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Sample records for sepsis practice survey

  1. A Survey on Current Practice of Management of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Dey, A C; Hossain, M I; Afroze, S; Dey, S K; Mannan, M A; Shahidullah, M

    2016-04-01

    It was a survey type of cross sectional study where the participants were from different teaching/referral hospital across the country and was done to gather information regarding current practice of management of neonatal sepsis among paediatricians and neonatologists and was conducted on the spot during a national conference of Bangladesh Perinatal Society in December 2013. Specialists in neonatology, paediatrics, and some other disciplines working in different institutes across the country were requested to respond. Out of 150 physicians, 92 (61.33%) were neonatologists. Physicians suspected early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) when there is history suggestive of prolonged rupture of membrane (74.77%), prolonged labour (9.33%), chorioamnionitis (7.33%) and maternal fever (2%). Clinical sepsis is found commonly (53.33%) which is later proved by laboratory evidences such as Hb%, TC, DC PBF (peripheral blood film), C-reactive protein, chest X-ray etc. Injection Ampicillin and Gentamycin are still the first choice of antibiotics (61.3%). Preferred route was intravenous (95.3%). Antibiotics were given for 7-10 days by most of the physicians (48.77%). However there is lack of uniformity among the participants in regard to taking decision about antibiotics, the choice of first line and the subsequent options of antibiotics. So, neonatal sepsis is the most important cause of neonatal mortality in the community. Therefore a standard protocolized approach for diagnosis and management of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis may prove critical which is currently not in practice uniformly.

  2. Practice and perception--a nationwide survey of therapy habits in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Brunkhorst, Frank M; Engel, Christoph; Ragaller, Max; Welte, Tobias; Rossaint, Rolf; Gerlach, Herwig; Mayer, Konstantin; John, Stefan; Stuber, Frank; Weiler, Norbert; Oppert, Michael; Moerer, Onnen; Bogatsch, Holger; Reinhart, Konrad; Loeffler, Markus; Hartog, Christiane

    2008-10-01

    To simultaneously determine perceived vs. practiced adherence to recommended interventions for the treatment of severe sepsis or septic shock. One-day cross-sectional survey. Representative sample of German intensive care units stratified by hospital size. Adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. None. Practice recommendations were selected by German Sepsis Competence Network (SepNet) investigators. External intensivists visited intensive care units randomly chosen and asked the responsible intensive care unit director how often these recommendations were used. Responses "always" and "frequently" were combined to depict perceived adherence. Thereafter patient files were audited. Three hundred sixty-six patients on 214 intensive care units fulfilled the criteria and received full support. One hundred fifty-two patients had acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Low-tidal volume ventilation < or = 6 mL/kg/predicted body weight was documented in 2.6% of these patients. A total of 17.1% patients had tidal volume between 6 and 8 mL/kg predicted body weight and 80.3% > 8 mL/kg predicted body weight. Mean tidal volume was 10.0 +/- 2.4 mL/kg predicted body weight. Perceived adherence to low-tidal volume ventilation was 79.9%. Euglycemia (4.4-6.1 mmol/L) was documented in 6.2% of 355 patients. A total of 33.8% of patients had blood glucose levels < or = 8.3 mmol/L and 66.2% were hyperglycemic (blood glucose > 8.3 mmol/L). Among 207 patients receiving insulin therapy, 1.9% were euglycemic, 20.8% had blood glucose levels < or = 8.3 mmol/L, and 1.0% were hypoglycemic. Overall, mean maximal glucose level was 10.0 +/- 3.6 mmol/L. Perceived adherence to strict glycemic control was 65.9%. Although perceived adherence to recommendations was higher in academic and larger hospitals, actual practice was not significantly influenced by hospital size or university affiliation. This representative survey shows that current therapy of severe sepsis in German

  3. Understanding of sepsis among emergency medical services: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Christopher W; Carlbom, David; Engelberg, Ruth A; Larsen, Jonathan; Bulger, Eileen M; Copass, Michael K; Rea, Thomas D

    2012-06-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel commonly encounter sepsis, yet little is known about their understanding of sepsis. To determine the awareness, knowledge, current practice, and attitudes about sepsis among EMS personnel. We performed an anonymous, multi-agency, online survey of emergency medical technicians (EMTs), firefighter-emergency medical technicians (FF-EMTs), and paramedics in a metropolitan, 2-tier EMS system. We compared responses according to the level of EMS training and used multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of correctly identifying the definition of sepsis, independent of demographic and professional factors. Overall response rate of study participants was 57% (786/1390), and was greatest among EMTs (79%; 276/350). A total of 761 respondents (97%) had heard of the term "sepsis." EMTs and FF-EMTs were at significantly reduced odds of correctly defining sepsis compared to paramedics, independent of age, sex, and years of experience (EMTs: odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.8; FF-EMTs: odds ratio 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.6. Overall, knowledge of the clinical signs and symptoms and recommended treatments for sepsis was typically>75%, though better among paramedics than EMTs or FF-EMTs (p<0.01). The majority of respondents believed sepsis is not recognized by EMS "some" or "a lot" of the time (76%, 596/786). EMS personnel demonstrated an overall sound awareness of sepsis. Knowledge of sepsis was less among FF-EMTs and EMTs compared to paramedics. These results suggest that paramedics could be integrated into strategies of early identification and treatment of sepsis, and EMTs may benefit from focused education and training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiological Study of Sepsis in China: Protocol of a Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xie, Jian-Feng; Yu, Kai-Jiang; Yao, Chen; Li, Jian-Guo; Guan, Xiang-Dong; Yan, Jing; Ma, Xiao-Chun; Kang, Yan; Yang, Cong-Shan; Yao, Xiao-Qing; Shang, Hong-Cai; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients. Herein, we conducted a national survey to provide data on epidemiology and treatment of sepsis in the clinical practice in China, which has no detailed epidemiological data available on sepsis. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional survey from December 1, 2015 to January 31, 2016 in all provinces/municipalities of the mainland of China. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence of sepsis, and the secondary outcome was its etiology in China. Patients with sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Units were included in this study. The demographic, physiological, bacteriological, and therapeutic data of these patients were recorded. The incidence of sepsis was estimated using the data from the sixth census in China, reported by the Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission and the National Bureau of Statistics as the standard population. The independent risk factors for increased mortality from sepsis were calculated. Conclusions: This study indicated the incidence and outcome of sepsis in China. It also showed the most common etiology of different sites and types of infection, which could guide empiric antibiotic therapy. Moreover, it provided information on the independent risk factors for increased mortality due to sepsis. The findings provide evidence to guide clinical management and may help improve the outcome in septic patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02448472; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02448472. PMID:27958229

  5. Sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sepsis syndrome; Systemic inflammatory response syndrome; SIRS; Septic shock ... In sepsis, blood pressure drops, resulting in shock . Major organs ... system may stop working properly because of poor blood flow. ...

  6. Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V.; Festic, Emir

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis represents a major challenge in medicine. It begins as a systemic response to infection that can affect virtually any organ system, including the central and peripheral nervous systems. Akin to management of stroke, early recognition and treatment of sepsis are just as crucial to a successful outcome. Sepsis can precipitate myasthenic crisis and lead to encephalopathy and critical illness neuropathy. Stroke and traumatic brain injury can predispose a patient to develop sepsis, whereas Guillain-Barré syndrome is similarly not uncommon following infection. This review article will first describe the essential principles of sepsis recognition, pathophysiology, and management and will then briefly cover the neurologic aspects associated with sepsis. Vigilant awareness of the clinical features of sepsis and timeliness of intervention can help clinicians prevent progression of this disease to a multisystem organ failure, which can be difficult to reverse even after the original source of infection is under control. PMID:23983879

  7. Implications of the new sepsis definition on research and practice.

    PubMed

    Peach, Brian C

    2017-04-01

    practice will be essential, to determine if the Sepsis 3 definition, its associated clinical criteria, and the qSOFA need further revision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing Abnormal heart pumping function Abdominal pain Septic shock To be diagnosed with septic shock, you must have the signs and symptoms of ... mild sepsis, but the mortality rate for septic shock is nearly 50 percent. Also, an episode of ...

  9. Early onset neonatal sepsis: diagnostic dilemmas and practical management.

    PubMed

    Bedford Russell, A R; Kumar, R

    2015-07-01

    Early onset neonatal sepsis is persistently associated with poor outcomes, and incites clinical practice based on the fear of missing a treatable infection in a timely fashion. Unnecessary exposure to antibiotics is also hazardous. Diagnostic dilemmas are discussed in this review, and suggestions offered for practical management while awaiting a more rapidly available 'gold standard' test; in an ideal world, this test would be 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the presence of organisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. New criteria for sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) following the revised sepsis definition: a retrospective analysis of a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Iba, Toshiaki; Nisio, Marcello Di; Levy, Jerrold H; Kitamura, Naoya; Thachil, Jecko

    2017-09-27

    Recent clinical studies have shown that anticoagulant therapy might be effective only in specific at-risk subgroups of patients with sepsis and coagulation dysfunction. The definition of sepsis was recently modified, and as such, old scoring systems may no longer be appropriate for the diagnosis of sepsis-associated coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors in patients diagnosed with sepsis and coagulopathy according to the new sepsis definition and assess their accuracy in comparison with existing models. Retrospective analysis of the nationwide survey for recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin. General emergency and critical care centres in secondary and tertiary care hospitals. We evaluated the prognostic value of the newly proposed diagnostic criteria for sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC). A total of 1498 Japanese patients with sepsis and coagulopathy complications who were treated with recombinant thrombomodulin were analysed in this study. The platelet count, prothrombin time (PT) ratio, fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products, systemic inflammatory response syndrome score and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score obtained just before the start of treatment were examined in relation to the 28-day mortality rate. The platelet count, PT ratio and total SOFA were independent predictors of a fatal outcome in a logistic regression model. A SIC score was defined using the three above-mentioned variables with a positivity threshold of 4 points or more. The SIC score predicted higher 28-day mortality rate compared with the current Japanese Association for Acute Medicine-disseminated intravascular coagulation score (38.4%vs34.7%). The SIC score is based on readily available parameters, is easy to calculate and has a high predictive value for 28-day mortality. Future studies are warranted to evaluate whether the SIC score may guide the decision to initiate anticoagulant therapy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  11. Public awareness of sepsis and stroke in Singapore: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Phua, Jason; Lim, Hui Fang; Tay, Chee Kiang; Aung, Ngu Wah

    2013-06-01

    Management guidelines emphasise the importance of prompt therapeutic intervention for sepsis as well as stroke, both of which are common causes of death. Unfortunately, a rate-limiting step may be delayed presentation to the emergency department by patients themselves. The aim of this study was to assess public awareness of sepsis and stroke in Singapore. This was a population-based, structured telephone survey of adults in Singapore. There were 1067 completed surveys (response rate 50.3%). The survey population was mostly comparable with the actual Singapore population. Fifty-three respondents (5.0%) had heard of the term sepsis. Of these, 45 respondents (4.2%) could provide at least one accepted definition of sepsis, the commonest being that of an unspecified infection. Respondents mostly heard about sepsis from school, the Internet, and newspapers. On the other hand, 963 respondents (90.3%) had heard of the term stroke. Of these, 818 respondents (76.7%) could name at least one accepted warning sign of stroke, the commonest being that of numbness, while 806 respondents (75.5%) could name at least one accepted risk factor for stroke, the commonest being hypertension. Respondents mostly heard about stroke from television, newspapers, a relative, a friend, media (unspecified), and the Internet. Our findings reflect the differences in the public profile of sepsis versus stroke in Singapore. More concerted efforts involving healthcare professionals, medical societies, statutory boards, and the mass media are required to improve public awareness of these 2 conditions -especially sepsis.

  12. Quality in practice: preventing and managing neonatal sepsis in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    López, Sergio; Wong, Yudy; Urbina, Luis; Gómez, Ivonne; Escobar, Flavia; Tinoco, Bernarda; Parrales, Alba

    2013-10-01

    Incorrect and excessive diagnosis of newborn infections in Nicaragua caused overcrowding in the neonatal intensive care units and unnecessary hospitalization. A baseline study in nine hospitals found that none correctly utilized disinfectants, sterilization or hand hygiene and that diagnosis of neonatal sepsis was based primarily on clinical manifestations. In 2007, the Ministry of Health (MINSA), with Unites States Agency for the International Development technical assistance, began developing guidelines and implementing quality improvement in infection prevention and control to reduce neonatal infections. In a second intervention phase, the MINSA introduced an algorithm for correct identification of maternal risk factors and standardized laboratory tests for neonatal sepsis. Interventions included developing national guidelines on correct use of disinfectants and hand hygiene; training medical staff on the guidelines; revising the basic medical supply list to support appropriate antisepsis; defining a package of diagnostic tests for neonatal sepsis and systematically measuring compliance with the new procedures. The 18 hospitals achieved appropriate use of disinfectants in a 12-month period. In seven hospitals that introduced improvements in diagnosis and management of neonatal sepsis, application of the standardized laboratory package in suspected sepsis cases increased from 0% in April 2009 to 93% in July 2011, and the median incidence of neonatal sepsis was reduced by 67%. The organizational changes implemented for the diagnosis and verification of neonatal sepsis led to a reduction in the newborn sepsis admissions and expenditures for antibiotics, allowing resources to be redirected to treating other critically ill newborns.

  13. Fluid resuscitation for paediatric sepsis: A survey of senior emergency physicians in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Long, Elliot; Babl, Franz; Dalziel, Stuart; Dalton, Sarah; Etheridge, Carly; Duke, Trevor

    2015-06-01

    It is unclear whether emerging evidence for harm from aggressive fluid resuscitation for paediatric sepsis has altered clinical practice. We surveyed senior emergency physicians to see if their fluid resuscitation practices conformed to published clinical guidelines. This is a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of senior emergency medical staff in any of 12 Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) Network centres in Australia and New Zealand. There were 110 of 120 (92%) senior medical staff who responded. Ninety-eight per cent of respondents used 0.9% saline as their primary resuscitation fluid. Sixty-two per cent of respondents used 20 mL/kg fluid bolus for every bolus, 30% used 20 mL/kg for the first bolus and 10 mL/kg subsequently. Response to fluid bolus administration was based on clinical parameters in 92% of respondents (heart rate, BP, skin perfusion/mottling and central capillary refill), conscious state in 80% and venous lactate in 75%. Harm from fluid bolus administration was routinely monitored for by 81% of respondents. In those assessing for harm, clinical parameters were reported to be most commonly used (respiratory rate and effort in 60%, SpO2 in 55%, presence of crackles on lung auscultation in 50% and hepatomegaly in 42%). Invasive or ultrasound-based monitoring was used infrequently. Paediatric sepsis is reported to be managed by senior emergency physicians largely according to published guidelines. At this time, evidence for potential harm from fluid bolus resuscitation has not altered practice. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  14. Emergency department management of early sepsis: a national survey of emergency medicine and intensive care consultants.

    PubMed

    Jiwaji, Zoeb; Brady, Shirin; McIntyre, Lauralyn A; Gray, Alasdair; Walsh, Timothy S

    2014-12-01

    Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) is recommended for sepsis management in current guidelines, but the underpinning evidence is controversial. Clinician beliefs and the capacity to implement all recommended elements of EGDT in emergency departments (EDs) are uncertain. Our study aimed to explore self-reported management of early sepsis by Scottish emergency medicine (EM) and intensive care medicine (ICM) consultants, delineate important differences and determine the guideline recommendations rated most important and deliverable within the ED. A postal survey using a hypothetical patient with septic shock was sent to all EM and ICM consultants practising in Scotland. 67% (76/114) EM and 61% (96/157) ICM consultants responded. Normal saline was preferred by EM respondents ('always/often used': EM 86%, ICM 23%, p<0.0001), whereas ICM respondents preferred Hartmann's solution (EM 42%, ICM 72%, p=0.0164), gelofusin (EM 10%, ICM 63%, p<0.0001) and starch (EM 0%, ICM 24%, p<0.0001). More ICM respondents indicated they used central venous pressure and invasive arterial pressure monitoring in the ED, and initiated vasopressors (EM 57%, ICM 90%, p<0.0001). More ICM consultants used specific haemoglobin transfusion triggers (48% EM, 77% ICM, p=0.0002), but marked variation in haemoglobin triggers and targets was reported. Lactate was rated the most important single resuscitation parameter by both specialties; no ED and only two ICM consultants rated ScVO2 most important. Differences in early fluid and vasopressor management of sepsis exist between Scottish ICM and EM consultants. Transfusion practice is highly variable, suggesting clinical uncertainty. Lactate is considered more important than ScVO2 measurement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Availability of critical care resources to treat patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in Africa: a self-reported, continent-wide survey of anaesthesia providers.

    PubMed

    Baelani, Inipavudu; Jochberger, Stefan; Laimer, Thomas; Otieno, Dave; Kabutu, Jane; Wilson, Iain; Baker, Tim; Dünser, Martin W

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether resources necessary to implement the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines and sepsis bundles are available in Africa. This self-reported, continent-wide survey compared the availability of these resources between African and high-income countries, and between two African regions (Sub-Sahara Africa vs. South Africa, Mauritius and the Northern African countries). The study was conducted as an anonymous questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among anaesthesia providers attending a transcontinental congress. Based on the respondents' country of practice, returned questionnaires were grouped into African and high-income countries. The questionnaire contained 74 items and evaluated all material resources required to implement the most recent Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. Group comparisons were performed with the Chi2, Fisher's Exact or Mann Whitney U test, as appropriate. The overall response rate was 74.3% (318/428). Three-hundred-seven questionnaires were analysed (African countries, n = 263; high-income countries, n = 44). Respondents from African hospitals were less likely to have an emergency room (85.5 vs. 97.7%, P = 0.03) or intensive care unit (73.8 vs. 100%, P < 0.001) than respondents from high-income countries. Drugs, equipment, and disposable materials required to implement the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines or sepsis bundles were less frequently available in African than high-income countries. Of all African and Sub-Saharan African countries, 1.5% (4/263) and 1.2% (3/248) of respondents had the resources available to implement the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines in entirety. The percentage of implementable recommendations was lower in African than in high-income countries (72.6 (57.7 to 87.7)% vs. 100 (100 to 100)%, P < 0.001) and lower in Sub-Saharan African countries than South Africa, Mauritius, and the Northern African countries (72.6 (56.2 to 86.3)% vs. 90.4 (71.2 to 94.5)%, P = 0.02). The results of this

  16. An epidemiologic survey of pediatric sepsis in regional hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Bo; Yue, Hongni; Lin, Xiaofei; Li, Bing; Yang, Xiaochun; Shan, Chunming; Fan, Yujin; Dong, Maotian; Zhang, Yixing; Lin, Wenlong; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Su, Ping; Heng, Yongbo; Xu, Jinzhong; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2014-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, treatment, and outcomes of sepsis at regional hospitals in Huai'an, Jiangsu, China. Prospective data registry using a descriptive clinical epidemiologic approach through a collaborative network. Pediatric departments in 11 regional city and county referral hospitals serving 843,000 children (exclusive of neonates). All admissions (n = 27,836) of patients from 28 days to 15 years old from September 1, 2010, to August 31, 2011. None. A total of 1,530 patients met the 2005 international consensus definition of sepsis, corresponding to an estimated incidence of 181/100,000 children, with 80% under 5 years old, and in 10% (153), severe sepsis or septic shock developed. The overall case fatality rate for sepsis was 3.5% (53/1,530) or 34.6% (53/153) in those in whom severe sepsis or septic shock developed. Treatment varied widely and in many instances did not conform to international guidelines as reflected by inadequate use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, vasoactive agents, and inotropes. We first report the prevalence and outcome of pediatric sepsis based on a regional hospital network in China. The diverse treatment approaches and practice at low-level clinics suggest the need for clinical implementation of internationally recognized strategy to improve the care standard in resource-limited regional hospitals.

  17. The impact of evidence-based sepsis guidelines on emergency department clinical practice: a pre-post medical record audit.

    PubMed

    Romero, Bernadine; Fry, Margaret; Roche, Michael

    2017-01-10

    To explore the number of patients presenting with sepsis before and after guideline implementation; the impact of sepsis guidelines on triage assessment, emergency department management and time to antibiotics. Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity within hospitals. Globally, strategies have been implemented to reduce morbidity and mortality rates, which rely on the early recognition and management of sepsis. To improve patient outcomes, the New South Wales government in Australia introduced sepsis guidelines into emergency departments. However, the impact of the guidelines on clinical practice remains unclear. A 12-month pre-post retrospective randomised medical record audit of adult patients with a sepsis diagnosis. Data were extracted from the emergency department database and paper medical record. Data included patient demographic (age, gender), clinical information (time of arrival, triage code, seen by time, disposition, time to antibiotic, pathology, time to intravenous fluids) and patient assessment data (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature, oxygen saturations, medication). This study demonstrated a statistically significant 230-minute reduction in time to antibiotics post implementation of the guidelines. The post group (n = 165) received more urgent triage categories (n = 81; 49·1%), a 758-minute reduction in mean time to second litre of intravenous fluids and an improvement in collection of lactate (n = 112, 67·9%), also statistically significant. The findings highlight the impact the guidelines can have on clinician decision-making and behaviour that support best practice and positive patient outcomes. The sepsis guidelines improved the early assessment, recognition and management of patients presenting with sepsis in one tertiary referral emergency department. The use of evidenced-based guidelines can impact clinical decision-making and behaviour, resulting in the translation and support of

  18. Is Drotrecogin alfa (activated) for adults with severe sepsis, cost-effective in routine clinical practice?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) reported that Drotrecogin alfa (DrotAA) is cost-effective based on a Phase III clinical trial (PROWESS). There is little evidence on whether DrotAA is cost-effective in routine clinical practice. We assessed whether DrotAA is cost-effective in routine practice for adult patients with severe sepsis and multiple organ systems failing. Methods This CEA used data from a prospective cohort study that compared DrotAA versus no DrotAA (control) for severe sepsis patients with multiple organ systems failing admitted to critical care units in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The cohort study used case-mix and mortality data from a national audit, linked with a separate audit of DrotAA infusions. Re-admissions to critical care and corresponding mortality were recorded for four years. Patients receiving DrotAA (n = 1,076) were matched to controls (n = 1,650) with a propensity score (Pscore), and Genetic Matching (GenMatch). The CEA projected long-term survival to report lifetime incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) overall, and for subgroups with two or three to five organ systems failing at baseline. Results The incremental costs per QALY for DrotAA were £30,000 overall, and £16,000 for the subgroups with three to five organ systems failing. For patients with two organ systems failing, DrotAA resulted in an average loss of one QALY at an incremental cost of £15,000. When the subgroup with two organ systems was restricted to patients receiving DrotAA within 24 hours, DrotAA led to a gain of 1.2 QALYs at a cost per QALY of £11,000. The results were robust to other assumptions including the approach taken to projecting long-term outcomes. Conclusions DrotAA is cost-effective in routine practice for severe sepsis patients with three to five organ systems failing. For patients with two organ systems failing, this study could not provide unequivocal evidence on the cost-effectiveness of Drot

  19. Severe sepsis and septic shock in pre-hospital emergency medicine: survey results of medical directors of emergency medical services concerning antibiotics, blood cultures and algorithms.

    PubMed

    Casu, Sebastian; Häske, David

    2016-06-01

    Delayed antibiotic treatment for patients in severe sepsis and septic shock decreases the probability of survival. In this survey, medical directors of different emergency medical services (EMS) in Germany were asked if they are prepared for pre-hospital sepsis therapy with antibiotics or special algorithms to evaluate the individual preparations of the different rescue areas for the treatment of patients with this infectious disease. The objective of the survey was to obtain a general picture of the current status of the EMS with respect to rapid antibiotic treatment for sepsis. A total of 166 medical directors were invited to complete a short survey on behalf of the different rescue service districts in Germany via an electronic cover letter. Of the rescue districts, 25.6 % (n = 20) stated that they keep antibiotics on EMS vehicles. In addition, 2.6 % carry blood cultures on the vehicles. The most common antibiotic is ceftriaxone (third generation cephalosporin). In total, 8 (10.3 %) rescue districts use an algorithm for patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Although the German EMS is an emergency physician-based rescue system, special opportunities in the form of antibiotics on emergency physician vehicles are missing. Simultaneously, only 10.3 % of the rescue districts use a special algorithm for sepsis therapy. Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock do not appear to be prioritized as highly as these deadly diseases should be in the pre-hospital setting.

  20. Practices related to late-onset sepsis in very low-birth weight preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Bentlin, Maria Regina; Rugolo, Ligia M S S; Ferrari, Ligia S L

    2015-01-01

    To understand the practices related to late-onset sepsis (LOS) in the centers of the Brazilian Neonatal Research Network, and to propose strategies to reduce the incidence of LOS. This was a cross-sectional descriptive multicenter study approved by the Ethics Committee. Three questionnaires regarding hand hygiene, vascular catheters, and diagnosis/treatment of LOS were sent to the coordinator of each center. The center with the lowest incidence of LOS was compared with the others. All 16 centers answered the questionnaires. Regarding hand hygiene, 87% use chlorhexidine or 70% alcohol; alcohol gel is used in 100%; 80% use bedside dispensers (50% had one dispenser for every two beds); practical training occurs in 100% and theoretical training in 70% of the centers, and 37% train once a year. Catheters: 94% have a protocol, and 75% have a line insertion team. Diagnosis/treatment: complete blood count and blood culture are used in 100%, PCR in 87%, hematological scores in 75%; oxacillin and aminoglycosides is the empirical therapy in 50% of centers. Characteristics of the center with lowest incidence of LOS: stricter hand hygiene; catheter insertion and maintenance groups; use of blood culture, PCR, and hematological score for diagnosis; empirical therapy with oxacillin and aminoglycoside. The knowledge of the practices of each center allowed for the identification of aspects to be improved as a strategy to reduce LOS, including: alcohol gel use, hand hygiene training, implementation of catheter teams, and wise use of antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Sepsis biomarkers: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Biomarkers can be useful for identifying or ruling out sepsis, identifying patients who may benefit from specific therapies or assessing the response to therapy. Methods We used an electronic search of the PubMed database using the key words "sepsis" and "biomarker" to identify clinical and experimental studies which evaluated a biomarker in sepsis. Results The search retrieved 3370 references covering 178 different biomarkers. Conclusions Many biomarkers have been evaluated for use in sepsis. Most of the biomarkers had been tested clinically, primarily as prognostic markers in sepsis; relatively few have been used for diagnosis. None has sufficient specificity or sensitivity to be routinely employed in clinical practice. PCT and CRP have been most widely used, but even these have limited ability to distinguish sepsis from other inflammatory conditions or to predict outcome. PMID:20144219

  2. Astrometric exoplanet surveys in practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlmann, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Conversely to the transit photometry and radial velocity methods, the astrometric discovery of exoplanets is still limited by the sensitivity of available instruments. Ground-based surveys are now sensitive to giant planets in orbit around nearby low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. In 2014, ESA's Gaia mission began its survey, which is expected to discover thousands of giant exoplanets by detecting the astrometric orbital motions of the host stars.

  3. Towards a consensus definition of maternal sepsis: results of a systematic review and expert consultation.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Mercedes; Nogueira Pileggi, Vicky; Rijken, Marcus J; Coomarasamy, Arri; Lissauer, David; Souza, João Paulo; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin

    2017-05-30

    There is a need for a clear and actionable definition of maternal sepsis, in order to better assess the burden of this condition, trigger timely and effective treatment and allow comparisons across facilities and countries. The objective of this study was to review maternal sepsis definitions and identification criteria and to report on the results of an expert consultation to develop a new international definition of maternal sepsis. All original and review articles and WHO documents, as well as clinical guidelines providing definitions and/or identification criteria of maternal sepsis were included. A multidisciplinary international panel of experts was surveyed through an online consultation in March-April 2016 on their opinion on the existing sepsis definitions, including new definition of sepsis proposed for the adult population (2016 Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock) and importance of different criteria for identification of maternal sepsis. The definition was agreed using an iterative process in an expert face-to-face consensus development meeting convened by WHO and Jhpiego. Standardizing the definition of maternal sepsis and aligning it with the current understanding of sepsis in the adult population was considered a mandatory step to improve the assessment of the burden of maternal sepsis by the expert panel. The literature review and expert consultation resulted in a new WHO consensus definition "Maternal sepsis is a life-threatening condition defined as organ dysfunction resulting from infection during pregnancy, child-birth, post-abortion, or post-partum period". Plans are in progress to validate the new WHO definition of maternal sepsis in a large international population. The operationalization of the new maternal sepsis definition requires generation of a set of practical criteria to identify women with sepsis. These criteria should enable clinicians to focus on the timely initiation of actionable elements of

  4. Sepsis: An update in management.

    PubMed

    Galen, Benjamin T; Sankey, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Hospitalists are a critical link in providing evidence-based care for patients with sepsis across the disease spectrum, from early recognition to recovery. The past decade of sepsis research has led to significant findings that will change clinical practice for hospital medicine practitioners. Although the incidence of severe sepsis in the United States has continued to rise, in-hospital mortality has declined. Management of the spectrum of sepsis disorders is no longer restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This review article will provide an update in the management of sepsis for hospitalists based on recently published pivotal studies. The expanding evidence base in sepsis includes early goal-directed therapy/clinical endpoints/sepsis bundles, antibiotics and source control, volume resuscitation, ICU considerations (including the use of insulin and corticosteroids), mortality/complications, and the newly recognized condition of "sepsis survivorship".

  5. Risk factors and practices contributing to newborn sepsis in a rural district of Eastern Uganda, August 2013: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    John, Bua; David, Mukanga; Mathias, Lwanga; Elizabeth, Nabiwemba

    2015-08-09

    In Uganda, newborn deaths constituted over 38% of all infant deaths in 2010. Despite different mitigation interventions over years, the newborn mortality rate is high at 27/1,000 and newborn sepsis contributes to 31% of that mortality. Therefore, improved strategies that contribute to reduction of newborn sepsis need to be developed and implemented. Understanding the context relevant risk factors that determine and practices contributing to newborn sepsis will inform this process. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kidera Health Centre in Kidera Sub County, Buyende district between January and August 2013. A total of 174 mothers of sick newborns and 8 health workers were interviewed. Main outcome was newborn sepsis confirmed by blood culture. Independent variables included; mothers' demographics characteristics, maternal care history and newborn care practices. The odds ratios were used to measure associations and Chi square or Fisher's exact tests to test the associations. 95% confidence intervals and P values for the odds ratios were determined. Logistic regression was conducted to identify predictor factors for newborn sepsis. 21.8% (38/174) of newborns had laboratory confirmed sepsis. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest aetiological agent. Mothers not screened and treated for infections during antenatal (OR = 3.37; 95% CI 1.23-9.22) plus inability of sick newborns to breast feed (OR = 3.9; 95% CI 1.54-9.75) were factors associated with increased likelihood of having laboratory confirmed sepsis. Women not receiving health education during antenatal about care seeking (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.07-4.61) and newborn danger signs (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.08-4.71) was associated with laboratory confirmed newborn sepsis. The supply of antibiotics and sundries was inadequate to sufficiently control sepsis within health facility. Lack of antenatal care or access to it at health facilities was likely to later result in more sick newborns with sepsis. Poor breastfeeding by

  6. Survey of Compensation Practices in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedict, Forest C.; And Others

    This national survey collected information on the wage and salary management practices in use in institutions of higher education. The survey questionnaire was distributed to approximately 3,000 institutions of higher education in the United States. Characteristics of the over 800 respondents are analyzed. A section on job analysis practices…

  7. A Survey of Psychological Assessment Feedback Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven R.; Wiggins, Chauntel M.; Gorske, Tad T.

    2007-01-01

    There have been no previous studies on how often psychologists conduct feedback and whether they view this practice as a useful component of assessment. To explore psychologists' feedback practices and their perception of the effects of feedback on their clients, the authors examined survey data from 719 psychologist members of the International…

  8. A Survey of Psychological Assessment Feedback Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven R.; Wiggins, Chauntel M.; Gorske, Tad T.

    2007-01-01

    There have been no previous studies on how often psychologists conduct feedback and whether they view this practice as a useful component of assessment. To explore psychologists' feedback practices and their perception of the effects of feedback on their clients, the authors examined survey data from 719 psychologist members of the International…

  9. Implementing sepsis bundles

    PubMed Central

    Jozwiak, Mathieu; Monnet, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis bundles represent key elements of care regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients with septic shock and allow ones to convert complex guidelines into meaningful changes in behavior. Sepsis bundles endorsed the early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) and their implementation resulted in an improved outcome of septic shock patients. They induced more consistent and timely application of evidence-based care and reduced practice variability. These benefits mainly depend on the compliance with sepsis bundles, highlighting the importance of dedicated performance improvement initiatives, such as multifaceted educational programs. Nevertheless, the interest of early goal directed therapy in septic shock patients compared to usual care has recently been questioned, leading to an update of sepsis bundles in 2015. These new sepsis bundles may also exhibit, as the previous bundles, some limits and pitfalls and the effects of their implementation still needs to be evaluated. PMID:27713890

  10. Medical Simulation Practices 2010 Survey Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrindle, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Medical Simulation Centers are an essential component of our learning infrastructure to prepare doctors and nurses for their careers. Unlike the military and aerospace simulation industry, very little has been published regarding the best practices currently in use within medical simulation centers. This survey attempts to provide insight into the current simulation practices at medical schools, hospitals, university nursing programs and community college nursing programs. Students within the MBA program at Saint Joseph's University conducted a survey of medical simulation practices during the summer 2010 semester. A total of 115 institutions responded to the survey. The survey resus discuss overall effectiveness of current simulation centers as well as the tools and techniques used to conduct the simulation activity

  11. Neutrophil Dysfunction in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Liu, An-Lei; Gao, Shuang; Ma, Shui; Guo, Shu-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. In this article, we reviewed the correlation between neutrophil dysfunction and sepsis. Data Sources: Articles published up to May 31, 2016, were selected from the PubMed databases, with the keywords of “neutrophil function”, “neutrophil dysfunction”, and “sepsis”. Study Selection: Articles were obtained and reviewed to analyze the neutrophil function in infection and neutrophil dysfunction in sepsis. Results: We emphasized the diagnosis of sepsis and its limitations. Pathophysiological mechanisms involve a generalized circulatory, immune, coagulopathic, and/or neuroendocrine response to infection. Many studies focused on neutrophil burst or cytokines. Complement activation, impairment of neutrophil migration, and endothelial lesions are involved in this progress. Alterations of cytokines, chemokines, and other mediators contribute to neutrophil dysfunction in sepsis. Conclusions: Sepsis represents a severe derangement of the immune response to infection, resulting in neutrophil dysfunction. Neutrophil dysfunction promotes sepsis and even leads to organ failure. Mechanism studies, clinical practice, and strategies to interrupt dysregulated neutrophil function in sepsis are desperately needed. PMID:27824008

  12. THE ENDOTHELIUM IN SEPSIS

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Can; Mayeux, Philip R.; Nguyen, Trung; Gomez, Hernando; Kellum, John A.; Ospina-Tascón, Gustavo A.; Hernandez, Glenn; Murray, Patrick; De Backer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis affects practically all aspects of endothelial cell (EC) function and is thought to be the key factor in the progression from sepsis to organ failure. Endothelial functions affected by sepsis include vasoregulation, barrier function, inflammation, and hemostasis. These are among other mechanisms often mediated by glycocalyx shedding, such as abnormal nitric oxide metabolism, up-regulation of reactive oxygen species generation due to down-regulation of endothelial-associated antioxidant defenses, transcellular communication, proteases, exposure of adhesion molecules, and activation of tissue factor. This review covers current insight in EC-associated hemostatic responses to sepsis and the EC response to inflammation. The endothelial cell lining is highly heterogeneous between different organ systems and consequently also in its response to sepsis. In this context, we discuss the response of the endothelial cell lining to sepsis in the kidney, liver, and lung. Finally, we discuss evidence as to whether the EC response to sepsis is adaptive or maladaptive. This study is a result of an Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative XIV Sepsis Workgroup meeting held in Bogota, Columbia, between October 12 and 15, 2014. PMID:26871664

  13. THE ENDOTHELIUM IN SEPSIS.

    PubMed

    Ince, Can; Mayeux, Philip R; Nguyen, Trung; Gomez, Hernando; Kellum, John A; Ospina-Tascón, Gustavo A; Hernandez, Glenn; Murray, Patrick; De Backer, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Sepsis affects practically all aspects of endothelial cell (EC) function and is thought to be the key factor in the progression from sepsis to organ failure. Endothelial functions affected by sepsis include vasoregulation, barrier function, inflammation, and hemostasis. These are among other mechanisms often mediated by glycocalyx shedding, such as abnormal nitric oxide metabolism, up-regulation of reactive oxygen species generation due to down-regulation of endothelial-associated antioxidant defenses, transcellular communication, proteases, exposure of adhesion molecules, and activation of tissue factor. This review covers current insight in EC-associated hemostatic responses to sepsis and the EC response to inflammation. The endothelial cell lining is highly heterogeneous between different organ systems and consequently also in its response to sepsis. In this context, we discuss the response of the endothelial cell lining to sepsis in the kidney, liver, and lung. Finally, we discuss evidence as to whether the EC response to sepsis is adaptive or maladaptive. This study is a result of an Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative XIV Sepsis Workgroup meeting held in Bogota, Columbia, between October 12 and 15, 2014.

  14. Pediatric Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Prusakowski, Melanie K; Chen, Audrey P

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric sepsis is distinct from adult sepsis in its definitions, clinical presentations, and management. Recognition of pediatric sepsis is complicated by the various pediatric-specific comorbidities that contribute to its mortality and the age- and development-specific vital sign and clinical parameters that obscure its recognition. This article outlines the clinical presentation and management of sepsis in neonates, infants, and children, and highlights some key populations who require specialized care.

  15. Sepsis and septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Opal, Steven M.; Reinhart, Konrad; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, sepsis was defined as a microbial infection that produces fever (or hypothermia), tachycardia, tachypnoea and blood leukocyte changes. Sepsis is now increasingly being considered a dysregulated systemic inflammatory and immune response to microbial invasion that produces organ injury for which mortality rates are declining to 15–25%. Septic shock remains defined as sepsis with hyperlactataemia and concurrent hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy, with in-hospital mortality rates approaching 30–50%. With earlier recognition and more compliance to best practices, sepsis has become less of an immediate life-threatening disorder and more of a long-term chronic critical illness, often associated with prolonged inflammation, immune suppression, organ injury and lean tissue wasting. Furthermore, patients who survive sepsis have continuing risk of mortality after discharge, as well as long-term cognitive and functional deficits. Earlier recognition and improved implementation of best practices have reduced in-hospital mortality, but results from the use of immunomodulatory agents to date have been disappointing. Similarly, no biomarker can definitely diagnose sepsis or predict its clinical outcome. Because of its complexity, improvements in sepsis outcomes are likely to continue to be slow and incremental. PMID:28117397

  16. Homeopathic practice in Intensive Care Units: objective semiology, symptom selection and a series of sepsis cases.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M Z; Leal, S M; Ceschin, V M F A

    2008-10-01

    Homeopathy has been used for more than two hundred years to treat chronic disease using various approaches in a wide range of diseases. However, for acute disease and critical illness, application has been limited by inadequate training of homeopathic physicians and the small number of pertinent clinical studies. In view of the difficulty of practising homeopathy in Intensive Care Units (ICU), a protocol was developed to facilitate description of objective homeopathic symptoms with a ranking of symptoms appropriate for these situations (Protocol for Objective Homeopathic Semiology). Examples of favorable results with individualized homeopathic treatments for a series of cases of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (sepsis) are described.

  17. Feasibility of contact surveys in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A; Mant, D

    1987-01-01

    Surveys to evaluate risk factors for disease in the general population are popular with health authorities for assessing the effectiveness of their preventive measures. A contact survey of the lifestyles of 2000 randomly selected patients aged 25-64 was conducted in five general practices over 18 months; the medical records of the patients selected were tagged, and when the patients first visited the surgery they were given a questionnaire by the receptionists, which they completed in the waiting room. Over the 18 months at least 1400 of these patients visited the practices, of whom 1106 (55%) completed a questionnaire and 20 refused to do so; 896 (81%) completed it within one year. Information on the patients who were not surveyed was obtained by sending the questionnaire by post and by audit of medical records. The population surveyed on contact with the surgeries contained a higher proportion of young women, and possibly a higher proportion of patients from social classes IIIM-V, than the other patients. No important or consistent bias towards unhealthy patients at high risk was identified in the contact survey. A one year contact survey of a random, tagged sample is feasible in estimating the risk factors in a population and may be the method of choice in general practice because of its low cost and adaptability. PMID:3120900

  18. A practical guide to surveys and questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Eric L; Voelker, Courtney C J; Nussenbaum, Brian; Rich, Jason T; Paniello, Randal C; Neely, J Gail

    2011-06-01

    Surveys with questionnaires play a vital role in decision and policy making in society. Within medicine, including otolaryngology, surveys with questionnaires may be the only method for gathering data on rare or unusual events. In addition, questionnaires can be developed and validated to be used as outcome measures in clinical trials and other clinical research architecture. Consequently, it is fundamentally important that such tools be properly developed and validated. Just asking questions that have not gone through rigorous design and development may be misleading and unfair at best; at worst, they can result in under- or overtreatment and unnecessary expense. Furthermore, it is important that consumers of the data produced by these instruments understand the principles of questionnaire design to interpret results in an optimal and meaningful way. This article presents a practical guide for understanding the methodologies of survey and questionnaire design, including the concepts of validity and reliability, how surveys are administered and implemented, and, finally, biases and pitfalls of surveys.

  19. Regional anesthesia practice in China: a survey.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jeffrey; Gao, Huan

    2016-11-01

    Neuraxial anesthesia has been widely used in China. Recently, Chinese anesthesiologists have applied nerve stimulator and ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blocks. Nationwide surveys about regional anesthesia practices in China are lacking. We surveyed Chinese anesthesiologists about regional anesthesia techniques, preference, drug selections, complications, and treatments. A survey was sent to all anesthesiologist members by WeChat. The respondents can choose mobile device or desktop to complete the survey. Each IP address is allowed to complete the survey once. A total of 6589 members read invitations. A total of 2654 responses were received with fully completed questionnaires, which represented an overall response rate of 40%. Forty-one percent of the respondents reported that more than 50% of surgeries in their hospitals were done under regional anesthesia. Most of the participants used test dose after epidural catheter insertion. The most common drug for test dose was 3-mL 1.5% lidocaine; 2.6% of the participants reported that they had treated a patient with epidural hematoma after neuraxial anesthesia. Most anesthesiologists (68.2%) performed peripheral nerve blocks as blind procedures based on the knowledge of anatomical landmarks. A majority of hospitals (80%) did not stock Intralipid; 61% of the respondents did not receive peripheral nerve block training. The current survey can serve as a benchmark for future comparisons and evaluation of regional anesthesia practices in China. This survey revealed potential regional anesthesia safety issues in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Training for general practice: a national survey.

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, H S; Levin, J B

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--(a) To compare current vocational training in general practice with that ascertained by a survey in 1980; (b) to compare the training of trainees in formal training schemes with that of trainees arranging their own hospital and general practice posts. DESIGN--National questionnaire survey of United Kingdom and armed services trainees who were in a training practice on 1 April 1989. Questionnaires were distributed by course organisers. SETTING--Research project set up after an ad hoc meeting of trainees at the 1988 national trainee conference. SUBJECTS--2132 Of the 2281 trainees (93%) known to be in a training practice on 1 April 1989. RESULTS--1657 Trainees returned the questionnaires, representing 73% of all trainees known to be in a training practice on 1 April 1989. Between 1980 and 1989 there were significant improvements in the trainee year, and there was also evidence of improvements in general practice study release courses. There was no evidence of improvement in other aspects of training. General practice trainees spent an average of three years in junior hospital posts, which provided very little opportunity for study related to general practice. Training received during tenure of hospital posts differed significantly between trainees in formal schemes and those arranging their own hospital posts. During the trainee year training was almost the same for those in formal schemes and those arranging their own posts. Regions varied significantly in virtually all aspects of general practice training. CONCLUSIONS--The trainee year could be improved further by enforcing the guidelines of the Joint Committee on Postgraduate Training for General Practice. The poor training in junior hospital posts reflected the low priority that training is generally given during tenure of these posts. A higher proportion of general practice trainees should be attached to vocational training schemes. More hospital trainees could attend general practice study release

  1. Family practice clinics. Survey of family practice residents' attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, H.; Levitt, C.

    1993-01-01

    All residents of McGill University's Department of Family Medicine were surveyed by mail about their family practice clinic experience. Residents were generally satisfied with their training site and their supervision, but noted problems with volume and diversity of patients, learning certain procedures, and knowledge of community resources. They did not want more family medicine clinic time. PMID:8219838

  2. A Survey of the Competency of Ambulance Service Personnel in the Diagnosis and Management of Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Shime, Nobuaki

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated the current status of knowledge of sepsis in ambulance service personnel. Our aim was to ascertain the levels of competency and proficiency of ambulance service personnel in the diagnosis and management of severe sepsis. A questionnaire was submitted to a sample of 208 participants in a professional ambulance service conference, and was recovered on site. The study probed eight areas of sepsis diagnosis and management based on modifications of a questionnaire used in a previous study. The term sepsis in Japanese, Haiketsushou, was familiar to 99% of Japanese certified emergency life-saving technicians (ELST) (Group I) and to 92% of noncertified ambulance service personnel (Group II), although 15% of participants in Group I and 44% in Group II ignored the meaning of sepsis. The definition of sepsis as "body's response to infection," "blood poisoning," or "shock due to bacteria in blood" were selected by 17%, 16%, and 37%, respectively, in Group I, and 4%, 6%, and 22%, respectively, in Group II. The mortality associated with sepsis was underestimated by 57% in Group I and 78% in Group II. Vital signs raising a suspicion for sepsis and their pertinent ranges were correctly chosen by only 50% of certified ELST. Hypothermia was prominently undervalued as a sign raising the suspicion of sepsis. Insufficient knowledge and perception for sepsis in Japanese ambulance services is revealed. A higher level of onsite or formal postgraduate education needs to be provided with a view to improve the prehospital management of sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optometry Australia Scope of Practice Survey 2015.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Patricia M; Cappuccio, Skye; McIntyre, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents results from the inaugural Scope of Practice Survey of Optometry Australia members conducted in October 2015. The survey gathered information related to confidence in detecting and diagnosing key ocular conditions, grading diabetic retinopathy, prescribing scheduled medicines, access to equipment, confidence using equipment, incidence of patients requiring therapeutic management, referral practices and services provided. The survey was developed, piloted, modified and administered to members of Optometry Australia (excluding student and retired members), who had a current email address. Results were collated and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Of the 587 optometrists in clinical practice who responded, 254 (43 per cent) had therapeutic endorsement of registration. The majority of respondents practised in a major city or surrounding suburbs (63 per cent). Independent practice was the most frequently cited practice type (58 per cent). The estimated average number of patients seen in a week was 48; there was a steady decrease in the number of patients per week with increasing age, from 53 for optometrists in their 20s to 27 for optometrists aged over 70. There was very high confidence (over 93 per cent) in ability to grade diabetic retinopathy and diagnose a range of ocular conditions. Confidence in performance of more advanced techniques was higher for endorsed than non-endorsed optometrists. Approximately 12 per cent of patients required a Schedule 4 therapeutic prescription. The most frequently recommended over-the-counter medications were for dry eye for both endorsed and non-endorsed optometrists. The most frequently prescribed Schedule 4 medications were anti-inflammatories. The most challenging conditions to prescribe for were glaucoma, microbial keratitis and uveitis. Approximately one in six therapeutically endorsed optometrists reported unexpected side effects of medications they had prescribed. Information from the survey will guide

  4. Neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Iva Mihatov

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is the most common cause of neonatal deaths with high mortality despite treatment. Neonatal sepsis can be classified into two subtypes depending upon onset of symptoms. There are many factors that make neonates more susceptable to infection. Signs of sepsis in neonates are often non-specific and high degree of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis. Some laboratory parameters can be helpful for screening of neonates with neonatal sepsis, but none of it is specific and sensitive enough to be used singly. Diagnostic approach mostly focuses on history and review of non specific signs and symptoms. Antibiotic treatment is the mainstay of treatment and supportive care is equally important. The aim of this review is to give an overview of neonatal sepsis, including incidence, etiology, clinical picture, diagnostics and therapy.

  5. The use of common continuous monitoring parameters: a quality indicator for critically ill patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Karen K; Kleinpell, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Sepsis is a common source of morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients, and targeting measures to promote early recognition and treatment of sepsis is at the forefront of many critical care initiatives. Starting formally in 1992, with the publication of the definitions of sepsis, continuous monitoring of several common physiologic parameters, including electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation, have been advocated as important in the early identification and treatment of patients with sepsis. The descriptive study detailed in this article was conducted to assess the perceptions and clinical continuous physiologic monitoring practices of experienced critical care clinicians with regard to their use of common physiologic monitoring parameters in the care of patients with sepsis. A convenience sample of 100 physicians and 517 nurses completed a 20-item survey assessing perceptions and clinical monitoring practices related to the care of patients with sepsis. Results indicated that the basic parameters of electrocardiogram, invasive blood pressure, pulmonary arterial catheter monitoring, and oxygen saturation all have value in the recognition and treatment of patients with sepsis. The majority of clinicians used these parameters routinely and felt they were necessary for patient care. These results indicate that clinical practice is in concordance with current practice recommendations.

  6. Neonatal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Birju A; Padbury, James F

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis continues to be a common and significant health care burden, especially in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBW <1500 g). Though intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has decreased the incidence of early-onset group B streptococcal infection dramatically, it still remains a major cause of neonatal sepsis. Moreover, some studies among VLBW preterm infants have shown an increase in early-onset sepsis caused by Escherichia coli. As the signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis are nonspecific, early diagnosis and prompt treatment remains a challenge. There have been a myriad of studies on various diagnostic markers like hematological indices, acute phase reactants, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, cytokines, and cell surface markers among others. Nonetheless, further research is needed to identify a biomarker with high diagnostic accuracy and validity. Some of the newer markers like inter α inhibitor proteins have shown promising results thereby potentially aiding in early detection of neonates with sepsis. In order to decrease the widespread, prolonged use of unnecessary antibiotics and improve the outcome of the infants with sepsis, reliable identification of sepsis at an earlier stage is paramount. PMID:24185532

  7. Survey of radiologic practices among dental practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, A.D.; Sciubba, J.J.; Friedman, R.; Malamud, H. )

    1989-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence and contribute to patient exposure in radiologic procedures performed in the offices of 132 staff members within the dental department of a teaching hospital. A questionnaire was prepared in which data were requested on brands of film used, type of x-ray unit used, processing, and use of leaded apron, cervical shield, and film holder. Offices were also visited to evaluate performance of existing dental x-ray equipment. Both the Dental Radiographic Normalizing and Monitoring Device and the Dental Quality Control Test Tool were evaluated. The average exposure was equivalent to the class D film (220 mR), but only 13% of those surveyed used the faster class E film, which would reduce patient exposure in half. The survey indicates that dentists are not using the newer low-exposure class E film in their practices.

  8. Clean birth and postnatal care practices to reduce neonatal deaths from sepsis and tetanus: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Annually over 520,000 newborns die from neonatal sepsis, and 60,000 more from tetanus. Estimates of the effect of clean birth and postnatal care practices are required for evidence-based program planning. Objective To review the evidence for clean birth and postnatal care practices and estimate the effect on neonatal mortality from sepsis and tetanus for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods We conducted a systematic review of multiple databases. Data were abstracted into standard tables and assessed by GRADE criteria. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were undertaken. For interventions with low quality evidence but a strong GRADE recommendation, a Delphi process was conducted. Results Low quality evidence supports a reduction in all-cause neonatal mortality (19% (95% c.i. 1–34%)), cord infection (30% (95% c.i. 20–39%)) and neonatal tetanus (49% (95% c.i. 35–62%)) with birth attendant handwashing. Very low quality evidence supports a reduction in neonatal tetanus mortality with a clean birth surface (93% (95% c.i. 77-100%)) and no relationship between a clean perineum and tetanus. Low quality evidence supports a reduction of neonatal tetanus with facility birth (68% (95% c.i. 47-88%). No relationship was found between birth place and cord infections or sepsis mortality. For postnatal clean practices, all-cause mortality is reduced with chlorhexidine cord applications in the first 24 hours of life (34% (95% c.i. 5–54%, moderate quality evidence) and antimicrobial cord applications (63% (95% c.i. 41–86%, low quality evidence). One study of postnatal maternal handwashing reported reductions in all-cause mortality (44% (95% c.i. 18–62%)) and cord infection ((24% (95% c.i. 5-40%)). Given the low quality of evidence, a Delphi expert opinion process was undertaken. Thirty experts reached consensus regarding reduction of neonatal sepsis deaths by clean birth practices at home (15% (IQR 10–20)) or in a facility (27% IQR 24–36)), and by clean

  9. Dental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, P O; Lowder, M Q

    1998-08-01

    Dental sepsis or periapical abscess formation constitutes a large percentage of dental conditions that afflict horses. Dental sepsis occurs when the pulp chamber of the tooth is exposed to the oral cavity or external environment, allowing bacterial localization with resulting infection. Although acute, primary, septic pulpitis in horses is rare, dental sepsis often results from colonization of the pulp chamber with pathogenic bacteria secondary to maleruption or impaction of teeth with secondary alveolar bone lysis, primary fractures of the tooth, mandible, or maxilla, periodontal disease, or infundibular necrosis. The sequela to pulpal infection are extensions into the periradicular tissues and mandibular or maxillary periapical abscess formation.

  10. Immunotherapy of Sepsis: Blind Alley or Call for Personalized Assessment?

    PubMed

    Prucha, Miroslav; Zazula, Roman; Russwurm, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis is the most frequent cause of death in noncoronary intensive care units. In the past 10 years, progress has been made in the early identification of septic patients and their treatment. These improvements in support and therapy mean that mortality is gradually decreasing, however, the rate of death from sepsis remains unacceptably high. Immunotherapy is not currently part of the routine treatment of sepsis. Despite experimental successes, the administration of agents to block the effect of sepsis mediators failed to show evidence for improved outcome in a multitude of clinical trials. The following survey summarizes the current knowledge and results of clinical trials on the immunotherapy of sepsis and describes the limitations of our knowledge of the pathogenesis of sepsis. Administration of immunomodulatory drugs should be linked to the current immune status assessed by both clinical and molecular patterns. Thus, a careful daily review of the patient's immune status needs to be introduced into routine clinical practice giving the opportunity for effective and tailored use of immunomodulatory therapy.

  11. Perioperative temperature control: Survey on current practices.

    PubMed

    Brogly, N; Alsina, E; de Celis, I; Huercio, I; Dominguez, A; Gilsanz, F

    2016-04-01

    Prevention of perioperative hypothermia decreases morbidity and mortality, as well as hospital costs. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of implementation of protocols in 3 tertiary Spanish University Hospitals. A survey among anaesthesiologists assessed estimated importance and clinical practice in terms of prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Results were compared depending on their experience. P<.05 was considered significant. A total of 116 anaesthesiologists answered the survey, of whom 48 (41.3%) were residents, 32 (27.6%) were staff with less than 10 years of experience, and 36 (31.1%) staff with 10 years or more of experience, In a 0-10 importance scale, prevention of hypothermia was scored 7.49±1,79, with no difference between groups (P=.58). Younger staff were more concerned of the end surgery temperature than other colleagues (P=.02). The most usual practice was a combination warming the intravenous fluids and an electric blanket (55%). Only 20% of the anaesthesiologists monitored temperature intra-operatively, even though 75% considered it an important parameter. No unit had a written protocol for prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Despite the absence of prevention protocols, the anaesthesiologists were aware of the importance maintaining a normal peri-operative temperature, but this awareness is still not enough to influence their perioperative management to diagnose and prevent hypothermia. A harmonisation of practice at local, regional and national level could improve this practice in the future. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Update on pediatric sepsis: a review.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality among children worldwide. Unfortunately, however, reliable evidence was insufficient in pediatric sepsis and many aspects in clinical practice actually depend on expert consensus and some evidence in adult sepsis. More recent findings have given us deep insights into pediatric sepsis since the publication of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines 2012. New knowledge was added regarding the hemodynamic management and the timely use of antimicrobials. Quality improvement initiatives of pediatric "sepsis bundles" were reported to be successful in clinical outcomes by several centers. Moreover, a recently published global epidemiologic study (the SPROUT study) did not only reveal the demographics, therapeutic interventions, and prognostic outcomes but also elucidated the inappropriateness of the current definition of pediatric sepsis. With these updated knowledge, the management of pediatric sepsis would be expected to make further progress. In addition, it is meaningful that the fundamental data on which future research should be based were established through the SPROUT study.

  13. Sepsis after elective ureteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Jonathan; Fox, Cristina; Fullerton, Sean; Matthews, Gerald; Phillips, John

    2017-10-01

    We sought to determine our rate of postoperative sepsis after ureteroscopy as well as identifying associative factors, common antibiotic practices along with culture data. Records of all patients who underwent elective ureteroscopy from 2010 to 2015 at an urban tertiary care facility were retrospectively reviewed. Factors thought to be associated with infection were collected, along with comorbidities depicted as Charlson Age-Adjusted Comorbidity Index (CAACI) and American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) score. Each patient's course was reviewed to determine if they were treated for postoperative sepsis as defined by standardized criteria. A total of 345 patients underwent elective ureteroscopy with 15 (4.3%) being treated for sepsis postoperatively. This resulted in an additional 5.33 ± 3.84 days of hospitalization per patient. The sepsis group grew three gram positive organisms and five multi-drug resistant (MDR) gram negatives while 7/15 (46.7%) had negative cultures. The most common preoperative antibiotics used in the sepsis group were cefazolin (60.0%), gentamicin (48.5%) and ciprofloxacin (20.0%). Univariate analysis showed prior endoscopic procedures, recent treatment for urinary tract infections (UTI), multiple comorbidities and longer operative times associated with sepsis. However, significant variables after multivariate analysis were treatment for UTI within the last month, (OR) 7.19 (2.25-22.99), p = 0.001. Patients with multiple comorbidities, prior endoscopic procedures, longer operative times and especially those recently treated for a urinary infection should be carefully monitored after ureteroscopy for signs of sepsis. Perioperative antibiotics in these patients should be selected to cover both MDR organisms and gram positives.

  14. A Survey of Australian Dysphagia Practice Patterns.

    PubMed

    Rumbach, Anna; Coombes, Caitlin; Doeltgen, Sebastian

    2017-09-20

    Dysphagia assessment and rehabilitation practice is complex, and significant variability in speech-language pathology approaches has been documented internationally. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing-related assessment and rehabilitation practices of SLPs currently working in Australia. One hundred and fifty-four SLPs completed an online questionnaire administered via QuickSurveys from May to July 2015. Results were analysed descriptively. The majority of clinicians had accessed post-graduate training in dysphagia management and assessment (66.23%). Referral and screening were typically on an ad hoc basis (74.03%). Clinical swallow examination (CSE) and Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study were used by 93.51 and 88.31% of respondents, respectively. CSE was the assessment that predominantly informed clinical decision-making (52.63%). Clinicians typically treated clients with dysphagia for 30 min per session (46.10%), with recommendations of repetition of exercises inconsistent across settings. Outcome measures were utilised by many (67.53%), which however were typically informal. Results indicate variable practice patterns for dysphagia assessment and management across Australia. This variability may reflect the heterogeneous nature of dysphagia and the varying needs of patients accessing different services.

  15. Biomarkers for Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Losa, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Bloodstream infections are a major concern because of high levels of antibiotic consumption and of the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Bacteraemia is identified in a small percentage of patients with signs and symptoms of sepsis. Biomarkers are widely used in clinical practice and they are useful for monitoring the infectious process. Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been most widely used, but even these have limited abilities to distinguish sepsis from other inflammatory conditions or to predict outcome. PCT has been used to guide empirical antibacterial therapy in patients with respiratory infections and help to determine if antibacterial therapy can be stopped. New biomarkers such as those in this review will discuss the major types of biomarkers of bloodstream infections/sepsis, including soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), soluble urokinase-type plasminogen receptor (suPAR), proadrenomedullin (ProADM), and presepsin. PMID:24800240

  16. Biomarkers for sepsis.

    PubMed

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Losa, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Bloodstream infections are a major concern because of high levels of antibiotic consumption and of the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Bacteraemia is identified in a small percentage of patients with signs and symptoms of sepsis. Biomarkers are widely used in clinical practice and they are useful for monitoring the infectious process. Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been most widely used, but even these have limited abilities to distinguish sepsis from other inflammatory conditions or to predict outcome. PCT has been used to guide empirical antibacterial therapy in patients with respiratory infections and help to determine if antibacterial therapy can be stopped. New biomarkers such as those in this review will discuss the major types of biomarkers of bloodstream infections/sepsis, including soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), soluble urokinase-type plasminogen receptor (suPAR), proadrenomedullin (ProADM), and presepsin.

  17. 75 FR 75725 - Survey of Information Sharing Practices With Affiliates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Survey of Information Sharing Practices With Affiliates AGENCY: Office of... collection. Title of Proposal: Survey of Information Sharing Practices With Affiliates. OMB Number: 1550-0121... information by means of a Survey to be completed by financial institutions and other persons that...

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound practice survey in latin america.

    PubMed

    Drigo, Juliana Marques; Castillo, Cecilia; Wever, Wallia; Obaldía, José Ricardo Ruíz; Fillipi, Sheila; Ribeiro, Manoel C S A; Rossini, Lucio G B

    2013-10-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, no official data exists regarding clinical EUS practice in Latin America (LA). This study assessed current EUS practice and training. A direct mail survey questionnaire was sent to 268 Capítulo Latino Americano de Ultrasonido Endoscópico members between August 2012 and January 2013. The questionnaire was sent out in English, Spanish and Portuguese languages and was available through the following site: http://www.cleus-encuesta.com. Responses were requested only from physicians who perform EUS. A total of 70 LA physicians answered the questionnaire until January 2013. Most of the participants were under 42 years of age (53%) and 80% were men. Most participants (45.7%) perform EUS in Brazil, 53% work in a private hospital. The majority (70%) also perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A total 42% had performed EUS for 2 years or less and 22.7% for 11 years or more. Only 10% performed more than 5000 EUS. The most common indication was an evaluation of pancreatic-biliary-ampullary lesions. Regarding training, 48.6% had more than 6 months of dedicated hands-on EUS and 37% think that at least 6 months of formal training is necessary to acquire competence. Furthermore, 64% think that more than 50 procedures for pancreatic-biliary lesions are necessary. This survey provides insight into the status of EUS in LA. EUS is performed mostly by young endoscopists in LA. Diagnostic upper EUS is the most common EUS procedure. Most endosonographers believe that formal training is necessary to acquire competence.

  19. Endoscopic Ultrasound Practice Survey in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Drigo, Juliana Marques; Castillo, Cecilia; Wever, Wallia; Obaldía, José Ricardo Ruíz; Fillipi, Sheila; Ribeiro, Manoel C. S. A.; Rossini, Lucio G. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has become an important imaging modality for the diagnosis, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, no official data exists regarding clinical EUS practice in Latin America (LA). This study assessed current EUS practice and training. Patients and Methods: A direct mail survey questionnaire was sent to 268 Capítulo Latino Americano de Ultrasonido Endoscópico members between August 2012 and January 2013. The questionnaire was sent out in English, Spanish and Portuguese languages and was available through the following site: http://www.cleus-encuesta.com. Responses were requested only from physicians who perform EUS. Results: A total of 70 LA physicians answered the questionnaire until January 2013. Most of the participants were under 42 years of age (53%) and 80% were men. Most participants (45.7%) perform EUS in Brazil, 53% work in a private hospital. The majority (70%) also perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A total 42% had performed EUS for 2 years or less and 22.7% for 11 years or more. Only 10% performed more than 5000 EUS. The most common indication was an evaluation of pancreatic-biliary-ampullary lesions. Regarding training, 48.6% had more than 6 months of dedicated hands-on EUS and 37% think that at least 6 months of formal training is necessary to acquire competence. Furthermore, 64% think that more than 50 procedures for pancreatic-biliary lesions are necessary. Conclusion: This survey provides insight into the status of EUS in LA. EUS is performed mostly by young endoscopists in LA. Diagnostic upper EUS is the most common EUS procedure. Most endosonographers believe that formal training is necessary to acquire competence. PMID:24949398

  20. Disinfection of laryngoscopes: A survey of practice

    PubMed Central

    Chaskar, Vaishali Prabhakar; Dave, Nandini Malay; Dias, Raylene; Karnik, Priyanka

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The laryngoscope is a common piece of equipment used by anaesthesiologists. It has been identified as a potential source of cross infection. Although guidelines exist regarding appropriate disinfection practices, recent reviews suggest ineffectiveness of current methods of disinfection and poor compliance with the established protocols. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey to study the current disinfection practices being followed by a cross section of anaesthesiologists. Methods: A simple questionnaire containing 13 questions was distributed amongst anaesthesiologists in an anaesthesia conference. Data were analysed with percentage analysis. Results: Out of 250 delegates who attended the conference, 150 submitted the completed questionnaires. Residents constituted 41% and 46% were consultants. Eighteen (12%) used only tap water for cleaning and 132 (88%) used a chemical agent after rinsing with water. Out of 132, 76 (51%) used detergent/soap solution, 29 (19%) would wash and then soak in disinfectant or germicidal agents (glutaraldehyde, povidone iodine and chlorhexidine) and 18 (12%) would wipe the blade with an alcohol swab. With respect to disinfection of laryngoscope handles, 70% respondents said they used an alcohol swab, 18% did not use any method, 9% were not aware of the method being used, while 3% did not respond. Conclusion: Our results indicate wide variation in methods of decontamination of laryngoscopes. Awareness regarding laryngoscope as a potential source of infection was high. We need to standardise and implement guidelines on a national level and make available resources which will help to improve patient safety. PMID:28405039

  1. [Survey of anesthesia practice in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Belkrezia, R; Kabbaj, S; Ismaïli, H; Maazouzi, W

    2002-01-01

    To estimate qualitatively and quantitatively the anaesthetic activity in Morocco to identify of the priorities and the norm to recommend. The investigation was realised from July 1999 to December 1999. It lasted seven days from Tuesday 8 PM to the following Tuesday 8 PM. A questionnaire was addressed to each hospital. One responsible has been chosen for each city. Data has been processed using the programming languages Microsoft Visual Basic. All Moroccan's hospitals practicing anaesthesia: university hospitals (UH), public hospitals (PH), and private sector (PS). All anaesthetic procedures realised by an anaesthetists; anaesthesia in medical office or dental surgery was excluded. An inventory of 2,630 anaesthesia was made. Anaesthesia distribution according to the type of hospitals was the same; PH = 35.7%, UH = 34.3% and PS = 29.96%. The preanaesthetic consultation was achieved in 47% of cases. Premedication was done in 28.5% of cases. General anaesthesia represented 3/4 of total anaesthesia. Thiopental was the drug the more frequently used. Gallamine and pethidine were still used in PH. Locoregional anaesthesia was realised in only 15% of cases. Electrocardioscopic surveillance not constant (65%), capnography almost absent in PH, pulse oximetry used in UH and PS. Ambulatory anaesthesia was used in 20% and emergency surgery in 30% of cases. Questioning about the Moroccan practice of anaesthesia is raised by this survey mostly because of drugs and monitoring use.

  2. Driving sepsis mortality down: emergency department and critical care partnerships.

    PubMed

    Powell, Kristine K; Fowler, Rita J

    2014-12-01

    This article describes the Baylor Health Care System (BHCS) approach to decreasing sepsis-related mortality within a large complex adaptive health care system. BHCS implemented sepsis care improvement initiatives based on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign early goal directed therapy guidelines. By adhering to rigorous process improvement and evidence-based practice principles, BHCS has demonstrated improvements in sepsis care processes and a significant reduction in sepsis mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neonatal sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... better the outcome. Possible Complications Complications may include: Disability Death When to Contact a Medical Professional Seek medical help right away for an infant that shows symptoms of neonatal sepsis. Prevention Pregnant women may need preventive antibiotics if they have: Chorioamnionitis ...

  4. Clinical and economic consequences of first-year urinary tract infections, sepsis, and pneumonia in contemporary kidney transplantation practice.

    PubMed

    Naik, Abhijit S; Dharnidharka, Vikas R; Schnitzler, Mark A; Brennan, Daniel C; Segev, Dorry L; Axelrod, David; Xiao, Huiling; Kucirka, Lauren; Chen, Jiajing; Lentine, Krista L

    2016-02-01

    We examined United States Renal Data System registry records for Medicare-insured kidney transplant recipients in 2000-2011 to study the clinical and cost impacts of urinary tract infections (UTI), pneumonia, and sepsis in the first year post-transplant among a contemporary, national cohort. Infections were identified by billing diagnostic codes. Among 60 702 recipients, 45% experienced at least one study infection in the first year post-transplant, including UTI in 32%, pneumonia in 13%, and sepsis in 12%. Older recipient age, female sex, diabetic kidney failure, nonstandard criteria organs, sirolimus-based immunosuppression, and steroids at discharge were associated with increased risk of first-year infections. By time-varying, multivariate Cox regression, all study infections predicted increased first-year mortality, ranging from 41% (aHR 1.41, 95% CI 1.25-1.56) for UTI alone, 6- to 12-fold risk for pneumonia or sepsis alone, to 34-fold risk (aHR 34.38, 95% CI 30.35-38.95) for those with all three infections. Infections also significantly increased first-year costs, from $17 691 (standard error (SE) $591) marginal cost increase for UTI alone, to approximately $40 000-$50 000 (SE $1054-1238) for pneumonia or sepsis alone, to $134 773 (SE $1876) for those with UTI, pneumonia, and sepsis. Clinical and economic impacts persisted in years 2-3 post-transplant. Early infections reflect important targets for management protocols to improve post-transplant outcomes and reduce costs of care. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  5. Clinical and Economic Consequences of First-Year Urinary Tract Infections, Sepsis and Pneumonia in Contemporary Kidney Transplantation Practice

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Abhijit S.; Dharnidharka, Vikas R.; Schnitzler, Mark A.; Brennan, Daniel C.; Segev, Dorry L.; Axelrod, David; Xiao, Huiling; Kucirka, Lauren; Chen, Jiajing; Lentine, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined United States Renal Data System registry records for Medicare-insured kidney transplant recipients in 2000–2011 to study the clinical and cost impacts of urinary tract infections (UTI), pneumonia, and sepsis in the first year post-transplant among a contemporary, national cohort. Infections were identified by billing diagnostic codes. Among 60,702 recipients, 45% experienced at least one study infection in the first year post-transplant, including UTI in 32%, pneumonia in 13%, and sepsis in 12%. Older recipient age, female sex, diabetic kidney failure, non-standard criteria organs, sirolimus-based immunosuppression and steroids at discharge were associated with increased risk of first-year infections. By time-varying, multivariate Cox regression, all study infections predicted increased first-year mortality, ranging from 41% (aHR 1.41, 95%CI 1.25–1.56) for UTI alone, 6-to-12-fold risk for pneumonia or sepsis alone, to 34-fold risk (aHR 34.38, 95%CI 30.35–38.95) for those with all three infections. Infections also significantly increased first-year costs, from $17,691 (standard error (SE) $591) marginal cost increase for UTI alone, to approximately $40,000–$50,000 (SE $1054–1238) for pneumonia or sepsis alone, to $134,773 (SE $1876) for those with UTI, pneumonia and sepsis. Clinical and economic impacts persisted in years 2–3 post-transplant. Early infections reflect important targets for management protocols to improve post-transplant outcomes and reduce costs of care. PMID:26563524

  6. Practical Guidelines for Evaluating Sampling Designs in Survey Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin

    The popularity of sample surveys in evaluation and research makes it necessary for consumers to tell a good survey from a poor one. Several sources were identified that gave advice on how to evaluate a sample design used in a survey study. The sources are either too limited or too extensive to be useful practically. The purpose of this paper is to…

  7. Introducing the Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (PIPS): A Concise, Interdisciplinary, and Easy-to-Score Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Emily M.; Henderson, Charles R.; Beach, Andrea L.; Williams, Cody T.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, administrators, and policy makers need valid and reliable information about teaching practices. The Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (PIPS) is designed to measure the instructional practices of postsecondary instructors from any discipline. The PIPS has 24 instructional practice statements and nine demographic questions.…

  8. Introducing the Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (PIPS): A Concise, Interdisciplinary, and Easy-to-Score Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Emily M.; Henderson, Charles R.; Beach, Andrea L.; Williams, Cody T.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, administrators, and policy makers need valid and reliable information about teaching practices. The Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (PIPS) is designed to measure the instructional practices of postsecondary instructors from any discipline. The PIPS has 24 instructional practice statements and nine demographic questions.…

  9. Survey of equipment in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, N.; Watkins, S.

    1989-01-01

    Partners in general practice have to buy any equipment they want themselves. As a result partners in high investing practices have lower net incomes. Of the 297 practices in Devon and Cornwall, 265 responded to a questionnaire listing 115 possible items of practice equipment. Overall, practices seemed to be fairly well equipped. Key findings were that 193 of those who responded had an electrocardiograph, 206 had a kit for minor operations, 119 owned a computer, and less than one third owned a microscope. Most of these practices were high investors. There seems to be a shift away from some traditional instruments towards expensive information technology. Government policies are encouraging the use of computers and such equipment, though funds are not necessarily being made available for this purpose. PMID:2507005

  10. Sepsis-related hypertensive response: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In daily practice acute arterial hypertension may occur during acute sepsis. No management guidelines concerning this issue figured in the latest sepsis campaign guidelines. Arterial hypertension occurring during sepsis could be an overlooked condition despite its potential haemodynamic harmful consequences. In this paper, a clinical study of acute hypertensive response related to sepsis is detailed. It shows that arterial hypertension, renal salt wasting and glomerular hyperfiltration can occur simultaneously during sepsis. Mechanisms and management options of sepsis-related arterial hypertensive response are also discussed. PMID:24855080

  11. Survey practices in dental education research.

    PubMed

    Creswell, J W; Kuster, C G

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 40 percent of the data-based articles reported in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years have used survey research procedures. This study examines the use of one type of survey procedure, mailed questionnaires, in research on dental education. Specifically, the discussion identifies several factors that dental education researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors. These factors are discussed using examples of adequate and inadequate procedures reported in the method sections of studies in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years.

  12. A Survey of Classroom Management Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lee A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined elementary school teachers' (n=137) endorsement of behavior management techniques and extent practices were reportedly used. Results indicated that more teachers reported using management techniques to control inappropriate social than academic behavior and more teachers endorsed verbal management techniques than concrete techniques.…

  13. Practical microbiology in schools: a survey of UK teachers.

    PubMed

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-11-01

    A survey of secondary school teachers investigated practical microbiology in the classroom. The results were heartening (practical microbiology was common), but concerns were expressed regarding equipment, time, cost, and expertise. Microbiologists should engage more with school education to support teachers and maintain the health of microbiology for future generations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive Assessment Practices: A Survey of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Dixon, Shauna G.

    2014-01-01

    The present article describes an exploratory study regarding the preferred cognitive assessment practices of current school psychologists. Three hundred and twenty-three school psychologists participated in the survey. The results suggest that the majority of school psychologists endorsed that they base their assessment practices on an underlying…

  15. Hospital readiness for undertaking evidence-based practice: A survey.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Minh; Wilson, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Despite the fact that evidence-based practice has increasing emphasis in health care, organizations are not always prepared for its implementation. Identifying organizational preparedness for implementing evidence-based practice is desirable prior to application. A cross-sectional survey was developed to explore nurses' perception of organizational support for evidence-based practice and was implemented via a self-enumerated survey completed by 234 nurses. Data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Nurses reported that implementation of evidence-based practice is complex and fraught with challenges because of a lack of organizational support. A conceptual framework comprising three key factors: information resources, nursing leadership, and organizational infrastructure was proposed to assist health authorities in the implementation of evidence-based practice. Suggestions of how organizations can be more supportive of research utilization in practice include establishing a library, journal clubs/mentoring programs, nurses' involvement in decision-making at unit level, and a local nursing association.

  16. Extracorporeal photopheresis practice patterns: An international survey by the ASFA ECP subcommittee.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Nancy M; Raval, Jay S; Johnson, Andrew; Abikoff, Cori M; Adamski, Jill; Cooling, Laura L; Grossman, Brenda; Kim, Haewon C; Marques, Marisa B; Morgan, Shanna; Schmidt, Amy E; Sloan, Steven R; Su, Leon L; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; West, F Bernadette; Wong, Edward; Schneiderman, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Although many apheresis centers offer extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), little is known about current treatment practices. An electronic survey was distributed to assess ECP practice internationally. Of 251 responses, 137 met criteria for analysis. Most respondents were from North America (80%). Nurses perform ECP at most centers (84%) and the majority of centers treat adults only (52%). Most centers treat fewer than 50 patients/year (83%) and perform fewer than 300 procedures/year (70%). Closed system devices (XTS and/or Cellex) are used to perform ECP at most centers (96%). The most common indications for ECP are acute/chronic skin graft versus host disease (89%) and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (63%). The typical wait time for ECP treatment is less than 2 weeks (91%). Most centers do not routinely perform quality control assessment of the collected product (66%). There are device-specific differences in treatment parameters. For example, XTS users more frequently have a minimum weight limit (P = 0.003) and use laboratory parameters to determine eligibility for treatment (P = 0.03). Regardless of device used, the majority of centers assess the clinical status of the patient before each procedure. Greater than 50% of respondents would defer treatment for hemodynamic instability due to active sepsis or heart failure, positive blood culture in the past 24 h or current fever. This survey based study describes current ECP practices. Further research to provide evidence for optimal standardization of patient qualifications, procedure parameters and product quality assessment is recommended. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Faculty Practice: What Do the Data Show? Findings from the NONPF Faculty Practice Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Joanne M.; Duderstadt, Karen; Tolve-Schoeneberger, Candice; Uphold, Constance R.; Hartig, Margaret Thorman

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 452 nurse practitioner educators (343 in clinical practice) found that 70% have doctorates, but only 37% of those in clinical practice are tenured; 51% reported that practice is not considered in promotion and tenure decisions at their institutions. (SK)

  18. Survey of western Canadian veterinary practices: A demographic profile

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray D.; Barth, Katrina K.

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-mode survey was used to describe the demographics of the veterinary profession in western Canada and to assess the demand for veterinary practitioners. Data were received from 655 practices (response rate = 52%), providing demographic data on 1636 individual practitioners. Most (60%) respondents self-classified their practices as exclusively small animal, while 25% and 4% were mixed animal or exclusively food animal practices, respectively. Across all practices, 77% of practitioners’ time was devoted to small animals and the average mixed animal practice devoted 60% of practitioners’ time to small animals. After accounting for practices that did not respond, there were ~300 full-time equivalent (FTE) vacant positions for veterinary associates; however, only 12% of practices were in urgent need of hiring an associate veterinarian. This report informs both prospective employees and employers on the state of the marketplace for veterinary associates, and provides an overview of the demographics of the veterinary profession in western Canada. PMID:26663919

  19. Survey of western Canadian veterinary practices: A demographic profile.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray D; Barth, Katrina K

    2015-12-01

    A mixed-mode survey was used to describe the demographics of the veterinary profession in western Canada and to assess the demand for veterinary practitioners. Data were received from 655 practices (response rate = 52%), providing demographic data on 1636 individual practitioners. Most (60%) respondents self-classified their practices as exclusively small animal, while 25% and 4% were mixed animal or exclusively food animal practices, respectively. Across all practices, 77% of practitioners' time was devoted to small animals and the average mixed animal practice devoted 60% of practitioners' time to small animals. After accounting for practices that did not respond, there were ~300 full-time equivalent (FTE) vacant positions for veterinary associates; however, only 12% of practices were in urgent need of hiring an associate veterinarian. This report informs both prospective employees and employers on the state of the marketplace for veterinary associates, and provides an overview of the demographics of the veterinary profession in western Canada.

  20. 2007 survey of medical toxicology practice improvement activities.

    PubMed

    White, Suzanne R; Baker, Beth; Baum, Carl R; Harvey, Anne; Korte, Robert; Avery, A Nelson; Nelson, Lewis; Osterhoudt, Kevin; Snook, Curtis; Williams, Saralyn

    2010-09-01

    To date, there appear to be no studies that assess Medical Toxicologists' (MTs) practice improvement (PI) activities in their Medical Toxicology practice settings. The MT Assessment of Practice Performance (APP) Taskforce queried all MT diplomates about (1) activities currently available in their practice settings that potentially would meet the requirements of APP, (2) potential APP activities that best fit with current MT practice, and (3) the relationship between MT practice patterns and APP requirements. One hundred twenty-seven surveys were completed. Participation in MT practice improvement activities is not universal, with approximately a third of the survey participants reporting that they are not involved in any practice improvement activity. Few respondents reported that they collected performance improvement-related data. Most who did so participated in CME, case, or chart reviews. Peer reviews, self-improvement plans based on chart reviews, and population research were considered the most valid measures of MT practice improvement. Communication skills were considered important topics for patient surveys. Suggested outcomes for peer assessment included accuracy of information provided, understanding medical staff concerns, timeliness of feedback, and helpfulness. Most respondents rated all of the APP options as being somewhat very intrusive. Access to those with sufficient knowledge of the diplomate's practice improvement program to verify APP could pose a challenge to a successful completion of APP requirements. Optimal settings for the APP program administration are hospitals and poison centers. While barriers to MT APP activities exist, studying current MT diplomates' opinions and practices could inform the future development and administration of such programs.

  1. Update on Pediatric Perfusion Practice in North America: 2005 Survey

    PubMed Central

    Groom, Robert C.; Froebe, Shane; Martin, Janine; Manfra, Michael J.; Cormack, John E.; Morse, Catherine; Taenzer, Andreas H.; Quinn, Reed D.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: The devices and techniques used for pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) undergo continuous change. New techniques and clinical comparisons of devices are frequently reported in the literature; however, information about the extent to which these techniques and devices are adopted into clinical practice at pediatric heart centers are not well described. We conducted a mail survey of North American pediatric cardiac surgery centers to gain perspective on the extent to which various devices and techniques were used for CPB along with program demographic data. In January 2005, surveys were mailed to 180 North American open heart centers. The survey was nearly identical in format and content to three earlier surveys completed in 1989, 1994, and 1999, with the exception that new questions were added to address new techniques and devices that have emerged over the years. Responses were received from 76 hospitals, for an overall response rate of 42%. Of the responding centers, 53 were performing pediatric open heart surgery and 23 were not. Twenty centers performed only pediatric open heart surgery, and 33 performed both pediatric and adult open heart surgery. The mean pediatric annual caseload of responding centers was 195 procedures/yr (range, 20–650 procedures/yr; median, 154 procedures/yr). A total of 9943 pediatric open heart procedures were performed at responding centers in 2004. Most of the centers surveyed reported use of an open venous reservoir system (88%), use of roller pumps (90%), and use of arterial line filtration (98%). Most centers used circuits that have surface treatments with heparin or some other surface-modifying agent (74%). There has been an increase in the use of all types of safety devices. Modified ultrafiltration is used at 75% of the centers surveyed. Centers reported an increase in the availability of all types of cardiac support devices including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for postcardiotomy cardiac support (90

  2. Development and implementation of sepsis alert systems

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Andrew M.; Gajic, Ognjen; Pickering, Brian W.; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis/Summary Development and implementation of sepsis alert systems is challenging, particularly outside the monitored intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Important barriers to wider use of sepsis alerts include evolving clinical definitions of sepsis, information overload & alert fatigue, due to suboptimal alert performance. Outside the ICU, additional barriers include differences in health care delivery models, charting behaviors, and availability of electronic data. Currently available evidence does not support routine use of sepsis alert systems in clinical practice. However, continuous improvement in both the afferent (data availability and accuracy of detection algorithms) and efferent (evidence-based decision support and smoother integration into clinical workflow) limbs of sepsis alert systems will help translate theoretical advantages into measurable patient benefit. PMID:27229639

  3. A survey of US dental practices' use of social media.

    PubMed

    Henry, Rachel K; Molnar, Amy; Henry, Jon C

    2012-03-01

    Social media is becoming the way for businesses, including health care professionals, to communicate with consumers. The study examines the use of social media by dental practices in the US. An electronic survey was sent to 22,682 dentists in the United States. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of social media in the dental practice. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and comparisons were made using a Fisher's exact test. A total of 573 responses were received. Social media was used in 52% of dental practices, the most common being Facebook. The use of social media was most commonly for marketing purposes (91%). Dentists younger than 45 years old were more likely to use social media in their practice than dentists 45 years or older (p > 0.001). Dental practices actively use social media for marketing and communication. Many dentists are unsure how to measure the success of social media in their practice. Additional research is needed to measure the success of social media in a dental practice. Social media is a common way practices market and interact with their patients. There are some difficulties in determining what appropriate content for social media is and how to evaluate the success.

  4. A survey of veterinarian involvement in zoonotic disease prevention practices.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Beth A; Hopkins, Sharon G; Koehler, Jane E; DiGiacomo, Ronald F

    2008-10-15

    To determine the extent to which practicing veterinarians in King County, Washington, engaged in commonly recommended practices for the prevention of zoonotic diseases. Cross-sectional survey. Sample Population-Licensed veterinarians practicing clinical medicine in King County, Washington. A survey was sent between September and November 2006 to 454 licensed veterinarians practicing clinical medicine in King County. 370 valid responses were received. A high proportion (280/362 [77%]) of respondents agreed that it was very important for veterinarians to educate clients on zoonotic disease prevention, but only 43% (158/367) reported that they had initiated discussions about zoonotic diseases with clients on a daily basis, and only 57% (203/356) indicated that they had client educational materials on zoonotic diseases available in their practices. Thirty-one percent (112/360) of respondents indicated that there were no written infection-control guidelines for staff members in the practice, and 28% (105/371) reported having been infected with a zoonotic disease in practice. Results illustrated that veterinarians recognize their important role in zoonotic disease prevention and suggested that veterinarians would welcome stronger partnerships with public health agencies and other health professionals in this endeavor. Methods to increase veterinarians' involvement in zoonotic disease prevention include discussing zoonotic diseases more frequently with clients, physicians, and public health agencies; encouraging higher risk individuals to discuss zoonotic diseases; having educational materials on zoonotic diseases available for clients; improving infection-control practices; and ensuring that continuing education courses on zoonotic diseases are regularly available.

  5. Are biosafety practices in anatomical laboratories sufficient? A survey of practices and review of current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ehdaivand, Shahrzad; Chapin, Kimberle C; Andrea, Sarah; Gnepp, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Biosafety practices in anatomical pathology laboratories are crucial to prevent unnecessary exposures to both chemical and biological agents. Regulatory and guidance agencies have general regulations and recommendations regarding anatomical pathology laboratory biosafety practices. This study aimed to determine if professionals' perceptions and actual practice mirror these guidelines. Current available regulations and recommendations for biosafety practices in anatomical pathology laboratories were reviewed and used to construct a brief, validated online survey distributed to anatomical pathology professionals. The survey was completed by 39 survey participants in pathology departments from diverse institutions. An average of 44% of respondents reported receiving inadequate biosafety training. At survey initiation, 61.5% of respondents felt that the risks of chemical and infectious disease exposures had been clearly explained to them; however, by completion of the survey, only 21% believed risks to be clearly explained. Respondents use a variety of personal protective equipment, yet only 60% would have been classified as meeting recommendations. Most respondents reported having a needle stick or cut (56.3%) or formalin exposure by splash or prolonged direct skin contact (62.5%). The survey indicated that there is a dire need for improved training in anatomical pathology biosafety as daily practices do not reflect current guidelines. In addition, improved training on exposure risks, including needle-stick injuries, personal protective equipment, and chemical hazards, is needed. Finally, the success of this training should be monitored locally as regulatory agency requirements do not seem to alter daily practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Can surveying practitioners about their practices help identify priority clinical practice guideline topics?

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, Melissa C; Chambers, Alexandra; Perry, James

    2003-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to assist in patient and physician clinical decision making for specific clinical circumstances. In order to establish which guideline topics are priorities, practitioners were surveyed regarding their current practice. Methods One hundred ninety-seven practitioners in Ontario, Canada were mailed a survey exploring their current practice or opinion regarding the prophylactic use of anticonvulsant drugs in patients with malignant glioma who had never had a seizure. The survey consisted of seven questions regarding the relevance of a guideline on the subject to the practitioner's practice, the proportion of clinical cases involving anticonvulsant use, knowledge of existing guidelines on this topic, interest in reviewing a completed practice guideline and three clinical scenarios. Results There were 122 respondents who returned the survey (62% rate of return). Eighty percent of the practitioners who responded indicated that less than 25% of their clinical cases involved the use of anticonvulsants; however, only 16% of respondents indicated that a practice guideline would be irrelevant to their practice. Eighty percent of respondents volunteered to review a draft version of a practice guideline on the use of anticonvulsants. The survey presented the practitioners with three scenarios where anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumours may be appropriate: peri-operatively in patients without seizures, postoperatively in patients currently using anticonvulsants, and thirdly in patients not currently using anticonvulsants or undergoing surgery. In contrast to the third situation, the first two situations yielded considerable variation in practitioner response. Conclusion The survey established that there is some variation present in the current practice of anticonvulsant use in the patients with brain tumours. Whether there is an optimal treatment practice has yet to be determined

  7. Practice nurse use of evidence in clinical practice: a descriptive survey.

    PubMed

    Prior, Patsy; Wilkinson, Jill; Neville, Stephen

    2010-08-01

    The role of practice nurses is a specific feature of the modernisation agenda of the New Zealand health service. Increasing importance is being placed on service improvement through effective decision making and enhanced clinical performance. To contribute to the development of primary health care it is crucial that nurses have the skills to appropriately implement research based and other evidence in practice. This study involved 55 West Auckland practice nurses working in the general practice setting. The aim of the study was to describe nurses' perceptions of their use of evidence-based practice, attitudes toward evidence-based practice and perceptions of their knowledge/skills associated with evidence-based practice. An additional aim was to determine the effect of educational preparation on practice, attitudes and knowledge/skills toward evidence-based practice. A descriptive survey design was selected for this study. The results demonstrated that nurses' attitudes toward evidence-based practice, knowledge and skills relevant to the implementation of evidence-based practice and the educational preparation of the nurses were important factors influencing the effective utilisation and application of research results in practice. Educational interventions are identified as an integral aspect of implementing evidence-based practice and enhancing practice nurses' knowledge and skill relevant to the use of evidence in practice. Further research is needed to assess the contextual factors which can inhibit or promote achievement of evidence-based practice by practice nurses.

  8. Identifying advanced practice: A national survey of a nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Glenn; Duffield, Christine; Doubrovsky, Anna; Adams, Margaret

    2016-03-01

    The size and flexibility of the nursing workforce has positioned nursing as central to the goals of health service improvement. Nursing's response to meeting these goals has resulted in proliferation of advanced practice nursing with a confusing array of practice profiles, titles and roles. Whilst numerous models and definitions of advanced practice nursing have been developed there is scant published research of significant scope that supports these models. Consequently there is an ongoing call in the literature for clarity and stability in nomenclature, and confusion in the health industry on how to optimise the utility of advanced practice nursing. To identify and delineate advanced practice from other levels of nursing practice through examination of a national nursing workforce. A cross-sectional electronic survey of nurses using the validated Advanced Practice Role Delineation tool based on the Strong Model of Advanced Practice. Study participants were registered nurses employed in a clinical service environment across all states and territories of Australia. A sample of 5662 registered nurses participated in the study. Domain means for each participant were calculated then means for nursing position titles were calculated. Position titles were grouped by delineation and were compared with one-way analysis of variance on domain means. The alpha for all tests was set at 0.05. Significant effects were examined with Scheffe post hoc comparisons to control for Type 1 error. The survey tool was able to identify position titles where nurses were practicing at an advanced level and to delineate this cohort from other levels of nursing practice, including nurse practitioner. The results show that nurses who practice at an advanced level are characterised by high mean scores across all Domains of the Strong Model of Advanced Practice. The mean scores of advanced practice nurses were significantly different from nurse practitioners in the Direct Care Domain and

  9. Sepsis Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... after the episode. 3 , 4 What is the economic cost of sepsis? Treatment for sepsis often involves ... Accessibility Disclaimers FOIA U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health: NIH...Turning Discovery ...

  10. [New Sepsis-3 definition : Do we have to treat sepsis before we can diagnose it from now on?

    PubMed

    Schmoch, T; Bernhard, M; Uhle, F; Gründling, M; Brenner, T; Weigand, M A

    2017-05-11

    The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) have been available since the beginning of 2016. SEPSIS-3 completely replaces the old SIRS criteria in the definition of sepsis and defines sepsis from now on as "life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection". However, it seems questionable whether in clinical practice the new definition is really superior to the old one. The most important question is the following: Is it helpful to have a definition that first recognizes a patient once organ dysfunction has occurred and the patient already needs intensive care?

  11. Payment and Pricing Plans: Survey Identifies Most Common Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 787 colleges and universities investigated institutions' payment and pricing practices designed to attract and retain students. Issues examined include acceptance of credit cards, cash discounts, prepayment options, differential pricing based on credits or programs, and the rationales for and results of the policies. Results reflect…

  12. Survey of Root and Shoot Cultural Practices for Hardwood Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Harry L. Vanderveer

    2005-01-01

    A telephone survey of selected forest seedling nursery managers was conducted in early 2004. About 2 dozen managers were contacted and asked to respond during a brief (15 to 30 minute) conversation about the current practices they employ to manage root and shoot growth of hardwood seedlings. The participants involved were evenly split between public agencies (...

  13. 78 FR 36784 - Survey of Nanomaterial Risk Management Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Survey of Nanomaterial Risk Management... of Nanomaterial Risk Management Practices; Notice of Public Meeting and Request for Comments. SUMMARY... nanomaterial producers, distributors, end-users, and R&D laboratories for inclusion in a sampling frame? (3) A...

  14. Mobile Libraries, Design and Construction: A Survey of Current Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, C. R.; And Others

    Forty-one country libraries in Wales, Scotland and England were surveyed in 1970 in an attempt to establish current practice in the design and construction of mobile libraries. This report is the first step of the Branch and Mobile Libraries Group of the Library Association to establish standards for mobile library design and construction. The…

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder Early Screening Practices: A Survey of Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Trisha L.; Parham, Douglas F.; Rajagopalan, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a policy statement in 2007 urging physicians to screen for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at 18 and 24 months. This study sought to identify the screening practices of pediatricians and family physicians (FPs) in following the AAP guidelines for ASD. A survey was mailed to 1,500 pediatricians and…

  16. Licensed Practical Nurses in Occupational Health. An Initial Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jane A.; And Others

    The study, conducted in 1971, assessed characteristics of licensed practical nurses (LPN's) who worked in occupational health nursing. The survey instrument, a questionnaire, was returned by 591 LPN's in occupational health and provided data related to: personal characteristics, work and setting, administrative and professional functioning,…

  17. A Survey of Educational Acceleration Practices in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanevsky, Lannie

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide survey of Canadian school districts was undertaken to determine the extent to which 18 forms of acceleration were permitted and practiced. Of the high enrollment provinces, BC school districts' participation rates were highest in the most types of acceleration. A surprising number of districts did not allow some forms of acceleration.…

  18. A Survey of Practices and Strategies for Marketing Communication Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Philip A.; Wilson, Gerald L.

    Fifty college speech departments responded to a survey intended to discover some of the common practices and strategies for marketing undergraduate speech communication majors. The results indicated that the most frequent name for the departments responding was "Communication" rather than "Speech Communication," completely the opposite of what was…

  19. Selection Practices of Group Leaders: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riva, Maria T.; Lippert, Laurel; Tackett, M. Jan

    2000-01-01

    Study surveys the selection practices of group leaders. Explores methods of selection, variables used to make selection decisions, and the types of selection errors that leaders have experienced. Results suggest that group leaders use clinical judgment to make selection decisions and endorse using some specific variables in selection. (Contains 22…

  20. A survey of acupuncture treatments in general practice.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Peter

    2002-08-01

    This paper represents a retrospective survey of the effectiveness of acupuncture in an urban General Practice setting. Patients were treated within normal surgeries and records kept of treatments and outcomes. The paper reveals that when acupuncture is offered by a General Practitioner in the course of his normal working day, a significant number of patients can benefit without an excessive rise in workload.

  1. Trip Staff Training Practices: Survey and Discussion Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaagstra, Lynn

    A discussion group and survey examined trip-staff training practices among outdoor and adventure recreation/education programs. Of the 40 participants, 80 percent worked with university noncredit programs, with the remaining participants representing university for-credit, military recreation, nonprofit, and for-profit programs. Although the…

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder Early Screening Practices: A Survey of Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Trisha L.; Parham, Douglas F.; Rajagopalan, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a policy statement in 2007 urging physicians to screen for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at 18 and 24 months. This study sought to identify the screening practices of pediatricians and family physicians (FPs) in following the AAP guidelines for ASD. A survey was mailed to 1,500 pediatricians and…

  3. Selection Practices of Group Leaders: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riva, Maria T.; Lippert, Laurel; Tackett, M. Jan

    2000-01-01

    Study surveys the selection practices of group leaders. Explores methods of selection, variables used to make selection decisions, and the types of selection errors that leaders have experienced. Results suggest that group leaders use clinical judgment to make selection decisions and endorse using some specific variables in selection. (Contains 22…

  4. Practice Management Training in the PGY1 Residency Year: Best Practices From Two Nationwide Surveys.

    PubMed

    Doligalski, Christina; Verbosky, Michael; Alexander, Earnest; Kotis, Desi; Powell, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The development of future pharmacy leaders is vital to the advancement of our profession. Postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency training requires residents to exercise leadership and practice management skills. Two national surveys were conducted to describe the current state of practice management experiences and elucidate best practice recommendations. The surveys, online multiple choice and free response, queried American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-accredited residency program practice management preceptors (survey 1) and PGY1 residents (survey 2) and were distributed via the ASHP residency program directors' listserv. Responses were reviewed and analyzed by members of the University HealthSystem Consortium Pharmacy Council Strategic Initiatives and Programming Committee. Survey 1, completed by 240 institutions, identified that a combination of concentrated and longitudinal practice management experiences were used most frequently (47%), followed by concentrated alone (33%). Universally noted activities included meeting attendance (98%), projects (94%), and committee involvement (92%). Sixty-seven percent of the programs changed the experience in the previous 3 years, with 43% planning changes in the coming year. Survey 2 was completed by 58 PGY1 residents from 42 programs. Most (80%) residents stated they had enough time with their preceptors, and 55% rated their enjoyment of the rotation as 4 or 5 on a 1 to 5 scale (5 = most enjoyed). Our findings suggest that there is not a best practice for the structure or content of the PGY1 practice management experience. These results highlight key recommendations, including the need for practice management-specific preceptor development, incorporation of longitudinal experiences, and more practice management and leadership activities.

  5. A survey of veterinary antimicrobial prescribing practices, Washington State 2015.

    PubMed

    Fowler, H; Davis, M A; Perkins, A; Trufan, S; Joy, C; Buswell, M; McElwain, T F; Moore, D; Worhle, R; Rabinowitz, P M

    2016-12-24

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health issue. It is also a recognised problem in veterinary medicine. Between September and December 2015 the authors administered a cross-sectional survey to licensed veterinarians in Washington State to assess factors affecting antimicrobial prescribing practices among veterinarians in Washington State. Two hundred and three veterinarians completed the survey. The majority of respondents (166, 82 per cent) were engaged in small animal or exotic animal practice. 24 per cent of respondents reported not ordering culture and sensitivity (C/S) testing in practice. Of the 76 per cent of veterinarians who reported ordering C/S tests, 36 per cent reported ordering such testing 'often' or 'always' when treating presumptive bacterial infections. Most respondents (65 per cent) mentioned cost as the most common barrier to ordering a C/S test. Only 16 (10 per cent) respondents reported having access to or utilising a clinic-specific antibiogram. This survey demonstrated that while antimicrobials are commonly used in veterinary practice, and veterinarians are concerned about antimicrobial resistance, cost is a barrier to obtaining C/S tests to guide antimicrobial therapy. Summaries of antimicrobial resistance patterns are rarely available to the practising veterinarian. Efforts to promote antimicrobial stewardship in a 'One Health' manner should address barriers to the judicious use of antimicrobials in the veterinary practice setting. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Patient and family engagement: a survey of US hospital practices

    PubMed Central

    Herrin, Jeph; Harris, Kathleen G; Kenward, Kevin; Hines, Stephen; Joshi, Maulik S; Frosch, Dominick L

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient and family engagement (PFE) in healthcare is an important element of the transforming healthcare system; however, the prevalence of various PFE practices in the USA is not known. Objective We report on a survey of hospitals in the USA regarding their PFE practices during 2013–2014. Results The response rate was 42%, with 1457 acute care hospitals completing the survey. We constructed 25 items to summarise the responses regarding key practices, which fell into three broad categories: (1) organisational practices, (2) bedside practices and (3) access to information and shared decision-making. We found a wide range of scores across hospitals. Selected findings include: 86% of hospitals had a policy for unrestricted visitor access in at least some units; 68% encouraged patients/families to participate in shift-change reports; 67% had formal policies for disclosing and apologising for errors; and 38% had a patient and family advisory council. The most commonly reported barrier to increased PFE was ‘competing organisational priorities’. Summary Our findings indicate that there is a large variation in hospital implementation of PFE practices, with competing organisational priorities being the most commonly identified barrier to adoption. PMID:26082560

  7. Patient and family engagement: a survey of US hospital practices.

    PubMed

    Herrin, Jeph; Harris, Kathleen G; Kenward, Kevin; Hines, Stephen; Joshi, Maulik S; Frosch, Dominick L

    2016-03-01

    Patient and family engagement (PFE) in healthcare is an important element of the transforming healthcare system; however, the prevalence of various PFE practices in the USA is not known. We report on a survey of hospitals in the USA regarding their PFE practices during 2013-2014. The response rate was 42%, with 1457 acute care hospitals completing the survey. We constructed 25 items to summarise the responses regarding key practices, which fell into three broad categories: (1) organisational practices, (2) bedside practices and (3) access to information and shared decision-making. We found a wide range of scores across hospitals. Selected findings include: 86% of hospitals had a policy for unrestricted visitor access in at least some units; 68% encouraged patients/families to participate in shift-change reports; 67% had formal policies for disclosing and apologising for errors; and 38% had a patient and family advisory council. The most commonly reported barrier to increased PFE was 'competing organisational priorities'. Our findings indicate that there is a large variation in hospital implementation of PFE practices, with competing organisational priorities being the most commonly identified barrier to adoption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Anesthesia for thoracic surgery: A survey of middle eastern practice

    PubMed Central

    Eldawlatly, Abdelazeem; Turkistani, Ahmed; Shelley, Ben; El-Tahan, Mohamed; Macfie, Alistair; Kinsella, John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this survey is to describe the current practice of thoracic anesthesia in the Middle Eastern (ME) region. Methods: A prospective online survey. An invitation to participate was e-mailed to all members of the ME thoracic-anaesthesia group. A total of 58 members participated in the survey from 19 institutions in the Middle East. Questions concerned ventilation strategies during one-lung ventilation (OLV), anesthesia regimen, mode of postoperative analgesia, use of lung isolation techniques, and use of i.v. fluids. Results: Volume-controlled ventilation was favored over pressure-controlled ventilation (62% vs 38% of respondents, P<0.05); 43% report the routine use of positive end-expiratory pressure. One hundred percent of respondents report using double-lumen tube (DLT) as a first choice airway to establish OLV. Nearly a third of respondents, 31.1%, report never using bronchial blocker (BB) in their thoracic anesthesia practice. Failure to pass a DLT and difficult airway are the most commonly cited indications for BB use. Regarding postoperative analgesia, the majority 61.8% favor thoracic epidural analgesia over other techniques (P<0.05). Conclusions: Our survey provides a contemporary snapshot of the ME thoracic anesthetic practice. PMID:23162388

  9. Role of cellular events in the pathophysiology of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Chandra; Dipankar, Pankaj; Chakraborty, Papiya; Sarangi, Pranita P

    2016-11-01

    Sepsis is a dysregulated host immune response due to an uncontrolled infection. It is a leading cause of mortality in adult intensive care units globally. When the host immune response induced against a local infection fails to contain it locally, it progresses to sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock and death. Literature survey was performed on the roles of different innate and adaptive immune cells in the development and progression of sepsis. Additionally, the effects of septic changes on reprogramming of different immune cells were also summarized to prepare the manuscript. Scientific evidences to date suggest that the loss of balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses results in reprogramming of immune cell activities that lead to irreversible tissue damaging events and multi-organ failure during sepsis. Many surface receptors expressed on immune cells at various stages of sepsis have been suggested as biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis. Various immunomodulatory therapeutics, which could improve the functions of immune cells during sepsis, were shown to restore immunological homeostasis and improve survival in animal models of sepsis. In-depth and comprehensive knowledge on the immune cell activities and their correlation with severity of sepsis will help clinicians and scientists to design effective immunomodulatory therapeutics for treating sepsis.

  10. Barriers in the path of yoga practice: An online survey.

    PubMed

    Dayananda, Hv; Ilavarasu, Judu V; Rajesh, Sk; Babu, Natesh

    2014-01-01

    Clinical benefits of yoga have been well explored, but factors contributing to adherence to regular yoga practice are not well studied. To study the factors influencing adherence to yoga practices on those participants who have completed 1-month Yoga Instructors' course from a yoga university. Online survey was conducted on participants who had finished 1-month Yoga Instructors' course at a yoga university. Online survey was conducted using Survey Monkey web portal with response rate of 42.5%. A total of 1355 participants were approached. Demographic items and a checklist of 21 items on a 5-point likert scale were prepared based on traditional yoga texts. A few items to assess modern lifestyle barriers were also included. One-sample proportion test with chi square statistics was used for analysis. Irregularity in lifestyle, family commitments, and occupational commitments are perceived as significant strong barriers. Dullness, excessive talking, strictly adhering to rules, laziness, physical and mental overexertion, fickleness and wandering of mind, unsteadiness of mind, procrastination, and oversleeping are considered as significant barriers of moderate nature. Modern lifestyle is the major challenge for yoga practitioners to adhere to regular practice of yoga. To address this, attention is required in strengthening the lifestyle management and the spiritual dimension of yoga practice as the spiritual component seems to be side-tracked.

  11. Barriers in the path of yoga practice: An online survey

    PubMed Central

    Dayananda, HV; Ilavarasu, Judu V; Rajesh, SK; Babu, Natesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Clinical benefits of yoga have been well explored, but factors contributing to adherence to regular yoga practice are not well studied. Aims: To study the factors influencing adherence to yoga practices on those participants who have completed 1-month Yoga Instructors’ course from a yoga university. Settings and Design: Online survey was conducted on participants who had finished 1-month Yoga Instructors’ course at a yoga university. Materials and Methods: Online survey was conducted using Survey Monkey web portal with response rate of 42.5%. A total of 1355 participants were approached. Demographic items and a checklist of 21 items on a 5-point likert scale were prepared based on traditional yoga texts. A few items to assess modern lifestyle barriers were also included. Statistical Analysis: One-sample proportion test with chi square statistics was used for analysis. Results: Irregularity in lifestyle, family commitments, and occupational commitments are perceived as significant strong barriers. Dullness, excessive talking, strictly adhering to rules, laziness, physical and mental overexertion, fickleness and wandering of mind, unsteadiness of mind, procrastination, and oversleeping are considered as significant barriers of moderate nature. Conclusions: Modern lifestyle is the major challenge for yoga practitioners to adhere to regular practice of yoga. To address this, attention is required in strengthening the lifestyle management and the spiritual dimension of yoga practice as the spiritual component seems to be side-tracked. PMID:25035610

  12. Indian Psychiatric Society Survey on Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This survey aimed to assess the utility of the earlier published clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) by IPS and to understand the expectations of members of Indian Psychiatric Society from the proposed revised CPGs. In addition, the survey also evaluated the current level of practice of psychiatry in terms of availability of different investigation facilities, prescription patterns in terms of use of polypharmacy, and competence in carrying out certain nonpharmacological treatments. Methodology: An online survey was received by 3475 psychiatrist, of whom 608 (17.5%) participants completed the survey. Results: Almost all (93.8%) of the psychiatrists agreed that there should be separate CPGs for Indian setting. In terms of problems with the previous version of the CPGs, this survey shows that the previous version of guidelines was used in making clinical decisions by only one-third (31.25%) of the participating psychiatrists. The major limitations of the previous version of CPGs which were pointed out included the lack of consideration of socio-cultural issues (33.2%), lack of recommendations for many clinical situations that are encountered in clinical practice (43.15) and poor dissemination (35.2%). In terms of expectations, the membership expects the society to come up with guidelines, which are shorter in length (82.2%), has significant proportion of information in the form of tables and flow diagrams (58.7%), besides the evidence base must also take expert opinions into account (84.7%), must be circulated before adopting (88.7%), must be disseminated by displaying the same on the website (72%), and also by sending the same by E-mails (62%). Further, the membership expects the IPS to design online continuing medical education program on CPGs (54.3%). The survey also suggests that it is feasible on the part of more than two-third of the psychiatrists to monitor the metabolic parameters in routine clinical practice and carryout various nonpharmacological

  13. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: Multilevel survey methods and procedures⋆

    PubMed Central

    Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed. PMID:17383548

  14. A survey of audit activity in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hearnshaw, H; Baker, R; Cooper, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1991, all general practices have been encouraged to undertake clinical audit. Audit groups report that participation is high, and some local surveys have been undertaken, but no detailed national survey has been reported. AIM: To determine audit activities in general practices and the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) regarding the future of clinical audit in primary care. METHOD: A questionnaire on audit activities was sent to 707 practices from 18 medical audit advisory group areas. The audit groups had been ranked by annual funding from 1992 to 1995. Six groups were selected at random from the top, middle, and lowest thirds of this rank order. RESULTS: A total of 428 (60.5%) usable responses were received. Overall, 346 (85%) responders reported 125.7 audits from the previous year with a median of three audits per practice. There was no correlation between the number of audits reported and the funding per GP for the medical audit advisory group. Of 997 audits described in detail, changes were reported as 'not needed' in 220 (22%), 'not made' in 142 (14%), 'made' in 439 (44%), and 'made and remeasured' in 196 (20%). Thus, 635 (64%) audits were reported to have led to changes. Some 853 (81%) of the topics identified were on clinical care. Responders made 242 (42%) positive comments on the future of clinical audit in primary care, and 152 (26%) negative views were recorded. CONCLUSION: The level of audit activity in general practice is reasonably high, and most of the audits result in change. The number of audits per practice seems to be independent of the level of funding that the medical audit advisory group has received. Although there is room for improvement in the levels of effective audit activity in general practice, continued support by the professionally led audit groups could enable all practices to undertake effective audit that leads to improvement in patient care. PMID:9624769

  15. Publication practices and standards: recommendations from GSK Vaccines' author survey.

    PubMed

    Camby, Isabelle; Delpire, Véronique; Rouxhet, Laurence; Morel, Thomas; Vanderlinden, Christine; Van Driessche, Nancy; Poplazarova, Tatjana

    2014-11-18

    Evolving standards of good publication practice (GPP) and a survey conducted in 2009 of authors, who were investigators and researchers not employed by the company prompted changes to GSK Vaccines' publication practices. We conducted a follow-up survey in 2012 to assess the company's revised practices and to evaluate understanding of GPP among investigators and researchers who had previously authored at least one publication in collaboration with GSK Vaccines. The 50-question web-based survey addressed authoring practices and transparency of decision-making. Investigators and researchers (n = 1,273) who had authored at least one publication reporting on GSK Vaccines-sponsored human research since 2007, were invited to participate. Responses to 37 closed questions are presented. The remaining 13 questions were open-ended or did not concern publication practices. A total of 415 external authors (32.6%) responded. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship criteria were clear to most respondents (78.1%); 7.7% found they were unclear. The majority of participants (86.8%) found GSK Vaccines' authorship questionnaire a suitable tool to assess eligibility for authorship as per the ICMJE criteria. However, only 68.5% felt that the outcome of the questionnaire is communicated appropriately and 58.3% felt well informed on changes in authorship. Nearly two-thirds (62.9%) of respondents felt that having a pharmaceutical company employee as lead author makes manuscript acceptance less likely. Access to relevant data was regarded as sufficient by 78.5% of respondents. Briefing meetings before publication start, publication steering committees and core writing teams were recognized as valuable publication practices. Professional medical writing support was seen as adding value to publication development by 87.7% of participants. Most respondents agreed that manuscript discussions should start early, with 81.7% stating that they were in favor of

  16. Doctorate in nursing practice: a survey of massachusetts nurses.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Rosanna F; Pulcini, Joyce; Haggerty, Lois A; Tang, Trinh

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) resolved that a new practice degree, the doctorate in nursing practice (DNP), is to become the terminal practice degree and minimum education standard for advanced practice nurses by the year 2015(American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2004). AACN position statement on the practice doctorate in nursing. Retrieved July 1, 2007, from http://www.aacn.nche.edu.html). The DNP will have a clinical-intensive focus. Advanced practice nurses potentially impacted by this resolution will include nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, nurse midwives, and clinical nurse specialists. A task force at the William F. Connell School of Nursing at Boston College conducted an electronic survey in 2006 in an attempt to understand nurses' thoughts about doctoral preparation and the interest of nurses in Massachusetts in pursuing doctoral study. A self-selected group of 376 nurses participated in the study. Nurses identified both positive and negative perceptions related to the degree's viability and practicality, with a majority (55%) preferring the DNP as an educational option.

  17. Improving Practice in Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Nationwide Survey in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Sienaert, Pascal; Falconieri, Tamara; Obbels, Jasmien; van den Ameele, Hans; Bouckaert, Filip

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to review the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Belgium and to compare it with the practice of ECT a decade ago. A 30-item questionnaire on the practice of ECT was sent to all institutions providing ECT. Results were compared with the results of a survey performed in 2003. In 2013 to 2014, ECT was performed in 13.7% of all psychiatric services, equaling 1 ECT unit per 584,187 inhabitants. Fifteen of the 19 psychiatric services (78.94%) providing ECT replied to the questionnaire. Practice of ECT has improved significantly. This questionnaire study relies upon answers given by psychiatrists and did not audit actual practices. The past decade, Belgium has witnessed significant changes in the practice of ECT. The number of facilities providing ECT almost halved adding to the growing expertise of fewer but larger ECT facilities. A possible down side to specialization is a potential diminution of the availability of ECT, requiring adequate referral policies in hospitals without ECT facilities. Although the practice significantly improved, continuous education is needed.

  18. [Early goal directed therapy in severe sepsis].

    PubMed

    Janssens, U

    2014-11-01

    The treatment of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock continues to evolve. Recent studies have enunciated the benefit of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) during the first 6 h after recognition of the condition. With EGDT a reduction in mortality of over 16% was shown over standard care. Thereafter the components of the EGDT were consequently implemented in the international Surviving Sepsis Campaign as well as the German sepsis guidelines. Nevertheless the medical community's enthusiasm for EGDT has remained indecisive. There remains a profound skepticism about treatment targets such as central venous pressure or mean arterial pressure as well as central venous oxygen saturation. Moreover multiple barriers such as critical shortage of nursing staff, problems in obtaining central venous pressure monitoring or lack of agreement with the EGDT resuscitation protocol may lead to non-adherence to EGDT early in the course of sepsis. In a recent multicenter trial, protocol-based resuscitation of patients in whom septic shock was diagnosed in the emergency department did not improve outcomes. The Severe Sepsis 3-Hour Resuscitation Bundle and the 6-Hour Septic Shock Bundle represent a distillation of the concepts and recommendations found in the practice guidelines published by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. The bundles are designed to allow teams to follow the timing, sequence, and goals of the individual elements of care. Early recognition, early mobilization of resources, and multidisciplinary collaboration are imperative to enhance the prognosis of patients with sepsis.

  19. A survey of surgical draping practices in small-animal practice in the UK.

    PubMed

    Delisser, P J; Sinnett, D E; Parsons, K J; Friend, E J

    2012-09-29

    Veterinary practices in the United Kingdom were surveyed to compare their surgical draping practices with Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) accreditation tier and other surgery-related factors. Using descriptive statistics and logistic or ordinal regression analysis (where appropriate), the relationships between draping material and accreditation tier and other surgery-related factors were assessed. Procedures were categorised as short or long. Two hundred and sixty-nine surveys were completed. Reusable drapes were used in 66 per cent of practices. Antibiotics were administered routinely in 38 per cent of short and 93 per cent of long procedures. Practices accredited as a Veterinary Hospital (VH) were 6.3-7.2 (short and long surgeries, respectively) times more likely to use disposable drapes, when compared with non-accredited practices. Use of dedicated surgical attire, draping the whole animal/table, and routine antibiotic usage were also positively correlated with disposable drape usage. Fifty-one per cent of practices rated infection rate as most important when choosing drape material. 'Best practice' techniques are associated with lower importance given to infection rate, and higher importance given to financial cost, when choosing drape material. Disposable drape use correlates with RCVS accreditation and with other aspects of surgical technique. Importance ratings awarded correlate with best practice procedures. Clinical relevance 'Best practice' draping procedures, that are not governed by RCVS accreditation scheme, are also more frequently performed in accredited VHs.

  20. Tooth whitening in the orthodontic practice: a survey of orthodontists.

    PubMed

    Slack, Maura E; Swift, Edward J; Rossouw, P Emile; Phillips, Ceib

    2013-04-01

    The demand for tooth whitening has grown almost exponentially in the last 20 years, but there are no published reports regarding how bleaching is used in contemporary orthodontic practices in the United States. A weighted sample of American Association of Orthodontists members (3601) was surveyed via electronic and paper questionnaires to quantitatively, by logistic regression, and qualitatively assess orthodontists' current practices regarding tooth-whitening procedures. Of the surveys, 1222 were completed, and 1182 surveys were eligible for analysis. Nationwide, 88.8% of orthodontists had patients who requested tooth whitening, and 76.2% of orthodontists had recently recommended whitening procedures for some patients, typically less than 25% of their total patient population. Approximately a third (32.8%) of orthodontists provided whitening, and nearly two thirds (65.8%) referred whitening procedures to other dental professionals. The geographic region of the country had a statistically significant effect on the proportion of orthodontists who received whitening requests (P = 0.004), recommended whitening procedures (P <0.0006), and provided whitening services in their specialty practices (P <0.0001). Almost all orthodontists encounter patients who request whitening procedures, and most recommend whitening procedures for a small percentage of their patients. The proportion of orthodontists who refer such procedures to other providers is nearly double the proportion that provides them. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Sepsis - how to recognize and what to focus on - back to basics in the light of the new definition].

    PubMed

    Horák, Jan; Harazim, Martin; Karvunidis, Thomas; Raděj, Jaroslav; Novák, Ivan; Matějovič, Martin

    Sepsis is the primary cause of death from infection. However, its early recognition remains a fundamental challenge in clinical practice. In February 2016, a newly revised sepsis definition has been published (SEPSIS-3). Sepsis has been redefined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. In this article, we introduce the updated definition of sepsis, discuss its pros and cons and suggest practical implications. The emphasis is put on basic and comprehensive clinical assessment. definition - early recognition of sepsis - infection - sepsis - septic shock.

  2. AME evidence series 001—The Society for Translational Medicine: clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis and early identification of sepsis in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Smischney, Nathan J.; Zhang, Haibo; Van Poucke, Sven; Tsirigotis, Panagiotis; Rello, Jordi; Honore, Patrick M.; Sen Kuan, Win; Ray, Juliet June; Zhou, Jiancang; Shang, You; Yu, Yuetian; Jung, Christian; Robba, Chiara; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Caironi, Pietro; Grimaldi, David; Hofer, Stefan; Dimopoulos, George; Leone, Marc; Hong, Sang-Bum; Bahloul, Mabrouk; Argaud, Laurent; Kim, Won Young; Spapen, Herbert D.; Rocco, Jose Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a heterogeneous disease caused by an infection stimulus that triggers several complex local and systemic immuno-inflammatory reactions, which results in multiple organ dysfunction and significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of sepsis is challenging because there is no gold standard for diagnosis. As a result, the clinical diagnosis of sepsis is ever changing to meet the clinical and research requirements. Moreover, although there are many novel biomarkers and screening tools for predicting the risk of sepsis, the diagnostic performance and effectiveness of these measures are less than satisfactory, and there is insufficient evidence to recommend clinical use of these new techniques. As a consequence, diagnostic criteria for sepsis need regular revision to cope with emerging evidence. This review aims to present the most updated information on diagnosis and early recognition of sepsis. Recommendations for clinical use of different diagnostic tools rely on the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. Because most of the studies were observational and did not allow a reliable assessment of these tools, a two-step inference approach was employed. Future trials need to confirm or refute a particular index test and should directly explore relevant patient outcome parameters. PMID:27747021

  3. Changing Definitions of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Fethi; Arslantaş, Mustafa Kemal; Cinel, İsmail; Kumar, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients despite the use of modern antibiotics and resuscitation therapies. Outcomes in sepsis have improved overall, probably because of an enhanced focus on early diagnosis and other improvements in supportive care, but mortality rates still remain unacceptably high. The diagnosis and definition of sepsis is a critical problem due to the heterogeneity of this disease process. Although it is apparent that much more needs to be done to advance our understanding, sepsis and related terms remain difficult to define. A 1991 consensus conference developed initial definitions that systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to infection would be called sepsis. Definitions of sepsis and septic shock were revised in 2001 to incorporate the threshold values for organ damage. In early 2016, the new definitions of sepsis and septic shock have changed dramatically. Sepsis is now defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The consensus document describes organ dysfunction as an acute increase in total Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score two points consequently to the infection. A significant change in the new definitions is the elimination of any mention of SIRS. The Sepsis-3 Task Force also introduced a new bedside index, called the qSOFA, to identify outside of critical care units patients with suspected infection who are likely to develop sepsis. Recently updated the consensus definitions improved specificity compared with the previous descriptions. PMID:28752002

  4. Description of practice as an ambulatory care nurse: psychometric properties of a practice-analysis survey.

    PubMed

    Baghi, Heibatollah; Panniers, Teresa L; Smolenski, Mary C

    2007-01-01

    Changes within nursing demand that a specialty conduct periodic, appropriate practice analyses to continually validate itself against preset standards. This study explicates practice analysis methods using ambulatory care nursing as an exemplar. Data derived from a focus group technique were used to develop a survey that was completed by 499 ambulatory care nurses. The validity of the instrument was assessed using principal components analysis; reliability was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The focus group with ambulatory care experts produced 34 knowledge and activity statements delineating ambulatory care nursing practice. The survey data produced five factors accounting for 71% of variance in the data. The factors were identified as initial patient assessment, professional nursing issues and standards, client care management skills, technical/clinical skills, and system administrative operations. It was concluded that practice analyses delineate a specialty and provide input for certification examinations aimed at measuring excellence in a field of nursing.

  5. Survey of acupuncturists: practice characteristics and pediatric care.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A C; Highfield, E S; Berde, C B; Kemper, K J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the practice characteristics and pediatric care provided by licensed acupuncturists. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Boston metropolitan area. SUBJECTS: 227 licensed acupuncturists were surveyed; 140 (62%) responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Demographics, (2) practice characteristics, (3) pediatric care, (4) recommendations of peers recognized as experts in pediatric acupuncture. RESULTS: (1) Demographics: 70% Caucasian, 61% female; (2) practice characteristics: average of 39 visits weekly with an average charge of $54 for a 57-minute visit; patients were typically scheduled for follow-up once or twice weekly; only 5% of fees were covered by insurance; 80% recommended herbal remedies and 66% dispensed herbs in the office; (3) few acupuncturists treated more than one child per week; most used non-needle techniques or Japanese-style acupuncture to stimulate points in children; 85% would refer a febrile two-week-old infant immediately to a physician; (4) only 17 acupuncturists were recommended by three or more peers and saw three or more patients weekly; their practices were all in wealthy suburban areas. CONCLUSIONS: Most acupuncturists in the Boston area are Caucasian and female. Compared with physicians, they schedule patients for more frequent follow-up, allocate more time, are less likely to be reimbursed by insurance, and treat fewer children. Additional studies are needed to assess effectiveness, quality, and access to acupuncture services for adults and children. PMID:10560285

  6. Nanosafety practices: results from a national survey at research facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Soler, Beatriz María; López-Alonso, Mónica; Martínez-Aires, María Dolores

    2017-05-01

    The exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is a new emerging risk at work due to an increase in the number of workers potentially exposed to them and the current lack of data on their health and safety risks. This paper reports the findings of a survey designed to study the safety practices employed by workers in Spanish research facilities performing tasks involving the use of ENMs at research level. A questionnaire pretested and validated by an expert panel was sent by e-mail to the target audience. The 425 surveys completed show that most of the respondents handled up to 5 different ENMs, in suspension, in small amounts during short periods of exposure. The implementation of common hygienic practices, such as the use of protection for hands and the implementation of fume hoods, is widely indicated. The selection of the preventive and protective measures does not depend on the characteristics of ENMs handled. Also, the risks posed by ENMs are widely ignored. Besides the performance of risk assessment, hygienic monitoring and the conducting of a specific health surveillance are practically non-existent although some accidents relating to ENMs were identified. In conclusion, workers' exposure to ENMs seems to be low. Even though the best practices and preventive and protective measures reported were employed, most of the respondents could not be correctly protected. Moreover, workers do not associate the measures implemented with the nanorisks. Finally, there is a lack of proactive action underway to protect the workers, and concerns about safety are weakly evidenced.

  7. The practice of prophylactic mastectomy: a survey of Maryland surgeons.

    PubMed Central

    Houn, F; Helzlsouer, K J; Friedman, N B; Stefanek, M E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy is a drastic breast cancer preventive option for which indications are not standardized and efficacy has not been proven. To estimate the magnitude of this controversial practice, surgeons were surveyed on their recommendations about and performance of prophylactic mastectomy. METHODS. A cross-sectional survey was sent to general surgeons (n = 522), plastic surgeons (n = 80), and gynecologists (n = 801) licensed to practice in Maryland in 1992. Proportions responding were 41.9%, 66.3%, and 54.9%, respectively. In addition, there were 30 respondents who identified "other" as their specialty. The respondents were asked about the role of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and the number of times they had recommended and performed it in a year. RESULTS. Seven hundred forty-two surgeons responded (51.8%). More plastic surgeons (84.6%) than general surgeons (47.0%) and gynecologists (38.3%) agreed that bilateral prophylactic mastectomy has a role in the care of high-risk women. Eighty-one percent of plastic surgeons had recommended the procedure, compared with 38.8% of general surgeons and 17.7% of gynecologists. CONCLUSIONS. Indications and practice patterns reveal heterogeneity of medical opinion and practice of prophylactic mastectomy. This study raises the need for better evaluation of the efficacy and appropriateness of prophylactic mastectomy. PMID:7762713

  8. Introduction to Pediatric Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Derek S

    2011-10-07

    Sepsis is a significant health problem in both critically ill children and adults. While the mortality rate from sepsis is much lower in children, sepsis is directly responsible for over 4,000 childhood deaths per year in the United States alone. At face value, this number suggests that more children die per year in the United States from sepsis as the primary cause than from cancer. Unfortunately, there are few studies on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of sepsis in children. Moreover, extrapolation of adult data to critically ill children is probably not appropriate due to several key developmental differences in the host response to infection and response to therapy. Therefore, additional studies targeting sepsis in the pediatric population are urgently required.

  9. Arthroscopic hip preservation surgery practice patterns: an international survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin M.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lewis, Brian D.; Mather, R. Chad; Van Thiel, Geoffrey; Nho, Shane J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To design and conduct a survey analyzing pre-, intra- and post- hip arthroscopy practice patterns among hip arthroscopists worldwide. A 21-question, IRB-exempt, HIPAA-compliant, cross-sectional survey was conducted via email using SurveyMonkey to examine pre-operative evaluation, intra-operative techniques and post-operative management. The survey was administered internationally to 151 hip arthroscopists identified from publicly available sources. Seventy-five respondents completed the survey (151 ± 116 hip arthroscopy procedures per year; 8.6 ± 7.1 years hip arthroscopy experience). Standing AP pelvis, false profile and Dunn 45 were the most common radiographs utilized. CT scans were utilized by 54% of surgeons at least some of the time. Only 56% of participants recommended an arthrogram with MRI. Nearly all surgeons either never (40%) or infrequently (58%) performed arthroscopy in Tönnis grade-2 or grade-3 osteoarthritis. Surgeons rarely performed hip arthroscopy on patients with dysplasia (51% never; 44% infrequently). Only 25% of participants perform a routine ‘T’ capsulotomy and 41% close the capsule if the patient is at risk for post-operative instability. Post-operatively, 52% never use a brace, 39% never use a continuous passive motion, 11% never recommended heterotopic ossification prophylaxis and 30% never recommended formal thromboembolic disease prophylaxis. Among a large number of high-volume experienced hip arthroscopists worldwide, pre-, intra- and post- hip arthroscopy practice patterns have been established and reported. Within this cohort of respondents, several areas of patient evaluation and management remain discordant and controversial without universal agreement. Future research should move beyond expert opinion level V evidence towards high-quality appropriately designed and conducted investigations. PMID:28630717

  10. Bimodal Programming: A Survey of Current Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Siburt, Hannah W; Holmes, Alice E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical practice in approaches to bimodal programming in the United States. To be specific, if clinicians are recommending bimodal stimulation, who programs the hearing aid in the bimodal condition, and what method is used for programming the hearing aid? An 11-question online survey was created and sent via email to a comprehensive list of cochlear implant programming centers in the United States. The survey was sent to 360 recipients. Respondents in this study represented a diverse group of clinical settings (response rate: 26%). Results indicate little agreement about who programs the hearing aids, when they are programmed, and how they are programmed in the bimodal condition. Analysis of small versus large implant centers indicated small centers are less likely to add a device to the contralateral ear. Although a growing number of cochlear implant recipients choose to wear a hearing aid on the contralateral ear, there is inconsistency in the current clinical approach to bimodal programming. These survey results provide evidence of large variability in the current bimodal programming practices and indicate a need for more structured clinical recommendations and programming approaches.

  11. Factors influencing behavior guidance: a survey of practicing pediatric dentists.

    PubMed

    Juntgen, Laura M; Sanders, Brian J; Walker, Laquia A; Jones, James E; Weddell, James A; Tomlin, Angela M; Eckert, George; Maupome, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing behavior guidance technique utilization among practicing pediatric dentists and explore potential barriers to the incorporation of previously unused techniques. The data for this study were obtained from a web-based survey containing 15 multiple choice questions concerning the practitioners' past, current, and anticipated future behavior guidance technique utilization. Most respondents received hands-on training in 10 of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry behavior guidance techniques. The type of training was associated with the practitioners' level of comfort using a given technique upon graduation and with the current frequency of technique utilization. Residency type impacted hands-on behavior guidance training, with 39 percent of respondents reporting no intravenous sedation training. The type of practice was associated with the frequency of behavior guidance technique utilization, as was graduation decade. Currently practicing dentists cited legal concerns, parental acceptance to change, and limited resources as perceived obstacles in the incorporation of new techniques. Behavior guidance technique selection and utilization among practicing pediatric dentists was influenced by multiple factors, including advanced education training, residency type, graduation decade, and practice type. Obstacles to the incorporation of previously unused techniques appear to be multifactorial.

  12. Survey of occupational hazards in Minnesota veterinary practices in 2012.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Heather N; Holzbauer, Stacy M; Smith, Kirk E; Scheftel, Joni M

    2016-01-15

    To identify the scope of occupational hazards encountered by veterinary personnel and compare hazard exposures between veterinarians and technicians working in small and large animal practices. Cross-sectional survey. Licensed veterinarians and veterinary staff in Minnesota. A survey of Minnesota veterinary personnel was conducted between February 1 and December 1, 2012. Adult veterinary personnel working in clinical practice for > 12 months were eligible to participate. Information was collected on various workplace hazards as well as on workplace safety culture. 831 eligible people responded, representing approximately 10% of Minnesota veterinary personnel. A greater proportion of veterinarians (93%; 368/394) reported having received preexposure rabies vaccinations than did veterinary technicians (54%; 198/365). During their career, 226 (27%) respondents had acquired at least 1 zoonotic infection and 636 (77%) had been injured by a needle or other sharps. Recapping of needles was reported by 87% of respondents; the most common reason reported by veterinarians (41%; 142/345) and veterinary technicians (71%; 238/333) was being trained to do so at school or work. Recent feelings of depression were reported by 204 (25%) respondents. A greater proportion of technicians (42%; 155/365) than veterinarians (21%; 81/394) indicated working in an environment in which employees experienced some form of workplace abuse. Veterinary personnel in Minnesota were exposed to several work-related hazards. Practice staff should assess workplace hazards, implement controls, and incorporate instruction on occupational health into employee training.

  13. Bioethics consultation practices and procedures: a survey of a large Canadian community of practice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R A; Anstey, K W; Macri, R; Heesters, A; Bean, S; Zlotnik Shaul, R

    2014-06-01

    The literature fails to reflect general agreement over the nature of the services and procedures provided by bioethicists, and the training and core competencies this work requires. If bioethicists are to define their activities in a consistent way, it makes sense to look for common ground in shared communities of practice. We report results of a survey of the services and procedures among bioethicists affiliated with the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics (JCB). This is the largest group of bioethicists working in healthcare organizations in Canada. The results suggest there are many common services and procedures of JCB bioethicists. This survey can serve as a baseline for further exploration of the work of JCB bioethicists. Common practices exist with respect to the domains of practice, individual reporting relationships, service availability within business hours and the education and training of the bioethicist.

  14. Survey of Nursing Integration of Genomics Into Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Calzone, Kathleen A.; Jenkins, Jean; Yates, Jan; Cusack, Georgie; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Liewehr, David J.; Steinberg, Seth M.; McBride, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Translating clinically valid genomic discoveries into practice is hinged not only on technologic advances, but also on nurses—the largest global contingent of health providers—acquiring requisite competencies to apply these discoveries in clinical care. The study aim was to assess practicing nurse attitudes, practices, receptivity, confidence, and competency of integrating genomics into nursing practice. Design A convenience sample of practicing nurses was recruited to complete an online survey that assessed domains from Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations Theory and used family history utilization as the basis for competency assessment. Methods Results were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. Findings Two-hundred-thirty-nine licensed registered nurses, 22 to 72 years of age, with a median of 20 years in practice, responded, for an overall response rate of 28%. Most were White (83%), female (92%), and held baccalaureate degrees (56%). Seventy-one percent considered genetics to be very important to nursing practice; however, 81% rated their understanding of the genetics of common diseases as poor or fair. Per-question response rates varied widely. Instrument assessment indicated that modifications were necessary to decrease respondent burden. Conclusions Respondents’ perceived genomic competency was inadequate, family history was not routinely utilized in care delivery, and the extent of family history varied widely. However, most nurses indicated interest in pursuing continuing genomic education. Clinical Relevance Findings from this study can lead to the development of targeted education that will facilitate optimal workforce preparation for the ongoing influx of genetics and genomics information, technologies, and targeted therapies into the healthcare arena. This pilot study provides a foundation on which to build the next step, which includes a national nursing workforce study. PMID:23205780

  15. Japanese Practicing Physicians' Relationships with Pharmaceutical Representatives: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Sayaka; Mukohara, Kei; Bito, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs) have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. Methods and Findings From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%), received drug samples (85%) and stationery (96%), and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME) events at the workplace (80%) and outside the workplace (93%). Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49%) and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%). Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to prescribe brand

  16. Japanese practicing physicians' relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Saito, Sayaka; Mukohara, Kei; Bito, Seiji

    2010-08-13

    Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs) have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%), received drug samples (85%) and stationery (96%), and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME) events at the workplace (80%) and outside the workplace (93%). Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49%) and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%). Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to prescribe brand-name medications. Involvement in

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The USGS has a long and proud tradition of objective, unbiased science in service to the Nation. A reputation for impartiality and excellence is one of our most important assets. To help preserve this vital asset, in 2004 the Executive Leadership Team (ELT) of the USGS was charged by the Director to develop a set of fundamental science practices, philosophical premises, and operational principles as the foundation for all USGS research and monitoring activities. In a concept document, 'Fundamental Science Practices of the U.S. Geological Survey', the ELT proposed 'a set of fundamental principles to underlie USGS science practices.' The document noted that protecting the reputation of USGS science for quality and objectivity requires the following key elements: - Clearly articulated, Bureau-wide fundamental science practices. - A shared understanding at all levels of the organization that the health and future of the USGS depend on following these practices. - The investment of budget, time, and people to ensure that the USGS reputation and high-quality standards are maintained. The USGS Fundamental Science Practices (FSP) encompass all elements of research investigations, including data collection, experimentation, analysis, writing results, peer review, management review, and Bureau approval and publication of information products. The focus of FSP is on how science is carried out and how products are produced and disseminated. FSP is not designed to address the question of what work the USGS should do; that is addressed in USGS science planning handbooks and other documents. Building from longstanding existing USGS policies and the ELT concept document, in May 2006, FSP policies were developed with input from all parts of the organization and were subsequently incorporated into the Bureau's Survey Manual. In developing an implementation plan for FSP policy, the intent was to recognize and incorporate the best of USGS current practices to obtain the optimum

  18. Introducing the Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (PIPS): A Concise, Interdisciplinary, and Easy-to-Score Survey

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Emily M.; Henderson, Charles R.; Beach, Andrea L.; Williams, Cody T.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, administrators, and policy makers need valid and reliable information about teaching practices. The Postsecondary Instructional Practices Survey (PIPS) is designed to measure the instructional practices of postsecondary instructors from any discipline. The PIPS has 24 instructional practice statements and nine demographic questions. Users calculate PIPS scores by an intuitive proportion-based scoring convention. Factor analyses from 72 departments at four institutions (N = 891) support a 2- or 5-factor solution for the PIPS; both models include all 24 instructional practice items and have good model fit statistics. Factors in the 2-factor model include (a) instructor-centered practices, nine items; and (b) student-centered practices, 13 items. Factors in the 5-factor model include (a) student–student interactions, six items; (b) content delivery, four items; (c) formative assessment, five items; (d) student-content engagement, five items; and (e) summative assessment, four items. In this article, we describe our development and validation processes, provide scoring conventions and outputs for results, and describe wider applications of the instrument. PMID:27810868

  19. Diabetes and sepsis outcomes--it is not all bad news.

    PubMed

    Yende, Sachin; van der Poll, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of developing infections and sepsis. In this issue of Critical Care Esper and colleagues report on a large survey, involving 12.5 million sepsis cases, that examined the impact of pre-existing diabetes on organ dysfunction during sepsis. Their main conclusion was that diabetes patients, relative to non-diabetics, were less likely to develop respiratory failure and more likely to develop renal failure during the course of sepsis.

  20. Children's surgery: a national survey of consultant clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Mason, David G; Shotton, Hannah; Wilkinson, Kathleen A; Gough, Michael J; Alleway, Robert; Freeth, Heather; Mason, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To survey clinical practice and opinions of consultant surgeons and anaesthetists caring for children to inform the needs for training, commissioning and management of children's surgery in the UK. Design The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) hosted an online survey to gather data on current clinical practice of UK consultant surgeons and anaesthetists caring for children. Setting The questionnaire was circulated to all hospitals and to Anaesthetic and Surgical Royal Colleges, and relevant specialist societies covering the UK and the Channel Islands and was mainly completed by consultants in District General Hospitals. Participants 555 surgeons and 1561 anaesthetists completed the questionnaire. Results 32.6% of surgeons and 43.5% of anaesthetists considered that there were deficiencies in their hospital's facilities that potentially compromised delivery of a safe children's surgical service. Almost 10% of all consultants considered that their postgraduate training was insufficient for current paediatric practice and 20% felt that recent Continued Professional Development failed to maintain paediatric expertise. 45.4% of surgeons and 39.2% of anaesthetists considered that the current specialty curriculum should have a larger paediatric component. Consultants in non-specialist paediatric centres were prepared to care for younger children admitted for surgery as emergencies than those admitted electively. Many of the surgeons and anaesthetists had <4 h/week in paediatric practice. Only 55.3% of surgeons and 42.8% of anaesthetists participated in any form of regular multidisciplinary review of children undergoing surgery. Conclusions There are significant obstacles to consultant surgeons and anaesthetists providing a competent surgical service for children. Postgraduate curricula must meet the needs of trainees who will be expected to include children in their caseload as consultants. Trusts must ensure appropriate

  1. First-trimester medical abortion practices in Canada: National survey.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Edith R; Hayden, Althea S; Jones, Heidi E; White, Katharine O'Connell; Steven Lichtenberg, E; Paul, Maureen; Norman, Wendy V

    2016-04-01

    To understand the current availability and practice of first-trimester medical abortion (MA) in Canada. Using public sources and professional networks, abortion facilities across Canada were identified for a cross-sectional survey on medical and surgical abortion. English and French surveys were distributed by surface or electronic mail between July and November 2013. Canada. A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Descriptive statistics on MA practice and facility and provider characteristics, as well as comparisons of MA practice by facility and provider characteristics using χ(2) and t tests. A total of 78 of 94 (83.0%) facilities responded. Medical abortion represented 3.8% of first-trimester abortions reported (2706 of 70 860) in 2012. Among the facilities offering MA, 45.0% performed fewer than 500 first-trimester abortions a year, while 35.0% performed more than 1000. More MAs were performed in private offices or ambulatory health centres than in hospitals. Sixty-two physicians from 28 of 78 facilities reported providing first-trimester MA; 87.1% also provided surgical abortion. More than three-quarters of MA physicians were female and 56.5% were family physicians. A preponderance (85.2%) of providers offered methotrexate with misoprostol. Nearly all physicians (90.3%) required patients to have an ultrasound before MA, and 72.6% assessed the completion of the abortion with ultrasonography. Most physicians (74.2%) offered MA through 49 days after the onset of the last menstrual period, and 21.0% offered MA through 50 to 56 days; 37.1% reported providing MA to patients who lived more than 2 hours away. Four physicians from 1 site provided MA via telemedicine. In Canada, MA provision using methotrexate and misoprostol is consistent with best-practice guidelines, but MA is rare and its availability is unevenly distributed. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  2. Particularities regarding the etiology of sepsis in forensic services.

    PubMed

    Dermengiu, Dan; Curca, George Cristian; Ceausu, Mihai; Hostiuc, Sorin

    2013-09-01

    If in clinical practice definitive diagnostic criteria had been established, after death sepsis is often difficult to diagnose, especially if a site of origin is not found or if no clinical data are available. This article will analyze the etiology of sepsis in a medical-legal service with emphasis on the differences in diagnosing it in clinical and forensic environments. A total of 78 cases of sepsis cases diagnosed or confirmed at the autopsy were selected. The etiological agent was determined either during the hospitalization or by postmortem bacteriology. A high prevalence of Gram-negative sepsis was found, especially multidrug-resistant micro-organisms. Most frequent etiological agents were Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella. Polymicrobial sepsis is much more frequent than in nonforensic cases. In legal medicine, the prevalence of Gram-negative sepsis is much higher than in nonforensic autopsies, and the point of origin is shifted toward the skin and the gastrointestinal system.

  3. A survey of endodontic practices among dentists in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Udoye, Christopher I; Sede, Matthew A; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Abbott, Paul V

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the pattern of routine endodontic practices among Nigerian dentists. This study was a questionnaire-based survey of samples of dentists in the Nigerian cities of Enugu and Benin. The self-administered questionnaire contained 25 close-ended questions with multiple choice options. The data collected included demographic details of respondents, root canal preparation techniques, irrigants and intracanal medicaments used, the number of appointments, method of working length determination, root filling techniques, cements used, and the scope of treatment performed. Most respondents used sodium hypochlorite as the irrigant, the step back technique for canal preparation, and lateral condensation with a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer for obturation. Most respondents did root canal treatment on all types of teeth and used radiographs to determine the working length 70% of the time. Most respondents followed up their patients for less than 12 months and most treated teeth with periapical areas larger than 10 mm by root canal therapy combined with apical surgery. Most Nigerian dentists use step back technique for canal preparation and lateral condensation for obturation. Endodontic practice by Nigerian dentists differs from some established practice quality guidelines in many other countries, particularly in nonperfusion of modern techniques into practice, popularity of antibiotic use for endodontic emergencies and a high rate of perforations.

  4. Questionnaire survey of physicians: Design and practical use in nephrology

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Varun; Garimella, P. S.; Roshan, S. J.; Ghosh, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    As medicine grows in complexity, it is imperative for physicians to update their knowledge base and practice to reflect current standards of care. Postgraduate training offers a golden opportunity for resident physicians to create a strong foundation of concepts in medicine. There is a need for assessing the knowledge of residents regarding established clinical practice guidelines and their perceptions regarding patient care and management. In this paper, we review how questionnaire surveys can be designed and applied to identify significant gaps in resident knowledge and inappropriate attitudes and beliefs. This evaluation has important implications for program directors who can then initiate measures to improve resident education. Such efforts during residency training have the potential of improving patient outcomes. We discuss the design of the questionnaire, its pre-testing and validity measures, online distribution, efficient response collection, data analysis, and possible future research. Finally, we illustrate this method of educational research with a questionnaire survey designed to measure the awareness of chronic kidney disease among internal medicine residents. PMID:20368922

  5. Rapid diagnosis of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bloos, Frank; Reinhart, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Fast and appropriate therapy is the cornerstone in the therapy of sepsis. However, the discrimination of sepsis from non-infectious causes of inflammation may be difficult. Biomarkers have been suggested to aid physicians in this decision. There is currently no biochemical technique available which alone allows a rapid and reliable discrimination between sepsis and non-infectious inflammation. Procalcitonin (PCT) is currently the most investigated biomarker for this purpose. C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 perform inferior to PCT in most studies and their value in diagnosing sepsis is not defined. All biomarkers including PCT are also released after various non-infectious inflammatory impacts. This shortcoming needs to be taken into account when biomarkers are used to aid the physician in the diagnosis of sepsis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based pathogen detection may improve time to adequate therapy but cannot rule out the presence of infection when negative. PMID:24335467

  6. Pediatric sepsis in the developing world: challenges in defining sepsis and issues in post-discharge mortality.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthew O; Kumbakumba, Elias; Kissoon, Niranjan; Ansermino, J Mark; Ndamira, Andrew; Larson, Charles P

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis represents the progressive underlying inflammatory pathway secondary to any infectious illness, and ultimately is responsible for most infectious disease-related deaths. Addressing issues related to sepsis has been recognized as an important step towards reducing morbidity and mortality in developing countries, where the majority of the 7.5 million annual deaths in children under 5 years of age are considered to be secondary to sepsis. However, despite its prevalence, sepsis is largely neglected. Application of sepsis definitions created for use in resource-rich countries are neither practical nor feasible in most developing country settings, and alternative definitions designed for use in these settings need to be established. It has also been recognized that the inflammatory state created by sepsis increases the risk of post-discharge morbidity and mortality in developed countries, but exploration of this issue in developing countries is lacking. Research is urgently required to characterize better this potentially important issue.

  7. Early detection and treatment of severe sepsis in the emergency department: identifying barriers to implementation of a protocol-based approach.

    PubMed

    Burney, Mara; Underwood, Joseph; McEvoy, Shayna; Nelson, Germaine; Dzierba, Amy; Kauari, Vepuka; Chong, David

    2012-11-01

    Despite evidence to support efficacy of early goal-directed therapy for resuscitation of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department, implementation remains incomplete. To identify and address specific barriers at our institution and maximize benefits of a planned sepsis treatment initiative, a baseline assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding detection and treatment of severe sepsis was performed. An online survey was offered to nurses and physicians in the emergency department of a major urban academic medical center. The questionnaire was designed to assess (1) baseline knowledge and self-reported confidence in identification of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis; (2) current practices in treatment; (3) difficulties encountered in managing sepsis cases; (4) perceived barriers to implementation of a clinical pathway based on early quantitative resuscitation goals; and (5) to elicit suggestions for improvement of sepsis treatment within the department. Respondents (n = 101) identified barriers to a quantitative resuscitation protocol for sepsis. These barriers included the inability to perform central venous pressure/central venous oxygen saturation monitoring, limited physical space in the emergency department, and lack of sufficient nursing staff. Among nurses, the greatest perceived contributor to delays in treatment was a delay in diagnosis by physicians; among physicians, a delay in availability of ICU beds and nursing delays were the greatest barriers. Despite these issues, respondents indicated that a written protocol would be helpful to them. Knowledge gaps and procedural hurdles identified by the survey will inform both educational and process components of an initiative to improve sepsis care in the emergency department. Copyright © 2012 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Delirium: A Survey of Healthcare Professionals' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices.

    PubMed

    Sinvani, Liron; Kozikowski, Andrzej; Pekmezaris, Renee; Akerman, Meredith; Wolf-Klein, Gisele

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding delirium of physicians, nurse practitioners (NPs), and registered nurses (RNs). Anonymous cross-sectional paper survey. New York metropolitan area tertiary care hospital. RNs, NPs, and physicians (N = 164). The survey assessed knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding delirium and prior delirium or geriatric training. Of the 200 surveys distributed, 164 were completed (82% response rate). Of these, 61.7% were RNs, 13.6% were NPs, and 20.7% were physicians. Mean participant age was 36.3. The majority (80.1%) were female; 56.5% were white, 18.1% Asian, 8.7% Hispanic, 8.0% black, and 8.7% other. Of the seven potential barriers to delirium screening assessed, the three most frequently reported were lack of conceptual understanding of delirium (48.0%), similarity of delirium and dementia (41.4%), and the fluctuating nature of delirium (38.1%). Physicians were more likely than NPs and RNs to report being confident in identifying delirium (P = .002) and to score higher on the delirium knowledge assessment (P < .001). Participants who received geriatrics training were significantly more likely than those who did not to be confident in identifying delirium (P = .005) and to score higher on overall delirium knowledge assessment (P = .003). Geriatric training is associated with more confidence in delirium screening and higher delirium knowledge scores. There is an urgent need to broaden the approach to delirium education of nurses and physicians caring for hospitalized older adults using comprehensive multidisciplinary geriatric educational models. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. A National Survey of Physician Practices Regarding Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew M; McMahon, Shawn R; Santoli, Jeanne M; Schwartz, Benjamin; Clark, Sarah J

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize U.S. physicians' practices regarding influenza vaccine, particularly regarding the capacity to identify high-risk patients, the use of reminder systems, and the typical period of administration of vaccine. DESIGN Cross-sectional mail survey administered in October and November 2000. PARTICIPANTS National random sample of internists and family physicians (N = 1,606). RESULTS Response rate was 60%. Family physicians are significantly more likely than internists to administer influenza vaccine in their practices (82% vs 76%; P < .05). Eighty percent of physicians typically administer influenza vaccine for 3 to 5 months, but only 27% continue administering vaccine after the typical national peak of influenza activity. Only one half of physicians said their practices are able to generate lists of patients with chronic illnesses at high risk for complications of influenza, and only one quarter had used mail or telephone reminder systems to contact high-risk patients. Physicians working in a physician network (including managed care organizations) are more than twice as likely to use reminders as physicians in other practice settings (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 3.55). CONCLUSIONS Over three quarters of U.S. internists and family physicians routinely administer influenza vaccine, but few continue immunization efforts past the typical national peak of influenza activity. Many physicians may be limited by their practice data systems' capacity to identify high-risk patients. Despite the known effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of reminder systems, few physicians use reminders for influenza vaccination efforts. These findings raise concerns about meeting domestic influenza vaccination goals—especially for individuals with chronic illness and during periods of delayed vaccine availability—and the possibility of increased morbidity and mortality attributable to influenza as a result. PMID:12220362

  10. [Regional anesthesia practice in Chile: an online survey].

    PubMed

    Corvetto, M; McCready, M; Cook, C; Pietrobon, R; Altermatt, F

    2010-04-01

    To conduct a survey to profile the practice of regional anesthesia in Chile and determine the limitations on its use. A link to an online questionnaire was sent by e-mail to anesthesiologists who were members of their national professional association (Sociedad Chilena de Anestesiologia). The survey was processed anonymously. Multiple choice items elicited responses concerning general demographic information, professional experience as an anesthetist, academic degree, hospital size, and the use of regional anesthesia in clinical practice (number of procedures and types of techniques). Finally, the questionnaire focused on the use of nerve and plexus blocks. A total of 209 completed questionnaires were received, for a response rate of 54%. Regional anesthesia was part of routine practice for 97% of the respondents; 68% reported that regional techniques were used in more than 30% of their caseload. Most performed neuraxial techniques: 98.1% were spinal blocks, 96.2% lumbar epidural blocks, and 66.9% thoracic epidural blocks. Routine use of peripheral nerve blockade was reported by 73.7%. Upper limb anesthesia was provided significantly more often than lower limb anesthesia (P =.011). The most common technique involved use of a peripheral nerve stimulator (64%). Skills were mainly acquired through residency programs (68.9%) and self-teaching (20.1%). Peripheral nerve blocks were never performed by 26.3% of the respondents; the reason given most often was lack of training. Although regional anesthesia is commonly used in Chile, neuraxial blocks remain the most frequently used types. Peripheral nerve blocks are used fairly often, mostly on an upper limb. Training should stimulate attempts to promote more widespread use of all forms of regional anesthesia.

  11. DRG coding practice: a nationwide hospital survey in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pongpirul, Krit; Walker, Damian G; Rahman, Hafizur; Robinson, Courtland

    2011-10-31

    Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) payment is preferred by healthcare reform in various countries but its implementation in resource-limited countries has not been fully explored. This study was aimed (1) to compare the characteristics of hospitals in Thailand that were audited with those that were not and (2) to develop a simplified scale to measure hospital coding practice. A questionnaire survey was conducted of 920 hospitals in the Summary and Coding Audit Database (SCAD hospitals, all of which were audited in 2008 because of suspicious reports of possible DRG miscoding); the questionnaire also included 390 non-SCAD hospitals. The questionnaire asked about general demographics of the hospitals, hospital coding structure and process, and also included a set of 63 opinion-oriented items on the current hospital coding practice. Descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were used for data analysis. SCAD and Non-SCAD hospitals were different in many aspects, especially the number of medical statisticians, experience of medical statisticians and physicians, as well as number of certified coders. Factor analysis revealed a simplified 3-factor, 20-item model to assess hospital coding practice and classify hospital intention. Hospital providers should not be assumed capable of producing high quality DRG codes, especially in resource-limited settings.

  12. DRG coding practice: a nationwide hospital survey in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) payment is preferred by healthcare reform in various countries but its implementation in resource-limited countries has not been fully explored. Objectives This study was aimed (1) to compare the characteristics of hospitals in Thailand that were audited with those that were not and (2) to develop a simplified scale to measure hospital coding practice. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted of 920 hospitals in the Summary and Coding Audit Database (SCAD hospitals, all of which were audited in 2008 because of suspicious reports of possible DRG miscoding); the questionnaire also included 390 non-SCAD hospitals. The questionnaire asked about general demographics of the hospitals, hospital coding structure and process, and also included a set of 63 opinion-oriented items on the current hospital coding practice. Descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were used for data analysis. Results SCAD and Non-SCAD hospitals were different in many aspects, especially the number of medical statisticians, experience of medical statisticians and physicians, as well as number of certified coders. Factor analysis revealed a simplified 3-factor, 20-item model to assess hospital coding practice and classify hospital intention. Conclusion Hospital providers should not be assumed capable of producing high quality DRG codes, especially in resource-limited settings. PMID:22040256

  13. Toward the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and sepsis-like illness using novel heart rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M P; Moorman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Abrupt clinical deterioration because of sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, and earlier diagnosis should improve therapy of this potentially catastrophic illness. In practice, clinical signs and laboratory data have not been perceived as sensitive or specific for early stages of sepsis. Because heart rate characteristics (HRC) are abnormal during fetal distress and neonatal illness, we hypothesized that abnormal HRC might precede the clinical diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, adding independent information to standard clinical parameters. In the neonatal intensive care unit at the University of Virginia, we prospectively studied infants admitted from August 1995 to April 1999 who were at risk for developing sepsis. Infants in the sepsis (culture-positive) and sepsis-like illness (culture-negative) groups had an abrupt clinical deterioration that raised clinical suspicion of infection and prompted physicians to obtain blood cultures and start antibiotic therapy. Infants without sepsis raised no clinical suspicion of illness and had no cultures obtained. We measured novel characteristics-moments and percentiles-of normalized heart rate (HR) time series for 5 days before and 3 days after sepsis, sepsis-like illness, or a random time in controls. We also calculated the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP) and the Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (NTISS) as clinical scores of the severity of illness. There were 46 episodes of culture-positive sepsis in 40 patients and 27 episodes of culture-negative sepsis-like illness in 23 patients. We analyzed 29 control periods in 26 patients. Infants with sepsis and sepsis-like illness had lower birth weights and gestational ages and higher SNAP and NTISS scores than did infants without sepsis. The most important new finding was that the infants in the sepsis and sepsis-like illness groups had increasingly abnormal HRC for up to 24 hours preceding their abrupt clinical deterioration

  14. Sepsis and Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Beliz; Haliloğlu, Murat; Cinel, İsmail

    2014-12-01

    Acute kindney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome which is generally defined as an abrupt decline in glomerular filtration rate, causing accumulation of nitrogenous products and rapid development of fluid, electrolyte and acid base disorders. In intensive care unit sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of AKI. Sepsis-induced AKI literally acts as a biologic indicator of clinical deterioration. AKI triggers variety of immune, inflammatory, metabolic and humoral patways; ultimately leading distant organ dysfunction and increases morbidity and mortality. Serial mesurements of creatinine and urine volume do not make it possible to diagnose AKI at early stages. Serum creatinine influenced by age, weight, hydration status and become apparent only when the kidneys have lost 50% of their function. For that reason we need new markers, and many biomarkers in the diagnosis of early AKI activity is assessed. Historically "Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage" (RIFLE), "Acute Kidney Injury Netwok" (AKIN) and "The Kidney Disease/ Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) classification systems are used for diagnosing easily in clinical practice and research and grading disease. Classifications including diagnostic criteria are formed for the identification of AKI. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin-C (Cys-C), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and also "cell cycle arrest" molecules has been concerned for clinical use. In this review the pathophysiology of AKI, with the relationship of sepsis and the importance of early diagnosis of AKI is evaluated.

  15. Sepsis and Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bilgili, Beliz; Haliloğlu, Murat; Cinel, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    Acute kindney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome which is generally defined as an abrupt decline in glomerular filtration rate, causing accumulation of nitrogenous products and rapid development of fluid, electrolyte and acid base disorders. In intensive care unit sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of AKI. Sepsis-induced AKI literally acts as a biologic indicator of clinical deterioration. AKI triggers variety of immune, inflammatory, metabolic and humoral patways; ultimately leading distant organ dysfunction and increases morbidity and mortality. Serial mesurements of creatinine and urine volume do not make it possible to diagnose AKI at early stages. Serum creatinine influenced by age, weight, hydration status and become apparent only when the kidneys have lost 50% of their function. For that reason we need new markers, and many biomarkers in the diagnosis of early AKI activity is assessed. Historically “Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage” (RIFLE), “Acute Kidney Injury Netwok” (AKIN) and “The Kidney Disease/ Improving Global Outcomes” (KDIGO) classification systems are used for diagnosing easily in clinical practice and research and grading disease. Classifications including diagnostic criteria are formed for the identification of AKI. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin-C (Cys-C), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and also “cell cycle arrest” molecules has been concerned for clinical use. In this review the pathophysiology of AKI, with the relationship of sepsis and the importance of early diagnosis of AKI is evaluated. PMID:27366441

  16. Survey of dairy housing and manure management practices in California.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D; Price, P L; Rossow, H A; Silva-del-Rio, N; Karle, B M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, a descriptive survey was mailed to all dairies in Glenn (G) and Tulare (T) Counties to identify current and future opportunities of manure management practices on California dairies. The purpose was to provide baseline information for development of outreach curriculum and a decision support tool to quantify potential benefits of various N management options on dairy farms. Such baseline information is valuable to staff regulating dairy facilities (e.g., San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board), dairy trade association representatives, and technology vendors. Response rates for each county were similar at 29.7% (n=19; G) and 26.7% (n=88; T). Mean milking herd size averaged 570 (range 50 to 3,000) cows in G and 1,800 (range 196 to 9,286) cows in T. Survey data are reported by location due to differences between counties in herd size, housing facilities, and climate. Freestalls are common housing facilities (63.2%, G; 38.6%, T) and separated solids and corral scrapings are commonly used as bedding in freestalls (81.8% G and 79.4% T). The most common methods of manure collection were flushing and scraping (18.8%, G; 44.7%, T), only flushing (43.8%, G; 34.1%, T), or only scraping daily or less frequently than daily (37.5%, G; 20.0%, T). Most dairy farms in G (63.2%) and T (70.5%) used some method of separating solids from liquids. However, mechanical separation systems alone were used by 5.3% G and 11.4% T of dairy farms. Storage or treatment ponds were found on 95.9% of dairies. Respondents identified existing manure management practices and did not indicate any new technologies were in use or being considered for manure management. Survey results were used to describe the 2 predominant manure management pathways of manure collection, storage, treatment, and utilization. Survey results will be used to develop and disseminate targeted information on manure treatment technologies, and on

  17. Sepsis pathophysiology and anesthetic consideration.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Koichi; Murakami, Naoka

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains to be a significant health care issue associated with high mortality and healthcare cost, despite the extensive effort to better understand the pathophysiology of the sepsis. Recently updated clinical guideline for severe sepsis and septic shock, "Surviving Sepsis Campaign 2012", emphasizes the importance of early goal-directed therapy, which can be implemented in intraoperative management of sepsis patients. Herein, we review the updates of current guideline and discuss its application to anesthesic management. Furthermore, we review the recent advance in knowledge of sepsis pathophysiology, focusing on immune modulation, which may lead to new clinical therapeutic approach to sepsis.

  18. Sepsis Pathophysiology and Anesthetic Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Koichi; Murakami, Naoka

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains to be a significant health care issue associated with high mortality and healthcare cost, despite the extensive effort to better understand the pathophysiology of the sepsis. Recently updated clinical guideline for severe sepsis and septic shock, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign 2012”, emphasizes the importance of early goal-directed therapy, which can be implemented in intraoperative management of sepsis patients. Herein, we review the updates of current guideline and discuss its application to anesthesic management. Furthermore, we review the recent advance in knowledge of sepsis pathophysiology, focusing on immune modulation, which may lead to new clinical therapeutic approach to sepsis. PMID:25567335

  19. [General anaesthesia in children: a French survey of practices].

    PubMed

    Constant, I; Louvet, N; Guye, M-L; Sabourdin, N

    2012-09-01

    The practice of pediatric anesthesia requires a regular update of scientific knowledge and technical skills. To provide the most adequate Continuing Medical Education programs, it is necessary to assess the practices of pediatric anesthesiologists. Thus, the objective of this survey was to draw a picture of the current clinical practices of general anesthesia in children, in France. One thousand one hundred and fifty questionnaires were given to anesthesiologists involved in pediatric cases. These questionnaires collected information on various aspects of clinical practice relative to induction, maintenance, recovery from general anaesthesia and also classical debated points such as children with Upper Respiratory Infection (URI), emergence agitation, epileptoid signs or anaesthetic management of adenoidectomy. Differences in practices between CHG (general hospital), CHU (teaching hospital), LIBERAL (private) and PSPH (semi-private) hospitals were investigated. There were 1025 questionnaires completed. Fifty-five percent of responders worked in public hospitals (CHG and CHU); 77% had a practice that was 25% or less of pediatric cases. In children from 3 to 10 years: 72% of respondents used always premedication and two thirds performed inhalation induction in more than 50% of cases. For induction, 53% used sevoflurane (SEVO) at 7 or 8%. Respondents from LIBERAL used higher SEVO concentrations. Tracheal intubation was performed with SEVO alone (37%), SEVO and propofol (55%) and SEVO with myorelaxant (8%), 93% of respondents used a bolus of opioid. For maintenance, the majority of respondents used SEVO associated with sufentanil; desflurane and remifentanil were more frequently used in CHU. Two thirds of respondents used N(2)O. Depth of anesthesia was commonly assessed by hemodynamic changes (52%), end tidal concentration of halogenated (38%) or automated devices based on EEG (7%). In children with URI, 98% of respondents used SEVO for anesthesia. To control the

  20. Biomarkers of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is an unusual systemic reaction to what is sometimes an otherwise ordinary infection, and it probably represents a pattern of response by the immune system to injury. A hyper-inflammatory response is followed by an immunosuppressive phase during which multiple organ dysfunction is present and the patient is susceptible to nosocomial infection. Biomarkers to diagnose sepsis may allow early intervention which, although primarily supportive, can reduce the risk of death. Although lactate is currently the most commonly used biomarker to identify sepsis, other biomarkers may help to enhance lactate's effectiveness; these include markers of the hyper-inflammatory phase of sepsis, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; proteins such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin which are synthesized in response to infection and inflammation; and markers of neutrophil and monocyte activation. Recently, markers of the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis, such as anti-inflammatory cytokines, and alterations of the cell surface markers of monocytes and lymphocytes have been examined. Combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers in a multi-marker panel may help identify patients who are developing severe sepsis before organ dysfunction has advanced too far. Combined with innovative approaches to treatment that target the immunosuppressive phase, these biomarkers may help to reduce the mortality rate associated with severe sepsis which, despite advances in supportive measures, remains high.

  1. Biomarkers of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is an unusual systemic reaction to what is sometimes an otherwise ordinary infection, and it probably represents a pattern of response by the immune system to injury. A hyper-inflammatory response is followed by an immunosuppressive phase during which multiple organ dysfunction is present and the patient is susceptible to nosocomial infection. Biomarkers to diagnose sepsis may allow early intervention which, although primarily supportive, can reduce the risk of death. Although lactate is currently the most commonly used biomarker to identify sepsis, other biomarkers may help to enhance lactate’s effectiveness; these include markers of the hyper-inflammatory phase of sepsis, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; proteins such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin which are synthesized in response to infection and inflammation; and markers of neutrophil and monocyte activation. Recently, markers of the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis, such as anti-inflammatory cytokines, and alterations of the cell surface markers of monocytes and lymphocytes have been examined. Combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers in a multi-marker panel may help identify patients who are developing severe sepsis before organ dysfunction has advanced too far. Combined with innovative approaches to treatment that target the immunosuppressive phase, these biomarkers may help to reduce the mortality rate associated with severe sepsis which, despite advances in supportive measures, remains high. PMID:23480440

  2. Pharmacological management of sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Systemic sepsis continues to be the most-difficult management problem in caring for the combat casualty. The complications of sepsis pervade all areas of injury to soldiers in the field, whether it is mechanical (missiles), thermal (burns), chemical, biological, or radiation injury. With the advent of tactical nuclear weapons, the problem of sepsis will be much higher in future wars than has previously been experienced through the world. The purpose of this chapter is a) to review the data suggesting pharmacological agents that may benefit the septic patient, and b) to emphasize the adjunctive therapies that should be explored in clinical trials. The pharmacological management of sepsis remains controversial. Most of the drugs utilized clinically treat the symptoms of the disease and are not necessarily directed at fundamental mechanisms that are known to be present in sepsis. A broad data base is emerging, indicating that NSAID should be used in human clinical trials. Prostaglandins are sensitive indicators of cellular injury and may be mediators for a number of vasoactive chemicals. Opiate antagonists and calcium channel blockers require more in-depth data; however, recent studies generate excitement for their potential use in the critically ill patient. Pharmacological effects of antibiotics, in concert with other drugs, suggest an entirely new approach to pharmacological treatment in sepsis. There is no doubt that new treatment modalities or adjunctive therapies must be utilized to alter the poor prognosis of severe sepsis that we have observed in the past 4 decades.

  3. Relationship Between Leapfrog Safe Practices Survey and Outcomes in Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Glance, Laurent G.; Dick, Andrew W.; Osler, Turner M.; Wayne Meredith, J.; Stone, Patricia W.; Li, Yue; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between hospital self-reported compliance with the National Quality Forum patient safety practices and trauma outcomes in a nationally representative sample of level I and level II trauma centers. Design Retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Setting Level I and level II trauma centers. Patients Trauma patients. Main Outcome Measures Multivariate logistic regression models were estimated to examine the association between clinical outcomes (in-hospital mortality and hospital-associated infections) and the National Quality Forum patient safety practices. We controlled for patient demographic characteristics, injury severity, mechanism of injury, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics. Results The total score on the Leapfrog Safe Practices Survey was not associated with either mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79–1.06) or hospital-associated infections (1.03; 0.82–1.29). Full implementation of computerized physician order entry was not associated with reduced mortality (aOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.75–1.42) or with a lower risk of hospital-associated infections (0.94; 0.57–1.56). Full implementation of intensive care unit physician staffing was also not predictive of mortality (aOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.90–1.28) or of hospital-associated infections (1.04; 0.76–1.42). Conclusion In this nationally representative sample of level I and level II trauma centers, we were unable to detect evidence that hospitals reporting better compliance with the National Quality Forum patient safety practices had lower mortality or a lower incidence of hospital-associated infections. PMID:22006876

  4. The Microcirculation in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Asha; Sethi, Ashok Kumar; Girotra, Gautam; Mohta, Medha

    2009-01-01

    Summary Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients. The pathophysiology of sepsis involves a highly complex and integrated response, including the activation of various cell types, inflammatory mediators, and the haemostatic system. Recent evidence suggests an emerging role of the microcirculation in sepsis, necessitating a shift in our locus away Irom the macrohaemodynamics to ill icrohaemodynanmics in a septic patient. This review article provides a brief overview of the microcirculation, its assessment techniques, and specific therapies to resuscitate the microhaemodynamics. PMID:20640135

  5. Neutrophil paralysis in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alves-Filho, José C; Spiller, Fernando; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2010-09-01

    Sepsis develops when the initial host response is unable to contain the primary infection, resulting in widespread inflammation and multiple organ dysfunction. The impairment of neutrophil migration into the infection site, also termed neutrophil paralysis, is a critical hallmark of sepsis, which is directly related to the severity of the disease. Although the precise mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood, there has been much advancement in the understanding of this field. In this review, we highlight the recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of neutrophil paralysis during sepsis.

  6. Prehospital Sepsis Care.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jerrilyn; Lawner, Benjamin J

    2017-02-01

    Prehospital care providers are tasked with the delivery of time-sensitive care, and emergency medical services (EMS) systems must match patients to appropriate clinical resources. Modern systems are uniquely positioned to recognize and treat patients with sepsis. Interventions such as administration of intravenous fluid and transporting patients to the appropriate level of definitive care are linked to improved patient outcomes. As EMS systems refine their protocols for the recognition and stabilization of patients with suspected or presumed sepsis, EMS providers need to be educated about the spectrum of sepsis-related presentations and treatment strategies need to be standardized.

  7. Survey on current practices for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Dünser, Martin W; Duranteau, Jacques; Horn, Janneke; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    To investigate current practices and timing of neurological prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to the 8000 members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine during September and October 2012. The survey had 27 questions divided into three categories: background data, clinical data, decision-making and consequences. A total of 1025 respondents (13%) answered the survey with complete forms in more than 90%. Twenty per cent of respondents practiced outside of Europe. Overall, 22% answered that they had national recommendations, with the highest percentage in the Netherlands (>80%). Eighty-nine per cent used induced hypothermia (32-34 °C) for comatose cardiac arrest patients, while 11% did not. Twenty per cent had separate prognostication protocols for hypothermia patients. Seventy-nine per cent recognized that neurological examination alone is not enough to predict outcome and a similar number (76%) used additional methods. Intermittent electroencephalography (EEG), brain computed tomography (CT) scan and evoked potentials (EP) were considered most useful. Poor prognosis was defined as cerebral performance category (CPC) 3-5 (58%) or CPC 4-5 (39%) or other (3%). When prognosis was considered poor, 73% would actively withdraw intensive care while 20% would not and 7% were uncertain. National recommendations for neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest are uncommon and only one physician out of five uses a separate protocol for hypothermia treated patients. A neurological examination alone was considered insufficient to predict outcome in comatose patients and most respondents advocated a multimodal approach: EEG, brain CT and EP were considered most useful. Uncertainty regarding neurological prognostication and decisions on level of care was substantial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences: Survey of Resident Practice, Knowledge, and Attitude.

    PubMed

    Tink, Wendy; Tink, Jessica C; Turin, Tanvir C; Kelly, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) affect 20%-50% of adults and are associated with considerable adult chronic disease, unhealthy behavior, and early mortality. Physicians seldom identify this history although identification can improve health. Low screening rates are attributed to poor physician knowledge of ACEs and barriers to screening, including a lack of confidence to screen and insufficient training. Female physicians and physicians with personal ACE histories report more confidence to screen and fewer time barriers. Our aims were to identify resident screening practices, ACE knowledge, attitudes, and personal ACE histories and to determine preferred ways to learn more, if required. Family medicine residents were surveyed, using a previously published survey. Items included ACE screening practices, ACE knowledge, attitudes, and personal ACE histories. The response rate was 97% (112/115), and 58% were female. Two percent of residents screened females and males at the first visit, thereafter residents screened women (6.3%) more than men (0.9%). One third of residents identified the correct prevalence of ACE in women and one tenth male prevalence. Unhealthy behaviors or physical chronic disease were not associated with ACE histories. Sixty-five percent of residents were not confident to screen. Twenty-nine percent of residents reported a trauma history. Eighty percent believed it was their role to screen. Formal medical training to screen was received by 45.5%; only five residents recalled training during residency. Resident ACE screening rates were extremely low. Physician educational initiatives are recommended to increase confidence to screen and actual screening prior to graduation.

  9. Survey on parenting practices among Chinese in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Poon, W B; Ho, W L C; Yeo, C L

    2007-11-01

    Cultural, religious and personal factors impact greatly on parenting. This survey aims to identify gaps in knowledge and perception about common parenting issues, with respect to mandarin-speaking Chinese in Singapore. There is an emphasis on first-time parents, who the authors feel may be the group which will require additional education and support on these issues. A 37-item written survey was conducted before a public mandarin-language forum. Our response rate was 67 percent. Only 44 percent felt that paediatricians allocated sufficient time to discuss parenting issues. 99 percent of parents believed that breast milk was better than formula milk and that 93 percent intended to breastfeed. However, the vast majority of respondents thought that breastfeeding should be stopped if jaundice developed, and that sunning was effective in preventing jaundice. Moreover, the majority did not recognise the seriousness of jaundice, prolonged or otherwise. Widespread misconceptions existed about milk formulas, with half of the respondents thinking that it was necessary to change to lactose-free formula once a child developed diarrhoea. The majority also thought that certain milk formulas could help improve IQ. We hope that more comprehensive and accessible parental education will be available to aid in raising awareness of parental practices, and to dispel misconceptions regarding neonatal care.

  10. How to Use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance. REL 2016-162

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Phyllis; Yumoto, Futoshi; Abe, Yasuyo; Meyers, Coby; Wan, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    This report describes and explains how to use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance, which measures the degree to which schools are engaging in practices associated with high performance. State education departments and school districts can use the survey results to identify and describe school practices associated with…

  11. Survey of domestic food handling practices in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, S E; Whyte, R; Bayne, G; Paulin, S M; Lake, R J; van der Logt, P

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this survey was to obtain information on the domestic meat and poultry handling practices of New Zealanders in order to support the development of quantitative risk models, as well as providing data to underpin food safety campaigns to consumers. A sample of 1000 New Zealand residents, over 18 years of age, were randomly selected from the electoral roll and asked to participate in a national postal food safety study during 2005. Three hundred and twenty six respondents completed and returned questionnaires containing usable answers, and most of these respondents 'always' prepared the main meal within the household. The majority of meat (84.6%) and poultry (62.9%) purchased by New Zealanders was fresh (rather than frozen), and most consumers (94.4%) claimed that the time taken from food selection to reaching their home was 1 h or less. The majority (approximately 64%) of fresh meat and poultry was frozen in the home and the most favoured method of thawing was at room temperature for up to 12 h. The most common time period for storing cooked or raw meat and poultry in domestic refrigerators was up to 2 days. Most survey respondents preferred their meat and poultry to be cooked either medium or well done. The most popular cooking method for chicken was roasting or baking, while most respondents preferred to pan-fry steak/beef cuts, minced beef or sausages/hamburgers. The potential for undercooking was greatest with pan-fried steak with 19.8% of respondents preferring to consume this meat raw or rare. In answer to questions relating to food handling hygiene practices, 52.2% of respondents selected a hand washing sequence that would help prevent cross contamination. However, it was estimated that 41% and 28% of respondents would use knives and kitchen surfaces respectively in a manner that could allow cross contamination. The data in this survey are self-reported and, particularly for the hygiene questions, respondents may report an answer that they

  12. Gingival displacement: Survey results of dentists' practice procedures.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sumitha N; Donovan, Terry E

    2015-07-01

    A high percentage of fixed prosthodontic restorations require a subgingival margin placement, which requires the practice of gingival displacement or a deflection procedure to replicate the margins in impression. The purpose of this study was to learn the different gingival displacement techniques that are currently used by dentists in their practice and to compare the current concepts of gingival displacement with previously published articles. A survey of questions pertaining to gingival deflection methods was distributed as part of continuing education (CE) course material to dentists attending CE meetings in 7 states in the U.S. and 1 Canadian province. Question topics included initial patient assessment procedures, gingival displacement methods, dentist's knowledge and assessment of systemic manifestations, and brand names of materials used. Ninety-four percent of the participants were general practitioners with 24.11 ± 12.5 years of experience. Ninety-two percent used gingival displacement cords, while 20.2% used a soft tissue laser and 32% used electrosurgery as an adjunct. Sixty percent of the dentists used displacement cords impregnated with a medicament. Of the preimpregnated cords, 29% were impregnated with epinephrine, 13% with aluminum chloride, and 18% with aluminum potassium sulfate. The study showed a steady decrease compared with results of previously published articles in the use of epinephrine as a gingival deflection medicament. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A survey of silage management practices on California dairies.

    PubMed

    Heguy, J M; Meyer, D; Silva-del-Río, N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to gather baseline information on corn silage-management practices to develop an outreach curriculum for dairy producers and growers. In spring 2013, dairy producers in the San Joaquin Valley (California) were surveyed on their silage-management practices. Response rate was 14.5% (n=160) and herd size averaged 1,512 milking cows. Harvest date was set solely by the dairy producer (53.4%) or with the assistance of the crop manager, custom chopper, or nutritionist (23.3%). On some dairies (23.3%), the dairy producer delegated the harvest date decision. Most dairies (75.0%) estimated crop dry matter before harvest, and the preferred method was milk line evaluation. Dairy producers were mostly unfamiliar with harvest rate but the number [1 (35.9%), 2 (50.3%), or 3 to 5 (13.8%)] and size [6-row (17.7%), 8-row (67.3%), or 10-row (15.0%)] of choppers working simultaneously was reported. Most dairies used a single packing tractor (68.8%) and weighed every load of fresh chopped corn delivered to the silage pit (62%). During harvest, dry matter (66.9%), particle length (80.4%), and kernel processing (92.5%) were monitored. Most dairies completed filling their largest silage structure in less than 3 d (48.5%) or in 4 to 7 d (30.9%). Silage covering was completed no later than 7 2h after structure completion in all dairies, and was often completed within 24 h (68.8%). Packed forage was covered as filled in 19.6% of dairies. Temporary covers were used on some dairies (51.0%), with filling durations of 1 to 60 d. When temporary covers were not used, structures were filled in no more than 15 d. After structure closure, silage feedout started in 1 to 3 wk (44.4%), 4 to 5 wk (31.4%), or 8 or more wk (24.2%). Future considerations included increasing the silage storage area (55.9%), increasing the number of packing tractors (37.0%), planting brown mid-rib varieties (34.4%), buying a defacer to remove silage (33.1%), and creating drive-over piles (32

  14. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  15. Sepsis Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with infections of the lungs (e.g., pneumonia), urinary tract (e.g., kidney), skin, and gut. Staphylococcus aureus ( staph ), Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), and some types of Streptococcus (strep) are common germs that can cause sepsis. ...

  16. The Pathogenesis of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J.; Osuchowski, Marcin F.; Valentine, Catherine; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Remick, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is a serious clinical condition that represents a patient’s response to a severe infection and has a very high mortality rate. Normal immune and physiologic responses eradicate pathogens, and the pathophysiology of sepsis is due to the inappropriate regulation of these normal reactions. In an ideal scenario, the first pathogen contact with the inflammatory system should eliminate the microbe and quickly return the host to homeostasis. The septic response may accelerate due to continued activation of neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes. Upregulation of lymphocyte costimulatory molecules and rapid lymphocyte apoptosis, delayed apoptosis of neutrophils, and enhanced necrosis of cells/tissues also contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The coagulation system is closely tied to the inflammatory response, with cross talk between the two systems driving the dysregulated response. Biomarkers may be used to help diagnose patients with sepsis, and they may also help to identify patients who would benefit from immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:20887193

  17. Vitamin D and sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kempker, Jordan A.; Han, Jenny E.; Tangpricha, Vin; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Martin, Greg S.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency and sepsis are both highly prevalent worldwide problems and this article reviews the emerging science that is defining the intersections of these conditions. The importance of vitamin D’s role in skeletal health has long been understood but recent evidence is beginning to highlight its role in the functioning of other physiologic systems of the body. Basic science data reveal its integral role in local immune responses to pathogens and the systemic inflammatory pathways of sepsis. Furthermore, clinical scientists have found associations with respiratory infections, critical illness and sepsis but the causal relationship and its clinical impact have yet to be clearly defined. The article ends with speculations on the connections between racial disparities and seasonal differences in sepsis and vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:22928065

  18. International Student Recruitment Practices. Summary Results of the AACRAO January 2015 60 Second Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2015

    2015-01-01

    The January 2015 American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) "60 Second Survey" asked respondents to indicate their institutions' international student recruiting practices. As with other 60 Second Surveys, the survey was distributed through the FluidSurveys platform to all AACRAO members. After…

  19. Neurologic complications of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, E; Pfausler, B

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, the incidence of sepsis and resultant neurologic sequelae has increased, both in industrialized and low- or middle-income countries, by approximately 5% per year. Up to 300 patients per 100 000 population per year are reported to suffer from sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Mortality is up to 30%, depending on the precision of diagnostic criteria. The increasing incidence of sepsis is partially explained by demographic changes in society, with aging, increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients, dissemination of multiresistant pathogens, and greater availability of supportive medical care in both industrialized and middle-income countries. This results in more septic patients being admitted to intensive care units. Septic encephalopathy is a manifestation especially of severe sepsis and septic shock where the neurologist plays a crucial role in diagnosis and management. It is well known that timely treatment of sepsis improves outcome and that septic encephalopathy may precede other signs and symptoms. Particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised patient, the brain may be the first organ to show signs of failure. The neurologist diagnosing early septic encephalopathy may therefore contribute to the optimal management of septic patients. The brain is not only an organ failing in sepsis (a "sepsis victim" - as with other organs), but it also overwhelmingly influences all inflammatory processes on a variety of pathophysiologic levels, thus contributing to the initiation and propagation of septic processes. Therefore, the best possible pathophysiologic understanding of septic encephalopathy is essential for its management, and the earliest possible therapy is crucial to prevent the evolution of septic encephalopathy, brain failure, and poor prognosis.

  20. Consumer satisfaction with practice nursing: a cross-sectional survey in New Zealand general practice.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Davies, Deborah; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-01-01

    An important consideration in health service delivery is ensuring that services meet consumer needs. Whilst nursing services in primary care have grown internationally, there has been limited exploration of consumer satisfaction with these services. This paper reports a descriptive survey that sought to evaluate consumers' perceptions of New Zealand practice nurses (PNs). One thousand, five hundred and five patients who received nursing services at one of 20 participating New Zealand general practices completed a survey tool between December 2010 and December 2011. The 64-item self- report survey tool contained the 21-item General Practice Nurse Satisfaction (GPNS) scale. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Internal consistency of the GPNS scale was high (Cronbach's α 0.97). Participants aged over 60 years and those of European descent were significantly less satisfied with the PN (P = 0.001). Controlling for these characteristics, participants who had visited the PN more than four times previously were 1.34 times (adjusted odds ratio 1.34 (95% CI: 1.06-1.70) more satisfied than the comparison group (up to 4 previous visits to PN). In addition to the further validation of the psychometric properties of the GPNS scale in a different setting, the study also revealed a high level of satisfaction with PNs, with increased satisfaction with an increased number of visits. Nevertheless, the lower levels of satisfaction with PNs in the older age group as well as those of European descent, warrants further examination. The study also highlights the need for PNs and consumers to discuss consumer's expectations of services and create a shared understanding of treatment goals.

  1. Sepsis and maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Colleen D; Knight, Marian

    2013-04-01

    Despite global progress towards reducing maternal mortality, sepsis remains a leading cause of preventable maternal death. This review focuses on current measurement challenges, trends, causes and efforts to curb maternal death from sepsis in high and low-income countries. Under-reporting using routine registration data, compounded by misclassification and unreported deaths, results in significant underestimation of the burden of maternal death from sepsis. In the UK and the Netherlands the recent increase in maternal death from sepsis is mainly attributed to an increase in invasive group A streptococcal infections. Susceptibility to infection may be complicated by modulation of maternal immune response and increasing rates of risk factors such as caesarean section and obesity. Failure to recognize severity of infection is a major universal risk factor. Standardized Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) recommendations for management of severe maternal sepsis are continuing to be implemented worldwide; however, outcomes differ according to models of intensive care resourcing and use. The need for robust data with subsequent analyses is apparent. This will significantly increase our understanding of risk factors and their causal pathways, which are critical to informing effective treatment strategies in consideration of resource availability.

  2. Patient safety in practical nurses' education: A cross-sectional survey of newly registered practical nurses in Canada.

    PubMed

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Sears, Nancy; Edge, Dana S; Tregunno, Deborah; Ginsburg, Liane

    2017-04-01

    Practical nurses have experienced an increasing scope of practice, including an expectation to care for complex patients and function on interdisciplinary teams. Little is known about the degree to which patient safety principles are addressed in practical nursing education. To examine self-reported patient safety competencies of practical nurses. A cross-sectional online survey (July 2014) and face-to-face interviews (June 2015). Ontario, Canada. Survey participants were practical nurses newly registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario between January 2012 and December 2013. Interview participants were faculty and students in a practical nursing program in Ontario. Survey respondents completed the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey online. Self-reported competencies in various patient safety domains were compared between classroom and clinical settings. Faculty members were interviewed about educational preparation of practical nurses and students were interviewed to provide insight into interpretation of survey questions. The survey response rate was 28.4% (n=1104/3883). Mean domain scores indicated a high level of confidence in patient safety competence (<4.0/5.0). Confidence was highest in respondents registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario >2years and in those who obtained their education outside of Canada. Faculty believed their approach to teaching and learning instilled a deep understanding of the limits to practical nurse autonomous practice. Practical nurses were confident in what they learned about patient safety in their educational programs. The high degree of patient safety competence may be a true reflection of practical nurses understanding of, and comfort with, the limits of their knowledge and, ultimately, the limits of their individual autonomous practice. Further exploration as to whether the questionnaire requires additional modification for use with practical nurse populations is warranted. However, this

  3. Fluid Resuscitation in Sepsis: Reexamining the Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Tirupakuzhi Vijayaraghavan, Bharath Kumar; Cove, Matthew Edward

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis results in widespread inflammatory responses altering homeostasis. Associated circulatory abnormalities (peripheral vasodilation, intravascular volume depletion, increased cellular metabolism, and myocardial depression) lead to an imbalance between oxygen delivery and demand, triggering end organ injury and failure. Fluid resuscitation is a key part of treatment, but there is little agreement on choice, amount, and end points for fluid resuscitation. Over the past few years, the safety of some fluid preparations has been questioned. Our paper highlights current concerns, reviews the science behind current practices, and aims to clarify some of the controversies surrounding fluid resuscitation in sepsis. PMID:25180196

  4. Neutropenic sepsis: prevention, identification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Clare

    2016-04-27

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia may result in significant physical, social and emotional consequences for patients receiving anticancer therapy. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia also leads to delays in treatment and reductions in dose intensity. In some cases neutropenia may be prevented by the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, but it remains one of the most common side effects of chemotherapy. Patients who are neutropenic have a reduced ability to fight infection and are at increased risk of developing neutropenic sepsis. Nurses need to be able to recognise the signs and symptoms of neutropenic sepsis to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. There are evidence-based pathways for the treatment of patients with neutropenic sepsis and nurses have the potential to develop services and initiatives to support best practice for this group of patients.

  5. Medication Reconciliation Practices in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: As of 2015, Accreditation Canada’s Qmentum program expects emergency departments (EDs) to initiate medication reconciliation for 2 groups of patients: (1) those with a decision to admit and (2) those without a decision to admit who meet the criteria of a risk-based, health care organization–defined selection process. Pharmacist-led best possible medication histories (BPMHs) obtained in the ED are considered more complete and accurate than BPMHs obtained by other ED providers, with pharmacy technicians obtaining BPMHs as effectively as do pharmacists. A current assessment of the role of pharmacy in BPMH processes in Canadian EDs is lacking. Objectives: To identify and describe BPMH and medication reconciliation practices in Canadian EDs, including those performed by members of the ED pharmacy team. Methods: All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least a 0.5 full-time equivalent position). Different electronic surveys were then distributed to ED pharmacy team members (where available) and ED managers (all hospitals). Results: Survey responses were obtained from 60 (63%) of 95 ED pharmacy teams and 128 (53%) of 243 ED managers. Only 38 (30%) of the 128 ED managers believed that their current BPMH processes were adequate to obtain a BPMH for all admissions. Fifty-nine (98%) of the ED pharmacy personnel reported obtaining BPMHs (most commonly 6–10 per day), with priority given to admitted patients. Only 14 (23%) of the 60 ED pharmacy teams reported that their EDs had adequate staffing to comply with Accreditation Canada’s requirements for obtaining BPMHs. This result is supported by the 104 (81%) out of 128 ED managers who reported that additional ED staffing would be needed to comply with the requirements. Numerous ED managers identified the need to expand ED pharmacy services and improve information technology support. Conclusions

  6. Medication Reconciliation Practices in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    As of 2015, Accreditation Canada's Qmentum program expects emergency departments (EDs) to initiate medication reconciliation for 2 groups of patients: (1) those with a decision to admit and (2) those without a decision to admit who meet the criteria of a risk-based, health care organization-defined selection process. Pharmacist-led best possible medication histories (BPMHs) obtained in the ED are considered more complete and accurate than BPMHs obtained by other ED providers, with pharmacy technicians obtaining BPMHs as effectively as do pharmacists. A current assessment of the role of pharmacy in BPMH processes in Canadian EDs is lacking. To identify and describe BPMH and medication reconciliation practices in Canadian EDs, including those performed by members of the ED pharmacy team. All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least a 0.5 full-time equivalent position). Different electronic surveys were then distributed to ED pharmacy team members (where available) and ED managers (all hospitals). Survey responses were obtained from 60 (63%) of 95 ED pharmacy teams and 128 (53%) of 243 ED managers. Only 38 (30%) of the 128 ED managers believed that their current BPMH processes were adequate to obtain a BPMH for all admissions. Fifty-nine (98%) of the ED pharmacy personnel reported obtaining BPMHs (most commonly 6-10 per day), with priority given to admitted patients. Only 14 (23%) of the 60 ED pharmacy teams reported that their EDs had adequate staffing to comply with Accreditation Canada's requirements for obtaining BPMHs. This result is supported by the 104 (81%) out of 128 ED managers who reported that additional ED staffing would be needed to comply with the requirements. Numerous ED managers identified the need to expand ED pharmacy services and improve information technology support. BPMH processes in Canadian EDs were variable and inadequately

  7. Blood purification therapy for sepsis.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiromi; Yonekawa, Motoki; Kawamura, Akio

    2006-12-01

    Accumulating evidences of underlining pathogenesis of sepsis have contributed to the therapeutic strategy for sepsis. Not only endotoxin and cytokine, but also signal transduction through Toll-like receptors could be a strategic target for the management of sepsis. Blood purification therapy including polymyxin B-immobilized hemoperfusion cartridge and continuous hemodiafiltration has shown the beneficial effect on patients with sepsis in Japan. Although they were initially designed to remove endotoxin and cytokines respectively, they might eliminate unexpected mediators responsible for sepsis. Further elucidation of mechanism and randomized controlled studies are needed to establish the role of blood purification therapy in sepsis.

  8. [Severe sepsis and septic shock].

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, Else; Larsen, Kim

    2014-07-07

    Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock are syndromes. The incidence of sepsis is as high as 35% and with mortality rates in the intensive care unit from 27% to 54% in sepsis and septic shock, respectively. Many new treatments have been tested but only few have been implemented in clinical practise. The treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock is based on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines developed by an international expert panel. Early diagnosis, optimization of haemodynamics, rapid identification of focus and adequate antibiotic treatment are the most important strategies.

  9. Improving the care of sepsis: Between system redesign and professional responsibility: A roundtable discussion in the world sepsis day, September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Yaseen; Alamry, Ahmed; Levy, Mitchell M; Taher, Saadi; Marini, Abdellatif M

    2014-07-01

    This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion in September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as part of the World Sepsis Day held in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to (1) review the chasm between the current management of sepsis and best practice, (2) discuss system redesign and role of the microsystem in sepsis management, (3) emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the care of sepsis and that improvement of the care of sepsis is the responsibility of all, (4) discuss the bundle concept in sepsis management, and (5) reflect on the individual responsibility of the health care team toward sepsis with a focus on accountability and the moral agent.

  10. Survey on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae gilt acclimation practices in Europe.

    PubMed

    Garza-Moreno, Laura; Segalés, Joaquim; Pieters, Maria; Romagosa, Anna; Sibila, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Gilts are considered to play a key role in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) transmission and control. An effective gilt acclimation program should ideally reduce M. hyopneumoniae shedding at first farrowing, decreasing pre-weaning colonization prevalence and potential respiratory problems in fatteners. However, information on gilt acclimation practices is scarce in Europe. The aim of this study was to identify current acclimation strategies for M. hyopneumoniae in Europe using a questionnaire designed to assess 15 questions focused on gilt replacement status, acclimation strategies and methods used to ascertain its effect. A total of 321 questionnaires (representing 321 farms) were voluntarily completed by 108 veterinarians (from 18 European countries). From these farms, 280 out of 321 (87.2%) were aware of the health status of gilts on arrival. From these 280 farms, 161 (57.5%) introduced M. hyopneumoniae positive replacements. In addition, 249 out of 321 (77.6%) farms applied an acclimation process using different strategies, being M. hyopneumoniae vaccination (145 out of 249, 58.2%) and the combination of vaccine and exposure to sows selected for slaughter (53 out of 249, 21.3%) the most commonly used. Notwithstanding, only 53 out of 224 (23.6%) farms, knowing the M. hyopneumoniae initial status and performing acclimation strategies against it, verified the effect of the acclimation by ELISA (22 out of 53, 41.5%), PCR (4 out of 53, 7.5%) or both (27 out of 53, 50.9%). This study showed that three fourths of the farms represented in this European survey have M. hyopneumoniae acclimation strategies for gilts, and one fifth of them verify to some extent the effect of the process. Taking into account that the assessment of acclimation efficacy could help in optimizing replacement gilt introduction into the breeding herd, it seems these practices for M. hyopneumoniae are still poorly developed in Europe.

  11. Using the integrated nurse leadership program to reduce sepsis mortality.

    PubMed

    Kliger, Julie; Singer, Sara J; Hoffman, Frank H

    2015-06-01

    The Integrated Nurse Leadership Program (INLP) is a collaborative improvement model focused on developing practical leadership skills of nurses and other frontline clinicians to lead quality improvement efforts. Sepsis is a major challenge to treat because it arises unpredictably and can progress rapidly. Nine San Francisco Bay Area hospitals participated in a 22-month INLP Sepsis Mortality Reduction Project to improve sepsis detection and management. The INLP focused on developing leadership and process improvement skills of nurses and other frontline clinicians. Teams of trained clinicians then implemented three strategies to improve early identification and timely treatment of sepsis: (1) sepsis screening of all patients, with diagnostic testing according to protocol; (2) timely treatment on the basis of key elements of Early Goal-Directed Therapy (EGDT); and (3) ongoing data review. Each hospital agreed to pursue the goal of reducing sepsis mortality by 15% by the end of the project. In the data collection period (baseline, July-December 2008 and project completion, January-June 2011), team members showed strong improvement in perceived leadership skills, team effectiveness, and ability to improve care quality. During this period, sepsis mortality for eight of the participating hospitals (Hospital 9 joined the project six months after it began) decreased by 43.7%-from 28% in the baseline period to 16% at project completion. Sepsis mortality rates trended downward for all hospitals, significantly decreasing (p<.05 at one hospital, p<.01 for four hospitals). In addition to improvement in safety culture and management of septic patients, hospitals participating in the INLP Sepsis Mortality Reduction Project achieved reductions in sepsis mortality during the study period and sustained reductions for more than one year later. The INLP model can be readily applied beyond sepsis management and mortality to other quality problems.

  12. Provision and practice of specialist preterm labour clinics: a UK survey of practice.

    PubMed

    Sharp, A N; Alfirevic, Z

    2014-03-01

    To identify the current status of specialist preterm labour (PTL) clinic provision and management within the UK. Postal survey of clinical practice. All consultant-led obstetric units within the UK. A questionnaire was sent by post to all 210 NHS consultant-led obstetric units within the UK. Units that had a specialist PTL clinic were asked to complete a further 20 questions defining their protocol for risk stratification and management. Current practice in specialist preterm labour clinics. We have identified 23 specialist clinics; the most common indications for attendance were previous PTL (100%), preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (95%), two large loop excisions of the transformation zone (95%) or cone biopsy (95%). There was significant heterogeneity in the indications for and method of primary treatment for short cervix, with cervical cerclage used in 45% of units, progesterone in 18% of units and Arabin cervical pessary in 5%. A further 23% used multiple treatment modalities in combination. A significant heterogeneity in all topics surveyed suggests an urgent need for networking, more evidence-based guidelines and prospective comparative audits to ascertain the real impact of specialist PTL clinics on the reduction in preterm birth and its sequelae. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Monitoring for opioid-induced advancing sedation and respiratory depression: ASPMN membership survey of current practice.

    PubMed

    Jungquist, Carla R; Willens, Joyce S; Dunwoody, Danielle R; Klingman, Karen J; Polomano, Rosemary C

    2014-09-01

    Adverse events secondary to opioid-induced advancing sedation and respiratory depression continue to occur during hospitalizations despite efforts to increase awareness and clinical practice guidelines to address prevention strategies. In 2009, ASPMN surveyed membership on current practices surrounding this topic. ASPMN clinical practice guidelines were then published in 2011. In winter of 2013, ASPMN membership was again surveyed to assess progress in preventing adverse events. This is a report of the follow-up membership survey. In general, monitoring practices are slowly improving over time, but there are many facilities that have not instituted best practices for avoiding adverse events.

  14. Temporal trends in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and medical coding of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Benjamin S; Jafarzadeh, S Reza; Warren, David K; McCormick, Sandra; Fraser, Victoria J; Marschall, Jonas

    2015-11-24

    Recent reports using administrative claims data suggest the incidence of community- and hospital-onset sepsis is increasing. Whether this reflects changing epidemiology, more effective diagnostic methods, or changes in physician documentation and medical coding practices is unclear. We performed a temporal-trend study from 2008 to 2012 using administrative claims data and patient-level clinical data of adult patients admitted to Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri. Temporal-trend and annual percent change were estimated using regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average errors. We analyzed 62,261 inpatient admissions during the 5-year study period. 'Any SIRS' (i.e., SIRS on a single calendar day during the hospitalization) and 'multi-day SIRS' (i.e., SIRS on 3 or more calendar days), which both use patient-level data, and medical coding for sepsis (i.e., ICD-9-CM discharge diagnosis codes 995.91, 995.92, or 785.52) were present in 35.3 %, 17.3 %, and 3.3 % of admissions, respectively. The incidence of admissions coded for sepsis increased 9.7 % (95 % CI: 6.1, 13.4) per year, while the patient data-defined events of 'any SIRS' decreased by 1.8 % (95 % CI: -3.2, -0.5) and 'multi-day SIRS' did not change significantly over the study period. Clinically-defined sepsis (defined as SIRS plus bacteremia) and severe sepsis (defined as SIRS plus hypotension and bacteremia) decreased at statistically significant rates of 5.7 % (95 % CI: -9.0, -2.4) and 8.6 % (95 % CI: -4.4, -12.6) annually. All-cause mortality, SIRS mortality, and SIRS and clinically-defined sepsis case fatality did not change significantly during the study period. Sepsis mortality, based on ICD-9-CM codes, however, increased by 8.8 % (95 % CI: 1.9, 16.2) annually. The incidence of sepsis, defined by ICD-9-CM codes, and sepsis mortality increased steadily without a concomitant increase in SIRS or clinically-defined sepsis. Our results highlight the need to develop

  15. Abortion practice in Mexico: a survey of health care providers.

    PubMed

    Dayananda, Ila; Walker, Dilys; Atienzo, Erika E; Haider, Sadia

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about abortion practice in Mexico postlegalization of abortion in Mexico City in 2007. In 2009, we anonymously surveyed 418 Mexican health care providers at the Colegio Mexicano de Especialistas en Ginecologia y Obstetricia meeting using audio computer-assisted self-interview technology. The majority of respondents were obstetrician gynecologists (376, 90%), Catholic (341, 82%), 35-60 years old (332, 79%) and male (222, 53%) and worked with trainees (307, 74%). Prior to 2007, 11% (46) and 17% (71) provided medical and surgical abortions; now, 15% (62) and 21% (86) provide these services, respectively. Practitioners from Mexico City were more likely to provide services than those from other areas. Most medical abortion providers (50, 81%) used ineffective protocols. Surgical abortion providers mainly used either manual vacuum aspiration (39, 45%) or sharp curettage (27, 32%). Most abortion providers were trained in residency and wanted more training in medical (54, 87%) and surgical (59, 69%) abortion. Among nonproviders, 49% (175) and 27% (89) expressed interest in learning to perform medical and surgical abortion, respectively. Given the interest in learning to provide safe abortion services and the prevalent use of ineffective medical abortion regimens and sharp curettage, abortion training in Mexico should be strengthened. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electroconvulsive Therapy Practice in Spain: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Vera, Ignacio; Sanz-Fuentenebro, Javier; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Verdura, Ernesto; Soria, Virginia; Martínez-Amorós, Erika; Bernardo, Miquel

    2016-03-01

    The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Spain has not been systematically evaluated since 2000 to 2001. The aim of this study is to assess the current use of ECT in Spain. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering every psychiatric unit in Spain as of December 31, 2012. About 93.2% of the centers answered the questionnaire. About 54.9% of the psychiatric units applied ECT at a rate of 0.66 patients per 10,000 inhabitants. Wide variations existed among the different autonomous communities and provinces. Written informed consent was obtained in all the facilities. About 38.2% of ECT-treated patients were 65 years or older. About 55.7% were women. Depressive episodes were the main indication for ECT (80.2%). All the facilities applied modified ECT. No sine wave current devices are currently used in Spain. Bifrontotemporal ECT was elective in 85% of the hospitals, bifrontal in 13.3%, and unilateral in 1.8%. Stimulus titration methods were elective in 8.6% of the centers. The decision to end ECT relied on the psychiatrist's clinical impression in 89.4% of the centers and on rating scales in 10.6%. The ECT training was mandatory in 56.5% of the centers. The ECT practice has significantly improved in Spain in recent years. Overall, Spanish facilities seem to comply with established clinical guidelines; however, specific concerns were identified, meaning there is still further scope for improvement.

  17. Intussusception clinical pathway: a survey of pediatric surgery practices.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Sean M; Iocono, Joseph A; Brown, Samuel; Draus, John M

    2014-09-01

    Therapeutic reduction of intussusception by air or contrast enema may require surgery if the bowel is irreducible or perforates. There is no standard for the involvement of a pediatric surgeon in the workup of the condition. A regional survey of clinical practices was therefore undertaken to attempt to establish a consensus as to when the presence of a pediatric surgeon is required. Distributed to pediatric surgeons at 32 institutions, a questionnaire asked the process of imaging and reduction of infants with intussusception and the extent of pediatric surgical involvement. Surgeons at 29 institutions responded (91%). Ultrasound was used in diagnosis in 16 (55%), 13 (45%) requiring a positive ultrasound diagnosis of intussusception before attempting reduction. Three-fourths (22 [76%]) required surgeon notification that enema reduction was taking place, and one-fourth (seven [24%]) required prior surgical consultation. Only three (10%) required the presence of a surgery team member. Most (21 [72%]) did not demand one, and five (18%) indicated that surgical presence was desirable but not a necessity. There is no consensus for pediatric surgical involvement before and during reduction of an intussusception.

  18. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Cotena, Simona; Piazza, Ornella

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is defined as a diffuse or multifocal cerebral dysfunction induced by the systemic response to the infection without clinical or laboratory evidence of direct brain infection. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial. SAE generally occurs early during severe sepsis and precedes multiple-organ failure. The most common clinical feature of SAE is the consciousness alteration which ranges from mildly reduced awareness to unresponsiveness and coma. Diagnosis of SAE is primarily clinical and depends on the exclusion of other possible causes of brain deterioration. Electroencephalography (EEG) is almost sensitive, but it is not specific for SAE. Computed Tomography (CT) head scan generally is negative in case of SAE, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can show brain abnormalities in case of SAE, but they are not specific for this condition. Somatosensitive Evoked Potentials (SEPs) are sensitive markers of developing cerebral dysfunction in sepsis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CBF) analysis is generally normal, a part an inconstant elevation of proteins concentration. S100B and NSE have been proposed like biomarkers for diagnosis of SAE, but the existing data are controversial. SAE is reversible even if survivors of severe sepsis have often long lasting or irreversible cognitive and behavioral sequel; however the presence of SAE can have a negative influence on survival. A specific therapy of SAE does not exist and the outcome depends on a prompt and appropriate treatment of sepsis as whole.

  19. Practical Tools for Designing and Weighting Survey Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valliant, Richard; Dever, Jill A.; Kreuter, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Survey sampling is fundamentally an applied field. The goal in this book is to put an array of tools at the fingertips of practitioners by explaining approaches long used by survey statisticians, illustrating how existing software can be used to solve survey problems, and developing some specialized software where needed. This book serves at least…

  20. A Glass Ceiling Survey: Benchmarking Barriers and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Ann M.; And Others

    This handbook presents findings of a survey that asked human-resources managers to identify current barriers preventing women and people of color from reaching senior management. The survey was sent to 902 human-resources managers at various organizations. A total of 304 surveys were returned, a 34 percent response rate. The managers gave support…

  1. Practical Tools for Designing and Weighting Survey Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valliant, Richard; Dever, Jill A.; Kreuter, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Survey sampling is fundamentally an applied field. The goal in this book is to put an array of tools at the fingertips of practitioners by explaining approaches long used by survey statisticians, illustrating how existing software can be used to solve survey problems, and developing some specialized software where needed. This book serves at least…

  2. A Glass Ceiling Survey: Benchmarking Barriers and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Ann M.; And Others

    This handbook presents findings of a survey that asked human-resources managers to identify current barriers preventing women and people of color from reaching senior management. The survey was sent to 902 human-resources managers at various organizations. A total of 304 surveys were returned, a 34 percent response rate. The managers gave support…

  3. A Survey of Occupational Therapy Practice in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Howe, Tsu-Hsin

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing demand for rehabilitation services in China as a result of the growing number of people with physical and mental challenges, as well as the growing population of older adults. The purpose of this study was to explore the current occupational therapy (OT) resources available in Beijing, China, to serve as the first step in planning the response to increasing demand for OT services from the people of China. Specifically, using the snowball sampling survey method, we explored the work practice, including years of working experience, work setting, weekly work hours, annual income and factors related to job satisfaction among occupational therapists in Beijing, China. A total of 44 occupational therapists currently working in the Beijing area responded to our survey. The results demonstrated that most of the therapists working in Beijing area were young and inexperienced. Despite the fact that the participants had an average age of 31 years old and an average of 8 years' working experience, 61.4% of therapists were under 30 years old and more than half of therapists had less than 5 years of OT experiences. Among those included in the study sample, 50% had earned degrees in OT, and the rest of the OT personnel received OT-related on-the-job training in various forms and lengths of time. A majority of the participants worked in hospital settings with adults or children with physical disabilities and used therapeutic activities and therapeutic exercises. Being an occupational therapist is not a high-paying job. Education satisfaction, work experience and annual income are the factors related to job satisfaction for the participants. The majority of occupational therapists expressed the need to receive more support for clinical-related trainings. We plan to expand this pilot study nationwide to gain an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the OT workforce in China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  4. Australian general practice nurse's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding influenza vaccination: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah; Sim, Jenny; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Australian general practice nurses (GPNs) regarding influenza vaccination. Despite the evidence for the benefits of influenza vaccination, vaccination rates remain sub-optimal. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of nurses both affects vaccination rates and the advice given to consumers. Given their significant role in opportunistic and planned vaccinations, GPNs are in an optimal position to positively influence vaccination rates. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used. GPNs were recruited by email to complete an online survey. The survey tool comprised the King's College Nurses' Influenza Vaccination Questionnaire and adapted demographic items. Data analysis used descriptive and inferential statistics. Open-ended questions were analysed using thematic analysis. Most of the 85 respondents had received the seasonal influenza vaccination in the last year (n = 67; 78·8%); fewer received the H1N1 vaccination (n = 54; 63·5%). Intention to receive vaccination was affected by previous vaccination. Those who had received the seasonal influenza vaccine in the last year had a higher total knowledge score. The seasonal and total influenza knowledge score was high, with lower scores on the H1N1 sub-scale. A positive correlation was identified between influenza knowledge and risk perception. This study highlighted the high level of knowledge amongst GPNs related to seasonal influenza, whilst identifying a knowledge deficit around the H1N1 items. It demonstrated that GPN's knowledge of seasonal influenza was related to vaccination status and risk perception. Further research is required to explore how this translates into the advice GPNs give to consumers. Influenza vaccination should be considered as a key topic for GPNs ongoing professional development. The evidence for links between education and vaccination uptake should encourage employers to facilitate opportunities for this

  5. A Survey of E-Learning Implementation Best Practices in Jordanian Government Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Tarawneh, Haroon Salem; Allahawiah, Sattam

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the research reported in this article is to understand the extent of e-learning implementation practices currently in use in Jordanian government universities. In order to achieve this objective, a survey of e-learning implementation practice in Jordanian universities was conducted. A detailed description of the survey procedures…

  6. Survey of Personnel Practices at Single-Campus Community College Districts in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Jack

    In May 1985, a survey was conducted by Napa Valley College (NVC) to determine the salary and personnel practices of the 48 single-campus community college districts in California and compare them with personnel practices at NVC. The survey focused on salary and benefit allocations in school budgets, estimated reserves or ending balance in 1984-85,…

  7. Credit for Prior Learning Practices: Results of the AACRAO December 2014 60 Second Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2015

    2015-01-01

    The American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) initiated a series of surveys designed to capture member institutional practice snapshots in 60 seconds or less. The December 2014 "AACRAO 60 Second Survey" asked respondents to indicate their institutions' credit for prior learning practices (CPL). To…

  8. A Preliminary Survey of Professional and Student Opinion of Special Education Practice in Contemporary Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Boykov, Dmitriy

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 27 Russian students and educators enrolled in a defectology course found that most respondents were knowledgeable of and supported inclusion practices advocated in the United States and Western Europe, although belief in traditional practices of segregation of individuals with disabilities was also evident. The survey also addressed…

  9. A Survey of E-Learning Implementation Best Practices in Jordanian Government Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Tarawneh, Haroon Salem; Allahawiah, Sattam

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the research reported in this article is to understand the extent of e-learning implementation practices currently in use in Jordanian government universities. In order to achieve this objective, a survey of e-learning implementation practice in Jordanian universities was conducted. A detailed description of the survey procedures…

  10. Current Trends in Grades and Grading Practices in Higher Education: Results of the 2004 AACRAO Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumfield, Cody

    2005-01-01

    AACRAO's new publication "Current Trends in Grades and Grading Practices in Higher Education: Results of the 2004 AACRAO Survey" continues the tradition of surveying grading practices in higher education first begun in 1920. Although much has changed in the world of academia since, grades have remained a central feature. This consistent importance…

  11. Mitochondrial Function in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Arulkumaran, Nishkantha; Deutschman, Clifford S.; Pinsky, Michael R.; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Schumacker, Paul T.; Gomez, Hernando; Gomez, Alonso; Murray, Patrick; Kellum, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are an essential part of the cellular infrastructure, being the primary site for high energy adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production through oxidative phosphorylation. Clearly, in severe systemic inflammatory states, like sepsis, cellular metabolism is usually altered and end organ dysfunction not only common but predictive of long term morbidity and mortality. Clearly, interest is mitochondrial function both as a target for intracellular injury and response to extrinsic stress have been a major focus of basic science and clinical research into the pathophysiology of acute illness. However, mitochondria have multiple metabolic and signaling functions that may be central in both the expression of sepsis and its ultimate outcome. In this review, the authors address five primary questions centered on the role of mitochondria in sepsis. This review should be used as both a summary source in placing mitochondrial physiology within the context of acute illness and as a focal point for addressing new research into diagnostic and treatment opportunities these insights provide. PMID:26871665

  12. Inadequate exercise as a risk factor for sepsis mortality.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    Test whether inadequate exercise is related to sepsis mortality. Mortality surveillance of an epidemiological cohort of 155,484 National Walkers' and Runners' Health Study participants residing in the United States. Deaths were monitored for an average of 11.6-years using the National Death index through December 31, 2008. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to compare sepsis mortality (ICD-10 A40-41) to inadequate exercise (<1.07 METh/d run or walked) as measured on their baseline questionnaires. Deaths occurring within one year of the baseline survey were excluded. Sepsis was the underlying cause in 54 deaths (sepsis(underlying)) and a contributing cause in 184 deaths (sepsis(contributing)), or 238 total sepsis-related deaths (sepsis(total)). Inadequate exercise was associated with 2.24-fold increased risk for sepsis(underlying) (95%CI: 1.21 to 4.07-fold, P = 0.01), 2.11-fold increased risk for sepsis(contributing) (95%CI: 1.51- to 2.92-fold, P<10(-4)), and 2.13-fold increased risk for sepsis(total) (95%CI: 1.59- to 2.84-fold, P<10(-6)) when adjusted for age, sex, race, and cohort. The risk increase did not differ significantly between runners and walkers, by sex, or by age. Sepsis(total) risk was greater in diabetics (P = 10(-5)), cancer survivors (P = 0.0001), and heart attack survivors (P = 0.003) and increased with waist circumference (P = 0.0004). The sepsis(total) risk associated with inadequate exercise persisted when further adjusted for diabetes, prior cancer, prior heart attack and waist circumference, and when excluding deaths with cancer, or cardiovascular, respiratory, or genitourinary disease as the underlying cause. Inadequate exercise also increased sepsis(total) risk in 2163 baseline diabetics (4.78-fold, 95%CI: 2.1- to 13.8-fold, P = 0.0001) when adjusted, which was significantly greater (P = 0.03) than the adjusted risk increase in non-diabetics (1.80-fold, 95%CI: 1.30- to 2.46-fold, P = 0

  13. Diagnosing autism: Contemporaneous surveys of parent needs and paediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Hennel, Sabine; Coates, Cathy; Symeonides, Christos; Gulenc, Alisha; Smith, Libby; Price, Anna Mh; Hiscock, Harriet

    2016-05-01

    Concurrence between parents' information needs and clinicians' practice when diagnosing autism is unknown but may influence families' uptake of management and adjustment. We aimed to compare parents' experience and preferences with paediatrician report of (i) diagnosis delivery and (ii) information given at diagnosis and identify types and usefulness of resources accessed by families post-diagnosis. The design used for the study are parent and paediatrician surveys. Participants are parents of children aged 1.5-18 years, diagnosed with autism between 01 January 2010 and 30 September 2012 and their paediatricians who are members of the Australian Paediatric Research Network. Study-designed quantitative and qualitative questions about diagnosis delivery and information given at diagnosis (written and spoken vs. neither) and parent perceived importance and harms of information accessed post-diagnosis. Paediatricians (53/198 (27%)) identified 1127 eligible families, of whom 404 (36%) participated. Parents were more likely to report receiving adequate time to discuss diagnosis than paediatricians (71 vs. 51%). Parents (98%) rated information about accessing allied health professionals and the meaning of diagnosis as most important, yet paediatricians offered written or spoken information about each infrequently (allied health: 22%; diagnosis: 42%). Post-diagnosis, allied health was the most important source of information (83%). Harmful resources conveyed helplessness or non-evidenced-based therapies, but few parents (14%) reported this. Parents want more information than can be conveyed in a single diagnostic consultation. Developing a tailored 'autism action plan' with written materials could improve parents' understanding of and satisfaction with children's autism diagnoses. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Quality improvement in pediatric sepsis.

    PubMed

    Melendez, Elliot; Bachur, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Although there is abundant literature detailing the impact of quality improvement in adult sepsis, the pediatric literature is lacking. Despite consensus definitions for sepsis, which patients along the sepsis spectrum should receive aggressive management and the exact onset of sepsis ('time zero') are not clearly established. In the adult emergency department (ED), sepsis onset is defined as the time of entry into the ED; however, this definition cannot be applied to hospitalized patients or patients who evolve during their ED course. Since the time of sepsis onset will dictate the timeliness of subsequent process measures, the variable definitions in the literature make it difficult to generalize findings among prior studies. Despite the variation in defining time zero, aggressive fluid administration, timely antibiotics, and compliance with sepsis bundles have been shown to improve mortality and to reduce hospital and intensive care length of stay. In addition, early identification tools show promise in beginning to define sepsis onset and retrospective search tools may allow improved case finding of those children of concern for sepsis. Quality improvement in pediatric sepsis is evolving. As we continue to define quality measures, we must standardize the definition of sepsis onset. This definition should be applicable to any treatment venue to ensure measures can be evaluated across all settings. In addition, we must delineate which patients along the sepsis spectrum should be candidates for timely interventions and standardize other outcome measures beyond mortality.

  15. Challenges in College Admissions. A Report of a Survey of Undergraduate Admissions Policies, Practices, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.; And Others

    The report summarizes undergraduate admissions policies, practices, and procedures at two- and four-year colleges and universities as of 1992. Information was drawn from a national survey, the third of a series conducted since 1979. A total of 2,024 institutions responded to the survey. An introductory chapter describes the surveys, their…

  16. Essentials of sepsis management.

    PubMed

    Green, John M

    2015-04-01

    Despite remarkable advances in the knowledge of infection and human response to it, sepsis continues to be one of the most common challenges surgeons and critical care providers face. Surgeons confront the problem of infection every day, in treating established infections or reacting to a consequence of surgical intervention. Infections after surgery continue to be a problem despite massive efforts to prevent them. Patients rely on the surgeon's ability to recognize infection and treat it. Also, preventing nosocomial infection and antibiotic resistance is a primary responsibility. This article describes diagnostic and therapeutic measures for sepsis in the perioperative surgical patient.

  17. Sepsis-induced brain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Adam, Nicolas; Kandelman, Stanislas; Mantz, Jean; Chrétien, Fabrice; Sharshar, Tarek

    2013-02-01

    Systemic infection is often revealed by or associated with brain dysfunction, which is characterized by alteration of consciousness, ranging from delirium to coma, seizure or focal neurological signs. Its pathophysiology involves an ischemic process, secondary to impairment of cerebral perfusion and its determinants and a neuroinflammatory process that includes endothelial activation, alteration of the blood-brain barrier and passage of neurotoxic mediators. Microcirculatory dysfunction is common to these two processes. This brain dysfunction is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and long-term cognitive disability. Its diagnosis relies essentially on neurological examination that can lead to specific investigations, including electrophysiological testing or neuroimaging. In practice, cerebrospinal fluid analysis is indisputably required when meningitis is suspected. Hepatic, uremic or respiratory encephalopathy, metabolic disturbances, drug overdose, sedative or opioid withdrawal, alcohol withdrawal delirium or Wernicke's encephalopathy are the main differential diagnoses. Currently, treatment consists mainly of controlling sepsis. The effects of insulin therapy and steroids need to be assessed. Various drugs acting on sepsis-induced blood-brain barrier dysfunction, brain oxidative stress and inflammation have been tested in septic animals but not yet in patients.

  18. Aviation Maintenance Contract Management: A Survey of Defense and Commercial Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    of views serves as a vivid reminder that commercial aviation best practices may be profitably applied within DoD, but the commercial world also has...Logistics Management Institute Aviation Maintenance Contract Management A Survey of Defense and Commercial Practices Appror-ed to pabfto wU«w...Contract Management A Survey of Defense and Commercial Practices LG603T1 November 1997 Steven R. Erickson Ronald J. Marafioti Richard Summerour

  19. A scope-of-practice survey leading to the development of standards of practice for health promotion in higher education.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christine G; Hill, Martin H; Sonnad, Subhash R

    2003-05-01

    To review and analyze the scope of practice of health promotion services and draft standards of quality indicators for higher education communities, the American College Health Association (ACHA) initiated a Task Force on Health Promotion in Higher Education in May 1996. Members of the task force developed a National Survey on Health Promotion and Education in Institutions of Higher Education and mailed the survey to a stratified random sample of 600 ACHA member institutions, as well as to 97 key "best-practice health promotion leaders". The larger sample produced a 75.3% response rate, and 90.7% of the key informants returned usable surveys. The authors report selected findings from both groups that chronicle the state of health promotion practice in higher education at the close of the 20th century. The task force used the findings to establish a data-driven framework for the Year 2001 Standards of Practice for Health Promotion in Higher Education.

  20. Revisiting caspases in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, M; Jacob, A; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening illness that occurs due to an abnormal host immune network which extends through the initial widespread and overwhelming inflammation, and culminates at the late stage of immunosupression. Recently, interest has been shifted toward therapies aimed at reversing the accompanying periods of immune suppression. Studies in experimental animals and critically ill patients have demonstrated that increased apoptosis of lymphoid organs and some parenchymal tissues contributes to this immune suppression, anergy and organ dysfunction. Immediate to the discoveries of the intracellular proteases, caspases for the induction of apoptosis and inflammation, and their striking roles in sepsis have been focused elaborately in a number of original and review articles. Here we revisited the different aspects of caspases in terms of apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis and inflammation and focused their links in sepsis by reviewing several recent findings. In addition, we have documented striking perspectives which not only rewrite the pathophysiology, but also modernize our understanding for developing novel therapeutics against sepsis. PMID:25412304

  1. Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Neera; Duggal, Ashish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common but poorly understood neurological complication of sepsis. It is characterized by diffuse brain dysfunction secondary to infection elsewhere in the body without overt CNS infection. The pathophysiology of SAE is complex and multifactorial including a number of intertwined mechanisms such as vascular damage, endothelial activation, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, altered brain signaling, brain inflammation, and apoptosis. Clinical presentation of SAE may range from mild symptoms such as malaise and concentration deficits to deep coma. The evaluation of cognitive dysfunction is made difficult by the absence of any specific investigations or biomarkers and the common use of sedation in critically ill patients. SAE thus remains diagnosis of exclusion which can only be made after ruling out other causes of altered mentation in a febrile, critically ill patient by appropriate investigations. In spite of high mortality rate, management of SAE is limited to treatment of the underlying infection and symptomatic treatment for delirium and seizures. It is important to be aware of this condition because SAE may present in early stages of sepsis, even before the diagnostic criteria for sepsis can be met. This review discusses the diagnostic approach to patients with SAE along with its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis.

  2. Emerging drugs in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Leone, Marc; Textoris, Julien; Michel, Fabrice; Wiramus, Sandrine; Martin, Claude

    2010-03-01

    Sepsis remains a major cause of death in intensive care units. Despite an intense research, a new drug that is effective in reducing mortality in sepsis is still awaited. The literature was analyzed with Pubmed() during the 2008 - 2009 period. If required, seminal articles published before 2008 were cited. Clinical trials focusing on 'sepsis' were first assessed. Next, relevant experimental data in this field were reported. The goal of the review is to determine the role for new licensed antibiotics, to give an insight into the conflict on adjuvant therapies and to disclose new experimental concepts. New licensed antibiotics will offer the opportunity to refine the treatment choices. Direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column may be an option in sepsis due to Gram-negative bacilli. Among non-antibiotic drugs, new ongoing studies will clarify the role of drotrecogin alfa (activated) and low dose hydrocortisone. The modulation of monocytic human leukocyte antigen-DR seems the most prominent treatment. The use of cardiovascular drugs requires well-conducted clinical trials. The regulation of high mobility group box 1, adenosine blockade or correction of the impaired energy production is still at the experimental level.

  3. Defining Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review Although infection rates have modestly decreased in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as a result of ongoing quality improvement measures, neonatal sepsis remains a frequent and devastating problem among hospitalized preterm neonates. Despite multiple attempts to address this unmet need, there have been minimal advances in clinical management, outcomes, and accuracy of diagnostic testing options over the last three decades. One strong contributor to a lack of medical progress is a variable case definition of disease. The inability to agree on a precise definition greatly reduces the likelihood of aligning findings from epidemiologists, clinicians, and researchers, which, in turn, severely hinders progress towards improving outcomes. Recent findings Pediatric consensus definitions for sepsis are not accurate in term infants and are not appropriate for preterm infants. In contrast to the defined multi-stage criteria for other devastating diseases encountered in the NICU (e.g., bronchopulmonary dysplasia), there is significant variability in the criteria used by investigators to substantiate the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Summary The lack of an accepted consensus definition for neonatal sepsis impedes our efforts towards improved diagnostic and prognostic options as well as accurate outcomes information for this vulnerable population. PMID:26766602

  4. Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Neera; Duggal, Ashish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common but poorly understood neurological complication of sepsis. It is characterized by diffuse brain dysfunction secondary to infection elsewhere in the body without overt CNS infection. The pathophysiology of SAE is complex and multifactorial including a number of intertwined mechanisms such as vascular damage, endothelial activation, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, altered brain signaling, brain inflammation, and apoptosis. Clinical presentation of SAE may range from mild symptoms such as malaise and concentration deficits to deep coma. The evaluation of cognitive dysfunction is made difficult by the absence of any specific investigations or biomarkers and the common use of sedation in critically ill patients. SAE thus remains diagnosis of exclusion which can only be made after ruling out other causes of altered mentation in a febrile, critically ill patient by appropriate investigations. In spite of high mortality rate, management of SAE is limited to treatment of the underlying infection and symptomatic treatment for delirium and seizures. It is important to be aware of this condition because SAE may present in early stages of sepsis, even before the diagnostic criteria for sepsis can be met. This review discusses the diagnostic approach to patients with SAE along with its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis. PMID:26556425

  5. Substituted judgment in principle and practice: a national physician survey.

    PubMed

    Combs, Michael P; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A

    2013-07-01

    To describe the extent to which US physicians endorse substituted judgments in principle or accommodate them in practice. We surveyed a stratified, random sample of 2016 physicians by mail from June 25, 2010, to September 3, 2010. Primary outcome measures were agreement with 2 in-principle statements about substituted judgment and, after an experimental vignette that varied the basis used by a patient's surrogate to refuse life-saving treatment, responses indicating how appropriate it would be to overrule the surrogate's decision. Our response rate was 62% (1156 of 1875 respondents). When there is a conflict between what a surrogate believes a patient would have wanted (substituted judgment) and what the surrogate believes is in the patient's best interest, 4 of 5 physicians (78%) agreed that the surrogate should base their decision on substituted judgment. Yet we also found that 2 of 5 physicians (40%) agree that surrogates should make decisions they believe are in the patient's best interest, even if those seem to contradict the patient's prior wishes. In the experimental vignette, physicians were much more likely to oppose overruling a surrogate's refusal of life-sustaining medical treatment when that refusal was made on the basis of substituted judgment compared with when the refusal was made on the basis of the patient's best interest (50% vs 20%; odds ratio, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.7-6.3). Responses to the in-principle items about substituted judgment were not consistently associated with responses to the experimental vignette. US physicians largely agree, in principle, that surrogates should prioritize what the patient would have wanted over what they believe is in the patient's best interest, although many physicians are ambivalent in cases in which the 2 norms conflict. Even physicians who reject the principle of substituted judgment tend to treat substituted judgment as the preferred norm for surrogate decision making when responding to a clinical vignette

  6. Sepsis and cytokines: current status.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, T S; Christman, J W

    1996-07-01

    Sepsis is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from excessive systemic host inflammatory response to infection. This inflammatory response is largely mediated by cytokines, which are released into the systemic circulation. Plasma concentrations of specific cytokines, TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 are frequently elevated in human sepsis and cytokine concentrations correlate with severity and outcome of sepsis. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, cytokine receptor antagonists and counter-inflammatory cytokines are also produced in large quantities in patients with sepsis; however, the specific role of these molecules in sepsis remains undefined. A complex interaction of cytokines and cytokine-neutralizing molecules probably determines the clinical presentation and course of sepsis. Intervening in this sequence of events to modify the host inflammatory responses may prove to be a beneficial treatment strategy for sepsis, but currently tested anticytokine therapies have been largely unsuccessful.

  7. Toward generally accepted forensic assessment practices among clinical neuropsychologists: a survey of professional practice and common test use.

    PubMed

    LaDuke, Casey; Barr, William; Brodale, Donald L; Rabin, Laura A

    2017-07-04

    This study investigated professional practice and common test use among clinical neuropsychologists engaging in forensic assessment.  Doctorate-level psychologists active in the practice of neuropsychology and on the INS and NAN membership listings (n = 502) were surveyed about their demographics, professional practice, and common test use. Participants who reported engaging in forensic practice (n = 255) were further surveyed about their forensic practice. Forensic participants were more likely to be male and Caucasian, and reported higher ages, more years of professional experience, and a higher prevalence of board certification. While characteristics of their professional and forensic practice varied, forensic participants reported spending most of their professional time conducting neuropsychological assessments with adult clients in a private or group practice setting, focusing on civil referrals and civil legal questions involving older adult issues, developmental issues, head injury, and psychiatric issues. Common test use across neuropsychological assessment domains is presented for board-certified forensic participants (n = 77). An examination of these results reveals that the current pattern of test use is similar to the results of a more general survey of neuropsychological test use.  The findings provide insight into the practice of forensic neuropsychological assessment, and further establish the admissibility of neuropsychological evidence in the United States legal system. Results will be useful for clinical neuropsychologists, field leaders, and legal professionals hoping to gain insight into the role of clinical neuropsychology in civil and criminal legal decision-making.

  8. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2016.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed; Levy, Mitchell M; Antonelli, Massimo; Ferrer, Ricard; Kumar, Anand; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Sprung, Charles L; Nunnally, Mark E; Rochwerg, Bram; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Angus, Derek C; Annane, Djillali; Beale, Richard J; Bellinghan, Geoffrey J; Bernard, Gordon R; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Coopersmith, Craig; De Backer, Daniel P; French, Craig J; Fujishima, Seitaro; Gerlach, Herwig; Hidalgo, Jorge Luis; Hollenberg, Steven M; Jones, Alan E; Karnad, Dilip R; Kleinpell, Ruth M; Koh, Younsuk; Lisboa, Thiago Costa; Machado, Flavia R; Marini, John J; Marshall, John C; Mazuski, John E; McIntyre, Lauralyn A; McLean, Anthony S; Mehta, Sangeeta; Moreno, Rui P; Myburgh, John; Navalesi, Paolo; Nishida, Osamu; Osborn, Tiffany M; Perner, Anders; Plunkett, Colleen M; Ranieri, Marco; Schorr, Christa A; Seckel, Maureen A; Seymour, Christopher W; Shieh, Lisa; Shukri, Khalid A; Simpson, Steven Q; Singer, Mervyn; Thompson, B Taylor; Townsend, Sean R; Van der Poll, Thomas; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Wiersinga, W Joost; Zimmerman, Janice L; Dellinger, R Phillip

    2017-03-01

    To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee served as an integral part of the development. The panel consisted of five sections: hemodynamics, infection, adjunctive therapies, metabolic, and ventilation. Population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) questions were reviewed and updated as needed, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations, and 18 were best-practice statements. No recommendation was provided for four questions. Substantial agreement exists among a large cohort of international experts regarding many strong recommendations for the best care of patients with sepsis. Although a significant number of aspects of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality.

  9. Children with Phonological Problems: A Survey of Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joffe, Victoria; Pring, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with phonological problems are a significant proportion of many therapists' caseloads. However, little is known about current clinical practice with these children or whether research on the effects of therapy have influenced this practice. Aims: To investigate the methods of assessment and remediation used by therapists…

  10. Children with Phonological Problems: A Survey of Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joffe, Victoria; Pring, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with phonological problems are a significant proportion of many therapists' caseloads. However, little is known about current clinical practice with these children or whether research on the effects of therapy have influenced this practice. Aims: To investigate the methods of assessment and remediation used by therapists…

  11. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of a study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO) is provided. The data covered aspects of recently graduated O.D.s' experience in obtaining a state license, becoming established in practice, and their practice characteristics. (Author/MLW)

  12. Who's using treatment manuals? A national survey of practicing therapists.

    PubMed

    Becker, Emily M; Smith, Ashley M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    Treatment manuals are currently the most common way treatments are disseminated to practicing clinicians, although little is known about the rates with which practicing therapists incorporate these manuals into their practice. In light of a widely acknowledged research-practice gap, understanding how often therapists are using manuals is important for shaping future dissemination efforts. This study collected data on rates of manual use among a national sample of mental health clinicians representative of those likely to be targeted in dissemination efforts (N = 756), as well as predictors of use. Results indicated that few clinicians (< 10%) routinely incorporated manuals into their practice, although most employed them to some degree. Predictors of manual use included greater openness to new treatments, younger age, and a cognitive-behavioral treatment orientation (ps < .05). Implications for future dissemination efforts are discussed.

  13. Considerations for practice-based research: a cross-sectional survey of chiropractic, acupuncture and massage practices.

    PubMed

    Floden, Lysbeth; Howerter, Amy; Matthews, Eva; Nichter, Mark; Cunningham, James K; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Gordon, Judith S; Muramoto, Myra L

    2015-05-02

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use has steadily increased globally over the past two decades and is increasingly playing a role in the healthcare system in the United States. CAM practice-based effectiveness research requires an understanding of the settings in which CAM practitioners provide services. This paper describes and quantifies practice environment characteristics for a cross-sectional sample of doctors of chiropractic (DCs), licensed acupuncturists (LAcs), and licensed massage therapists (LMTs) in the United States. Using a cross-sectional telephone survey of DCs (n = 32), LAcs (n = 70), and LMTs (n = 184) in the Tucson, AZ metropolitan area, we collected data about each location where practitioners work, as well as measures on practitioner and practice characteristics including: patient volume, number of locations where practitioners worked, CAM practitioner types working at each location, and business models of practice. The majority of practitioners reported having one practice location (93.8% of DCs, 80% of LAcs and 59.8% of LMTs) where they treat patients. Patient volume/week was related to practitioner type; DCs saw 83.13 (SD = 49.29) patients/week, LAcs saw 22.29 (SD = 16.88) patients/week, and LMTs saw 14.21 (SD =10.25) patients per week. Practitioners completed surveys for N = 388 practice locations. Many CAM practices were found to be multidisciplinary and/or have more than one practitioner: 9/35 (25.7%) chiropractic practices, 24/87 (27.6%) acupuncture practices, and 141/266 (53.0%) massage practices. Practice business models across CAM practitioner types were heterogeneous, e.g. sole proprietor, employee, partner, and independent contractor. CAM practices vary across and within disciplines in ways that can significantly impact design and implementation of practice-based research. CAM research and intervention programs need to be mindful of the heterogeneity of CAM practices in order to create appropriate interventions, study

  14. A Virtual Community of Practice for General Practice Training: A Preimplementation Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sandra C; Bennett, Sue; Iverson, Don; Robinson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background Professional isolation is an important factor in low rural health workforce retention. Objective The aim of this study was to gain insights to inform the development of an implementation plan for a virtual community of practice (VCoP) for general practice (GP) training in regional Australia. The study also aimed to assess the applicability of the findings of an existing framework in developing this plan. This included ascertaining the main drivers of usage, or usefulness, of the VCoP for users and establishing the different priorities between user groups. Methods A survey study, based on the seven-step health VCoP framework, was conducted with general practice supervisors and registrars—133 usable responses; 40% estimated response rate. Data was analyzed using the t test and the chi-square test for comparisons between groups. Factor analysis and generalized linear regression modeling were used to ascertain factors which may independently predict intention to use the VCoP. Results In establishing a VCoP, facilitation was seen as important. Regarding stakeholders, the GP training provider was an important sponsor. Factor analysis showed a single goal of usefulness. Registrars had a higher intention to use the VCoP (P<.001) and to perceive it as useful (P<.001) than supervisors. Usefulness independently predicted intention to actively use the VCoP (P<.001). Regarding engagement of a broad church of users, registrars were more likely than supervisors to want allied health professional and specialist involvement (P<.001). A supportive environment was deemed important, but most important was the quality of the content. Participants wanted regular feedback about site activity. Regarding technology and community, training can be online, but trust is better built face-to-face. Supervisors were significantly more likely than registrars to perceive that registrars needed help with knowledge (P=.01) and implementation of knowledge (P<.001). Conclusions Important

  15. Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative task force report: Improving participation in a survey on hospital pharmacy practices in Texas.

    PubMed

    Philip, Achsah; Gessner-Wharton, Mallory; Birney, Patrick; Blee, John; Desai, Avani; Gorbach, Christy; Karralli, Rusol; Lorimer, Dirk; Munch, Kyle; Nweke, Gift; Parekh, Shreya; Puebla, Monica; Cox, Rodney; Pitman, Elizabeth Paige; Garey, Kevin W

    2015-06-15

    Results of an initiative to increase participation in a survey on hospital pharmacy practices are reported. In an initiative led by pharmacy residents at the University of Houston College of Pharmacy, a task force was created to boost the rate of response to the Hospital-Assessment Survey (HSA), an online benchmarking tool developed as part of the ASHP-sponsored Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI). Under the guidance of leaders from ASHP's Texas affiliate and state health-system pharmacy leaders, an 11-member team of residents targeted Texas hospitals that had not responded to the HSA as of December 2013 and used phone and e-mail methods to encourage survey participation. Data obtained from newly responding institutions were aggregated with previously collected data on Texas facilities and compared with national data. During the 11-week initiative, 66 new HSA responses were received from Texas hospitals, raising the total number of respondents to 89 and boosting the overall participation rate from 4.3% to 16.7% (p <0.001). Analysis of the survey data indicated broad similarities among small and large Texas hospitals with regard to six optimal practice characteristics. Pharmacy practice models and characteristics in Texas overall were largely consistent with national statistics. The involvement of the PPMI task force was associated with a substantial increase in the survey response rate. The survey results indicated that, with a few exceptions, practice models and the use of optimal practices were similar at Texas hospitals of various sizes and between Texas hospitals overall and sampled hospitals nationwide. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vulvodynia in Arkansas: a survey of Arkansas gynecologists' practice experience and management of vulvar pain.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Amy M; Large, Erin; Bird, T Mac; Hitt, W C; Eastham, Donna G; Pulley, Leavonne; Hutchins, David A

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this survey was to determine the level of experience OB/GYN (Obstetrics & Gynecology) physicians in the state of Arkansas have in seeing and managing patients with vulvar pain, commonly known as vulvodynia. The 8 question, anonymous survey was mailed to Arkansas OB/GYN physicians. The survey assessed the experience of the providers, the age range of their patients, and whether or not they treat and/or refer. Thirty of 182 surveys were returned for a rate of 16.4%. The survey revealed that physicians are moderately comfortable treating vulvodynia within their practice and refer mostly for treatment failure.

  17. Exploring the Icebergs of Adult Learning: Findings of the First Canadian Survey of Informal Learning Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 1,562 Canadian adults found that most are spending more time in learning, especially informal learning through employment, community service, and household work. Findings should be used to shape education policy and practice. (SK)

  18. Sepsis-induced Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Bermejo, Francisco J; Ruiz-Bailen, Manuel; Gil-Cebrian, Julián; Huertos-Ranchal, María J

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction is one of the main predictors of poor outcome in septic patients, with mortality rates next to 70%. During the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, both ventricles can dilate and diminish its ejection fraction, having less response to fluid resuscitation and catecholamines, but typically is assumed to be reversible within 7-10 days. In the last 30 years, It´s being subject of substantial research; however no explanation of its etiopathogenesis or effective treatment have been proved yet. The aim of this manuscript is to review on the most relevant aspects of the sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction, discuss its clinical presentation, pathophysiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies proposed in recent years. PMID:22758615

  19. [Adsorption therapy in sepsis].

    PubMed

    Hasper, D; Schefold, J C; Jörres, A

    2015-05-01

    The activation of multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators is a key feature in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Many of these mediators may directly contribute to organ dysfunction and determine disease severity. So far our ability to modulate these upregulated mediator pathways is very limited. Therefore the adsorption of such mediators via an extracorporeal circuit may be a beneficial intervention during sepsis. Recent technical innovations have made this intervention feasible. Both systems for exclusive mediator adsorption and for adsorption beside a conventional renal replacement therapy are now available. Some of the membranes can adsorb a broad range of mediators by rather unspecific binding, whereas others specifically adsorb endotoxin or mediators. Whilst biochemical efficacy could be demonstrated by some of the systems, controlled and randomized studies demonstrating improved clinical endpoints are still lacking. Therefore the use of such therapies outside clinical studies cannot yet be recommended.

  20. Defining and Diagnosing Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael C

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that encompasses infections of many different types and severity. Not surprisingly, it has confounded most attempts to apply a single definition, which has also limited the ability to develop a set of reliable diagnostic criteria. It is perhaps best defined as the different clinical syndromes produced by an immune response to infection that causes harm to the body beyond that of the local effects of the infection.

  1. School Leadership Preparation and Practice Survey Instruments and Their Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the leadership preparation line of inquiry developed in the past decade by the University Council for Educational Administration/Learning and Teaching in Educational Leadership Special Interest Group Taskforce on Evaluating Leadership Preparation Programs, and it particularly addresses the series of survey instruments…

  2. A Survey of Personnel Preparation Practices in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Polloway, Edward A.; Sumutka, Bianca M.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers indicate that special education is grappling with many issues and challenges that point to the need to examine the nature and type of personnel preparation for educators working with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to survey teacher educators at colleges and universities to (a) determine…

  3. Multicultural Career Counseling: A National Survey of Competencies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vespia, Kristin M.; Fitzpatrick, Mary E.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Chen, Yung-Lung

    2010-01-01

    Career counselors' multicultural competence has not been widely investigated. In this study, a national sample of 230 career counselors completed an online survey that included measures of career counseling self-efficacy and multicultural counseling competence. Beyond these self-report instruments, counselors responded to open-ended items that…

  4. Automated Circulation of Unbound Periodicals: A Survey of Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Joan

    1983-01-01

    Presents results of survey of procedures to handle the circulation of unbound periodicals in 232 public and academic libraries using four major turnkey automated circulation systems. Methods used are described (use of machine-readable symbol attached to issue) and procedures developed at the Eastern Washington University Library are explained in…

  5. A National Survey of Revising Practices in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Bruce; Saddler, Kristie; Befoorhooz, Bita; Cuccio-Slichko, Julie

    2014-01-01

    A random national sampling of primary grade teachers in the United States were surveyed to determine how they teach revising to writers in the elementary grades. Our findings suggest that in our sample of teachers, little time is dedicated in the school day to writing and especially revising. The teachers believed that more time spent revising did…

  6. A National Survey of Revising Practices in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Bruce; Saddler, Kristie; Befoorhooz, Bita; Cuccio-Slichko, Julie

    2014-01-01

    A random national sampling of primary grade teachers in the United States were surveyed to determine how they teach revising to writers in the elementary grades. Our findings suggest that in our sample of teachers, little time is dedicated in the school day to writing and especially revising. The teachers believed that more time spent revising did…

  7. School Leadership Preparation and Practice Survey Instruments and Their Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the leadership preparation line of inquiry developed in the past decade by the University Council for Educational Administration/Learning and Teaching in Educational Leadership Special Interest Group Taskforce on Evaluating Leadership Preparation Programs, and it particularly addresses the series of survey instruments…

  8. Survey of Prior Learning Assessment Practices in Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjortoft, Nancy F.; Zgarrick, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed nontraditional Pharm.D (NTPD) program directors to determine use of prior learning assessment (PLA). Eighty-four percent of respondents reported using PLA for one or more purposes, including the admissions process and awarding of advanced standing for didactic and experiential courses. Transcript review, faculty-developed exams, and…

  9. A Survey of Quality Assurance Practices in Nonmilitary Hospitals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    160 ° ) Power (1600) Scrambled Egg (1450) Final Rinse (1900) SF Scrambled Egg (145) Rinse (190_) Broth ( 190) Hot Beverage (1850) 1 Juices (40-450...control section Ingredient inspection steward Standardized recipes Microbiological testing Nutritional data of recipes____ Patient acceptability surveys...ingredients and these hospitals emphasized the use of weights rather than volume. Recipes . All hospitals except one used standardized recipes . Those

  10. Development of an e-learning package for sepsis care.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anna; Henderson, James; Langmack, Gill

    Severe sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. This article describes the collaborative development and implementation of an interactive online learning package to understand the key role nurses have in recognising and then starting to apply the Sepsis Six care bundle in clinical practice. The e-learning package, developed in a UK teaching hospital, uses a case study approach to address the knowledge that is required to be able to recognise sepsis, to understand the processes that occur and the ongoing care and treatment required. The package is relevant to final-year student nurses, newly registered nurses in preceptorship and other health professionals involved in assessing and treating patients who may be developing sepsis.

  11. Sepsis in vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Bhagwanjee, Satish; Ugarte, Sebastian

    2014-09-01

    Despite the acquisition of a large body of evidence, there are many unanswered questions about sepsis. The definition of this disease is plagued by the lack of a simple pathophysiological description linking cause to effect and the activation of host immune responses that hinders disease progression at the same time producing multiorgan dysfunction. A plethora of inconsistent clinical features has served to obfuscate rather than illuminate. The Surviving Sepsis Guidelines (SSG) are a major advance because it comprehensively interrogates all aspects of care for the critically ill. For vulnerable populations living in low- and middle-income countries, this guideline is ineffectual because of the lack of region-specific data, differences in etiology of sepsis and burden of disease, limited human capacity and infrastructure, as well as socioeconomic realities. Appropriate care must be guided by common sense guidelines that are sensitive to local realities and adapted as relevant data are acquired. Copyright © 2014 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. FERPA Training Practices: Results of the AACRAO January 2016 60 Second Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2016

    2016-01-01

    The January 2016 American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) "60 Second Survey" focused on institutional Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) training practices and measuring the level of interest in an AACRAO-developed online FERPA training module. The survey received 878 usable responses.…

  13. FERPA Training Practices: Results of the AACRAO January 2016 60 Second Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2016

    2016-01-01

    The January 2016 American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) "60 Second Survey" focused on institutional Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) training practices and measuring the level of interest in an AACRAO-developed online FERPA training module. The survey received 878 usable responses.…

  14. A National Survey of Bibliotherapy Preparation and Practices of Professional Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth; McMillen, Paula S.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of "Bibliotherapy Practices in Counseling" was conducted in 2008. This project was partially supported by an Association of Creativity in Counseling Research Award. Little research exists regarding preparation of professional counselors and their specific use of bibliotherapy interventions. Invitations and survey requests were…

  15. Best practices for survey research reports revisited: implications of target population, probability sampling, and response rate.

    PubMed

    Draugalis, JoLaine Reierson; Plaza, Cecilia M

    2009-12-17

    Several papers have been published recently in the Journal addressing "best practices" for survey research manuscripts. This paper explores in more detail the effects of the target population size on sample size determination, probability sampling versus census approaches, and response rates and the relationship to potential nonresponse bias. Survey research is a complex methodology requiring expertise in the planning, execution, and analytic stages.

  16. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters

    Treesearch

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  17. Distance Education Practices: Summary Results of the AACRAO February 2015 60 Second Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2015

    2015-01-01

    The February 2015 American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) "60 Second Survey" asked respondents to identify whether or not their institution offers distance education, and if so, to answer additional questions about distance education course practices. The survey received 838 unique institutional…

  18. A National Survey of Bibliotherapy Preparation and Practices of Professional Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth; McMillen, Paula S.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of "Bibliotherapy Practices in Counseling" was conducted in 2008. This project was partially supported by an Association of Creativity in Counseling Research Award. Little research exists regarding preparation of professional counselors and their specific use of bibliotherapy interventions. Invitations and survey requests were…

  19. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  20. A Survey of Training, Practice, and Competence in Reading Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Machek, Greg R.

    2007-01-01

    Data were gathered from 496 practicing school psychologists regarding perceptions of their preparation, ability, and use of research-based techniques in reading assessment and intervention. The survey consisted mainly of items from a survey by Fish and Margolis (1988), but items were added based on research advances in the field. Nearly half of…

  1. Clinical trials in neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Oeser, Clarissa; Lutsar, Irja; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Turner, Mark A; Heath, Paul T; Sharland, Mike

    2013-12-01

    Antibiotic licensing studies remain a problem in neonates. The classical adult clinical syndrome-based licensing studies do not apply to neonates, where sepsis is the most common infection. The main obstacle to conducting neonatal antibiotic trials is a lack of consensus on the definition of neonatal sepsis itself and the selection of appropriate endpoints. This article describes the difficulties of the clinical and laboratory definitions of neonatal sepsis and reviews the varying designs of previous neonatal sepsis trials. The optimal design of future trials of new antibiotics will need to be based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters, combined with adequately powered clinical studies to determine safety and efficacy.

  2. Current practices in clinical analytics: a hospital survey report.

    PubMed

    Womack, Dana M; Kennedy, Rosemary; Bria, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Clinical analytics must become a pervasive activity in healthcare settings to achieve the global vision for timely, effective, equitable, and excellent care. Global adoption of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) has increased the volume of data available for performance measurement and healthcare organizational capacity for continuous quality improvement. However, EHR adoption does not automatically result in optimal use of clinical data for performance improvement. In order to understand organizational factors related to use of data for clinical analytics, a survey was conducted of hospitals and hospital-based clinics. The survey revealed sub-optimal use of data captured as a byproduct of care delivery, the need for tools and methodologies to assist with data analytics, and the need for disciplined organizational structure and strategies. Informatics nurse professionals are well-positioned to lead analytical efforts and serve as a catalyst in their facility's transformations into a data-driven organization.

  3. ANPD technology survey: The state of NPD practice.

    PubMed

    Harper, Mary G; Durkin, Gregory; Orthoefer, Donna Kilcoyne; Powers, Rebekah; Tassinari, Rita M

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Association for Nursing Professional Development (ANPD) Educational Technologies Committee surveyed ANPD membership to determine technology usage and education-related needs. Results from over 1,300 members indicated that, overall, technology is not used to its full capacity. Nursing professional development specialists are challenged to develop individual competence in educational technologies, whereas organizations are tasked with demonstrating cost-effective, results-oriented education.

  4. Undergraduate Psychological Writing: A Best Practices Guide and National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Salter, Nicholas P.

    2017-01-01

    There is no comprehensive guide for teaching psychological writing, and little is known about how often instructors teach the topic. We present a best practices guide for teaching psychological writing beyond just American Psychological Association style, discuss psychology-specific writing assignments, and examine psychological writing…

  5. Practices that support coexistence: A survey of Alfalfa growers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The alfalfa industry has worked hard to foster the coexistence of genetically-engineered (GE) and conventional alfalfa production by developing a set of best management practices that aim to limit adventitious-presence (AP) of GE traits in conventional seed. The general goal is to minimize transgene...

  6. A Survey of Invasive Catheter Practices in US Burn Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    standardization of critical care work? Curr Opin Crit Care 2010;16:493–8. 7. Stone ME Jr, Snetman D, O ’ Neill A, et al. Daily multidisci- plinary rounds to...2010;14:R59. 10. Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Day A, Jain M, Drover J. Valida- tion of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutri - tion support

  7. Undergraduate Psychological Writing: A Best Practices Guide and National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Salter, Nicholas P.

    2017-01-01

    There is no comprehensive guide for teaching psychological writing, and little is known about how often instructors teach the topic. We present a best practices guide for teaching psychological writing beyond just American Psychological Association style, discuss psychology-specific writing assignments, and examine psychological writing…

  8. Voice Therapy Practices and Techniques: A Survey of Voice Clinicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Peter B.; Larson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-three voice disorder therapists' ratings of statements regarding voice therapy practices indicated that vocal nodules are the most frequent disorder treated; vocal abuse and hard glottal attack elimination, counseling, and relaxation were preferred treatment approaches; and voice therapy is more effective with adults than with children.…

  9. Staffing in Student Affairs: A Survey of Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Roger B., Jr.; Torres, Vasti; Carpenter, D. Stanley; McIntire, David D.; Peterson, Brent

    2001-01-01

    A geographically stratified sample of 263 chief student affairs administrators responded to questions related to their division's professional staff recruiting and selection processes, professional development and activities, and performance appraisal procedures. This produced a descriptive overview of national staffing practice sin student…

  10. A Survey of International Practice in University Admissions Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Daniel; Coates, Hamish; Friedman, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how admissions tests are used in different higher education systems around the world. This is a relatively new area of research, despite the fact that admissions processes are a key component of university practices and given the ever increasing globalisation of higher education. This paper shows that aptitude and achievement…

  11. Classroom Assessment Practices: A Survey of Botswana Primary and Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koloi-Keaikitse, Setlhomo

    2012-01-01

    The Classroom Assessment Practices and Skills (CAPS) questionnaire was administered to a sample of 691 primary and secondary school teachers in Botswana, Southern Africa to survey their thoughts about classroom assessment and identify classroom assessment practices teachers perceive to be skilled and those that they used most. The study examined…

  12. Practical Child Safety Education in England: A National Survey of the Child Safety Education Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Caroline A.; Watson, Michael C.; Walsh, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the provision of practical safety education by Child Safety Education Coalition (CSEC) organizations in England. Design: A postal survey. Setting: Providers of child practical safety education who were also part of CSEC. Methods: In February 2010 all CSEC organizations were sent a self-completion postal questionnaire which…

  13. Practical Child Safety Education in England: A National Survey of the Child Safety Education Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Caroline A.; Watson, Michael C.; Walsh, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the provision of practical safety education by Child Safety Education Coalition (CSEC) organizations in England. Design: A postal survey. Setting: Providers of child practical safety education who were also part of CSEC. Methods: In February 2010 all CSEC organizations were sent a self-completion postal questionnaire which…

  14. A survey of paediatricians' practice and training in routine infant eye examination

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, J.; Lynn, R.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of a sample of UK paediatricians was carried out to identify the practices and determine the training of those involved in routine surveillance examinations to detect ophthalmic disorders in infants. The findings indicate important variation in current practices and raise concerns about both undergraduate and postgraduate training in ophthalmic assessment of infants.

 PMID:9623402

  15. 76 FR 39260 - Direct Investment Surveys: Alignment of Regulations With Current Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Regulations With Current Practices AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... align its regulations for direct investment surveys with current practices. No comments on the proposed... acquired and on the new foreign owner, information on the cost of the investment and source of funding,...

  16. Frequency of yoga practice predicts health: results of a national survey of yoga practitioners.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Background. Yoga shows promise as a therapeutic intervention, but relationships between yoga practice and health are underexplored. Purpose. To examine the relationship between yoga practice and health (subjective well-being, diet, BMI, smoking, alcohol/caffeine consumption, sleep, fatigue, social support, mindfulness, and physical activity). Methods. Cross-sectional, anonymous internet surveys distributed to 4307 randomly selected from 18,160 individuals at 15 US Iyengar yoga studios; 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Results. Mean age 51.7 (± 11.7) years; 84.2% female. Frequency of home practice favorably predicted (P < .001): mindfulness, subjective well-being, BMI, fruit and vegetable consumption, vegetarian status, sleep, and fatigue. Each component of yoga practice (different categories of physical poses, breath work, meditation, philosophy study) predicted at least 1 health outcome (P < .05). Conclusions. Home practice of yoga predicted health better than years of practice or class frequency. Different physical poses and yoga techniques may have unique health benefits.

  17. Revised National Estimates of Emergency Department Visits for Sepsis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Henry E; Jones, Allison R; Donnelly, John P

    2017-09-01

    The emergency department is an important venue for initial sepsis recognition and care. We sought to determine contemporary estimates of the epidemiology of U.S. emergency department visits for sepsis. Analysis of data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. U.S. emergency department visits, 2009-2011. Adult (age, ≥ 18 yr) emergency department sepsis patients. We defined serious infection as an emergency department diagnosis of a serious infection or a triage temperature greater than 38°C or less than 36°C. We defined three emergency department sepsis classifications: 1) original emergency department sepsis-serious infection plus emergency department diagnosis of organ dysfunction, endotracheal intubation, or systolic blood pressure less than or equal to 90 mm Hg or explicit sepsis emergency department diagnoses; 2) quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment emergency department sepsis-serious infection plus presence of at least two "quick" Sequential Organ Failure Assessment criteria (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 14, respiratory rate ≥ 22 breaths/min, or systolic blood pressure ≤ 100 mm Hg); and 3) revised emergency department sepsis-original or quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment emergency department sepsis. None. We used survey design and weighting variables to produce national estimates of annual adult emergency department visits using updated sepsis classifications. Over 2009-2011, there were 103,257,516 annual adult emergency department visits. The estimated number of emergency department sepsis visits were as follows: 1) original emergency department sepsis 665,319 (0.64%; 95% CI, 0.57-0.73); 2) quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment emergency department sepsis 318,832 (0.31%; 95% CI, 0.26-0.37); and 3) revised emergency department sepsis 847,868 (0.82%; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91). Sepsis continues to present a major burden to U.S. emergency departments, affecting up to nearly 850,000 emergency department visits annually. Updated

  18. Patient satisfaction surveys as a market research tool for general practices.

    PubMed

    Khayat, K; Salter, B

    1994-05-01

    Recent policy developments, embracing the notions of consumer choice, quality of care, and increased general practitioner control over practice budgets have resulted in a new competitive environment in primary care. General practitioners must now be more aware of how their patients feel about the services they receive, and patient satisfaction surveys can be an effective tool for general practices. A survey was undertaken to investigate the use of a patient satisfaction survey and whether aspects of patient satisfaction varied according to sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, social class, housing tenure and length of time in education. A sample of 2173 adults living in Medway District Health Authority were surveyed by postal questionnaire in September 1991 in order to elicit their views on general practice services. Levels of satisfaction varied with age, with younger people being consistently less satisfied with general practice services than older people. Women, those in social classes 1-3N, home owners and those who left school aged 17 years or older were more critical of primary care services than men, those in social classes 3M-5, tenants and those who left school before the age of 17 years. Surveys and analyses of this kind, if conducted for a single practice, can form the basis of a marketing strategy aimed at optimizing list size, list composition, and service quality. Satisfaction surveys can be readily incorporated into medical audit and financial management.

  19. Patient satisfaction surveys as a market research tool for general practices.

    PubMed Central

    Khayat, K; Salter, B

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Recent policy developments, embracing the notions of consumer choice, quality of care, and increased general practitioner control over practice budgets have resulted in a new competitive environment in primary care. General practitioners must now be more aware of how their patients feel about the services they receive, and patient satisfaction surveys can be an effective tool for general practices. AIM. A survey was undertaken to investigate the use of a patient satisfaction survey and whether aspects of patient satisfaction varied according to sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, social class, housing tenure and length of time in education. METHOD. A sample of 2173 adults living in Medway District Health Authority were surveyed by postal questionnaire in September 1991 in order to elicit their views on general practice services. RESULTS. Levels of satisfaction varied with age, with younger people being consistently less satisfied with general practice services than older people. Women, those in social classes 1-3N, home owners and those who left school aged 17 years or older were more critical of primary care services than men, those in social classes 3M-5, tenants and those who left school before the age of 17 years. CONCLUSION. Surveys and analyses of this kind, if conducted for a single practice, can form the basis of a marketing strategy aimed at optimizing list size, list composition, and service quality. Satisfaction surveys can be readily incorporated into medical audit and financial management. PMID:8204335

  20. Identification of sepsis subtypes in critically ill adults using gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Maslove, David M; Tang, Benjamin M; McLean, Anthony S

    2012-10-04

    Sepsis is a syndromic illness that has traditionally been defined by a set of broad, highly sensitive clinical parameters. As a result, numerous distinct pathophysiologic states may meet diagnostic criteria for sepsis, leading to syndrome heterogeneity. The existence of biologically distinct sepsis subtypes may in part explain the lack of actionable evidence from clinical trials of sepsis therapies. We used microarray-based gene expression data from adult patients with sepsis in order to identify molecularly distinct sepsis subtypes. We used partitioning around medoids (PAM) and hierarchical clustering of gene expression profiles from neutrophils taken from a cohort of septic patients in order to identify distinct subtypes. Using the medoids learned from this cohort, we then clustered a second independent cohort of septic patients, and used the resulting class labels to evaluate differences in clinical parameters, as well as the expression of relevant pharmacogenes. We identified two sepsis subtypes based on gene expression patterns. Subtype 1 was characterized by increased expression of genes involved in inflammatory and Toll receptor mediated signaling pathways, as well as a higher prevalence of severe sepsis. There were differences between subtypes in the expression of pharmacogenes related to hydrocortisone, vasopressin, norepinephrine, and drotrecogin alpha. Sepsis subtypes can be identified based on different gene expression patterns. These patterns may generate hypotheses about the underlying pathophysiology of sepsis and suggest new ways of classifying septic patients both in clinical practice, and in the design of clinical trials.

  1. Preferred clinical practice in convergence insufficiency in India: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Sourabh D; Saxena, Rohit; Khanduja, Sumeet K

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular vision disorder. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment most appropriate for CI. The aim of the study was to investigate the treatment for CI by surveying the ophthalmologists regarding the most common treatment modalities used in India. Materials and Methods: Four hundred questionnaires were distributed amongst ophthalmologists attending different sessions of the Delhi Ophthalmological Society annual conference held in April 2007. Two hundred and three ophthalmologists responded (response rate 50.75%). The responders included 109 private practitioners, 57 consultants attached to teaching institutes and 37 residents. Results: The majority of ophthalmologists (66.7%) claimed encountering >5% outpatient department patients with CI. Pencil push-ups therapy (PPT) was the most common first line of treatment offered by ophthalmologists (79%) followed by synoptophore exercises (18%). Only 3% referred the patients to optometrists. Thirty per cent ophthalmologists claimed good results with PPT, which was significantly higher in private practitioners (35%). Only 26% ophthalmologists explained physiological diplopia to patients on a regular basis and reported significantly higher percentage of patients (46.3%) with good results. Only 12.3% ophthalmologists needed to refer >30% patients for synoptophore exercises. For failure of PPT 86.7% considered lack of compliance as the major reason as perceived by ophthalmologists. Conclusions: This survey suggested that most ophthalmic practitioners prescribed PPT as the initial treatment for CI and had satisfactory results with PPT. The majority of the practitioners did not explain to the patient about physiological diplopia. Explaining physiological diplopia may improve outcome, as perceived from the survey. PMID:18579989

  2. Preferred clinical practice in convergence insufficiency in India: a survey.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Sourabh D; Sharma, Pradeep; Saxena, Rohit; Khanduja, Sumeet K

    2008-01-01

    Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular vision disorder. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment most appropriate for CI. The aim of the study was to investigate the treatment for CI by surveying the ophthalmologists regarding the most common treatment modalities used in India. Four hundred questionnaires were distributed amongst ophthalmologists attending different sessions of the Delhi Ophthalmological Society annual conference held in April 2007. Two hundred and three ophthalmologists responded (response rate 50.75%). The responders included 109 private practitioners, 57 consultants attached to teaching institutes and 37 residents. The majority of ophthalmologists (66.7%) claimed encountering > 5% outpatient department patients with CI. Pencil push-ups therapy (PPT) was the most common first line of treatment offered by ophthalmologists (79%) followed by synoptophore exercises (18%). Only 3% referred the patients to optometrists. Thirty per cent ophthalmologists claimed good results with PPT, which was significantly higher in private practitioners (35%). Only 26% ophthalmologists explained physiological diplopia to patients on a regular basis and reported significantly higher percentage of patients (46.3%) with good results. Only 12.3% ophthalmologists needed to refer > 30% patients for synoptophore exercises. For failure of PPT 86.7% considered lack of compliance as the major reason as perceived by ophthalmologists. This survey suggested that most ophthalmic practitioners prescribed PPT as the initial treatment for CI and had satisfactory results with PPT. The majority of the practitioners did not explain to the patient about physiological diplopia. Explaining physiological diplopia may improve outcome, as perceived from the survey.

  3. Exercise Training Following Burn Injury: A Survey of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Alejandro M.; Serghiou, Michael; Padmanabha, Anand; Porro, Laura J.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Exercise programs capable of contributing positively to the long-term rehabilitation of burn patients should be included in outpatient rehabilitation programs. However, the extent and intensity of the resistance and cardiopulmonary exercise prescribed are unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the existence, design, content, and prescription of outpatient cardiopulmonary and resistance exercise programs within outpatient burn rehabilitation. Methods A survey was designed to gather information on existing exercise programs for burn survivors and assess the extent to which they are included in overall outpatient rehabilitation programs. Three hundred and twenty seven surveys were distributed among licensed physical and occupational therapists part of the American Burn Association Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy Special Interest Group. Results One hundred and three surveys were completed. Eighty-two percent of respondents indicated that their institutions offered outpatient therapy following discharge. The frequency of therapists’ contact with patients during this period varied greatly. Interestingly, 81% of therapists stated that no hospital-based cardiopulmonary endurance exercise programs were available. Patients’ physical function was infrequently determined through the use of cardiopulmonary parameters (oxygen consumption, heart rate) or muscle strength. Instead, more subjective parameters such as range of motion (75%), manual muscle testing (61%), and quality of life (61%) were used. Conclusion Prescription and follow-up assessment of cardiopulmonary endurance training are inconsistent among institutions, underscoring the need for greater awareness of the importance of exercise in any burn rehabilitation program. Identification of cardiopulmonary and progressive resistance parameters for establishing and tracking exercise training is also needed to maximize exercise-induced benefits. PMID:23511288

  4. Sepsis management: An evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Baig, Muhammad Akbar; Shahzad, Hira; Jamil, Bushra; Hussain, Erfan

    2016-03-01

    The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines have outlined an early goal directed therapy (EGDT) which demonstrates a standardized approach to ensure prompt and effective management of sepsis. Having said that, there are barriers associated with the application of evidence-based practice, which often lead to an overall poorer adherence to guidelines. Considering the global burden of disease, data from low- to middle-income countries is scarce. Asia is the largest continent but most Asian countries do not have a well-developed healthcare system and compliance rates to resuscitation and management bundles are as low as 7.6% and 3.5%, respectively. Intensive care units are not adequately equipped and financial concerns limit implementation of expensive treatment strategies. Healthcare policy-makers should be notified in order to alleviate financial restrictions and ensure delivery of standard care to septic patients.

  5. Losses told from scrubbing nukes: survey details utility accounting practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Reduced load forecasts and the Three Mile Island accident led to a record number of nuclear power plant cancellations in 1980, according to a survey of reporting and accounting methods of 60 large electric utilities and 25 gas and water companies. The utilities are trying to recover losses through increased rates, but most are employing accounting methods to defer their losses by using the allowance for funds used during construction (AFUDC). The companies report treating the AFUDC funds in different ways, the majority deducting them from income and construction as a noncash item. (DCK)

  6. Independent learning among general practice trainees: an initial survey.

    PubMed

    Bligh, J G

    1992-11-01

    Self-directed learning is a natural way for adults to learn. Vocational training for general practice is a preparation for unsupervised clinical work that will be supported, in the main, by continuing medical education. This study uses the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale to investigate factors influencing readiness for such learning among a sample of general practice trainees. Three principal factors emerged from analysis: enjoyment and enthusiasm for learning; a positive self-concept as a learner and a factor suggesting the possibility of a 'reproducing' orientation to learning. These factors may reflect approaches to learning in general rather than these adopted for professional learning, but offer helpful pointers for the development of both vocational training and of continuing medical education.

  7. A Survey of Adverse Drug Reactions in Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    In this study, 232 Canadian family physicians recorded suspected adverse drug reactions (SADRs) in their practices for five months. Patients' age and sex, the drug(s) implicated, type of reaction and any disability were recorded on a card and sent to a central coordinating office each week. The number of SADRs in clinical practice seems to be small. An estimated 300,000 patients were involved in the study, and a total of 314 suspected adverse drug reactions in 314 patients were reported. A proposal is made for a surveillance system for new drugs. Family physicians would monitor all patients taking a drug or group of drugs and matched controls. The status of patients and controls would be recorded regularly and any SADRs reported to a central coordinating centre. PMID:21283495

  8. A survey on retention practice among orthodontists in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Low, Tze Fui; Idris, Nur Shaheera

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate retention practices commonly employed by orthodontists. The objectives were to identify the types of retainer frequently used and to investigate the variations in retention practice. Methods A total of 97 orthodontists were randomly selected, and a questionnaire consisting of 25 multiple-choice questions sent to them by mail. Upon receiving of the completed questionnaires, the data were statistically analyzed. Results A total of 32 responses were received; among these, 59.4% of orthodontists' practiced is in a government setting and 40.6% were in private practice. A vacuum-formed retainer was the most commonly used removable retainer for both maxillary (46.9%) and mandibular (46.9%) arches, followed by a Hawley retainer (maxilla, 43.8%; mandible, 37.5%), and a fixed retainer (maxilla, 3.1%; mandible, 9.4%). Of the responding orthodontists, 78.1% prescribed full-time wear (more than 20 h per day) for a duration of 3–9 months for a maxillary arch, compared to 71.9% for the mandibular arch. Only 18.8% of the orthodontists prescribed part-time wear of the retainer for the maxillary arch, compared to 21.9% for the mandibular arch. The majority of orthodontists did not instruct their patients to stop wearing removable retainers (71.9%) or fixed retainers (66.8%) at any specific time and they preferred their patients to continue wearing retainers. Conclusions Vacuum-formed retainers are the most commonly used retainers among orthodontists. The majority of orthodontists prescribed full-time wear for more than 20 h per day with a duration of 3–9 months and preferred indefinite use of the retainer. PMID:26877981

  9. Pediatric nurse practitioner salary and practice: results of a Midwest metropolitan area survey.

    PubMed

    Loman, Deborah G; Hung, Shu-Ling

    2007-01-01

    The St. Louis Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners has conducted a local biennial salary, practice, and benefits survey since the mid 1990s. This cross-sectional, descriptive study investigated demographic characteristics, salary, benefits, and practice patterns of pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) in the St. Louis area in fall, 2005. The survey was sent to 199 PNPs who lived within 100 miles of Saint Louis, with a return rate of 60%. The mean salary for full time PNPs engaged in practice was $72,788, which was a 6.3% increase from the 2003 survey results. PNPs with more years of experience received significantly higher salaries than those with less experience; however, there was no difference in salary based on type of practice (primary versus specialty care) or type of practice setting. Increasing numbers of PNPs are reporting their practice focus as specialty care (53%) rather than primary care (47%) in this region, with 70% of full time PNPs indicating specialty care. PNPs with less than 3 years experience were working equally in primary and specialty care. Practice challenges such as reimbursement and prescriptive issues were identified. Only 37% of PNPs indicated that they were credentialed by insurance plans. Nurse practitioners may find a local survey helpful as they negotiate changes in their salaries and benefits. Members of advance practice nursing organizations and educators may find the survey process useful as they observe local practice trends over time. It is essential that nursing education and continuing education conferences address the basic and continuing education needs of PNPs in both primary care and common specialty practices.

  10. Immunosuppression after renal allograft failure: a survey of US practices.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, George P; Gohh, Reginald Y; Morrissey, Paul E; Rodrigue, James R; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2013-01-01

    Little data exist to guide the management of immunosuppression after renal graft failure. More aggressive tapering of immunosuppressive medications may reduce the risk of infection, but may increase the risk of rejection and sensitization. To document current practices in the US, we emailed a questionnaire to medical and surgical transplant directors as identified by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Emails were sent to 221 programs, of which 93 (42.1%) responded. About 24.7% of respondents reported adjusting immunosuppression according to a standard protocol; 75.3% said practices are physician dependent. The majority said that 80 or 100% of patients are off all immunosuppression one yr after returning to dialysis. The most important factors cited in deciding whether to stop immunosuppression were plans to retransplant (40.2%) and signs and symptoms of rejection (37.0%). When asked which immunosuppressive medications are continued indefinitely, 21.5% responded prednisone and 71.0% said none. Respondents most commonly said they performed graft nephrectomy only if there are signs and symptoms of rejection (47.3%) or if signs and symptoms of rejection fail to respond to steroids (34.4%). In the absence of good data to guide decisions on immunosuppression in patients with failed allografts, practices in the US vary greatly. More data are needed to determine which policies lead to the best outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Patterns of Psychiatric Outpatient Practice in Taiwan: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ying-Xiu; Chen, Mu-Hong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Ming-Hwai

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Limited studies have utilized nationwide data to assess the patterns of psychiatric practice in other countries. In this study, data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan (NHIRD-TW) for 2012 was analyzed to determine the patterns of psychiatric outpatient practice in Taiwan; (2) Methods: To determine the patterns of psychiatric outpatient practice in Taiwan, the data were drawn from the datasets of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database for 2012, with 619,760 records of outpatient visits representing 1/500 of all the claims in Taiwan for that year. The analysis of psychiatric outpatient visits included patient demographics, diagnoses, and prescribed medications; (3) Results: Neurotic disorders were the most prevalent diagnoses (43.1%, n = 5714). Hypnotics-sedatives and anxiolytics were prescribed in 51.7% (n = 6850) and 39.1% (n = 5181) of psychiatric visits, respectively, with zolpidem being the most commonly prescribed drug (22.6%, n = 2998); and (4) Conclusion: Hypnotics and sedatives were widely prescribed for the outpatient population, and zolpidem had the highest annual prevalence of use. These findings deserve the attention of clinicians and policy makers for monitoring the abuse and dependence of these agents and subsequent adverse events. PMID:27690067

  12. Survey of cognitive rehabilitation practices in the state of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Manee, Fahad S; Nadar, Mohammed Sh; Jassem, Zainab; Chavan, Shashidhar Rao

    2017-03-01

    Background Rehabilitation professionals must be astute at recognizing, assessing, and treating individuals with cognitive deficits. No research is available to examine cognitive rehabilitation practices applied to individuals with neurological conditions in Kuwait. To identify the use of cognitive assessments, the availability of resources, and the barriers to cognitive rehabilitation practices in Kuwait. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with health care professionals working with adult individuals with neurological conditions. These professionals included occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, psychiatrists, and neurologists. Results The most commonly used cognitive based assessments are MMSE (41%), and MoCA and LOTCA (15.2%). The only clinical assessment used is the Line-Bisection Test (2.2%). The most used occupation-based assessments are FIM (6.5%), COPM (4.3%), the Interest Checklist (2.2%), and the Barthel Index (2.2%). Resources related to cognitive rehabilitation in Kuwait that are unavailable to practitioners include journal clubs (91%), special interest groups (89%), and continuing education programmes (82.6%). Barriers to cognitive rehabilitation practice included lack of sufficient funds for continuing education, lack of time, lack of standardized assessments, and lack of inter-professional teamwork. Conclusion Many adults in Kuwait live with cognitive impairment. There is a need to develop appropriate evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation clinical guidelines in Kuwait.

  13. A survey of industry practices regarding shielding of substations against direct lightning strokes

    SciTech Connect

    Mousa, A.M. ); Wehling, R.J. )

    1993-01-01

    A survey of industry practices regarding shielding of substations against direct lightning strokes is presented and analyzed. The survey is based on responses from 114 companies including consultants and utilities both from within and from outside North America. The survey identifies the shielding design methods in use, the factors affecting the selection of a shielding method, the shielding design criteria and the governing factors, the performance of the different shielding methods and miscellaneous related aspects. The survey revealed a large number (35) of shielding failure incidents; 34 of which occurred in systems designed using either the fixed shielding angle method or Wagner's 1942 method.

  14. Recovery practice in community mental health teams: national survey.

    PubMed

    Leamy, M; Clarke, E; Le Boutillier, C; Bird, V; Choudhury, R; MacPherson, R; Pesola, F; Sabas, K; Williams, J; Williams, P; Slade, M

    2016-10-01

    There is consensus about the importance of 'recovery' in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians. Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  15. Birth Control in Clinical Trials: Industry Survey of Current Use Practices, Governance, and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J; Breslin, W J; Beyer, B K; Chadwick, K; De Schaepdrijver, L; Desai, M; Enright, B; Foster, W; Hui, J Y; Moffat, G J; Tornesi, B; Van Malderen, K; Wiesner, L; Chen, C L

    2016-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee sponsored a pharmaceutical industry survey on current industry practices for contraception use during clinical trials. The objectives of the survey were to improve our understanding of the current industry practices for contraception requirements in clinical trials, the governance processes set up to promote consistency and/or compliance with contraception requirements, and the effectiveness of current contraception practices in preventing pregnancies during clinical trials. Opportunities for improvements in current practices were also considered. The survey results from 12 pharmaceutical companies identified significant variability among companies with regard to contraception practices and governance during clinical trials. This variability was due primarily to differences in definitions, areas of scientific uncertainty or misunderstanding, and differences in company approaches to enrollment in clinical trials. The survey also revealed that few companies collected data in a manner that would allow a retrospective understanding of the reasons for failure of birth control during clinical trials. In this article, suggestions are made for topics where regulatory guidance or scientific publications could facilitate best practice. These include provisions for a pragmatic definition of women of childbearing potential, guidance on how animal data can influence the requirements for male and female birth control, evidence-based guidance on birth control and pregnancy testing regimes suitable for low- and high-risk situations, plus practical methods to ascertain the risk of drug-drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives.

  16. Coagulation and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Severe sepsis is almost invariably associated with systemic activation of coagulation. There is ample evidence that demonstrates a wide-ranging cross-talk between hemostasis and inflammation, which is probably implicated in the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction in patients with sepsis. Inflammation not only leads to initiation and propagation of coagulation activity, but coagulation also markedly influences inflammation. Molecular mechanisms that play a role in inflammation-induced effects on coagulation have been recognized in much detail. Pro-inflammatory cells and cyto- and chemokines can activate the coagulation system and downregulate crucial physiological anticoagulant mechanisms. Initiation of coagulation activation and consequent thrombin generation is caused by expression of tissue factor on activated monocytes and endothelial cells and is ineffectually offset by tissue factor pathway inhibitor. At the same time, endothelial-associated anticoagulant pathways, in particular the protein C system, is impaired by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also, fibrin removal is severely obstructed by inactivation of the endogenous fibrinolytic system, mainly as a result of upregulation of its principal inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). Increased fibrin generation and impaired break down lead to deposition of (micro)vascular clots, which may contribute to tissue ischemia and ensuing organ dysfunction. The foundation of the management of coagulation in sepsis is the explicit and thorough treatment of the underlying disorder by antibiotic treatment and source control measures. Adjunctive strategies focused at the impairment of coagulation, including anticoagulants and restoration of physiological anticoagulant mechanisms, may supposedly be indicated and have been found advantageous in experimental and initial clinical trials.

  17. [Relevance of nutrition knowledge on clinical practice: medical opinion survey].

    PubMed

    Alvares, Luísa; Moreira, Isabel; Oliveira, António

    2007-01-01

    Although previous studies show that physicians generally agree that nutrition knowledge is important for their daily clinical practice, several other studies report their poor knowledge of the subject. One of the strongest reasons given for this is the non-incorporation of Nutrition as a compulsory subject for the medical sciences degree. Dietary counselling and assessment of the patients' nutritional status don't seem to be systematic. The aim of this study is to asses how relevant physicians consider Nutrition to be in the successful running of a good practice. The study was undertaken at the general hospital of Vila Real/Peso da Régua (CHVR/PR) by distribution of a self- administered questionnaire to 153 of the physicians of the clinical body. Mean values were compared with the Student's t test and proportions with the Chi-square test. Of the 153 physicians, 108 replies were received (70,6%). Of these 108 replies, 53,3% consider nutrition knowledge important although 29,6% state their knowledge is poor. More than half say that Clinical Nutrition should be a compulsory subject of the Medical Sciences syllabus, and 99,1% deem it important to assess the patient's nutritional status. About 95% stated they provided written or verbal nutritional guidance, and most of the physicians had already sought the assistance of a nutritionist. This study shows that the clinical body of the CHVR/PR is aware of the importance nutrition knowledge has in their daily practice. It must be noted, though, that although almost one third of the physicians rate their nutrition knowledge poor, most of them provide nutritional guidance to their patients.

  18. The role of the liver in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Li, Song; Li, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Despite the progress made in the clinical management of sepsis, sepsis morbidity and mortality rates remain high. The inflammatory pathogenesis and organ injury leading to death from sepsis are not fully understood for vital organs, especially the liver. Only recently has the role of the liver in sepsis begun to be revealed. Pre-existing liver dysfunction is a risk factor for the progression of infection to sepsis. Liver dysfunction after sepsis is an independent risk factor for multiple organ dysfunction and sepsis-induced death. The liver works as a lymphoid organ in response to sepsis. Acting as a double-edged sword in sepsis, the liver-mediated immune response is responsible for clearing bacteria and toxins but also causes inflammation, immunosuppression, and organ damage. Attenuating liver injury and restoring liver function lowers morbidity and mortality rates in patients with sepsis. This review summarizes the central role of liver in the host immune response to sepsis and in clinical outcomes.

  19. Haemolysis in neonatal blood samples: a survey of practice.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S; Vaitkute, R; Jeffery, J; Ayling, R M

    2007-03-01

    To survey how laboratories report, and neonatologists perceive them to report, the presence of haemolysis in neonatal blood samples. A questionnaire was sent to clinical biochemists and neonatologists in 88 hospitals believed to be using Roche methodology. A 49% response rate was obtained. Seventeen hospitals were excluded from analysis owing to incomplete questionnaires or altered methodology. Of the remaining 71 hospitals, 30 (42%) laboratories and 18 (25%) neonatologists responded - where both responded, none gave identical replies. Eighteen laboratories admitted the use of serum indices to make decisions on haemolysed samples. Although recommended interference limits are available from Roche, there was little consensus between laboratories. Laboratories should have clear guidelines on the processing of haemolysed samples from neonates and these should be adequately communicated to those responsible for their direct care.

  20. Sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Early recognition of sepsis and septic shock in children relies on obtaining an attentive clinical history, accurate vital signs, and a physical examination focused on mental status, work of breathing, and circulatory status. Laboratory tests may support the diagnosis but are not reliable in isolation. The goal of septic shock management is reversal of tissue hypoperfusion. The therapeutic end point is shock reversal. Mortality is significantly better among children when managed appropriately. Every physician who cares for children must strive to have a high level of suspicion and keen clinical acumen for recognizing the rare but potentially seriously ill child.

  1. Sepsis in Special Populations.

    PubMed

    Borloz, Matthew P; Hamden, Khalief E

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis is recognized by the presence of physiologic and laboratory changes that reflect the inflammatory response to infection on cellular and systemic levels. Comorbid conditions, such as cirrhosis, end-stage renal disease, and obesity, alter patients' susceptibility to infection and their response to it once present. Baseline changes in vital signs and chronic medications often mask clues to the severity of illness. The physiologic, hematologic, and biochemical adjustments that accompany pregnancy and the puerperium introduce similar challenges. Emergency providers must remain vigilant for subtle alterations in the expected baseline for these conditions to arrive at appropriate management decisions.

  2. An International Survey of Brain Banking Operation and Characterization Practices.

    PubMed

    Palmer-Aronsten, Beatrix; Sheedy, Donna; McCrossin, Toni; Kril, Jillian

    2016-12-01

    Brain banks continue to make a major contribution to the study of neurological and psychiatric disorders. The current complexity and scope of research heighten the need for well-characterized cases and the demand for larger cohorts and necessitate strategies, such as the establishment of bank networks based in regional areas. While individual brain banks have developed protocols that meet researchers' needs within the confines of resources and funding, to further promote collaboration, standardization and scientific validity and understanding of the current protocols of participating banks are required. A survey was sent to brain banks, identified by an Internet search, to investigate operational protocols, case characterization, cohort management, data collection, standardization, and degree of collaboration between banks. The majority of the 24 banks that returned the survey have been established for more than 20 years, and most are affiliated with a regional network. While prospective donor programs were the primary source of donation, the data collected on donors varied. Longitudinal information assists case characterization and enhances the analysis capabilities of research. However, acquiring this information depended on the availability of qualified staff. Respondents indicated a high level of importance for standardization, but only 8 of 24 considered this occurred between banks. Standard diagnostic criteria were not achieved in the classification of controls, and some banks relied on the researcher to indicate the criteria for classification of controls. Although the capacity to collaborate with other banks was indicated by 16 of 24 banks, this occurred infrequently. Engagement of all brain banks to participate toward a consensus of diagnostic tools, especially for controls, will strengthen collaboration.

  3. Recovery practice in community mental health teams: national survey

    PubMed Central

    Leamy, M.; Clarke, E.; Le Boutillier, C.; Bird, V.; Choudhury, R.; MacPherson, R.; Pesola, F.; Sabas, K.; Williams, J.; Williams, P.; Slade, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is consensus about the importance of ‘recovery’ in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. Aims To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. Method In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Results Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31–0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians. Conclusions Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. PMID:27340113

  4. [The definition of sepsis. 25-year experience of concept development].

    PubMed

    Sazhin, V P; Karsanov, A M; Maskin, S S; Remizov, O V

    2017-01-01

    The review, presented in chronological order the stages of formation of the modern definition of sepsis syndrome, since the recommendations of the conciliation conference ACCP/SCCM (1991), the experience of the practical use of which has been extensively critically assessed in future studies. As a result, it formed a strong opinion that the global challenge of early diagnosis of sepsis, under the previously proposed definitive categories have not been solved, moreover, in the scientific community formed a firm belief in the need to make fundamental changes in the definition of the term 'sepsis'. As a result, in 2016 the scientific community were presented the recommendations of the working group 'Sepsis-3', in which sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction due to dysregulated response to infection, and fundamentally distinguish them from the former, is a laconic definitions and availability of diagnostic criteria. National expert community to analyze, discuss and define the field of clinical testing 'Sepsis-3' in the Russian Federation.

  5. A Study of Sepsis in Surgical Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Hnatko, S. I.; Macdonald, G. R.; Rodin, A. E.

    1963-01-01

    Published records of the frequency of wound sepsis are often unreliable sources of information on the general frequency of this complication because of unstandardized methods of reporting and because of the various views of different investigators as to what constitutes sepsis. A method of infection reporting, its study and analysis are outlined. A survey of postoperative infections by this method for the years 1959, 1960 and 1961 revealed infection rates of 2.02%, 1.20% and 1.14%, respectively. For the same period the percentages of wound infections caused by Staph. aureus were 83.06%, 69.8% and 51.8%, respectively. The most prevalent phage types were 55/53/54 and 52/80/81/82, although types 80/81/82 and 80 were also involved. Infections with Gram-negative organisms were encountered more often in 1961 than in 1959. The majority of these were of mixed type, and followed abdominal surgery. There is need for more comprehensive study and analysis of postoperative wound sepsis and its complications. It was apparent from this study that, statistically, a relatively low rate of postoperative infections may mask a high rate following a specific surgical procedure. PMID:13954844

  6. Measuring Science Instructional Practice: A Survey Tool for the Age of NGSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.; Lee, Christine S.; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn; Seitz, Jeffery C.

    2016-03-01

    Ambitious efforts are taking place to implement a new vision for science education in the United States, in both Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-adopted states and those states creating their own, often related, standards. In-service and pre-service teacher educators are involved in supporting teacher shifts in practice toward the new standards. With these efforts, it will be important to document shifts in science instruction toward the goals of NGSS and broader science education reform. Survey instruments are often used to capture instructional practices; however, existing surveys primarily measure inquiry based on previous definitions and standards and with a few exceptions, disregard key instructional practices considered outside the scope of inquiry. A comprehensive survey and a clearly defined set of items do not exist. Moreover, items specific to the NGSS Science and Engineering practices have not yet been tested. To address this need, we developed and validated a Science Instructional Practices survey instrument that is appropriate for NGSS and other related science standards. Survey construction was based on a literature review establishing key areas of science instruction, followed by a systematic process for identifying and creating items. Instrument validity and reliability were then tested through a procedure that included cognitive interviews, expert review, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (using independent samples), and analysis of criterion validity. Based on these analyses, final subscales include: Instigating an Investigation, Data Collection and Analysis, Critique, Explanation and Argumentation, Modeling, Traditional Instruction, Prior Knowledge, Science Communication, and Discourse.

  7. Management of sepsis: a 47-year-old woman with an indwelling intravenous catheter and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Angus, Derek C

    2011-04-13

    Severe sepsis is the term used to describe the host response to infection when complicated by acute organ dysfunction. Severe sepsis occurs in more than 750,000 individuals in the United States each year, with a hospital mortality of about 30%. Although the classic presentation is of florid shock with frank hypotension, fever, and elevated white blood cell count, many patients can present with cryptogenic shock (shock without hypotension) with more subtle signs of vital organ compromise. Using the case of Ms C, a 47-year-old woman with short gut syndrome and an indwelling intravenous catheter who developed an episode of severe sepsis secondary to a central line infection, treatment of sepsis is discussed. Management consists of prompt intervention with broad-spectrum antibiotics and fluid resuscitation, even in the absence of hypotension, and institution of a variety of strategies in the emergency setting to prevent development or worsening of vital organ dysfunction. Although advances in understanding the host immune response have fueled considerable interest in immunomodulatory therapy, the role of such agents in clinical practice remains limited and controversial.

  8. [Bacterial sepsis : Diagnostics and calculated antibiotic therapy].

    PubMed

    Richter, D C; Heininger, A; Brenner, T; Hochreiter, M; Bernhard, M; Briegel, J; Dubler, S; Grabein, B; Hecker, A; Krüger, W A; Mayer, K; Pletz, M W; Störzinger, D; Pinder, N; Hoppe-Tichy, T; Weiterer, S; Zimmermann, S; Brinkmann, A; Weigand, M A; Lichtenstern, Christoph

    2017-10-04

    routine sepsis diagnostics due to the limited number of studies, high costs and limited availability. In complicated septic courses with multiple anti-infective treatment or recurrent sepsis, PCR-based procedures can be used in addition to therapy monitoring and diagnostics. Novel antibiotics represent potent alternatives in the treatment of MDR infections. Due to the often defined spectrum of pathogens and the practically absent resistance, they are suitable for targeted treatment of severe MDR infections (therapy escalation).

  9. The evolutionary logic of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rózsa, Lajos; Apari, Péter; Sulyok, Mihály; Tappe, Dennis; Bodó, Imre; Hardi, Richárd; Müller, Viktor

    2017-09-09

    The recently proposed Microbiome Mutiny Hypothesis posits that members of the human microbiome obtain information about the host individuals' health status and, when host survival is compromised, switch to an intensive exploitation strategy to maximize residual transmission. In animals and humans, sepsis is an acute systemic reaction to microbes invading the normally sterile body compartments. When induced by formerly mutualistic or neutral microbes, possibly in response to declining host health, sepsis appears to fit the 'microbiome mutiny' scenario except for its apparent failure to enhance transmission of the causative organisms. We propose that the ability of certain species of the microbiome to induce sepsis is not a fortuitous side effect of within-host replication, but rather it might, in some cases, be the result of their adaptive evolution. Whenever host health declines, inducing sepsis can be adaptive for those members of the healthy human microbiome that are capable of colonizing the future cadaver and spread by cadaver-borne transmission. We hypothesize that such microbes might exhibit switches along the 'mutualist - lethal pathogen - decomposer - mutualist again' scenario, implicating a previously unsuspected, surprising level of phenotypic plasticity. This hypothesis predicts that those species of the healthy microbiome that are recurring causative agents of sepsis can participate in the decomposition of cadavers, and can be transmitted as soil-borne or water-borne infections. Furthermore, in individual sepsis cases, the same microbial clones that dominate the systemic infection that precipitates sepsis, should also be present in high concentration during decomposition following death: this prediction is testable by molecular fingerprinting in experimentally induced animal models. Sepsis is a leading cause of human death worldwide. If further research confirms that some cases of sepsis indeed involve the 'mutiny' (facultative phenotypic switching) of

  10. Community pharmacy practice in Japan--results of a survey.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, S; Ohnishi, M; Nishiyama, T; Hosono, K; Umezawa, C

    1998-06-01

    To survey the present condition of community pharmacies as future sites for pharmacy students' externship in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 55 questions was sent to 425 graduates from Kobe Gakuin University, School of Pharmacy, who owned or worked in community pharmacies. Of the 85 responders, about half were owners and half employees of pharmacies. Ninety per cent of pharmacy owners operated three and fewer pharmacies. Fifty per cent of pharmacies only dispensed drugs, 32% handled both OTC drugs and dispensing, and 18% handled only OTC drugs. Among the 44 dispensing pharmacies, 16 were one-to-one type pharmacies, 13 were located in front of the big medical institutions, nine dispensed prescriptions from various medical institutions and five were hospital-owned pharmacies. Forty-five per cent of pharmacies employed 1-4 part-time pharmacists and 52% employed 1-4 pharmacist assistants. Thirty-one per cent of prescriptions came from internal medicine departments and the daily number of prescriptions dispensed by each pharmacy was in the range 10-99 for 41% of the pharmacies and 100-199 for 36% of the pharmacies. The average daily number of prescriptions dispersed by each pharmacist was in the range 30-39 for 29% of pharmacies and in the range 20-29 for 22% of pharmacies. Pharmaceutical information was provided at 73% of pharmacies and patients were counselled orally on their medication at 80% of pharmacies. Patients' medication histories were recorded at 88% pharmacies. Only 15% of pharmacies conducted patients' medication counselling at their home, but 34% of pharmacies were planning to start this service. Community pharmacists attended very few professional meetings or continuing education programmes and only 20% of them obtained information through computers. Forty-seven pharmacists out of the 85 obtained their information from medical representatives of pharmaceutical companies and 32 pharmacists through marketing specialists of wholesalers. Ninety per cent

  11. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  12. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  13. Grading of direct laryngoscopy. A survey of current practice.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A M; Fleming, B G; Wace, J R

    1994-06-01

    One hundred and twenty anaesthetists (30 of each grade), from three separate regions, were interviewed as to how they recorded the appearance of laryngeal structures at direct laryngoscopy and about their knowledge of the commonly used numerical grading system. About two-thirds of anaesthetists surveyed (69.2%) used the numerical grading system, but of these, over half could not identify a 'grade 2' laryngoscopic appearance correctly. Of anaesthetists who did not use the numerical method, over half could not correctly state the difference between a 'grade 2' and a 'grade 3' laryngoscopic appearance. Over 40% of anaesthetists stated incorrectly that the grading should be made on the initial view, even when laryngeal pressure had been needed. Junior anaesthetists were more likely to use the numerical method of recording. The results show that there is unacceptable uncertainty and inaccuracy in the use of the numerical grading system by users as well as non-users, which makes the current routine clinical use of the numerical grading system unsatisfactory.

  14. Gender differences in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Angele, Martin K; Pratschke, Sebastian; Hubbard, William J; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2014-01-01

    During sepsis, a complex network of cytokine, immune, and endothelial cell interactions occur and disturbances in the microcirculation cause organ dysfunction or even failure leading to high mortality in those patients. In this respect, numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate sex-specific differences in infectious diseases and sepsis. Female gender has been demonstrated to be protective under such conditions, whereas male gender may be deleterious due to a diminished cell-mediated immune response and cardiovascular functions. Male sex hormones, i.e., androgens, have been shown to be suppressive on cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast, female sex hormones exhibit protective effects which may contribute to the natural advantages of females under septic conditions. Thus, the hormonal status has to be considered when treating septic patients. Therefore, potential therapies could be derived from this knowledge. In this respect, administration of female sex hormones (estrogens and their precursors) may exert beneficial effects. Alternatively, blockade of male sex hormone receptors could result in maintained immune responses under adverse circulatory conditions. Finally, administration of agents that influence enzymes synthesizing female sex hormones which attenuate the levels of pro-inflammatory agents might exert salutary effects in septic patients. Prospective patient studies are required for transferring those important experimental findings into the clinical arena. PMID:24193307

  15. Cytopathic hypoxia in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Fink, M

    1997-01-01

    Diminished availability of oxygen at the cellular level might account for organ dysfunction in sepsis. Although the classical forms of tissue hypoxia due to hypoxemia, anemia, or inadequate perfusion all might be important under some conditions, it seems increasingly likely that a fourth mechanism, namely cytopathic hypoxia, might play a role as well. The term cytopathic hypoxia is used to denote diminished production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) despite normal (or even supranormal) PO2 values in the vicinity of mitochondria within cells. At least in theory, cytopathic hypoxia could be a consequence of several different (but mutually compatible) pathogenic mechanisms, including diminished delivery of a key substrate (e.g., pyruvate) into the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibition of key mitochondrial enzymes involved in either the TCA cycle or the electron transport chain, activation of the enzyme, poly-(ADP)-ribosylpolymerase (PARP), or collapse of the protonic gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane leading to uncoupling of oxidation (of NADH and FADH) from phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP. Tantalizing, but limited, data support the view that cytopathic hypoxia occurs in both animals and patients with sepsis or endotoxemia.

  16. A national survey of practicing psychologists' attitudes toward psychotherapy treatment manuals.

    PubMed

    Addis, M E; Krasnow, A D

    2000-04-01

    There has been considerable debate and little empirical data on the role of psychotherapy treatment manuals in clinical practice. Attitudes toward treatment manuals are a potentially important determinant of how likely practitioners are to use manual-based treatments in clinical practice. A total of 891 practicing psychologists nationwide were surveyed about their attitudes toward treatment manuals and their ideas about the content of manuals. Practitioners held widely varying attitudes toward treatment manuals, and ideas about what constitutes a manual were associated with attitudes in a predictable way. Recommendations are made for how to gather more useful information about practitioners' attitudes toward the many changes affecting current models of clinical practice.

  17. How do general practices manage requests from patients for 'same-day' appointments? A questionnaire survey.

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, M; Marshall, M N

    2001-01-01

    Same-day appointment requests are common and can be problematic for general practices that run appointment systems. In a questionnaire survey sent to 90 general practices in one health authority area (response rate 88%), a variety of management systems existed for dealing with same-day appointment requests. Managing the requests was found to be a significant cause of stress for many general practitioners. Registrars, locums, and practice nurses play only a small part in meeting patient demands and few practices operate telephone triage to help manage these requests. PMID:11271872

  18. Response rate, response time, and economic costs of survey research: A randomized trial of practicing pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Hardigan, Patrick C; Popovici, Ioana; Carvajal, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap between increasing demands from pharmacy journals, publishers, and reviewers for high survey response rates and the actual responses often obtained in the field by survey researchers. Presumably demands have been set high because response rates, times, and costs affect the validity and reliability of survey results. Explore the extent to which survey response rates, average response times, and economic costs are affected by conditions under which pharmacist workforce surveys are administered. A random sample of 7200 U.S. practicing pharmacists was selected. The sample was stratified by delivery method, questionnaire length, item placement, and gender of respondent for a total of 300 observations within each subgroup. A job satisfaction survey was administered during March-April 2012. Delivery method was the only classification showing significant differences in response rates and average response times. The postal mail procedure accounted for the highest response rates of completed surveys, but the email method exhibited the quickest turnaround. A hybrid approach, consisting of a combination of postal and electronic means, showed the least favorable results. Postal mail was 2.9 times more cost effective than the email approach and 4.6 times more cost effective than the hybrid approach. Researchers seeking to increase practicing pharmacists' survey participation and reduce response time and related costs can benefit from the analytical procedures tested here. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer in pregnancy: a survey of current clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Han, Sileny N; Kesic, Vesna I; Van Calsteren, Kristel; Petkovic, Sladjana; Amant, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate physicians' attitudes and knowledge regarding the treatment possibilities for patients with cancer in pregnancy. A 30-item questionnaire was mailed electronically to physicians across Europe, who were potentially involved in care of pregnant patients and/or cancer, using the membership directories of different professional societies. 142 surveys were eligible for analysis. A median of 2 (range 0-100) patients with cancer in pregnancy were treated per center in 2010. The vast majority of respondents (94%) agreed that management of pregnant patients with cancer should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. When cancer is diagnosed in the first or early second trimester of pregnancy, 44% of respondents prefer termination of pregnancy: if the patient wishes to preserve the pregnancy, 77% consider deliberate delay and treatment later in pregnancy. When cancer is diagnosed in the late second or third trimester of pregnancy, 58% prefer preterm delivery in order to start cancer treatment in the postpartum period: 37% would not give chemotherapy or radiotherapy during pregnancy. Treatment during pregnancy with the aim of a term delivery is preferred by 41% of respondents. Univariate logistic regression analysis found a trend that non-academic hospitals prefer termination of pregnancy (odds ratio [OR]=0.68; 95% CI, 0.28-1.63; P=0.39), and also no treatment during pregnancy (OR=0.70; 95% CI, 0.33-1.50; P=0.36). Termination of pregnancy, delay of maternal treatment and iatrogenic preterm delivery are frequently applied strategies in the management of pregnant cancer patients. These results suggest that current treatment is not in line with recent evidence, and there is room for improvement on the oncologic treatment of pregnant women. Centralization of treatment is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eyeglasses for Children - a Survey of Daily Practice.

    PubMed

    Hagander, C E; Traber, G; Landau, K; Jaggi, G P

    2016-04-01

    Glasses for children are recommended and prescribed by different groups of professionals. We set out to compare the prescription practices of ophthalmologists, orthoptists and optometrists/opticians in Switzerland. Online questionnaire on the prescription and recommendation of glasses in fictitious cases of children of different ages, refractive values and symptoms. The questionnaire was sent out to members of the Swiss Ophthalmological Society, Swiss Orthoptics and Schweizerischer Berufsverband für Augenoptik und Optometrie. 307 questionnaires were analysed. Optometrists/opticians recommended glasses with a significantly smaller cycloplegic refraction value (p < 0.005) than did orthoptists and ophthalmologists. In the example of a 14-year-old asymptomatic child, ophthalmologists recommended glasses at + 2.64 [Dpt], orthoptists at + 2.44 [Dpt] and optometrists/opticians at + 1.32 [Dpt]. Optometrists/opticians tended to recommend slightly higher correction values in glasses than did ophthalmologists and orthoptists. In Switzerland, optometrists/opticians recommend glasses with significantly smaller cycloplegic refraction values than do orthoptists and ophthalmologists, regardless of age or symptoms described in these fictitious cases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Naked into the World: IT Teaching Experiences on a Final Primary School Teaching Practice--A Second Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, S.; Ridgway, J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes results of a survey of student teachers in the United Kingdom who described their experiences with information technology (IT) during their final primary teaching practice. Data are related to an earlier survey of the same students during their first teaching practice to explore changes in their practices and beliefs about IT. (14…

  2. The Changing Epidemiology and Definitions of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kempker, Jordan A.; Martin, Greg S.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis This review begins with a description of the trends in the incidence of and mortality from sepsis in the United States and globally. Then we discuss the known factors associated with increased risk for the development of sepsis. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the current clinical definition of sepsis and the clinical correlations of the current epidemiology of sepsis. PMID:27229635

  3. Current nursing practice for patients on oral chemotherapy: a multicenter survey in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With a paradigm shift toward a chronic care model in cancer, the issue of adherence is becoming increasingly important in oncology. Methods We mailed two self-reported surveys on current nursing practices for patients on oral chemotherapy to all 309 designated cancer centers and 141 large general hospitals in Japan. The first survey was based on a nurse-based questionnaire containing 40 items concerning nurse’s characteristics, nurse staffing at workplace, general nursing care for new patients on oral chemotherapy and those with refilled prescriptions, follow-up, and system-based approach. The second survey was based on a patient-based questionnaire containing 10 items about patient characteristics and adherence-related nursing practice for 249 patients taking oral chemotherapy of 903 systematically sampled. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors that were associated with adherence-related nursing practices. Results A total of 62 nurses (mean age: 41.5 years) from 62 hospitals who consented participated in the both nurse-based survey and patient-based survey about 249 patients. The results of nurse-based survey indicated that practices varied, but nurses were less likely to ask adherence-related questions of patients with refilled prescriptions than of new patients. The results of patient-based survey found that questions on side effects, discussions about barriers to achieving balance between treatment and daily life activities, and medication management were all significantly related to the question about unused medicines. Logistic regression revealed that adherence-related nursing practices were associated with the nurse’s background, type of treatment, and healthcare system-related factors. Patient orientation on oral chemotherapy, interdisciplinary learning, and having a system-based approach for detecting prescription errors were identified as healthcare system-related factors. Conclusions A more systematic approach must

  4. Neonatal sepsis: progress towards improved outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shane, Andi L; Stoll, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Neonates are predisposed to infections during the perinatal period due to multiple exposures and a relatively compromised immune system. The burden of disease attributed to neonatal infections varies by geographic region and maternal and neonatal risk factors. Worldwide, it is estimated that more than 1.4 million neonatal deaths annually are the consequence of invasive infections. Risk factors for early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) include prematurity, immunologic immaturity, maternal Group B streptococcal colonization, prolonged rupture of membranes, and maternal intra-amniotic infection. Intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis administered to GBS-colonized women has reduced the burden of disease associated with early onset GBS invasive infections. Active surveillance has identified Gram-negative pathogens as an emerging etiology of early-onset invasive infections. Late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS) attributable to Gram-positive organisms, including coagulase negative Staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality among premature infants. Invasive candidiasis is an emerging cause of late-onset sepsis, especially among infants who receive broad spectrum antimicrobial agents. Prophylactic fluconazole administration to very low birthweight (VLBW) neonates during the first 6 weeks of life reduces invasive candidiasis in neonatal intensive care units with high rates of fungal infection. Prevention of healthcare associated infections through antimicrobial stewardship, limited steroid use, early enteral feeding, limited use of invasive devices and standardization of catheter care practices, and meticulous hand hygiene are important and cost-effective strategies for reducing the burden of late-onset neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. National survey of pediatric anesthesia practice in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suraseranivongse, Suwannee; Attachoo, Anchalee; Leelanukrom, Ruenreong; Chareonsawan, Usa; Horatanaruang, Duenpen

    2011-04-01

    To assess current pediatric anesthesia practice for further education from Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand. A questionnaire was sent to 500 anesthetists in public hospitals in January 2010 to investigate preoperative data, intraoperative data, postoperative pain management, ambulatory anesthesia, and pediatric anesthesia training requirement. Response rate was 30.6%. Preoperative fasting and infective endocarditis (IE) prophylaxis were appropriate except that half the anesthesiologists preferred giving antibiotics in non-cyanotic heart diseases and ordering complete blood count as a routine investigation in healthy patients undergoing minor surgery. Premedication was preferred in children and adolescents. Parental presence during induction was most often selected in children (74.5%). Modified Ayre T-piece was the most popular breathing circuit used during induction while circle circuit was more likely used during maintenance period. Manual ventilation was preferred in neonates. Scavenging system was rarely used Intraoperative fluid was given based on Holliday & Segar Law (> 90%). Isotonic fluid without glucose was preferred for replacement of third space loss and hypotonic fluid with glucose was preferred for maintenance fluid. Transfusion trigger was inversely correlated with age. Postoperative pain scales were more often used in children and adolescents. Fentanyl was more popular in younger age group. Intermittent intravenous administration was the most preferred route. Age group of infants and older were predominantly accepted to be anaesthetized on an ambulatory basis. Pediatric advanced life support was seldom performed. Intermittent training was more popular than certified fellowship training. Routine investigation in healthy patients, IE prophylaxis in non-cyanotic patients, intraoperative fluid replacement, and pediatric advanced life support and postoperative pain management were the issues recommended for further education.

  6. Specialist practice for UK community mental health nurses: the 1998--99 survey of course leaders.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, B; Burnard, P; Edwards, D; Turnbull, J

    2001-08-01

    Surveys of the leaders of the UK's post-qualifying education courses for community mental health nurses have taken place, on an annual basis, for over 10 years. In this paper, findings from the survey undertaken in the 1998--99 academic year are reported. These findings include: that most course leaders do not personally engage in clinical practice; that interprofessional education takes place at a minority of course centres, and that course philosophies and aims are characterised by an emphasis on both outcomes (in terms of, for example, skills acquisition, knowledge development and the ability to engage in reflective practice), and process (adult learning).

  7. National survey and point prevalence study of sedation practice in UK critical care.

    PubMed

    Richards-Belle, Alvin; Canter, Ruth R; Power, G Sarah; Robinson, Emily J; Reschreiter, Henrik; Wunsch, Hannah; Harvey, Sheila E

    2016-10-27

    The present study was designed to (1) establish current sedation practice in UK critical care to inform evidence synthesis and potential future primary research and (2) to compare practice reported via a survey with actual practice assessed in a point prevalence study (PPS). UK adult general critical care units were invited to participate in a survey of current sedation practice, and a representative sample of units was invited to participate in a PPS of sedation practice at the patient level. Survey responses were compared with PPS data where both were available. Survey responses were received from 214 (91 %) of 235 eligible critical care units. Of these respondents, 57 % reported having a written sedation protocol, 94 % having a policy of daily sedation holds and 94 % using a sedation scale to assess depth of sedation. In the PPS, across units reporting a policy of daily sedation holds, a median of 50 % (IQR 33-75 %) of sedated patients were considered for a sedation hold. A median of 88 % (IQR 63-100 %) of patients were assessed using the same sedation scale as reported in the survey. Both the survey and the PPS indicated propofol as the preferred sedative and alfentanil, fentanyl and morphine as the preferred analgesics. In most of the PPS units, all patients had received the unit's reported first-choice sedative (median across units 100 %, IQR 64-100 %), and a median of 80 % (IQR 67-100 %) of patients had received the unit's reported first-choice analgesic. Most units (83 %) reported in the survey that sedatives are usually administered in combination with analgesics. Across units that participated in the PPS, 69 % of patients had received a combination of agents - most frequently propofol combined with either alfentanil or fentanyl. Clinical practice reported in the national survey did not accurately reflect actual clinical practice at the patient level observed in the PPS. Employing a mixed methods approach provided a more complete picture of

  8. Association Among Blood Transfusion, Sepsis, and Decreased Long-term Survival After Colon Cancer Resection.

    PubMed

    Aquina, Christopher T; Blumberg, Neil; Becerra, Adan Z; Boscoe, Francis P; Schymura, Maria J; Noyes, Katia; Monson, John R T; Fleming, Fergal J

    2017-08-01

    , independent of sepsis, after colon cancer resection. However, receiving a transfusion and developing sepsis has an additive effect and is associated with even worse survival. Restrictive perioperative transfusion practices are a possible strategy to reduce sepsis rates and improve survival after colon cancer surgery.

  9. Monitoring and treatment of coagulation abnormalities in burn patients. an international survey on current practices.

    PubMed

    Lavrentieva, A; Depetris, N; Kaimakamis, E; Berardino, M; Stella, M

    2016-09-30

    The magnitude of coagulation abnormalities, and the definition and treatment of coagulopathy in burn patients are inadequately understood and continue to be discussed in the literature. We aimed to analyse physicians' views on monitoring and treating coagulation abnormalities in burn patients. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed electronically to burn ICU physicians. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Responses were analysed electronically and comparisons were made according to the region of the ICU or the specialty of the physician. Of the 350 questionnaires distributed, 55 (15.7%) were returned. The majority of burn specialists consider sepsis-induced coagulopathy to be the most frequent coagulopathy in burn patients, and 74.5% declare that they do not use any specific definition/scoring system in their department to detect coagulopathy. The majority of specialists (70.8%) use standard coagulation tests. The most frequent indications for plasma transfusion are massive bleeding (32.8%) and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation syndrome treatment (20%). The main specific factors reported in our study are cryoprecipitate (23.2%) and fibrinogen concentrate (18.9%). 21.1% of respondents state that they do not use any specific coagulation factor substitution in burn patients. Specific coagulation factor substitution is not a routine practice. The low response rate precludes the generalization of our results.

  10. Online Learning Policy and Practice Survey: A Survey of the States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Digital Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, the Center for Digital Education (CDE) conducted a review of state policy and programs to determine the status of online learning policy and practice across the United States. CDE interviewed state education officials across the nation to evaluate the overall landscape of online learning. The rankings reflect the vision, policies,…

  11. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  12. Renal blood flow in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Langenberg, Christoph; Bellomo, Rinaldo; May, Clive; Wan, Li; Egi, Moritoki; Morgera, Stanislao

    2005-01-01

    Introduction To assess changes in renal blood flow (RBF) in human and experimental sepsis, and to identify determinants of RBF. Method Using specific search terms we systematically interrogated two electronic reference libraries to identify experimental and human studies of sepsis and septic acute renal failure in which RBF was measured. In the retrieved studies, we assessed the influence of various factors on RBF during sepsis using statistical methods. Results We found no human studies in which RBF was measured with suitably accurate direct methods. Where it was measured in humans with sepsis, however, RBF was increased compared with normal. Of the 159 animal studies identified, 99 reported decreased RBF and 60 reported unchanged or increased RBF. The size of animal, technique of measurement, duration of measurement, method of induction of sepsis, and fluid administration had no effect on RBF. In contrast, on univariate analysis, state of consciousness of animals (P = 0.005), recovery after surgery (P < 0.001), haemodynamic pattern (hypodynamic or hyperdynamic state; P < 0.001) and cardiac output (P < 0.001) influenced RBF. However, multivariate analysis showed that only cardiac output remained an independent determinant of RBF (P < 0.001). Conclusion The impact of sepsis on RBF in humans is unknown. In experimental sepsis, RBF was reported to be decreased in two-thirds of studies (62 %) and unchanged or increased in one-third (38%). On univariate analysis, several factors not directly related to sepsis appear to influence RBF. However, multivariate analysis suggests that cardiac output has a dominant effect on RBF during sepsis, such that, in the presence of a decreased cardiac output, RBF is typically decreased, whereas in the presence of a preserved or increased cardiac output RBF is typically maintained or increased. PMID:16137349

  13. Billing and coding knowledge: a comparative survey of professional coders, practicing orthopedic surgeons, and orthopedic residents.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Kevin F; Yousuf, Tariq; Pasque, Charles B; Yousuf, Khalid

    2014-06-01

    Medical knowledge and surgical skills are necessary to become an effective orthopedic surgeon. To run an efficient practice, the surgeon must also possess a basic understanding of medical business practices, including billing and coding. In this study, we surveyed and compared the level of billing and coding knowledge among current orthopedic residents PGY3 and higher, academic and private practice attending orthopedic surgeons, and orthopedic coding professionals. According to the survey results, residents and fellows have a similar knowledge of coding and billing, regardless of their level of training or type of business education received in residency. Most residents would like formal training in coding, billing, and practice management didactics; this is consistent with data from previous studies.

  14. Survey of change in practice following simulation-based training in crisis management.

    PubMed

    Weller, J; Wilson, L; Robinson, B

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the long-term effects on clinical practice of a simulation-based course in anaesthesia crisis management. A questionnaire was posted to all anaesthetists who had attended a course in the preceding year. The response rate was 69% (66/96). The crisis management course was valued highly by respondents, who perceive a change in practice as a result of the training. This change in practice was not limited to the specific clinical events simulated in the course, but applied to a wide range of events and to routine practice. The high rate of subsequent critical events reported in the survey supports the need for training in this area. This survey suggests that simulation-based training in crisis management is an effective form of continuing medical education for anaesthetists.

  15. Theory use in practice: a national survey of therapists who use the Model of Human Occupation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Wook; Taylor, Renee; Kielhofner, Gary; Fisher, Gail

    2008-01-01

    This study describes how occupational therapists who reported using the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) actually use the concepts and tools of this model in everyday practice as well as identifies supports and barriers to its use. A systematic random sample of 1,000 occupational therapists was surveyed as to what theories they used in their practice. Those using MOHO (430) were sent a detailed questionnaire; 259 therapists (60.2%) responded to the survey questionnaire. More than 80% of respondents indicated that they used MOHO in their practice at least some of the time. Therapists reported that MOHO supports holistic, occupation-focused, client-centered, and evidence-based practice. They reported finding MOHO concepts useful for treatment planning and intervention. Most saw the major barrier to using MOHO as their own lack of knowledge. Making resources more readily available and accessible to therapists might enhance the extent to which they use conceptual models such as MOHO.

  16. Practices and perspectives on building integrated data repositories: results from a 2010 CTSA survey

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Matt C; Schuff, Robert; Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Anderson, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Clinical integrated data repositories (IDRs) are poised to become a foundational element of biomedical and translational research by providing the coordinated data sources necessary to conduct retrospective analytic research and to identify and recruit prospective research subjects. The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium's Informatics IDR Group conducted a survey of 2010 consortium members to evaluate recent trends in IDR implementation and use to support research between 2008 and 2010. A web-based survey based in part on a prior 2008 survey was developed and deployed to 46 national CTSA centers. A total of 35 separate organizations completed the survey (74%), representing 28 CTSAs and the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Survey results suggest that individual organizations are progressing in their approaches to the development, management, and use of IDRs as a means to support a broad array of research. We describe the major trends and emerging practices below. PMID:22437072

  17. National survey of spirometer ownership and usage in general practice in Australia.

    PubMed

    Johns, David P; Burton, Deborah; Walters, Julia A E; Wood-Baker, Richard

    2006-05-01

    Despite the lack of data, it is believed that spirometry is underutilized in general practice. The aim of the present study was to determine the availability of spirometry and the level of spirometry training in general practice throughout Australia and compare with international data. In total, 5976 general practices throughout Australia were sent a questionnaire requesting details of spirometer ownership, usage and the level and source of spirometry training. To exclude response bias, a follow-up telephone survey was conducted of 160 practices that did not respond to the initial survey. Of practices 19.5% (1125) responded to the initial survey with 64.2% (722) of these owning a spirometer and 83.9% in the follow-up sample. Common reasons for not owning a spirometer were equipment cost (53.3%) and insufficient remuneration (32.8%). Most practices (67.0%) performed one or more tests per week. Practices commonly used spirometry to diagnose (89.5%) and manage (93.9%) asthma, assess breathlessness (83.4%) and to detect and manage other diseases such as COPD (77.7%). Spirometer accuracy was never checked using a syringe 77.8% of practices and 40% did not test a healthy subject as part of their quality assurance programme. Spirometry training was received most commonly through courses run by general practice organizations (38.2%), and the duration of training courses was <2 h in 40% of cases. Despite high spirometer ownership in general practice, the frequency of use is low. Low rates of verification of spirometer accuracy and performance suggest the need for reliable, stable spirometers to be available to general practitioners. Regular and more comprehensive training in spirometry is needed.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices surveys of blood donation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lownik, E; Riley, E; Konstenius, T; Riley, W; McCullough, J

    2012-07-01

      Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) surveys have been used in many countries to understand factors that influence blood donation and as the basis for communication and donor mobilization strategies.   A search was conducted of publically available databases, and studies with the following characteristics were selected: (1) the study was a knowledge, attitude and practice or KAP plus behaviour survey; (2) the subject of the survey was blood donation; (3) the survey was performed between 1995 and 2011; and (4) the survey was performed in countries classified as emerging and developing by the International Monetary Fund.   Eighteen KAP studies conducted in seventeen developing countries were identified. There was considerable difference in the structure, population surveyed and conduct of the KAP studies. The common following themes emerged: misinformation about blood donation, fear of blood donation, willingness to donate for family and friends, concern about selling blood and a failure to transfer positive attitudes into actual blood donation.   Despite considerable differences in the culture and demographics of developing countries, several common themes emerged from different KAP surveys. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Neonatal Sepsis and Neutrophil Insufficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Melvan, John Nicholas; Bagby, Gregory J.; Welsh, David A.; Nelson, Steve; Zhang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis has continuously been a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality despite current advances in chemotherapy and patient intensive care facilities. Neonates are at high risk for developing bacterial infections due to quantitative and qualitative insufficiencies of innate immunity, particularly granulocyte lineage development and response to infection. Although antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment, adjuvant therapies enhancing immune function have shown promise in treating sepsis in neonates. This chapter reviews current strategies for the clinical management of neonatal sepsis and analyzes mechanisms underlying insufficiencies of neutrophil defense in neonates with emphasis on new directions for adjuvant therapy development. PMID:20521927

  20. Fluid Resuscitation in Severe Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Loflin, Rob; Winters, Michael E

    2017-02-01

    Since its original description in 1832, fluid resuscitation has become the cornerstone of early and aggressive treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. However, questions remain about optimal fluid composition, dose, and rate of administration for critically ill patients. This article reviews pertinent physiology of the circulatory system, pathogenesis of septic shock, and phases of sepsis resuscitation, and then focuses on the type, rate, and amount of fluid administration for severe sepsis and septic shock, so providers can choose the right fluid, for the right patient, at the right time.

  1. CHAracteristics of research studies that iNfluence practice: a GEneral survey of Canadian orthopaedic Surgeons (CHANGES): a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    de Sa, Darren; Thornley, Patrick; Evaniew, Nathan; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit; Ghert, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is increasingly being applied to inform clinical decision-making in orthopaedic surgery. Despite the promotion of EBM in Orthopaedic Surgery, the adoption of results from high quality clinical research seems highly unpredictable and does not appear to be driven strictly by randomized trial data. The objective of this study was to pilot a survey to determine if we could identify surgeon opinions on the characteristics of research studies that are perceived as being most likely to influence clinical decision-making among orthopaedic surgeons in Canada. A 28-question electronic survey was distributed to active members of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) over a period of 11 weeks. The questionnaire sought to analyze the influence of both extrinsic and intrinsic characteristics of research studies and their potential to influence practice patterns. Extrinsic factors included the perceived journal quality and investigator profiles, economic impact, peer/patient/industry influence and individual surgeon residency/fellowship training experiences. Intrinsic factors included study design, sample size, and outcomes reported. Descriptive statistics are provided. Of the 109 members of the COA who opened the survey, 95 (87%) completed the survey in its entirety. The overall response rate was 11% (95/841). Surgeons achieved consensus on the influence of three key designs on their practices: 1) randomized controlled trials 94 (99%), 2) meta-analysis 83 (87%), and 3) systematic reviews 81 (85%). Sixty-seven percent of surgeons agreed that studies with sample sizes of 101-500 or more were more likely to influence clinical practice than smaller studies (n = <100). Factors other than design influencing adoption included 1) reputation of the investigators (99%) and 2) perceived quality of the journal (75%). Although study design and sample size (i.e. minimum of 100 patients) have some influence on clinical decision making, surgeon

  2. A national survey of dental hygienists' infection control attitudes and practices.

    PubMed

    King, Tracy B; Muzzin, Kathleen B

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the infection control practices of practicing dental hygienists, 2) document the attitudes and practices of dental hygienists toward patients with infectious diseases, and 3) determine if professional affiliation affected the attitudes and/or practices of the respondents. A 49-item survey consisting of eight demographic, nine attitudinal, and 32 practice questions was used for this study. A stratified sampling method was used, in which the United States was divided into four regions. Three states were selected from each region according to geographic location and population. Five percent of registered dental hygienists within each selected state were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. All analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS v.10, Chicago, IL). Of the 2,009 surveys mailed, 104 were undeliverable. A total of 856 completed surveys were returned from practicing dental hygienists for a response rate of 44.9%. Overall, this study found an increased use of barriers and personal protective equipment in comparison to previous studies. A majority of respondents (53.9%) felt that treating patients with HIV or AIDS increased their personal risk for contracting the disease. The majority of respondents also reported always using extra precautions with HIV/AIDS patients (63.5%) and hepatitis patients (60.1%). In addition, most respondents reported they would not use an ultrasonic scaler when treating HIV/AIDS (65.8%) or hepatitis (58.9%) patients, indicating an alteration in clinical practice habits. The majority of dental hygienists surveyed reported altering infection control practices and treatment techniques when treating HIV/AIDS or hepatitis patients. While there has been an improvement in compliance with recommended infection control guidelines, practitioners still have misconceptions, and possibly fear, regarding infectious diseases and disease transmission.

  3. Impact of individual and team features of patient safety climate: a survey in family practices.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Barbara; Miessner, Carolin; Albay, Zeycan; Schröber, Jakob; Weppler, Katrin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Güthlin, Corina

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about safety climate is fundamental to improving patient safety in health care organizations. Because individual and organizational factors influence the safety climate, we conducted a health care survey of German family practices so we could analyze the impact of the professional group, the professional experience of practice staff, and practice characteristics on perceptions of the safety climate. We wrote to health care assistants and doctors in 1,800 randomly selected family practices in Germany and asked them to complete a newly developed and validated Frankfurt Patient Safety Climate Questionnaire. We conducted a descriptive analyses of items and climate factors, as well as regression analysis, to identify potential predictors of the safety climate in family practice. The response rate from the participating practices was 36.1%. Safety climate was perceived to be generally positive with the exception of the factors of error management and perception of the causes of errors. We discovered that whether or not the entire team had taken part in the survey had a positive influence on most factors. Doctors had more positive perceptions of 4 of 7 factors addressed to both professions. Male participants and doctors showed the most willingness to admit they had made an error. Though the safety climate in German family practices was positive overall, health care professionals' use of incident reporting and a system's approach to errors was fairly rare. When evaluating the safety climate in primary health care practices, respondents' individual characteristics, as well as organizational features, should be taken into account.

  4. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: Prescribing and transcribing-2016.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Craig A; Schneider, Philip J; Scheckelhoff, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    The results of the 2016 ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings are presented. A stratified random sample of pharmacy directors at 1,315 general and children's medical-surgical hospitals in the United States were surveyed using a mixed-mode method offering a choice of completing a paper survey or an online survey. IMS Health supplied data on hospital characteristics; the survey sample was drawn from IMS's hospital database. The survey response rate was 29.8%. Drug policy development by pharmacy and therapeutics committees continues to be an important strategy for improving prescribing. Strict formulary systems are maintained in 63.0% of hospitals, and 89.7% of hospitals use clinical practice guidelines that include medications. Pharmacists have the authority to order laboratory tests in 89.9% of hospitals and order medications in 86.8% of hospitals. Therapeutic interchange policies are used in 89.2% of hospitals. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been implemented partially or completely in most hospitals (99.1%). Computerized prescriber-order-entry systems with clinical decision support are used in 95.6% of hospitals, and 92.6% of hospitals have barcode-assisted medication administration systems. Transitions-of-care programs are increasing in number, with 34.6% of hospitals now offering discharge prescription services. Pharmacists practice in 39.5% of hospital ambulatory or primary care clinics. The most common service offered by pharmacists to outpatients is anticoagulation management (26.0%). When pharmacists practice in ambulatory care clinics, 64.5% have prescribing authority through collaborative practice agreements. Pharmacists continue to expand their role in improving the prescribing of medications in both hospital and outpatient settings. The adoption of EHRs and medication-use technologies has contributed to this growth. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oropharyngeal dysphagia: surveying practice patterns of the speech-language pathologist.

    PubMed

    Martino, Rosemary; Pron, Gaylene; Diamant, Nicholas E

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to obtain a comprehensive view of the dysphagia assessment practice patterns of speech-language pathologists and their opinion on the importance of these practices using survey methods and taking into consideration clinician, patient, and practice-setting variables. A self-administered mail questionnaire was developed following established methodology to maximize response rates. Eight dysphagia experts independently rated the new survey for content validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed with a random sample of 23 participants. The survey was sent to 50 speech-language pathologists randomly selected from the Canadian professional association database of members who practice in dysphagia. Surveys were mailed according to the Dillman Total Design Method and included an incentive offer. High survey (64%) and item response (95%) rates were achieved and clinicians were reliable reporters of their practice behaviors (ICC>0.60). Of all the clinical assessment items, 36% were reported with high (>80%) utilization and 24% with low (<20%) utilization, the former pertaining to tongue motion and vocal quality after food/fluid intake and the latter to testing of oral sensation without food. One-third (33%) of instrumental assessment items were highly utilized and included assessment of bolus movement and laryngeal response to bolus misdirection. Overall, clinician experience and teaching institutions influenced greater utilization. Opinions of importance were similar to utilization behaviors (r = 0.947, p = 0.01). Of all patients referred for dysphagia assessment, full clinical assessments were administered to 71% of patients but instrumental assessments to only 36%. A hierarchical model of practice behavior is proposed to explain this pattern of progressively decreasing item utilization.

  6. A survey of the value of routine intimate examination and related practices in subfertile couples.

    PubMed

    Desai, A K; Jaiyesimi, R A K

    2007-11-01

    The practice of undertaking routine intimate examinations in the management of subfertile couples varies among clinicians. An anonymous self-administered mailed questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the current practices followed by clinicians and the rationale supporting their practice. In the absence of large comparative studies, this survey provides expert opinion regarding this practice. The questionnaire was mailed to the Fellows and members of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in the Northern, Yorkshire, West Midlands and Wales regions in the UK. A total of 802 questionnaires were posted, of which 516 were returned, giving an overall response rate of 64%. The responses and comments varied. Some 62% of respondents would routinely perform a pelvic examination on all women presenting with subfertility; 23% would do so only in selected cases and 63% of the clinicians would perform a routine transvaginal ultrasound. The male partners are examined by only 19% of the clinicians. A total of 83% of the respondents were of the opinion that the survey made them think about the role and justification of intimate examinations in greater detail. The practice of intimate examination of subfertile couples varies among clinicians in the survey group. There is a need for large prospective comparative studies to study the value of this examination and related practices in the management of subfertile couples. In the absence of comparative trials, this survey provides expert opinion. It may be suggested that an intimate examination should not be carried out routinely in all subfertile couples. It could be done when it has potential to add value to the management of the patient. A pragmatic approach should be adopted in every clinical situation.

  7. Towards Harmonisation of Critical Laboratory Result Management - Review of the Literature and Survey of Australasian Practices

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, CA; Horvath, AR

    2012-01-01

    Timely release and communication of critical test results may have significant impact on medical decisions and subsequent patient outcomes. Laboratories therefore have an important responsibility and contribution to patient safety. Certification, accreditation and regulatory bodies also require that laboratories follow procedures to ensure patient safety, but there is limited guidance on best practices. In Australasia, no specific requirements exist in this area and critical result reporting practices have been demonstrated to be heterogeneous worldwide. Recognising the need for agreed standards and critical limits, the AACB started a quality initiative to harmonise critical result management throughout Australasia. The first step toward harmonisation is to understand current laboratory practices. Fifty eight Australasian laboratories responded to a survey and 36 laboratories shared their critical limits. Findings from this survey are compared to international practices reviewed in various surveys conducted elsewhere. For the successful operation of a critical result management system, critical tests and critical limits must be defined in collaboration with clinicians. Reporting procedures must include how critical results are identified; who can report and who can receive critical results; what is an acceptable timeframe within which results must be delivered or, if reporting fails, what escalation procedures should follow; what communication channels or systems should be used; what should be recorded and how; and how critical result procedures should be maintained and evaluated to assess impact on outcomes. In this paper we review the literature of current standards and recommendations for critical result management. Key elements of critical result reporting are discussed in view of the findings of various national surveys on existing laboratory practices, including data from our own survey in Australasia. Best practice recommendations are made that laboratories

  8. Towards harmonisation of critical laboratory result management - review of the literature and survey of australasian practices.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ca; Horvath, Ar

    2012-11-01

    Timely release and communication of critical test results may have significant impact on medical decisions and subsequent patient outcomes. Laboratories therefore have an important responsibility and contribution to patient safety. Certification, accreditation and regulatory bodies also require that laboratories follow procedures to ensure patient safety, but there is limited guidance on best practices. In Australasia, no specific requirements exist in this area and critical result reporting practices have been demonstrated to be heterogeneous worldwide.Recognising the need for agreed standards and critical limits, the AACB started a quality initiative to harmonise critical result management throughout Australasia. The first step toward harmonisation is to understand current laboratory practices. Fifty eight Australasian laboratories responded to a survey and 36 laboratories shared their critical limits. Findings from this survey are compared to international practices reviewed in various surveys conducted elsewhere. For the successful operation of a critical result management system, critical tests and critical limits must be defined in collaboration with clinicians. Reporting procedures must include how critical results are identified; who can report and who can receive critical results; what is an acceptable timeframe within which results must be delivered or, if reporting fails, what escalation procedures should follow; what communication channels or systems should be used; what should be recorded and how; and how critical result procedures should be maintained and evaluated to assess impact on outcomes.In this paper we review the literature of current standards and recommendations for critical result management. Key elements of critical result reporting are discussed in view of the findings of various national surveys on existing laboratory practices, including data from our own survey in Australasia. Best practice recommendations are made that laboratories

  9. Improving multidisciplinary severe sepsis management using the Sepsis Six .

    PubMed

    Bhat, Amar; Asghar, Maryam; Raulia, Gagandeep; Mandal, Amit Keiran John

    2016-12-01

    Each year in the UK, it is estimated that more than 100,000 people are admitted to hospital with sepsis and around 37,000 people will die as a result of the condition. We present an audit, re-audit and the implications these have had on the management of severe sepsis using the Sepsis Six, ultimately through actively promoting teamwork to initiate the protocol. This led to a significant improvement in management, decreasing admissions to the intensive care unit (ITU), length of stay in hospital and the number of patient deaths.The initial audit and re-audit were done over 2-month periods. All clerking notes of patients with a medical consultant diagnosis of 'sepsis' on post-take ward round were analysed and further screened for presence of severe sepsis according to national guidelines.There was significant improvement from only 1% of patients being appropriately managed (according to the existing guidelines) to 67% of eligible subjects adhering to the protocol (p<0.0001). Initially, 19% were admitted to the ITU (6% died), improving to 7% on re-audit (with no deaths). Length of hospital stay reduced from 10 to 7 days (p<0.0001).There was a complete change in the management of severe sepsis with trust-wide updated protocols, resulting in a decrease in hospital morbidity and mortality. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.

  10. Safe patient handling perceptions and practices: a survey of acute care physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, Brian F; Stolfi, Angela M

    2014-05-01

    Acute care physical therapists are at risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to manual patient handling. Safe patient handling (SPH) reduces WMSDs caused by manual handling. The purpose of this study was to describe the patient handling practices of acute care physical therapists and their perceptions regarding SPH. Additionally, this study determined whether an SPH program influences the patient handling practices and perceptions regarding SPH of acute care physical therapists. Subscribers to the electronic discussion board of American Physical Therapy Association's Acute Care Section were invited to complete a survey questionnaire. The majority of respondents used SPH equipment and practices (91.1%), were confident using SPH equipment and practices (93.8%), agreed that evidence supports the use of SPH equipment and practices (87.0%), and reported the use of SPH equipment and practices is feasible (92.2%). Respondents at a facility with an SPH program were more likely to use SPH equipment and practices, have received training in the use of SPH equipment and practices, agree that the use of SPH equipment and practices is feasible, and feel confident using SPH equipment and practices. The study might not reflect the perceptions and practices of the population of acute care physical therapists. Acute care physical therapists are trained to use SPH equipment and practices, use SPH equipment and practices, and have positive perceptions regarding SPH. Acute care physical therapists in a facility with an SPH program are more likely to use SPH equipment and practices, receive training in SPH equipment and practices, and have positive perceptions regarding SPH. Quasi-regulatory organizations should incorporate SPH programs into their evaluative standards.

  11. Precautionary practices for administering anesthetic gases: A survey of physician anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologist assistants.

    PubMed

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L

    2016-10-02

    Scavenging systems and administrative and work practice controls for minimizing occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases have been recommended for many years. Anesthetic gases and vapors that are released or leak out during medical procedures are considered waste anesthetic gases. To better understand the extent recommended practices are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted in 2011 among members of professional practice organizations representing anesthesia care providers including physician anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, and anesthesiologist assistants. This national survey is the first to examine self-reported use of controls to minimize exposure to waste anesthetic gases among anesthesia care providers. The survey was completed by 1,783 nurse anesthetists, 1,104 physician anesthesiologists, and 100 anesthesiologist assistants who administered inhaled anesthetics in the seven days prior to the survey. Working in hospitals and outpatient surgical centers, respondents most often administered sevoflurane and, to a lesser extent desflurane and isoflurane, in combination with nitrous oxide. Use of scavenging systems was nearly universal, reported by 97% of respondents. However, adherence to other recommended practices was lacking to varying degrees and differed among those administering anesthetics to pediatric (P) or adult (A) patients. Examples of practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: using high (fresh gas) flow anesthesia only (17% P, 6% A), starting anesthetic gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (35% P; 14% A); not routinely checking anesthesia equipment for leaks (4% P, 5% A), and using a funnel-fill system to fill vaporizers (16%). Respondents also reported that facilities lacked safe handling procedures (19%) and hazard awareness training (18%). Adherence to precautionary work practices was generally highest among

  12. Awareness and use of intertrochanteric osteotomies in current clinical practice. An international survey

    PubMed Central

    Eijer, H.; Besselaar, P. P.; Marti, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    Current literature shows that intertrochanteric osteotomies can produce excellent results in selected hip disorders in specific groups of patients. However, it appears that this surgical option is considered an historical one that has no role to play in modern practice. In order to examine current awareness of and views on intertrochanteric osteotomies among international hip surgeons, an online survey was carried out. The survey consisted of a set of questions regarding current clinical practice and awareness of osteotomies. The second part of the survey consisted of five clinical cases and sought to elicit views on preoperative radiological investigations and preferred (surgical) treatments. The results of our survey showed that most of these experts believe that intertrochanteric osteotomies should still be performed in selected cases. Only 56% perform intertrochanteric osteotomies themselves and of those, only 11% perform more than five per year. The responses to the cases show that about 30–40% recommend intertrochanteric osteotomies in young symptomatic patients. This survey shows that the role of intertrochanteric osteotomies is declining in clinical practice. PMID:17431624

  13. Survey of handwriting instruction practices of elementary teachers and educational programs: implications for occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Donica, Denise K; Larson, Michelle H; Zinn, Abbey A

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of elementary school teachers on training in handwriting instruction received during their education, as well as their current classroom practices. The quantity and quality of training in handwriting instruction provided by baccalaureate degree-granting teacher education programs in North Carolina was also examined. An online survey was administered to each population identified to inquire about handwriting instruction practices. Results from 505 teachers and 16 professors indicated that while handwriting instruction content is valued by both teachers and professors, varied levels of training were provided to the teachers. Implications for occupational therapy practice are discussed including strategies for school-based therapists.

  14. Thyroid hormone disorders and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Yu, Zhui; Li, Yinping

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with high mortality, which results from severe infection and can lead to secondary organ dysfunction. It is one of the most common cause of death in intensive care unit. Clinical reports have shown that sepsis was often accompanied by thyroid dysfunction, which is called "low triiodothyronine (T3)" syndrome and characterized by decreased blood total T3 and free T3, and by normal or decreased thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This syndrome may greatly affect the prognosis of patients with sepsis. The main purpose of this review is to illustrate the role of thyroid hormone disorder in the development and prognosis of sepsis.

  15. College Cheerleading: A National Survey of Current Safety Standards and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed chief student affairs officers (N=564) to determine effects of current safety standards and practices in college cheerleading. Found injury rate lower than six major team sports; no correlation between injuries and coach training; greater number of injuries when under supervision; and institutions with no cheerleading guidelines tended to…

  16. Weeding of Academic Library Reference Collections: A Survey of Current Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeldinger, Eugene A.

    1986-01-01

    Reports results of survey investigating aspects of weeding of materials in reference collections at 377 U.S. colleges and universities: existence of written policy or unwritten weeding practice; extent of weeding; frequency; what happens to discards; effect of shelf space, staff time, and use of materials on weeding decisions. (5 references) (EJS)

  17. Literacy for the Twenty-First Century: Research, Policy, Practices, and the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.

    This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…

  18. Complete denture impression techniques practiced by private dental practitioners: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kakatkar, Vinay R

    2013-09-01

    Impression making is an important step in fabricating complete dentures. A survey to know the materials used and techniques practiced while recording complete denture impressions was conducted. It is disheartening to know that 33 % practitioners still use base plate custom trays to record final impressions. 8 % still use alginate for making final impressions. An acceptable technique for recording CD impressions is suggested.

  19. Integrating Art into Science Education: A Survey of Science Teachers' Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkka, Jaakko; Haatainen, Outi; Aksela, Maija

    2017-01-01

    Numerous case studies suggest that integrating art and science education could engage students with creative projects and encourage students to express science in multitude of ways. However, little is known about art integration practices in everyday science teaching. With a qualitative e-survey, this study explores the art integration of science…

  20. Social Workers' Orientation toward the Evidence-Based Practice Process: A Dutch Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zwet, Renske J. M.; Kolmer, Deirdre M. Beneken genaamd; Schalk, René

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers' orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the EBP Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS), along with…

  1. Third and Fourth Grade Teacher's Classroom Practices in Writing: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindle, Mary; Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.; Hebert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A random sample of teachers in grades 3 and 4 (N = 157) from across the United States were surveyed about their use of evidence-based writing practices, preparation to teach writing, and beliefs about writing. Teachers' beliefs included their efficacy to teach writing, their orientations to teach writing, their attitude about teaching writing, and…

  2. 2002 SUCCEED Faculty Survey of Teaching Practices and Perceptions of Institutional Attitudes toward Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawner, Catherine E.; Felder, Richard M.; Allen, Rodney; Brent, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    SUCCEED (Southeastern University and College Coalition for Engineering Education) is an eight-campus coalition of engineering schools formed in 1992 under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. In 1997, a faculty survey of instructional practices and attitudes regarding the climate for teaching on the Coalition campuses was designed…

  3. Consumer Direction in Managed Long-Term Care: An Exploratory Survey of Practices and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiners, Mark R.; Mahoney, Kevin J.; Shoop, Dawn M.; Squillace, Marie R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents results of a survey of the attitudes and practices of managed care organizations (MCOs) concerning consumer direction. The study focused on understanding several alternative measures of consumer direction and the factors that are associated with the MCOs concerning those measures. Design and Methods: The MCOs that…

  4. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  5. Evidence-Based Speech-Language Pathology Practices in Schools: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, LaVae M.; Ireland, Marie; Hall-Mills, Shannon; Flynn, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study documented evidence-based practice (EBP) patterns as reported by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) employed in public schools during 2010-2011. Method: Using an online survey, practioners reported their EBP training experiences, resources available in their workplaces, and the frequency with which they engage in specific EBP…

  6. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  7. Does Psychiatry Residency Training Reflect the "Real World" of Psychiatry Practice? A Survey of Residency Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Timothy; Fava, Maurizio; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Vorono, Sienna; Sanders, Kathy M.; Mischoulon, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine whether Massachusetts General Hospital's residency graduates believed their training reflected their current practice activities. Method: The authors surveyed 134 graduates from MGH and MGH-McLean residency classes from 1983 to 2003. Subjects ranked their satisfaction with different components of training on a…

  8. A Survey of Secondary Mathematics Teacher Training Practices in West Germany and the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansson, Lars C.

    The survey, conducted during 1979-80, focused on practices in the professional component of preservice teacher education in West Germany and the Netherlands. The report is divided into four major sections: (1) the structure of the questionnaire (included in the appendix), (2) the West Germany results, (3) the Dutch results, and (4) concluding…

  9. Third and Fourth Grade Teacher's Classroom Practices in Writing: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindle, Mary; Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.; Hebert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A random sample of teachers in grades 3 and 4 (N = 157) from across the United States were surveyed about their use of evidence-based writing practices, preparation to teach writing, and beliefs about writing. Teachers' beliefs included their efficacy to teach writing, their orientations to teach writing, their attitude about teaching writing, and…

  10. Managing Electronic Resources: A Survey of Current Practices in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Beth Hansen

    This document reports results of an online survey that examined practices and procedures in the management of electronic resources in 65 academic library reference departments. Responses are related to: (1) student population; (2) library use by community people; (3) number of public access workstations, workstations with World Wide Web access,…

  11. Video Use in Teacher Education: A Survey of Teacher-Educators' Practices across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Poonam; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2016-01-01

    Video methods utilize tenets of high quality teacher education and support education students' learning and application of learning to teaching practices. However, how frequently video is used in teacher education, and in what ways is unknown. Therefore, this study used survey data to identify the extent to which 94 teacher-educators used video in…

  12. Utilizing a Substance Use Attitudes, Practices and Knowledge Survey for Multidisciplinary Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Dale; Waters, Vicki; McQueen, Katie; Basinger, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the development and administration of a substance use attitudes questionnaire to social work students and clinicians, physician assistant students and practitioners, and medical interns. The general purpose for the Attitudes Survey was to collect baseline data regarding past training, current attitudes, beliefs, practices, and…

  13. A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

  14. A National Survey on the Current Status of Family Practice Residency Education in Geriatric Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ina; Arenson, Christine; Warshaw, Gregg; Bragg, Elizabeth; Shaull, Ruth; Counsell, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of family practice residency directors found that 92 percent have a required geriatrics curriculum; nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and home care are the predominant training sites; the mean number of geriatrics faculty is 2.6 per program; and conflicting time demands with other curricula was ranked as the most significant…

  15. A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

  16. Testing Practices and Attitudes toward Tests and Testing: An International Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arne; McCormick, Carina M.; Hawley, Leslie R.; Muñiz, José; Balboni, Giulia; Bartram, Dave; Boben, Dusica; Egeland, Jens; El-Hassan, Karma; Fernández-Hermida, José R.; Fine, Saul; Frans, Örjan; Gintiliené, Grazina; Hagemeister, Carmen; Halama, Peter; Iliescu, Dragos; Jaworowska, Aleksandra; Jiménez, Paul; Manthouli, Marina; Matesic, Krunoslav; Michaelsen, Lars; Mogaji, Andrew; Morley-Kirk, James; Rózsa, Sándor; Rowlands, Lorraine; Schittekatte, Mark; Sümer, H. Canan; Suwartono, Tono; Urbánek, Tomáš; Wechsler, Solange; Zelenevska, Tamara; Zanev, Svetoslav; Zhang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    On behalf of the International Test Commission and the European Federation of Psychologists' Associations a world-wide survey on the opinions of professional psychologists on testing practices was carried out. The main objective of this study was to collect data for a better understanding of the state of psychological testing worldwide. These data…

  17. Evaluating Childhood Bipolar Disorder--A Survey of School Psychologists' Knowledge and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Linda A.; Mayo, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Using data gathered from the "Childhood Bipolar Disorder Survey," this study explored Pennsylvania school psychologists' knowledge and practices when evaluating children for Bipolar Disorder (BPD). Results indicate that only a small percentage of school referrals involved children or adolescents with BPD. Participating school…

  18. Does Psychiatry Residency Training Reflect the "Real World" of Psychiatry Practice? A Survey of Residency Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Timothy; Fava, Maurizio; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Vorono, Sienna; Sanders, Kathy M.; Mischoulon, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine whether Massachusetts General Hospital's residency graduates believed their training reflected their current practice activities. Method: The authors surveyed 134 graduates from MGH and MGH-McLean residency classes from 1983 to 2003. Subjects ranked their satisfaction with different components of training on a…

  19. Policies, Practices, and Procedures in Graduate Student Aid: A Report on the 1998 NASFAA SOGAPPP Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the 1998 Survey of Graduate Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures (SOGAPPP) of the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA). Finds that professional programs at private institutions have highest tuitions; most students in professional programs receive financial aid; loans are the overwhelming type of aid…

  20. Utilizing a Substance Use Attitudes, Practices and Knowledge Survey for Multidisciplinary Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Dale; Waters, Vicki; McQueen, Katie; Basinger, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the development and administration of a substance use attitudes questionnaire to social work students and clinicians, physician assistant students and practitioners, and medical interns. The general purpose for the Attitudes Survey was to collect baseline data regarding past training, current attitudes, beliefs, practices, and…

  1. Rainwater harvesting in the United States: a survey of common system practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in the United States vary in terms of design and operation. To better understand common practices in the RWH community and motivation for collecting harvested rainwater, an electronic survey was used to poll members of the American Rainwater Cat...

  2. Literacy for the Twenty-First Century: Research, Policy, Practices, and the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.

    This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…

  3. Rainwater harvesting in the United States: a survey of common system practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in the United States vary in terms of design and operation. To better understand common practices in the RWH community and motivation for collecting harvested rainwater, an electronic survey was used to poll members of the American Rainwater Cat...

  4. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  5. Video Use in Teacher Education: A Survey of Teacher-Educators' Practices across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Poonam; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2016-01-01

    Video methods utilize tenets of high quality teacher education and support education students' learning and application of learning to teaching practices. However, how frequently video is used in teacher education, and in what ways is unknown. Therefore, this study used survey data to identify the extent to which 94 teacher-educators used video in…

  6. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  7. Survey of Sterile Admixture Practices in Canadian Hospital Pharmacies: Part 1. Methods and Results

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its “General Chapter <797> Pharmaceutical Compounding—Sterile Preparations”, which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. Objectives: To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter <797> standards. Methods: An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter <797> standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. Results: A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter <797> standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results

  8. Survey of Sterile Admixture Practices in Canadian Hospital Pharmacies: Part 2. More Results and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-01-01

    Background: The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its “General Chapter <797> Pharmaceutical Compounding—Sterile Preparations”, which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. Objectives: To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter <797> standards. Methods: An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter <797> standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. Results: A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter <797> standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. The survey methods for this study and results relating to

  9. Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practices for Anxiety Disorders in Wyoming: A Survey of Practicing Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipol, Leilani J.; Deacon, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-established effectiveness of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders, therapists have been slow to adopt CBT into their clinical practice. The present study was conducted to examine the utilization of psychotherapy techniques for anxiety disorders among community practitioners in a…

  10. Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practices for Anxiety Disorders in Wyoming: A Survey of Practicing Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipol, Leilani J.; Deacon, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-established effectiveness of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders, therapists have been slow to adopt CBT into their clinical practice. The present study was conducted to examine the utilization of psychotherapy techniques for anxiety disorders among community practitioners in a…

  11. Tube-weaning infants and children: a survey of Australian and international practice.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Alison Y; Fuller, David G; Vuillermin, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe paediatric feeding-tube weaning practice in Australian children's hospitals and to compare this with practice in tube weaning programmes internationally. A literature review regarding tube weaning practices was conducted to inform questionnaire design. Six Australian children's hospitals and six international paediatric service providers completed a written questionnaire. Four of six Australian children's hospitals surveyed reported that they have adopted informal paediatric tube weaning practices; four of six lacked clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), and five of six lacked a clearly defined case leadership. Practice varied substantially within and between these Australian feeding teams. By comparison, all six international feeding teams reported having developed formal CPGs. Five of six reported clearly defined case leadership with no more than three lead professionals overseeing cases and concordantly reported a high level of practice consistency within and between teams. The majority of Australian children's hospitals lack a formal CPG and clearly defined case leadership to guide tube weaning practices, and accordingly, there is considerable practice variation. This is in contrast to the situation in a select group of international centres. There is a need for further research to define best practice models and for Australian CPGs. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Strategies for prevention of nosocomial sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Saiman, Lisa

    2006-04-01

    Infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit, particularly preterm infants, have very high rates of nosocomial sepsis (also referred to as late onset sepsis or healthcare-associated sepsis). Today's preventive strategies for nosocomial sepsis focus on augmenting the immunologic and functional immaturities of premature infants and ameliorating the risks of extrinsic factors by the use of prophylactic antibiotics and best clinical practices. Topical emollients improved neonatal skin condition, but were associated with an increased risk of nosocomial bacterial sepsis and coagulase negative staphylococcal infections, and thus should not be used in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. Single-center studies have shown that probiotics containing anaerobic bacteria may reduce the rate of necrotizing enterocolitis, the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis, and/or bacterial sepsis. Single-center studies have shown that prophylactic fluconazole reduces the rates of invasive candidiasis and/or colonization of extremely-low-birth-weight infants. Quality improvement projects to improve adherence to appropriate hand hygiene and best practices for central venous catheter insertion and maintenance can reduce rates of nosocomial sepsis. The safety and efficacy of probiotics and prophylactic fluconazole require large multicenter trials. Quality improvement initiatives, however, can be performed now and can reduce the rates of nosocomial sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  13. Impact of sepsis on CD4 T cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Condotta, Stephanie A.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis remains the primary cause of death from infection in hospital patients, despite improvements in antibiotics and intensive-care practices. Patients who survive severe sepsis can display suppressed immune function, often manifested as an increased susceptibility to (and mortality from) nosocomial infections. Not only is there a significant reduction in the number of various immune cell populations during sepsis, but there is also decreased function in the remaining lymphocytes. Within the immune system, CD4 T cells are important players in the proper development of numerous cellular and humoral immune responses. Despite sufficient clinical evidence of CD4 T cell loss in septic patients of all ages, the impact of sepsis on CD4 T cell responses is not well understood. Recent findings suggest that CD4 T cell impairment is a multipronged problem that results from initial sepsis-induced cell loss. However, the subsequent lymphopenia-induced numerical recovery of the CD4 T cell compartment leads to intrinsic alterations in phenotype and effector function, reduced repertoire diversity, changes in the composition of naive antigen-specific CD4 T cell pools, and changes in the representation of different CD4 T cell subpopulations (e.g., increases in Treg frequency). This review focuses on sepsis-induced alterations within the CD4 T cell compartment that influence the ability of the immune system to control secondary heterologous infections. The understanding of how sepsis affects CD4 T cells through their numerical loss and recovery, as well as function, is important in the development of future treatments designed to restore CD4 T cells to their presepsis state. PMID:24791959

  14. Relationships Between the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) and Self-Reported Research Practices

    PubMed Central

    Crain, A. Lauren; Martinson, Brian C.; Thrush, Carol R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) is a validated tool to facilitate promotion of research integrity and research best practices. This work uses the SORC to assess shared and individual perceptions of the research climate in universities and academic departments and relate these perceptions to desirable and undesirable research practices. Methods An anonymous web- and mail-based survey was administered to randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows in the United States. Respondents reported their perceptions of the research climates at their universities and primary departments, and the frequency with which they engaged in desirable and undesirable research practices. Results More positive individual perceptions of the research climate in one’s university or department were associated with higher likelihoods of desirable, and lower likelihoods of undesirable, research practices. Shared perceptions of the research climate tended to be similarly predictive of both desirable and undesirable research practices as individuals’ deviations from these shared perceptions. Conclusions Study results supported the central prediction that more positive SORC-measured perceptions of the research climate were associated with more positive reports of research practices. There were differences with respect to whether shared or individual climate perceptions were related to desirable or undesirable practices but the general pattern of results provide empirical evidence that the SORC is predictive of self-reported research behavior. PMID:23096774

  15. Relationships between the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) and self-reported research practices.

    PubMed

    Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Thrush, Carol R

    2013-09-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) is a validated tool to facilitate promotion of research integrity and research best practices. This work uses the SORC to assess shared and individual perceptions of the research climate in universities and academic departments and relate these perceptions to desirable and undesirable research practices. An anonymous web- and mail-based survey was administered to randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows in the United States. Respondents reported their perceptions of the research climates at their universities and primary departments, and the frequency with which they engaged in desirable and undesirable research practices. More positive individual perceptions of the research climate in one's university or department were associated with higher likelihoods of desirable, and lower likelihoods of undesirable, research practices. Shared perceptions of the research climate tended to be similarly predictive of both desirable and undesirable research practices as individuals' deviations from these shared perceptions. Study results supported the central prediction that more positive SORC-measured perceptions of the research climate were associated with more positive reports of research practices. There were differences with respect to whether shared or individual climate perceptions were related to desirable or undesirable practices but the general pattern of results provide empirical evidence that the SORC is predictive of self-reported research behavior.

  16. Current practice patterns in conservative thumb CMC joint care: survey results.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Virginia H; McGaha, Jamie L

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional descriptive survey Best practice for conservative clinical care pathways is not well outlined in the literature for patients with thumb carpometacarpal joint (CMCJ) pain. This self-report survey investigated the current practice patterns of assessments and conservative interventions for the painful thumb CMCJ among hand therapists. An online survey was distributed to members of the American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT). Questions were included about evaluation measures and intervention techniques used for this population. A descriptive analysis was completed of the results. A total of 23.5% of the ASHT membership responded to the survey. Results were categorized using the International Classification of Functioning and Disability domains as a framework. The survey results report varying use of evaluation measures, therapeutic interventions, including orthotic fabrication, joint protection and patient education all therapeutic interventional techniques, and modalities. Therapists use a comprehensive array of evaluation measures and interventions for body functions and structures in the care of thumb CMC pain. In contrast, more consistent use is needed of psychometrically-sound functional outcome measures that show change in activities and participation. This survey highlights areas to employ current evidence, as well as, future research should address environmental factors and personal factors for this population Not applicable. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sepsis: a review of therapeutics and considerations for anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Anahat; Nguyen, Jen; Kistler, Erik

    2012-11-01

    Sepsis and septic shock remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The complexity of the disease pathophysiology has resulted in a rich area of research on etiology and therapeutics. Anesthesiologists will often encounter the syndrome in their routine practice. This review summarizes some of the basic concepts of therapeutics and some novel therapeutics that are pertinent to anesthesia.

  18. The validity and reliability of an interactive computer tobacco and alcohol use survey in general practice.

    PubMed

    Bonevski, B; Campbell, E; Sanson-Fisher, R W

    2010-05-01

    Uncertainty regarding the accuracy of the computer as a data collection or patient screening tool persists. Previous research evaluating the validity of computer health surveys have tended to compare those responses to that of paper survey or clinical interview (as the gold standard). This approach is limited as it assumes that the paper version of the self-report survey is valid and an appropriate gold standard. First, to compare the accuracy of computer and paper methods of assessing self-reported smoking and alcohol use in general practice with biochemical measures as gold standard. Second, to compare the test re-test reliability of computer administration, paper administration and mixed methods of assessing self-reported smoking status and alcohol use in general practice. A randomised cross-over design was used. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups; Group 1. C-C : completing a computer survey at the time of that consultation (Time 1) and a computer survey 4-7 days later (Time 2); Group 2. C-P: completing a computer survey at Time 1 and a paper survey at Time 2; Group 3. P-C: completing a paper survey at Time 1 and a computer survey at Time 2; and Group 4. P-P: completing a paper survey at Time 1 and 2. At Time 1 all participants also completed biochemical measures to validate self-reported smoking status (expired air carbon monoxide breath test) and alcohol consumption (ethyl alcohol urine assay). Of the 618 who were eligible, 575 (93%) consented to completing the Time 1 surveys. Of these, 71% (N=411) completed Time 2 surveys. Compared to CO, the computer smoking self-report survey demonstrated 91% sensitivity, 94% specificity, 75% positive predictive value (PPV) and 98% negative predictive value (NPV). The equivalent paper survey demonstrated 86% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 80% PPV, and 96% NPV. Compared to urine assay, the computer alcohol use self-report survey demonstrated 92% sensitivity, 50% specificity, 10% PPV and 99% NPV

  19. The chiropractic scope of practice in the United States: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of chiropractic practice laws in the United States. This survey is an update and expansion of 3 original surveys conducted in 1987, 1992, and 1998. A cross-sectional survey of licensure officials from the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards e-mail list was conducted in 2011 requesting information about chiropractic practice laws and 97 diagnostic, evaluation, and management procedures. To evaluate content validity, the survey was distributed in draft form at the fall 2010 Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards regional meeting to regulatory board members and feedback was requested. Comments were reviewed and incorporated into the final survey. A duplicate question was imbedded in the survey to test reliability. Partial or complete responses were received from 96% (n = 51) of the jurisdictions in the United States. The states with the highest number of services that could be performed were Missouri (n = 92), New Mexico (n = 91), Kansas (n = 89), Utah (n = 89), Oklahoma (n = 88), Illinois (n = 87), and Alabama (n = 86). The states with the highest number of services that cannot be performed are New Hampshire (n = 49), Hawaii (n = 47), Michigan (n = 42), New Jersey (n = 39), Mississippi (n = 39), and Texas (n = 30). The scope of chiropractic practice in the United States has a high degree of variability. Scope of practice is dynamic, and gray areas are subject to interpretation by ever-changing board members. Although statutes may not address specific procedures, upon challenge, there may be a possibility of sanctions depending on interpretation. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of a survey to examine drinking-water access, practices and policies in schools.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Amelie A; Grumbach, Jacob M; Hampton, Karla E; Hecht, Kenneth; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D; McCulloch, Charles E; Patel, Anisha I

    2017-09-12

    Ensuring ready access to free drinking-water in schools is an important strategy for prevention of obesity and dental caries, and for improving student learning. Yet to date, there are no validated instruments to examine water access in schools. The present study aimed to develop and validate a survey of school administrators to examine school access to beverages, including water and sports drinks, and school and district-level water-related policies and practices. Survey validity was measured by comparing results of telephone surveys of school administrators with on-site observations of beverage access and reviews of school policy documents for any references to beverages. The semi-structured telephone survey included items about free drinking-water access (sixty-four items), commonly available competitive beverages (twenty-nine items) and water-related policies and practices (twenty-eight items). Agreement between administrator surveys and observation/document review was calculated using kappa statistics for categorical variables, and Pearson correlation coefficients and t tests for continuous variables. Public schools in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. School administrators (n 24). Eighty-one per cent of questions related to school beverage access yielded κ values indicating substantial or almost perfect agreement (κ>0·60). However, only one of twenty-eight questions related to drinking-water practices and policies yielded a κ value representing substantial or almost perfect agreement. This school administrator survey appears reasonably valid for questions related to beverage access, but less valid for questions on water-related practices and policies. This tool provides policy makers, researchers and advocates with a low-cost, efficient method to gather national data on school-level beverage access.

  1. Gender in clinical neuropsychology: practice survey trends and comparisons outside the specialty.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Jerry J; Lee, Catherine; Guidotti Breting, Leslie M; Benson, Laura M

    2017-09-05

    This paper describes gender-related trends within clinical neuropsychology, based primarily on recurrent practice surveys within the specialty and, to a lesser extent, job-related information from medical specialties and the general U.S. labor market. Chronological and cross-sectional analyses of professional practice survey data from 2005, 2010, and 2015 relevant to gender. As is common with survey data, descriptive analysis and independent samples t-tests were conducted. Longitudinal data allowed for examination of gender trends, as well as observations of change and stability of factors associated with gender, over time. Women have become dominant in number in clinical neuropsychology, and also comprise a vast majority of practitioners entering the specialty. Gender differences are noted in professional identity, work status, work settings, types of career satisfaction, and retirement expectations. Women are more likely to identify work environment and personal/family obstacles to aspects of career satisfaction. A gender pay gap was found at all time points and is not narrowing. As is true nationally, multiple factors appear related to the gender pay gap in clinical neuropsychology. Women in neuropsychology are now dominant in number, and their presence is strongly associated with specific practice patterns, such as greater institutional employment, less involvement in forensic practice, and strong involvement in pediatric practice, which may be maintaining the sizeable gender pay gap in neuropsychology. As the proportion of women neuropsychologists continues to increase, flexible work hours, and alternative means of remuneration may be needed to offset current disproportionate family-related responsibilities.

  2. AAN Epilepsy Quality Measures in clinical practice: a survey of neurologists.

    PubMed

    Wasade, Vibhangini S; Spanaki, Marianna; Iyengar, Revathi; Barkley, Gregory L; Schultz, Lonni

    2012-08-01

    Epilepsy Quality Measures (EQM) were developed by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) to convey standardization and eliminate gaps and variations in the delivery of epilepsy care (Fountain et al., 2011 [1]). The aim of this study was to identify adherence to these measures and other emerging practice standards in epilepsy care. A 15-item survey was mailed to neurologists in Michigan, USA, inquiring about their practice patterns in relation to EQM. One hundred thirteen of the 792 surveyed Michigan Neurologists responded (14%). The majority (83% to 94%) addressed seizure type and frequency, reviewed EEG and MRI, and provided pregnancy counseling to women of childbearing potential. Our survey identified gaps in practice patterns such as counseling about antiepileptic drug (AED) side effects and knowledge about referral for surgical therapy of intractable epilepsy. Statistical significance in the responses on the AAN EQM was noted in relation to number of years in practice, number of epilepsy patients seen, and additional fellowship training in epilepsy. Practice patterns assessment in relation to other comorbidities revealed that although bone health and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy are addressed mainly in patients at risk, depression is infrequently discussed. The findings in this study indicate that additional educational efforts are needed to increase awareness and to improve quality of epilepsy care at various points of health care delivery.

  3. Severe sepsis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Reba; Callen, Bonnie; Brown, Mary Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis may be underrecognized in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review special considerations related to early detection of severe sepsis in older adults. Normal organ changes attributed to aging may delay early detection of sepsis at the time when interventions have the greatest potential to improve patient outcomes. Systems are reviewed for changes. For example, the cardiovascular system may have a limited or absent compensatory response to inflammation after an infectious insult, and the febrile response and recruitment of white blood cells may be blunted because of immunosenescence in aging. Three of the 4 hallmark responses (temperature, heart rate, and white blood cell count) to systemic inflammation may be diminished in older adults as compared with younger adults. It is important to consider that older adults may not always manifest the typical systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Atypical signs such as confusion, decreased appetite, and unsteady gait may occur before sepsis related organ failure. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and a comparison of organ failure criteria were reviewed. Mortality rates in sepsis and severe sepsis remain high and are often complicated by multiple organ failures. As the numbers of older adults increase, early identification and prompt treatment is crucial in improving patient outcomes.

  4. Neonatal Sepsis and Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Reis Machado, Juliana; Soave, Danilo Figueiredo; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; de Menezes, Liliana Borges; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; Celes, Mara Rúbia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and its signs and symptoms are nonspecific, which makes the diagnosis difficult. The routinely used laboratory tests are not effective methods of analysis, as they are extremely nonspecific and often cause inappropriate use of antibiotics. Sepsis is the result of an infection associated with a systemic inflammatory response with production and release of a wide range of inflammatory mediators. Cytokines are potent inflammatory mediators and their serum levels are increased during infections, so changes from other inflammatory effector molecules may occur. Although proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as probable markers of neonatal infection, in order to characterize the inflammatory response during sepsis, it is necessary to analyze a panel of cytokines and not only the measurement of individual cytokines. Measurements of inflammatory mediators bring new options for diagnosing and following up neonatal sepsis, thus enabling early treatment and, as a result, increased neonatal survival. By taking into account the magnitude of neonatal sepsis, the aim of this review is to address the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of neonatal sepsis and its value as a diagnostic criterion. PMID:25614712

  5. Understanding brain dysfunction in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis often is characterized by an acute brain dysfunction, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its pathophysiology is highly complex, resulting from both inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, which may induce significant alterations in vulnerable areas of the brain. Important mechanisms include excessive microglial activation, impaired cerebral perfusion, blood–brain-barrier dysfunction, and altered neurotransmission. Systemic insults, such as prolonged inflammation, severe hypoxemia, and persistent hyperglycemia also may contribute to aggravate sepsis-induced brain dysfunction or injury. The diagnosis of brain dysfunction in sepsis relies essentially on neurological examination and neurological tests, such as EEG and neuroimaging. A brain MRI should be considered in case of persistent brain dysfunction after control of sepsis and exclusion of major confounding factors. Recent MRI studies suggest that septic shock can be associated with acute cerebrovascular lesions and white matter abnormalities. Currently, the management of brain dysfunction mainly consists of control of sepsis and prevention of all aggravating factors, including metabolic disturbances, drug overdoses, anticholinergic medications, withdrawal syndromes, and Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Modulation of microglial activation, prevention of blood–brain-barrier alterations, and use of antioxidants represent relevant therapeutic targets that may impact significantly on neurologic outcomes. In the future, investigations in patients with sepsis should be undertaken to reduce the duration of brain dysfunction and to study the impact of this reduction on important health outcomes, including functional and cognitive status in survivors. PMID:23718252

  6. A survey of HVDC operating and maintenance practices and their impact on reliability and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J.J.; Emerson, M.P.; Donahue, J.A.; Wolf, G.

    1996-01-01

    A questionnaire about operating, maintenance, and spare parts practices and station performance was sent to all HVDC converter stations worldwide. This survey is sponsored by IEEE Working Groups 15.05.08, Economics and Operating Strategies, and I7, Reliability of HVDC Converter Stations. Responses from 38 stations are analyzed, and information bout the most popular practices is reported. One important conclusion is that energy contracts, ac system constraints, and dedicated generation frequency have strong influences on the operation and maintenance practices of HVDC stations. A search is made for correlations between the operating, maintenance, and spare parts practices, including spending, and the stations` performance and availability. No conclusions about the most cost-effective practices can be made. The results are compared with those of a study published in 1992 which covered a few of the same topics.

  7. Skills required of dairy veterinarians in western Canada: a survey of practicing veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Luby, Christopher D; McIntyre, Katelyn; Jelinski, Murray D

    2013-03-01

    This study determined skills required of entry-level veterinarians for dairy practice in western Canada and compared mixed and dairy practitioners in the skills that they perform. We surveyed western Canadian veterinarians involved in dairy practice, focusing primarily on clinical activity of respondents. Response rate was 39.4% (281/714). Respondents were classified as either mixed practitioners (< 10% time in dairy practice) or dairy practitioners (> 75% time in dairy practice). For both groups, individual animal medicine and surgery skills were performed more commonly than herd health skills. The most important skills identified were those required for basic theriogenology, physical examination, treatment of common disorders, and general surgery. These results underscore the continued importance of individual animal skills in food animal practice in western Canada.

  8. Skills required of dairy veterinarians in western Canada: A survey of practicing veterinarians

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Christopher D.; McIntyre, Katelyn; Jelinski, Murray D.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined skills required of entry-level veterinarians for dairy practice in western Canada and compared mixed and dairy practitioners in the skills that they perform. We surveyed western Canadian veterinarians involved in dairy practice, focusing primarily on clinical activity of respondents. Response rate was 39.4% (281/714). Respondents were classified as either mixed practitioners (< 10% time in dairy practice) or dairy practitioners (> 75% time in dairy practice). For both groups, individual animal medicine and surgery skills were performed more commonly than herd health skills. The most important skills identified were those required for basic theriogenology, physical examination, treatment of common disorders, and general surgery. These results underscore the continued importance of individual animal skills in food animal practice in western Canada. PMID:23997264

  9. ESGE Survey: worldwide practice patterns amongst gastroenterologists regarding the endoscopic management of Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Simon J.; Neilson, Laura J.; Hassan, Cesare; Sharma, Prateek; Guy, Claire; Rees, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Barrett’s esophagus is a common condition that is widely encountered in clinical practice. This European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) survey aimed to determine practice patterns amongst European clinicians with regard to the diagnosis and management of Barrett’s esophagus. Methods: Clinicians attending the ESGE learning area at the United European Gastroenterology Week in 2014 were invited to complete a 10-question survey. This survey was programed on to two Apple iPads. Information was gathered with regard to demographics, practice settings, and diagnosis and management strategies for Barrett’s esophagus. Results: In total, 163 responses were obtained. Over half of respondents (61 %) were based in university hospitals, the majority (78 %) were aged 30 – 50 and half had more than 10 years’ experience; 66 % had attended courses on Barrett’s esophagus and more than half (60 %) used the Prague C & M classification. Advanced imaging was used by 73 % of clinicians and 72 % of respondents stated that their group practiced ablation therapy. Most (76 %) practiced surveillance for non-dysplastic Barrett’s, 6 % offered ablation therapy in some situations, and 18 % offered no intervention. For low grade dysplasia, 56 % practiced surveillance, 19 % ablated some cases and 15 % ablated all cases. In total, 32 % of clinicians referred high grade dysplasia to expert centers, with 20 % referring directly for surgery and 46 % using ablation therapy in certain cases. Endoscopic mucosal resection was the most commonly used ablation technique (44 %). Conclusions: There has been reasonable uptake of the Prague C & M classification for describing Barrett’s esophagus, and ablation is widely practiced. However, practice patterns for Barrett’s esophagus vary widely between clinicians with clear guidance and quality standards required. PMID:26793783

  10. Sepsis in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Derek S.; Wong, Hector R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this review we will discuss risk factors for developing sepsis; the role of biomarkers in establishing an early diagnosis, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, stratification, and for the identification of sepsis endotypes; and the pathophysiology and management of severe sepsis and septic shock, with an emphasis on the impact of sepsis on cardiovascular function. Data Source MEDLINE, PubMed Conclusion There is a lot of excitement in the field of sepsis research today. Scientific advances in the diagnosis and clinical staging of sepsis, as well as a personalized approach to the treatment of sepsis, offer tremendous promise for the future. However, at the same time, it is also evident that sepsis mortality has not improved enough, even with progress in our understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of sepsis. PMID:27490609

  11. [Documentation of electronic patient records (EPRS) in German general practices: a telephone survey].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Regine; Himmel, Wolfgang; Böckmann, Harro; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Kochen, Michael M; Niebling, Wilhelm; Rogausch, Anja; Sigle, Jörg; Wetzel, Dirk; Scheidt-Nave, Christa

    2005-01-01

    In Germany, use and contents of EPRs are largely unknown and expected to be highly variable, due to missing standards. We conducted a telephone survey to describe and compare computer documentation habits in general practices. Specifically, we were interested in: (1) the type of medical data recorded; and (2) which factors influence the extent to which doctors used the EPR while seeing their patients. The sampling frame consisted of family physicians participating in a general practice research project: 32% (145/452) of family physicians in the district of Göttingen, Lower Saxony, and 63% (52/83) of physicians from a quality assurance network of family practices in the district of Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg. With the exception of two practices in Göttingen, all practices (n = 165 of 167) took part in this survey. Diagnoses, digital codes for service fees, and prescriptions were computerized in nearly all practices, although doctors were significantly more involved in Freiburg than in Göttingen. Clinical symptoms and findings were recorded in 80% of Freiburg and 52% of Göttingen practices (p = 0.008). Overall, in 74% of Freiburg and 51% of Göttingen practices, the physicians opened the EPR while seeing patients (p = 0.022). Nearly half of the Göttingen practices (49%) and 24% of the Freiburg practices (p < 0.05) entered digital codes for service fees and diagnoses on paper before entering them electronically. In multivariate models adjusting for sex, target group and training specialty, internet access in the office was independently predictive of 'EPR-activity' (OR: 2.23; 95%-confidence interval: 1.12-4.43). There seems to be room for improvement in terms of degree and intensity of recording of clinically-relevant data. Technical interest, i.e., internet access in the office, seems to enhance electronic documentation activities.

  12. Antibiotic use in neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, M

    1998-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a life-threatening emergency and any delay in treatment may cause death. Initial signs of neonatal sepsis are slight and nonspecific. Therefore, in suspected sepsis, two or three days empirical antibiotic therapy should begin immediately after cultures have been obtained without awaiting the results. Antibiotics should be reevaluated when the results of the cultures and susceptibility tests are available. If the cultures are negative and the clinical findings are well, antibiotics should be stopped. Because of the nonspecific nature of neonatal sepsis, especially in small preterm infants, physicians continue antibiotics once started. If a baby has pneumonia or what appears to be sepsis, antibiotics should not be stopped, although cultures are negative. The duration of therapy depends on the initial response to the appropriate antibiotics but should be 10 to 14 days in most infants with sepsis and minimal or absent focal infection. In infants who developed sepsis during the first week of life, empirical therapy must cover group B streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae (especially E. coli) and Listeria monocytogenes. Penicillin or ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside is usually effective against all these organisms. Initial empirical antibiotic therapy for infants who developed sepsis beyond the first days of life must cover the organisms associated with early-onset sepsis as well as hospital-acquired pathogens such as staphylococci, enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Penicillin or ampicillin and an aminoglycoside combination may also be used in the initial therapy of late-onset sepsis as in cases with early-onset sepsis. In nosocomial infections, netilmicin or amikacin should be preferred. In cases showing increased risk of staphylococcal infection (e.g. presence of vascular catheter) or Pseudomonas infection (e.g. presence of typical skin lesions), antistaphylococcal or anti-Pseudomonas agents may be preferred in the initial empirical therapy. In

  13. Atypical femur fractures: a survey of current practices in orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P S; Wall, M; Brown, J P; Cheung, A M; Harvey, E J; Morin, S N

    2017-08-02

    The results of a self-administered online survey demonstrate that orthopedic surgeons' management practices for AFF are variable. These data will inform the development of clinical practice guidelines. We aimed to determine current AFF treatment practices of orthopedic surgeons to inform clinical practice guideline development. A self-administered online survey was developed and sequentially posted on the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) website from July to August 2015 and the Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) website from December 2015 to January 2016. Level of confidence in diagnosis and treatment as well as treatment preferences between respondents who self-identified as trauma surgeons vs. non-trauma surgeons were compared. A total of 172 completed surveys were obtained (OTA, N = 100, 58%; COA, N = 72, 8%). Seventy-eight percent of respondents had treated ≥1 AFF in the previous 6 months. Seventy-six percent reported feeling extremely or very confident in diagnosing AFF (trauma 84% vs. non-trauma surgeons 70%, p = 0.04), and 63% reported feeling extremely or very confident in treating AFF (trauma 82%, non-trauma surgeons 50%, p < 0.01). Preferred management for complete and symptomatic incomplete AFFs was surgical fixation with a cephalomedullary nail (CMN) by 88 and 79%, respectively, while close follow-up was preferred for asymptomatic incomplete AFFs in 72% of respondents. Trauma surgeons used the CMN more frequently than non-trauma surgeons (90 vs. 76% p = 0.03). In patients with bilateral AFFs, with one side surgically treated, 56% were extremely likely to surgically treat the contralateral side, if symptomatic. Most felt guidelines (81%) and educational resources (73%) would be valuable. Current orthopedic treatment practices for AFFs are variable. The results of this survey will inform the development of practice guidelines and educational resources.

  14. Utilization of a population health survey in policy and practice: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing interest by funding bodies and researchers in assessing the impact of research on real world policy and practice. Population health monitoring surveys provide an important source of data on the prevalence and patterns of health problems, but few empirical studies have explored if and how such data is used to influence policy or practice decisions. Here we provide a case study analysis of how the findings from an Australian population monitoring survey series of children’s weight and weight-related behaviors (Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS)) have been used, and the key facilitators and barriers to their utilization. Methods Data collection included semi-structured interviews with the chief investigators (n = 3) and end-users (n = 9) of SPANS data to explore if, how and under what circumstances the survey findings had been used, bibliometric analysis and verification using documentary evidence. Data analysis involved thematic coding of interview data and triangulation with other data sources to produce case summaries of policy and practice impacts for each of the three survey years (1997, 2004, 2010). Case summaries were then reviewed and discussed by the authors to distil key themes on if, how and why the SPANS findings had been used to guide policy and practice. Results We found that the survey findings were used for agenda setting (raising awareness of issues), identifying areas and target groups for interventions, informing new policies, and supporting and justifying existing policies and programs across a range of sectors. Reported factors influencing use of the findings were: i) the perceived credibility of survey findings; ii) dissemination strategies used; and, iii) a range of contextual factors. Conclusions Using a novel approach, our case study provides important new insights into how and under what circumstances population health monitoring data can be used to influence real world policy and practice

  15. Utilization of a population health survey in policy and practice: a case study.

    PubMed

    Laws, Rachel; King, Lesley; Hardy, Louise L; Milat, Andrew; Rissel, Chris; Newson, Robyn; Rychetnik, Lucie; Bauman, Adrian E

    2013-01-30

    There is growing interest by funding bodies and researchers in assessing the impact of research on real world policy and practice. Population health monitoring surveys provide an important source of data on the prevalence and patterns of health problems, but few empirical studies have explored if and how such data is used to influence policy or practice decisions. Here we provide a case study analysis of how the findings from an Australian population monitoring survey series of children's weight and weight-related behaviors (Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS)) have been used, and the key facilitators and barriers to their utilization. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with the chief investigators (n = 3) and end-users (n = 9) of SPANS data to explore if, how and under what circumstances the survey findings had been used, bibliometric analysis and verification using documentary evidence. Data analysis involved thematic coding of interview data and triangulation with other data sources to produce case summaries of policy and practice impacts for each of the three survey years (1997, 2004, 2010). Case summaries were then reviewed and discussed by the authors to distil key themes on if, how and why the SPANS findings had been used to guide policy and practice. We found that the survey findings were used for agenda setting (raising awareness of issues), identifying areas and target groups for interventions, informing new policies, and supporting and justifying existing policies and programs across a range of sectors. Reported factors influencing use of the findings were: i) the perceived credibility of survey findings; ii) dissemination strategies used; and, iii) a range of contextual factors. Using a novel approach, our case study provides important new insights into how and under what circumstances population health monitoring data can be used to influence real world policy and practice. The findings highlight the importance of

  16. Current Transition Practices in Pediatric IBD: Findings from a National Survey of Pediatric Providers.

    PubMed

    Gray, Wendy N; Maddux, Michele H

    2016-02-01

    Although practice guidelines have been published for transition to adult care among general chronic illness populations and specific to pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), little is known about current transition practices in IBD care. This study presents data characterizing current transition practices as reported by a national sample of pediatric providers in the United States. One hundred forty-one pediatric providers completed an online survey designed to assess current transition practices, barriers and challenges to developing and maintaining transition programming, and desired resources to improve transition services. Practices varied greatly in terms of when providers begin discussing transition and transfer, age at transfer to adult care, and patient supports provided to facilitate transition. Multiple disciplines were often involved in transition programming and 75.9% reported using objective assessment of patient transition readiness. Knowledge and application of published transition practice guidelines was limited, and few respondents reported having a written transition policy at their institution (14.2%). 99.3% of respondents reported barriers to their transition programming efforts. Additional time and instrumental supports were the most common desired resources to support transition efforts. Variability in IBD transition programming, practices, and policies reflect the emerging nature of clinical practice in this area. Understanding the current state of transition programming can inform future programming. Efforts to identify evidence-based practices in transition to adult care are needed.

  17. Practice patterns of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing in popularity, especially within the pediatric population. Research on CAM practitioners and their specialties, such as pediatrics, is lacking. Within the chiropractic profession, pediatrics is one of the most recently established post-graduate specialty programs. This paper describes the demographic and practice characteristics of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate. Methods 218 chiropractors with a pediatric diplomate were invited to complete our survey using either web-based or mailed paper survey methods. Practitioner demographics, practice characteristics, treatment procedures, referral patterns, and patient characteristics were queried with a survey created with the online survey tool, SurveyMonkey©®. Results A total of 135 chiropractors responded (62.2% response rate); they were predominantly female (74%) and white (93%). Techniques most commonly used were Diversified, Activator ®, and Thompson with the addition of cranial and extremity manipulation to their chiropractic treatments. Adjunctive therapies commonly provided to patients included recommendations for activities of daily living, corrective or therapeutic exercise, ice pack\\cryotherapy, and nutritional counseling. Thirty eight percent of respondents' patients were private pay and 23% had private insurance that was not managed care. Pediatrics represented 31% of the survey respondents' patients. Chiropractors also reported 63% of their work time devoted to direct patient care. Health conditions reportedly treated within the pediatric population included back or neck pain, asthma, birth trauma, colic, constipation, ear infection, head or chest cold, and upper respiratory infections. Referrals made to or from these chiropractors were uncommon. Conclusions This mixed mode survey identified similarities and differences between doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate to other surveys of doctors of chiropractic

  18. Practice patterns of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Pohlman, Katherine A; Hondras, Maria A; Long, Cynthia R; Haan, Andrea G

    2010-06-14

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing in popularity, especially within the pediatric population. Research on CAM practitioners and their specialties, such as pediatrics, is lacking. Within the chiropractic profession, pediatrics is one of the most recently established post-graduate specialty programs. This paper describes the demographic and practice characteristics of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate. 218 chiropractors with a pediatric diplomate were invited to complete our survey using either web-based or mailed paper survey methods. Practitioner demographics, practice characteristics, treatment procedures, referral patterns, and patient characteristics were queried with a survey created with the online survey tool, SurveyMonkey. A total of 135 chiropractors responded (62.2% response rate); they were predominantly female (74%) and white (93%). Techniques most commonly used were Diversified, Activator, and Thompson with the addition of cranial and extremity manipulation to their chiropractic treatments. Adjunctive therapies commonly provided to patients included recommendations for activities of daily living, corrective or therapeutic exercise, ice pack\\cryotherapy, and nutritional counseling. Thirty eight percent of respondents' patients were private pay and 23% had private insurance that was not managed care. Pediatrics represented 31% of the survey respondents' patients. Chiropractors also reported 63% of their work time devoted to direct patient care. Health conditions reportedly treated within the pediatric population included back or neck pain, asthma, birth trauma, colic, constipation, ear infection, head or chest cold, and upper respiratory infections. Referrals made to or from these chiropractors were uncommon. This mixed mode survey identified similarities and differences between doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate to other surveys of doctors of chiropractic, CAM professionals, and pediatric healthcare

  19. Molecular microbiological methods in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Mohan; Flores, Angela; Luna, Ruth Ann; Versalovic, James

    2010-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. The current gold standard for diagnosis of sepsis, namely blood culture, suffers from low sensitivity and a reporting delay of approximately 48–72 h. Rapid detection of sepsis and institution of antimicrobial therapy may improve patient outcomes. Rapid and sensitive tests that can inform clinicians regarding the institution or optimization of antimicrobial therapy are urgently needed. The ideal diagnostic test should have adequate specificity and negative predictive value to reliably exclude sepsis and avoid unnecessary antibiotic therapy. We comprehensively searched for neonatal studies that evaluated molecular methods for diagnosis of sepsis. We identified 19 studies that were assessed with respect to assay methodology and diagnostic characteristics. In addition, we also reviewed newer molecular microbiological assays of relevance that have not been fully evaluated in neonates. Molecular methods offer distinct advantages over blood cultures, including increased sensitivity and rapid diagnosis. However, diagnostic accuracy and cost–effectiveness should be established before implementation in clinical practice. PMID:20818947

  20. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap.

    PubMed

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T

    2011-05-01

    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  1. Intravenous drug preparation practices: a survey in a French university hospital.

    PubMed

    Tilleul, Patrick; Mons, Bisserka; Schmitt, Claude; Laporte, Jean-Marie; Begue, Dominique

    2003-12-01

    To describe current practices for i.v. drug admixture preparation, to identify potential improvements for the enhancement of patient safety. A survey was conducted in a University hospital in Paris. Nurse practices were explored through the evaluation of five i.v. drug delivery systems: reconstituted freeze-dried drugs administered by syringe or i.v. bags, reconstituted drugs from vials administered by syringe or i.v. bags Ready to Use (RtU). i.v. drug preparation practices were documented by a representative sample of nurses in the following departments: intensive care, emergency, abdominal surgery, cardiology, infectious diseases, hepatology. Data were collected regarding: existence of written procedures for preparations, sources of information, labelling, methods of preparation and calculation of doses, nurse satisfaction regarding safety and ease of use of the different i.v. systems. A total of 299 questionnaires were completed and 100 nurses from the chosen wards were surveyed. The study highlighted a lack of procedure (71-85%) and a lack of labelling (37%). This survey highlighted areas for improvement in the preparation of i.v. drugs. It may contribute to raising awareness among nurses and physicians about the risks of medication errors. This survey also helped the pharmacy department in supporting the development of pharmaceutical procedures, the development of satellite pharmacy, the set up of training sessions for i.v. preparation and the switch toward ready to use packages when these are available.

  2. Workforce characteristics of privately practicing nurse practitioners in Australia: Results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Currie, Jane; Chiarella, Mary; Buckley, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Australian private practice nurse practitioner (PPNP) services have grown since legislative changes in 2010 enabled eligible nurse practitioners (NPs) to access reimbursement for care delivered through the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). This article provides data from a national survey on the workforce characteristics of PPNPs in Australia. PPNPs in Australia were invited to complete an electronic survey. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data using thematic analysis. There were 73 completed surveys. One of the intentions of expanding access to MBS and PBS for patients treated by NPs was to increase patients' access to health care through greater flexibility in the healthcare workforce. The results of this survey confirm that the workforce characteristics of PPNPs provide a potentially untapped resource to meet current primary healthcare demand. The findings of this study allow us to understand the characteristics of PPNP services, which are significant for workforce planning. The focus of PPNP practice is toward primary health care with PPNPs working predominantly in general practice settings. The largest age group of PPNPs is over 50 years and means a proportion will be retiring in the next 15 years. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. Patient whiteboards as a communication tool in the hospital setting: a survey of practices and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Niraj L; Green, Adrienne; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Blegen, Mary A; Wachter, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    Patient whiteboards can serve as a communication tool between hospital providers and as a mechanism to engage patients in their care, but little is known about their current use or best practices. We surveyed bedside nurses, internal medicine housestaff, and hospitalists from the medical service at the University of California, San Francisco. A brief survey about self-reported whiteboard practices and their impact on patient care was administered via paper and a commercial online survey tool. Surveys were collected from 104 nurse respondents (81% response rate), 118 internal medicine housestaff (74% response rate), and 31 hospitalists (86% response rate). Nurses were far more likely to use and read whiteboards than physicians. While all respondents highly valued the utility of family contact information on whiteboards, nurses valued the importance of a "goal for the day" and an "anticipated discharge date" more than physicians. Most respondents believed that nurses should be responsible for accurate and updated information on whiteboards, that goals for the day should be created by a nurse and physician together, and that unavailability of pens was the greatest barrier to use. Despite differences in practice patterns of nurses and physicians in using whiteboards, our findings suggest that all providers value their potential as a tool to improve teamwork, communication, and patient care. Successful adoption of whiteboard use may be enhanced through strategies that emphasize a patient-centered focus while also addressing important barriers to use. (c) 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. Reirradiation After Radical Radiation Therapy: A Survey of Patterns of Practice Among Canadian Radiation Oncologists

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Kurian Jones Al-Mandhari, Zahid; Pervez, Nadeem; Parliament, Matthew; Wu, Jackson; Ghosh, Sunita; Tai, Patricia; Lian Jidong; Levin, Wilfred

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to survey the use of reirradiation (Re-RT) for in-field failures after previous radical radiation treatment (RT) among Canadian radiation oncologists (ROs). Methods and Materials: An electronic survey was sent to 271 ROs in Canada. The completed surveys were received electronically via e-mail and the data were analyzed using SAS 9.1.3 software. Results: A total of 183 ROs (67.5%) completed and returned the survey. The majority of the respondents were involved in the practice of either breast (48%) or genitourinary (43%) tumor sites. A total of 49% of the participants were interested in using Re-RT for the management of in-field recurrences. The goals of the therapy would be improvement of quality of life (99%), locoregional control (80%), or cure (32%). Most of the physicians believed that patients should have a minimum Karnofsky performance status of 50 or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 3, a minimum life expectancy of 3 months, and a minimum interval from initial treatment of 3 months if Re-RT were to be given with curative intent. Conclusions: This survey showed that a wide variation existed among ROs in their approach to Re-RT. Newer technologies in RT planning and delivery would be employed to facilitate normal tissue avoidance. The results of this study suggested that a consensus meeting was needed to establish guidelines for the practice and prospective evaluation of Re-RT.

  5. Survey of Sedation and Analgesia Practice Among Canadian Pediatric Critical Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Joffe, Ari R; Cave, Dominic; Duff, Jonathan; Duncan, Shannon; Sheppard, Cathy; Tawfik, Gerda; Hartling, Lisa; Jou, Hsing; Vohra, Sunita

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that almost all critically ill children experience some degree of pain or anxiety, there is a lack of high-quality evidence to inform preferred approaches to sedation, analgesia, and comfort measures in this environment. We conducted this survey to better understand current comfort and sedation practices among Canadian pediatric intensivists. The survey was conducted after a literature review and initial focus groups. The survey was then pretested and validated. The final survey was distributed by email to 134 intensivists from 17 PICUs across Canada using the Research Electronic Data Capture system. The response rate was 73% (98/134). The most commonly used sedation scores are Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (42%) and COMFORT (41%). Withdrawal scores are commonly used (65%). In contrast, delirium scores are used by only 16% of the respondents. Only 36% of respondents have routinely used sedation protocols. The majority (66%) do not use noise reduction methods, whereas only 23% of respondents have a protocol to promote day/night cycles. Comfort measures including music, swaddling, soother, television, and sucrose solutions are frequently used. The drugs most commonly used to provide analgesia are morphine and acetaminophen. Midazolam and chloral hydrate were the most frequent sedatives. Our survey demonstrates great variation in practice in the management of pain and anxiety in Canadian PICUs. Standardized strategies for sedation, delirium and withdrawal, and sleep promotion are lacking. There is a need for research in this field and the development of evidence-based, pediatric sedation and analgesia guidelines.

  6. Reirradiation after radical radiation therapy: a survey of patterns of practice among Canadian radiation oncologists.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Kurian Jones; Al-Mandhari, Zahid; Pervez, Nadeem; Parliament, Matthew; Wu, Jackson; Ghosh, Sunita; Tai, Patricia; Lian, Jidong; Levin, Wilfred

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to survey the use of reirradiation (Re-RT) for in-field failures after previous radical radiation treatment (RT) among Canadian radiation oncologists (ROs). An electronic survey was sent to 271 ROs in Canada. The completed surveys were received electronically via e-mail and the data were analyzed using SAS 9.1.3 software. A total of 183 ROs (67.5%) completed and returned the survey. The majority of the respondents were involved in the practice of either breast (48%) or genitourinary (43%) tumor sites. A total of 49% of the participants were interested in using Re-RT for the management of in-field recurrences. The goals of the therapy would be improvement of quality of life (99%), locoregional control (80%), or cure (32%). Most of the physicians believed that patients should have a minimum Karnofsky performance status of 50 or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 3, a minimum life expectancy of 3 months, and a minimum interval from initial treatment of 3 months if Re-RT were to be given with curative intent. This survey showed that a wide variation existed among ROs in their approach to Re-RT. Newer technologies in RT planning and delivery would be employed to facilitate normal tissue avoidance. The results of this study suggested that a consensus meeting was needed to establish guidelines for the practice and prospective evaluation of Re-RT.

  7. Current practice and recommendations in UK epilepsy monitoring units. Report of a national survey and workshop.

    PubMed

    Hamandi, Khalid; Beniczky, Sandor; Diehl, Beate; Kandler, Rosalind H; Pressler, Ronit M; Sen, Arjune; Solomon, Juliet; Walker, Matthew C; Bagary, Manny

    2017-08-01

    Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE. The survey and workshop aimed to cover all aspects of VEM, including pre-admission, consent procedures, patient safety, drug reduction and reinstatement, seizure management, staffing levels, ictal testing and good data recording practice. This paper reports on the findings of the survey, the workshop presentations and workshop discussions. 32 centres took part in the survey and there were representatives from 22 centres at the workshop. There was variation in protocols, procedures and consent processes between units, and levels of observation of monitored patients. Nevertheless, the workshop discussion found broad areas of agreement on points. A survey and workshop of UK epilepsy monitoring units found that some variability in practice is inevitable due to different local arrangements and patient groups under investigation. However, there were areas of clear consensus particularly in relation to consent and patient safety that can be applied to most units and form a basis for setting minimum standards. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A 2013 European survey of clinical practice patterns in the management of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Bartalena, L; Burch, H B; Burman, K D; Kahaly, G J

    2016-01-01

    Management of Graves' disease (GD) in Europe was published in 1987. Aim of this survey was to provide an update on clinical practice in Europe, and to compare it with a 2011 American survey. Members of the European Thyroid Association (ETA) were asked to participate in a survey on management of GD, using the same questionnaire of a recent American survey. A total of 147 ETA members participated. In addition to serum TSH and free T4 assays, most respondents would request TSH-receptor autoantibody (TRAb) measurement (85·6%) and thyroid ultrasound (70·6%) to confirm aetiology, while isotopic studies were selected by 37·7%. Antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy was the preferred first-line treatment (83·8%). Compared to the previous European survey, Europeans currently more frequently use TRAb measurement and thyroid ultrasound for diagnosis and evaluation, but first-line treatment remains ATDs in a similar percentage of respondents. Current clinical practice patterns differ from those in North America, where isotopic studies are more frequently used, and radioiodine (RAI) still is first-line treatment. When RAI treatment is selected in the presence of mild Graves' orbitopathy and/or associated risk factors for its occurrence/exacerbation, steroid prophylaxis is frequently used. The preferred ATD in pregnancy is propylthiouracil in the first trimester and methimazole in the second and third trimesters, similar to North America. Significant changes in clinical practice patterns in Europe were noted compared to the previous European survey, as well as persisting differences in diagnosis and therapy between Europe and North America. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Defibrillation during renal dialysis: a survey of UK practice and procedural recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bird, Scott; Petley, Graham W; Deakin, Charles D; Clewlow, Frank

    2007-06-01

    Defibrillation of patients connected to medical equipment that is not defibrillation proof risks ineffective defibrillation and harm to the operator as a result of aberrant electrical pathways taken by the defibrillation current. Many renal dialysis systems are not currently defibrillation proof. Although national and international safety standards caution against defibrillating under this circumstance, it appears to be an area of confusion that we have investigated in more detail. Thirty renal dialysis units across the UK were invited to participate in a telephone survey of current practice from 1 October 2004 to 1 October 2005. The Medical Healthcare Regulatory Agency and renal dialysis machine manufacturers were contacted for advice, and current safety standards were reviewed. Twenty-eight renal dialysis units completed the survey. Seven (25%) units would not disconnect patients from dialysis equipment during defibrillation, collectively reporting 14 patients who had required defibrillation during dialysis. Eighteen (64.3%) units would disconnect patients from dialysis equipment during defibrillation, collectively reporting 29 patients who had required defibrillation during dialysis. No complications were identified by this survey, through the MHRA or through a literature search. Defibrillation of patients while undergoing renal dialysis is common practice in the UK. Although no adverse events have been reported, this practice risks injury to the patient and clinical staff, and equipment damage if the dialysis equipment is not defibrillation proof. It is in breach of national and international safety standards and should not be practiced.

  10. Contemporary training practices in elite British powerlifters: survey results from an international competition.

    PubMed

    Swinton, Paul A; Lloyd, Ray; Agouris, Ioannis; Stewart, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate current powerlifting training methods in light of anecdotal evidence purporting increased similarity with the explosive training practices of weightlifters. The study also assessed the prevalence of contemporary training practices frequently recommended for powerlifters in the popular literature. A 20-item survey was distributed to 32 elite British powerlifters at an International competition. The subject group included multiple national, international, and commonwealth champions and record holders. Based on 2007 competition results, the average Wilks score of the group was 450.26 +/- 34.7. The response rate for the surveys was 88% (28 of 32). The survey was sectioned into 6 areas of inquiry: a) repetition speed, b) explosive training load, c) resistance materials used, d) adjunct power training methods, e) exercise selection, and f) training organization. The results demonstrate that the majority of powerlifters train with the intention to explosively lift maximal and submaximal loads (79 and 82%, respectively). Results revealed that 39% of the lifters regularly used elastic bands and that 57% incorporated chains in their training. Evidence for convergence of training practices between powerlifters and weightlifters was found when 69% of the subjects reported using the Olympic lifts or their derivatives as part of their powerlifting training. Collectively, the results demonstrate that previous notions of how powerlifters train are outdated. Contemporary powerlifters incorporate a variety of training practices that are focused on developing both explosive and maximal strength.

  11. A survey of chiropractors practicing in Germany: practice characteristics, professional reading habits, and attitudes and perceptions toward research

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Ilke; Hondras, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2004, a survey conducted by the European Chiropractor's Union among member countries reported that "there appears to be little interest in research among chiropractors in Germany." However, no research has tested this statement. The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes and perceptions of practicing chiropractors in Germany regarding research, to look at their reading and research habits, and to gather demographic and practice data. Methods A questionnaire was developed and distributed among participants at a seminar held by the German Chiropractors' Association in 2005. The questionnaire was mailed to any members of the association who did not attend the seminar. Results A total of 49 (72%) of 68 distributed questionnaires were returned. Forty-five (92%) respondents stated they would support research efforts in Germany and 15 (31%) declared interest in participating in practiced based research. An average of three hours per week were reportedly spent reading scientific literature by 44 (85%) respondents. However, few journals listed by respondents were peer-reviewed and indexed; most were newsletters of chiropractic organizations or free publications. Most participants agreed on the importance of research for the profession, but when asked about the most pressing issue for chiropractic in Germany, legislation and recognition of the profession were the dominant themes. Conclusion The results of this survey show that there is a general interest in supporting and participating in research activities among chiropractors practicing in Germany. Next steps could consist of educating practitioners about the resources available to read and interpret the scientific literature and thus further the understanding of research. PMID:17480221

  12. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Gofton, Teneille E; Young, G Bryan

    2012-10-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a diffuse brain dysfunction that occurs secondary to infection in the body without overt CNS infection. SAE is frequently encountered in critically ill patients in intensive care units, and in up to 70% of patients with severe systemic infection. The severity of SAE can range from mild delirium to deep coma. Seizures and myoclonus are infrequent and cranial nerves are almost always spared, but most severe cases have an associated critical illness neuromyopathy. Development of SAE probably involves a number of mechanisms that are not mutually exclusive and vary from patient to patient. Substantial neurological and psychological morbidities often occur in survivors. Mortality is almost always due to multiorgan failure rather than neurological complications, and is almost 70% in patients with severe SAE. Further research into the pathophysiology, management and prevention of SAE is needed. This Review discusses the epidemiology and clinical presentation of SAE. Recent evidence for SAE pathophysiology is outlined and a diagnostic approach to patients with this syndrome is presented. Lastly, prognosis and management of SAE is discussed.

  13. Antimicrobial Peptides in Human Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; van Meegern, Anne; Doemming, Sabine; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 100 years ago, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified as an important part of innate immunity. They exist in species from bacteria to mammals and can be isolated in body fluids and on surfaces constitutively or induced by inflammation. Defensins have anti-bacterial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as anti-viral and anti-yeast effects. Human neutrophil peptides (HNP) 1–3 and human beta-defensins (HBDs) 1–3 are some of the most important defensins in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated higher levels of HNP 1–3 and HBD-2 in sepsis. The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) attenuates local inflammatory response and decreases systemic toxicity of endotoxins. Moreover, BPI might reflect the severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Elevated plasma lactoferrin is detected in patients with organ failure. HNP 1–3, lactoferrin, BPI, and heparin-binding protein are increased in sepsis. Human lactoferrin peptide 1–11 (hLF 1–11) possesses antimicrobial activity and modulates inflammation. The recombinant form of lactoferrin [talactoferrin alpha (TLF)] has been shown to decrease mortality in critically ill patients. A phase II/III study with TLF in sepsis did not confirm this result. The growing number of multiresistant bacteria is an ongoing problem in sepsis therapy. Furthermore, antibiotics are known to promote the liberation of pro-inflammatory cell components and thus augment the severity of sepsis. Compared to antibiotics, AMPs kill bacteria but also neutralize pathogenic factors such as lipopolysaccharide. The obstacle to applying naturally occurring AMPs is their high nephro- and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the challenge is to develop peptides to treat septic patients effectively without causing harm. This overview focuses on natural and synthetic AMPs in human and experimental sepsis and their potential to provide significant improvements in the treatment of critically ill with severe infections

  14. Care of the transgender patient: a survey of gynecologists' current knowledge and practice.

    PubMed

    Unger, Cécile A

    2015-02-01

    Medical school and residency curricula are lacking in content on the care of the transgender patient. As a result, many providers do not have enough experience and knowledge to adequately care for this patient population. The aim of this study was to assess gynecologists' preferences and knowledge base with regard to transgender healthcare. This was a cross-sectional survey of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) providers. An anonymous survey was sent via electronic mail to nine academic OBGYN departments across the United States. Survey questions were designed to assess provider experience and practice environment, education about transgender health practices, personal experience with transgender patients, and knowledge base regarding current recommendations for the care of gender minority patients. Of the 352 providers who received the survey, 141 responded, for a 40.1% response rate. Of the respondents, 61.7% (87 of 141) were generalist OBGYNs, and 86% (117 of 136) practiced in an academic institution; 80% (113 of 141) did not receive training in residency on the care of transgender patients. Time in practice was not associated with having learned about transgender care. Only 35.3% and 29% were comfortable caring for male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual patients, respectively; and, 88.7% and 80.4% were willing to perform screening Pap smears on female-to-male transsexual patients and routine breast examinations on male-to-female patients, respectively. Eighty-two of 138 providers (59.4%) did not know the recommendations for breast cancer screening in male-to-female patients. Efforts should be made to educate trainees on the important aspects of transgender care, and comprehensive guidelines should be published for practicing providers.

  15. Predictors of health practices within age-sex groups: National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences, 1979.

    PubMed Central

    Rakowski, W

    1988-01-01

    Health promotion-disease prevention programs share with health behavior research the common objective of identifying population subgroups toward whom services can be targeted. For this report, six age-sex groups were examined to determine similarities and differences in the predictors of eight health practice indices. Data were from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences. Results showed very little similarity of predictors across the three age cohorts (20-34, 35-49, 50-64), between men and women, and among the six age-sex groups. No predictor achieved significance consistently for several health practices in any of the six groups, although years of education made the best showing. The lack of overlap among predictors helps to explain why health promotion messages and recruitment strategies may not appeal to as diverse an audience as initially intended. Possible explanations for the absence of similar predictors include differences in the nature of the various practices themselves, absence of data on intentions behind a person's behavior, and the "over-determined" character of an individual person's behavior. PMID:3136496

  16. The Private Pilot Practical Test: Survey Results From Designated Pilot Examiners and Newly Certificated Private Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    surveys to include only those who had conducted at least one first-time private Pilot Airplane Single-Engine-Land (P- ASEL ) practical test in the previous...pilot examiners conducted an average of 30 first-time private P- ASEL category and class rating tests, with 59% indicating that at least 81% of their...certificated on or after August 1, 2005 for the P- ASEL category and class rating. Returned surveys were screened to include only pilots who were tested by an

  17. An opinion and practice survey on the structure and management of data and safety monitoring boards.

    PubMed

    Tereskerz, Patti M; Guterbock, Thomas M; Kermer, Deborah A; Moreno, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    There is little to no empirical data available on how data and safety monitoring boards (DSMBs) are structured and how they operate. The purpose of this study was to provide data on this. To accomplish this goal, we administered a random survey on current structure and management practices and opinions as reported by principal investigators (PIs) and biostatisticians. We also surveyed Institutional Review Board (IRB) community members, as proxies for the public, as to their opinions on how DSMBs should be structured and managed. A final purpose was to compare opinions about what should be taking place to what is actually happening.

  18. B.M.A. Planning Unit Survey of General Practice 1969

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Donald; Jeffreys, Margot

    1971-01-01

    A postal survey of 776 principals representative of general practice in Britain is described. Doctors working in health centres are compared both with colleagues in other group practices and with doctors who have no group practice allowance. Young doctors are mainly in group practice, especially health centres; the proportion of doctors who are not in groups is diminishing steadily, and they are mainly older. With some notable exceptions health centres provide most space, equipment, and staff; group practitioners in privately-owned premises spend more of their money on their practices, more often use appointment systems, and tend to make more efficient use of premises and staff. Overall, however, the picture is still one of general practice geared to the needs of practitioners working alone. Premises with space for sophisticated organization and for future teaching needs are unusual. Scotland, the North of England, and Wales have fewer young doctors. Average lists are higher in the North of England, and less money is invested in practice premises. Young doctors look for modern premises and the tools and staff for the job. If their career expectations are to be met the tremendous improvements made in some practices must be extended rapidly to the remainder. PMID:5128210

  19. Disinfection methods in general practice and health authority clinics: a telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Kaul, S; Littlepage, B C

    1988-10-01

    Concern about the epidemic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome led to discussions in one health district about the dangers of cross-infection from instruments in general practice and health authority clinics. In order to establish what current disinfection practices were in use a telephone survey was adopted as a quick and easy method of data collection. Information was collected on who was responsible for disinfection as well as details of how each instrument was disinfected. Results from 69 general practices and 21 health authority clinice in one health district are reported.Some form of sterilizer was used in 63 general practices. These included water boilers (49%), dry heat sterilizers (41%), autoclaves (5%) and pressure cookers (5%). Sixty one practices were using metal vaginal specula and of these 29 were disinfecting by boiling, three were using pressure cookers, 18 dry heat, seven chemical methods, three autoclaves and one the central sterile department of the local hospital. Of those who were boiling after simple washing, three practices boiled for five to 10 minutes and reused instruments during the same clinic. Of the 29 using simple boiling 20 (69%) were boiling for less than 20 minutes.The study highlights the fact that no formal advice has been given on disinfection practice by the DHSS, the health authorities or the family practitioner committees. The need to set up local guidelines and develop practical steps for their introduction are discussed.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Press Ganey® Outpatient Medical Practice Survey.

    PubMed

    Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Abtahi, Amir M; Kean, Jacob; Hung, Man; Tyser, Andrew R

    2017-02-10

    The Press Ganey® Medical Practice Survey ("Press Ganey® survey") is a patient-reported questionnaire commonly used to measure patient satisfaction with outpatient health care in the United States. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Press Ganey® survey in a single institution setting. We analyzed surveys from 34,503 unique respondents seen by 624 providers from 47 specialties and 94 clinics at the University of Utah in 2013. The University of Utah is a health care system that provides primary through tertiary care for over 200 medical specialties. Surveys were administered online. The Press Ganey® survey consisted of 24 items organized into 6 scales: Access (4 items), Moving Through the Visit (2), Nurse Assistant (2), Care Provider (10), Personal Issues (4) and Overall Assessment (2). Missingness, ceiling and floor rates were summarized. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate internal consistency reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess convergent and discriminant validities. Missingness was 0.01% for the total score and ranged from 0.8 to 11.4% across items. The ceiling rate was high at 29.3% for the total score, and ranged from 55.4 to 84.1% across items. Floor rates were 0.01% for the total score, and ranged from 0.1 to 2.1% across items. Internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.79 to 0.96, and item-scale correlations ranged from 0.49 to 0.9. Confirmatory factor analysis supported convergent and discriminant validities. The Press Ganey® survey demonstrated suitable psychometric properties for most metrics. However, the high ceiling rate can have a notable impact on quarterly percentile scores within our institution. Multi-institutional studies of the Press Ganey® survey are needed to inform administrative decision making and institution reimbursement decisions based on this survey.

  1. A survey of current practices in management of Hirschsprung's disease in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Abdulrasheed A; Ameh, Emmanuel A

    2014-01-01

    Although there are several modalities of treatment for Hirschsprung's disease (HD), there are presently no clear guidelines on treatment of the condition by paediatric surgeons in Nigeria. This survey determines the current approach to treatment among Nigerian paediatric surgeons and should help in establishing a consensus and guidelines for care in this and similar setting. An online questionnaire was designed using survey Monkey ® to determine current clinical and operative management of patients with HD by consultant paediatric surgeons practicing in the Nigeria. The paediatric surgeons were notified by E-mail, which included a link to the survey on survey Monkey ® . The survey was also administered at the 12 th annual meeting of Association of Paediatric Surgeons of Nigeria in September, 2013, to capture those who did not complete the online survey. Thirty-one paediatric surgeons from 21 different tertiary paediatric surgery centres completed the survey. Sixteen (52%) respondents see up to 20% of their patients with HD in the neonatal period. Twenty-six (84%) respondents do routine barium enema. Twenty six (84%) respondents do full thickness rectal biopsy under general anaesthesia (GA). There was no consistency in operative techniques, with transabominal Swenson's operation being practiced by 17 (57%) respondents and 11 (37%) transanal endorectal pull through. 14 (45%) do pull through at any age. 12 (39%) respondents do more than half of their patient as primary pull through. Full thickness rectal biopsy under GA is still the vogue with variations in the surgical technique for management of Hirshsprung's disease in Nigeria. Primary pull through procedures is becoming increasingly popular. There's a need for Paediatric Surgeons in Nigeria to come up with a guideline on management of HD, to guide trainees and other surgeons in the care of these patients.

  2. Clinical Training and Practice Patterns of Medical Family Therapists: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Zubatsky, Max; Harris, Steven M; Mendenhall, Tai J

    2017-04-01

    Medical family therapy (MedFT) has gained momentum as a framework in healthcare for individuals and families. However, little is known about what background training and clinical experiences Medical Family Therapists (MedFTs) have in everyday practice. This study investigated the clinical training of MedFTs and their practices in a variety of care settings. A survey was completed by 80 participants who use a MedFT framework in practice, with descriptive data on curriculum, clinical training, and treatment characteristics. Results reflect that many MedFTs lack formal coursework in key content areas of their graduate training and work primarily with psychological and relational concerns. Future research is needed to explore how MedFTs practice around specific mental health and chronic health conditions.

  3. US Interagency Regional Foreign Policy Implementation: A Survey of Current Practice and an Analysis of Options for Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Survey of Current Practice and an Analysis of Options for Improvement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 US Interagency Regional Foreign Policy Implementation A Survey of Current...foreign policy implemen- tation : a survey of current practice and an analysis of options for improvement / Robert S. Pope, Colonel, USAF. pages cm

  4. Interviewing Practices, Conversational Practices, and Rapport: Responsiveness and Engagement in the Standardized Survey Interview

    PubMed Central

    Garbarski, Dana; Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    “Rapport” has been used to refer to a range of positive psychological features of an interaction -- including a situated sense of connection or affiliation between interactional partners, comfort, willingness to disclose or share sensitive information, motivation to please, or empathy. Rapport could potentially benefit survey participation and response quality by increasing respondents’ motivation to participate, disclose, or provide accurate information. Rapport could also harm data quality if motivation to ingratiate or affiliate caused respondents to suppress undesirable information. Some previous research suggests that motives elicited when rapport is high conflict with the goals of standardized interviewing. We examine rapport as an interactional phenomenon, attending to both the content and structure of talk. Using questions about end-of-life planning in the 2003–2005 wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we observe that rapport consists of behaviors that can be characterized as dimensions of responsiveness by interviewers and engagement by respondents. We identify and describe types of responsiveness and engagement in selected question-answer sequences and then devise a coding scheme to examine their analytic potential with respect to the criterion of future study participation. Our analysis suggests that responsive and engaged behaviors vary with respect to the goals of standardization—some conflict with these goals, while others complement them. PMID:27867231

  5. Interviewing Practices, Conversational Practices, and Rapport: Responsiveness and Engagement in the Standardized Survey Interview.

    PubMed

    Garbarski, Dana; Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    "Rapport" has been used to refer to a range of positive psychological features of an interaction -- including a situated sense of connection or affiliation between interactional partners, comfort, willingness to disclose or share sensitive information, motivation to please, or empathy. Rapport could potentially benefit survey participation and response quality by increasing respondents' motivation to participate, disclose, or provide accurate information. Rapport could also harm data quality if motivation to ingratiate or affiliate caused respondents to suppress undesirable information. Some previous research suggests that motives elicited when rapport is high conflict with the goals of standardized interviewing. We examine rapport as an interactional phenomenon, attending to both the content and structure of talk. Using questions about end-of-life planning in the 2003-2005 wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we observe that rapport consists of behaviors that can be characterized as dimensions of responsiveness by interviewers and engagement by respondents. We identify and describe types of responsiveness and engagement in selected question-answer sequences and then devise a coding scheme to examine their analytic potential with respect to the criterion of future study participation. Our analysis suggests that responsive and engaged behaviors vary with respect to the goals of standardization-some conflict with these goals, while others complement them.

  6. Impact of Individual and Team Features of Patient Safety Climate: A Survey in Family Practices

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Barbara; Miessner, Carolin; Albay, Zeycan; Schröber, Jakob; Weppler, Katrin; Gerlach, Ferdinand M.; Güthlin, Corina

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Knowledge about safety climate is fundamental to improving patient safety in health care organizations. Because individual and organizational factors influence the safety climate, we conducted a health care survey of German family practices so we could analyze the impact of the professional group, the professional experience of practice staff, and practice characteristics on perceptions of the safety climate. METHODS We wrote to health care assistants and doctors in 1,800 randomly selected family practices in Germany and asked them to complete a newly developed and validated Frankfurt Patient Safety Climate Questionnaire. We conducted a descriptive analyses of items and climate factors, as well as regression analysis, to identify potential predictors of the safety climate in family practice. RESULTS The response rate from the participating practices was 36.1%. Safety climate was perceived to be generally positive with the exception of the factors of error management and perception of the causes of errors. We discovered that whether or not the entire team had taken part in the survey had a positive influence on most factors. Doctors had more positive perceptions of 4 of 7 factors addressed to both professions. Male participants and doctors showed the most willingness to admit they had made an error. CONCLUSIONS Though the safety climate in German family practices was positive overall, health care professionals’ use of incident reporting and a system’s approach to errors was fairly rare. When evaluating the safety climate in primary health care practices, respondents’ individual characteristics, as well as organizational features, should be taken into account. PMID:23835822

  7. Exposure control practices for administering nitrous oxide: A survey of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants.

    PubMed

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2017-06-01

    Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey. Use of primary engineering controls (i.e., nasal scavenging mask and/or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) near the patient's mouth) was nearly universal, reported by 93% and 96% of respondents who administered to adult (A) and pediatric (P) patients, respectively. However, adherence to other recommended precautionary practices were lacking to varying degrees, and were essentially no different among those administering nitrous oxide to adult or pediatric patients. Examples of work practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: not checking nitrous oxide equipment for leaks (41% A; 48% P); starting nitrous oxide gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (13% A; 12% P); and not turning off nitrous oxide gas flow before turning off oxygen flow to the patient (8% A; 7% P). Absence of standard procedures to minimize worker exposure to nitrous oxide (13% of all respondents) and not being trained on safe handling and administration of nitrous oxide (3%) were examples of breaches of administrative controls which may also increase exposure risk. Successful management of nitrous oxide emissions should include properly fitted nasal scavenging masks, supplemental LEV (when nitrous oxide levels cannot be adequately controlled using nasal masks alone), adequate general ventilation, regular

  8. A survey of current practices for genomic sequencing test interpretation and reporting processes in US laboratories

    PubMed Central

    O’Daniel, Julianne M.; McLaughlin, Heather M.; Amendola, Laura M.; Bale, Sherri J.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Bick, David; Bowling, Kevin M.; Chao, Elizabeth C.; Chung, Wendy K.; Conlin, Laura K.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Das, Soma; Deignan, Joshua L.; Dorschner, Michael O.; Evans, James P.; Ghazani, Arezou A.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Gornick, Michele; Farwell Hagman, Kelly D.; Hambuch, Tina; Hegde, Madhuri; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Amy Knight; Mighion, Lindsey; Morra, Massimo; Plon, Sharon E.; Punj, Sumit; Richards, C. Sue; Santani, Avni; Shirts, Brian H.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Tang, Sha; Weck, Karen E.; Wolf, Susan M.; Yang, Yaping; Rehm, Heidi L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE While the diagnostic success of genomic sequencing expands, the complexity of this testing should not be overlooked. Numerous laboratory processes are required to support the identification, interpretation and reporting of clinically significant variants. This study aimed to examine workflow and reporting procedures among US laboratories to highlight shared practices and identify areas in need of standardization. METHODS Surveys and follow-up interviews were conducted with laboratories offering exome and/or genome sequencing, to support a research program or for routine clinical services. The 73-item survey elicited multiple choice and free text responses, later clarified with phone interviews. RESULTS Twenty-one laboratories participated. Practices highly concordant across all groups included: consent documentation, multi-person case review, and enabling patient opt-out of incidental or secondary findings analysis. Noted divergence included use of phenotypic data to inform case analysis and interpretation, and reporting of case-specific quality metrics and methods. Few laboratory policies detailed procedures for data reanalysis, data sharing or patient access to data. CONCLUSION This study provides an overview of practices and policies of experienced exome and genome sequencing laboratories. The results enable broader consideration of which practices are becoming standard approaches, where divergence remains, and areas development of best practice guidelines may be helpful. PMID:27811861

  9. Surveying clinician perceptions of risk assessment and management practices in mental health service provision.

    PubMed

    Wand, Timothy; Isobel, Sophie; Derrick, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to survey multidisciplinary mental health staff on their perceptions of risk assessment and management practices in a local health district in Sydney. The research team developed the risk assessment and management survey (RAMS) which was distributed to staff across the district from November 2013 to January 2014. A total of 340 RAMS were distributed and 164 were returned (48% response rate). There was considerable agreement that risk assessment and management is essential to maintaining safety and delivering good mental health care, and respondents reported high levels of confidence in their judgement when carrying out such practices. Respondents identified organisational pressure in relation to risk assessment and management but also felt supported. However, 65% of respondents considered that there 'is good evidence that risk assessment and management practices are effective in reducing risk in mental health care', when this is not the case. The confidence that clinicians placed in risk assessment and management practices (despite an absence of evidence) is disconcerting. Given the dominance of risk assessment and management, health services mandating such practices have a duty to inform employees of the current evidence base for this approach in reducing risk. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  10. Public awareness and practical knowledge regarding Hepatitis A, B, and C: a two-country survey.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; Göritz, Anja S

    2012-04-01

    To assess the level of public awareness and practical knowledge regarding Hepatitis A, B, and C in two low-endemic countries (Germany and The Netherlands). Two large-scale surveys (N=1989 and 668). Although public awareness was high, practical knowledge regarding differences in the mode of transmission, consequences, and prevention was very low in both countries, especially among those with a lower level of education. Future public health initiatives are warranted to increase knowledge as a first step to empower people, especially those with a lower level of education. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of patient experience surveys in quality assurance and improvement: a focus group study in English general practice.

    PubMed

    Boiko, Olga; Campbell, John L; Elmore, Natasha; Davey, Antoinette F; Roland, Martin; Burt, Jenni

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread adoption of patient feedback surveys in international health-care systems, including the English NHS, evidence of a demonstrable impact of surveys on service improvement is sparse. To explore the views of primary care practice staff regarding the utility of patient experience surveys. Qualitative focus groups. Staff from 14 English general practices. Whilst participants engaged with feedback from patient experience surveys, they routinely questioned its validity and reliability. Participants identified surveys as having a number of useful functions: for patients, as a potentially therapeutic way of getting their voice heard; for practice staff, as a way of identifying areas of improvement; and for GPs, as a source of evidence for professional development and appraisal. Areas of potential change stimulated by survey feedback included redesigning front-line services, managing patient expectations and managing the performance of GPs. Despite this, practice staff struggled to identify and action changes based on survey feedback alone. Whilst surveys may be used to endorse existing high-quality service delivery, their use in informing changes in service delivery is more challenging for practice staff. Drawing on the Utility Index framework, we identified concerns relating to reliability and validity, cost and feasibility acceptability and educational impact, which combine to limit the utility of patient survey feedback. Feedback from patient experience surveys has great potential. However, without a specific and renewed focus on how to translate feedback into action, this potential will remain incompletely realized. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prescribing opioid analgesics for chronic non-malignant pain in general practice – a survey of attitudes and practice

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Holly; Leighton, Paul; van der Walt, Gerrie; Ravenscroft, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study replicates a previous postal survey of general practitioners (GPs) to explore whether attitudes to opioid prescribing have changed at a time when the number of opioid prescriptions issued in primary care has increased. Methods: With permission, a 57-item survey instrument previously utilised with GPs in the South-west of England was circulated to 214 GPs in city-centre practices in the East Midlands. The survey instrument included items relating to practice context, prescribing patterns and attitudes about analgesic medication, perceived prescribing frequency and reluctance to prescribe. Results: Responses were received from 94 GPs (45%). Almost three-quarters (72.7%) of GPs reported that they sometimes or frequently prescribed strong opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Over two-thirds (67.8%) reported that they were sometimes or frequently reluctant to prescribe strong opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. No significant relationships were observed between perceived frequency of prescribing and a range of demographic factors; however, concerns about ‘physical dependence’, ‘long-term commitment to prescribing’ and ‘media reports’ were associated with less frequent reported prescribing of, and greater reluctance to prescribe, strong opioids. Discussion: Given the national trend for increased opioid prescriptions, it is unsurprising that more frequent self-reported prescribing is reported here; however, increased frequency does not translate into less reluctance about prescribing. The effectiveness of strong opioids for chronic pain is recognised, but concerns about addiction, dependence and misuse inform a reluctance to use strong opioids. These juxtapositions highlight a continued need for clearer understanding of GPs’ perceptions of strong opioids and point to the potential benefit of dedicated guidelines or specialist education and training to address their uncertainties. PMID:26526705

  13. Prescribing opioid analgesics for chronic non-malignant pain in general practice - a survey of attitudes and practice.

    PubMed

    Blake, Holly; Leighton, Paul; van der Walt, Gerrie; Ravenscroft, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    This study replicates a previous postal survey of general practitioners (GPs) to explore whether attitudes to opioid prescribing have changed at a time when the number of opioid prescriptions issued in primary care has increased. With permission, a 57-item survey instrument previously utilised with GPs in the South-west of England was circulated to 214 GPs in city-centre practices in the East Midlands. The survey instrument included items relating to practice context, prescribing patterns and attitudes about analgesic medication, perceived prescribing frequency and reluctance to prescribe. Responses were received from 94 GPs (45%). Almost three-quarters (72.7%) of GPs reported that they sometimes or frequently prescribed strong opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Over two-thirds (67.8%) reported that they were sometimes or frequently reluctant to prescribe strong opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. No significant relationships were observed between perceived frequency of prescribing and a range of demographic factors; however, concerns about 'physical dependence', 'long-term commitment to prescribing' and 'media reports' were associated with less frequent reported prescribing of, and greater reluctance to prescribe, strong opioids. Given the national trend for increased opioid prescriptions, it is unsurprising that more frequent self-reported prescribing is reported here; however, increased frequency does not translate into less reluctance about prescribing. The effectiveness of strong opioids for chronic pain is recognised, but concerns about addiction, dependence and misuse inform a reluctance to use strong opioids. These juxtapositions highlight a continued need for clearer understanding of GPs' perceptions of strong opioids and point to the potential benefit of dedicated guidelines or specialist education and training to address their uncertainties.

  14. Protocol for determining primary healthcare practice characteristics, models of practice and patient accessibility using an exploratory census survey with linkage to administrative data in Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Emily Gard; Gibson, Richard J; Lawson, Beverley; Burge, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is little evidence on how primary care providers (PCPs) model their practices in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, what services they offer or what accessibility is like for the average patient. This study will create a database of all family physicians and primary healthcare nurse practitioners in NS, including information about accessibility and the model of care in which they practice, and will link the survey data to administrative health databases. Methods and analysis 3 census surveys of all family physicians, primary care nurse practitioners (ie, PCPs) and their practices in NS will be conducted. The first will be a telephone survey conducted during typical daytime business hours. At each practice, the person answering the telephone will be asked questions about the practice's accessibility and model of care. The second will be a telephone survey conducted after typical daytime business hours to determine what out-of-office services PCP practices offer their patients. The final will be a tailored fax survey that will collect information that could not be obtained in the first 2 surveys plus new information on scope of practice, practice model and willingness to participate in research. Survey data will be linked with billing data from administrative health databases. Multivariate regression analysis will be employed to assess whether access and availability outcome variables are associated with PCP and model of practice characteristics. Negative binomial regression analysis will be employed to assess the association between independent variables from the survey data and health system use outcomes from administrative data. Ethics and dissemination This study has received ethical approval from the Nova Scotia Health Authority and the Health Data Nova Scotia Data Access Committee. Dissemination approached will include stakeholder engagement at local and national levels, conference presentations, peer-reviewed publications and a public website. PMID

  15. Protocol for determining primary healthcare practice characteristics, models of practice and patient accessibility using an exploratory census survey with linkage to administrative data in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Emily Gard; Gibson, Richard J; Lawson, Beverley; Burge, Frederick

    2017-03-16

    There is little evidence on how primary care providers (PCPs) model their practices in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, what services they offer or what accessibility is like for the average patient. This study will create a database of all family physicians and primary healthcare nurse practitioners in NS, including information about accessibility and the model of care in which they practice, and will link the survey data to administrative health databases. 3 census surveys of all family physicians, primary care nurse practitioners (ie, PCPs) and their practices in NS will be conducted. The first will be a telephone survey conducted during typical daytime business hours. At each practice, the person answering the telephone will be asked questions about the practice's accessibility and model of care. The second will be a telephone survey conducted after typical daytime business hours to determine what out-of-office services PCP practices offer their patients. The final will be a tailored fax survey that will collect information that could not be obtained in the first 2 surveys plus new information on scope of practice, practice model and willingness to participate in research. Survey data will be linked with billing data from administrative health databases. Multivariate regression analysis will be employed to assess whether access and availability outcome variables are associated with PCP and model of practice characteristics. Negative binomial regression analysis will be employed to assess the association between independent variables from the survey data and health system use outcomes from administrative data. This study has received ethical approval from the Nova Scotia Health Authority and the Health Data Nova Scotia Data Access Committee. Dissemination approached will include stakeholder engagement at local and national levels, conference presentations, peer-reviewed publications and a public website. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  16. Acute general surgery in Canada: a survey of current handover practices.

    PubMed

    Johner, Amanda M; Merchant, Shaila; Aslani, Nava; Planting, Anneke; Ball, Chad G; Widder, Sandy; Pagliarello, Giuseppe; Parry, Neil G; Klassen, Dennis; Hameed, S Morad

    2013-06-01

    Today's acute care surgery (ACS) service model requires multiple handovers to incoming attending surgeons and residents. Our objectives were to investigate current handover practices in Canadian hospitals that have an ACS service and assess the quality of handover practices in place. We administered an electronic survey among ACS residents in 6 Canadian general surgery programs. Resident handover of patient care occurs frequently and often not under ideal circumstances. Most residents spend less than 5 minutes preparing handovers. Clinical uncertainty owing to inadequate handover is most likely to occur during overnight and weekend coverage. Almost one-third of surveyed residents rate the overall quality of the handovers they received as poor. Handover skills must be taught in a systematic fashion. Improved resident communication will likely decrease loss of patient information and therefore improve ACS patient safety.

  17. Established and novel biomarkers of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D

    2011-04-01

    The increased incidence of sepsis, a systemic response to infection that occurs in some patients, has stimulated interest in identifying infected patients who are at risk and intervening early. When this condition progresses to severe sepsis (characterized by organ dysfunction), mortality is high. Hospitals that have implemented recommendations of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign have seen a reduction in mortality rate for hospital-acquired severe sepsis. They may reduce this further by focusing on new approaches to diagnosing sepsis, especially at an early stage. Sepsis is a complicated syndrome with many physiological derangements and many emerging laboratory markers of sepsis have been proposed as adjuncts to clinical evaluation. The list includes cytokines, acute phase proteins, neutrophil activation markers, markers of abnormal coagulation and, recently, markers of suppression of both the innate and adaptive immune response. The perfect biomarker would accurately identify patients at risk of developing severe sepsis and then guide targeted therapy.

  18. Sepsis care: getting it right every time.

    PubMed

    2016-10-06

    In the UK, there are an estimated 150,000 cases of sepsis per year, resulting in 44,000 deaths. This equates to more deaths than from bowel, breast and prostate cancer combined according to the Sepsis Trust.

  19. Current epidemiology of sepsis in mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xuelian; Du, Bin; Lu, Meizhu; Wu, Minming

    2016-01-01

    The disease burden of sepsis is a global issue. Most of the large-scale epidemiological investigations on sepsis have been carried out in developed countries. The population of 1.3 billion in mainland China accounts for approximately 1/5th of the whole world population. Thus, the knowledge of the incidence and mortality of sepsis in mainland China is vital before employing measures for its improvement. However, most of the epidemiological data of sepsis in mainland China was obtained from ICU settings, and thus lacks the population-based incidence and mortality of sepsis. In the present review, we summarized the limited literature encompassing the incidence, mortality, long-term outcome, and pathogens of sepsis in mainland China. Therefore, it might provide some valuable information regarding the sepsis disease burden and current issues in the management of sepsis in mainland China. PMID:27713882

  20. Trends and disparities in sepsis hospitalisations in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ore, Timothy

    2015-12-14

    clinical practice. Greater understanding of the epidemiology of sepsis could improve care quality and outcomes.What is known about the topic? Sepsis is associated with high mortality rates and severe sepsis is the most common cause of death in intensive care units (ICU). The last published study of sepsis in Victoria (in 2005) showed a gradual rise in rates; since then, there is little information as to whether there has been any significant improvement in treatment outcomes.What does this paper add? This paper provides new information by analysing trends and variations in sepsis hospitalisations in Victoria by several demographic groups from 2004-05 to 2013-14.What are the implications for practitioners? Patients with severe sepsis consume approximately half the ICU resources. Reliable and recent data on the growth of this disease are important for prevention, allocation of resources and to track the effectiveness of care. A key area for intervention is promoting greater adherence to clinical guidelines.

  1. Variations of transesophageal echocardiography practices in India: A survey by Indian College of Cardiac Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Deepak Prakash; George, Antony; Joshi, Shreedhar; Nair, Suresh; Koshy, Thomas; Gandhe, Uday; Chakravarthy, Murali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Use of perioperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has expanded in India. Despite attempts to standardize the practice of TEE in cardiac surgical procedures, variation in practice and application exists. This is the first online survey by Indian College of Cardiac Anaesthesia, research and academic wing of the Indian Association of Cardiovascular Thoracic Anaesthesiologists (IACTA). Aims: We hypothesized that variations in practice of intraoperative TEE exist among centers and this survey aimed at analyzing them. Settings and Design: This is an online survey conducted among members of the IACTA. Subjects and Methods: All members of IACTA were contacted using online questionnaire fielded using SurveyMonkey™ software. There were 21 questions over four pages evaluating infrastructure, documentation of TEE, experience and accreditation of anesthesiologist performing TEE, and finally impact of TEE on clinical practice. Questions were also asked about national TEE workshop conducted by the IACTA, and suggestions were invited by members on overseas training. Results: Response rate was 29.7% (382/1222). 53.9% were from high-volume centers (>500 cases annually). TEE machine/probe was available to 75.9% of the respondents and those in high-volume centers had easier (86.9%) access. There was poor documentation of preoperative consent (23.3%) as well as TEE findings (66%). Only 18.2% of responders were board qualified. Almost 90% of the responders felt surgeons respected their TEE diagnosis. Around half of the responders felt that new intraoperative findings by TEE were considered in decision-making in most of the cases and 70% of the responders reported that surgical plan was altered based on TEE finding more than 10 times in the last year. Despite this, only 5% of the responders in this survey were monetarily awarded for performing impactful skill of TEE. Majority (57%) felt that there is no need for overseas training for Indian cardiac anesthesiologists

  2. Office systems for promoting screening mammography. A survey of primary care practices.

    PubMed

    Melville, S K; Luckmann, R; Coghlin, J; Gann, P

    1993-12-01

    Office tracking, scheduling, and reminder systems have been shown to improve utilization of screening mammography, but little is known about the use of these systems by primary care physicians. We surveyed 132 primary care and obstetrics and gynecology practices affiliated with an independent practice association model health maintenance organization in central Massachusetts to determine their use of reminder, scheduling, and follow-up systems, and education and counseling services aimed at increasing screening mammography rates. The use of chart flags to remind physicians of a patient's need for mammography screening was reported by 30% of practices. Thirty-one percent reported the use of flow sheets, and 27% reported the use of mail or telephone patient reminders. At least one of these three systems was used by 57% of the practices, whereas 43% reported having none of these three systems. Variations in the use of these office systems were related to specialty type, physician number, and clinical staffing. The majority of practices (77%) reported using written educational materials, and 42% offered prevention counseling with nonphysician staff. Very few offices (8%) reported using mail or telephone reminders for previously scheduled appointments. Despite the proven effectiveness of reminder systems for screening mammography, many practices do not have a system in place. Promotion of reminder systems in primary care practices could have a substantial impact on mammography utilization.

  3. [Understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of SIRS and sepsis and development of innovative therapies of sepsis].

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Naoki; Fujishima, Seitaro

    2004-12-01

    The concept of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was introduced in 1992 to define and objectively diagnose sepsis. Over the last decade, the definition of sepsis has been used for inclusion criteria of multicenter trials to develop innovative therapies of sepsis. With the recent understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of sepsis, many drugs have been tested, but only two drugs (activated protein C and neutrophil-elastase inhibitor) have been approved for clinical use in sepsis or SIRS. Further understanding of basic pathophysiology of SIRS and sepsis holds promise to develop a new therapeutic strategy to improve survival of patients with SIRS and sepsis.

  4. Multidisciplinary Views on Applying Explicit and Implicit Motor Learning in Practice: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Kleynen, Melanie; Braun, Susy M; Rasquin, Sascha M C; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; Lexis, Monique A S; Halfens, Jos; Wilson, Mark R; Masters, Rich S W; Beurskens, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    A variety of options and techniques for causing implicit and explicit motor learning have been described in the literature. The aim of the current paper was to provide clearer guidance for practitioners on how to apply motor learning in practice by exploring experts' opinions and experiences, using the distinction between implicit and explicit motor learning as a conceptual departure point. A survey was designed to collect and aggregate informed opinions and experiences from 40 international respondents who had demonstrable expertise related to motor learning in practice and/or research. The survey was administered through an online survey tool and addressed potential options and learning strategies for applying implicit and explicit motor learning. Responses were analysed in terms of consensus (≥ 70%) and trends (≥ 50%). A summary figure was developed to illustrate a taxonomy of the different learning strategies and options indicated by the experts in the survey. Answers of experts were widely distributed. No consensus was found regarding the application of implicit and explicit motor learning. Some trends were identified: Explicit motor learning can be promoted by using instructions and various types of feedback, but when promoting implicit motor learning, instructions and feedback should be restricted. Further, for implicit motor learning, an external focus of attention should be considered, as well as practicing the entire skill. Experts agreed on three factors that influence motor learning choices: the learner's abilities, the type of task, and the stage of motor learning (94.5%; n = 34/36). Most experts agreed with the summary figure (64.7%; n = 22/34). The results provide an overview of possible ways to cause implicit or explicit motor learning, signposting examples from practice and factors that influence day-to-day motor learning decisions.

  5. A survey of manufacturing and handling practices for monoclonal antibodies by pharmacy, nursing and medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M; King, J; Lingaratnam, S; Byrne, J; MacMillan, K; Mollo, A; Kirsa, S; Green, M

    2016-04-01

    There is a paucity of data available to assess the occupational health and safety risk associated with exposure to monoclonal antibodies. Industry standards and published guidelines are conflicting or outdated. Guidelines offer contrary recommendations based on an array of methodological approaches. This survey aimed to describe current practices, beliefs and attitudes relating to the handling of monoclonal antibodies by Australian medical, nursing and pharmacy clinicians. An electronic survey was distributed between June and September 2013. Respondents were surveyed on three focus areas: institutional guideline availability and content, current practices and attitudes. Demographic data relating to respondent and primary place of practice were also collected. A total of 222 clinicians completed the survey, with representation from all targeted professional groups and from a variety of geographic locations. 92% of respondents reported that their institution prepared or administered monoclonal antibodies, with 87% specifically handling anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were mostly prepared onsite (84-90%) and mostly within pharmacy clean-rooms (75%) and using cytotoxic cabinets (61%). 43% of respondents reported access to institutional monoclonal antibody handling guidelines with risk reduction strategies including training and education (71%), spill and waste management (71%), procedures for transportation (57%) and restricted handling (50%). Nurses had a stronger preference towards pharmacy manufacturing than both doctors and pharmacists for a range of clinical scenarios. 95% of all respondents identified that professional or regulatory body guidelines are an important resource when considering handling practices. Monoclonal antibodies are most commonly handled according to cytotoxic drug standards and often in the absence of formal guidelines. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Cancer pain management in China: current status and practice implications based on the ACHEON survey.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhongjun

    2017-01-01

    Cancer pain can seriously impact the quality of life (QoL) of patients, and optimal management practices are therefore of paramount importance. The ACHEON survey queried physicians and patients from 10 Asian countries/regions to assess current clinical practices in cancer pain management in Asia. This study presents the data obtained for cancer pain management in mainland China, with an emphasis on practices related to opioid drugs. In several tertiary hospitals across China, 250 patients experiencing cancer pain and 100 physicians were surveyed on questions designed to assess current cancer pain management practices and cancer pain impact on QoL. The patient survey showed that 88% of patients reported moderate-to-severe cancer pain, with a median duration of 6 months. The physician survey showed that medical school/residency training with regard to cancer pain management was inadequate in ~80% of physicians. A total of 80% of physicians and 67.2% of patients reported that pain scale was used during pain assessment; 84% of physicians expressed that physician-perceived pain severity was not completely consistent with actual pain the patient experienced. Of the 147 patients who recalled the medication received, 83.7% were administered opioid prescriptions. Of the 240 patients who received treatment, 43.8% perceived the inadequacy of controlling pain. The primary barriers from physicians perceived to optimal pain management included patients' fear of side effects (58%), patients' fear of addiction (53%), patients' reluctance to report pain (43%), physicians' reluctance to prescribe (29%), physicians' inadequacy of pain assessment (27%) and excessive regulation of opioid analgesics (47%). Knowledge of cancer pain management should be strengthened among physicians. Quantitative pain assessment and principle-based pain management should be combined to achieve pain relief. Misconceptions about opioids in patients and physicians and poor report about pain should be

  7. Multidisciplinary Views on Applying Explicit and Implicit Motor Learning in Practice: An International Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kleynen, Melanie; Braun, Susy M.; Rasquin, Sascha M. C.; Bleijlevens, Michel H. C.; Lexis, Monique A. S.; Halfens, Jos; Wilson, Mark R.; Masters, Rich S. W.; Beurskens, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of options and techniques for causing implicit and explicit motor learning have been described in the literature. The aim of the current paper was to provide clearer guidance for practitioners on how to apply motor learning in practice by exploring experts’ opinions and experiences, using the distinction between implicit and explicit motor learning as a conceptual departure point. Methods A survey was designed to collect and aggregate informed opinions and experiences from 40 international respondents who had demonstrable expertise related to motor learning in practice and/or research. The survey was administered through an online survey tool and addressed potential options and learning strategies for applying implicit and explicit motor learning. Responses were analysed in terms of consensus (≥ 70%) and trends (≥ 50%). A summary figure was developed to illustrate a taxonomy of the different learning strategies and options indicated by the experts in the survey. Results Answers of experts were widely distributed. No consensus was found regarding the application of implicit and explicit motor learning. Some trends were identified: Explicit motor learning can be promoted by using instructions and various types of feedback, but when promoting implicit motor learning, instructions and feedback should be restricted. Further, for implicit motor learning, an external focus of attention should be considered, as well as practicing the entire skill. Experts agreed on three factors that influence motor learning choices: the learner’s abilities, the type of task, and the stage of motor learning (94.5%; n = 34/36). Most experts agreed with the summary figure (64.7%; n = 22/34). Conclusion The results provide an overview of possible ways to cause implicit or explicit motor learning, signposting examples from practice and factors that influence day-to-day motor learning decisions. PMID:26296203

  8. Clinical value of stool culture in paediatric oncology patients: hospital evaluation and UK survey of practice.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, O; Cooke, R P D; Cunliffe, N A; Pizer, B

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a frequently occurring symptom in paediatric oncology patients. The role of routine testing for enteric bacteria in hospitalized patients with diarrhoea is considered limited, but the diagnostic value of testing in children with oncological conditions has not been reported. Therefore, we conducted a five-year retrospective service evaluation in our tertiary paediatric oncology unit together with a national survey of 21 centres to estimate the utility of stool cultures in oncology patients with diarrhoea and the national approach to testing. Our local survey demonstrated very low diagnostic yield using routine enteric stool cultures with only one sample out of 842 (0.1%) testing positive. The national survey demonstrated considerable variation in practice. There is little evidence to support the use of conventional stool culture for enteric bacteria in children with cancer in our centre. These findings should inform national testing policies.

  9. Test–Retest Reliability of the Genetics and Genomics in Nursing Practice Survey Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Calzone, Kathleen A.; Culp, Stacey; Jenkins, Jean; Caskey, Sarah; Edwards, Pamela B.; Fuchs, Mary Ann; Reints, Amber; Stange, Brita; Questad, Janice; Badzek, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Assessment of nursing genomic competency is critical given increasing genomic applications to health care. The study aims were to determine the test–retest reliability of the Genetics and Genomics in Nursing Practice Survey (GGNPS), which measures this competency, and to revise the survey accordingly. Methods Registered nurses (n = 232) working at 2 Magnet-designated hospitals participating in a multiinstitutional genomic competency study completed the GGNPS. Cohen’s kappa and weighted kappa were used to measure the agreement of item responses between Time 1 and Time 2. Survey items were revised based on the results. Results Mean agreement for the instrument was 0.407 (range = 0.150–1.000). Moderate agreement or higher was achieved in 39% of the items. Conclusions GGNPS test–retest reliability was not optimal, and the instrument was refined based on the study findings. Further testing of the revised instrument is planned to assess the instrument performance. PMID:27103245

  10. The effect of question wording in questionnaire surveys on placebo use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Babel, Przemyslaw

    2012-12-01

    To identify factors that contribute to the high variability of the rates of use of placebo interventions reported in questionnaire surveys, the author investigated the effect of the explicit use of the word "placebo" in questionnaire surveys on placebo use in clinical practice on the results obtained. 190 primary care physicians in Poland were divided randomly into two groups. The groups received a questionnaire in which either the word placebo or the term "nonspecific methods of treatment" was used. The respondents who were asked explicitly about the use of placebo interventions declared that they never used placebo interventions significantly more often than participants asked about the use of nonspecific treatment methods. Moreover, the former reported significantly rarer use of placebo interventions than the latter. The study demonstrates that differences in the wording of questions in questionnaire surveys on placebo use can create statistically significant differences in results.

  11. Pediatric First Aid Practices in Ghana: A Population-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Gyedu, Adam; Mock, Charles; Nakua, Emmanuel; Otupiri, Easmon; Donkor, Peter; Ebel, Beth E

    2015-08-01

    Children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) often receive care outside the formal medical sector. Improving pre-hospital first aid has proven to be highly cost-effective in lowering trauma mortality. Few studies in LMIC have examined home first aid practices for injured children. We conducted a representative population-based survey of 200 caregivers of children under 18 years of age, representing 6520 households. Caregivers were interviewed about their first aid practices and care-seeking behaviors when a child sustained an injury at home. Injuries of interest included burns, lacerations, fractures and choking. Reported practices were characterized as recommended, low-risk, and potentially harmful. For common injuries, 75-96% of caregivers reported employing a recommended practice (e.g., running cool water over a burn injury). However, for these same injuries, 13-61% of caregivers also identified potentially harmful management strategies (e.g., applying sand to a laceration). Choking had the highest proportion (96%) of recommended first aid practice: (e.g., hitting the child's back) and the lowest percent (13%) of potentially harmful practices (e.g., attempting manual removal). Fractures had the lowest percent (75%) of recommended practices (e.g., immediately bringing the child to a health facility). Burns had the highest percent (61%) of potentially harmful practices (e.g., applying kerosene). While most caregivers were aware of helpful first aid practices to administer for a child injury, many parents also described potentially harmful practices or delays in seeking medical attention. As parents are the de facto first responders to childhood injury, there are opportunities to strengthen pre-hospital care for children in LMICs.

  12. Association of fungal sepsis and galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sanjay; Bharti, Bhavneet; Inusha, P

    2010-06-01

    Galactosemia is one of the rare inborn errors of metabolism, which if detected early can be treated effectively. Galactosemic infants have a significant increased risk of developing sepsis. E. coli sepsis is a known entity, and also an important cause of early mortality in these children. But fungal sepsis in these patients is rarely reported. Here is a case of 45 day-old child who presented with fungal sepsis, which on investigation turned out to be galactosemia.

  13. Awareness, Competencies, and Practice Patterns in Tracheobronchomalacia: A Survey of Pulmonologists.

    PubMed

    Matus, Ismael; Richter, William; Mani, Sriniwasan B

    2016-04-01

    Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is a disorder of expiratory central airway collapse. TBM is separate from excessive dynamic airway collapse. Historically TBM has lacked a universally accepted definition. No consensus recommendations on evaluation and management exist. We suspect these unresolved issues contribute to deficits in pulmonologists' awareness and management of TBM. We created a 20-question survey obtaining information about overall awareness, knowledge base, competencies, and practice patterns in managing TBM. The survey was disseminated via email by American College of Chest Physicians to members of their Interventional Chest Diagnostic Procedures Network. One hundred sixty-five clinicians participated in the survey. Seventy-seven percent of respondents chose the correct definition for TBM. Twenty-two percent of respondents never considered TBM in patients with cough, sputum production, dyspnea, and recurrent infections. Thirty-eight percent did not proceed with further evaluation of TBM if pulmonary function tests were normal. Eighteen percent use a classification system to describe the severity of TBM. Only 29% could identify TBM on bronchoscopy and only 39% identified TBM on computed tomography. Respondents that practice interventional pulmonology demonstrated a better knowledge base of TBM. This survey exposes deficits among pulmonologists in their ability to confidently and correctly diagnose and manage TBM. These deficits are not surprising as our understanding of this clinical entity is evolving. There exists a need for further education of pulmonologists about TBM and a need to promote collaborative efforts through research and expert consensus committees to progress our knowledge and management of this disease.

  14. A survey of practice patterns in the use of laryngeal mask by pediatric anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anuradha; Clark, Scott R; Schiffmiller, Moshe; Schoenberg, Catherine; Tewfik, George

    2015-11-01

    Laryngeal mask is frequently the airway device of choice in routine general anesthesia for many procedures in children. Several studies have described the use of laryngeal masks in unconventional situations. This survey was undertaken to assess how laryngeal masks are being used by pediatric anesthesiologists. The 40-question electronic survey using SurveyMonkey™ was sent to 2740 members of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA). This survey assessed the age, work environment, types of practice, and training levels, as well as clinical situations in which the practitioners use laryngeal masks across different pediatric age groups. Seven hundred and forty-three (27.1%) responses were obtained. The use of laryngeal mask increased as the patient age increased in nearly every queried situation. The practitioners routinely utilize laryngeal masks in a variety of challenging scenarios, such as in patients with a recent upper respiratory infection, in the difficult airway, remote locations, and long-duration surgeries. A small percentage of pediatric anesthesiologists use laryngeal masks in laparoscopic surgery and prone position procedures. Pediatric anesthesiologists are using laryngeal masks in both routine and challenging/unconventional situations. Although many of the uses for laryngeal masks are not explicitly stated in the manufacturer guidelines, literature and current practice support the use of laryngeal masks in several of these scenarios. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Healthcare-associated pathogens and nursing home policies and practices: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiqiu; Mukamel, Dana B; Huang, Susan S; Li, Yue; Temkin-Greener, Helena

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence of healthcare-associated pathogens and the infection control policies and practices in a national sample of nursing homes (NHs). METHODS In 2012, we conducted a national survey about the extent to which NHs follow suggested infection control practices with regard to 3 common healthcare-associated pathogens: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers, and their prevalence in NHs. We adapted a previously used and validated NH infection control survey, including questions on prevalence, admission and screening policies, contact precautions, decolonization, and cleaning practices. RESULTS A total of 1,002 surveys were returned. Of the responding NHs, 14.2% were less likely to accept residents with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with the principal reason being lack of single or cohort rooms. NHs do not routinely perform admission screening (96.4%) because it is not required by regulation (56.2%) and would not change care provision (30.7%). Isolation strategies vary substantially, with gloves being most commonly used. Most NHs (75.1%) do not decolonize carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but some (10.6%) decolonize more than 90% of residents. Despite no guidance on how resident rooms on contact precautions should be cleaned, 59.3% of NHs report enhanced cleaning for such rooms. CONCLUSION Overall, NHs tend to follow voluntary infection control guidelines only if doing so does not require substantial financial investment in new or dedicated staff or infrastructure.

  16. Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Questionnaire Survey of Management Practice in India and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Avanali, Raghunath; Bhadran, Biju; Krishna Kumar, P; Vijayan, Abhishek; Arun, S; Musthafa, Aneeze M; Panchal, Sunil; Gopal, Vinu V

    2016-12-01

    To identify the current management modalities practiced by neurosurgeons in India for chronic subdural hematoma. A questionnaire was prepared for the survey and sent via e-mail to neurosurgeons. It covered the following aspects of managing chronic subdural hematoma: 1) demographic and institutional details; 2) choice of surgical procedure; 3) surgical adjutants such as placing a subdural drain; 4) pre- and postoperative care; and 5) recurrences and management. Responses obtained were entered in a SPSS data sheet and analyzed. Response rate of the survey was 9.3%. The majority of neurosurgeons (75%) preferred to do burr whole drainage for primary chronic subdural hematoma and also for recurrences. Only one third of routinely placed a subdural drain. Considerable practice variations exist for medical and perioperative management. Bedside twist drill drainage, which is effective and less costly than operative room procedures, has not gained popularity in practice. The present survey points towards the importance of making management guidelines for this common neurosurgical entity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reported practice variation in pediatric pain management: a survey of Canadian pediatric emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Ali, Samina; Chambers, Andrea; Johnson, David W; Newton, Amanda S; Vandermeer, Ben; Williamson, Janie; Curtis, Sarah J

    2014-09-01

    To describe pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians' reported pain management practices across Canada and explore factors that facilitate or hinder pain management. This study was a prospective survey of Canadian pediatric emergency physicians. The Pediatric Emergency Research Canada physician database was used to identify participants, and a modified Dillman's Total Design Survey Method was used for recruitment. The survey response rate was 68% (139 of 206). Most physicians were 31 to 50 years old (82%) with PEM training (56%) and had been in practice for less than 10 years (55%). Almost all pain screening in emergency departments (EDs) occurred at triage (97%). Twenty-four percent of physicians noted institutionally mandated pain score documentation. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen were commonly prescribed in the ED for mild to moderate pain (88% and 83%, respectively). Over half of urinary catheterizations (60%) and intravenous (53%) starts were performed without any analgesia. The most common nonpharmacologic interventions used for infants and children were pacifiers and distraction, respectively. Training background and gender of physicians affected the likelihood of using nonpharmacologic interventions. Physicians noted time restraints to be the greatest barrier to optimal pain management (55%) and desired improved access to pain medications (32%), better policies and procedures (30%), and further education (25%). When analgesia was reported as provided, ibuprofen and acetaminophen were most commonly used. Both procedural and presenting pain remained suboptimally managed. There is a substantial evidence practice gap in children's ED pain management, highlighting the need for further knowledge translation strategies and policies to support optimal treatment.

  18. A Survey of Rounding Practices in Canadian Adult Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Holodinsky, Jessalyn K.; Hebert, Marilynne A.; Zygun, David A.; Rigal, Romain; Berthelot, Simon; Cook, Deborah J.; Stelfox, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe rounding practices in Canadian adult Intensive Care Units (ICU) and identify opportunities for improvement. Design Mixed methods design. Cross sectional survey of Canadian Adult ICUs (n = 180) with purposefully sampled follow-up interviews (n = 7). Measurements and Main Results Medical directors representing 111 ICUs (62%) participated in the survey. Rounding practices varied across ICUs with the majority reporting the use of interprofessional rounds (81%) that employed an open (94%) and collaborative (86%) approach, occurred at the patient’s bedside (82%), and started at a standard time (79%) and standard location (56%). Most participants reported that patients (83%) and family members (67%) were welcome to attend rounds. Approximately half of ICUs (48%) used tools to facilitate rounds. Interruptions during rounds were reported to be common (i.e., ≥1 interruption for ≥50% of patients) in 46% of ICUs. Four themes were identified from qualitative analysis of participant responses to open-ended survey questions and interviews: multidisciplinarity, patient and family involvement, factors influencing productivity, and teaching and learning. Conclusions There is considerable variation in current rounding practices in Canadian medical/surgical ICUs. Opportunities exist to improve ICU rounds including ensuring the engagement of essential participants, clearly defining participant roles, establishing a standardized approach to the rounding process, minimizing interruptions, modifying the role of teaching, utilizing a structured rounding tool, and developing a metric for measuring rounding quality. PMID:26700860

  19. Hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation practice in the US: a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Edelson, Dana P.; Yuen, Trevor C; Mancini, Mary E; Davis, Daniel P; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Miller, Joseph A; Abella, Benjamin S

    2014-01-01

    Background In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) outcomes vary widely between hospitals, even after adjusting for patient characteristics, suggesting variations in practice as a potential etiology. However, little is known about the standards of IHCA resuscitation practice among US hospitals. Objective To describe current US hospital practices with regard to resuscitation care. Design A nationally representative mail survey. Setting A random sample of 1,000 hospitals from the American Hospital Association database, stratified into nine categories by hospital volume tertile and teaching status (major teaching, minor teaching and non-teaching). Subjects Surveys were addressed to each hospital's CPR Committee Chair or Chief Medical/Quality Officer. Measurements A 27-item questionnaire. Results Responses were received from 439 hospitals with a similar distribution of admission volume and teaching status as the sample population (p=0.50). Of the 270 (66%) hospitals with a CPR committee, 23 (10%) were chaired by a Hospitalist. High frequency practices included having a Rapid Response Team (91%) and standardizing defibrillators (88%). Low frequency practices included therapeutic hypothermia and use of CPR assist technology. Other practices such as debriefing (34%) and simulation training (62%) were more variable and correlated with the presence of a CPR Committee and/or dedicated personnel for resuscitation quality improvement. The majority of hospitals (79%) reported at least one barrier to quality improvement, of which the lack of a resuscitation champion and inadequate training were the most common. Conclusions There is wide variability between hospitals and within practices for resuscitation care in the US with opportunities for improvement. PMID:24550202

  20. Survey on skin-lightening practices and cosmetics in Kigali, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Kamagaju, Léocadie; Morandini, Renato; Gahongayire, Françoise; Stévigny, Caroline; Ghanem, Ghanem; Pirotte, Gautier; Duez, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The use of skin-lightening (SL) cosmetics appears to be common throughout the world, especially among dark-skinned women from sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of this study were to evaluate the extent of the practice of SL in Kigali, the capital city of Rwanda, the motivations behind this practice and the complexity of the adverse effects observed. An inventory of products sold on the Kigali market and their contents were compared with the results of a survey investigating the products used by the local population in order to deduce the proportions of people who depigment. The prevalence and severity of SL side effects (dermatitis, skin cancers, etc.) were evaluated in collaboration with dermatologists and general practitioners through a specific questionnaire and interviews. The sociological profiles of adolescents and their motivations for practicing SL were studied using qualitative and descriptive approaches through semi-direct individual and collective interviews. A total of 27 creams were identified and classified according to labeled ingredients known to be depigmenting agents; 35% of the surveyed population were found to use products with skin-bleaching properties, but only 27% stated that they used the products specifically for these depigmenting properties. An inquiry into the motivations of adolescents indicated that they know about and practice SL but are restricted by family, religion, and Rwandese culture. Whenever side effects appear, consumers opt either to stop bleaching practices for a short period or to switch from their commercial topical product to another one with, presumably, a different composition. Albeit that many people acknowledge that there are possible side effects of using preparations commonly used in SL, the practice is generally continued. Although it is important to question the rationale behind the practice of SL, it is equally important to develop and propose safer products. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. An AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices survey among schoolchildren in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Walrond, E; Jones, F; Hoyos, M; Souder, M; Ellis, H; Roach, T

    1992-01-01

    A knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) survey was performed among Barbadian secondary schoolchildren 11-16 years old in January 1990. The survey sought to assess the children's knowledge of AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission; their attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS; their sexual practices; and changes needed in education programs seeking to reduce childhood HIV transmission. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used. The survey sample was derived by selecting every eleventh student on the rosters of all the secondary schools in Barbados. All of the survey respondents completed the questionnaire on the same day, having been assembled examination-style for that purpose. The results showed high levels of correct knowledge about the principal routes of HIV transmission. However, a considerable proportion of the respondents harbored incorrect beliefs regarding mosquito transmission and dangers to blood donors, and many showed uncertainty or incorrect knowledge regarding possible HIV transmission by biting, spitting, or use of public toilets. About a third of the children (51.4% of the boys and 18.7% of the girls) said they had experienced sexual intercourse, though only 20% reported being sexually active in the year preceding the survey. Three-quarters of the sexually experienced group said they knew how to use condoms, but only a third said there was any time when they had used protection during sexual intercourse. Overall, the results indicate that education efforts prior to the survey had been effective, but that reinforcement of such efforts as well as their extension into the primary schools is warranted. Further research directed at helping these efforts to encourage more meaningful changes in sexual behavior is also needed.

  2. The inflammatory response in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bosmann, Markus; Ward, Peter A

    2013-03-01

    The pathophysiology of sepsis and its accompanying systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and the events that lead to multiorgan failure and death are poorly understood. It is known that, in septic humans and rodents, the development of SIRS is associated with a loss of the redox balance, but SIRS can also develop in noninfectious states. In addition, a hyperinflammatory state develops, together with impaired innate immune functions of phagocytes, immunosuppression, and complement activation, collectively leading to septic shock and lethality. Here, we discuss recent insights into the signaling pathways in immune and phagocytic cells that underlie sepsis and SIRS and consider how these might be targeted for therapeutic interventions to reverse or attenuate pathways that lead to lethality during sepsis.

  3. The Inflammatory Response in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bosmann, Markus; Ward, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiology of sepsis and its accompanying systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and the events that lead to multiorgan failure and death are poorly understood. It is known that, in septic humans and rodents, the development of SIRS is associated with a loss of the redox balance, but SIRS can also develop in non-infectious states. In addition, a hyperinflammatory state develops, together with impaired innate immune functions of phagocytes, immunosuppression, and complement activation, collectively leading to septic shock and lethality. Here we discuss recent insights into the signaling pathways in immune and phagocytic cells that underlie sepsis and SIRS and consider how these might be targeted for therapeutic interventions to reverse or attenuate pathways that lead to lethality during sepsis. PMID:23036432

  4. Transfusion-associated bacterial sepsis.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, S J; Friedman, L I; Dodd, R Y

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of sepsis caused by transfusion of bacterially contaminated blood components is similar to or less than that of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis C virus infection, yet significantly exceeds those currently estimated for transfusion-associated human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B viruses. Outcomes are serious and may be fatal. In addition, transfusion of sterile allogenic blood can have generalized immunosuppressive effects on recipients, resulting in increased susceptibility to postoperative infection. This review examines the frequency of occurrence of transfusion-associated sepsis, the organisms implicated, and potential sources of bacteria. Approaches to minimize the frequency of sepsis are discussed, including the benefits and disadvantages of altering the storage conditions for blood. In addition, the impact of high levels of bacteria on the gross characteristics of erythrocyte and platelet concentrates is described. The potentials and limitations of current tests for detecting bacteria in blood are also discussed. PMID:7923050

  5. Precautionary Practices for Administering Anesthetic Gases: A Survey of Physician Anesthesiologists, Nurse Anesthetists and Anesthesiologist Assistants

    PubMed Central

    Boiano, James M.; Steege, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Scavenging systems and administrative and work practice controls for minimizing occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases have been available and recommended for many years. Anesthetic gases and vapors that are released or leak out during medical procedures are considered waste anesthetic gases. To better understand the extent recommended practices are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted in 2011 among members of professional practice organizations representing anesthesia care providers (ACPs) including physician anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologist assistants. This national survey is the first to examine self-reported use of controls to minimize exposure to waste anesthetic gases among ACPs. The survey was completed by 1,783 nurse anesthetists, 1,104 physician anesthesiologists and 100 anesthesiologist assistants who administered inhaled anesthetics in the seven days prior to the survey. Working in hospitals and outpatient surgical centers, respondents reported that they most often administered sevoflurane and, to a lesser extent desflurane and isoflurane, in combination with nitrous oxide. Use of scavenging systems was nearly universal, reported by 97% of respondents. However, adherence to recommended administrative and work practice controls were lacking to varying degrees and differed among those administering anesthetics to pediatric (P) or adult (A) patients. Examples of practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: using high (fresh gas) flow anesthesia only (17% P, 6% A), starting anesthetic gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (35% P; 14% A); not routinely checking anesthesia equipment and components for leaks (4% P, 5% A), and using a funnel-fill system to fill vaporizers (16%). Respondents also reported that facilities lacked safe handling procedures (19%) and hazard awareness training (18%). Adherence to

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and barriers related to research utilization: a survey among pharmacists in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sin Yee; Hatah, Ernieda

    2017-04-01

    Background Research utilization is part of evidence-based practice referring to the process of reviewing and critiquing scientific research and applying the findings to one's own clinical practice. Many studies on research utilization have been conducted with doctors and nurses, but to our knowledge, none have been investigated amongst pharmacists. Objective To assess research utilization and its barriers among pharmacists and identify potential influencing factors. Setting Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional survey was administered online and by mail to a convenient sample of pharmacists working in hospitals, health clinics, and retail pharmacies in rural and urban areas. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results Six hundred surveys were mailed to potential respondents, and 466 were returned (77.7% response rate). Twenty-eight respondents completed the survey online. The respondents' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices were found to be moderate. Research utilization was associated with respondents' knowledge and attitude scores (P < 0.001). When factors related to research utilization were modelled, higher educational level was associated with higher level of research utilization (P < 0.001) while less involvement in journal clubs, more years of service (3-7 years and more than 7 years) were associated with low and moderate research utilization, respectively. The main reported barrier to research utilization was lack of sufficient authority to change patient care procedures. Conclusion Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices can be improved by encouraging pharmacists to pursue higher degrees, promoting active participation in institutions' journal clubs, and introducing senior clinical pharmacist specialization.

  7. Categorisation of continuous risk factors in epidemiological publications: a survey of current practice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reports of observational epidemiological studies often categorise (group) continuous risk factor (exposure) variables. However, there has been little systematic assessment of how categorisation is practiced or reported in the literature and no extended guidelines for the practice have been identified. Thus, we assessed the nature of such practice in the epidemiological literature. Two months (December 2007 and January 2008) of five epidemiological and five general medical journals were reviewed. All articles that examined the relationship between continuous risk factors and health outcomes were surveyed using a standard proforma, with the focus on the primary risk factor. Using the survey results we provide illustrative examples and, combined with ideas from the broader literature and from experience, we offer guidelines for good practice. Results Of the 254 articles reviewed, 58 were included in our survey. Categorisation occurred in 50 (86%) of them. Of those, 42% also analysed the variable continuously and 24% considered alternative groupings. Most (78%) used 3 to 5 groups. No articles relied solely on dichotomisation, although it did feature prominently in 3 articles. The choice of group boundaries varied: 34% used quantiles, 18% equally spaced categories, 12% external criteria, 34% other approaches and 2% did not describe the approach used. Categorical risk estimates were most commonly (66%) presented as pairwise comparisons to a reference group, usually the highest or lowest (79%). Reporting of categorical analysis was mostly in tables; only 20% in figures. Conclusions Categorical analyses of continuous risk factors are common. Accordingly, we provide recommendations for good practice. Key issues include pre-defining appropriate choice of groupings and analysis strategies, clear presentation of grouped findings in tables and figures, and drawing valid conclusions from categorical analyses, avoiding injudicious use of multiple alternative analyses

  8. The Serendipitous Survey: A Look at Primary and Specialist Palliative Social Work Practice, Preparation, and Competence.

    PubMed

    Sumser, Bridget; Remke, Stacy; Leimena, Meagan; Altilio, Terry; Otis-Green, Shirley

    2015-10-01

    Health professionals have begun to identify competencies needed for primary and specialist levels of palliative care practice, but little attention has been given to how these skills are acquired. The authors electronically surveyed a wide range of health social workers and educators to investigate their reported levels of preparation, training, and self-assessed competence to provide palliative and end-of-life care. Two health social work surveys were developed: one for educators and one for practitioners and students. The study used an electronic snowball sampling method with eight national social work listservs to capture a wide range of settings where health social workers may teach or practice. The survey was completed by 1149 self-identified health care social workers, 35% of whom identified as a specialist in palliative care. Health social work clinicians report competence in many skills related to palliative care and the psychosocial determinants of health, having developed these skills primarily through interprofessional and peer collaboration. A representative sample of social workers practicing in health care identify high competence in essential aspects of palliative care. This speaks to an existing pool of clinicians who, if practicing to the top of their licenses, have the potential to provide primary palliative care and contribute to the person-family centered care called for in the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report. Few programs exist to prepare social workers to work as specialists in palliative or end-of-life settings, and respondents identified key areas of practice that need to be integrated into graduate education to ensure that students, practitioners, and educators are better prepared to maximize the impact of health social work. Further research is needed to better understand how to prepare and train specialist-level palliative care social workers.

  9. Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE): a review.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca; Scott, L Keith; Minagar, Alireza; Conrad, Steven

    2004-05-01

    Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a poorly understood condition that is associated with severe sepsis and appears to have a negative influence on survival. The incidence of encephalopathy secondary to sepsis is unknown. Amino acid derangements, blood-brain barrier disruption, abnormal neurotransmitters, and direct CNS effect are possible causes of septic encephalopathy. Research has not defined the pathogenesis of SAE.

  10. Galactosemia presenting as recurrent sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Narendra; Rathi, Akanksha

    2011-12-01

    Galactosemia is a treatable metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) and inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A case of neonate manifesting with recurrent Escherichia coli sepsis is presented here which turned out to be a classic galactosemia. No other common presenting features were observed in this infant except cataract on slit lamp examination. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case of galactosemia reported in literature which presented with recurrent neonatal sepsis without hepatomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, bleeding disorder, vomiting, diarrhea, failure to thrive, hypoglycemia, coagulopathy, hemolysis or renal tubular acidosis.

  11. Vasopressors and Inotropes in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Leeanne; Berlin, David A; Arbo, John E

    2017-02-01

    Vasopressor and inotropes are beneficial in shock states. Norepinephrine is considered the first-line vasopressor for patients with sepsis-associated hypotension. Dobutamine is considered the first-line inotrope in sepsis, and should be considered for patients with evidence of myocardial dysfunction or ongoing signs of hypoperfusion. Vasopressor and inotrope therapy has complex effects that are often difficult to predict; emergency providers should consider the physiology and clinical trial data. It is essential to continually reevaluate the patient to determine if the selected treatment is having the intended result.

  12. Farm operator perceptions of water quality protective pest management practices: Selected survey findings

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.; Blair, J.; Webb, B.

    1995-12-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture often poses a tension between water quality and environmental protection goals on the one hand and the viability of food supplies on the other hand. Pesticides used for field crops (e.g., corn, soy beans and wheat) have been detected in waterbodies, and according to some studies, are apparently finding their way into water supplies. A considerable amount of discretion is allowed in farm operator`s choice of pest management practices, and voluntary behavior becomes an important factor in promoting environmentally protective practices. Thus, it is important to know the attitudes of farmers who make pest management decisions including pesticide choices, toward the use of various water quality protective pest management practices. A number of studies show that more general environmental attitudes reflect a general world view that shapes attitudes toward particular environmental issues. This paper addresses the relationship between the more general environmental attitudes of farmers to their attitudes toward water quality issues and pest management practices which are protective of water quality. Some of the personal tradeoffs farmers are willing to make to enhance environmental controls on pesticides are also explored. Results are based on preliminary findings from a survey of farm operators who grow corn, soybeans and other field crops in three eastern states. The survey was conducted via a mail questionnaire to 2,700 farmers with telephone follow-up during the Fall of 1994. Implications of the findings for pest management in general are discussed.

  13. NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers: Training and Awareness of Employer Safety Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Steege, Andrea L.; Boiano, James M.; Sweeney, Marie H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers describes current practices used to minimize chemical exposures and barriers to using recommended personal protective equipment for the following: antineoplastic drugs, anesthetic gases, high level disinfectants, surgical smoke, aerosolized medications (pentamidine, ribavirin, and antibiotics), and chemical sterilants. Methods Twenty-one healthcare professional practice organizations collaborated with NIOSH to develop and implement the web-based survey. Results Twelve thousand twenty-eight respondents included professional, technical, and support occupations which routinely come in contact with the targeted hazardous chemicals. Chemical-specific safe handling training was lowest for aerosolized antibiotics (52%, n = 316), and surgical smoke (57%, n = 4,747). Reported employer procedures for minimizing exposure was lowest for surgical smoke (32%, n = 4,746) and anesthetic gases (56%, n = 3,604). Conclusions Training and having procedures in place to minimize exposure to these chemicals is one indication of employer and worker safety awareness. Safe handling practices for use of these chemicals will be reported in subsequent papers. PMID:24549581

  14. Breast Density Legislation in New England: A Survey Study of Practicing Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Lourenco, Ana P; DiFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess radiologists' knowledge about breast density legislation as well as perceived practice changes resulting from the enactment of breast density legislation. This is an institutional review board-exempt anonymous email survey of 523 members of the New England Roentgen Ray Society. In addition to radiologist demographics, survey questions addressed radiologist knowledge of breast density legislation, knowledge of breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer, recommendations for supplemental screening, and perceived practice changes resulting from density notification legislation. Of the 523 members, 96 responded, yielding an 18% response rate. Seventy-three percent of respondents practiced in a state with breast density legislation. Sixty-nine percent felt that breast density notification increased patient anxiety about breast cancer, but also increased patient (74%) and provider (66%) understanding of the effect of breast density on mammographic sensitivity. Radiologist knowledge of the relative risk of breast cancer when comparing breasts of different density was variable. Considerable confusion and controversy regarding breast density persists, even among practicing radiologists. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Practice of stereotactic body radiotherapy in a developing country: Perception, aspiration, and limitation - A survey.

    PubMed

    Rathod, S; Munshi, A; Agarwal, J P

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an effective and established modern technology now used more commonly. Radiation oncology personnel's (ROP) opinion toward SBRT in the developing countries like India is unknown. A 30 question survey evaluating ROP's profile, technological details, and SBRT's perceptive were seeked. Tata Memorial Center - ROP's email database was used. Survey questionnaire was emailed to 500 ROP's and 224 ROP's were contactable. Majority of the responders were from corporate hospitals and half of responders had experience of 5 or more years of experience in radiation oncology. SBRT was practiced by 70% of responders and the majority had adopted SBRT in 2010 or later. Quick turn around time, high dose delivery and competitive market forces were major factors to adopt SBRT. Lung was the most common site practiced followed by prostate, spine, and liver. All SBRT users were keen to increase SBRT in practice and the majority of non-responders were planning to adapt SBRT in the recent future. Almost half of SBRT users were willing to share data and expertise for training others. Lack of infrastructure was the prime reason for not practicing SBRT. ROP's perceived physics, radiobiology as the biggest challenge in SBRT. International collaboration may be helpful. Use of SBRT is expected to increase in India. Limited experience with lack of infrastructure in public funded centers is a major limitation. Unmet need of infrastructure, training and guidelines is enormous and formulation of Indian SBRT consortium will help reforming at all levels.

  16. Current practice of preoperative fasting: a nationwide survey in Japanese anesthesia-teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Shime, Nobuaki; Ono, Akira; Chihara, Eiichi; Tanaka, Yoshifumi

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a nationwide survey to investigate the current practice of the preoperative fasting period in Japanese anesthesia-teaching hospitals. Acceptance of the clinical practice guideline published by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) was also surveyed. A written type of questionnaire was mailed to 795 teaching hospitals. The response rate of the questionnaires was 57%. Most (>90%) of the respondents had been applying a longer fasting period than the ASA-recommended minimum period specifically in adults; the median duration of fasting was 12-13 h for solids and 6-9 h for liquids. Children or infants were allowed a more liberalized fasting period, frequently being permitted an oral intake of clear fluids up to 3 h before anesthesia. The incidence of pulmonary aspiration was 1/12,500 general anesthesia cases, and application of the ASA guideline appeared not to affect the incidence. Japanese anesthesiologists were still reluctant to depart from their traditional long fasting periods, as most of them could find little benefit in reducing the fasting periods. The long preoperative fasting period is still common practice in Japanese anesthesia-teaching hospitals. A national guideline for a preoperative fasting policy is worth exploring to change the current practice.

  17. Case-Logging Practices in Otolaryngology Residency Training: National Survey of Residents and Program Directors.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah M; Gao, William; McGinn, Johnathan D; Malekzadeh, Sonya

    2017-06-01

    Objective (1) Evaluate the consistency and manner in which otolaryngology residents log surgical cases. (2) Assess the extent of instruction and guidance provided by program directors on case-logging practices. Study Design Cross-sectional national survey. Setting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education otolaryngology residency programs in the United States. Subjects and Methods US otolaryngology residents, postgraduate year 2 through graduating chiefs as of July 2016, were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire designed to characterize surgical case-logging practices. Program directors of US otolaryngology residency programs were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire to elucidate how residents are instructed to log cases. Results A total of 272 residents and 53 program directors completed the survey, yielding response rates of 40.6% and 49.5%, respectively. Perceived accuracy of case logs is low among residents and program directors. Nearly 40% of residents purposely choose not to log certain cases, and 65.1% of residents underreport cases performed. More than 80% of program directors advise residents to log procedures performed outside the operating room, yet only 16% of residents consistently log such cases. Conclusion Variability in surgical case-logging behaviors and differences in provided instruction highlight the need for methods to improve consistency of logging practices. It is imperative to standardize practices across otolaryngology residency programs for case logs to serve as an accurate measure of surgical competency. This study provides a foundation for reform efforts within residency programs and for the Resident Case Log System.

  18. Sc