. Subjects/Methods A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. Results The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food. PMID:28030625

  16. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P.; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient. MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories. This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category. PMID:27399079

  17. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN ELDERLY FROM VIÇOSA/MG, BRASIL.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Luiz Araújo Tinôco, Adelson; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia

    2015-11-01

    La prevalencia de deficiencia nutricional de vitamina B12 aumenta con la edad y es especialmente común en la población mayor. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar su prevalencia y los factores asociados a esta carencia en mayores no institucionalizados de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: estudio poblacional interseccional, realizado para identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a deficiencia de vitamina B12 entre la población de mayores en Viçosa (MG). Los datos fueron recopilados desde agosto de 2011 hasta junio de 2012 mediante una encuesta en los hogares y pruebas hematológicas y bioquímicas realizadas en 340 mayores. Resultados: la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en este grupo fue del 17,4% (95% CI, 13,4% - 21,4%). La deficiencia cognitiva se presenta como un factor importante relacionado con la deficiencia de vitamina B12. Conclusiones: el informe actual contribuye a los estudios que destacan ciertos factores que podrían afectar al rendimiento de las personas mayores en su proceso de envejecimiento natural, especialmente cuando estos factores están asociados con deficiencia cognitiva y dan lugar a una discapacidad significativa así como pérdida de calidad de vida. Así, los resultados aquí presentados han servido para aportar un conocimiento más comprensivo sobre la relación entre deficiencia de B12 y su impacto sobre este grupo de población. También han demostrado su relevancia de cara a la planificación de programas e iniciativas de salud pública centrados en este grupo de población.

  18. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies.

  19. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight.Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient.MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories.This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category.

  20. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  1. Eutrophication and hypoxia in four streams discharging in Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil, a case study.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Aguiar, Valquiria Maria; Neto, José Antônio Baptista; Rangel, Carlos Marclei

    2011-08-01

    Four streams in the city of São Gonçalo, were sampled to evaluate their potential as sources of nutrients to Guanabara Bay aiming to contribute with the government program to decrease the levels of pollution in this area. Imbuaçu, Guaxindiba, Marimbondo and Brandoas streams were sampled in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The streams revealed to be hipereutrophic with severe limitation of primary production by nitrogen, as shown by the N/P molar ratio. Phosphate levels were abnormally high varying between 4.35 and 130.82 μM, whereas nitrate and nitrite ranged from 0.06 to 54.05 μM and from 0.28 to 19.23 μM, respectively. The streams also presented severe hypoxia and anoxia, with oxygen values varying from non-detected to 3.72 ml l(-1). Heavy loads of particulate suspended material were recorded in the studied streams, ranging between 6.00 and 400.00 mg l(-1). The streams were considered inexorable sources of nutrients, enhancing the severe eutrophication process in Guanabara Bay.

  2. Results of the radiological survey at 48 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ005)

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.D.; Brown, K.S.

    1992-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956.MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from thisthorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy(DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally [sup 232]Tb, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 48 Schlosser Drive, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJO05), was conducted on July 14, 1991. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area.

  3. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  4. Schistosomiasis in a low prevalence area: incomplete urbanization increasing risk of infection in Paracambi, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, M S; Barreto, M G; da Silva, C L; Pereira, J B; Moza, P G; Rey, L; Calçado, M S; Lustoza, A; Maspero, R

    1995-01-01

    The risk of schistosomiasis infection and heavy infection in the locality of Sabugo was evaluated in relation to housing in areas with different urbanization development and to residential supply with snail-infested water. Critical sanitary conditions were found in areas of incomplete urbanization, where healthy water supply sources were scarce, and draining of sewage, without previous treatment, was made directly to the water-bodies used for domestic and leisure activities, despite being Biomphalaria tenagophila snail breeding-places. Stool examinations (Kato-Katz and Lutz methods) showed prevalence of 2.9% mean intensity of 79 eggs per gram of stool and 47% of positive cases presenting intense infection. The use of snail-contaminated water for domestic purposes was considered a risk factor for infection. It is concluded that incomplete urbanization would facilitate transmission, probably enhancing the intensity of infection and that a low prevalence could hide a highly focal transmission. The relevance of these facts upon the efficiency of epidemiologic study methods and disease control planning are then discussed.

  5. Evaluation and control of ergonomics actions in federal public service: the case of FIOCRUZ-RJ.

    PubMed

    Ricarta, Simone L Santa Isabel; Vidala, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Bonfattia, Renato José

    2012-01-01

    This article presents information about the development of the dissertation. Deals with the production of ergonomic diagnosis in the environments and work processes of an important center of research and development in Public Health, FIOCRUZ. Critically evaluates the performance of a team promoting and facilitating the process of implementing ergonomic changes suggested. Through analysis of documents and statements by some managers and representatives of Human Resources was possible to identify the factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation process, linking them to the organization of the institution and conduct of the agents involved. Finally, it makes a reflection on practice, results and developments involved in the processes of change initiated by the ergonomic actions, proposing its replication along with other institutes of the Civilian Personnel of Federal Public Administration.

  6. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  7. The Large Quasar Reference Frame (LQRF). An Optical Representation of the ICRS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    A&A 505, 385–404 (2009) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912041 c© ESO 2009 Astronomy & Astrophysics The large quasar reference frame (LQRF) An optical...RJ, Brasil Received 12 March 2009 / Accepted 20 May 2009 ABSTRACT Context. The large number and all-sky distribution of quasars from different...surveys, along with their presence in large , deep astro- metric catalogs, enables us to build of an optical materialization of the International Celestial

  8. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  9. Participation of small municipalities in the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Program in the macro-region of Northern Paraná.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas; Mattos, Luis Fernando Abucarub de; Oliveira, Emmeline Bernardes Duarte de; Domingos, Carolina Milena; Okamura, Carlos Takeo; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Doctor shortage is a constant problem in smaller cities and towns, which tend to be more vulnerable from a social and economic point of view, and located in geographically isolated areas. The goal of this study was to establish the share and characteristics of the small cities and towns in the macro-region of northern Paraná that subscribed to the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (PMMB) program. This is a quantitative study of 82 cities and towns using primary and secondary data. Results show that only a few of them (6.1%) had any adherence criteria, which was not an impediment for other cities and towns (75%) to adhere to the project. Cities and towns with over five thousand inhabitants, lower municipal HDI (Human Development Index), some adherence criteria and more geographically isolated, either from the main city in the region or the closest large or mid-sized city, tended to adhere to the PMMB. It is undeniable that the PMMB significantly reduced the uneven distribution of doctors in Brazil and the study region. However, the sustainability of this policy is linked to addressing other remaining challenges in the SUS system.

  10. Economic evaluation of the Programs Rede Farmácia de Minas do SUS versus Farmácia Popular do Brasil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marina Morgado; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acúrcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an economic assessment of the Pharmaceutical Assistance - Rede Farmácia de Minas Gerais-RFMG and Farmácia Popular do Brasil-FPB to ascertain which of the two models stands out as the most efficient. To do this, a model, which consisted of a study of incurred costs in both programs, up to the dispensing of medicine to citizens, was developed. The uncertainties of the proposed model were tested using the Monte Carlo method. If the entire population initially estimated in the RFMG were attended in the FPB, there would be an additional cost of R$ 139,324,050.19. The sensitivity analysis appeared to be favorable to the RFMG. A total of 10000 simulations were carried out, resulting in a median value of R$ 114,053,709.99 for the RFMG and R$ 254,106,120.65 for the FPB. The current National Drug Policy emphasizes the need to strengthen pharmaceutical services beyond the mere acquisition and delivery of pharmaceutical products. The public healthcare service model, consistent with the principles and guidelines of the SUS, seems to be more appropriate in ensuring complete and universal quality healthcare services to the citizens. The economic study conducted reinforces this fact, as it appears to be a more efficient alternative of the direct use of resources in the public health network.

  11. Academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Project in Santa Catarina: the ethical-political viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Gripa, Denis William; Prospero, Elisete Navas Sanches; Ros, Marco Aurélio da

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify the fundamentals that drive the academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) project in Santa Catarina, based on the unit of analysis entitled values achieved. It is an exploratory and comprehensive study carried out in 2015, with tutors of the State of Santa Catarina, decentralized reference professionals of the Education and Health Ministries, and key reference professionals of the Education Ministry. Focus groups were used as the instrument for collection of data, through semi-structured interview. Based on the category Emergency care as a force of innovation in the Mais Médicos Program, the analysis was conducted from an ethical-political approach. Three fundamentals emerged: 'Putting out fires', 'Qualification of the Project', and 'the procedural point of view'. It was concluded that academic tutorship of the productive activities of doctors in emergency care is not an isolated pedagogical approach, since it is a part and a consequence of the historic development of the theory and of the practice. The activity corresponds, dialectically, to movements of rupture, resistance, emancipation and also requires collective reflection about the values chosen and achieved in the acts of decision.

  12. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss: is there an association? Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Santos, Itamar S; Moreira, Renata R; Rabelo, Camila M; Rolim, Laurie P; Bensenõr, Isabela J; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss. We evaluated the influence of time from diabetes diagnosis on this association after controlling for age, gender, and hypertension diagnosis and excluding those subjects with exposure to noise. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 901 adult and elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) participants from São Paulo, Brazil who underwent audiometry testing as part of ELSA-Brasil’s baseline assessment. RESULTS: Hearing thresholds and speech test results were significantly worse in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes. However, no significant differences were found between participants with and without diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. Hearing thresholds were not affected by occupational noise exposure in the groups with and without diabetes. In addition, no association between the duration of diabetes and hearing thresholds was observed after adjusting for age, gender, and hypertension. CONCLUSION: We found no association between the duration of diabetes and worse hearing thresholds after models were adjusted for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. PMID:28226026

  13. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  14. Comparative study of satellite and ground techiniques for cloudcover determination and their effect over the radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Souza, M.; Pereira, E.

    Information about cloud cover is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to improve its measurements. The BRASIL- SR model is a radiative transfer model that evaluates surface solar irradiation from cloud cover coefficient and climatological values of temperature and albedo. The original algorithm to derive cloud cover coefficient is based on the fact that clouds presents a bigger reflectance than Earth surface. Then, cloud cover coefficient is obtained for each pixel from GOES 8 visible channel-1 (0.52-0.75μm) from a linear relation between the maximum and minimum values over a specific time period. To minimize systematic errors caused by permanent cloudy or clear sky conditions, or caused by electronic noise, Martins has proposed two new algorithms. The first one is based on the albedo variability of clouds and Earth surface over a time period. The algorithm calculates the mean value and standard deviation of five minor visible radiance values measured by GOES-8 for each pixel in a one-month period. Clouds present a larger variability and, therefore, the standard deviation will be also larger when cloud contamination is present. The mean value is assigned to clear sky condition if cloud contamination is absent. Overcast condition is associated with the maximum radiance value measured. The second algorithm uses the ratio between the infrared radiance (10.2-11.2μm) and the visible radiance to identify cloud contamination in a pixel. The clear sky condition is associated to high values of this ratio and the overcast condition is associated to low ratio values (if snow coverage is absent). A linear relation between the two conditions is employed to obtain the cloud cover coefficient in both algorithms. Souza has developed an algorithm to determine cloud cover coefficient from images obtained by a CCD sensor on a ground platform. The CCD sensor operates in the visible range (0.4-0.7μm) and is adapted to a fisheye

  15. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  16. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  17. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  18. Leisure-time and commuting physical activity and high blood pressure: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.

  19. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Miname, M.; Bensenor, I.M.; Lotufo, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes. PMID:27901176

  20. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão de; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14-1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12-1.32) and 'Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality-as measured by different indicators-are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access.

  1. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and adiponectin in participants without diabetes or cardiovascular disease of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra Rg

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the association of adiponectin concentration with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in middle-aged participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods A sample of 687 individuals (35-54 years old) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease was stratified into two categories according to CIMT (< or ≥ 75th percentile). Traditional risk factors, C-reactive protein and adiponectin values were compared between categories by Student's t-test and frequencies by chi-square test. In linear regression models, associations of CIMT with adiponectin, adjusted for adiposity, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were tested. Mean CIMT values were compared across quartiles of adiponectin concentrations using analysis of variance. Results Three hundred and forty-one individuals (49.6%) were women and 130 (19.0%) had three traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Those with elevated CIMT (21.8%) had greater mean values of body mass index (26.2(3.8) vs. 27.7(4.0)kg/m(2), p < 0.001), waist circumference (86.9(10.1) vs. 90.1(10.8) cm, p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (116.2(13.6) vs.121.2(16.1) mmHg, p < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (1.4(0.9-2.4) vs. 1.8(1.1-2.9), p = 0.011), C-reactive protein (1.2 (0.6-2.6) vs. 1.4(0.8-3.2) mg/l, p = 0.054) and adiponectin (9.9 (6.0-14.7) vs. 8.9 (5.3-13.8) µg/ml, p = 0.002) levels than the counterpart, while plasma glucose and lipids were not different between groups. In the adjusted model, blood pressure (directly) and adiponectin (inversely) persisted associated with high CIMT. Mean CIMT was greater in the first quartile of adiponectin when compared with the other three quartiles ( p = 0.019). Conclusions Lower adiponectin levels together with higher blood pressure were independently associated with

  2. Significance of the Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt in western Brazil: Redefining the Mesoproterozoic boundary of the Amazon craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, Eric; van der Pluijm, Ben; Mezger, Klaus; Essene, Eric; Scandolara, Jaime; Rizzotto, Gilmar

    2004-12-01

    The Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt (NBMB) of western Brazil marks a fundamental crustal boundary in the Amazon craton. The metasedimentary rocks of the NBMB (calc-silicates, metapelites, quartzites, metabasites) contrast strongly with the older, polycyclic granitoid rocks of the adjacent Amazon craton. Aeromagnetic anomalies indicate that the belt is continuous for at least 1000 km in an E-W direction, although the easternmost extent of the NBMB is covered by the Cretaceous sediments of the Parecis Formation. Additional geologic evidence suggests that the belt extends along an E-W trend for ~2000 km. The northern portion of the NBMB preserves vestiges of an early high pressure-temperature (P-T) assemblage (kyanite + staurolite) overprinted by sillimanite during prograde metamorphism. A higher metamorphic grade is observed in the southern portion of the belt, with peak conditions calculated to be 800 MPa and 800°C for granulitic assemblages. The combined P-T path demonstrates that the competing processes of imbrication (northern domain) and magma generation (southern domain) are responsible for regional metamorphism and crustal thickening. Cooling from peak metamorphic conditions is recorded by U-Pb monazite ages of 1090 Ma and titanite ages of ~1060 Ma. Integrated cooling rates of 2°-3°C/Myr from regional metamorphism are calculated from these U/Pb ages combined with 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblende (~970 Ma) and biotite (~910 Ma). The NBMB marks the Mesoproterozoic limit of the SW Amazon craton. The discordance of the NBMB to the NNW structural trend of the younger Aguapeí belt (200 km SE of NBMB), together with marked differences between the two belts in sedimentary environment, metamorphic grade, and timing of deformation, signify that these two belts are not geologically continuous. The ``Grenvillian'' deformation recorded by the NBMB belt marks the final docking of the Amazon craton and Paragua craton within the Rodinia framework. The Aguapeí belt, in

  3. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  4. Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora

    2016-11-01

    Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational

  5. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  6. Degree of threat to the biological diversity in the Ilha Grande State Park (RJ) and guidelines for conservation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Schneider, M; Vasconcellos, L A

    2002-08-01

    The State Park of Ilha Grande is only a part (5,594 hectares) of the entire island (19,300 hectares) which is located off the south coast of Rio de Janeiro state, between the cities of Mangaratiba and Angra dos Reis. Approximately half of the Park area (47%) is covered by dense Atlantic forest. The secondary forest growth is in a process of ecological succession close to attaining maturity (43%) and the remaining part (10%) is composed of human-altered areas (1%), rocky outcrops with herbaceous vegetation (7%), mangroves and beaches (2%). The fauna is well represented but already shows signs of degradation with introduced species. The analysis of the degree of threat has shown that the dense forest habitat has a relatively stable status of conservation while the secondary forest, the mangrove and the herbaceous vegetation on rocky outcrops (and their fauna) are categorized as vulnerable. The area altered by human occupation is considered threatened. Since the coastal area where Ilha Grande is located is well known for its beautiful scenery (known as the green coast, because of the contrast between the ocean and the Atlantic forest covering the Serra do Mar mountain chain). There is a strong possibility for tourism to become the means in which to achieve economic sustainability for conservation. Contradictorily, tourism is also the major threat to local biodiversity and its landscape units. Because tourism is not organized and controlled, during high season the numbers grow above local capacity, giving rise to a proliferation of hotels, guesthouses and camping grounds. The resulting untreated open sewage, random garbage disposal and other harmful activities form the major threats to biodiversity.

  7. Thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community of the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ.

    PubMed

    Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Cunha-Barros, M; Rocha, C F; Van Sluys, M

    2001-05-01

    We analyzed the thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community from the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The broadest activity was that of Tropidurus torquatus, a sit-and-wait forager, while the active foraging teiid Cnemidophorus littoralis had the shortest activity. The nocturnal gekkonid Hemidactylus mabouia was found active during the day only during early morning and late afternoon, when environmental temperatures are low. Body temperature was highest for Cnemidophorus littoralis and lowest for the two Mabuya species. The patterns found here are discussed and compared to those of congeneric species in other habitats in Brazil.

  8. 75 FR 27959 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... interconnect circuit in the cabin roof area. Interference between the cable and the insulation bag causes the... interconnect circuit in the cabin roof area. The insulation material is contained in a bag, the material of... result in a tear, which, if detected in time, can be repaired with tape; however, the affected cabin...

  9. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities.

  10. [FIBRA-RJ Network: frailty and risk of hospitalization in the elderly in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Perez, Mariangela; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk profile and factors associated with frailty in elderly community residents. The population consisted of individuals 65 years or older living in the northern districts of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and who held private health insurance policies. The cross-sectional study was done at baseline in a cohort with a sample (N = 764) stratified by gender and age. Risk stratification used probability of repeated admissions (PRA) as the screening instrument. Following bivariate analyses, logistic regression analyses were performed to study associations between probability of repeated admissions and socio-demographic, health-status, functional, and cognitive variables. Of the total sample, 6.7% were classified as high risk. Cancer, falls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, use of medication, receiving a visit from a health professional, being bedridden at home, living alone, and level of activities of daily living were statistically associated with risk of hospitalization. The instrument appeared to be useful for stratifying risk in the elderly.

  11. 75 FR 63045 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... fasteners in the region of the rear spar root joint attachment fitting at wing rib 2. * * * * * * * * The unsafe condition is stress corrosion failures in the region of the rear spar root joint attachment... detect fuel leaks and failed fasteners in the region of the rear spar root joint attachment fitting...

  12. 75 FR 4480 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... attachment lug plate joint [for discrepancies, which are corrosion and fatigue cracking of the bolts and...-fuselage attachment lug plate joint [for discrepancies, which are corrosion and fatigue cracking of the... finding corrosion at the Frame 29 wing-to-fuselage attachment lug plate joint. This condition, if...

  13. 75 FR 27419 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ70A, 146...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... detected the corrosion or fatigue damage. Corrosion or fatigue damage in this area, if not detected and... scheduled environmental and fatigue inspections would not have detected the corrosion or fatigue damage. Corrosion or fatigue damage in this area, if not detected and corrected, could lead to degradation of...

  14. 75 FR 1560 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ70A, 146...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... related to the subject addressed by this AD), corrosion was found on the wing fixed leading edge structure... not have detected the corrosion or fatigue damage. Corrosion or fatigue damage in this area, if not... on a BAe 146 aircraft for a repair (not related to the subject addressed by this AD), corrosion...

  15. 76 FR 59011 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... reports of in-service failure of the Main Landing Gear (MLG) shock absorber lower attachment pin...-service failure of the Main Landing Gear (MLG) shock absorber lower attachment pin. Investigation has... damage (cracking, corrosion, and exposed material)] of the MLG shock absorber lower attachment pins...

  16. 76 FR 36398 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... have received reports of in-service failure of the Main Landing Gear (MLG) shock absorber lower... (MLG) shock absorber lower attachment pin. Investigation has shown that the pin failures were due to... material)] of the MLG shock absorber lower attachment pins and replacement, depending on findings....

  17. 75 FR 38058 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... states: British Aerospace originally issued Service Bulletin (SB) 57-033 in 1989 to detect fuel leaks and... fuel leaks and loose or broken bolts. Modification HCM01447A introduced tension bolts in the attachment... post modification HCM01447A installations because fuel tank leaks and failed fasteners...

  18. 76 FR 6575 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... repetitive inspection interval for the affected NLG units. * * * * * * * * * * * nvestigation by M-D showed... unit, in accordance with the instructions of BAE Systems Alert ISB.A32-180 and M-D SB.146-32-149... and the repetitive inspection interval for the affected NLG units and replaced M-D SB 146-32-149...

  19. 75 FR 38953 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... (Operations) Ltd issued Inspection Service Bulletin (SB) 32-158. This SB was classified mandatory by the UK... Inspection Service Bulletin (SB) 32-158. This SB was classified mandatory by the UK Civil Aviation Authority... (SB) 32-158. This SB was classified mandatory by the UK Civil Aviation Authority under AD number...

  20. Habitat use by Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) in an open shrubland formation in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, H G; Luz, J L; Raíces, D S; Hatano, F H; Martins-Hatano, F

    2005-11-01

    The Restinga de Jurubatiba has at least 10 plant formations, including open Clusia shrubland. This formation is composed of dense shrubs of many shapes and sizes, where Clusia hilariana is one of the most important plant species. Shrublands with Clusia (CC) are poorer in plant species and less dense than shrublands without Clusia (SC). Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) is the most abundant small mammal species in the open Clusia shrubland. We tested the hypothesis that the abundance of rodents would increase with the size of the patch and would be higher in SC shrublands. Rodents were captured, marked and released in three 780-m-long transects. At each capture site, we evaluated the shape of the shrubland patch, calculated the area and noted the category of the shrubland. Using ANCOVA, we ascertained whether the abundance of Oryzomys subflavus increased with the sampled area and used CC and SC shrublands differently. We also verified if the size of patches used by rodents varies in the same frequency as the size of available shrublands. Rodent abundance was found to increase significantly with the area. There were no differences in the size of the patches used by rodents and the frequency of the size of available patches. This finding indicates that O. subflavus, in the study area, is a generalist species that uses its habitat according to availability.

  1. Astronomy, Art and Mythology in a Public Elementary School in Itaocara/rj. (Spanish Title: Astronomía, Arte y Mitologia en el Ensino Fundamental en Una Escuela de la Red Estatal en ITAOCARA/RJ.) Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia no Ensino Fundamental em Escola da Rede Estadual em ITAOCARA/RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana; Ramos dos Santos, Arleidimar

    2008-12-01

    Volunteer advisors at Itaocara Astronomy Club Marcos Pontes(CAIMP), in their majority high school students, introduced students at Teotônio Brandão Vilela Elementary School to basic concepts in Astronomy, Physics, and Mythology. Computer Science, Arts, puppetry, and educational videos were used to stimulate students to share their feelings and test their knowledge of the concepts presented. The work done by the volunteers helped boost the student's self-esteem and improved their oral skills by applying their knowledge of Physics and Astronomy in Lab experiments. The main goals of the CAIMP are the possibility of including astronomy in Elementary school curricula and developing an interdisciplinary work involving Astronomy, Arts, and Mythology. Through tests and reports, the students who participated in the Brazilian Astronomy Olympics, showed an increase in their knowldge of the sujects presented during the volunteer work. Durante el curso de un trabajo voluntario con estudiantes de nivel primario (1 º a 4 º grado), los guías de Astronomía miembros del CAIMP (Club de Astronomía de Itaocara "Marcos Puentes"), en su mayoría estudiantes secundarios, desarrollaron un trabajo de introducción a las Ciencias y Astronomía con alumnos del colegio estatal Teotônio Vilela Brandão. A través de talleres de informática, artes, videos educativos y teatro de títeres, los estudiantes pudieron expresar sus conocimientos y emociones frente a las leyendas mitológicas con las que se inició el trabajo de introducción. La labor desarrollada por los guías con los alumnos promovió la integración entre las aulas del colegio haciéndolos participar en actividades con el fin de estimular su expresión verbal y aumentar su autoestima. Trabajando diversas formas de expresión, los alumnos pudieron realizar experimentos y conocer algunos conceptos de Física y Astronomía al mismo tiempo que adquirían autonomía para la libre expresión de sus sentimientos y de los conocimientos recibidos. El trabajo en sí ha mostrado además de la posibilidad de la inclusión de la Astronomía en la Educación Primaria, la posibilidad de un trabajo interdisciplinario en los niveles iniciales incluyendo Astronomía, Arte y Mitología. Los resultados presentados por los estudiantes en las Olimpiadas promovidas en la escuela y por la OBA (Olimpiada Brasilera de Astronomía) permitieron verificar un creciente aprendizaje y estimulo hacia las materias científicas, comprobados por la apropiada expresión de los conceptos adquiridos de astronomía y presentados en evaluaciones o en informes obtenidos de ellos mismos, sus familias y profesores. Desenvolvendo um trabalho voluntário junto aos alunos do ensino fundamental no 1º ciclo (1ª a 4ª série), os monitores de Astronomia membros do CAIMP (Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes), que eram em sua maioria alunos do ensino médio, desenvolveram um trabalho de aproximação entre os alunos do Colégio Estadual Teotônio Brandão Vilela e os temas envolvendo Ciências e Astronomia. Através de oficinas de informática, artes, vídeos educativos e teatros de fantoches, os alunos puderam expressar seus conhecimentos e emoções diante das lendas mitológicas com as quais começaram a ter contato. O trabalho desenvolvido pelos monitores junto aos alunos proporcionou a integração entre as turmas do colégio e os levou a participação em atividades de maneira a estimular sua oralidade e aumentar sua auto-estima. Trabalhando várias formas de expressões, os alunos puderam realizar seus experimentos e conhecer alguns conceitos de Física e Astronomia, enquanto adquiriam autonomia para se expressarem de acordo com seus sentimentos e conhecimentos adquiridos. O trabalho em si mostrou além da possibilidade de inserção de Astronomia no Ensino Fundamental, a possibilidade de realização de um trabalho interdisciplinar nas séries iniciais envolvendo Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia. Os resultados apresentados pelos alunos nas Olimpíadas promovidas na escola e pela OBA (Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia) possibilitaram a verificação de uma crescente aprendizagem e estímulo ao conhecimento de temas científicos, que foi comprovado diante da apropriação dos conceitos de Astronomia adquiridos e apresentados em resultados como avaliações, ou ainda, diante dos relatos obtidos dos mesmos, suas famílias e professores.

  2. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  3. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  4. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  5. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with frailty in an older population from the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the FIBRA-RJ Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Virgílio Garcia; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Frailty syndrome can be defined as a state of vulnerability to stressors resulting from a decrease in functional reserve across multiple systems and compromising an individual's capacity to maintain homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of frailty and its association with social and demographic factors, functional capacity, cognitive status and self-reported comorbidities in a sample of community-dwelling older individuals who are clients of a healthcare plan. METHODS: We evaluated 847 individuals aged 65 years or older who lived in the northern area of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The subjects were selected by inverse random sampling and stratified by gender and age. To diagnose frailty, we used the scale proposed by the Cardiovascular Health Study, which consisted of the following items: low gait speed, grip strength reduction, feeling of exhaustion, low physical activity and weight loss. The data were collected between 2009 and 2010, and the frailty prevalence was calculated as the proportion of individuals who scored positive for three or more of the five items listed above. To verify the association between frailty and risk factors, we applied a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty syndrome was 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3-11.3); 43.6% (95% CI, 40.3-47) of the individuals were considered robust, and 47.3% (95% CI 43.8-50.8) were considered pre-frail (p<0.001). The frail individuals tended to be older (odds ratio [OR] 13.2, 95% CI, 8.7-20) and have lower education levels (OR 2.1, 95% CI, 1-4.6), lower cognitive performance (OR 0.76, 95% CI, 0.73-0.79) and reduced health perception (OR 65.8, 95% CI, 39.1-110.8). Frail individuals also had a greater number of comorbidities (OR 6.6, 95% CI, 4.4-9.9) and worse functional capacity (OR 3.8, 95% CI, 2.9-5). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of frailty was similar to that seen in other international studies and was significantly associated with educational level, cognition, comorbidities, functional capacity, perception of health and old age. PMID:23917663

  7. Origin of pegmatites and fluids at Ponta Negra (RJ, Brazil) during late- to post-collisional stages of the Gondwana Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiolo, Everton Marques; Renac, Christophe; Piza, Patricia d'Almeida de Toledo; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Mexias, André Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    The Ponta Negra Pegmatites (PNP), part of a pegmatitic province in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, crop out along an intensely deformed, medium- to high-grade metamorphic area that is proximal to a crustal-scale thrust zone developed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogeny. Fieldwork shows that the pegmatites formed in two distinct stages: (i) syn-collisional leucosome veins (Group I) conformable with the tectonic foliation of the gneissic host rocks and (ii) late- to post-collisional dykes (Group II) that cross-cut the same tectonic foliation at a high angle. In this paper, we use geochemistry of whole-rock and mineral separates (alkali-feldspar and biotite), fluid inclusion microthermometry and stable isotopic (δ18O, δD, δ13C) determinations on minerals (quartz, alkali-feldspar, biotite and magnetite) and fluid inclusions to provide insights into the composition of the pegmatite-forming melts, associated fluids, and their geotectonic significance. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of the Cajú syenogranite was performed to evaluate and compare the timing of magmatic events along the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain as this is the closest post-collisional pluton to the studied pegmatites. The calculated temperature for the Group I syn-collisional veins (740 °C) is similar to previous estimates for the peak metamorphic conditions in the study area. Variations in the temperature of the Group II pegmatite dykes obtained from stable isotopes (380 to 720 °C), and microthermometric data from primary fluid inclusions with traces of N2 (Th = 280 to 360 °C), may reflect the thermodynamics of the pegmatite crystallization, exsolution textures and isotopic exchange. The composition of fluids in equilibrium within the pegmatite dykes consists of magmatic and metamorphic components. The minimum pressures calculated for the emplacement of the pegmatites are equivalent to a shallow crustal depth between 1.7 and 3.5 km, which corresponds to the exhumation of the orogen since the emplacement of the pegmatites. A linear trend of decreasing CO2 content and δ13CCO2 is consistent with mixtures between (i) carbon derived from organic matter or volatilization of skarns and (ii) inorganic carbon (carbonate). Based on the data obtained, we propose that the pegmatites of Ponta Negra are close to an LCT-type geochemical signature (highly peraluminous magmas with normative corundum), and originated by partial melting of the metasedimentary Palmital succession at depth, during the waning stages of the Búzios Orogeny. The primary melts of the PNP cross-cut both the Neoproterozoic supracrustals and the Paleoproterozoic orthogneissic basement during its ascent and emplacement at higher crustal levels. Variable melt sources explain the slight differences in geochemical compositions among the studied rocks within the metasedimentary succession, which probably include Mn-bearing exhalites, as well as differentiation processes. The 454 ± 5 Ma U-Pb (zircon) age of the Cajú syenogranite overlaps previous geochronological data of 440 ± 11 Ma obtained on a pegmatite dyke at Ponta Negra, bracketing and extending the time interval for the Gondwana assembly collapse magmatism in the region. The heat that triggered this magmatic event could still be a consequence of the collisional orogeny, increasing contents of heat-producing elements, or, a large intraplate extension that followed the Gondwana amalgamation and initiated the formation of Paleozoic basins.

  8. Negative serosurvey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Golden-headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) from Niterói/RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Molina, Camila Vieira; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Bueno, Marina Galvão; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Genari, Solange Maria; Pissinatti, Alcides; Kierulff, Maria Cecília Martins; Silva, Tiago Ferreira da; Freitas, Danilo Gomes de; Caneli, Larissa Cristinne; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-12-01

    New World Nonhuman Primates are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 126 recently captured Leontopithecus chrysomelas, from an exotic and invasive population, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25); all were seronegative. The MAT is highly specific and is not species-specific. This is the first report of T. gondii survey in this tamarin in the wild. This result is consistent with prior reports that showed the high susceptibility of the species to infection by T. gondii usually with high mortality rates.

  9. Use of GIS for the evaluation of heavy metal contamination in the Cunha Canal watershed and west of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, RJ.

    PubMed

    Borges, Renata Coura; Caldas, Vanessa Godoy; Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego Simões; Ferreira, Marcos Manoel; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin

    2014-12-15

    The Cunha Canal watershed, which is located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, suffered severe environmental degradation in recent decades due to rapid urban population growth. However, this substantial growth did not result in social development; instead, it exacerbated existing environmental and social problems. This study aimed to evaluate the pollution of the Canal do Cunha and Guanabara Bay, using GIS for mapping based on the result of the heavy metal concentrations obtained by spectrometry (ICP-OES). The analyzed data were monitored at five collection points. Five heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn) were evaluated. The results showed that the waters of the Cunha Canal watershed and the west side of Guanabara Bay have been altered and degraded. The concentration of heavy metals in the water was lower than the concentration in the sediments. The behaviors of the studied metals differed during the rainy and dry periods.

  10. Royal jelly promotes DAF-16-mediated proteostasis to tolerate β-amyloid toxicity in C. elegans model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

    2016-08-23

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that dietary intervention may promote health and help prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently reported that bee products of royal jelly (RJ) and enzyme-treated royal jelly (eRJ) were potent to promote healthy aging in C. elegans. Here, we examined whether RJ/eRJ consumption may benefit to mitigate the AD symptom in the disease model of C. elegans. Our results showed that RJ/eRJ supplementation significantly delayed the body paralysis in AD worms, suggesting the β-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity attenuation effects of RJ/eRJ. Genetic analyses suggested that RJ/eRJ-mediated alleviation of Aβ toxicity in AD worms required DAF-16, rather than HSF-1 and SKN-1, in an insulin/IGF signaling dependent manner. Moreover, RJ/eRJ modulated the transactivity of DAF-16 and dramatically improved the protein solubility in aged worms. Given protein solubility is a hallmark of healthy proteostasis, our findings demonstrated that RJ/eRJ supplementation improved proteostasis, and this promotion depended on the transactivity of DAF-16. Collectively, the present study not only elucidated the possible anti-AD mechanism of RJ/eRJ, but also provided evidence from a practical point of view to shed light on the extensive correlation of proteostasis and the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Royal jelly promotes DAF-16-mediated proteostasis to tolerate β-amyloid toxicity in C. elegans model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that dietary intervention may promote health and help prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently reported that bee products of royal jelly (RJ) and enzyme-treated royal jelly (eRJ) were potent to promote healthy aging in C. elegans. Here, we examined whether RJ/eRJ consumption may benefit to mitigate the AD symptom in the disease model of C. elegans. Our results showed that RJ/eRJ supplementation significantly delayed the body paralysis in AD worms, suggesting the β-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity attenuation effects of RJ/eRJ. Genetic analyses suggested that RJ/eRJ-mediated alleviation of Aβ toxicity in AD worms required DAF-16, rather than HSF-1 and SKN-1, in an insulin/IGF signaling dependent manner. Moreover, RJ/eRJ modulated the transactivity of DAF-16 and dramatically improved the protein solubility in aged worms. Given protein solubility is a hallmark of healthy proteostasis, our findings demonstrated that RJ/eRJ supplementation improved proteostasis, and this promotion depended on the transactivity of DAF-16. Collectively, the present study not only elucidated the possible anti-AD mechanism of RJ/eRJ, but also provided evidence from a practical point of view to shed light on the extensive correlation of proteostasis and the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27472466

  12. Royal Jelly-Mediated Prolongevity and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans Is Possibly Modulated by the Interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Cook, Lauren F; Grasso, Lindsay M; Cao, Min; Dong, Yuqing

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that royal jelly (RJ) and its related substances may have antiaging properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain elusive. We report that the effects of RJ and enzyme-treated RJ (eRJ) on life span and health span in Caenorhabditis elegans (C elegans) are modulated by the sophisticated interplays of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and 14-3-3 proteins. Dietary supplementation with RJ or eRJ increased C. elegans life span in a dose-dependent manner. The RJ and eRJ consumption increased the tolerance of C elegans to oxidative stress, ultraviolet irradiation, and heat shock stress. Our genetic analyses showed that RJ/eRJ-mediated life-span extension requires insulin/IGF-1 signaling and the activities of DAF-16, SIR-2.1, HCF-1, and FTT-2, a 14-3-3 protein. Earlier studies reported that DAF-16/FOXO, SIR-2.1/SIRT1, FTT-2, and HCF-1 have extensive interplays in worms and mammals. Our present findings suggest that RJ/eRJ-mediated promotion of longevity and stress resistance in C elegans is dependent on these conserved interplays. From an evolutionary point of view, this study not only provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of RJ's action on health span promotion in C elegans, but also has imperative implications in using RJ/eRJ as nutraceuticals to delay aging and age-related disorders.

  13. Constraining depth of anisotropy in the Amazon region (Northern Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Willy Corrêa Rosa, João; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-05-01

    Seismic data recorded between November 2009 and September 2013, at the permanent station PTGA of the Brazilian seismic network were used to constrain the depth of anisotropy in the lithosphere beneath the station. 90 receiver functions (RF) have been computed, covering the backazimuthal directions from 0° to 180°. Both radial (R) and transverse (T) components of the RF contain useful information about the subsurface structure. The isotropic part of the seismic velocity profile at depth mainly affects the R-RF component, while anisotropy and dipping structures produce P-to-S conversion recorded on the T-RF component (Levin and Park, 1998; Savage, 1998). The incoming (radially polarized) S waves, when passing through an anisotropic crust, splits and part of it is projected onto the transverse component. The anisotropy symmetry orientations (Φ) can be estimated by the polarity change of the observed phases. The arrival times of the phases is related to the depth of the conversion. Depth and Φ are estimated by isolating phases at certain arrival times. SKS shear-wave splitting results from previous studies in this area (Krüger et al., 2002, Rosa et al., 2014), suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle with orientation of the fast splitting axis (about E-W) following major deep tectonic structures. The observed splitting orientation correlates well with the current South America plate motion (i.e. relative to mesosphere), and with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In this study we unravel, from RF data, two layers in which anisotropy concentrates, i.e. the lower crust and the upper mantle. Lower crustal and upper mantle anisotropy retrieved by RFs give some new hints in order to interpret the previously observed anisotropic orientations from SKS and the aeromagnetic anomalies.

  14. The Scientific program with RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Hussein, M. S.; Barioni, A.; Condori, R. Pampa; Morais, M. C.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Otani, Y.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V.; Benjamim, E. A.; Arazi, A.; Assuncao, M.

    2009-06-03

    The Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (RIBRAS) is in operation since 2004 at the Pelletron Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo and consists of two superconducting solenoids capable of producing low energy secondary beams of light exotic nuclei. Measurements of the elastic scattering, breakup and transfer reactions with radioactive projectiles such as {sup 6}He,{sup 8}Li,{sup 7}Be on several targets have been performed. A review of the research program carried on along the last four years using the RIBRAS facility is presented.

  15. Curriculum Studies in Brasil: A Study of the Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes

    This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate…

  16. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  17. Dangerous Fog Analyses and Forecast in the Maceio Airport, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, N.; Silva, A.; Levit, V.; Santos, E.

    2010-07-01

    A small airplane fatal accident has occurred near Maceio Airport, on the coastal region on 26 July 2007. Low visibility in the intensive fog has provoked this accident. Weather forecast analysis, published in the local and central Brazilian newspapers during 2007, showed fog forecast absence during whole year. A study of the fog formation causes was elaborated using the high and low resolution satellite data, radar data, different products of NCEP reanalysis data and high resolution regional MM5 model simulation. The trade winds with a weak cyclonic curvature at the low levels have generated the humidity convergence at the superficial layers up to 850hPa on the coastal region. An anticyclonic circulation existence at the middle and higher levels and weak ascendant motion (by NCEP data) have support a weak convection development. The low levels clouds development on the continental region and convection development over ocean were confirmed by the radar and satellite data. A thermal inversion near surface level (up to 150m) and descendent movement at the middle and high levels were identified by MM5 model. Fog formation was simulated by PAFOG model. The conventional airport observations have shown the minimal visibility of 200m between 4 and 7a.m. Moreover visibility less than 1000m between 1 and 8a.m. with the minimal visibility of 213m was simulated by PAFOG model.

  18. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  19. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    M Suszynska, Poland I Tale, Latvia M E G Valerio, Brasil R T Williams, USA Programme Committee Robert A Jackson (Chair), University of Keele, UK R M Montereali, ENEA C.R. Frascati, Rome, Italy M Moreno, University of Cantabria, Spain Ch Pedrini, University Lyon, France Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Volkmar Dierolf, Lehigh University, USA Laszlo Kovács, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Local Organizing Committee M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Sonia L Baldochi, IPEN, SP, Brasil Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Livio Amaral, UFRGS, RS, Brasil Ana R Blak, USP, SP, Brasil Marco Cremona, PUC-RJ, RJ, Brasil Anderson S L Gomes, UFPE, PE, Brasil Spero Penha Morato, LaserTools, SP, Brasil Alejandro Ayala, UFC, CE, Brasil ICDIM2008 Sponsors: Sponsors

  20. Comment on “Effect of the vapor phase on the salinity of halite-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions estimated from the halite dissolution temperature”, by M. Steele-MacInnis and R.J. Bodnar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Ronald J.

    2014-06-01

    Recently Steele-MacInnis and Bodnar reported an experimental study on the estimation of the salinity of halite bearing fluid inclusions from dissolution temperatures of halite crystals, in the presence and absence of a vapour phase Steele-MacInnis and Bodnar (2013). The authors present new purely empirical equations to calculate fluid inclusion bulk salinity, which is mainly determined by dissolution temperature of halite (SLV→LV) with a minor correction due to presence of a vapour phase at higher temperatures, similar to the study of Bakker (2012). The experimental approach in their work is inappropriate, it does not provide experimental data, and it does not illustrate an estimate of uncertainty, accuracy and precision of the results. The mathematical modelling with purely empirical best-fit equations is insufficient, and partly erroneous. Comparison with the model from Bakker (2012) results in highly incorrect, inconsistent and imprecise statements about the quality of the results from Bakker (2012). Furthermore, the authors use “supplementary data” to continue a discussion without peer-review.

  1. A.W.D., Larkum, R.J. Orth, C.M. Duarte (eds.), 2006, Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation, Springer, ISBN: 978-1-4020-2942-4 (hardback), US$ 99.00, 691 pages.

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.

    2008-01-01

    The relish of scientists for, and funding of research on, seagrasses probably stems from two sources: seagrasses are a defined taxonomic unit often growing in monotypic stands, making academic study tractable; and, seagrasses are increasingly recognized globally as important components of shallow water systems, and potential key indicators of ecosystem health. The 26 chapters covering ~700 pages provide a long overdue treatment of the state of the science on seagrasses. This book is an honest, thorough and heroic attempt to compile a mass of knowledge by a herd of 80 researcher “cats” representing 15 countries. The chapters “…provide the necessary background on what brought each topic where it is today and indicate where future research needs to go to advance the field to the next level.” Seagrass science is in its infancy, but, as demonstrated, is advancing rapidly. Volumes with recent topical treatments of seagrasses include World Atlas of Seagrasses (Green and Short 2003), Seagrass Ecology (Hemminga and Duarte 2000), and Global Seagrass Research Methods (Short and Coles 2001) are useful compliments to this book.

  2. Royal jelly prevents the progression of sarcopenia in aged mice in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niu, Kaijun; Guo, Hui; Guo, Yinting; Ebihara, Satoru; Asada, Masanori; Ohrui, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Ichinose, Masakazu; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2013-12-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. One of the mechanisms of sarcopenia is the loss in the function and number of muscle satellite cells. Royal jelly (RJ) is a health food used worldwide. To obtain better digestion and absorption than RJ, protease-treated RJ (pRJ) has been developed. RJ and pRJ have been suggested to have potential pharmacological benefits such as prolonging the life span and reducing fatigue. Because these effects may improve sarcopenia and the functions of satellite cells, we examined the effects of RJ or pRJ treatment on the skeletal muscles in an animal model using aged mice. In vivo, RJ/pRJ treatment attenuated the decrease in the muscle weight and grip strength and increased the regenerating capacity of injured muscles and the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels compared with controls. In vitro, using isolated satellite cells from aged mice, pRJ treatment increased the cell proliferation rate, promoted cell differentiation, and activated Akt intracellular signaling pathway compared with controls. These findings suggest that RJ/pRJ treatment had a beneficial effect on age-related sarcopenia.

  3. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Schindler disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Free article on PubMed Central Desnick RJ, Wang AM. Schindler disease: an inherited neuroaxonal dystrophy due ... Kanzaki T, Yokota M, Irie F, Hirabayashi Y, Wang AM, Desnick RJ. Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum with glycopeptiduria ...

  5. Neonatal sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... BE. Perinatal viral infections. In Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ... K. Postnatal bacterial infections. In Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  6. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Krapf R, Seldin DW, Alpern RJ. Clinical syndromes of metabolic acidosis. In: Alpern RJ, Caplan M, Moe OW, ... 529. Read More Distal renal tubular acidosis Fanconi syndrome Low potassium level Metabolic acidosis Osteomalacia Respiratory acidosis Rickets Review Date 10/ ...

  7. Royal jelly prevents osteoporosis in rats: beneficial effects in ovariectomy model and in bone tissue culture model.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshizo; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Nakatsuma, Akira; Hashimoto, Ken; Ohnishi, S Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Masayoshi

    2006-09-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) has been used worldwide for many years as medical products, health foods and cosmetics. Since RJ contains testosterone and has steroid hormone-type activities, we hypothesized that it may have beneficial effects on osteoporosis. We used both an ovariectomized rat model and a tissue culture model. Rats were divided into eight groups as follows: sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX given 0.5% (w/w) raw RJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w) RJ, OVX given 0.5% (w/w) protease-treated RJ (pRJ), OVX given 2.0% (w/w) pRJ, OVX given 17beta-estradiol and OVX given its vehicle, respectively. The Ovariectomy decreased tibial bone mineral density (BMD) by 24%. Administration of 17beta-estradiol to OVX rats recovered the tibial BMD decrease by 100%. Administration of 2.0% (w/w) RJ and 0.5-2.0% (w/w) pRJ to OVX rats recovered it by 85% or more. These results indicate that both RJ and pRJ are almost as effective as 17beta-estradiol in preventing the development of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. In tissue culture models, both RJ and pRJ increased calcium contents in femoral-diaphyseal and femoral-metaphyseal tissue cultures obtained from normal male rats. However, in a mouse marrow culture model, they neither inhibited the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced calcium loss nor affected the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by PTH in mouse marrow culture system. Therefore, our results suggest that both RJ and pRJ may prevent osteoporosis by enhancing intestinal calcium absorption, but not by directly antagonizing the action of PTH.

  8. Impact of supplementary royal jelly on in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes: genes involved in apoptosis and embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Valiollahpoor Amiri, Mohammad; Deldar, Hamid; Ansari Pirsaraei, Zarbakht

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing culture conditions lead to the improvement of oocyte developmental competence and additives with anti-oxidative activity in culture media improved embryonic development. Royal jelly (RJ) is a product from the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has considerable health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of RJ on the maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst rates and gene expression in the oocyte and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation (IVM) of sheep oocyte. IVM of oocyte was performed in the presence of control (RJ0), 2.5 (RJ2.5), 5 (RJ5), 10 (RJ10), 20 (RJ20), and 40 (RJ40) mg/mL of RJ. Following the maturation period, parthenogenetic activation was carried out in two treatment groups (RJ0 and RJ10) and embryonic development was examined three and eight days thereafter. Moreover, the relative expression of BCL2 and BAX in oocyte as well as BCL2, BAX, HAS2, PTGS2, and STAR in cumulus cells were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of 10 mg/mL of RJ (90 ± 4.51%) to the maturation medium linearly increased the oocyte maturation rate compared to the control group (57 ± 2.42%), then it remained constant to the RJ40 (93 ± 3.10%) group. The higher RJ concentrations were associated with increased (p < 0.01) cleavage (53.3 ± 1.55% to 82.3 ± 2.82%) and blastocyst rate (15.5 ± 1.16% to 33.8 ± 3.09%) from the RJ0 to the RJ10 group. The relative mRNA expression of BCL2 and BAX in the oocyte was higher at RJ10. In cumulus cells, the expression of BCL2 was not affected, but that of BAX decreased, and expression of HAS2, PTGS2, and STAR were increased following the addition of RJ to the maturation media. In conclusion, the addition of 10 mg/mL of RJ to maturation medium improved blastocyst formation and decreased the apoptotic incidence in sheep cumulus cells and the oocyte during the in vitro development.

  9. Royal jelly may improve the metabolism of glucose and redox state of ovine oocytes matured in vitro and embryonic development following in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Eshtiyaghi, Mahbobeh; Deldar, Hamid; Pirsaraei, Zarbakht Ansari; Shohreh, Bahram

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of royal jelly (RJ) on in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization, cleavage, blastocyst rates, glutathione (GSH) content in ovine oocyte, mRNA abundance of antioxidant enzymes in both oocyte and cumulus, and glucose metabolism-related genes in cumulus cells. In vitro maturation of oocyte was performed in the presence of control (RJ0), 2.5 (RJ2.5), 5 (RJ5), and 10 (RJ10) mg/mL of RJ. Nuclear status, intracellular GSH content in oocytes, and mRNA abundance of selected genes were evaluated following 24 hours of IVM. Following the IVM, fertilization and embryo culture were carried out in all the groups and embryonic development was examined. The addition of 10-mg/mL RJ to maturation media not only yielded a higher number of oocytes at MII stage but also showed an increased level of intracellular GSH content than did RJ2.5 and control groups. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rate were higher in the RJ10 treatment group in comparison to the control one. In cumulus cells, the expression of PFKM, PFKL, and G6PDH were increased following the addition of RJ to the maturation media. Supplementation of 10-mg/mL RJ to IVM medium increased the GPx mRNA abundance in both oocyte and cumulus cells and SOD expression in the cumulus cells. The CAT mRNA abundance was not influenced by the addition of RJ to the maturation media in either oocyte or cumulus cells. It seems that the improvement of oocyte maturation and its subsequent development in RJ10 group may be associated with amelioration of redox status in the oocytes and activation of glucose metabolic pathways in their surrounding cumulus cells.

  10. Psychometric properties of Multidimensional Health Locus of Control - A and General Self-Efficacy Scale in civil servants: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK)

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Luciana A. C.; Telles, Rosa W.; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Health-related control and self-efficacy beliefs can be assessed in the general population using Multidimensional Health Locus of Control-A subscales (MHLC-A) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), respectively. Objective To test construct validity, internal consistency, reliability (test-retest) and ceiling and floor effects of Portuguese-Brazil versions of MHLC-A and GSES. Method Civil servants (N=2901) enrolled in a large Brazilian cohort were included. A new version of the GSES was produced (GSES-Brazil). Procedures for cross-cultural adaptation and testing of psychometric properties followed well-accepted international guidelines. Results Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the following indices: MHLC-A (tridimensional model): χ2[df]=223.45[132], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.87; TLI=0.85; RMSEA=0.07 (0.07-0.08); WRMR=3.00. GSES-Brazil (unidimensional model): χ2[df]=788.60[35], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.95; TLI=0.94; RMSEA=0.09 (0.08-0.09); WRMR=2.50. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1) ranged from 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.57 (0.47-0.65) for MHLC-A internality to 0.80 (0.79-0.81) and 0.71 (0.66-0.77) for GSES-Brazil, respectively. There was no evidence of ceiling and floor effects. Convergent validity analyses provided further support for construct validity of both scales. Conclusion These findings support the use of the newly developed version of GSES-Brazil for the assessment of general self-efficacy of adult Brazilians. Internal consistency was lower than ideal for MHLC-A, indicating these subscales may need further refinements to provide a more psychometrically sound measure of control beliefs. PMID:27878226

  11. In-depth phosphoproteomic analysis of royal jelly derived from western and eastern honeybee species.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Lu, Xiaoshan; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2014-12-05

    The proteins in royal jelly (RJ) play a pivotal role in the nutrition, immune defense, and cast determination of honeybee larvae and have a wide range of pharmacological and health-promoting functions for humans as well. Although the importance of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in protein function is known, investigation of protein phosphorylation of RJ proteins is still very limited. To this end, two complementary phosphopeptide enrichment materials (Ti(4+)-IMAC and TiO2) and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry were applied to establish a detailed phosphoproteome map and to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phosphoproteomes of RJ produced by Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc). In total, 16 phosphoproteins carrying 67 phosphorylation sites were identified in RJ derived from western bees, and nine proteins phosphorylated on 71 sites were found in RJ produced by eastern honeybees. Of which, eight phosphorylated proteins were common to both RJ samples, and the same motif ([S-x-E]) was extracted, suggesting that the function of major RJ proteins as nutrients and immune agents is evolutionary preserved in both of these honeybee species. All eight overlapping phosphoproteins showed significantly higher abundance in Acc-RJ than in Aml-RJ, and the phosphorylation of Jelleine-II (an antimicrobial peptide, TPFKLSLHL) at S(6) in Acc-RJ had stronger antimicrobial properties than that at T(1) in Aml-RJ even though the overall antimicrobial activity of Jelleine-II was found to decrease after phosphorylation. The differences in phosphosites, peptide abundance, and antimicrobial activity of the phosphorylated RJ proteins indicate that the two major honeybee species employ distinct phosphorylation strategies that align with their different biological characteristics shaped by evolution. The phosphorylation of RJ proteins are potentially driven by the activity of extracellular serine/threonine protein kinase FAM20C-like protein (FAM20C

  12. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Grill RJ, Parsley MA, Unabia G, Hulsebosch CE. Anti- inflammatory treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Society for Neuroscience, 2009...Hulsebosch, CD, DeWitt DS, Dash PK, Grill RJ, Parsley MA, Unabia, BC, Rea HC, & Perez-Polo, JR Role of IL-1 and TNF receptor activation in neurological...deficits at TBI. Military health Research Forum, 2009. Hulsebosch, CD, DeWitt DS, Dash PK, Grill RJ, Parsley MA, Unabia, BC, Rea HC, & Perez-Polo, JR

  13. Signaling Pathways that Mediate Neurotoxin-Induced Death of Dopamine Neurons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    undergoing apoptosis. Cell Death and Differentiation, 12: 255-265, 2005. 5. Zimmermann, AK, FA Loucks , SS Le, BD Butts, M McClure, RJ Bouchard, KA...279-289, 2005. 7. Le, SS, FA Loucks , H Udo, S Richardson-Burns, RA Phelps, RJ Bouchard, H Barth, K Aktories, KL Tyler, ER Kandel, KA Heidenreich...Apoptosis in Biochemistry and Structural Biology. 2004 2. Loucks FA, Zimmermann AK, Le SS, Bouchard RJ, Laessig TA, Heidenreich KA, and Linseman DA

  14. Royal jelly proteome comparison between A. mellifera ligustica and A. cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Mao, Feng; Jianke, Li

    2010-05-07

    In this study, we compared royal jelly (RJ) produced by Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis cerana cerana in production, protein profiles, and abundances using proteomic approaches. The RJ proteome was displayed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE), and proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-Chip/ESI-QTOF MS. Differences in the RJ proteome between the two bee species were validated using western-blot analysis. RJ production by A. cerana cerana (3.21 +/- 0.43 g) is significantly lower than that of A. mellifera ligustica (80.5 +/- 7.83 g). The 2DGE based MS approach identified 52 and 60 proteins in the RJ of A. mellifera ligustica and A. cerana cerana, respectively. The majority of the identified proteins were major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs). Peroxiredoxin 2540, glutathione S-transferase S1, and MRJP5 were detected only in the RJ of A. mellifera ligustica, and MRJP1 was the most abundant MRJP. In contrast, MRJP7 was found only in the RJ of A. cerana cerana. But, similar to A. mellifera ligustica, MRJP1 was found most abundantly in this case too. In this study, glucose oxidase was identified for the first time in the A. cerana cerana RJ. Comparing the protein levels of MRJP1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 between the two species, they were significantly higher in the RJ of A. mellifera ligustica than in A. cerana cerana. This observation was supported by Western blot analysis using anti-MRJP1, 2, 3 antibodies. The result suggested that A. mellifera ligustica needs more nutrition to nurse the developing larvae and queens as compared to that of A. cerana cerana. This study improved our understanding of protein composition of RJ from Western and Eastern honeybees. RJ produced by A. mellifera ligustica exceeds the RJ from A. cerana cerana both in terms of production and health purposes.

  15. Plasmonic Devices and Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-30

    2003) 12. "Nanocrystal research targets optoelectronic components" Walters RJ, Biteen JS, Bourianoff GI, Atwater HA Laser Focus World 40 (9): 77-80...2004) 7 13. "Silicon optical nanocrystal memory" Walters RJ, Kik PG, Casperson JD, Atwater HA, Lindstedt R, Giorgi M, Bourianoff G, APPLIED PHYSICS...MRS Bulletin 30 (5): 385-389 May (2005) 20. "Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals", R..J. Walters, G.I. Bourianoff , H.A. Atwater HA

  16. High Royal Jelly-Producing Honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lian-Fei; Zheng, Huo-Qing; Pirk, Christian W W; Hu, Fu-Liang; Xu, Zi-Wei

    2016-04-01

    China is the largest producer and exporter of royal jelly (RJ) in the world, supplying >90% of the global market. The high production of RJ in China is principally owing to the high RJ-producing lineage of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806) established by beekeepers in the 1980s. We describe the development of high royal jelly-producing honeybees and the management of this lineage today. Previous research and recent advances in the genetic characterization of this lineage, and the molecular markers and mechanisms associated with high RJ production are summarized. The gaps in our knowledge and prospects for future research are also highlighted.

  17. On a new marine podocopid genus and species (Ostracoda: Hemicytheridae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, João Carlos; Morais, Anderson L M DE

    2016-11-15

    Bulbocythere calida gen. et sp. nov., a benthic marine ostracode, is herein described and illustrated. The geographic and bathymetric distributions of this new taxon are based on the analysis of 923 bottom samples collected along the entire Brazilian continental shelf in a depth range of about 11 to 280 m, plus sediments of 176 samples from the Sepetiba Bay and 37 samples from the Tamandaré Bay. In the study material, this ostracode was rare, and restricted to the warm waters of the E and NE shelves and to the substrates around the reefs of the Tamandaré Bay.

  18. Essentialism and the expression of social stereotypes: a comparative study of Spain, Brasil and England.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcos Emanoel; Alvaro Estramiana, José Luis; Schweiger Gallo, Inge

    2010-11-01

    Over the past few years, one of the most productive directions in the study of the activation and application of stereotypes has been provided by the essentialist concept of categorization. The research presented here studied the impact of two dimensions of essentialist beliefs--naturalism and entitativity-by using data collected from Brazil, Spain and England. The aim was to test whether there was a greater degree of essentialization among the naturalizable categories (sex, age and race) than among the entitative categories (economic condition, religion, political orientation, nationality and social condition). The results not only showed that participants hold more essentialist beliefs with regard to naturalistic categories but also showed the differences in the degree of essentialization across the three cultures. A discussion is conducted on the implications of the present findings, and on the heuristic value of the theoretical model (of the bidimensional nature of essentialism) adopted by this research.

  19. Abandonment and accessibility in railway historical buildings: Central do Brasil and Leopoldina Railstation.

    PubMed

    Brasil, C C G; Costa, A M; Castañon, J A B

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the evolution of a study in the city of Juiz de Fora-MG, whose objective is the assessment of areas of train station in relation to the inclusion of people with disabilities and consequently promote the historical and cultural heritage of this city. The railway buildings are important landmarks in the history of the city and its surroundings was formed the first core of urban development. Because this building was of the early nineteenth century, these were not designed to assist people with disabilities, in effect, we observed that the buildings are being underutilized. The difficulty of insertion of incentive policies is therefore not due to the commitment by the majority, making the deployment of new access.

  20. The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-04-30

    A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

  1. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  2. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  3. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  4. Characteristics of male and female injecting drug users of the AjUDE-Brasil II Project.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida

    2006-04-01

    The object of this study is to compare female and male injection drug users (IDUs) in terms of sociodemographic profile and aspects of their initiation to the use of injection drugs. It was a cross-sectional and multicentric study realized in 2000-2001 in six Brazilian syringe-exchange programs. 146 women and 709 men were interviewed, with average ages of 29.5 and 28.3 years, respectively. Both began injection drug use at similar ages, 18.6 and 19.3, for women and men, respectively, although women report more frequently than men that they were initiated by a sexual partner to acquiring drugs and syringes, and to the act of injection. Compared to men, women report significantly more regular sexual partners (83% versus 72%); fewer casual partners (39% versus 58%), more use of injection drugs with their partners, as well as more "exchange" of sex for drugs. Among HIV-seropositive individuals, women show less education, had more chance of their sexual partners participating in their initiation to injection drugs, and report sexual partners that used injection drugs more frequently. Female IDUs exhibit aspects of behavior indicating greater vulnerability to HIV infection than do males.

  5. Analysis of geothermal temperatures for heat pumps application in Paraná (Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Alexandre F.; de Souza, Heraldo J. L.; Cantao, Mauricio P.; Gaspar, Pedro D.

    2016-11-01

    Geothermal heat pumps are broadly used in developed countries but scarcely in Brazil, in part because there is a lack of Brazilian soil temperature data. The aims of this work are: to present soil temperature measurements and to compare geothermal heat pump system performances with conventional air conditioning systems. Geothermal temperature measurement results are shown for ten Paraná State cities, representing different soil and climate conditions. The measurements were made yearlong with calibrated equipment and digital data acquisition system in different measuring stations. Geothermal and ambient temperature data were used for simulations of the coeficient of performance (COP), by means of a working fluid pressure-enthalpy diagram based software for vapor-compression cycle. It was verified that geothermal temperature measured between January 13 to October 13, 2013, varied from 16 to 24 °C, while room temperature has varied between 2 and 35 °C. Average COP values for conventional system were 3.7 (cooling mode) and 5.0 kW/kW (heating mode), corresponding to 5.9 and 7.9 kW/kW for geothermal system. Hence it was verified an average eficiency gain of 59%with geothermal system utilization in comparison with conventional system.

  6. [Association between household solid waste disposal and health, Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil].

    PubMed

    Catapreta, C A; Heller, L

    1999-02-01

    There are few published studies about the effects of inadequate solid waste collection on the health of the population exposed to this situation. The objective of the present work was to describe this association in a sample of children under 5 years of age living in seven low-income neighborhoods and favelas in the city of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We defined as "exposed" those children whose families were not served by waste collection; "not-exposed" were children who lived in areas with waste collection. The study employed data collected in 1994 and organized as a database by the municipal department of health. We employed a cross-sectional design, in which a "case" was defined as a child whose outpatient clinic record indicated a diagnosis of diarrheal, parasitic, or dermatological disease. Other diagnoses for the same age group composed the control group. Our epidemiological study revealed an association between the absence of domestic solid waste collection and public health. Our results suggest that the children exposed to the absence of solid waste collection have a 40% higher odds (OR = 1.40) of presenting diarrheal, parasitic, and dermatological diseases than not-exposed children. In addition, the calculation of attributable risk revealed that the presence of waste collection could prevent (based on the 1995 situation) 512 cases in the neighborhoods studied and (based on the 1994 conditions) 2316 cases among children in the entire city of Belo Horizonte.

  7. Ergonomics at Volkswagen Brasil. Multidisciplinary work to equalize health, productivity and quality.

    PubMed

    Filus, Rodrigo; Wruca, Rodrigo; Charleaux, Vanessa; Ortega, Auro; Ferreira, Claudio; Jesus, Leandro; Stramari, Anderson; Neufel, Michel; Maia, Uyara

    2012-01-01

    Following the technological developments and presented to the multidisciplinary processes as automakers, Volkswagen Brazil, represented by its ergonomists, through this paper, shows the importance of ergonomic efficiency of management applied to various levels of life of a product, since its creation to its final implementation on production lines.The preventive work of ergonomists during the processes leading to production of a vehicle is accomplished through assessments on a simulated system called the Digital Factory. Since the initial stages to final product delivery there is a need for a multidisciplinary aligning the concepts of ergonomics, productivity and quality of product. Industrial Engineering, Process Engineering, ergonomists and workers are involved in the analysis made through the Workshop's showing the importance of discussion between the various users of the systems. The processes of series are also equipped with a set of certifications flow of job and planned audits on items that describe processes and applied ergonomics.

  8. Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil: the search for respiratory symptomatic patients in emergency service of "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano, Fundação Educacional Serra dos Orgãos".

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Bisaglia, Joana B; Borlot, Paulo Estevão W; D'avila Junior, Heraldo X; Faria, Carolina Gonçalves P P de; Braga, Bernardo D; Bezerra, Tiago S; Cedrola, Juan Pedro V; Almeida, Guilherme C; Couto, Lílian S; Nacif, Marcelo; Crivano, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the detection percentage of tuberculosis among patients that are respiratory symptomatic (TB suspects). In this work, we present the preliminary results of research carried out at "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano da Fundacao Educacional Serra dos Orgãos (FESO)" from November 2003 to April 2004. Among the 40 respiratory symptomatic individuals identified and referred to the Tuberculosis Control Program in Teresópolis , two (5.0%) were characterized as smear-positive. These results confirm reports in the literature and underscore the need for and importance of this strategy.

  9. Effects of royal jelly supplementation on regulatory T cells in children with SLE

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Asmaa M.; Elsayh, Khalid I.; Saad, Khaled; Eloseily, Esraa M.A.; Osman, Naglaa S.; Alblihed, Mohamd A.; Badr, Gamal; Mahmoud, Mohamed H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective To our knowledge, no previous studies have focused on the immunomodulatory effects of fresh royal jelly (RJ) administration on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in humans. Our aim was to study the effect of fresh RJ administration on the disease course in children with SLE with some immunological markers (CD4+ and CD8+ regulatory T cells and T lymphocytes apoptosis). Methods This was an open-label study in which 20 SLE children received 2 g of freshly prepared RJ daily, for 12 weeks. Results The percentages of CD4+ CD25+high FOXP3+cells (CD4+ regulatory T cells) and CD8+CD25+high FOXP3+cells (CD8+ regulatory T cells) were significantly increased after RJ treatment when compared with baseline values. Apoptotic CD4 T lymphocytes were significantly decreased after RJ therapy when compared with baseline values and the control group. Conclusion This is the first human study on the effect of RJ supplementation in children with SLE. Our results showed improvements with 3-month RJ treatment with regard to the clinical severity score and laboratory markers for the disease. At this stage, it is a single study with a small number of patients, and a great deal of additional wide-scale randomized controlled studies are needed to critically validate the efficacy of RJ in SLE. PMID:27887663

  10. Royal jelly improves hyperglycemia in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mei; Hayashi, Kaori; Watadani, Risa; Okano, Yoshiyasu; Tanimura, Keiya; Kotoh, Jun; Sasaki, Daiki; Matsumoto, Kozo; Maeda, Akihiko

    2017-02-14

    The study examined whether royal jelly (RJ) can prevent obesity and ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. This study utilized obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice. RJ (10 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage. Body weight, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured. mRNA and protein levels were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Four weeks of RJ administration improved hyperglycemia and partially suppressed body weight gain, although the latter effect did not reach statistical significance. In addition, RJ administration did not improve insulin resistance. RJ administration suppressed the mRNA expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, in the liver. Simultaneously, RJ administration induced adiponectin (AdipoQ) expression in abdominal fat, adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1) expression in the liver and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) expression, which suppressed G6Pase levels in the livers of KK-Ay mice. pAMPK levels were also increased in skeletal muscle, but glucose transporter-4 (Glut4) translocation was not increased in the RJ supplementation group. The improvement in hyperglycemia due to long-term RJ administration may be because of the suppression of G6Pase expression through the upregulation of AdipoQ and AdipoR1 mRNA and pAMPK protein expressions.

  11. Royal jelly improves hyperglycemia in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIDA, Mei; HAYASHI, Kaori; WATADANI, Risa; OKANO, Yoshiyasu; TANIMURA, Keiya; KOTOH, Jun; SASAKI, Daiki; MATSUMOTO, Kozo; MAEDA, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether royal jelly (RJ) can prevent obesity and ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. This study utilized obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice. RJ (10 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage. Body weight, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured. mRNA and protein levels were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Four weeks of RJ administration improved hyperglycemia and partially suppressed body weight gain, although the latter effect did not reach statistical significance. In addition, RJ administration did not improve insulin resistance. RJ administration suppressed the mRNA expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, in the liver. Simultaneously, RJ administration induced adiponectin (AdipoQ) expression in abdominal fat, adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1) expression in the liver and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) expression, which suppressed G6Pase levels in the livers of KK-Ay mice. pAMPK levels were also increased in skeletal muscle, but glucose transporter-4 (Glut4) translocation was not increased in the RJ supplementation group. The improvement in hyperglycemia due to long-term RJ administration may be because of the suppression of G6Pase expression through the upregulation of AdipoQ and AdipoR1 mRNA and pAMPK protein expressions. PMID:27890887

  12. Discipline with Dignity: Oakland Classrooms Try Healing Instead of Punishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Fania

    2014-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's adage, "I destroy my enemies when I make them my friends" captures the profoundly inclusive nature of restorative justice (RJ). The hallmark of RJ is intentionally bringing together people with seemingly diametrically opposed viewpoints--particularly people who have harmed with people who have been harmed--in a carefully…

  13. Contextualizing Restorative Justice for Hate Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…

  14. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    the Prevention of Neoplastic Polyps -- A Multicenter Study ................. 211 93/138 0 A Screening Study for Myocardial Sarcoidosis Comparing...Enzenauer RJ, West SG: Posttraumatic stress disor- der presenting as fibromyalgia. Am J Med, 94:548, 1993. 3 . Enzenauer RJ, West SG: Sarcoidosis in...Status: Ongoing (4) Title: A Screening Study for Myocardial Sarcoidosis Comparing Transesophageal Echocardiography, Transthoracic Echocardiography

  15. The Role of BRCA1 in Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Mammary Gland and Tumor Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    balance of cell lineages in mammary epithelium during pregnancy. Dev Biol. 2006;293(2):565-80. 15. Wagner KU, Wall RJ, St- Onge L, Gruss P, Wynshaw...Brca1 in mammary epithelial cells results in blunted ductal morphogenesis and tumour formation. Nat Genet 1999;22:37–43. 22. Wagner KU,Wall RJ, St- Onge

  16. Newborn jaundice - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kaplan M, Wong RJ, Sibley E, Stevenson DK. Neonatal jaundice and liver diseases. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap 100. Read More ... Newborn jaundice - discharge Review Date 2/ ...

  17. The Phenotypic Effects of Royal Jelly on Wild-Type D. melanogaster Are Strain-Specific

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Stefanie L.; Seggio, Joseph A.; Hicks, Jasmin A.; Sharp, Katherine A.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.; Wang, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    The role for royal jelly (RJ) in promoting caste differentiation of honeybee larvae into queens rather than workers is well characterized. A recent study demonstrated that this poorly understood complex nutrition drives strikingly similar phenotypic effects in Drosophila melanogaster, such as increased body size and reduced developmental time, making possible the use of D. melanogaster as a model system for the genetic analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying RJ and caste differentiation. We demonstrate here that RJ increases the body size of some wild-type strains of D. melanogaster but not others, and report significant delays in developmental time in all flies reared on RJ. These findings suggest that cryptic genetic variation may be a factor in the D. melanogaster response to RJ, and should be considered when attempting to elucidate response mechanisms to environmental changes in non-honeybee species. PMID:27486863

  18. Royal jelly supplementation in semen extender enhances post-thaw quality and fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Qaisar; Mehmood, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Hamayun; ul Husna, Asma; Qadeer, Saima; Azam, Asima; Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Safdar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of royal jelly (RJ) on post-thaw sperm quality, in vitro and in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm. The semen was collected from three mature regular donor buffalo bulls, ejaculates were pooled and semen evaluated initially. In Experiment 1, the ejaculates were extended in tris-citric acid diluter supplemented with different RJ concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4%). The diluted semen was cooled to 4°C, packaged into 0.5 mL straws and frozen using standard procedure. The straws were thawed and assessed for sperm progressive motility, viability, plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin integrity. The results indicated that sperm progressive motility was significantly greater (P<0.05) in 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% RJ than 0.4% RJ supplemented and control groups. The sperm viability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were significantly improved (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ supplemented group the compared to other treatment groups. In Experiment 2, cryopreserved sperm with 0.1% RJ supplementation and control (without RJ supplementation) were used to observe the in vitro fertilizing potential and in vivo fertility. In vitro fertilization method was applied to assess the cleavage rate; whereas, AI was performed in buffalo during in vivo fertility trial. The buffaloes were inseminated 12h after standing estrus and pregnancy diagnosis was performed through ultrasonography. The results revealed that the cleavage rate was higher (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ as compared to control group. However, the pregnancy rate was similar (P>0.05) between 0.1% RJ supplemented and control groups. It is concluded that supplementation of RJ in freezing extender can improve the cryosurvival rate and in vitro fertilizing capacity of buffalo bull sperm.

  19. Novel royal jelly proteins identified by gel-based and gel-free proteomics.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Li, Chenxi; Zhang, Lan; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

    2011-09-28

    Royal jelly (RJ) plays an important role in caste determination of the honeybee; the genetically same female egg develops into either a queen or worker bee depending on the time and amount of RJ fed to the larvae. RJ also has numerous health-promoting properties for humans. Gel-based and gel-free proteomics approaches and high-performance liquid chromatography-chip quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry were applied to comprehensively investigate the protein components of RJ. Overall, 37 and 22 nonredundant proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and gel-free analysis, respectively, and 19 new proteins were found by these two proteomics approaches. Major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) were identified as the principal protein components of RJ, and proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism such as glucose oxidase, α-glucosidase precursor, and glucose dehydrogenase were also successfully identified. Importantly, the 19 newly identified proteins were mainly classified into three functional categories: oxidation-reduction (ergic53 CG6822-PA isoform A isoform 1, Sec61 CG9539-PA, and ADP/ATP translocase), protein binding (regucalcin and translationally controlled tumor protein CG4800-PA isoform 1), and lipid transport (apolipophorin-III-like protein). These new findings not only significantly increase the RJ proteome coverage but also help to provide new knowledge of RJ for honeybee biology and potential use for human health promotion.

  20. Identification of the distribution of adenosine phosphates, nucleosides and nucleobases in royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liming; Chen, Lanzhen; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wei, Yue; Wang, Yong; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Xue, Xiaofeng

    2015-04-15

    Nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases play a greater role in the physiological activity of organisms which are highly present in royal jelly (RJ). The objective of the present study is to develop a HPLC method to simultaneous determine nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleobases in RJ and access them in fresh and commercial RJ samples. The LOD and LOQ were 12.2-99.6 μg/L and 40.8-289.4 μg/L, respectively with nearly 100.9% recoveries. Except uric acid, all other compounds were found in RJ samples. Significant difference in the average content of compounds in fresh (2682.93 mg/kg) and commercial samples (3152.78 mg/kg) were observed. AMP, adenosine and adenine were found predominant in all the samples. Significant higher levels of ATP, ADP and AMP was seen in fresh RJ samples, and IMP, uridine, guanosine, and thymidine was seen in commercial RJ samples. The investigated compounds can be used as indexes for assessment RJ freshness and quality.

  1. Analysis of Amblyomma sculptum haplotypes in an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Bitencourth, K; Voloch, C M; Serra-Freire, N M; Machado-Ferreira, E; Amorim, M; Gazêta, G S

    2016-09-01

    Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Berlese, 1888, a member of the Amblyomma cajennense complex, is the major vector of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in southeastern Brazil. In this study, the genetic diversity of A. sculptum populations in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil, was investigated because genetic variability in tick populations may be related to vector competence. Samples of A. sculptum from 19 municipalities in 7 regions of RJ were subjected to DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of D-loop, cytochrome oxidase II and 12S rDNA mitochondrial genes. These sequences were used to map the genetic diversity of this tick. Amblyomma sculptum populations are genetically diverse in RJ, especially in the South Centre and Highland regions. Few unique haplotypes were observed in all populations, and the majority of genetic variation found was among ticks within each population. Phylogenetic reconstruction reinforced the assumption that all the haplotypes identified in RJ belong to A. sculptum. However, some RJ haplotypes are closer to A. sculptum from Argentina than to A. sculptum from elsewhere in Brazil. In RJ, A. sculptum has high genetic diversity, although little genetic differentiation. Observations also indicated a high level of gene flow among the studied populations and no evidence of population structure according to region in RJ.

  2. Effect of royal jelly on experimental colitis induced by acetic acid and alteration of mast cell distribution in the colon of rats

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, T.; Bayiroglu, F.; Yoruk, M.; Kaya, M.S.; Uslu, S.; Comba, B.; Mis, L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Twenty adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into four treatment groups of 5 animals each, including a control group (Group I); Group II was treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg−1 body weight); Group III had acetic acid-induced colitis; and Group IV had acetic acid-induced colitis treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg−1 body weight) for 4 weeks. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4% acetic acid; the control group received physiological saline (10 mL kg−1). Colon samples were obtained under deep anaesthesia from animals in all groups. Tissues were fixed in 10% formalin neutral buffer solution for 24 h and embedded in paraffin. Six-micrometre-thick sections were stained with Mallory’s triple stain and toluidine blue in 1% aqueous solution at pH 1.0 for 5 min (for Mast Cells). RJ was shown to protect the colonic mucosa against the injurious effect of acetic acid. Colitis (colonic damage) was confirmed histomorphometrically as significant increases in the number of mast cells (MC) and colonic erosions in rats with acetic acid-induced colitis. The RJ treatment significantly decreased the number of MC and reduced the area of colonic erosion in the colon of RJ-treated rats compared with rats with untreated colitis. The results suggest that oral treatment with RJ could be used to treat colitis. PMID:21263740

  3. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  4. Hatchability rate and embryonic growth of broiler chicks following in ovo injection royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, A A; Borji, M; Komazani, D

    2014-01-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to compare the hatchability, chick body and internal organs weights and plasma testosterone concentration of hatchlings after in ovo administration of royal jelly (RJ) on d 7 of incubation. 2. Fertile eggs (n = 150) were injected into the air sac or yolk sac with 0.5 ml normal saline solution or normal saline and pure RJ. The eggs were randomly divided into 5 groups of 30 eggs each: NC, control eggs receiving no injection; ASA, air sac-injected eggs given normal saline solution; ARJ, air sac-injected eggs injected with pure RJ; YSA, yolk sac-injected eggs receiving normal saline solution and YRJ, yolk sac-injected eggs given pure RJ. 3. Injection of RJ significantly decreased hatchability (46.7%) compared with injection of saline solution (68.3%). Hatchability was lower in ARJ (33.3 %) and YRJ (60.0%) groups than in the NC group (90.0%). Hatchability in ASA (70.0%) and YSA (66.66%) groups were comparable to the NC group. 4. In ovo injection of RJ into both sacs increased chicks' absolute and relative body, heart, liver and testes weights compared to the control group whereas plasma testosterone concentration was similar among the different groups. 5. It was concluded that in ovo injection of RJ may be an effective method to increase the body weight of hatched chicks as an absolute value (CWT) and chicks' internal organ weights.

  5. The Effects of Royal Jelly on Fitness Traits and Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shorter, John R; Geisz, Matthew; Özsoy, Ergi; Magwire, Michael M; Carbone, Mary Anna; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-01-01

    Royal Jelly (RJ) is a product made by honey bee workers and is required for queen differentiation and accompanying changes in queen body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output relative to workers. Previous studies have reported similar changes in Drosophila melanogaster in response to RJ. Here, we quantified viability, development time, body size, productivity, lifespan and genome wide transcript abundance of D. melanogaster reared on standard culture medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of RJ. We found that lower concentrations of RJ do induce significant differences in body size in both sexes; higher concentrations reduce size, increase mortality, shorten lifespan and reduce productivity. Increased concentrations of RJ also consistently lengthened development time in both sexes. RJ is associated with changes in expression of 1,581 probe sets assessed using Affymetrix Drosophila 2.0 microarrays, which were enriched for genes associated with metabolism and amino acid degradation. The transcriptional changes are consistent with alterations in cellular processes to cope with excess nutrients provided by RJ, including biosynthesis and detoxification, which might contribute to accelerated senescence and reduced lifespan.

  6. The Hair Growth-Promoting Effect of Rumex japonicus Houtt. Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Na-Hyun; Yang, Hyeryeon; Bae, Seong Kyeong; Heo, Yunwi; Choudhary, Indu; Kwon, Young Chul; Byun, Jae Kuk; Yim, Hyeong Jun; Noh, Byung Seung; Heo, Jeong-Doo; Kim, Euikyung

    2016-01-01

    Rumex japonicus Houtt. is traditionally used as a medicinal plant to treat patients suffering from skin disease in Korea. However, the beneficial effect of Rumex japonicus Houtt. on hair growth has not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the hair growth-promoting effect of Rumex japonicus (RJ) Houtt. root extract using human dermal papilla cells (DPCs), HaCaT cells, and C57BL/6 mice model. RJ induced antiapoptotic and proliferative effects on DPCs and HaCaT cells by increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio and activating cellular proliferation-related proteins, ERK and Akt. RJ also increased β-catenin via the inhibition of GSK-3β. In C57BL/6 mice model, RJ promoted the anagen induction and maintained its period. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that RJ upregulated Ki-67 and β-catenin expressions, suggesting that the hair growth effect of RJ may be mediated through the reinforcement of hair cell proliferation. These results provided important insights for the possible mechanism of action of RJ and its potential as therapeutic agent to promote hair growth. PMID:27974900

  7. Longevity extension of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) by royal jelly: optimal dose and active ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP60) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what regulates worker longevity has potential to help increase colony productivity and improve crop pollination efficiency. PMID:28367370

  8. Longevity extension of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) by royal jelly: optimal dose and active ingredient.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Tian, Yuanyuan; Han, Mingfeng; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP60) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what regulates worker longevity has potential to help increase colony productivity and improve crop pollination efficiency.

  9. Geographical influences on content of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Ting; Hu, Yuan-Qiang; Zheng, Huo-Qing; Cao, Lian-Fei; Hu, Fu-Liang; Hepburn, H Randall

    2013-10-01

    The content of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), a marker compound in royal jelly (RJ), is the most important criterion in grading RJ for commercial trade and varies with its origin. To identify the effect of geographical origin on 10-HDA content in RJ, 138 samples were collected from 19 provinces of China (divided into three groups) produced by either Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806 or a hybrid of A. m. ligustica and Apis mellifera carnica Pollman, 1879 and analyzed for moisture, sugar, crude protein, ash, acid, and 10-HDA concentration. The results show that RJ from western China has a significantly higher 10-HDA level (2.01 +/- 0.05%) than those from northeastern (1.87 +/- 0.05%) and eastern (1.75 +/- 0.03%) China. RJ secreted by hybrid bees contained more 10-HDA (1.89 +/- 0.03%) than that secreted by A. m. ligustica (1.78 +/- 0.03%). The 10-HDA content of RJ produced during flowering of rape (Brassica campestris L.), lime (Tilia amurensis Ruprecht), and vitex (Vitex negundo L. variety heterophylla (Franch.) Rehder) was 1.92, 1.80, and 1.68%, respectively. The results would be helpful during the process of price determination of RJ by providing some basis of geographical, bee strain, and botanical information for commercial trade.

  10. In-Depth N-Glycosylation Reveals Species-Specific Modifications and Functions of the Royal Jelly Protein from Western (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Han, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Pei; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-12-04

    Royal jelly (RJ), secreted by honeybee workers, plays diverse roles as nutrients and defense agents for honeybee biology and human health. Despite being reported to be glycoproteins, the glycosylation characterization and functionality of RJ proteins in different honeybee species are largely unknown. An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins, and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism for why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood disease (American foulbrood, AFB). The observed antihypertension activity of N-glycosylated MRJP1 in two RJ samples and a stronger activity found in Acc than in Aml reveal that specific RJ protein and modification are potentially useful for the treatment of hypertensive disease for humans. Our data gain novel understanding that the western and eastern bees have evolved species-specific strategies of glycosylation to fine-tune protein activity for optimizing molecular function as nutrients and immune agents for the good of honeybee and influence on the health promoting activity for human as well. This serves as a valuable resource for the targeted probing of the biological

  11. Does the Zone of Injury in Combat-Related Type III Open Tibia Fractures Preclude the Use of Local Soft Tissue Coverage?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    procedure. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001;83:239 246. 6. Burgess AR, Poka A, Brumback RJ , et al. Management of open grade III tibial fractures. Orthop Clin...extremities with failed free flaps: a single institution’s experience over 25 years. Ann Plast Surg. 2007;59:18 21. 19. Fix RJ , Vasconez LO...of lower extremity defects: anatomic considerations. Surg Clin North Am. 1974;54:1337 1354. 22. Shepherd LE, Costigan WM, Gardocki RJ , et al. Local or

  12. New Approach to Chemically Induced Silicon Oxidation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    Kim, C.H. Wolowodiuk, R.J. Jaccodine, F.A. Stevie , and P.M. Kohora, to be published in J. Electrochem. Society. 4. "Effect of NF3 Addition on Point...Defect Generation at the Oxidizing Interface", U.S. Kim, R.J. Jaccodine, F.A. Stevie , and T. Kook, to be published in J. Electrochem. Society. 5...Macfarlane, R.J. Jaccodine and F.A. Stevie , presented at the 180th Meeting of the Electro- chemical Society, Phoenix, AZ, October 13-18, 1991. 15

  13. Keck Infrared Observations of Jupiter's Ring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Graham, J. R.; Liu, M. C.; Showalter, M. R.; Burns, J. A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hamilton, D. P.

    1998-09-01

    We imaged the Jovian ring system at a wavelength of 2.27 mu m with the 10-m W.M. Keck telescope in August and October 1997, when the ring plane was almost edge-on. We obtained the first images of the Jovian halo and gossamer ring in back-scattered light, and the best ground-based images to date of Jupiter's main ring. The main ring is radially confined between 1.70 -- 1.82 R_J, with a maximum (after inversion) at 1.79 R_J, in agreement with the Voyager findings (1 R_J=71398 km). The halo extends inwards from the main ring (at 1.71 R_J) down to 1.40 R_J, bounded by the locations of Lorentz resonances. Roughly 50% of the halo's intensity originates from a region within ~ 700 km from the equatorial plane, while the halo is visible up to ~ 10,000 km above and below the plane. Although the vertical extent agrees with Voyager findings, the halo's intensity relative to that of the main ring in the Keck images is much less than in Voyager images, which is attributed to the fact that the halo contains fewer macroscopic particles, which preferentially backscatter visible light. The gossamer ring is found to have two components, with steep dropoffs in brightness at the orbits of Amalthea and Thebe. The first, Amalthea's gossamer ring, is visible between the main ring's periphery and ~ 2.5 R_J; it is relatively uniform in brightness and has a vertical thickness (FWHM) of 0.06 R_J, clearly broader than the FWHM of the main ring (0.045 R_J) and image resolution of 0.6('') =0.025;R_J. The other component, a factor of five fainter than Amalthea's ring and about twice as broad vertically (FWHM ~ 0.12 ; R_J), is seen inwards from 3.11 R_J, i.e., inwards of Thebe's orbit. Additional material still seems present, albeit barely, at larger distances, until ~ 3.6 R_J, near the edge of our images. Our data are consistent with the Galileo results, and suggest the ring material originates at the bounding satellites Thebe, Amalthea, Adrastea and Metis (see abstracts by Burns et al., and

  14. Joint Services Electronics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    Phone: 614/292-2530) R. Tiberio, Visiting Professor, U. of Florence, Italy (Phone: 614/292-2530) R.J. Burkholder , Post-Doctoral Researcher (Phone: 614/292...Pathak and R.J. Burkholder , "High Frequency EM Scattering by Open- Ended Waveguide Cavities," Journal Radio Science, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 211- 218...press, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications. I 3. R.J. Burkholder , R-C. Chou and P.H. Pathak, "Two Ray Shooting Methods for Computing the EM

  15. Royal jelly supplemented soybean lecithin-based extenders improve post-thaw quality and incubation resilience of goat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alcay, Selim; Toker, M Berk; Onder, N Tekin; Gokce, Elif

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate different concentrations of royal jelly (RJ) supplemented extenders for post-thaw quality and incubation resilience of goat spermatozoa. Semen samples were collected from five goats. Pooled semen were diluted with soybean lecithin-based extender without RJ (control) or supplemented with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75%) of RJ (RJ0.25, RJ0.5, RJ0.75 respectively), at a final concentration of 150 × 10(6) spermatozoon/mL. Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The addition of RJ (0.5%, 0.75%) led to higher percentages of subjective motilities (55.33 ± 2.29%, 57.67 ± 2.58%) compared to control and RJ0.25 groups (49.00 ± 2,80%, 51.67 ± 3.09%) (P < 0.05) following the freeze-thawing process. RJ0.5 and RJ0.75 groups had higher plasma membrane functional integrities (66.40 ± 1.34%, 68.20 ± 2.05%) and lower defected acrosome rates (24.60 ± 3.36%, 23.80 ± 2.27%) compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). DNA damaged spermatozoa in all groups were not significant (P > 0.05). In the end of incubation, motility and HOST rates of RJ0.5 (14.00 ± 3.87%, 31.20 ± 3.70%) and RJ0.75 (15.00 ± 3.27%, 29.20 ± 2.59%) groups were higher than control (8.00 ± 2.54%, 18.20 ± 3.11%) and RJ0.25 (9.00 ± 2.07%, 20.60 ± 2.88%) groups (P < 0.05). Also defected acrosome and DNA fragmation rates of RJ0.5 (32.20 ± 1.30%, 5.4 ± 0.55%) and RJ0.75 (29.20 ± 1.30%, 5.80 ± 0.45%) groups were significantly lower than control (38.80 ± 0.84%, 7.40 ± 1.34%) and RJ0.25 (39.80 ± 2.05%, 7.00 ± 1.58) groups. This study shows that RJ supplemented extenders have beneficial effect on goat sperm parameters at 0 h and 6 h of incubation.

  16. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture).

  17. [Logistics of collection and transportation of biological samples and the organization of the central laboratory in the ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ligia G; Vidigal, Pedro G; Leite, Claudia Mendes; Castilhos, Cristina D; Pimentel, Robércia Anjos; Maniero, Viviane C; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.

  18. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  19. The Navy of Brazil: An Emerging Power at Sea (Marinha do Brasil: Um Poder Emergente no Mar),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    neighboring countries were solved through diplomacy. Second, the Brazilian economy remained essentially based on agricultural production, with little...emphasis on the industrialization process that took place in other parts of the world. As a result, the technological base gained by the war effort...industrial base , many problems were not solved and dependence on foreign support was almost absolute. These facts became more evident when Brazil, after having

  20. Assessment of essential elements and chemical contaminants in thirteen fish species from the Bay Aratu, Bahia, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Souza, N F A; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of ten elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn) were determinate in muscle tissues of 13 fish species from Aratu Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of our results were checked by using two certified reference materials: BCR-422 cod muscle and SRM 1566b oyster tissue. The average trace element concentrations in the fish species varied in the following ranges, in μg g-1: 0.03-0.8 for Cr; 2.0-33.7 for Cu, 2.4-135.1 for Fe, 1.6-25.6 for Se; 1.6-35.1 for Sr; and 2.8-40.5 for Zn. The Diaptereus rhombeus (carapeba) specie presented the highest concentrations of Se, Cu and Fe. Chromium and Se were present at levels above the limit of tolerance allowed by the National Agency of Sanitary Vigilance (ANVISA). The results were also evaluated using the multivariate analysis techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

  1. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  2. A Possible Freshness Marker for Royal Jelly: Formation of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde as a Function of Storage Temperature and Time.

    PubMed

    Ciulu, Marco; Floris, Ignazio; Nurchi, Valeria M; Panzanelli, Angelo; Pilo, Maria I; Spano, Nadia; Sanna, Gavino

    2015-04-29

    In this article we present a study of the variability of the concentration of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) in natural royal jelly (RJ) as a function of its storage temperature (-18, 4, and 25 °C) and time (up to 9 months after harvesting). For this work HMF is evaluated using an RP-HPLC method we previously assessed. While all RJ samples stored at 4 and -18 °C always showed levels of HMF under the limit of detection (0.13 mg kg(-1)), samples kept at 25 °C showed an exponential increase in the concentration of HMF as a function of the storage time. This behavior and a number of desirable features of the analytical method used (ease of use in routine laboratories, availability of a complete validation protocol specifically developed for RJ, based on consolidated chemical knowledge) allow us to hypothesize the use of HMF as a possible, reliable freshness marker for RJ.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: oculofaciocardiodental syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial ... Smagt JJ, Gorlin RJ, Burgess SM, Bardwell VJ, Black GC, Biesecker LG. Oculofaciocardiodental and Lenz microphthalmia syndromes ...

  4. Kidney biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney ... Barisoni L, Arend LJ, Thomas DB. Introduction to renal biopsy. In: Zhou M, Mari-Galluzzi C, eds. ... Saunders; 2015:chap 7. Topham PS, Chen Y. Renal biopsy. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J, ...

  5. Some Implications for Afro-American Culture: Rationalism and Western Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Ortiz M.

    1973-01-01

    Will the computer or instruments powered by electrical energy become the most efficient means by which to produce Western music, replacing the live performer? If so, what will be the effects of electronic, mechanical music on society? (Author/RJ)

  6. "If You Give Him Seeds, He'll Eat Forever"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Betty

    1972-01-01

    Focuses on an OEO-funded farming project through which northern New Mexico Pueblo American Indians are growing crops indoors in nutritive water and gravel through a cultivation process known as hydroponics. (RJ)

  7. Political Primitivism, Differential Socialization, and Lower-Class Leftist Radicalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    1971-01-01

    Examines hypotheses linking lower class leftist radicalism to the political primitivism caused by lack of education, lack of media exposure, infrequent participation in organizations, and personal isolation--on the basis of data from 382 Chilean urban slum dwellers. (RJ)

  8. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  9. Genetics Home Reference: chorea-acanthocytosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stone C, Danek A, Rampoldi L, Hardie RJ, Chalmers RM, Wood NW, Bohlega S, Dotti MT, Federico A, ... L, Dobson-Stone C, Rubio JP, Danek A, Chalmers RM, Wood NW, Verellen C, Ferrer X, Malandrini ...

  10. 40 CFR 799.9630 - TSCA developmental neurotoxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., ptosis. (B) Description, incidence, and severity of any convulsions, tremors, or abnormal movements. (C...-313, 326-351 (1975). (9) Green, R.J. and Stanton, M.E. Differential ontogeny of working memory...

  11. 40 CFR 799.9630 - TSCA developmental neurotoxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., ptosis. (B) Description, incidence, and severity of any convulsions, tremors, or abnormal movements. (C...-313, 326-351 (1975). (9) Green, R.J. and Stanton, M.E. Differential ontogeny of working memory...

  12. 40 CFR 799.9630 - TSCA developmental neurotoxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., ptosis. (B) Description, incidence, and severity of any convulsions, tremors, or abnormal movements. (C...). (9) Green, R.J. and Stanton, M.E. Differential ontogeny of working memory and reference memory in...

  13. 40 CFR 799.9630 - TSCA developmental neurotoxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., ptosis. (B) Description, incidence, and severity of any convulsions, tremors, or abnormal movements. (C...-313, 326-351 (1975). (9) Green, R.J. and Stanton, M.E. Differential ontogeny of working memory...

  14. 40 CFR 799.9630 - TSCA developmental neurotoxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., ptosis. (B) Description, incidence, and severity of any convulsions, tremors, or abnormal movements. (C...). (9) Green, R.J. and Stanton, M.E. Differential ontogeny of working memory and reference memory in...

  15. Lung problems and volcanic smog

    MedlinePlus

    ... smog forms. This smog is a type of air pollution. Volcanic smog also contains highly acidic aerosols (tiny ... References Balmes JR, Eisner MD. Indoor and outdoor air pollution. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...

  16. Let's Make the Next Generation Tobacco-Free: Your Guide to the 50th Anniversary Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... l Online As a result of tobacco industry marketing and other influences, more than 3,200 children ... adults smoke. 1990 R.J. Reynolds ends a marketing test targeting 26 % African Americans in response to ...

  17. Clubbing of the fingers or toes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clubbing Images Clubbing Clubbed fingers References Davis JL, Murray JF. History and physical examinations. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst MD, et al. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. Lactic acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem that causes the condition. References Seifter JL. Acid-base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap120. Strayer RJ. Acid-base disorders. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

  19. The Efficacy of LY293558 in Blocking Seizures and Associated Morphological, and Behavioral Alterations Induced by Soman in Immature Male Rats and the Role of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor in Organophosphate Induced Seizures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-30

    convulsions. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology 32:557-60 170 163. Lipp JA. 1973. Effect of benzodiazepine derivatives on soman...232. Racine RJ. 1972. Modification of seizure activity by electrical stimulation. II. Motor seizure. Electroencephalography and clinical

  20. Facts about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008;199:237.e1-9. Margulis AV, Mitchell AA, Gilboa SM, Werler MM, Glynn RJ, Hernandez-Diaz S, ... e7. Werler MM, Ahrens KA, Bosco JL, Michell AA, Anderka MT, Gilboa SM, Holmes LB, National Birth ...

  1. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  2. Galactose-1-phospate uridyltransferase

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal diets, most galactose comes from the breakdown ( metabolism ) of lactose, which is found in milk and ... Elsevier; 2013:550. Zinn AB. Inborn errors of metabolism. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. ...

  3. Sputum direct fluorescent antibody (DFA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 17. Murray PR. The clinician and the microbiology laboratory. In: ...

  4. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Bergseth, Kathleen J; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) programs have become widespread in the United States and in other countries. These programs are often seen as a viable alternative to traditional retributive processing, especially for minor, and sometimes more serious, forms of delinquency and adult criminality. The programs hold promise for achieving several goals, including increased community and victim involvement, greater satisfaction with the case outcomes, improved offender compliance, increased perceptions of fairness, and even recidivism reduction. Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders. Implications for future research and potential improvements to the RJ model are discussed.

  5. Contextualizing restorative justice for hate crime.

    PubMed

    Gavrielides, Theo

    2012-12-01

    The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and detrimental to victims and affected communities. The article investigates how RJ is conceptualized within the hate crime context. The findings are based on a 3-year research program, which combined theoretical analysis, literature review, and U.K.-focused field research that was carried out through a combination of qualitative methods. These included semistructured interviews with an expert sample of practitioners and policy makers as well as focus groups with young victims and offenders of hate incidents. Direct observation was also carried out with two RJ practices.

  6. The Black Underground: Fugitives from Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Benjamin

    1969-01-01

    A brief account of the activities prior to the American Civil War of those who assisted black slaves in their flight from the South to the Northern States and Canada by an underground railroad movement. (RJ)

  7. Rodriquez and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Linda

    1973-01-01

    Recounts the now-famous Supreme Court case, San Antonio Independent School District versus Rodriguez, relating to the proposition that wealth-based inequities in school spending are unconstitutional. (RJ)

  8. Mercury Resistance Is Encoded by Transferable Giant Linear Plasmids in Two Chesapeake Bay Streptomyces Strains†

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, Jacques; Schrempf, Hildgund; Hill, Russell T.

    1998-01-01

    The Streptomyces strains CHR3 and CHR28, isolated from the Baltimore Inner Harbor, contained two and one, respectively, giant linear plasmids which carry terminally bound proteins. The plasmids pRJ3L (322 kb), from CHR3, and pRJ28 (330 kb), from CHR28, carry genes homologous to the previously characterized chromosomal Streptomyces lividans 66 operon encoding resistance against mercuric compounds. Both plasmids are transmissible (without any detectable rearrangement) to the chloramphenicol-resistant S. lividans TK24 strain lacking plasmids and carrying a chromosomal deletion of the mer operon. S. lividans TK24 conjugants harboring pRJ3L or pRJ28 exhibited profiles of mercury resistance to mercuric compounds similar to those of Streptomyces strains CHR3 and CHR28. PMID:9726886

  9. Puertorriquenos En Chicago: El Problema Educativo Del Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Isidro

    1974-01-01

    Article written in Spanish. Defines the term "dropout," discusses the characteristics and motivations of Puerto Rican school dropouts in Chicago, and outlines the problems in educating them. (Author/RJ)

  10. Methadone Maintenance as Law and Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Florence

    1972-01-01

    Argues that substitution of methadone for heroin would not rehabilitate the drug addict, but it may be used as a method of tranquilizing a potentially troublesome ghetto and poor white population. (RJ)

  11. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... RJ, Cajaiba MM, Madri J, Lopez MA, Ramirez MC, Martignetti JA, Reyes-Múgica M. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis ... Citation on PubMed Dowling O, Difeo A, Ramirez MC, Tukel T, Narla G, Bonafe L, Kayserili H, ...

  12. Minimax-Optimal Rates for Sparse Additive Models over Kernel Classes via Convex Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    P(T (γn)) ≥ 1− c1 exp(−c2nγ2n). (28) The proof of this lemma, provided in Appendix A, uses concentration of measure for Lipschitz functions over...the radius rj . Establishing the tail bound (44): Viewing Zn,j as a function of w, we first bound its Lipschitz constant. For any two vectors w,w′ ∈ Rn... Lipschitz functions of Gaussian variables [19], we have P [ Zn,j(w; rj) ≥ E[Zn,j(w; rj)] + t ] ≤ 2 exp ( − n t 2 2r2j ) . (45) Setting t = γn(rj + γn

  13. High-Energy Charged Particles in the Innermost Jovian Magnetosphere

    PubMed

    Fischer; Pehlke; Wibberenz; Lanzerotti; Mihalov

    1996-05-10

    The energetic particles investigation carried by the Galileo probe measured the energy and angular distributions of the high-energy particles from near the orbit of Io to probe entry into the jovian atmosphere. Jupiter's inner radiation region had extremely large fluxes of energetic electrons and protons; intensities peaked at approximately2.2RJ (where RJ is the radius of Jupiter). Absorption of the measured particles was found near the outer edge of the bright dust ring. The instrument measured intense fluxes of high-energy helium ions (approximately62 megaelectron volts per nucleon) that peaked at approximately1.5RJ inside the bright dust ring. The abundances of all particle species decreased sharply at approximately1.35RJ; this decrease defines the innermost edge of the equatorial jovian radiation.

  14. Densification and Sintering of a Microwave-Plasma-Synthesized Iron Nanopowder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    R.J., "Nanoparticulate Materials Densification," Nanostr . Mater. 7 [7], 749-768 (1996). 8. Goetzel, C.G., Treatise on Powder Metallurg,, Vol. 1, Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, NY, 515 (1949). 204

  15. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... 26696680 . Tong LL, Adler S. Prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J, eds. ...

  16. The Way of Love and Trust: The Sensitivity/Encounter Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Kurt W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the unexpected revelations, conflict, despair and joy, spontaneous love-feasts, and sudden enthusiasms that happen at weekend encounter centers around the country--all under the mantle of science. (RJ)

  17. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti): A dose-response approach for coastal resources management.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Juliana Ribeiro; Sabadini-Santos, Elisamara; Carvalho, Cassia; Keunecke, Karina Annes; César, Ricardo; Bidone, Edison D

    2017-01-30

    We reveal a dose-response relationship for bioaccumulation of Zn, Cu and Cr in shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Our model estimates the current risk (AD50 was 70% of the legal limit) and the daily metal uptake rate for each metal. It can also evaluate the relative reliability of predictions for tissue concentrations reaching the legal limits for human consumption (approximately 1year) and predictions related to asymptotic length, arising from (i) direct regression of the metal concentration (MeC) versus total length (TL) and age (duration of exposure), and (ii) correlation of the incorporation rate (IR=MeC/TL) with age. Metal incorporation rates (IR), i.e. a kinetic proxy for absorption during growth up to attainment of asymptotic length, decrease with age, reflecting a slow-down in metal absorption. This pattern mitigates the high initial concentrations observed for juveniles.

  18. A new species of Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the interorbital canals of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) off Brazil with an amended diagnosis of the genus.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Nagasawa, Kazuya; Luque, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    A new species of the monotypic genus Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Cyclopoida: Philichthyidae), Leposphilus vogti n. sp., is described based on adult female and male specimens from the interorbital canals of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species differs from its only congener, L. labrei Hesse, 1866, by the following combination of characters in the adult female: a globular cephalosome, a two-segmented maxilla, and fourth abdominal somite fused to caudal ramus; and in the adult male: presence of maxilliped, leg 3 with five setae, and caudal rami tipped with six setae. In addition, an amendment of diagnosis of Leposphilus is provided based on the characters of the new species. Previous records of philichthyid copepods from actinopterygians in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans off the American continent are also given.

  19. Is Brazil Actually Ready to be a World Economic Power? (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 13-11, July 2011)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Brazil, Porto Brasil : Economic Sectors, http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/economy/economy-sectors/agriculture-and-cattle- raising-agropecuaria (accessed...April 15, 2011); Federal Government of Brazil, “Porto Brasil : Federal Government Budget,” http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/ brazil/government/federal

  20. Noise Impacts on Pinniped Hearing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-29

    Reichmuth Kastak, C., Schusterman, R.J. (submitted) Onset, growth and recovery of in-air threshold shift in a California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ...Mammals. San Diego, California. p. 252. Lindemann, K.L., Reichmuth Kastak, C., Schusterman, R.J. (2005) A California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ...visual cognitive performance in a California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 118:1905. Atwood, E.C

  1. Physical Parameters Affecting Liquid Penetration and Wetting of Fabrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Girifalco , L.A. and R.J. Good , A Theory for the Estimation of Surface and Interfacial Energies . I...Derivation and Application to Interfacial Tension. J. Phys. Chern., 61, 904-909, 1957. 6. Good , R.J., Theory for the Estimation of Surface and Interfacial ...limitation of the method. When applied to materials of low surface energy , particularly the rough surface of a water repellent

  2. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ) has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C), royal jelly (R), diabetic (D) and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R) groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW). The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW) for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT), seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD), Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI), spermiogenesis index (SPI), Sertoli cell index (SCI), meiotic index (MI), and mononuclear immune cells (MICs) in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and catalase (CAT) activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05). RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5), RJ (13.4±0.3), D (7.8±0.6) and D+R (12.4±0.7) groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property. PMID:27679827

  3. Long Common Subsequences and the Proximity of two Random Strings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-06

    Subsequently, Sankoff and Cedergren (1973), and Sankoff, Cedergren , and Lapalme (1976) considered a number of empirical cases and conducted some Monte Carlo...Sci. U.S.A. 69, 4-6. Sankoff, D. and Cedergren , R.J. (1973). A test for nucleotide sequence homology, J. Mol. Biol., 77, 159-164. Sankoff, D... Cedergren , R.J., and Lapalme, G. (1976). Frequency of insertion-deletion, transversion, and transition in evolution of 5S ribosomal RNA, J. Molecular

  4. Luminescence Quenching of the Tris(2,2’-bipyrazine) Ruthenium(II) Cation, and Its Monoprotonated Complex.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Gonzales -Velasco, J., Rubinstein, I., Crutchley, R.J., Lever, A.B.P., Bard, A.J., Inorg. Chem., 1983, 22, 822. 6. Crutchley, R.J., Kress, N., Lever...1982, 88, 161. 12. Bock, C.R., Connor, J.A., Gutierrez , A.R., Meyer, T.J., Whitten, D.G., Sullivan, B.P., and Nagle, J.K., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, 101

  5. Optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system

    DOEpatents

    Buchwald, Melvin I.; Jones, Claude R.; Nelson, Leonard Y.

    1982-01-01

    An optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system which is capable of producing a plurality of frequencies in the middle infrared spectral region. Two optical pumping mechanisms are disclosed, i.e., pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J) in response to enhancement of rotational cascade lasing including stimulated Raman effects, and, pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J+2). The disclosed apparatus for optical pumping include a hole coupled cavity and a grating coupled cavity.

  6. Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of Potential Aquatic Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    might result from theuse of conventional JP-4, JP-8 and Shale -Derived JPc8 with and without clay treatment. Chemical analyses were performed to evaluate...were RJ-4, RJ-5, shale -derived JP-8 with clay treatment, JP-9 and JP-10. The bioassays were conducted to determine the No Effect Levels (NOEL), and...understanding of the relative toxicities of the dissolved versus emulsified fractions of JP-4, JP-8, and shale -derived JP-8 with and without clay

  7. Proof of Principle for Active Detection of Fissionable Material Using Intense, Pulsed-Bremsstrahlung-Induced Photofission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-07

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6770--14-9554 Proof of Principle for Active Detection of Fissionable Material Using...of Fissionable Material Using Intense, Pulsed-Bremsstrahlung-Induced Photofission R.J. Commisso, J.W. Schumer, R.J. Allen, D.D. Hinshelwood, S.L...induce photofission in fissile material . We are investigating the applicability of this mechanism, using photons from bremsstrahlung, for long-range

  8. Low-Voltage Model Studies of Transmission-Line Configurations for Particle Acceleration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Faltens, E.C. Hartwig, H.P. Hernandez, C. MacDonald, J.R. Meneghetti , R.J. Nemetz, W. Popen.ck, W. Salsig and Vanecek "The ERA 4 MeV Injector," IEEE...Hartwig, H.P. Hernandez, C. MacDonald, J.R. Meneghetti , R..J. Nemetz, W. Popenuck, W. Salsig and Vanecek, "The ERA 4 ’MeV Injector," IEEE Trans. Nucl

  9. The therapeutic potential of royal jelly in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Comparison with contemporary literature.

    PubMed

    Pajovic, Bogdan; Radojevic, Nemanja; Dimitrovski, Antonio; Tomovic, Savo; Vukovic, Marko

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the scientific benefit of royal jelly (RJ) on prostatic-specific antigen (PSA), post-void residual (PVR) volume and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) in benign prostatic hyperplasia. For the study, a group of 40 men were administered 38 mg of RJ over a period of three months, their PSA values, prostate volumes and the volumes of their transitory prostate zones, PVR and IPPS values were measured at the end of the first month, and at the end of the third month. The results of this study confirm the potential of RJ in reducing PSA scores and improving IPSS values. Since the use of RJ did not lead to any significant reduction in PVR, prostate volume, or to any involution of the transitory zone, it appears that it may only affect the blood marker of prostatic hyperplasia and to improve quality-of-life (QoL) in those patients. Overall, in comparison to phytotherapy and conventional therapy, RJ had similar positive effects on QoL in patients with BPH, however it exhibited markedly better effects on reducing PSA levels in blood. The therapeutical use of RJ exhibited no side effects.

  10. Bee products prevent VEGF-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ), bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of bee products using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods In an in vitro tube formation assay, HUVECs and fibroblast cells were incubated for 14 days with VEGF and various concentrations of bee products [RJ, ethanol extract of bee pollen, ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis and its constituent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)]. To clarify the mechanism of in vitro angiogenesis, HUVEC proliferation and migration were induced by VEGF with or without various concentrations of RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE. Results RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced in vitro tube formation in the descending order: CAPE > Chinese red propolis >> bee pollen > RJ. RJ and Chinese red propolis suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. In contrast, bee pollen and CAPE suppressed only the proliferation. Conclusion Among the bee products, Chinese red propolis and CAPE in particular showed strong suppressive effects against VEGF-induced angiogenesis. These findings indicate that Chinese red propolis and CAPE may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related human diseases. PMID:19917137

  11. An empirical model of the high-energy electron environment at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Santacruz, M.; Garrett, H. B.; Evans, R. W.; Jun, I.; Kim, W.; Paranicas, C.; Drozdov, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present an empirical model of the energetic electron environment in Jupiter's magnetosphere that we have named the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron Model version-2 (GIRE2) since it is based on Galileo data from the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD). Inside 8RJ, GIRE2 adopts the previously existing model of Divine and Garrett because this region was well sampled by the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft but poorly covered by Galileo. Outside of 8RJ, the model is based on 10 min averages of Galileo EPD data as well as on measurements from the Geiger Tube Telescope on board the Pioneer spacecraft. In the inner magnetosphere the field configuration is dipolar, while in the outer magnetosphere it presents a disk-like structure. The gradual transition between these two behaviors is centered at about 17RJ. GIRE2 distinguishes between the two different regions characterized by these two magnetic field topologies. Specifically, GIRE2 consists of an inner trapped omnidirectional model between 8 to 17RJ that smoothly joins onto the original Divine and Garrett model inside 8RJ and onto a GIRE2 plasma sheet model at large radial distances. The model provides a complete picture of the high-energy electron environment in the Jovian magnetosphere from ˜1 to 50RJ. The present manuscript describes in great detail the data sets, formulation, and fittings used in the model and provides a discussion of the predicted high-energy electron fluxes as a function of energy and radial distance from the planet.

  12. Energetic electrons in the magnetosphere of jupiter.

    PubMed

    Van Allen, J A; Baker, D N; Randall, B A; Thomsen, M F; Sentman, D D; Flindt, H R

    1974-01-25

    Observations of energetic electrons ( greater, similar 0.07 million electron volts) show that the outer magnetosphere of Jupiter consists of a thin disklike, quasitrapping region extending from about 20 to 100 planetary radii (R(J)). This magnetodisk is confined to the vicinity of the magnetic equatorial plane and appears to be an approximate figure of revolution about the magnetic axis of the planet. Hard trapping is observed within a radial distance of about 20 R(J). The omnidirectional intensity J(0) of electrons with energy greater, similar 21 million electron volts within the region 3 r 20 R(J) is given by the following provisional expression in terms of radial distance r and magnetic latitude theta: J(0) = 2.1 x 10(8) exp[-(r/a) - (theta/b)(2)]. In this expression J(0) is particles per square centimeter per second; a = 1.52 R(J) for 3 R(J); and b = 15 degrees for 3 R(J), diminishing gradually for larger r. There is tentative evidence for mild effects of the Galilean satellite Europa and possibly Io and Ganymede but not Callisto.

  13. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XI. CoRoT-8b: a hot and dense sub-Saturn around a K1 dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Deleuil, M.; Cabrera, J.; Jorda, L.; Lovis, C.; Csizmadia, S.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J. M.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Benz, W.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bruntt, H.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Deeg, H.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; Guterman, P.; Hatzes, A.; Havel, M.; Hébrard, G.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Pätzold, M.; Pepe, F.; Ollivier, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tingley, B.; Udry, S.; Weingrill, J.; Wuchterl, G.

    2010-09-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of CoRoT-8b, a dense small Saturn-class exoplanet that orbits a K1 dwarf in 6.2 days, and we derive its orbital parameters, mass, and radius. Methods: We analyzed two complementary data sets: the photometric transit curve of CoRoT-8b as measured by CoRoT and the radial velocity curve of CoRoT-8 as measured by the HARPS spectrometer. Results: We find that CoRoT-8b is on a circular orbit with a semi-major axis of 0.063 ± 0.001 AU. It has a radius of 0.57 ± 0.02 RJ, a mass of 0.22 ± 0.03 MJ, and therefore a mean density of 1.6 ± 0.1 g cm-3. Conclusions: With 67% of the size of Saturn and 72% of its mass, CoRoT-8b has a density comparable to that of Neptune (1.76 g cm-3). We estimate its content in heavy elements to be 47-63 {M}_⊕, and the mass of its hydrogen-helium envelope to be 7-23 {M}_⊕. At 0.063 AU, the thermal loss of hydrogen of CoRoT-8b should be no more than 0.1% over an assumed integrated lifetime of 3 Ga. Observations made with SOPHIE spectrograph at Observatoire de Haute Provence, France (PNP.07B.MOUT), and the HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (081.C-0388 and 083.C-0186). The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developed and is operated by the CNES with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany, and Spain.Both data sets are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/520/A66

  14. Effect of royal jelly in ovo injection on embryonic growth, hatchability, and gonadotropin levels of pullet breeder chicks.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Aliasghar; Karimi, Isaac; Borji, Mohsen; Bahadori, Sirous; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the following: (1) hatchability, (2) chicks' body and internal organs weights, and (3) plasma gonadotropin levels of hatchlings after in ovo administration of royal jelly (RJ) on Day 7 of incubation. Fertile eggs (n = 270) were injected into the air sac or yolk sac with 0.5 mL normal saline solution consisting of four formulations (normal saline solution with antibiotics, ultrafiltrate RJ, pure RJ, and RJ with antibiotics). The eggs were randomly divided into nine groups of 30 eggs each: (i) C: the control eggs received no injection, (ii) ASA: air sac-injected eggs received normal saline solution with antibiotics, (iii) ARJ: air sac-injected eggs received pure RJ, (iv) ARJA: air sac-injected eggs received RJ with antibiotics, (v) ARJF: air sac-injected eggs received RJ ultrafiltrate solution, (vi) YSA: yolk sac-injected eggs received normal saline solution with antibiotics, and (vii) YRJ: yolk sac-injected eggs received pure RJ, (viii) YRJA: yolk sac-injected eggs received RJ with antibiotics, and (ix) YRJF: yolk sac-injected eggs received ultrafiltrate RJ solution. Hatchability rate was lower in ARJ (46.7%), ARJA (43.3%), ARJF (43.3%), and YRJF (46.7%) groups than in the control (80.0%; P < 0.05). Hatchability rate in ASA (70.0%), YSA (66.7%), YRJ (66.7%), and YRJA (63.3%) groups were comparable to the control (P > 0.05). In ovo injection of RJ and or RJ with antibiotics in both sacs increased chicks' body weight (CWT), heart weight (HWT), and liver weight (LWT) and FSH and LH levels compared with control (P < 0.05). CWT in YRJ (37.02 g), YRJA (37.03 g), ARJ (36.82 g), and ARJA (36.89 g) groups were higher than control (34.9 g; P < 0.05). Similarly, HWT significantly increased in YRJ (0.22 g), YRJA (0.21 g), ARJ (0.20 g), and ARJA (0.20 g) in comparison to control (0.18 g; P < 0.05). In addition, LWT were higher in YRJ (0.83 g), YRJA (0.82g), ARJ (0.81g), and ARJA (0.81g) than control (0.72 g; P < 0.05). Six hours post

  15. Epidermal Hydration Is Improved by Enhanced Ceramide Metabolism in Aged C57BL/6J Mice After Dietary Supplementation of Royal Jelly.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sanghun; Cho, Yunhi

    2015-09-01

    Epidermal hydration is maintained by the epidermal lipid barrier, of which ceramide (Cer) is the major constituent. We examined the dietary effect of royal jelly (RJ) on epidermal hydration in aged mice. Altered Cer metabolism was further determined by measuring epidermal levels of individual Cer, glucosylceramide (GC), and sphingomyelin (SM) species, and of Cer-metabolizing enzymes. Aged C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (group AGED) or diets with 1% RJ harvested from two different areas (groups AGED+RJ1:AGED + RJ2) for 16 weeks. Aged C57BL/6J mice with no dietary intervention (the control group: group C) represented the onset of aging. In group AGED, epidermal levels of hydration, Cer1/2/5/6/7, GC-A/B/C/D, SM1/2/3, and β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) protein, an enzyme of GC hydrolysis for Cer generation, were lower than in group C; these levels, as well as those of Cer3/4 and acidic sphingomyelinase (aSMase) protein, an enzyme of SM hydrolysis for Cer generation, were higher in group AGED + RJ1 than in group AGED. Despite increases in GC-B, SM1/2/3, and serine palmitoyltransferase2 protein, an enzyme of de novo Cer synthesis, in group AGED + RJ2 to levels higher than in group AGED, epidermal levels of hydration, Cer1-7, GC-A/C/D, GCase, and aSMase proteins were similar in these two groups. Expression of GCase and aSMase mRNAs, and of Cer synthase3 and ceramidase proteins, enzymes of de novo Cer synthesis and degradation, did not differ among groups. Dietary RJ1 improved epidermal hydration by enhancing Cer metabolism with increased levels of all Cer, GC, and SM species, and of GCase and aSMase proteins.

  16. Determination of royal jelly freshness by ELISA with a highly specific anti-apalbumin 1, major royal jelly protein 1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-rong; Wang, Yi-ran; Zhai, Liang; Zhou, Wen-xiu; Tan, Liang-liang; Li, Mei-lu; Liu, Dan-dan; Xiao, Fa

    2015-02-01

    Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), designated apalbumin 1, has been regarded as a freshness marker of royal jelly (RJ). A MRJP1-specific peptide (IKEALPHVPIFD) identified by bioinformatics analysis of homologous members of the major royal protein family was synthesized and used to raise polyclonal anti-MRJP1 antibody (anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody). Western blot analysis showed that anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody only reacted with MRJP1 in RJ. In contrast, the previously reported antibody against recombinant MRJP1 (anti-R-MRJP1 antibody) reacted with other members of MRJP family in RJ. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody demonstrated that MRJP1 content in RJ stored at 40 °C significantly degraded by 37.3%, 55.9%, 58.0%, 60.6%, 65.7%, 72.7%, and 73.1% at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 d, respectively, when compared with MRJP1 content in fresh RJ (0 d). Optical density analysis of MRJP bands from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles demonstrated that the degradation of MRJP1, MRJP2, MRJP3, and MRJP5 in RJ was strongly and positively correlated with the period of storage (P<0.0001). Our results indicated anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody was highly specific for MRJP1, and ELISA using the antibody is a sensitive and easy-to-use method to determine the freshness and authenticity of RJ.

  17. Determination of royal jelly freshness by ELISA with a highly specific anti-apalbumin 1, major royal jelly protein 1 antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-rong; Wang, Yi-ran; Zhai, Liang; Zhou, Wen-xiu; Tan, Liang-liang; Li, Mei-lu; Liu, Dan-dan; Xiao, Fa

    2015-01-01

    Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), designated apalbumin 1, has been regarded as a freshness marker of royal jelly (RJ). A MRJP1-specific peptide (IKEALPHVPIFD) identified by bioinformatics analysis of homologous members of the major royal protein family was synthesized and used to raise polyclonal anti-MRJP1 antibody (anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody). Western blot analysis showed that anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody only reacted with MRJP1 in RJ. In contrast, the previously reported antibody against recombinant MRJP1 (anti-R-MRJP1 antibody) reacted with other members of MRJP family in RJ. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody demonstrated that MRJP1 content in RJ stored at 40 °C significantly degraded by 37.3%, 55.9%, 58.0%, 60.6%, 65.7%, 72.7%, and 73.1% at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 d, respectively, when compared with MRJP1 content in fresh RJ (0 d). Optical density analysis of MRJP bands from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles demonstrated that the degradation of MRJP1, MRJP2, MRJP3, and MRJP5 in RJ was strongly and positively correlated with the period of storage (P<0.0001). Our results indicated anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody was highly specific for MRJP1, and ELISA using the antibody is a sensitive and easy-to-use method to determine the freshness and authenticity of RJ. PMID:25644470

  18. Clinical Evaluation of a Royal Jelly Supplementation for the Restoration of Dry Eye: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study and an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Sachiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Hisamura, Ryuji; Imada, Toshihiro; Izuta, Yusuke; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ito, Masataka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye. Methods and Findings We examined the effects of RJ oral administration on dry eye in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-three Japanese patients aged 20–60 years with subjective dry eye symptoms were randomized to an RJ group (1200 mg/tablet, six tablets daily) or a placebo group for 8 weeks. Keratoconjunctival epithelial damage, tear film break-up time, tear secretion volume, meibum grade, biochemical data, and subjective dry eye symptoms based on a questionnaire were investigated at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Adverse events were reported via medical interviews. In the RJ group, tear volume significantly increased after intervention (p = 0.0009). In particular, patients with a baseline Schirmer value of ≤10 mm showed a significant increase compared with baseline volume (p = 0.0005) and volume in the placebo group (p = 0.0051). No adverse events were reported. We also investigated the effect of RJ (300 mg/kg per day) administration using a mouse model of dry eye. Orally repeated administration of RJ preserved tear secretion, potentially through direct activation of the secretory function of the lacrimal glands. Conclusion Our results suggest that RJ improves tear volume in patients with dry eye. Trial Registration Registered NO. the University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan (UMIN000014446) PMID:28060936

  19. Possibility of stretch-shortening cycle movement training using a jump rope.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Sugiura, Hiroki; Demura, Shinichi

    2014-03-01

    Although jumping rope has been said to be a typical stretch-shortening cycle movement (SSC) from the dynamic analysis of muscle contraction, there are few research reports that focus on this point. Recently, the function of SSC of the legs with respect to the jumping movement has been evaluated using the rebound jump index (RJ-index). This study aimed to examine the possibility of using rope jumping in SSC training by comparing the RJ-index of the rebound jump (standard value) and the 2 different methods of rope jumping. The subjects included 76 healthy young men. Most subjects were involved in routine sports training 2-3 times per week. They performed the rebound jump (5 consecutive vertical jumps) and both a basic and a double-under jump with the jump rope, according to each participant's individual style (rhythm or timing). The RJ-index was calculated using the ground contact time and the jump height. The reliabilities of the RJ-index in the basic (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.85) and double-under jump (0.92) were high, and the RJ-index of the latter (1.34 ± 0.24) was significantly higher than that of the former (0.60 ± 0.21). In the case of a group with inferior SSC ability, the RJ-index of the rebound jump only showed a significant correlation with the double-under but not with the basic jump. When using the RJ-index (1.97 ± 0.38) of the rebound jump as a criterion, the double-under-using about 70% of the SSC ability-may be effective for reinforcement of SSC ability.

  20. Royal Jelly Increases Collagen Production in Rat Skin After Ovariectomy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Min; Cho, Min Hyoung; Cho, Yunhi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product that contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, free amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. RJ has been reported to have antitumor, antibacterial, and wound-healing activities. We previously reported that RJ enhanced the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and altered the levels of cholesterol and sphinganine in an in vitro wound-healing model in addition to regulating skin photoaging following exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation. We established an animal model of skin aging in the context of estrogen deficiency and assessed the antiaging effects of RJ on skin. To establish an in vivo model of skin aging, bilateral ovariectomies were performed in 12-week-old virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats. Induction of osteoporosis was confirmed through two-dimensional images of the trabecular bone in the left femoral necks using microcomputed tomography. The protective effects of RJ ovariectomy-induced skin aging were examined by determining the protein expression of type I procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. The collagen content and epidermal thickness of skin tissue were measured by staining techniques. There was a significant difference in weight between sham-operated and ovariectomized groups. Food efficiency ratio did not differ significantly among the groups. The level of procollagen type I protein was increased in the dorsal skin of ovariectomized rats fed with a dietary supplement containing 1% RJ extract, but the level of MMP-1 was not altered. In particular, the amount of collagen recovered was close to the normal level. RJ may protect against skin aging by enhancing collagen production in rats with ovariectomy-induced estrogen deficiency. PMID:22468645

  1. Study on The Effect of Royal Jelly on Reproductive Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Najafi, Gholamreza; Khazaei, Mozafar; Babaei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus has a variety of structural and functional effects on the male reproductive system. Diabetes results in reduced sperm parameters and libido. The present study aims to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on reproductive parameters of testosterone and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted on adult male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n=8 per group): control, RJ, diabetic and diabetic treated with RJ. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg body weight (BW) of streptozotocin (STZ). RJ, at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW was given by gavage. The duration of treatment was six weeks. After the treatment period the rats were sacrificed. The testes were weighed and changes in sperm count, motility, viability, deformity, DNA integrity and chromatin quality were analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations of testicular tissue were determined. Data were analyzed by oneway ANOVA with p<0.05 as the significant level. Results STZ-induced diabetes decreased numerous reproductive parameters in rats. Testicular weight, sperm count, motility, viability and serum testosterone levels increased in the diabetic group treated with RJ. There was a significant decrease observed in sperm deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, and tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats treated with RJ compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05). Conclusion RJ improved reproductive parameters such as testicular weight, sperm count, viability, motility, deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, serum testosterone and testicular tissue MDA levels in diabetic rats. PMID:25918599

  2. Further Spread of blaNDM-5 in Enterobacteriaceae via IncX3 Plasmids in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangfang; Xie, Lianyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Ni, Yuxing; Qu, Hongping; Sun, Jingyong

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and two carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains were isolated in a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China from 2012 to 2015. In a follow-up study, four New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5 (NDM-5)-producing strains were identified after screening these CRE strains, including 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (RJ01), 1 Proteus mirabilis strain (RJ02), and 2 Escherichia coli strains (RJ03 and RJ04). All K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were resistant to carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporins, and piperacillin-tazobactam, but were susceptible to amikacin. No epidemiological links for either E. coli isolate were found by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, MLST revealed a novel sequence type, ST2250, of the K. pneumoniae RJ01 strain. Inc types and sizes of blaNDM-5-carrying plasmids differed among the four isolates, although in P. mirabilis RJ02 and E. coli RJ03, blaNDM-5 was carried by conjugative IncX3 plasmids of nearly the same size (∼40 kb). Investigation of the genetic background of sequences flanking the blaNDM-5 gene showed that all four isolates shared the same genetic content (IS3000-ΔISAba125-IS5-blaNDM-5-ble-trpF-dsbC-IS26-ΔumuD), which was identical to that of the pNDM_MGR194 plasmid circulating in India. This is the first identification of blaNDM-5 in P. mirabilis, which suggests its further spread to Enterobacteriaceae, and indicates that IncX3 plasmids may play an important role in potentiating the spread of blaNDM. PMID:27065982

  3. Laboratory investigation of flux reduction from dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) partial source zone remediation by enhanced dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, Andrew J.; Cho, Jaehyun; Basu, Nandita B.; Chen, Xiaosong; Annable, Michael D.; Jawitz, James W.

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the benefits of partial removal of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones using enhanced dissolution in eight laboratory scale experiments. The benefits were assessed by characterizing the relationship between reductions in DNAPL mass and the corresponding reduction in contaminant mass flux. Four flushing agents were evaluated in eight controlled laboratory experiments to examine the effects of displacement fluid property contrasts and associated override and underride on contaminant flux reduction ( Rj) vs. mass reduction ( Rm) relationships ( Rj( Rm)): 1) 50% ethanol/50% water (less dense than water), 2) 40% ethyl-lactate/60% water (more dense than water), 3) 18% ethanol/26% ethyl-lactate/56% water (neutrally buoyant), and 4) 2% Tween-80 surfactant (also neutrally buoyant). For each DNAPL architecture evaluated, replicate experiments were conducted where source zone dissolution was conducted with a single flushing event to remove most of the DNAPL from the system, and with multiple shorter-duration floods to determine the path of the Rj( Rm) relationship. All of the single-flushing experiments exhibited similar Rj( Rm) relationships indicating that override and underride effects associated with cosolvents did not significantly affect the remediation performance of the agents. The Rj( Rm) relationship of the multiple injection experiments for the cosolvents with a density contrast with water tended to be less desirable in the sense that there was less Rj for a given Rm. UTCHEM simulations supported the observations from the laboratory experiments and demonstrated the capability of this model to predict Rj( Rm) relationships for non-uniformly distributed NAPL sources.

  4. Interocular symmetry analysis of bilateral eyes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Bao, Fang Jun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interocular symmetry of several biometric parameters between both eyes. The symmetry between the right and left eye of 397 subjects in 14 biometric parameters, spherical equivalent of refractive error (SE), Jackson crossed cylinder power of refractive error astigmatism with axes at 90° and 180° (RJ0) and at 45° and 135° (RJ45), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), average corneal curvature (CC), Jackson crossed cylinder power of corneal astigmatism (CJ0 and CJ45), corneal asphericity coefficient (Q), intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT) and vitreous chamber depth (VCD), was assessed by comparative data analysis. Aside from RJ0 (p = 0.00), RJ45 (p = 0.02) and Q (p = 0.00), the overall interocular differences of other biometric parameters between fellow eyes were not significant (p > 0.05). The interocular correlation and Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between fellow eyes in 14 biometric parameters. Correlations between interocular differences in SE and that in RJ0 (p = 0.03), CC (p = 0.00), AL (p = 0.00) and VCD (p = 0.00) were statistically significant. There were similar strong linear relationships between refractive error astigmatism vectors and corneal astigmatism vectors in bilateral eyes. There were negative correlations of RJ45 and CJ45 between bilateral eyes. A potentially clinically important interocular symmetry in SE, BCVA, CC, CJ0, CJ45, IOP, CCT, AL, ACD, LT and VCD is found in this research, while the differences of RJ0, RJ45 and Q between left and right eyes seem a bit large. The negative interocular relationships of RJ45 and CJ45 demonstrate moderate mirror symmetry exists among fellow eyes. High interocular symmetry in bilateral eyes may be helpful in intraocular lens power calculation, intraocular pressure evaluation, post-operative visual acuity and refraction

  5. The consumption of propolis and royal jelly in preventing upper respiratory tract infections and as dietary supplementation in children.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Sevda; Akyol, Sumeyya

    2016-01-01

    Propolis and royal jelly (RJ), two important honeybee products, have been used commonly all over the world as traditional and ethnopharmacological nutrients since ancient times. Both of them have a lot of active ingredients which are known to be effective for several medical conditions. In this article, medical databases were searched for the usage of RJ and propolis in upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and as a dietary supplementation, together and separately. 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid is the most prominent active compound showing antimicrobial effect within RJ. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is the most famous one that shows antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect within propolis. When compared with propolis, RJ was found to have richer content for all three main nutrients; proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. More clinical, experimental, and basic studies are needed to find out the best standardized mixture to cope with URTI in which RJ and propolis will be main ingredients in addition to the other secondary compounds that have health-beneficial effects.

  6. The efficacy of topical royal jelly on healing of diabetic foot ulcers: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Siavash, Mansour; Shokri, Saeideh; Haghighi, Sepehr; Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Farajzadehgan, Ziba

    2015-04-01

    Foot ulcers are major sources of morbidity in individuals with diabetes mellitus. As royal jelly (RJ, a worker honey bee product) contains enzymatic, antibacterial and vasodilative properties, it can potentially help in healing of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical RJ on healing of DFUs. Diabetic patients with foot ulcers who were referred to us at Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, were managed by offloading, infection control, vascular improvement and debridement (if required). Then, all ulcers were randomly selected to receive either 5% sterile topical RJ or placebo on their total surface area. Patients were followed for 3 months or until complete healing. Twenty-five patients (6 females and 19 males) and a total of 64 ulcers were included and randomly allocated to case or control group (32 per group). Four ulcers were excluded and 60 ulcers included in the final analysis. Healing parameters including depth, length and width reduction rate, duration of complete healing and incidence of complete healing did not show any significant difference (P = 0·69, 0·95, 0·7, 0·74 and 0·6, respectively) between groups. We did not observe any side effect of topical RJ application. This study could not confirm any significant superiority of 5% topical RJ over placebo for the treatment of DFUs.

  7. The consumption of propolis and royal jelly in preventing upper respiratory tract infections and as dietary supplementation in children

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Sevda; Akyol, Sumeyya

    2016-01-01

    Propolis and royal jelly (RJ), two important honeybee products, have been used commonly all over the world as traditional and ethnopharmacological nutrients since ancient times. Both of them have a lot of active ingredients which are known to be effective for several medical conditions. In this article, medical databases were searched for the usage of RJ and propolis in upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and as a dietary supplementation, together and separately. 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid is the most prominent active compound showing antimicrobial effect within RJ. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester is the most famous one that shows antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect within propolis. When compared with propolis, RJ was found to have richer content for all three main nutrients; proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. More clinical, experimental, and basic studies are needed to find out the best standardized mixture to cope with URTI in which RJ and propolis will be main ingredients in addition to the other secondary compounds that have health-beneficial effects. PMID:27366357

  8. Royal Jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in Stanozolol-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Sedighnia, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. Results: ST treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and motility and fertilization rate along with poor blastocyst formation and increased sperm DNA damage. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ST-exposed mice than those of control. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal level by RJ co-administration. Conclusion: Data from the current study suggest that RJ has a potential repro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects. PMID:25653671

  9. Protective Effects of Royal Jelly on Oxymetholone- Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Vahid; Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Babaei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was carried out to investigate the possible protective effects of royal jelly (RJ) on oxymetholone (OXM)-induced oxidative liver injuries in mice. Methods: In total, 32 adult male NMRI mice were divided into four groups of eight mice each. Mice in groups 1 and 2 were orally administered 5 mg/kg/day OXM for 30 days. At the same time, mice in group 3 received RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day. Saline control and RJ control groups were also included in this study. Results: Administration of 5 mg/kg OXM resulted in a significant decrease in total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity, as well as a significant increase in malondialdehyde (P<0.05). In addition, OXM-administrated mice showed a slight increase in liver enzymes, including alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Although OXM caused histopathological changes in the liver, RJ could significantly improve all of the above-mentioned parameters at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that RJ has a partially protective effect on OXM-induced liver toxicity in mice. PMID:27178489

  10. The modulation of cardiac progenitor cell function by hydrogel-dependent Notch1 activation.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Archana V; Che, Pao Lin; Somasuntharam, Inthirai; Fiore, Vincent F; Cabigas, E Bernadette; Ban, Kiwon; Brown, Milton E; Narui, Yoshie; Barker, Thomas H; Yoon, Young-Sup; Salaita, Khalid; García, Andrés J; Davis, Michael E

    2014-09-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death worldwide and phase I clinical trials utilizing cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have shown promising outcomes. Notch1 signaling plays a critical role in cardiac development and in the survival, cardiogenic lineage commitment, and differentiation of cardiac stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we functionalized self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels with a peptide mimic of the Notch1 ligand Jagged1 (RJ) to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of CPC delivery in the hydrogels in a rat model of myocardial infarction. The behavior of CPCs cultured in the 3D hydrogels in vitro including gene expression, proliferation, and growth factor production was evaluated. Interestingly, we observed Notch1 activation to be dependent on hydrogel polymer density/stiffness with synergistic increase in presence of RJ. Our results show that RJ mediated Notch1 activation depending on hydrogel concentration differentially regulated cardiogenic gene expression, proliferation, and growth factor production in CPCs in vitro. In rats subjected to experimental myocardial infarction, improvement in acute retention and cardiac function was observed following cell therapy in RJ hydrogels compared to unmodified or scrambled peptide containing hydrogels. This study demonstrates the potential therapeutic benefit of functionalizing SAP hydrogels with RJ for CPC based cardiac repair.

  11. Long-term treatment with royal jelly improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Hamid Reza; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Ghafourian, Mehri; Arzi, Ardeshir; Rezaie, Anahita; Javad-Moosavi, Seyed Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fibrotic potential of royal jelly (RJ) powder against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The rats were given RJ orally (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg per day) for 7 consecutive days before the administration of single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BLM) at 7.5 IU/kg. RJ doses were continued for 21 days after BLM exposure. Fibrotic changes in the lungs were studied by cell count and analysis of cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), histopathological examination, and assaying oxidative stress biomarkers in lung tissue. The results showed that BLM administration significantly increased the fibrotic changes, collagen content, and levels of malondialdehyde and decreased total thiol and glutathione peroxidase antioxidant contents in the rats' lung tissue. An increase in the level of cell counts and pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines such as TNF-α and TGF-β in BALF was observed. Also, it significantly decreased IFN-γ, an anti-fibrotic cytokine, in BALF. However, RJ (50 and 100 mg/kg) reversed all of these biochemical indices as well as histopathological alterations induced by BLM. The present study demonstrates that RJ, by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, attenuates oxidative damage and fibrosis induced by BLM.

  12. Protons and Electrons in Jupiter's Magnetic Field: Results from the University of Chicago Experiment on Pioneer 10.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J A; Hamilton, D; Lentz, G; McKibben, R B; Mogro-Campero, A; Perkins, M; Pyle, K R; Tuzzolino, A J; O'gallagher, J J

    1974-01-25

    Fluxes of high energy electrons and protons are found to be highly concentrated near the magnetic equatorial plane from distances of ~ 30 to ~ 100 Jovian radii (R(J)). The 10-hour period of planetary rotation is observed as an intensity variation, which indicates that the equatorial zone of high particle fluxes is inclined with respect to the rotation axis of the planet. At radial distances [unknown] 20 R(J) the synchrotron-radiation-producing electrons with energies greater, similar 3 million electron volts rise steeply to a maximum intensity of ~ 5 x 10(8) electrons per square centimeter per second near the periapsis at 2.8 R(J). The flux of protons with energies greater, similar 30 million electron volts reaches a maximum intensity of ~ 4 x 10(6) protons per square centimeter per second at ~ 3.5 R(J) with the intensity decreasing inside this radial distance. Only for radial distances [unknown] 20 R(J) does the radiation behave in a manner which is similar to that at the earth. Burst of electrons with energies up to 30 million electron volts, each lasting about 2 days, were observed in interplanetary space beginning approximately 1 month before encounter. This radiation appears to have escaped from the Jovian bow shock or magnetosphere.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Apisin, a Major Protein Unique to Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yasuko; Kato, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Apisin, a protein that is unique to royal jelly (RJ), is known to compose the greater part of the RJ proteins and to exist as a heterooligomer containing major royal jelly protein 1 and apisimin. However, few reports on the methods for quantifying apisin have been published. Thus, we attempted to quantify apisin using HPLC, a widely used analytical technique, as described below. Isoelectric precipitation and size-exclusion chromatography were used to obtain the purified protein, which was identified as apisin by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS analyses. The purified apisin was lyophilized and then used to generate a calibration curve to quantify apisin in RJ. The apisin content was fairly constant (i.e., 3.93 to 4.67 w/w%) in natural RJ. This study is the first to describe a simple, standardized method for quantifying apisin using HPLC and suggests that apisin can be used as a benchmark for future evaluations of RJ quality. PMID:27721892

  14. Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA BRASIL 2015): on the way to innovation - pharmaceutical/analytical technology, regulation and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Needham, Shane; Yates, Nathan; Barrientos, Rafael; Steel, Martin; Lee, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis, São Paulo, Brazil, 3-5 August 2015 The 2nd Annual Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis was held on 3-5 August 2015 at Club Transatlântico, São Paulo, Brazil. This annual meeting began in 2014 and was the first industry-led event in Brazil to focus on the specific needs of industry researchers while bringing together technology and regulators. The goal of CPSA is to provide an in-depth review of innovative technology and industry practices through open discussion of industry-related issues and needs. Education and specialized training are the foundation of all CPSA events. As the industry has evolved so has CPSA. The CPSA annual meeting thrived with high quality scientific content, open interaction from industry opinion leaders and a collegial environment.

  15. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil.

    PubMed

    d'Azevedo, P A; Secchi, C; Antunes, A L S; Sales, T; Silva, F M; Tranchesi, R; Pignatari, A C C

    2008-10-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

  16. Impact of vinasse application in the C and N in the soils cultivaded with sugarcane in South Brasil, using Isotopic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossete, A. M.; Medeiros, G. G.; Adorno, F. C.; Possignolo, N. V.; Moreira, M. Z.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The main anthropogenic sources in the environment are fertilizers, pesticides, biomass burning, vehicle emissions, and disposal of urban and industrial waste. Vinasse is characterized as a residual of sugarcane distillery effluent with high concentrations of potassium and organic matter. The environmental impact caused by its use in the vinasse is modification chemical and physical properties in the soil and water. For this, the isotopic technique can be a powerful tool to understand the biogeochemical cycling of light elements (C and N). Some environmental studies have been conducted involving isotopic characterization of Carbon and Nitrogen in soil. Several soils cultivated with sugarcane of different regions of São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed to perform the isotopic characterization. The study area was selected where soil management is by mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. The area was divided into three parts: control (without cultivation); after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane; after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. Three days after the harvest of sugarcane the vinasse was applied and sampling of soil surface was carried out in two periods of 7 and 30 days after application of vinasse. The isotopic determination in the sample soil and concentration of C and N was by IRMS, Thermo Delta Plus, allowing simultaneous determination of 13C/12C isotope ratios (δ13C) and 15N/14N (δ15N). The results of the C and N concentration in the vinasse applied were average values 2.52% and 0.02% and isotopic values of 13C and 15N were -14.1‰ and 5.2‰. The results for the C concentration of the three areas in two periods showed values around 0.86 to 1.01%. The 13C isotopic values were -16.8 to -15.0‰, demonstrating the predominant cultivation in the region in relation to δ13C values of C4 plant (sugarcane). The results of N analysis were 0.08 to 0.10% and 15N isotope analysis, showing values ranging from 7.9 to 8.5‰. No significant variation in concentration of N and C in three study areas was observed. Considering 13C and 15N isotopic characterization independent of management, there was noted no isotopic fractionation by microbial activity. The results evidenced that the addition of vinasse in the soil did not increase the concentration of C and N does not represent a source of C and N. Furthermore, the isotopic technique can be applied in studies involving biogeochemical cycling, aiming to identify progress or setbacks in the quality of soil and possible impact in ecosystem.

  17. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  18. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  19. O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebara, Ademir

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

  20. A Ideia de Universidade no Brasil: Influencia do Movimento de Cordoba (The Idea of the University in Brazil: Influences of the Cordoba Movement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzilli, Sueli

    2000-01-01

    Examines influences of the Cordoba Movement in formulation of ideas concerning the inseparability among teaching, research, and extension--a new paradigm for the Brazilian university. Finds the formulation of this inseparability had its origins in the Brazilian student movement of the 1960s which included theses of the Cordoba Manifesto. (BT)

  1. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  2. Resistant hypertension: risk factors, subclinical atherosclerosis, and comorbidities among adults-the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Vasconcellos, Paulo S; Santos, Itamar S; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of resistant hypertension-defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg with proven use of three antihypertensive medications, or as the use of four antihypertensive drug classes regardless of BP-is unknown in low-middle-income countries. Using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, a cohort of 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, the authors identified 4116 patients taking treatment for hypertension, 11% of who had resistant hypertension. These participants were more likely to be older, black, less educated, poorer, and obese. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) were diabetes, 1.44 (1.20-1.72); glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.72 m(2) ), 1.95 (1.60-2.38); albumin-to-creatinine ratio (>300 mg/g), 2.43 (1.70-3.50); carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, 1.07 m/s (1.03-1.11 m/s); common carotid intima-media thickness, 2.57 mm (1.64-4.00 mm); left ventricular hypertrophy, 2.08 (1.21-3.57); and atrial fibrillation, 3.55 (2.02-6.25). Thus, the prevalence of resistant hypertension in Brazil is high and associated with subclinical markers of end-organ cardiovascular damage.

  3. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area.

  4. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

  5. The Archean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brasil): Current models and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Albert, C.; Martínez Dopico, C.; Aguilar Gil, C.; Moreira, H.; Hippertt, J. P.; Cutts, K.; Alkmim, F. F.; Lana, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is a metallogenic district (Au, Fe, Mn) located at the southernmost end of the São Francisco craton in eastern Brazil. In this region, a supracrustal assemblage composed of Archean greenstone and overlying Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks occur in elongated keels bordering domal bodies of Archean gneisses and granites. The tectonomagmatic evolution of the Quadrilàtero Ferrífero began in the Paleoarchean with the formation of continental crust between 3500 and 3200 Ma. Although this crust is today poorly preserved, its existence is attested to by the occurrence of detrital zircon crystals with Paleoarchean age in the supracrustal rocks. Most of the crystalline basement, which is composed of banded gneisses intruded by leucogranitic dikes and weakly foliated granites, formed during three major magmatic events: Rio das Velhas I (2920-2850 Ma), Rio das Velhas II (2800-2760 Ma) and Mamona (2760-2680 Ma). The Rio das Velhas II and Mamona events represent a subduction-collision cycle, probably marking the appearance of a modern-style plate tectonic regime in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Granitic rocks emplaced during the Rio das Velhas I and II events formed by mixing between a magma generated by partial melting of metamafic rocks with an end member derived by recycling gneissic rocks of older continental crust. After deformation and regional metamorphism at ca. 2770 Ma, a change in the composition of the granitic magmas occurred and large volumes of high-K granitoids were generated. The ca. 6000 m-thick Minas Supergroup tracks the opening and closure of a basin during the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, between 2600 and 2000 Ma. The basal sequence involves continental to marine sediments deposited in a passive margin basin and contain as a marker bed the Lake Superior-type Cauê Banded Iron Formation. The overlying sediments of the Sabará Group mark the inversion of the basin during the Rhyacian Minas accretionary orogeny. This orogeny results from the collision between the nuclei of the present-day São Francisco and Congo cratons, generated the fold-and thrust belt structure of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Afterwards, the post- orogenic collapse resulted in the deposition of the Itacolomi Group and in the genesis of the dome-and-keel structure. In this paper, we review current knowledge about the 1500 Ma long-lasting tectonomagmatic and structural evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero identifying the most compelling open questions and future challenges.

  6. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; dos Reis, Rodrigo C. Padilha; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. PMID:26610556

  7. The Use of Seaplanes as an Advanced Weapon Systemxc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Kreniski 1 Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial -IAE-ESB 12 225 - Sao Jose dos Campos - SP, Brasil 10. Director do Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 1 Centro Tecnico... Aeroespacial 12 225 - Sao Jose dos Campos - SP, Brasil 11. Director do Instituto de Atividades Espaciais 1 Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial - IAE 12 225 - Sao...Jose dos Campos - SP, Brasil 98 12. Chefe da Divisao de Sistemas Belicos Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 12 225 - Sao Jose dos Campos - SP, Brasil 13

  8. Errors from Rayleigh-Jeans approximation in satellite microwave radiometer calibration systems.

    PubMed

    Weng, Fuzhong; Zou, Xiaolei

    2013-01-20

    The advanced technology microwave sounder (ATMS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite is a total power radiometer and scans across the track within a range of ±52.77° from nadir. It has 22 channels and measures the microwave radiation at either quasi-vertical or quasi-horizontal polarization from the Earth's atmosphere. The ATMS sensor data record algorithm employed a commonly used two-point calibration equation that derives the earth-view brightness temperature directly from the counts and temperatures of warm target and cold space, and the earth-scene count. This equation is only valid under Rayleigh-Jeans (RJ) approximation. Impacts of RJ approximation on ATMS calibration biases are evaluated in this study. It is shown that the RJ approximation used in ATMS radiometric calibration results in errors on the order of 1-2 K. The error is also scene count dependent and increases with frequency.

  9. Origin and function of the major royal jelly proteins of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) as members of the yellow gene family.

    PubMed

    Buttstedt, Anja; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

    2014-05-01

    In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen larvae are fed with a diet exclusively composed of royal jelly (RJ), a secretion of the hypopharyngeal gland of young worker bees that nurse the brood. Up to 15% of RJ is composed of proteins, the nine most abundant of which have been termed major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs). Although it is widely accepted that RJ somehow determines the fate of a female larva and in spite of considerable research efforts, there are surprisingly few studies that address the biochemical characterisation and functions of these MRJPs. Here we review the research on MRJPs not only in honeybees but in hymenopteran insects in general and provide metadata analyses on genome organisation of mrjp genes, corroborating previous reports that MRJPs have important functions for insect development and not just a nutritional value for developing honeybee larvae.

  10. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, T Wing

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process.

  11. GPU Controller Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-29

    marily used for storing and retrieving status bits. The Condi- tion Code Register ( CCR3 -CCRO) can be output via D7-D4 or can be loaded via D7-D4...Alternatively, CCR3 -O can be loaded from com- binations of (DII, DIO, D1,DO). 1. Microcommands The controller microcommand is a 13-bit number that car be...RJ B 1011 SRN 7 _4 VO001 SRN 3 -x,( CCR3 -0 AM) RJ C 1100 SRN 7 _4 V R4 7 -4 SRN 3 _x,(D 3 _0 AM) RJ D 1101 SRN 7 -4 V R4 7 -4 SRN 3 _x,(D 7 _4 AM

  12. 76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    .... Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil... Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045-0001: 1. Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil, and Caixa de Previdencia dos Funcionarios do Banco do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; to become bank holding companies...

  13. Possible protective effect of royal jelly against cyclophosphamide induced prostatic damage in male albino rats; a biochemical, histological and immuno-histo-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, Sara Mohammed Naguib; Rifaai, Rehab Ahmed; Abdelzaher, Walaa Yehia

    2017-03-21

    Almost all the chemotherapy treat many cancer types effectively, but it leads to severe side effects. Chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide (CP) not works only on the active cells, such as cancer cells, but also acts on the healthy cells. Royal jelly (RJ) was reported to have a lot of therapeutic effects besides being an anti-oxidant and anti-cancer agent. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible protective role of RJ in ameliorating the toxic effects of CP overdose in the rat prostatic tissue. The rats were separated into 4 groups; control group, RJ group, CP group and RJ with CP group. Prostatic specimens were processed for biochemical, histological and immune-histo-chemical studies. The mean area fractions of eNOS and Bax expression were measured in all groups, and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that in CP treated group, there were marked biological changes in the form of significant increase in prostatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and C - reactive protein (CRP). Additionally there was a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in prostatic tissue if compared with the control group. Furthermore, the histological changes showed marked acinar and stromal prostatic degeneration. Most prostatic acini showed less PAS reaction and more (eNOS and Bax) expression if compared with the control group. Concomitant administration of RJ with CP revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. In conclusion, RJ provided biochemical and histo-pathological improvement in CP induced prostatic tissue toxicity. These findings revealed that this improvement was associated with a decrease in the tissue oxidative damage and apoptosis.

  14. Novel vasotocin-regulated aquaporins expressed in the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians: evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Yasunori; Ogushi, Yuji; Shibata, Yuki; Okada, Reiko; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-06-01

    Until now, it was believed that only one form of arginine vasotocin (AVT)-regulated aquaporin (AQP) existed to control water absorption from the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians, eg, AQP-rj3(a) in Rana japonica. In the present study, we have identified a novel form of ventral skin-type AQP, AQP-rj3b, in R. japonica by cDNA cloning. The oocyte swelling assay confirmed that AQP-rj3b can facilitate water permeability. Both AQP-rj3a and AQP-rj3b were expressed abundantly in the ventral hindlimb skin and weakly in the ventral pelvic skin. For the hindlimb skin, water permeability was increased in response to AVT, although the hydroosmotic response was not statistically significant in the pelvic skin. Isoproterenol augmented water permeability of the hindlimb skin, and the response was inhibited by propranolol. These events were well correlated with the intracellular trafficking of the AQPs. Immunohistochemistry showed that both AQP-rj3 proteins were translocated from the cytoplasmic pool to the apical membrane of principal cells in the first-reacting cell layer of the hindlimb skin after stimulation with AVT and/or isoproterenol. The type-b AQP was also found in R. (Lithobates) catesbeiana and R. (Pelophylax) nigromaculata. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that the type-a is closely related to ventral skin-type AQPs from aquatic Xenopus, whereas the type-b is closer to the AQPs from terrestrial Bufo and Hyla, suggesting that the AQPs from terrestrial species are not the orthologue of the AQPs from aquatic species. Based on these results, we propose a model for the evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms in association with AQPs.

  15. Royal jelly counteracts bucks' "summer infertility".

    PubMed

    Elnagar, Samar A

    2010-08-01

    Exposure of male rabbits to heat stress during summer adversely affects their fertility leading to major production losses. A total number of 24 male rabbits were randomly divided into four experimental groups exposed to temperatures ranging from a high of 32 degrees C to a low of 23 degrees C. Animals of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th group were individually orally given 200, 400, or 800 mg royal jelly (RJ)/kg body weight once a week to evaluate the ability of RJ feeding to counteract "summer infertility" in bucks and enhance their physiological status. Royal jelly treatments significantly boosted testosterone level to 133, 143 and 124% of basal, increased ejaculated volume by 36, 31 and 18%, increased seminal plasma fructose to 122, 124, and 111%, improved sperm motility by 15, 18 and 5%, increase sperm total output by 65, 63 and 35%, reduced abnormal sperm by 24, 24 and 15% and dead sperm by 27, 25 and 17% compared to the heat stressed control animals. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin increased while serum total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides decreased with RJ treatments. Creatinine was reduced by 5, 13 and 8% and uric acid by 4, 7 and 4%, respectively for the three doses of RJ compared to control. Alkaline phosphatase has significantly increased to reach 114, 118, and 108% of heat stressed level with the three doses of RJ, indicating the occurrence of active bone deposition. Glucose level increased significantly to reach 105, 112, and 116% of heat stressed control and both calcium and phosphorus increased significantly with RJ treatments. It was concluded that royal jelly administration to heat stressed male rabbits can counteract their "summer infertility" and improve their physiological status.

  16. Non-Invasive Gene Therapy of Experimental Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    delivery system. Mol. Ther., 6: 67-72. 5. Zhang, Y., Boado, R.J., and Pardridge, W.M. (2003): Marked enhancement in gene expression by targeting the human...1999. 6. McMenamin MM, Bymes AP, Charlton HM, Coffin RS, Latchman show no chromosomal integration of the plasmid DS, Wood MJ. A y34.5 mutant of...1091-1095, 2001. Imaging of dopamine transporters with [1231]FP-CIT SPECT does 23. Zhang Y, Boado RJ, Pardridge WM. Marked enhancement in gene

  17. Proteomic characterization of royal jelly proteins in Chinese (Apis cerana cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honeybees.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ning; Jiang, Jie; Sun, Liangxian; Lai, Changcheng; Sun, Lifang; Wu, Xueji

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the proteins contained in royal jelly (RJ) derived from Chinese and European honeybees have been analyzed in detail and compared. Remarkable differences were found in the heterogeneity of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), MRJP2 and MRJP3, in terms of molecular weight and isoelectric points between the two species of RJ. MRJP2 and MRJP3 produced by Chinese honeybee are less polymorphic than those produced by European honeybee. This study is a contribution to the description of the royal jelly proteome.

  18. Proteome comparison of hypopharyngeal gland development between Italian and royal jelly producing worker honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Jianke, Li; Mao, Feng; Begna, Desalegn; Yu, Fang; Aijuan, Zheng

    2010-12-03

    The hypopharyngeal gland (HG) of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) produces royal jelly (RJ) that is essential to feed and raise broods and queens. A strain of bees (high royal jelly producing bee, RJb) has been selected for its high RJ production, but the mechanisms of its higher yield are not understood. In this study, we compared HG acini size, RJ production, and protein differential expressions between the RJb and nonselected honeybee (Italian bee, ITb) using proteomics in combination with an electron microscopy, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Generally, the HG of both bees showed age-dependent changes in acini sizes and protein expression as worker behaviors changed from brood nursing to nectar ripening, foraging, and storage activities. The electron microscopic analysis revealed that the HG acini diameter of the RJb strain was large and produced 5 times more RJ than the ITb, demonstrating a positive correlation between the yield and HG acini size. In addition, the proteomic analysis showed that RJb significantly upregulated a large group of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, those involved in protein biosynthesis, development, amino acid metabolism, nucleotide and fatty acid, transporter, protein folding, cytoskeleton, and antioxidation, which coincides with the fact that the HGs of the RJb strain produce more RJ than the ITb strain that is owing to selection pressure. We also observed age-dependent major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) changing both in form and expressional intensity concurrent with task-switching. In addition to MRJPs, the RJb overexpressed proteins such as enolase and transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase, protein biosynthesis, and development proteins compared to the ITb strain to support its large HG growth and RJ secretion. Because of selection pressure, RJb pursued a different strategy of increased RJ production by involving additional proteins compared to its original

  19. On the Radii of Brown Dwarfs Measured with AKARI Near-infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorahana, S.; Yamamura, I.; Murakami, H.

    2013-04-01

    We derive the radii of 16 brown dwarfs observed by AKARI using their parallaxes and the ratios of observed to model fluxes. We find that the brown dwarf radius ranges between 0.64-1.13 RJ with an average radius of 0.83 RJ . We find a trend in the relation between radii and T eff; the radius is at a minimum at T eff ~ 1600 K, which corresponds to the spectral types of mid- to late-L. The result is interpreted by a combination of radius-mass and radius-age relations that are theoretically expected for brown dwarfs older than 108 yr.

  20. An overview of plasma wave observations obtained during the Galileo A34 pass through the inner region of the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.; Alexander, C. J.

    2003-04-01

    On November 5, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft, which is in orbit around Jupiter, made a pass in to a radial distance of 1.98 RJ (Jovian radii) from Jupiter, much closer than on any previous orbit. Data were successfully acquired during the entire inbound pass through the hot and cold plasma torii, and through the region inside the cold torus to a radial distance of 2.32 RJ, at which point the data system went into safing due to the intense radiation in the inner region of the magnetosphere. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the results obtained from the plasma wave investigation during this pass, which is designated A34. As on previous passes through the Io plasma torus a narrowband electrostatic emission at the upper hybrid resonance frequency provided a very accurate measurement of the electron density. The peak electron density, 2.6 x 103 cm-3, occurs just before the inner edge of the hot torus, which is at 5.62 RJ. As the spacecraft enters the cold torus the electron density drops to about 6.0 x 102 cm-3 and then gradually increases as the spacecraft approaches Jupiter, reaching a peak of about 2.5 x 103 cm-3 at 4.86 RJ, shortly before the inner edge of the cold torus. At the inner edge of the cold torus, which occurs at 4.76 RJ, the electron density drops dramatically to levels on the order of 1 cm-3. The electron density in this inner region is difficult to interpret because the upper hybrid emission can no longer be clearly identified, and there are numerous narrowband emissions with cutoffs that may or may not be associated with the local electron plasma frequency. As in the hot torus, the low density region inside the cold torus has a persistent level of plasma wave noise below about 103 Hz that is tentatively interpreted as whistler mode noise. The intensity of the whistler mode noise increases noticeably as the spacecraft crosses Thebe's orbit at 3.1 RJ, and increases markedly as the spacecraft crosses Amalthea's orbit at 2.6 RJ. The

  1. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    SciTech Connect

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-09-30

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria.

  2. Efficacy of royal jelly on methotrexate-induced systemic oxidative stress and damage to small intestine in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaynar, Leylagül; Cetin, Aysun; Hacioglu, Sibel K; Eser, Barış; Koçyigit, İsmail; Canöz, Özlem; Tasdemir, Arzu; Karadag, Canan; Kurnaz, Fatih; Saraymen, Recep; Silici, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to investigate the mucositis caused by methotrexate (MTX), as well as whether the application of royal jelly (RJ) has a protective effect on oxidative stress. This present study included six groups each consisted of 12 Wistar rats. Distilled water (po: peroral) was given to the 1st group as placebo for 10 days and MTX (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal: ip) on the 7th day. The 2nd group received RJ (50mg/kg, po) for 10 days and normal saline (NS) instead of MTX. RJ (50mg/kg) was given to the 3rd group for 10 days and MTX on the 7th day. The 4th group received RJ (100 mg/kg, po) for 10 days and NS was given intraperitoneally. RJ (100mg/kg) was given to the 5th group for 10 days and a single dose of MTX. Distilled water was given to the 6th (control) group for 10 days and intraperitoneal NS on the 7th day. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were analyzed in blood samples on the 11th day. Morphological and histopathological changes were examined in the intestinal tissue samples. Villus length and mucosal thickness, as well as the villus length/crypt ratio, were significantly decreased with MTX administration, and the semi-quantitative histological evaluation (SQHE) score was measured high (p<0.001). In addition, a decrease in the antioxidant parameters and an increase in the MDA levels were identified. The villus length and SQHE were significantly different in the groups receiving RJ (p<0.001) as compared to the MTX group. Although RJ addition had no effect on the decreased mucosal thickness and villus/crypt ratio in MTX groups, it caused an improvement in the antioxidant levels and a remarkable decrease in MDA levels. Adding RJ has a decreasing effect on the MTX-induced intestinal damage and it has a suppressive effect on MTX-induced oxidative stress by means of increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and decreasing lipid peroxidation.

  3. Sky Observation with the Use of the Software Stellarium for Teaching Astronomy in Classes of Youth and Adult Education. (Spanish Title: Observación del Cielo con la Utilización del Software Stellarium en Las Clases de Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos.) Observação do Céu Aliada À Utilização do Software Stellarium no Ensino de Astronomia em Turmas de Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a project developed through a partnership between the Astronomy Club of Itaocara Marcos Pontes (CAIMP) and Jaime de Souza Queiroz College, both located in the town of Itaocara, in the Northwest Fluminense, to disseminate Astronomy in adult education (Education for Youth and Adult). Given the interdisciplinary nature of Astronomy, we have developed this work to motivate the learning of this science by students in adult education, who attend the subjects Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Initially, we conducted a research in the school to assess the prior knowledge of Astronomy class of adult education, noting that there is little knowledge of basic concepts of the discipline. With these data, we were able to elaborate several activities that would enable a greater involvement of students with this science, performing in the school a work of improvement of scientific literacy, whose activities will be presented in this article. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar los resultados de un proyecto realizado por el Club de Astronomía de Itaocara "Marcos Pontes" (CAIMP), conjuntamente con el Colegio Estatal" Jaime de Souza Queiroz", ambos de la ciudad de Itaocara (Noroeste Fluminense - RJ, Brasil), para la difusión de la Astronomía entre los estudiantes, tanto adultos como adolescentes. Teniendo en cuenta la naturaleza interdisciplinaria de la Astronomía, se determinó motivar el estudio de esta ciencia en los estudiantes adultos de nivel secundario matriculados en las asignaturas de Química, Física y Biología. Como primer paso, se investigó el grado de conocimiento sobre astronomía del estudiante. Este estudio inicial mostró niveles de conocimiento muy bajos de los conceptos básicos de esta ciencia, muchos de los cuales deberían haber sido asimilados dentro del plan curricular del curso de Física. Este estudio previo permitió determinar las actividades adecuadas para promover un mayor envolvimiento de los estudiantes

  4. Soil carbon stocks in response to management changes due to vinasse application in sugarcane production in southeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes Zani, Caio; Simoes Barneze, Arlete; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    application at 1 m depth were 117.23 Mg ha-1 and 126.92 Mg ha-1, and at 0.3 m depth we found 50.34 Mg ha-1 and 55.54 Mg ha-1, respectively. It represented an increase 8.3% and 10.3% in soil C stocks in areas with vinasse application at 1 m and 0.3 m soil depth. This information may be used as a basis for public policies decision which dealing of the land use and global warming. The scientific information obtained in this research will be included in carbon footprint calculation of ethanol production and its use as biofuel. References Ellert B.H., Bettany J.R. 1995. Calculation of organic matter and nutrients stored in soils under contrasting management regimes. Can. J. Soil Sci. 75:529-538. Six J., Ogle S.M., Breidt F.J., Conant R.T., Mosier A.R., Paustian K. 2004. The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practiced in the long term. Glob. Chang. Biol. 10:155-160. Soares L.H.B., Alves B.J.R., Urquiaga S., Boddey R.M. 2009. Mitigação das emissões de gases efeito estufa pelo uso de etanol da cana-de-açúcar produzido no Brasil. Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica, RJ. 14p. (Circular Técnica, 27).

  5. The modulating effect of royal jelly consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Rafat, Navid; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Shahidi, Maryam; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi

    2016-01-01

    The present work was designed to assess the radioprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained on days 0, 4, 7, and 14 of the study from six healthy male volunteers taking a 1000 mg RJ capsule orally per day for 14 consecutive days. On each sampling day, all collected whole blood samples were divided into control and irradiated groups which were then exposed to the selected dose of 4 Gy X-ray. Percentage of apoptotic cells (Ap %) was evaluated for all samples immediately after irradiation (Ap0) and also after a 24 h postirradiation incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2 (Ap24) by the use of neutral comet assay. Concerning Ap0, collected data demonstrated that the percentage of apoptotic cells in both control and irradiated groups did not significantly change during the study period. However, with respect to Ap24, the percentage of apoptotic cells in irradiated groups gradually reduced during the experiment, according to which a significant decrease was found after 14 days RJ consumption (P = 0.002). In conclusion, the present study revealed the protective role of 14 days RJ consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

  6. Membrane Estrogen Receptor Alpha Targeting and its Association with SHC in Regulating Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    estrogen. Apoptosis 2002, 8: 55-60. "* Song RX, Santen RJ, Kumar R, Liana L, Jeng MH, Masamura S and Yue W. Adaptive mechanisms induced by long-term...MCPHERSON, LIANA ADAM, YONGDE BAO, MARGARET SHUPNIK, RAKESH KUMAR, AND RICHARD J. SANTEN Departments of Internal Medicine (R.X.-D.S., R.A.M., M.S

  7. Transforming Censored Samples and Testing Fit.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    independent U(0,1) sample. Any fixed permutation of this independent -1 sample could then be transformed with R . Theoretically this is a valid...Fit Techniques. New York: Marcel Dekker. [2] Dudewicz, R.J. and Van der Meulan, E.C., (1981). Entropy based tests of uniformity. J. Amer. Statist. Assoc

  8. Postscript: A Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, William

    1972-01-01

    Argues that, as a total group, those who are, or should be, or must become concerned about the current thrust against equality are capable of and should inject this issue into the forthcoming election; that Presidential candidates must be forced to come to close grips with the threat to fragile American egalitarian principles. (RJ)

  9. Development of Intelligent Method for Differential Diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Dept...Development in a Grammatical SLI boy: Modularity and Innateness, Journal of Neurolinguistics 10, (1997) 75-107. [8] J.P. Craiger, D.F. Goodman, R.J

  10. Application of a Granular Mineral-Based Hemostatic Agent (QuikClot) to Reduce Blood Loss After Grade V Liver Injury in Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    tion of tiletamine hydrochloride (HCl) and zolazepam HCl (Telazol, Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, IA), anesthe- sia was induced by mask using...Demceva M, Vournakis J, Finkielsztein S, Connolly RJ. Comparison of poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (P-GlcNAc) with absorbable collagen (Actifoam) and fibrin

  11. Report of the Twenty-First Annual Round Table Meeting on Linguistics and Languages Studies [Bilingualism and Language Contact: Anthropological, Linguistic, Psychological, and Sociological Aspects].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alatis, James E., Ed.

    This report contains 23 papers dealing with various aspects of bilingualism: E. Haugen, "Linguistics and Dialinguistics"; R.J. DiPietro, "The Discovery of Universals in Multilingualism"; J. Macnamara, "Bilingualism and Thought"; J. A. Fishman, "The Politics of Bilingual Education"; V. John, "Cognitive Development in the Bilingual Child"; D. Hymes,…

  12. Vengo del Valle: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casavantes, Edward

    1972-01-01

    The second of two articles concerning a program designed to train migrant, semi-skilled, and unskilled Mexican American workers for stable, well-paying jobs. The first article appeared in the Summer 1971 issue of Civil Rights Digest," volume 4, number 3. (RJ)

  13. Restorative Justice in U.S. Schools: Summary Findings from Interviews with Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guckenburg, Sarah; Hurley, Nancy; Persson, Hannah; Fronius, Trevor; Petrosino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of a larger body of work by the WestEd Justice and Prevention Research Center focusing on restorative justice (RJ) as an alternative to traditional responses to student misbehavior in schools across the United States. This work seeks to document the current breadth of evidence on the subject, provide a more comprehensive…

  14. Test instrumentation evaluates electrostatic hazards in fluid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, L. H.; Henry, R.; Krebs, D.

    1967-01-01

    RJ-1 fuel surface potential is measured with a probe to determine the degree of hazard originating from static electricity buildup in the hydraulic fluid. The probe is mounted in contact with the fluid surface and connected to an electrostatic voltmeter.

  15. TV Versus Black Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Hazel V.

    1973-01-01

    Argues that black media persons must adopt a plan of action involving commitment to using the cultural aspect of the medium as a swaddling cloth for economic and political considerations; they must embark on a program of consciously and conscientiously incorporating these aspects into every presentation they broadcast. (Author/RJ)

  16. Cell Adhesion, Signaling and Myosin in Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    calmodulin-binding myosins. Trends Cell Bio 5:310- 316. 4. de Lanerolle, P. and Paul, R.J. (1991) Myosin phosphorylation/ dephosphorylation and...muscle myosin heavy chain is phosphorylated in intact cells by casein kinase II on a serine near the carboxyl terminus. J. Bio. Chem., 265:17876-17882 10

  17. Mjollnir Rotational Line Scan Diagnostics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-19

    dramatically. This has been verified independently at Aerospace in recent experiments by Bernard .2 0 Careful tuning with DF could not reduce the power...Kerstetter, J. Mol. Spectry., U, 77 (1970). 14. W.F. Herget, W.E. Deeds, N.M. Gailar, R.J. Lovell , and A.H. Nielsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 52, 1113 (1962

  18. Joule Heating Resistance Can Differ from Ohmic Resistance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saslow, Wayne M.

    1998-03-01

    For slow, steady discharge of a voltaic cell with more than one active charge-carrier, the cell's Joule heating resistance RJ differs from its Ohmic resistance R. Here RJ is determined by volume integration over the local rate of heating, J_1^2/σ1 + J_2^2/σ2 +dots (J1 is the part of the electric current due to carrier #1, σ1 is its conductivity). RJ involves only the current-carrying ions, whereas R=Δ V/I involves all of the ions because all ions contribute to the electric field and voltage Δ V across the cell. We explicitly study a well-charged lead-acid cell(W.M.Saslow, Phys.Rev.Lett. 76), 4849 (1996) and a Zn-Cu cell.(See Sect.8.1 of manuscript at http://physics.tamu.edu/ )saslow R/RJ can be greater than or less than unity.

  19. International Conference on Numerical Grid Generation in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-30

    Sao Vicente 225 Washington, D.C. 20059 22453 Rio de Janerlo-- RJ BRA A.S. Dvinsky Haiqing Gong Creare Inc. University of Delaware Etna Road P.O. Box...Fulselage- Mounted Nacelle 77S /Pylon Configuration N. D. Halsey Zonal Grid Generation for Fighter Aircraft 785 E. H. Atta Geometric Modelling of

  20. Thematic Patterns in Baldwin's Essays: A Study in Chaos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Eugene

    1972-01-01

    Describes how James Baldwin in his essays unravels the complexities of the present--complexities which involve the history and projected future of blacks, as well as their turbulent present. Baldwin's vision is not of a monolithic society but of tranquility within duality, an acceptance of two-ness in American society. (RJ)

  1. Smallpox Vaccination is Not Associated with Infertility in a Healthy Young Adult Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Rev 2002; 24:91-101. 46. Speroff L. The effect of aging on fertility. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 1994; 6:115-20. 47. Fisch H, Golden RJ, Libersen GL, et...Andre KA. Race, age, and cesarean delivery in a military population. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 88:530-3. 51. Magann EF, Winchester MI, Carter DP, Martin JN

  2. Toward a Better Understanding of First Language Vocabulary Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the first language (L1) vocabulary knowledge in a large-scale sample (n = 70) of second-generation Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel. The interest in this research population follows from the unique demographic, sociocultural, linguistic, and psychological distinctiveness of RJ immigration in Israel.…

  3. 76 FR 50737 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... direct-to-consumer advertising,'' International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 4(3... experimental investigation,'' Journal of Consumer Research, 14(4), 483-494, 1988; Harris, R.J., ``Comprehension... public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on research...

  4. Modulus Ratio and Joint Factor Concepts to Predict Rock Mass Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, T.; Latha, G. Madhavi; Sitharam, T. G.

    2017-02-01

    The commonly adopted rock mass classifications, namely RMR, Q and GSI, are used to estimate compressive strength and modulus of rock masses. These values have been examined as per modulus ratio concept, M rj , for their reliability. The design parameters adopted in some of the recent case studies based on these classifications indicate that the M rj values for rock masses are higher than those of the corresponding intact rocks. The joint factor, J f, which is defined as a weakness coefficient in rock mass suggests that modulus ratio of rock mass ( M rj ) has to be less than the modulus ratio of the corresponding intact rock ( M ri ), on the basis of extensive experimental evidence. With joint factor, compressive strength, elastic modulus, cohesion and friction angle were estimated and applied in the analyses of a few cases. The predictions of deformations with this approach agreed well with the field measurements by adapting equivalent continuum approach. The modulus ratio concept is considered to present a unified classification for intact rocks and rock masses. Soil-rock boundary, standup time in under ground excavations and also penetration rate of TBM estimates have been linked to M rj .

  5. Protective Role of PI3-kinase/Akt/eNOS Signaling in Mechanical Stress Through Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Mouse Lung

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    81. 6 Iwakiri Y. Tsai MH. McCabe TJ. Gratton JP. Fulton D. Groszmann RJ. et al. Phosphorylation of eNOS initiates excessive NO production in early...Crit care Med 2008; 177(Abstracts issue): A760. 21 Gratton JP. Morales-Ruiz M. Kureishi Y. Fulton D. Walsh K. Sessa WC. Akt down-regulation of p38

  6. Perhaps the Twain Shall Meet...: Ecology and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickeson, Steve

    1972-01-01

    Focuses on the hither to divergent race/poverty movement and the ecology crusade and examines new relationships to see just where there is convergence between the two issues, where there is conflict, and where is still the traditional indifference. (RJ)

  7. Psychiatric Diagnoses and Punishment for Misconduct: The Effects of PTSD in Combat-Developed Marines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-25

    journals or any BioMed Central journal, go to http://www.biomedcentral.com/info/authors/ BMC Psychiatry © 2010 Highfill-McRoy et al. , licensee BioMed ...Psychol 1989;45:860-67. 12. Rothberg JM, Koshes RJ, Shanahan J, Christman K: Desert shield deployment and social problems on a U.S. Army combat support

  8. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Cambridge Primary Review: A Response to R. J. Campbell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to R.J. Campbell's critique of the "Cambridge Primary Review," which was published in the autumn of 2009. The author argues that Campbell's description of the "Review's" central proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking and inadequately theorised" is so misjudged as to call for a…

  9. Epidemiology of Modern Battlefield Colorectal Trauma: A Review of 977 Coalition Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiology of modern battlefield colorectal trauma: A review of 977 coalition casualties Sean C. Glasgow, MD, Scott R. Steele, MD, James E. Duncan...management of colon and rectal injuries in the forward areas. Ann Surg. 1945;122:398Y407. 2. Welling DR, Hutton JE, Minken SL, Place RJ, Burris DG

  10. REVISING EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR THE DERIVATIONS OF AQUATIC LIFE AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Henry, T.R., H.E. Bell, C.G. Delos, R.J. Erickson, K.M. Kubena and F.L. Mayer. In press. Revising EPA's Guidelines for the Derivation of Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. ...

  11. TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT. J Gallagher1, J Inmon1, S Schlaegle2, A Levine2, T Rogers3, J Scott1, F Green4, M Schenker5, K Pinkerton5 1NHEERL, US-EPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2RJ Lee Group Inc, Monroeville, Pa, USA; ...

  12. Damping Characteristics of Metal Matrix Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-25

    and A. Granato, "Dislocations and Mechanical Properties of Crystals," (ed. by J.C. Fisher, W.G. Johnston, R. Thomson and T. Vreeland, Jr., p. 425...Press, San Francisco, CA, pp 490-491, 1984. 10-6 M Vogelsang, RJ. Ars nault, and PLM . Ficher: "An In-Situ HVEM Study of Dislocation Generation at AI/SiC

  13. Quantifying Biomarkers of Liver Damage Using Shotgun Proteomics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    model hepatotoxin for intrahepatic cholestasis [1-3] . Although the mechanism of ANIT- induced hepatotoxicity is not completely understood, the...ANIT hepatotoxicity [6, 7]. Reactive oxygen species have also been implicated as a mechanism of ANIT- induced cholangiocyte apoptosis [8], and...REFERENCES 1. Capizzo, F. and R.J. Roberts, -naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)- induced hepatotoxicity and disposition in

  14. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Affective Meanings of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frances M.; Osgood, Charles E.

    1973-01-01

    Color data from the Osgood et al. 23-culture semantic differential study of affective meanings reveal cross-cultural similarities in feelings about colors. The concept RED is affectively quite salient; BLACK and GREY are bad, and WHITE, BLUE, and GREEN are good; YELLOW, WHITE, and GREY are weak; RED and BLACK are strong. (RJ)

  15. 78 FR 58960 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 series airplanes and Model Avro 146-RJ series airplanes. This proposed...

  16. 77 FR 20572 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Model Avro 146-RJ airplanes. This... information identified in this proposed AD, contact BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Limited, Customer...

  17. In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Three Fatty Acids from Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Zheng; Zheng, Yu-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-H2DA), 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10-HDAA), and sebacic acid (SEA) are the three major fatty acids in royal jelly (RJ). Previous studies have revealed several pharmacological activities of 10-H2DA and 10-HDAA, although the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms by which SEA acts are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated and compared the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of these RJ fatty acids in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and SEA had potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the release of the major inflammatory-mediators, nitric oxide, and interleukin-10, and only SEA decreased TNF-α production. Several key inflammatory genes have also been modulated by these RJ fatty acids, with 10-H2DA showing distinct modulating effects as compared to the other two FAs. Furthermore, we found that these three FAs regulated several proteins involved in MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings provide additional references for using RJ against inflammatory diseases. PMID:27847405

  18. Statistical analysis of earthquakes after the 1999 MW 7.7 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake based on a modified Reasenberg-Jones model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the temporal-spatial hazard of the earthquakes after the 1999 September 21 MW = 7.7 Chi-Chi shock in a continental region of Taiwan. The Reasenberg-Jones (RJ) model (Reasenberg and Jones, 1989, 1994) that combines the frequency-magnitude distribution (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) and time-decaying occurrence rate (Utsu et al., 1995) is conventionally employed for assessing the earthquake hazard after a large shock. However, it is found that the b values in the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes in the study region dramatically decreased from background values after the Chi-Chi shock, and then gradually increased up. The observation of a time-dependent frequency-magnitude distribution motivated us to propose a modified RJ model (MRJ) to assess the earthquake hazard. To see how the models perform on assessing short-term earthquake hazard, the RJ and MRJ models were separately used to sequentially forecast earthquakes in the study region. To depict the potential rupture area for future earthquakes, we further constructed relative hazard (RH) maps based on the two models. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves (Swets, 1988) finally demonstrated that the RH map based on the MRJ model was, in general, superior to the one based on the original RJ model for exploring the spatial hazard of earthquakes in a short time after the Chi-Chi shock.

  19. Effect of Horizontal-Tail Position on the Hinge Moments of an Unbalanced Rudder in Attitudes Simulating Spin Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-06-01

    and positions of horizontal tail. NACA TN No. 1337 -S1- HcriioniaJ- rau postr /on UP I ^ U k m A w Q V (6) y=zo°. -i -2 -^ r. Ö...Ö T \\© /s] jf rj -490 Honzo/)fa/- . F ra/t/es, ,. . . . (exten a&c/ fo\\ -ra// postr /on

  20. College Government. Coombe Lodge Report, Collection of Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    Five papers examine various facets of the new administrative structures of continuing education in England since 1970. Papers include: the chief administrative officer as college secretary (R.J. Stephens); the chief administrative officer and the academic board (A.M. Davis); the department head and the academic board (H.D. Law); decisionmaking and…

  1. Operating Room Telephone Microbial Flora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-02

    from telephones to hands and from hands to other skin surfaces. Rusin et al. demonstrated that Micrococcus luteus (M. luteus ) can be transferred from...Micrococcus luteus endocarditis: case report and review of the literature. Zentralbl Bakteriol, 1995. 282(4): p. 431-5. 69. Oudiz, R.J., et al

  2. Viscoelasticity and Creep Recovery of Polyimide Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED MASSACHUSETTS INTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY VLSI PUBLICATIONS AD- A225 475 OT1C rj u COPY VLSI Memo No. 90...strain & cr and the creep deflection dcr for different choices of the constants A, n, and m in the ranges of the measured displacements. Fig. 7 shows

  3. [List of the type species of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, Nematocera) deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Felippe-Bauer, M; Oliveira Sd, S

    2001-11-01

    A list of all type specimens of the Family Ceratopogonidae, present in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. This list includes the genera Bahiahelea, Culicoides, Dasyhelea, Downeshelea, Forcipomyia, Leptoconops, Mallochohelea, Monohelea, Neobezzia, Palpomyia and Sphaerohelea.

  4. Mass Spectrometric Assignment of Leu/Ile in Neuropeptides From Single Neurohemal Organ Preparations of Insets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Cerstiaens A, Van der Horst D, Harthoorn L, et al. Peptidomics of the pars intercerebralis-corpus cardiacum complex of the migratory locust, Locusta ... migratoria . Eur J Biochem 2001;268:1929–39. 2156 R.J. Nachman et al. / Peptides 26 (2005) 2151–2156 [4] Clynen E, Huybrechts J, De Loof A, Schoofs L

  5. Human Recombinant Decay-Accelerating Factor (DAF) Increases Survival and Limits Tissue Injury After Hemorrhagic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Injury after Resuscitation from Hemorrhagic Shock, J. Trauma, 46:224–233. Soderstrom, CA. and Brumback , RJ . 1986: Early Care of The Patient with...Soderstrom and Brumback , 1986). Following hemorrhage and/or resuscitation, intestinal injury and the initiation of an inflammatory response play a major

  6. Personality Hardiness as a Predictor of Officer Cadet Leadership Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    References: 1995; Salovey & Mayer , 1990). Bartone, P.T. (1999). Hardiness protects against war- Additional work is needed to evaluate the related...States Military Academy, West Point, New York. Salovey , P. & Mayer , J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Contrada, R.J

  7. The Militarily Useful Clean Product Tanker: Sealift Component of the DoD Petroleum Distribution System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    reflects an established fleet arrying less a-d less imported oil). overall, the general catlco for future 0i4 ccnsump- tion (and therefore tanker...rj. S. ports. B. THE ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE EXPORT ISSUE A second legislative issue, zu.rennly befor the U. S. Congre ss, involvBs -:he poter :-ia

  8. THE GRK4 SUBFAMILY OF G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASES: ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, GENE ORGANIZATION, AND SEQUENCE CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The GRK4 subfamily of G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Alternative splicing, gene organization, and sequence conservation.

    Premont RT, Macrae AD, Aparicio SA, Kendall HE, Welch JE, Lefkowitz RJ.

    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke Univer...

  9. The Life of White Ethnics: Toward More Effective Working-Class Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Irving M.; Herman, Judith

    1972-01-01

    Contends that if issues are articulated, work is done, are communities developed with sensitivity--without hardening of organizational forms or premature alliances between fearful groups--then the ethnic factor in working-class life can be an important tool for creating both individual fulfillment and social unity. (RJ)

  10. Supplementation with major royal jelly proteins increases lifespan, feeding and fecundity in Drosophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major royal-jelly proteins (MRJPs) are the main constituents responsible for the specific physiological role of royal jelly (RJ) in honeybees. Male and female Drosophila flies were fed diets containing either no MRJPs (A) or casein (B) at 1.25% (w/w) of diet or MRJPs at 1.25% (C), 2.50% (D), or ...

  11. Restorative Justice as Reflective Practice and Applied Pedagogy on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinker, Jeremy A.; Jonason, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) is both a methodology for dealing with conflict and a process for modeling more positive human relations after social harm. As both method and process, the benefits of developing restorative practices on college campuses go well beyond just the many positive community-oriented outcomes of facilitated conflict resolution…

  12. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-30

    Seismol. Soc. Am. 66, 1873-1879 (1976), DDC AD-A040520/9. 159. R.J. O’Connell and A.M. Dziewonski, "Excitation of the Chandler Wobble by Large Earthquakes...for the excitation of the Chandler motion of the Earth was compared with the calculated contribution due to large earthquakes. A good correlation was

  13. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICALLY BASED DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: A WORKSHOP REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of biologically based dose-response modeling for developmental toxicity: a workshop report.

    Lau C, Andersen ME, Crawford-Brown DJ, Kavlock RJ, Kimmel CA, Knudsen TB, Muneoka K, Rogers JM, Setzer RW, Smith G, Tyl R.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL...

  14. A Class of Sequential Input Adaptive Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    98128022 - 278032] and + + .3) 1/2]1/3 rRjI I(* 27uDitrjicltiOnl/ -- 3- 2 a 3 12 1/ 7 . [ - T + 98282 3 - 28 The rots f comlex umber z =reje n...response. Although the tracking responses in Figure 4 were computed as sequences of transient responses, they essentially represent steady-state

  15. USE OF THE RIBONUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAY FOR IDENTIFYING CHEMICALS WHICH ELLICIT HYPERSENSITIVITY RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of the Ribonuclease Protection Assay (RPA) for Identifying Chemicals that Elicit Hypersensitivity Responses. L.M. Plitnick, 1, D.M. Sailstad, 2, and R.J. Smialowicz, 2 1UNC, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC and 2USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC.

    The incidence of aller...

  16. CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL SENSITIZERS: APPLICATION OF THE RIBONUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAY AND EFFECT OF DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytokine Profiling for Chemical Sensitizers: Application of the Ribonuclease Protection Assay and Effect of Dose. L.M. Plitnick1, S.E. Loveless3, G.S. Ladics3, M.P. Holsapple4, M.J. Selgrade2, D.M. Sailstad2 and R.J. Smialowicz2. 1UNC, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC a...

  17. Reporter Lead-In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race Relations Reporter, 1973

    1973-01-01

    News briefs relating to misinformation on racial conflict in Boston; a drive for impeachment of an Indianapolis judge who ordered the implementation of a new desegregation for the city; slavery in Florida; protection for Arizona Indians from the floods; the coming into the limelight of Miles College, Birmingham, Ala.; and other. (RJ)

  18. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory Images Respiratory system References Effros RM, Swenson ER. Acid-base balance. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  19. Mediastinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent this complication. Alternative Names Chest infection Images Respiratory system References Cheng GS, Varghese TK, Park DR. Pneumomediastinum and mediastinitis. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray ... of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  20. Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the elbow Sarcoidosis on the nose and forehead Respiratory system References Judson MA, Morgenthau AS, Baughman RP. Sarcoidosis. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  1. Pleural effusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluid on the lung; Pleural fluid Images Lungs Respiratory system Pleural cavity References Broaddus VC, Light RW. Pleural effusion. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  2. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder. Alternative Names Pulmonary vaso-occlusive disease Images Respiratory system References Chin K, Channick RN. Pulmonary hypertension. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  3. Industrial bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy Bronchitis and normal condition in tertiary bronchus Respiratory system References Lemière C, Vandenplas O. Asthma in the workplace. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  4. Viral pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Pneumonia - viral; Walking pneumonia - viral Images Lungs Respiratory system References Lee FE, Treanor JJ. Viral infections. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  5. Respiratory alkalosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... shortness of breath. Alternative Names Alkalosis - respiratory Images Respiratory system References Effros RM, Swenson ER. Acid-base balance. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  6. Chemical pneumonitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemicals. Alternative Names Aspiration pneumonia - chemical Images Lungs Respiratory system References Blanc PD. Acute responses to toxic exposures. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  7. Metastatic cancer to the lung

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray Lung with squamous cell cancer - CT scan Respiratory system References Arenberg DA, Pickens A. Metastatic malignant tumors. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  8. Valence Specific Laterality Effects in Prosody: Expectancy Account and the Effects of Morphed Prosody and Stimulus Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    The majority of studies have demonstrated a right hemisphere (RH) advantage for the perception of emotions. Other studies have found that the involvement of each hemisphere is valence specific, with the RH better at perceiving negative emotions and the LH better at perceiving positive emotions [Reuter-Lorenz, P., & Davidson, R.J. (1981)…

  9. Getting Nowhere: Programmed Class Stagnation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Samuel

    1972-01-01

    Contends that American schools have evolved not as a part of pursuit of equality but rather to meet the needs of capitalist employers and to provide a mechanism for social control in the interests of political stability; the school system is pervaded by class inequalities which have shown little sign of diminishing over the last half-century. (RJ)

  10. Effect of Major Royal Jelly Proteins on Spatial Memory in Aged Rats: Metabolomics Analysis in Urine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Liu, Fang; Wan, Jian-Bo; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Shen, Li-Rong

    2017-04-10

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by worker honeybees is the sole food for the queen bee throughout her life as well as the larvae of worker bees for the first 3 days after hatching. Supplementation of RJ in the diet has been shown to increase spatial memory in rodents. However, the key constituents in RJ responsible for improvement of cognitive function are unknown. Our objective was to determine if the major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) extracted from RJ can improve the spatial memory of aged rats. The spatial memory assay using the Morris water maze test was administered once to rats after a 14-week feeding. Metabolomics analysis based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was conducted to examine the differences in compounds from urine. Aged male rats fed MRJPs showed improved spatial memory up to 48.5% when compared to the control male aged rats fed distilled water. The metabolite pattern of the MRJPs-fed aged rats was regressed to that of the young rats. Compounds altered by MRJPs were mapped to nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, cysteine taurine metabolism, and energy metabolism pathways. In summary, MRJPs may improve spatial memory and possess the potential for prevention of cognitive impairment via the cysteine and taurine metabolism and energy metabolism pathways in aged rats.

  11. Rapid Detection of Mycobacteria in Patients with HIV Infection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-30

    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strains by restriction endonuclease analysis and ENA hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:1591-1596. 5. Chiodini, R.J...1990. Characterization of Mvcobacterium paratuberculosis and organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex by restriction polymorphism of the rim gene

  12. The Leader AZIMUTH Check: Factor Structure of Common Competencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    information and distort the factor structure (King, Fogg , & Downey, 2005; Schriesheim & Eisenbach, 1995). Simply put, factor analysis will clump...Research Institute. King, C.V., Fogg , R.J., & Downey, R.G. (2004, April). The positives and negatives of negatively worded items in scales. Paper

  13. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, CREOSOTE WOOD ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... p' 'i~r -t,u· IIU~ !-.t~rj ; "''' c j ~~ '0. 22;': •• e t~"'\\foIe'c·..,· c! ,~.~ F- ."..f:lt al~vt J'~j'f ~~, 2 ~,,,,r. '~:e~ 01'"", I' to ~,--:I bo::,;) em:l.'''q .... ,d. ...

  14. CYTOKINE MRNA PROFILES FOR ISOCYANATES WITH KNOWN AND UNKNOWN POTENTIAL TO INDUCE RESPIRATORY SENSITIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytokine mRNA Profiles for Isocyanates with Known and Unknown Potential to Induce Respiratory Sensitization. Plitnick, L.M., Loveless, S.E., Ladics, G.S., Holsapple, M.P., Smialowicz, R.J., Woolhiser, M.R., Anderson, P.K., Smith, C., Sailstad, D.M. and Selgrade, M.J.K (2002) Tox...

  15. 3D scientific visualization of reservoir simulation post-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, M.C.; Miranda-Filho, D.N.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a 3D visualization software designed at PETROBRAS and TecGraf/PUC-RJ in Brazil for the analysis of reservoir engineering post-processing data. It offers an advanced functional environment on graphical workstations with intuitive and ergonomic interface. Applications to real reservoir models show the enriching features of the software.

  16. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, CUPRINOL STAIN AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... 1(1 'S fr!)f', !fIt.' S~J H '-, " ·1,", rl'Cf.JdLflq (1\\1'( :[i"." l'.( 'I:, fl1.1y;, ,() HIo!, tit'" COIOf A Silfllpi(' : :U~;'ll .,: ,' fl ·It.'fl(jl!d r).J nl1t UStl .. rl ... ' :". tit , . " ...

  17. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 11/18/1982

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... _lth a: ,:;:cod machine adJII",t<>d tf} rj,'I1\\'(r 3. fin'" ah;t or 'og.'1 tor rapl~ c()ntf"ol tit l"\\ouot;{> flies. ("I..IJt. fUI'",:. ljn:lt~. ... ur tIt I \\"'rt f '""~I ~pr;l\\" I .. ' .. k ...

  18. A Decentralized Team Decision Problem with an Exponential Cost Criterion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-23

    the expectation operation in (12) is explicitly written as (the integral sign denotes the implied, multiple integration) { x + Z R.(D.H.x + D.vi + C...dX (35) Therefore, ignoring scalar coefficients which can be removed from under the integral sign , (27) is finally reduced to LjY1 -LGj + RjDjz3:e . 3

  19. List of ARI Conference Papers, Journal Articles, Books, and Book Chapters: 1982-1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Antonio, TX. Simon, R., Risser , D.T., & Leedom, D.K. (1990, October). A model for evaluation and training in aircrew coordination and cockDit resource...simulation exercises . Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York. Sulzen, R.H., Whitmarsh, P.J., & Hart, R.J

  20. Technology, the Columbus Effect, and the Third Revolution in Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    India (and a lucrative spice route). Instead, he (re-) discovered what became a new world for Europeans. Such a result typifies technological progress...mann.htm. Noja, G.P. (1991). DVI and system integration: A further step in ICAI /IMS Technology. In R.J. Seidel and P.R. Chatelier (Eds.), Advanced

  1. Guanidino Groups Greatly Enhance the Action of Antimicrobial Peptidomimetics Against Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-28

    Chen, R.J. Doerksen, J. Kaplan, P.J. Carroll , M.L. Klein, W.F. DeGrado, De novo design of biomimetic antimicrobial polymers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S...J.J. Diaz-Mochon, L. Bialy, M. Bradley , Full orthogonality between Dde and Fmoc: the direct synthesis of PNA–peptide conjugates, Org. Lett. 6 (2004

  2. Oxygen therapy - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can change the shape of the nose. Mechanical ventilators have a number of risks. Talk to ... MacIntyre NR. Principles of mechanical ventilation. In: Mason RJ, Murray JF, Broaddus VC, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. ...

  3. Fair Play: Teaching the Logical Fallacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Susan

    This paper describes a freshman composition course which looks at racism and sexism in science, and within which the instructor uses a 1989 "Atlantic Monthly" piece by R.J. Herrnstein, co-author with Charles Murray of "The Bell Curve." In his article, Herrnstein argues that the intelligence of the nation is declining because…

  4. Identification and Characterization of Distinct Apoptotic Pathways in Cancer Cells Activated in Response to Treatment with Different Anti-Cancer Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    fuller understanding of the role of apoptosis in real tumor progression such as breast cancer and will lead to the developing new strategies for anti...382. Fagan, R.J., Lazaris-Karatzas, A., Sonenberg, N., and Rozen , R. Translational control of ornithine aminotransferase. J Biol Chem 266, 16518-16523

  5. Verbal Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-31

    Psicologia , 4(3), 183-198. 94 Guyote, M.J. and Sternberg, R.J. (1981). A transitive-chain theory of syllogistic reasoning. Cognitive Psychology, 13(4), 461...personal connections. Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 39-59. Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard

  6. Motivation and Outcomes for University Students in a Restorative Justice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher Dahl, Meghan; Meagher, Peter; Vander Velde, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    A restorative justice program (RJP) was developed at a large university in the housing student conduct office. Students accused of misconduct who participated in a restorative justice (RJ) conference completed surveys regarding their motivations and perceived outcomes. Results showed that students who were motivated to make reparations to others…

  7. Identification of PVK/CAP2b Neuropeptides From Single Neurohemal Organs of the Stable Fly and Horn Fly via MALDI-TOF/TOF Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    accumulation of neuropeptides in an insect: FMRFamide related peptides in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana . Eur J Neurosci 2004;20:1499–513. [23...American cockroach, Periplaneta americana . Peptides 1998;19:801–9. [24] Predel R, Russell WK, Tichy SE, Russell DH, Nachman RJ. Peptidomics of CNS

  8. Conserving Shorebirds on Department of Defense Lands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    laboratory” for study of the potential impacts of human disturbance. Ongoing monitoring of snowy plovers has shown that reproductive success is...of coastal agricultural fields in Virginia as foraging habitat by shorebirds. Wilson Bul- letin 108: 783-796. Safran , R.J., Isola, C.R., Colwell

  9. Turbulent Coolant Dispersion in the Wake of a Turbine Vane Trailing Edge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Asymmet- ric dispersion in this region indicated that longitudinal vortices shed from the coolant injection structures played a dominant role in the...Wedding, M.T. Draney, C.J. Elkins, D.W. Parker , R. Wicker, C.A. Taylor, R.J. Herfkens, and N.J. Pelc. Time- resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast mri

  10. Physiology of Exercise in the Cold

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    working i 25.5"C water, Rapp GM. Convection coefficients of man in a forensic area ofbreathing air or helium tri-mix. Jourial of Applied Physiology thermal...Jones RJ, Lahiri A, Cashman PMM, Dore C, Raftery EB. Left man at rest and during exercise. Medicina dello Sport 24: 223- ventricular function during

  11. Trends in Black Migration from 1863 to 1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Home C.

    1973-01-01

    Traces the migration of blacks broken into the following time periods: (1) from 1863 to 1900; (2) from 1910 to 1930, with attention to the conditions which prompted the mass exodus that began in 1910; (3) from 1930 to 1950; (4) from 1950 to 1960, with attention to the future migration of blacks. (RJ)

  12. Book review: old fields: dynamics and restoration of abandoned farmland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 volume, “Old Fields: Dynamics and Restoration of Abandoned Farmland”, edited by VA Cramer and RJ Hobbs and published by the Society for Ecological Restoration International (Island Press), is a valuable attempt to synthesize a dozen case studies on agricultural abandonment from all of the ...

  13. A Scale-Independent Clustering Method with Automatic Variable Selection Based on Trees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    3 Figure 3. Tree with deviance in large circles and leaf number in small circles (from Buttrey, 2006...to thank my cohort and fellow Operations Research students for getting me through this program. RJ, Trish, Alok, Brennan, Hamadi, Cyrus, Dave, and...between observations, and as described by Faraway (2006) trees are unaffected by linear transformations. Since we scale the resulting deviances anyway

  14. Nanoelectronics, Nanophotonics, and Nanomagnetics: Report of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Workshop February 11-13, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Level Integration Participants: George Bourianoff , April Brown, Steve Brueck, Altaf Carim, Richard Kiehl, Steven Levitan, Liu Feng, David Mackie, Richard...of Utah George I. Bourianoff Intel Corp Gail J. Brown Air Force Research Laboratory April S. Brown Duke University Steven R.J. Brueck University of

  15. Magnetic field studies at jupiter by voyager 2: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Lepping, R P; Burlaga, L F; Behannon, K W; Neubauer, F M

    1979-11-23

    Data from the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 2 have yielded on inbound trajectory observations of multiple crossings of the bow shock and magnetosphere near the Jupiter-sun line at radial distances of 99 to 66 Jupiter radii (RJ) and 72 to 62 RJ, respectively. While outbound at a local hour angle of 0300, these distances increase appreciably so that at the time of writing only the magnetopause has been observed between 160 and 185 RJ. These results and the magnetic field geometry confirm the earlier conclusion from Voyager I studies that Jupiter has an enormous magnetic tail, approximately 300 to 400 RJ in diameter, trailing behind the planet with respect to the supersonic flow of the solar wind. Addi- tional observations of the distortion of the inner magnetosphere by a concentrated plasma show a spatial merging of the equatorial magnetodisk current with the cur- rent sheet in the magnetic tail. The spacecraft passed within 62,000 kilometers of Ganymede (radius = 2,635 kilometers) and observed characteristic fluctuations in- terpreted tentatively as being due to disturbances arising from the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Ganymede.

  16. Prostate Expression Databases: Gene Expression Resources for Comparative Studies of Prostate Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    NKX3.1 (gift from Dr E. Gelmann, Georgetown University), AMACR (gift from Dr R.J. Wanders, Academic Medical Center, Amster- dam , Netherlands), mouse...independence and osseous metastasis, Prostate 44 (2000) 91–103 (101; 144(102)). [8] P. Liang, A.B. Pardee , Differential display of eukaryotic messenger

  17. Analysis of Novel Prostate Cancer Biomarkers and their Predictive Utility in an Active Surveillance Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Concomitant Chemoradiation by Either BID Irradiation Plus 5-Fluorouracil and Cisplatin or QD Irradiation Plus Gemcitabine Followed by Selective...Bladder Preservation and Gemcitabine/ Cisplatin Adjuvant Chemotherapy 2011-present P.I. Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Research Program - Physician...D, Lee RJ. Pathologic down-staging with gemcitabine and cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

  18. An Overview: Gospel Music Comes of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Horace C.

    1973-01-01

    Of all the musical contributions of the Afro-American to permeate world music in the last decade, gospel songs are undoubtedly the most influential. While the origins of this music lie in the churches of the rural South and ghettos of the urban North, it has now reached the ears of all. (Author/RJ)

  19. IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    IS THE DOSE-RESPONSE LINEAR OR NONLINEAR FOR GENOTOXIC EFFECTS?
    Preston, RJ. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    For considerations of cancer risk assessment from exposure to environmenta...

  20. Ultrawideband Radio Frequency (RF) Enhanced Electroporation for Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    34 Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting, June 2004, Washington, DC. 29 4) G. Chen, N. Chen, A.L. Garner, J. Kolb, R.J. Swanson, S. Beebe, R.P. Joshi...Induced Changes in HL-60 Dielectric Properties," Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting, June 2004, Washington, DC. 9) A. L. Garner, G. Chen, N

  1. Corrective 111 In Capromab Pendetide SPECT Image Reconstruction Methods for Improved Detection of Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    with compensation for attenuation and detector response (OSAD). The results in pink are from 25% lesion contrast with respect to background and the...Trans. Nucl. Sci., 1980. NS-27(3): p. 1137-1153. 10. Jaszczak, R.J., C.E. Floyd , Jr., and R.E. Coleman, Scatter Compensation Techniques For SPECT

  2. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID ACTIVITY IN THE FEMALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid activity in the female rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations.

    Goldman JM, Laws SC, Balchak SK, Cooper RL, Kavlock RJ.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National H...

  3. The Human Breast Cancer Cell DNA Synthesome Can Serve as a Novel In Vitro Model System for Studying the Mechanisms of Action of Anticancer Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    supplied by Dr Paulo R. R. Costa, Laboratorio de Quimica Bioorganica (LBQ), NPPN, University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. These...and Tumor Supressors May Finally Pay Off In a New Generation of More Specific, Less Toxic, Cancer Drugs. Science, 278:1036-1039. BECHTEL, P. E. et aL

  4. Participative Decision Making as a Method of Reducing Conflict in Defense Industry Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    Harvard Business Review , May-June, 1959. 28...U. Katz, R.L., ’Toward a More Effective Enterprise," Harvard Business Review , September-October, 1960. 12. Hackiman, J.R., Oldham, R.J., And Purdy... Business Review , July- August, 1962. 14. Myers, H.S., "Who Are Your Motivated Workers?," Harvard Business Review , January-February, 1964. 15. Ritti,

  5. Structural Technology Evaluation and Analysis Program (STEAP). Delivery Order 0046: Multiscale Modeling of Composite Structures Subjected to Cyclic Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    W ., and Fish, J., “A Multiscale Design System for Fatigue Life Prediction,” Int. J. Multiscale Com., 5:435–446, 2007. Approved for public release...1990. [33] Hellier, C.J., “Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation,” McGraw-Hill, 2001. [34] Hochhalter, J.D., Littlewood , D.J., Christ, Jr., R.J

  6. Pupils and Puppets Teach About Health: Students Concerned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Betty

    1972-01-01

    Describes the puppet shows created, produced, and performed by a group of 130 North and South Philadelphia high school students, Students Concerned with Public Health." Shows are part of health education course for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade children throughout the city on the dangers of alcohol, drugs, and cigarette smoking. (RJ)

  7. Preventing Injuries in the U.S. Military: The Process, Priorities, and Epidemiologic Evidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    prevention. (2) METHODS. Active Duty military personnel, who sought inpatient or outpatient treatment for one or more oral-maxillofacial...just mortality measures but also morbidity measures such as disabilities, hospital discharges, and visits for emergency and other outpatient treatment ...RJ, Fulco CD, and Liverman, CT, editors. 1999. Reducing the burden of injury: advancing prevention and treatment . Washington, DC: National

  8. Safety and Efficacy of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate for Prehospital Pain Control on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    oximetry recorded an oxygen saturation of 88% to 90%, this patient responded readily to stimulation, 2 L to 4 L of oxygen administered by nasal cannula...2008;11:643 648. 43. Hillier RJ, Aboud A, Thind G, Clark DI. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate: a novel analgesic agent for use in retinal

  9. Molecular Interactions with Many-Body Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-30

    359 (1981). R.J. Bartlett and G.D. Purvis, "Electron Correlation in Large Molecules with Many-Body Methods," Annals N.Y. Acadeny of Sciences 367, 62...the predominant criticism of NBPT /CCM has been the practical limitation to a single reference function, particularly in a region of bond breaking when

  10. Trophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ13C and δ15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ13C values. The highest δ15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ13C values, but similar δ15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  11. A critical examination of the possible application of zinc stable isotope ratios in bivalve mollusks and suspended particulate matter to trace zinc pollution in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Daniel; Machado, Wilson; Weiss, Dominik; Mulholland, Daniel S; Boaventura, Geraldo R; Viers, Jerome; Garnier, Jeremie; Dantas, Elton L; Babinski, Marly

    2017-04-09

    The application of zinc (Zn) isotopes in bivalve tissues to identify zinc sources in estuaries was critically assessed. We determined the zinc isotope composition of mollusks (Crassostrea brasiliana and Perna perna) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a tropical estuary (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil) historically impacted by metallurgical activities. The zinc isotope systematics of the SPM was in line with mixing of zinc derived from fluvial material and from metallurgical activities. In contrast, source mixing alone cannot account for the isotope ratios observed in the bivalves, which are significantly lighter in the contaminated metallurgical zone (δ(66)ZnJMC = +0.49 ± 0.06‰, 2σ, n = 3) compared to sampling locations outside (δ(66)ZnJMC = +0.83 ± 0.10‰, 2σ, n = 22). This observation suggests that additional factors such as speciation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation pathways (via solution or particulate matter) influence the zinc isotope composition of bivalves.

  12. Protective effect of royal jelly and green tea extracts effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Yapar, Kürşad; Cavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Oruç, Ertan; Yalçin, Emine

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of royal jelly (RJ) and green tea (GT) extracts on cisplatin (cDDP)-induced nephrotoxicity in adult albino mice. Albino mice were randomly divided into six groups: Group I (control) received a single intraperitoneal injection of isotonic saline (0.02 mL/g), Group II received a single intraperitoneal injection of cDDP (7 mg/kg of body weight), Group III received RJ (100 mg/kg of body weight), Group IV received GT (100 mg/kg of body weight), Group V received RJ (100 mg/kg of body weight) + cDDP (7 mg/kg of body weight), and Group VI received GT (100 mg/kg of body weight) + cDDP (7 mg/kg of body weight). The concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were evaluated. In addition, kidney samples were taken for determination of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. In addition, histopathological changes in kidneys were investigated. The results indicated that no significant differences in MDA, GSH, BUN, and creatinine levels were observed among the control group and groups treated with RJ alone and GT alone (P > .05). However, there was a significant increase in BUN and creatinine parameters after cDDP application in Groups II, V, and VI. The mice treated with only cDDP exhibited an increase in serum BUN and creatinine levels when compared to Groups V and VI (P < .05). Moreover, cDDP-induced oxidative damage caused a significant decrease in GSH levels and a significant increase in MDA levels in kidneys (P < .05). RJ and GT supplementation attenuated cDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, which was manifested by stopping the elevation in serum creatinine and BUN levels. Moreover, RJ and GT supplementation restored GSH content and MDA production levels in the kidney tissue following cDDP treatment (P < .05). These products were also effective in protecting against cDDP-induced tissue damage in mouse kidneys. In conclusion, 100 mg/kg of body weight doses of RJ and GT

  13. Comparative protective effects of royal jelly and cod liver oil against neurotoxic impact of tartrazine on male rat pups brain.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Galal, Azza A A; Elewa, Yaser H A

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the possible neurotoxic effect of tartrazine (T), an extensively used synthetic azo dye, as well as to determine the potential modulatory role of cod liver oil (CLO) or royal jelly (RJ) against such effects. For this purpose, thirty-six male rat pups were allocated into six groups. The 1st group received distilled water (control group), the 2nd group was given 300 mg RJ/kg bw (RJ group), the 3rd group was given 0.4 ml CLO/kg bw (CLO group), the 4th was given 500 mg T/kg bw (T group). The 5th group was given T concurrently with RJ (TRJ group) and the 6th group was given T concurrently with CLO (TCLO group), at the same doses as the former groups. All treatments were given orally for 30 consecutive days. The concentrations of different brain neurotransmitters, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) as well as the antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the brain homogenates. An immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral cortex was applied with the anti-ssDNA antibody (an apoptotic cell marker) to reveal the changes in brain structure. The T group revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of the brain neurotransmitters, a sharp shortage in the level of antioxidant biomarkers (super oxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione), a marked increase in malondialdehyde levels, and numerous apoptotic cells in the brain cortex compared with the other groups. Interestingly, all the previously mentioned parameters were almost retrieved in both the TRJ and TCLO groups compared to the T group. These results conclusively demonstrate that RJ and CLO administration provides sufficient protection against the ruinous effects of T on rat pups brain tissue function and structure.

  14. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products. PMID:22754143

  15. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products.

  16. Protective effect of royal jelly on fertility and biochemical parameters in bleomycin-‎induced male rats

    PubMed Central

    Amirshahi, Tayebeh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bleomycin (BL) is a glycopeptide antibiotic obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus which is routinely used for treatment of human cancers. Royal jelly (RJ) is a production from the hypo pharyngeal, mandibular and post cerebral glands of nurse bees. RJ consists of 66% water, 15% sugars, 5% lipids, and 13% proteins, essential amino acids and vitamins. Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rat. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male wistar rats (220±20gr) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10). Control group (CG) received normal saline 10 ml/kg twice a week with Intraperitoneal (I.P) for 48 days (0.3 ml/rat(. Royal Jelly group (RJG) received jelly (100 mg/kg daily) for 48 days orally. Bleomycin group (BLG) received BL (10 mg/kg twice a week) with I.P for 48 days. Royal Jelly+ Bleomycin group (RJ+BLG) received royal Jelly (100 mg/kg /day) orally concomitant with BL administration. Sperm count, motility, and viability were investigated and chromatin quality and DNA integrity were also analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were measured as well. Results: BL caused decline significantly (p<0.05) sperm count, sperm viability, motility as well as testosterone concentration compared to control group while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with damaged DNA and MDA concentration were announced in BL in comparison with CG and RJ+BLG. Royal jelly improved Bleomycin-induced toxicity on sperm parameters and testosterone and MDA concentrations. Conclusion: The present results support the idea that BL adversely affects sperm parameters and MDA and the RJ with antioxidant properties has positive effects on these parameters. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Tayebeh amirshahi) PMID:24799882

  17. Improvement in Serum Biochemical Alterations and Oxidative Stress of Liver and Pancreas following Use of Royal Jelly in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on serum biochemical alterations and oxidative stress status in liver and pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, thirty two male Wistar rats were divided into the following four groups (n=8/group): i. Control (C), ii. Diabetic (D), iii. Royal jelly (R), and iv. Royal jelly-treated diabetic (D/R) groups. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The RJ [100 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was administered orally for 42 days. Blood samples were used to determine serum levels of insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), total protein (TP), albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and fasting blood glucose (FBG). Also, the antioxidant status was evaluated by determining the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in liver and pancreas. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with P<0.05 as the significant level. Results STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a significant elevation in the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and FBG, whereas there was a significant decrease in serum levels of insulin, albumin, HDL-c and TP (P<0.05). Treatment of the diabetic rats with RJ restored the changes of the above parameters to their normal levels (P<0.05). In addition, RJ significantly improved reduced levels of FRAP and CAT as well as high MDA level in liver and pancreas (P<0.05). Conclusion RJ improves oxidative damage induced by STZ in the liver and pancreas of rats; therefore, it can be considered as an effective and alternative treatment for diabetes. PMID:27602318

  18. Quorum Sensing: a Transcriptional Regulatory System Involved in the Pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Ricky L.; DeShazer, David; Hines, Harry B.; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous gram-negative bacterial pathogens regulate virulence factor expression by using a cell density mechanism termed quorum sensing (QS). An in silico analysis of the Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 genome revealed that it encodes at least two luxI and four luxR homologues. Using mass spectrometry, we showed that wild-type B. mallei produces the signaling molecules N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone and N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone. To determine if QS is involved in the virulence of B. mallei, we generated mutations in each putative luxIR homologue and tested the pathogenicities of the derivative strains in aerosol BALB/c mouse and intraperitoneal hamster models. Disruption of the B. mallei QS alleles, especially in RJ16 (bmaII) and RJ17 (bmaI3), which are luxI mutants, significantly reduced virulence, as indicated by the survival of mice who were aerosolized with 104 CFU (10 50% lethal doses [LD50s]). For the B. mallei transcriptional regulator mutants (luxR homologues), mutation of the bmaR5 allele resulted in the most pronounced decrease in virulence, with 100% of the challenged animals surviving a dose of 10 LD50s. Using a Syrian hamster intraperitoneal model of infection, we determined the LD50s for wild-type B. mallei and each QS mutant. An increase in the relative LD50 was found for RJ16 (bmaI1) (>967 CFU), RJ17 (bmaI3) (115 CFU), and RJ20 (bmaR5) (151 CFU) compared to wild-type B. mallei (<13 CFU). These findings demonstrate that B. mallei carries multiple luxIR homologues that either directly or indirectly regulate the biosynthesis of an essential virulence factor(s) that contributes to the pathogenicity of B. mallei in vivo. PMID:15501791

  19. Impacts of the MERCOSUR Agreement on the Uruguayan Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Polit’cas Comercial e CambiaI ,oohre Padrao de Comercio Inlernacional dos Paises da ALADI: o Caso do Brasil , mimeo, LNICAMP 1qt2."., I Mesquita Machado...Carlos, Comercio con Argentina y Brasil : Uno o Dos Patrones de Insercion Regional? Sextas Jornadas Anuales de Economia, Banco Central del Uruguay...34 Quintas Jornadas Anuales de Economia, BCU, 1990. Berreta, Nora and Paolino, Carlos, " Comercio con Argentina y Brasil : uno o dos patrones de inserci6n

  20. Latin America Report, No. 2688.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Proalcohol Program Discussed (0 ESTADO DE SAO PAULO, 12 Apr 83, JORNAL DO BRASIL , 3, 4 May 83) • Upward Revision of Targets First Quarter...BRAZILIENSE, 6 May 83) 24 Persons Charged With Participating in PCB Congress Named (JORNAL DO BRASIL , 14 Apr 83) 25 Ten Companies Account for...26 Percent of Export Sales (0 ESTADO DE SAO PAULO, 28 Apr 83) 27 Possible Purchase of Gabriel Missile Stirs Arms Industry (JORNAL DO BRASIL , 2

  1. Request a Brown-Bag Check-Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... event when offered through your pharmacy, church or senior center. Resources Main Page ... | ISMP Brasil | International Group | Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite ...

  2. Jupiter revisited: first results from the university of chicago charged particle experiment on pioneer 11.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J A; Hamilton, D C; Lentz, G A; McKibben, R B; Perkins, M; Pyle, K R; Tuzzolino, A J; O'gallagher, J J

    1975-05-02

    During the December 1974 Pioneer 11 Jupiter encounter our experiment provided measurements of Jovian energetic protons and electrons both in the magnetic equatorial zone and at previously unexplored high magnetic latitudes. Many of the observations and conclusions from the Pioneer 10 encounter in 1973 were confirmed, with several important exceptions and new findings. We report evidence from Pioneer 11 for protons ( approximately 1 million electron volts) of Jovian origin in interplanetary space. In the outer magnetosphere particle intensities at high magnetic latitudes were comparable to those observed in the equatorial zone, and 10-hour variations in particle intensities and spectra were observed at both high and low magnetic latitudes. Therefore, confinement of particles in the outer magnetosphere to a thin equatorial magnetodisc is adequate neither as a description of the particle distribution nor as a complete explanation of the 10-hour variations. Pioneer 11 data support a model in which the intensity varies with a 10-hour period in phase throughout the sunward side of the magnetosphere and is relatively independent of position within the magnetosphere. Transient, highly anisotropic bursts of protons with energies of approximately 1 million electron volts observed near the orbit of Ganymede suggest local acceleration in some regions of the magnetosphere. In the inner core where particles are stably trapped, a maximum in the high-energy nucleonic flux was again found, corresponding to the Pioneer 10 maximum at approximately 3.4 Jupiter radii (R(J)), which is apparently a persistent feature of, the inner radiation zone. In addition, Pioneer 11 data indicate two more local maxima in the nucleonic flux inside 3.4 R(J), one of which may be associated with absorption by Amalthea, and a maximum intensity at 1.9 R(J) more than 20 times that at 3.4 R(J), The flux of relativistic electrons reached a maximum on the magnetic equator at 1.8 R(J), only slightly less its

  3. Policies for English Language Teacher Education in Brazil Today: Preliminary Remarks (Políticas para la formación de profesores de inglés en el Brasil de hoy: primeras aproximaciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Telma; Ferreira, Aparecida de Jesus; Alves Basso, Rosângela Aparecida; Carvalho Cruvinel, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade Brazil has begun to tackle the educational challenges of a developing country with a young population. The scale of such a demand is a result of the social and cultural inequalities that have historically been existent. Recent official policies and programs have addressed this gap by promoting greater opportunities for teacher…

  4. A spatial approach for the epidemiology of antibiotic use and resistance in community-based studies: the emergence of urban clusters of Escherichia coli quinolone resistance in Sao Paulo, Brasil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Population antimicrobial use may influence resistance emergence. Resistance is an ecological phenomenon due to potential transmissibility. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of ciprofloxacin (CIP) population consumption related to E. coli resistance emergence and dissemination in a major Brazilian city. A total of 4,372 urinary tract infection E. coli cases, with 723 CIP resistant, were identified in 2002 from two outpatient centres. Cases were address geocoded in a digital map. Raw CIP consumption data was transformed into usage density in DDDs by CIP selling points influence zones determination. A stochastic model coupled with a Geographical Information System was applied for relating resistance and usage density and for detecting city areas of high/low resistance risk. Results E. coli CIP resistant cluster emergence was detected and significantly related to usage density at a level of 5 to 9 CIP DDDs. There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. Conclusions There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. The usage density of 5-9 CIP DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants within the same influence zone was the resistance triggering level. This level led to E. coli resistance clustering, proving that individual resistance emergence and dissemination was affected by antimicrobial population consumption. PMID:21356088

  5. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  6. Oral administration of royal jelly restores tear secretion capacity in rat blink-suppressed dry eye model by modulating lacrimal gland function.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG.

  7. Campus Sexual Misconduct: Restorative Justice Approaches to Enhance Compliance With Title IX Guidance.

    PubMed

    Koss, Mary P; Wilgus, Jay K; Williamsen, Kaaren M

    2014-07-01

    Campus response to sexual violence is increasingly governed by federal law and administrative guidance such as the 1972 Title IX, the 2011 Dear Colleague Letter (DCL), and the 2013 Violence Against Women Act. Educational institutions are directed to expand disciplinary responses and establish coordinated action to eliminate sexual violence and remedy its effects. Compliance fosters a quasi-criminal justice approach not suited to all sexual misconduct and inconsistent with developing practice in student conduct management. This article envisions restorative justice (RJ) enhancements to traditional student conduct processes that maintain compliance, expand options, empower victim choice, and increase responsiveness to DCL aims. The article (1) defines sexual violence and sexual harassment within the DCL scope, (2) elaborates the DCL position on permissible alternative resolutions and differentiates mediation from RJ, (3) sequences action steps from case report to finalization, including both restorative and traditional justice pathways; and (4) discusses building support for innovation beginning with existing campus response.

  8. Molecular identification of Sporothrix species involved in the first familial outbreak of sporotrichosis in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Maifrede, Simone Bravim; Ribeiro, Mariceli Araújo; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2013-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a widespread subcutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi now known as the Sporothrix schenckii complex. This complex is comprised of at least six species, including Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. Cases of sporotrichosis have significantly increased in Brazil over the past decade, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), where an epidemic among cat owners has been observed. The zoonotic transmission from cats to humans suggests a common source of infection and indicates that animals can act as vectors. We performed a molecular characterisation of samples collected during the first outbreak of familial sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These results represent the first description of such an outbreak outside the endemic area of zoonotic sporotrichosis in RJ.

  9. Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  10. The vertical thickness of Jupiter's Europa gas torus from charged particle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmann, P.; Paranicas, C.; Clark, G.; Roussos, E.; Lagg, A.; Krupp, N.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements and modeling suggest the presence of a neutral gas torus collocated with the orbit of Jupiter's moon Europa. Here we use data from the CMS instrument that is part of the Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) on board the Galileo spacecraft to characterize the distribution of 130 keV protons. Near the orbit of Europa this distribution has a minimum around 70° in equatorial pitch angle. We reproduce this with a model assuming that the protons are lost via charge exchange with a gas torus. Since the pitch angle characterizes whether the protons remain mostly in the dense center of the torus or continuously bounce through it, we can determine the latitudinal extent of the torus. We find that the full thickness where its density falls to 1/e of its maximum has to be ≲2RJ and is closer to ≈1RJ.

  11. The Creation of Industry Front Groups: The Tobacco Industry and “Get Government Off Our Back”

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie E.; Bero, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated how industries use front groups to combat public health measures by analyzing tobacco industry documents, contemporaneous media reports, journal articles, and press releases regarding “Get Government Off Our Back,” a coalition created by the tobacco industry. RJ Reynolds created Get Government Off Our Back in 1994 to fight federal regulation of tobacco. By keeping its involvement secret, RJ Reynolds was able to draw public and legislative support and to avoid the tobacco industry reputation for misrepresenting evidence. The tobacco industry is not unique in its creation of such groups. Research on organizational background and funding could identify other industry front groups. Those who seek to establish measures to protect public health should be prepared to counter the argument that government should not regulate private behavior. PMID:17267719

  12. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 05C. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    j C I 3 r , ICO D V 4P C-1 0n C44 C., tn4 rj~0 C ~ f(.t-0N .t N ’ f.( *~ 0.. 0 0.C:(7.~. 4 ’ Nt480 . 8 ~ ~ *’t.f.t4 r- : r- . c’. to4.. N- r- (4rf r-N...In911 1 0 ccJ . (’ .0 11 w 4. l ..- -f~a Co UN r,wl- 0 rj-ŝ~c)-~’ L’) 0810 *04 r f ’C4 tn8s. I,-u (𔃾 i-o .4 tn4 .t..r’t-,r. C" 4..’’ f’- U, a,8t L n .C

  13. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well. PMID:26907366

  14. Characterizing the Energetic Heavy Ion Environment Inside 4 Jovian Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, C. M.; Stone, E. C.

    2004-05-01

    On 21 September 2003 Galileo impacted Jupiter to end its 8-year tour of the Jovian magentosphere. During this last phase data was collected in the very inner part of the magnetosphere at distances < 4 Rj. The region from 2 to 4 Rj was previously explored by Galileo during its 34th orbit around Jupiter. We present the combined data from these two passes obtained by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) for heavy ions at energies above 2 MeV/nucleon. In particular we discuss the significant ion absorption near the moons Thebe and Amalthea, the anisotropic pitch angle distribution and the dramatic increase in heavy ion intensity with decreasing radius seen in this region

  15. The RESTORE program of restorative justice for sex crimes: vision, process, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koss, Mary P

    2014-06-01

    The article reports empirical evaluation of RESTORE, a restorative justice (RJ) conferencing program adapted to prosecutor-referred adult misdemeanor and felony sexual assaults. RESTORE conferences included voluntary enrollment, preparation, and a face-to-face meeting where primary and secondary victims voice impacts, and responsible persons acknowledge their acts and together develop a re-dress plan that is supervised for 1 year. Process data included referral and consent rates, participant characteristics, observational ratings of conferences compared with program design, services delivered, and safety monitoring. Outcome evaluation used 22 cases to assess (a) pre-post reasons for choosing RESTORE, (b) preparation and conference experiences, (c) overall program and justice satisfaction, and (d) completion rates. This is the first peer-reviewed quantitative evaluation of RJ conferencing for adult sexual assault. Although the data have limitations, the results support cautious optimism regarding feasibility, safety, and satisfactory outcomes. They help envision how conferencing could expand and individualize justice options for sexual assault.

  16. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-08-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street compared to that with free horizon. This allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in a street depends strongly on the relative width of the street and its orientation towards the sun. Averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, the NO2 photolysis frequency is reduced in comparison with the values for free horizon: to less than 20% for narrow skyscraper streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets. A parameterization with the global solar irradiance is given for the averaged RJ values.

  17. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-05-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street against those with free horizon, which allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in the street, averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, is reduced to less than 20% for narrow streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets, each with about ±5% uncertainty. A parameterization of RJ with the global solar irradiance is given for values that are averaged over the meteorological conditions and the street orientation.

  18. Non-Linear Stability of Magnetically Focused Particle Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Grande do Sul, P.O.Box 15051,91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil N/A 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR...Grande do Sul, Brasil www.if.ufrgs.br/~rizzato Grant: FA9550-09-1-0283 Final Performance Report April/2012 • Objectives Our main program involves the

  19. FARC’s Influence in Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    of Military History. 26Luis Alberto Villamarin Pulido, FARC, Terrorismo na América do Sul (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Biblioteca do Exército Editora...2009. ______. FARC, Terrorismo na América do Sul. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 2009. Skidmore, Thomas E. and Peter H

  20. Computational Analysis and Characterization of RC-135 External Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    the RJ has experienced structural damage. Computational fluid dynamics ( CFD ) was applied with the intention of characterizing the differences between...13 2.3 Computational Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.3.1 Grid Generation: ANSYS ICEM CFD . . . . . 18 2.3.2 Flow Solver...another. Computational fluid dynamics ( CFD ) techniques are applied to both the Rivet Joint and Combat Sent variants with the objective of achieving a better

  1. Polymorphism in Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    2008 NRL REVIEW 71 Polymorphism in Energetic Materials J.R. Deschamps,1 D.A. Parrish,1 and R.J. Butcher2 1Laboratory for Structure of Matter...can lead to substantial alterations in stability and performance. The authors recently reported on the crystal structures of five polymorphs of picryl...cally distinct forms. Since the properties of a solid sub- stance are determined by its composition and structure , polymorphs, although chemically

  2. Advanced Analysis Cognition: Improving the Cognition of Intelligence Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    the Theory of Knowledge, 2nd ed., Routledge, New York, 2003. (RW 2291) Auger, A. "Applying Natural Language Processing Techniques to Domain Knowledge... Language Disorders: Theory into Practice, 2nd ed., Pro-Ed, Austin, Tex., 2001. (RW 2016) Bain, B. Intellipedia’s Next Act. 2008. (RW 3139) 70...Understand and Learn ," in Philosophy of Science, Cognitive Psychology, and Educational Theory and Practice, eds. R.A. Duschl & R.J. Hamilton, State

  3. Effects of Noise and Tonal Stimuli on Hearing in Pinnipeds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    lion ( Zalophus californianus ), the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Specifically, the goals...and Schusterman, R.J. (2007). Onset, growth, and recovery of in-air temporary threshold shift in a California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ...California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122(5):2916-2924. [published, refereed]. Southall, B.L, Bowles

  4. Pinniped Hearing in Complex Acoustic Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    of underwater hearing in California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ). Marine Mammal Science. 7 Schusterman, R.J., Balliet, R.F., and Nixon, J...17:339-350. PUBLICATIONS Reichmuth, C. and Southall, B.L. Improved description of underwater hearing in California sea lions ( Zalophus ... californianus ). Marine Mammal Science. [published, refereed] Mulsow, J., Reichmuth, C., Gulland, F., Rosen, D.A.S., and Finneran, J.J. (2011) Aerial

  5. Risk Mitigation during Human Electromuscular Incapacitation Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    subjects exposed to the TASER. J Emerg Med; 33(2):113-117. 15 Valentino DJ, Walter RJ, Dennis AJ, Margeta B , Starr F , Nagy KK, Bokhari F , Wiley DE...DJ, Margeta B , Nagy KK, Bokhari F , Wiley DE, Joseph KT, Roberts RR (2008). TASER X26 discharges in swine produce potentially fatal ventricular...OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON J. Fleming a. REPORT Unclassified b . ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE

  6. 21ST Century Manufacturing Enterprise Strategy Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    conference. For more method which will enable an Syarnin, Spi Managmen t information and registration materials, organization to identify strategic Systems...1988): "Limiting Environmental Impact by Waste Management". Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 4(1,2), pp. 51- 62. 27. Barnes, B.H.; Bollinger... Wastes ". Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 4(1-2), pp. 7-23. 30. Bauer, R.J.; Griffins, M.D. (1988): "Evaluating Expert System Investment An

  7. The Remedial Action Assessment System Automated Decision Support for the CERCLA RI/FS Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    selection was inadequately defined in the original version of CERCLA , the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 required that...for the CERCLA RI/FS Process 6. AUTHOR(S) David J. Crow, Captain 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) B. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...Decision Support for the CERCLA RJ1FS Process David 3. Crow This technical report is submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel

  8. CORDIVEM European Terrain Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    I),LU) ! GET SIDES 0041 CALL lA2XYU(HXNf(i),X,Y,MINLEV) ! GET XY COORDINATES 0042 XY(1 9 1)=X+500000 1 BUTil COURDINATE SYSTEMS ARE 0043 XY(I,2...INPUT: 0043 C $ RI - REAL-VALUED I COURUISAEE 0044 C * RJ - REAL-VALUED J COURDINATE 0045 C $ 3UTPUT: 0046 C $ I - INTEGER-VALUED I COORDINATE 0047 C

  9. Levels of Processing of Speech and Non-Speech

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-10

    Timbre : A better musical analogv to speech? Presented to the Acoustical Society of America. Anaheim. A. Samuel. (Fall 1987) Central and peripheal...Thle studies of listener based factors include studies of perceptual. restoration of deleted sounds (phonemes or musical notes), and studies of the... music . The attentional investi- ctnsdemons;trate, rjAher fine-tuned ittentional control under high-predictability condi- Lios. ic~ifcart oogrssh&A; been

  10. Targeting Midbodies in Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells as a Therapeutic Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    daughter cells (progenitors; 75%, n=8) and not in daughters with presumed committed fates5. MBds in the human hair follicle were also confined to a...PubMed: 20729831] 32. Morris RJ, et al. Capturing and profiling adult hair follicle stem cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2004; 22:411–7. [PubMed: 15024388...that abscission occurs apically in these cells. (e) A histological section through a hair follicle (left, phase-contrast microscopy) stained for the

  11. High Resolution Measurements of OH Infrared Airglow Structure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    and Space Science 19:561-566. Rayleigh , Lord ( Strutt , R.J.). 1931. On a Night Sky of Exceptional Brightness, and on the Distinction between the Polar...Air Force apeito isexpressed toD.DrnBkrfor his excellent direction and guidance. Also appreciation is extended to Dr. Kay Baker, Dr. William Pendleton...decades +rom 1930 to 1970, however, failed to recognize the nature o+ the airglow structure phenomenon. Rayleigh E19313 was among the first 3 to recoq

  12. Basic Studies on High Pressure Air Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-30

    33, 2268 (2000). [3] Non- Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure, K.H. Becker, U. Kogelschatz, K.H. Schoenbach, and R.J. Barker, eds., IOP...10). Note that LIFBASE assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium . 120 100 oExperimentalm Siuation 80 60 20- 0 -J ~ LkXi 3060 3070 3080 3090 3100...Dual laser interferometer for plasma density measurements on large tokamaks >>, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49 p.919 (1978) [5] C.W. Gowers, C. Lamb, « A

  13. Trapping Female Medflies (Ceratitis capitata) by Broadcast of Male Calling Song

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    systems for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae ) in seven countries," J. Econ. Entomol. 92, 156-164. 2. Hendrichs, J., Franz, G., and Rendon, P...Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae ) in Israel: Comparison of lures and trap type,". J. Econ. Entomol. 91, 1335-1339. 4. Prokopy, R.J., and...Diptera: Tephritidae )," Fla. Entomol. 83, 411-421. 8. Anderson, J.B., and Mankin, R.W.. (2002). "Comparison of particle velocity and sound pressure

  14. The Influence of Pre-Deployment Neurocognitive Functioning on Post-Deployment PTSD Symptom Outcomes Among Iraq-Deployed Army Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Autobiographical memory studies of non-trauma-exposed samples have dem- onstrated that decreased visual input reduces the recollection of autobiographical events...Rubin, Burt, & Fifeld, 2003), and damage to the occipital lobe impedes autobiographical memory (Greenberg & Rubin, 2003). Although speculative. it is...McNally, RJ .. Lasko. N.B .. Macklin. M.L.. & Pitman, RK. (1995). Autobiographical memory disturbance in combat-related post- traumatic stress disorder

  15. On a result of Aumann and Shapley about values of non-atomic games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Camillo; Vitolo, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    We focus our attention on the argument developed by R.J. Aumann and L.S. Shapley in a proposition used to prove the existence of a value on a certain class of games. Since we have found such an argument to be inexact, we have devised a supplementary construction which should be incorporated in the original proof to make it run in a satisfactory way.

  16. An Evaluation of the 1981 AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) Changes: Initial Analyses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-02

    titb,",; [, ! 1, X, XIV, )r "". os the Social Security Act. ENCLOSURE ENC 1.r)J,’ Milwaukee, and Syracuse reported losing food stamp bene ils ,’hen they...AD-A141 008 AN EVALUATION OF THE 1981 AFDC (AID TO FAMILIES WITH 1/I DEPENDENT CHILDREN )..(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC PROGRAM...Reconciliation Act of 1981 (OBRA) made major changes in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, particularly with regard to AFDC

  17. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 4. GPGP Jet Fuels Production Program-Feed Analyses Compilation and Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    DTICFORM70ASTOCK IS EXHAUSTED. o Volume IV 00 PRODUCTION OF JET FUELS FROM COAL DERIVED LIQUIDS SVOL IV - GPGP JET FUELS PRODUCTION PROGRAM-FEEDI ANALYSES...DERIVED LIQUIDS - VOL IV - GPGP JET FUELS PRODUCTION PROGRAM - FEED ANALYSIS COMPILATION AND REVIEW 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) R.J. Rossi 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant ( GPGP ) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding has been provided to the Department of

  18. Predisposing Risk Factors for Non-Contact ACL Injuries in Military Subjects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    316 10. Griffin LY, Agel J, Albohm MJ, Arendt EA, Dick RW, Garrett WE, Garrick JG, Hewett TE, Huston L , Ireland ML, Johnson RJ, Kibler WB, Lephart S...J. F. Dickens J. Giuliani D . Gwinn Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA e-mail: ehenze1@jhmi.edu J.-P. Rue Naval...Harris JM, Vaughan L (1991) Preseason strength and flexibility imbalances associated with athletic injuries in female collegiate athletes. Am J Sports

  19. Development of a Mouse Model for Determination of the Role of the Catechol Metabolites of Estradiol in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    renal tumorigenesis in the Syrian hamster model4 and DNA damage in human MCF-7 cells5, suggesting that COMT is highly protective against adverse effects...Wnt (COMTKO/ERKO /Wnt). However, ERKO females and males are infertile and Wnt females cannot nurse their young. Thus, the desired females must be...the initiation of cancer and other diseases by catechol quinones. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1028:247-57. 3. Devanesan P, Santen RJ, Bocchinfuso WP, Korach

  20. Physiologic Basis for Understanding Quantitative Dehydration Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    produced by fluctuating AVP concentrations in response to widely ranging dietary fluid intakes , osmolar loads, and ordinary compartmental fluid shifts...Water. In: Dietary Reference Intakes . Wash- ington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005:73–185. 8. Sawka MN, Burke LM, Eichner ER, Maughan RJ, Montain...balance is generally the zero sum of food (water and solute) and fluid intake minus in- sensible and obligatory renal water losses (7). Fluid intakes

  1. An Approximation Scheme for Delay Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-16

    C(-r,0. R) IR defined by m 10 D( ) 0 (O) - I B (-rj- B(s) b(s)ds, I(* A ,(-r ) + A(s) (s)ds, where 0 =r 0 < rI < ... < rm r. ’AJ,B are n x n matrices ...Approximations of delays by ordinary differen- tial equations, INCREST - Institutul de Matematica , Preprint series in Mathematics No. 22/1978. [14] F

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY EVALUATION OF WATER FROM ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NAROTSKY1, M.G., D.S. BEST1, E.H. ROGERS1, A. McDONALD1, Y.M. SEY1, E.S. HUNTER III 1, L.K. TEUSCHLER2, R.J. MILTNER3, T.F. SPETH3, G. RICE2, K.M. SCHENCK3, S.D. RICHARDSON4, M.C. MARR5, and J.E. SIMMONS1. 1US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Health and Environment...

  3. E&V (Evaluation and Validation) Reference Manual, Version 1.0.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    4 C-4 C-5 C-5 index-1 ä I xi WMrfWmfjWÜN^^ T»renDnnrwF«Tyirwwinrvir.TVWv*u\\ rv »uwir*. n* r\\* rj» nx njt -jp^ wnn> LIST OF FIGURES Figure...nrwvwTiwwwiLwiLnMnmn mriWKmKmAa*imiA:m*mnwxji•\\Kn*nrB\\mxivxr<r\\iYuv.\\iw\\ rv \

  4. Mesolimbic and Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Systems: Behavioral Neuropharmacology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    methadone or chlorpromazine in the guinea-pig. Psychopharmacology 48:132-146 Elkhawad AO, Woodruff GN (1975) Studies on the behavioural pharmacology of a...Pharmacol Toxicol Suppl 4, 25:59 Fog RL, Randrup A, Pakkenberg H (1968) Neuroleptic action of quaternary chlorpromazine and related drugs injected into...concerning amphetamine effects.. Curr Dev Psychopharmacol 2:79-163 Mandel RJ, Randall PK (1985) Quantification of lesion induced dopaminergic supersensitivity

  5. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, IN THE PINK CERAMIC ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    dJ~ " " ~ 1 I i 'J ') r 4 i i :',' • J V'J I~ ','" J" .1 j ~1]l()H ',lH)dflH': "ll;U S j lJ 0 i " 1 N 3 \\ V j 11 Ii d l' I - ii H UI j' ',\\Hn ',' " f'HJ! )(11' : " I'J I 1 ,',! iit' l' r--J i ~ "\\ , ...

  6. Molecular Simulations of Gold Nanoparticles Coated With Self-Assembled Alkanethiolate Monolayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    computed us- ing the Irving -Kirkwood pressure tensor [26]. The Irving - Kirkwood pressure tensor, equation 8, has contributions from two terms, namely the...surface tension. 6 S1 ri rj rA rB rij A B O Figure 8. Illustration of forces and posi- tion vectors used to calculate configurational term in Irving ...1000 K Surface Pressure Figure 9. Radial distribution of the normal component of the Irving -Kirkwood pressure tensor for bare 5nm gold nanoparticles at

  7. The Distribution and Predictive Value of Bishop Scores in Nulliparas between 37 and 42 Weeks Gestation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    the course of labor. Obstet Gynecol 1966;28:495 501. 2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: induction of labor, ACOG Practice Bulletin...relationship to cesarean delivery: a review of 7001 consecutive inductions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:628 633. 4. Maslow AS, Sweeny AL. Elective induction...of labor as a risk factor for cesarean delivery among low risk women at term. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:917 922. 5. Seyb ST, Berka RJ, Socol ML, Dooley

  8. Epileptiform Activity Induction With Electrolyte Imbalance in Brain Slices: Mechanisms Involved in Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Janusz, S.M. Irtenkauf and R.F. Berman, “Central anticonvulsant effects of magnesium sulfate on N-methyl-D-aspartate induced seizures,” Am. J. Obstet ... Gynecol ., vol. 168, pp. 974-978, 1993. [23] R.J. Harris, P.G. Richards, L. Simon, A-H.A. Habib and J. Rosenstein, “pH, K+ and PO2 of the extracellular

  9. Finite Element Capabilities in M. I. T. Lincoln Laboratory Version of STRUDL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-30

    representative X and Yp dimen- sions. PLATE BENDING specifies problems where only bending deformations need to be considered. Plate bending formulations...strains, and is expressed as: a ~S \\ y xy Y xy The planar bending rigidity matrix, rjR, relates the stress couples and the bending deformations as...e„ - e , where e is the total strain, e is the thermal strain, and e is the initial strain. Since the deformed shape of the structure under total

  10. Optimizing Simulator-Aircraft Mix for U.S. Army Initial Entry Rotary Wing Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    driven by the high hourly operational costs of the MIH -53J, an extremely complex multimission helicopter. In 1986, the MH-53H aircraft qualification...horizontal by 25’ vertical . All locations in the visual database (e.g., airfield, helipad, taxi lanes) are accurately modeled and internally consistent...Larsen, W.E., Randle, R.J., & Popish, L.N. (Eds.) Vertical Flight Training. NASA Reference Publication 1373 (DOT/FAA/CT-94/83). Moffett Field, CA

  11. Soluble Alkyl Substituted Polygermanes. Thermochromic Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-17

    are strongly thermochromic . The effect is attributed to conformational locking of the backbone which is caused by the crystallization of the side groups...are strongly thermochromic . The effect is attributed to the conformational locking of the backbone which is caused by the crystallization of the side...SYMBOL. 02 &m A -- .- h.. .. .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. RJ 5008 (52258) 1/24/86 Chemis try SOLUBLE ALKYL SUBSTITUTED POLYGERMANES: THERMOCHROMIC

  12. Complete synthetic seismograms for 3-D heterogeneous Earth models computed using modified DSM operators and their applicability to inversion for Earth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu; Geller, Robert J.; Cummins, Phil R.

    2000-04-01

    We compute complete (including both body and surface waves) synthetic seismograms for laterally and vertically heterogeneous Earth models using the Direct Solution Method (DSM). We use the optimally accurate modified operators derived by Geller and Takeuchi [Geller, R.J., Takeuchi, N., 1995. A new method for computing highly accurate DSM synthetic seismograms. Geophys. J. Int. 123, 449-470] and extended to spherical coordinates by Takeuchi et al. [Takeuchi, N., Geller, R.J., Cummins, P.R., 1996. Highly accurate P-SV complete synthetic seismograms using modified DSM operators. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1175-1178] and Cummins et al. [Cummins, P.R., Takeuchi, N., Geller, R.J., 1997. Computation of complete synthetic seismograms for laterally heterogenous models using the Direct Solution Method. Geophys. J. Int. 130, 1-16] for 1- and 3-D models, respectively. In this study we greatly reduce the CPU time by treating the laterally heterogeneous structure as a perturbation to a spherically symmetric model (i.e., using the Born approximation). Note, however, that (1) our methods do not require the use of the Born approximation and (2) the reference model for the Born approximation is not required to be spherically symmetric. The synthetic seismograms in this paper are computed using the first-order Born approximation. However, accuracy can be greatly improved by using higher order terms of the Born series; theoretical results are presented in this paper, and some preliminary numerical examples are presented in this volume by Igel et al. [Igel, H., Takeuchi, N., Geller, R.J., Megnin, C., Bunge, H.P., Clévédé, E., Dalkolmo, J., Romanowicz, B., 1998. The COSY project: verification of global seismic modeling algorithms, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., this issue].

  13. Anxiety Sensitivity and Psychological Vulnerability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    R.A., & Garbin, M.G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depressions Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review , 8...1991). Expectancy model of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clinical Psychology Review , 11, 141-153. Reiss, S., & McNally, R.J. (1985). The expectancy...Steer, R.A., & Garbin, M.G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depressions Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review , 8

  14. Coincident Pulse Techniques for Hybrid Electronic Optical Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-31

    parallel computer architectures, parallel algorithms, and VLSI . Additional interests include design tools and methodology for software, hardware, and...Interactive Toolset for Characterizing Complex Neural Systems" D.N. Krieger, T.W. Berger, S.P. Levitan, and R.J. Sclabassi; Computers and Mathematics, Vol...systims algorithm design, and computer aided design for VLSI . and the application of large computational arrays to scientific problems. Dr. Levitan is a

  15. Tumor Suppression and Sensitization to Taxol-Induced Apoptosis of E1A in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Yang Y, Peng Y, Austin RJ, Van Eyndhoven WG, Nguyen KC, Gabriele T, McCurrach ME, Marks JR, Hoey T, Lowe SW, Powers S. Oncogenic properties of PPM1D...suppression by a c-erbB-2/neu-independent mechanism. Cancer Res. 55:5551-5555. 17. Gratton , J. P., M.-R. M., Y. Kureishi, D. Fulton, K. Walsh, and W. C

  16. Applying MHD Results to a Scramjet Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-12

    1194, Reno, NV, January 2005. 10. Rosa, R.J., "Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Conversion", Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York, 1968, Revised Printing ...Introduction and Background Projects Analytical and experimental studies of both electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) application to...Institute, Tullahoma, TN, June 1981. 26. Vendell, E.W., "Free- Jet Electrical Conductivity Profiles of a Seeded MHD Combustion Plasma", 15"’ Symposium

  17. Antifeedant Activity and High Mortality in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae) Induced by Biostable Insect Kinin Analogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    this core Aib analog mimicked the amylase (carbohy- drase) release inhibition activity of natural insect kinins, specifi- cally demonstrating 1.1- and...3,4,28,29,33], inhibit the in vitro release of the digestive enzyme amylase in the midgut [13,14], and inhibit in vivo larvalweightgain [26,33,41...Nachman RJ. In vitro release of amylase by culekinins in two insects: Opsinia arenosella (Lepidoptera) and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera). Trends

  18. Construct Definition of Task Design and Related Concepts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-19

    4 Dimensionality in Factor Analysis During the last two decades the field of applied psychology has made extremely wide use of...Scree-test proposed by Cattell (1965) has been gaining in popu- larity in industrial psychology and organizational behavior especially in the last five...Dunham, R.B. Measurement and dimensionality of job characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1976, 61, 404-409. Dunham, R.B., Aldag, R.J., and

  19. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    to get full antidepressant benefit from sleep deprivation. Cole and Muller 63 reported that when elderly depressives (57-79 years old, average age 69...Cole MG, Miller HF: Sleep deprivation in the treatment of elderly depressed patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 243:308-313, 1976. 64. Collins WE: Some effects...1:207-216, 1972. 259. Salin-Pascual RJ, Ortega-Soto H, Huerto-Delgadillo L, et al: The effect of total sleep deprivation on plasma melatonin and

  20. A Survey of U.S. Navy Medical Communications and Evacuations at Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-05

    rectum, gastrointestinal bleeding vs. peptic ulcer). In the remaining 22% of the cases, the discrepancies between the shipboard and the shore-based...of abscesses/ infections , but problems with wisdom teeth and dental caries were also well represented. The fact that noninjury-related dental problems... gastrointestinal disorders aboard Navy ships. Mili Med 143:635, 1978. 19Gunderson EKE, Rahe RH, Arthur RJ: The epidemiology of illness in Navy environments. II

  1. Mathematical Fluid Dynamics of Plasma Flow Control over High Speed Wings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    asymmetric SDBD forcing Herein we discuss numerical simulations of aerodynamic moments induced by asymmetric SDBD forcing on the aforementioned delta wing ...1995, pp. 1743-1745. 54. Wahls, R.A., Vess, R.J. and Moskovitz C.A., "Experimental investigation of apex fence flaps on delta wings ," J. of...Vol. 34, No.7. 1996, pp. 1447-1456. 66. Vorobieff, P.V. and Rockwell, D.O., "Vortex breakdown on pitching delta wing : control by intermittent

  2. A Natural Approach for Detecting Causal Relationship in Time Series.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-23

    valid. into (3.4) yields In the case where Y causes X (on Xt t t 1 b causes Y ) and i nstantaneous causa l i ty is U~ ~rj~j- a~ — ~~~~ S (B) ~ At... causa l i t y) . Equation ( 3 . 4 ) may now be ex-pressed as The operator on u~ will contain terms of the u~ = A~~(B) a~ + 81(B) bt form 8 m , m ’ 0

  3. Analysis of Physical and Numerical Factors for Prediction of UV Radiation from High Altitude Two-Phase Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-30

    2Erdman, P.W., Zipf, E.C., Espy, P., Howlett, C., Collins, R.J., Cristou, C., Levin, D.A., and Candler, G.V. In-situ measurements of UV and VUV ...Altitudes, AIAA-2006-3273, 37th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, San Francisco, California, June 5-8, 2006. 22Rodionov, A.V., Plastinin, Yu.A

  4. Analysis of Physical and Numerical Factors for Prediction of UV Radiation from High Altitude Two-Phase Plumes (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-30

    Zipf, E.C., Espy, P., Howlett, C., Collins, R.J., Cristou, C., Levin, D.A., and Candler, G.V. In-situ measurements of UV and VUV radiation from a rocket...AIAA-2006-3273, 37th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, San Francisco, California, June 5-8, 2006. 22Rodionov, A.V., Plastinin, Yu.A., Drakes

  5. Deception Detection: Study of Information Manipulation Through Electronic Identity Theft - Email Forgery in the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    children , we have devised ways to divert from the truth to avoid trouble or confrontation. It is human nature to want to avoid trouble or confrontation...receivers through covertly breaching the ideologies that steer and direct conversational comprehension (Bowers, Elliot, & Desmond , 1977:237...N.D., and Desmond , R.J. “Exploring Pragmatic Rules: Devious Messages,” Human Communication Research, 3: 235-242, 1977. Buller, David B., K.D

  6. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 03/23/1983

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... flor/eflll9 tn·fH., 1 dnd (>'."I'!'(J~f'L'''<' f(lund ~o be inf(,~t."d ,·:ith 1,(,,·t5 1i"t(·rj iii til" fr-ll',;Il'l t,Ll". lJi lute DIJRSEf,ti ~'):: Ii th I".! ((r dl'.wni Il'J to di fee. ...

  7. Genetic Evaluation for the Scoliosis Gene(s) in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type I and Scoliosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Scoliosis: a prospective epidemiological study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 57:968-972. 3. Cummings RJ, Loveless EA, Campbell J, Samelson S, Mazur JM...J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998 Aug;80(8):1107-11. 4. Crawford AH, Herrera-Soto J. Scoliosis associated with neurofibromatosis. Orthop Clin North Am...idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998 Aug;80(8):1097-106. 16. National Institute of Health Consensus Development Conference. NF-1. 1988. p

  8. Pulse Power Formulary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-23

    Insulation and Surface Flashover * We assume in this section that the pressure is below 10-4 Torr, and note that variations due to the residual gas...Appl. Phys. 56 1374 1984 6.4 Isolated Blumlein RJ. Adler Rev. Sci. Inst. 54 940 1983 6.4 Vacuum Flashover fr./Bip. Stress Anderson J. Appl. Phys. 58...Gas Properties . .................................... 20 * 6.3 Liquid Breakdown .......................................... 21 6.4 Vacuum Insulation and

  9. Sparse Representations for Limited Data Tomography (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    dictionary. Let αk∈ RJ denote the k- th row of α. The K- SVD algorithm for denoising of gray scale images essentially minimizes the objective function in...predefined (such as wavelets) or learned (e.g., by the K- SVD algorithm [8]), as in this work. Due to its highly effectiveness for tasks such as image... denoising , demosaicing, and inpainting, in particular when the dictionary is learned [9, 10], here we extend this idea to tomographic reconstruction. To

  10. Joint Services Electronics Program. Annual Report (16th). Appendix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Lee and R.J. Burkholder, "A Three-Dimensional Implementation of the Hybrid Ray-FDTD Method for Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering from Electrically ...thin material-coated metallic surfaces. Each of the It is noted that expressions for the constants A1 electrically thin material coatings is modeled by...ElectroSdiece Laboratory Department of Electrical Engineering Columbus, Ohio 43212I ODTIC.. . •L•ELECTIE 1 Annual Report Appendix 721563-6 JAN I At ,94

  11. Expression of Glycoproteins in Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Varicella Zoster Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-18

    related to the immune condition of the host. Complications include postherpatic neuralgia, myelitis, and encephalitis (Watson and Evans , 1986...631-3. Preblud, S.R., W.A. Orenstein , and K.J. Bart. 1984. Varcella: clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and health impact in children. Pediatr...Wein klin Wchschr. 22: 1323-1327. Watson, P.N. and R.J. Evans . 1986. Postherpetic neuralgia: a review. Arch. Neurol. 43: 836-40. Weinstein, L. and

  12. Predicting Database Requirements for Geographic Information Systems in the Year 2000: Long-Term Design Issues for GRASS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    M.A., D.R. Oestreicher, and R.J. Stevenson, "The Evans & Sutherland View of Tomorrow’s Supercomputing Environment," Proc. IEEE COMPCON 89 (February...34 Proc. ACSM-ASPRS, Vol. 4 (March 1991), pp 107-116. Manola, F., J. Orenstein , and U. Dayal, "Geographic Information Processing in the PROBE Database... Orenstein , J., and F.A. Manola, "PROBE Spatial Data Modeling and Query Processing in an Image Processing Database Application," IEEE Trans. on Software

  13. 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R. J.

    2016-12-19

    This is the 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech of R.J. Goldston: It is a great pleasure to receive the 2015 Nuclear Fusion award for my work developing a heuristic drift-based model for the power scrape-off width in tokamaks. I was particularly pleased to receive the award from IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, whose thoughtful leadership has advanced the cause of nuclear non-proliferation mightily.

  14. Application of a Notch Digital Filter to Elimination of Sinusoidal Disturbances from Helicopter Flight Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    disturbances. An optimal Kalman filtering approach was found to be impractical [2]. However, additional research showed that the .. optimal filter...Evans, R.J. - "Application of Fast Fourier Transforms to Sinusoidal Disturbance Rejection and its -. , Relationship to Kalman Filtering". University of...1206 .......... F% .9 REQUEHCY Hz Fiue9 Feunc epneo Csae oc Filtr fo ALPA=0975 nd d-0.1 I. %.0. .2

  15. Research in Stochastic Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    appear. G. Kallianpur, Finitely additive approach to nonlinear filtering, Proc. Bernoulli Soc. Conf. on Stochastic Processes, T. Hida , ed., Springer, to...Nov. 85, in Proc. Bernoulli Soc. Conf. on Stochastic Processes, T. Hida , ed., Springer, to appear. i. Preparation T. Hsing, Extreme value theory for...1507 Carroll, R.J., Spiegelman, C.H., Lan, K.K.G., Bailey , K.T. and Abbott, R.D., Errors in-variables for binary regression models, Aug.82. 1508

  16. Statistical Characterization of Altitude Matrices by Computer. Report 4. Frequency Distributions of Gradient.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    and Tuttle (1967) used a logarithmic transfurniation of the tangent of gradient, before applying significance tests Blong (1975) chose the tangent of...Zeits f. Geomorphologie, N.F. Supplementband l,p 93-102. BLONG , RJ. 1975 Hillslope morphometry and classification: a New Zealand example, Zeits. f...8217 • . .. . . . ; \\ : 4 .L.: . t . 1 ; ; . : .: , : 4.. : o Io . .. \\ t :: I ’ : : . / .. 3,:I - { . ~~~~~...................- I ’ .° .. . . .t ... 1’ . : ; i- 1

  17. Regional Morphology Analysis Package (RMAP). Part 2. User’s Guide and Tutorial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Change the chart orientation to r---j Accretion, coolor*m- vertical and click Ok. The shoreline rate map Cr Vedic can be moved by dragging the item with... Research Facility (FRF) at Duck, NC (Figure 32). To calculate the average profile, profile envelope and the standard deviation from these data, select...suggestions to RMAP point of contact listed below. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: This Technical Note was prepared by Dr. Brian K. Batten, research physical

  18. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings on Diamond, SiC and Nitride Wide Bandgap Semiconductors Held at San Francisco, California on 4-8 April 1994. Volume 339.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-08

    Electric properties -Congresses. 4. Silicon-carbide thin films-Electric properties -Congresses. 5. Nitrides-Electric properties -Congresses. I. Carter...DIAM OND C(001) ................................................ 69 Peter K. Baumann, T.P. Humphreys, and R.J. Nemanich V ELECTRON EMISSION PROPERTIES ...OF THE NEGATIVE ELECTRON AFFINITY (111)2 x I DIAMOND-TiO INTERFACE ................... 75 C. Bandis, D. Haggerty, and B.B. Pate PROPERTIES OF THE

  19. Modeling the Impact of Value of Information on Situational Awareness using C3TRACE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Heilman E, Dumer J, Hammell II RJ. Knowledge elicitation to prototype the value of information. Proceedings of the 23rd Midwest Artificial Intelligence ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Situational awareness (SA) is critical to making good decisions on the battlefield. For the military intelligence analyst...researchers use C3TRACE software to simulate a basic human intelligence reports analysis process and observe if the results support the hypothesis that the VoI

  20. Pacing Visual Attention: Temporal Structure Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    1985; LaBerge & Brown, 1989; Shulman, Wilson, & Sheehy, 1985). Gradient models also assume that attention can be voluntarily directed to spatial...480. LaBerge , D.L. & Brown, V.R. (1989) Theory of attentional operations in shape identification. Psychological Review, 26, 101-124. Lewicki, P. (1985...R.C. Atkinson, R.J. Herrnstein, G. Lindzey, & R. D. Luce (Eds) Stevens ’ handbook of experimental psychology, volume 2: Learning and cognition. New