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Sample records for septum pellucidum

  1. Endoscopic fenestration of a symptomatic cyst of the septum pellucidum.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, J; Manrique, M; De Prado, F

    2000-12-01

    We present the case of a 25-year-old woman suffering from chronic severe headaches and syncope associated with an expanding cyst of the septum pellucidum. After a simple endoscopic fenestration of the cyst the symptoms resolved, resulting in an excellent clinical outcome. This case shows that simple endoscopic fenestration may produce a rapid and maintained symptomatic improvement in patients with an expanding cyst of the septum pellucidum. PMID:11272036

  2. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI.

  3. Cavum septum pellucidum in a case of schizophrenia presenting with self-mutilating behavior.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Shreekantiah; Bose, Swarnali; Khanra, Sourav; Das, Basudeb; Nizamie, S Haque

    2015-01-01

    Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a neurodevelopmental anomaly, which is commonly reported in schizophrenia patients. Various symptoms of schizophrenia, including thought disturbances have been associated with CSP. We present a rare case of undifferentiated schizophrenia with CSP who presented with self-mutilating behaviors.

  4. [A Rare Case of Subependymoma of the Septum Pellucidum as Intratumoral Hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ichiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hirose, Makoto; Toba, Tamotsu

    2015-12-01

    Subependymomas (SEs) are rare, benign, noninvasive, slow-growing tumors located anywhere along the ventricular walls. They arise most frequently in the fourth ventricle followed by the lateral ventricle, and less frequently in the septum pellucidum, third ventricle, and spinal cord. Most SEs are found incidentally at autopsy, but some may produce clinical symptoms. Tumor-related hemorrhage represents an extremely rare presentation sign. We describe a rare case of septum pellucidum SE as tumoral hemorrhage. The tumor was totally removed via an interhemispheric transcallosal approach. Histological examination found typical SE. Although the patient had transient memory impairment, he had a good postoperative course and was discharged on the twenty-first postoperative day. PMID:26646177

  5. A Newly Identified Frontal Path from Fornix in Septum Pellucidum with 7.0T MRI Track Density Imaging (TDI) – The Septum Pellucidum Tract (SPT)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Chi, Je-Geun; Choi, Sang-Han; Oh, Se-Hong; Park, Sung-Yeon; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chan-Woong; Calamante, Fernando; Kim, Young-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The high anatomical contrast achieved with the newly emerging MRI tractographic technique of super-resolution track density imaging (TDI) encouraged us to search for a new fiber tract in the septum pellucidum. Although this septum pellucidum tract (SPT) has been observed previously, its connections were unclear due to ambiguity and limited resolution of conventional MRI images. It is now possible to identify detailed parts of SPT with the increased resolution of TDI, which involves diffusion MRI imaging, whole-brain tractography, and voxel subdivision using the track-count information. Four healthy male subjects were included in the study. The experiment was performed with 7.0T MRI, following the guidelines of the institute’s institutional review board. Data were processed with the super-resolution TDI technique to generate a tractographic map with 0.18 mm isotropic resolution. The SPT was identified in all subjects. Based on additional seed tracking method with inter-axis correlation search, we have succeeded in identifying a new frontal lobe pathway in the SPT. We hypothesize that the tract is connected as a superior dorsal branch of the fornix that leads to the prefrontal cortex. PMID:26640429

  6. A Newly Identified Frontal Path from Fornix in Septum Pellucidum with 7.0T MRI Track Density Imaging (TDI) - The Septum Pellucidum Tract (SPT).

    PubMed

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Chi, Je-Geun; Choi, Sang-Han; Oh, Se-Hong; Park, Sung-Yeon; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Chan-Woong; Calamante, Fernando; Kim, Young-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The high anatomical contrast achieved with the newly emerging MRI tractographic technique of super-resolution track density imaging (TDI) encouraged us to search for a new fiber tract in the septum pellucidum. Although this septum pellucidum tract (SPT) has been observed previously, its connections were unclear due to ambiguity and limited resolution of conventional MRI images. It is now possible to identify detailed parts of SPT with the increased resolution of TDI, which involves diffusion MRI imaging, whole-brain tractography, and voxel subdivision using the track-count information. Four healthy male subjects were included in the study. The experiment was performed with 7.0T MRI, following the guidelines of the institute's institutional review board. Data were processed with the super-resolution TDI technique to generate a tractographic map with 0.18 mm isotropic resolution. The SPT was identified in all subjects. Based on additional seed tracking method with inter-axis correlation search, we have succeeded in identifying a new frontal lobe pathway in the SPT. We hypothesize that the tract is connected as a superior dorsal branch of the fornix that leads to the prefrontal cortex.

  7. Schizencephaly: correlation between the lobar topography of the cleft(s) and absence of the septum pellucidum.

    PubMed

    Raybaud, C; Girard, N; Lévrier, O; Peretti-Viton, P; Manera, L; Farnarier, P

    2001-04-01

    The bipolar defects observed in schizencephalies-clefts in the hemispheric mantle on the one hand, absent septum pellucidum on the other--without any anatomic or functional continuity suggest that there is some sort of common specific vulnerability of both structures. A study of the correlation between lobar location of the clefts and involvement of the septum pellucidum was undertaken, considering the hypothesis that the septum pellucidum is the portion of a "medial medullary velum" that corresponds to the frontal lobe, while the psalterium would correspond to the parieto-occipital lobe and the fimbria corresponds to the temporal lobe. This retrospective study of 16 cases of schizencephaly properly investigated by MR discloses a perfect correlation, all cases with absent septum pellucidum having clefts into the frontal lobe, all cases with present septum pellucidum having clefts in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, and only the few instances (3 cases) of overlapping findings being characterized by clefts in the central area, where the distinction between posterior frontal and anterior parietal lobes is uncertain because of the cortical dysplasia related to the clefts. Partial defects of the septum also proved to correlate closely, topographically, with the location of the clefts. Therefore, the facts confirm a segmental organization of the mantle and septal defects, suggesting a developmental rather than a destructive mechanism, which could at least be related to a segmental pattern of selective vulnerability. PMID:11398940

  8. The Relationship between Large Cavum Septum Pellucidum and Antisocial Behavior, Callous-Unemotional Traits and Psychopathy in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stuart F.; Brislin, Sarah; Sinclair, Stephen; Fowler, Katherine A.; Pope, Kayla; Blair, R. James R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of a large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) has been previously associated with antisocial behavior/psychopathic traits in an adult community sample. Aims: The current study investigated the relationship between a large CSP and symptom severity in disruptive behavior disorders (DBD; conduct disorder and oppositional defiant…

  9. [Arteriovenous malformation of septum pellucidum in combination with persistent trigeminal neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Talanov, A B; Filatov, Iu M; Eliava, Sh Sh; Novikov, A E; Kulishova, Ia G

    2009-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of septum pellucidum in combination with left side persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is described. Presentation of AVM included severe intracranial hemorrhage and the lesion was removed surgically. The case deserves interest for two reasons. 1) The observation demonstrates the possibility of increased pressure in the afferent arteries of AVM. It was illustrated by distinctive displacement of the zones of the hemodynamical balance around the circle of Willis. The raised pressure in conditions of shunting can be explained using principles of the constant shear stress in the vascular system. 2) The observation of the features of venous system that may be causative for PTA. These features included presence of the large anastomotic vein between petrosal and cavernous sinuses, enlargement of petrosal sinuses and shrinking of transverse sinus ipsilateral to PTA. PMID:20143612

  10. A case report on the relationship between treatment-resistant childhood-onset schizophrenia and an abnormally enlarged cavum septum pellucidum combined with cavum vergae.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-luan; Hu, Shao-hua; Xu, Yi

    2012-04-01

    The treatment of refractory schizophrenia has been a clinical challenge for most psychiatrists; the possible reasons include diagnostic errors, medical conditions and brain dysgenesis. Here, we described a patient with childhood-onset schizophrenia who had severe psychiatric symptoms such as auditory hallucinations and persecutory delusions, and etc. We reexamined all his possible medical conditions and found that the patient had an abnormally enlarged cavus septum pellucidum (CSP) combined with cavum vergae (CV) (maximum length >30 mm). Some reports suggested that abnormal CSP (length >6 mm) has a significant association with schizophrenia. However, abnormally large CSP or CSP/CV and related prognosis were reported rarely. This case suggested that abnormally enlarged CSP or CSP/CV may worsen the prognosis.

  11. A case of ring chromosome 22 with deletion of the 22q13.3 region associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum, fornix and septum pellucidum.

    PubMed

    Delcán, José; Orera, María; Linares, Rafael; Saavedra, Dolores; Palomar, Angustias

    2004-08-01

    We report a 16-week-gestation foetus obtained by voluntary abortion after prenatal diagnosis, in which a ring chromosome 22 was observed with deletion of the 22q13.3 region. A prenatal study of the amniotic fluid by standard chromosome technique with G bands and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridisation) was performed. After the abortion, the anatomopathological study of the obtained foetus was carried out. Morphological and histological analysis of the foetus did not reveal severe physical abnormalities, although alterations of the nervous system were observed consisting of corpus callosum, fornix and septum pellucidum agenesia. It could be that the genes in this region that were involved in the development of the central nervous system were responsible for the alterations found in the morphological study. The wide range of manifestations observed in patients with this cytogenetic alteration is probably due to size differences in the deleted region.

  12. No difference in the prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) between first-episode schizophrenia patients, offspring of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rajarethinam, Rajaprabhakaran; Sohi, Jasdeep; Arfken, Cynthia; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2008-08-01

    The reported prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), is extremely variable (from 0.1% to 85%) depending upon the measurement method or imaging resolution. Higher prevalence of CSP has been found in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the prevalence of CSP in a large number of first-episode schizophrenia patients, young relatives of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. We manually measured CSP using 1.5 mm T1 MRI scans from ongoing studies at University of Pittsburgh in 89 first-episode patients with schizophrenia (age=23.8+/-7.4, M/F=61/28), 64 genetically at-risk individuals (offspring and siblings of schizophrenia patients, age 15.2+/-3.7, M/F=29/32) and 120 comparison subjects (n=120, age=22.1+/-7.9, M/F62/50). CSP was present in 64% of the first-episode patients (mean length 1.87+/-2.3 mm), 64.6% of the at-risk individuals (1.64+/-1.96 mm) and 64.2% of the normal controls (1.88+/-2.0 mm). There was no difference in the prevalence of CSP exceeding 4 mm. We also did not find any influence of the sex or age in the presence or size of CSP. Our data cast doubt on the significance of CSP as markers of neurodevelopmental pathology in schizophrenia.

  13. Deviated Septum

    MedlinePlus

    ... only when he or she also has a "cold" (an upper respiratory tract infection). In these individuals, ... problems related to the deviated septum. Once the "cold" resolves, and the nasal inflammation subsides, symptoms of ...

  14. Sylvius aqueduct septum.

    PubMed

    Coolen, T; Médart, L; Tebache, M; Collignon, L

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of chronic hydrocephalus discovered in adulthood through an episode of acute decompensation. Multimodal imaging revealed the cause of this hydrocephalus to be a membranous septum of the aqueduct of Sylvius, a condition for which few reports exist.

  15. Surgery of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Gunter

    2006-11-01

    Long-term results after septoplasty are not satisfactory. Apart from a recurrence of deviation, there are various reasons for this: false preoperative analysis, complete straightening of the septum, and a disturbed nasal cycle. Preoperative functional diagnostics with a combination of rhinoresistometry, acoustic rhinometry, and long-term rhinoflowmetry are necessary for differentiating between "physiological" and "pathological" septal deviations and recognizing other causes for obstruction. The surgical procedure of septoplasty includes approach, mobilization, resection, reposition, and finally reconstruction of all three layers. The goal of the operation should not be complete straightening of the nasal septum. The space between the septum and turbinates is of utmost importance. It should not be enlarged as much as possible; rather, it must be shaped in such a way as to allow freely congestion and decongestion reciprocal on the two sides during the nasal cycle. PMID:17131264

  16. Electrostatic septum for kilowatt heavy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredson, S.; Marti, F.; Miller, P.; Poe, D.; Stork, G.

    2001-12-01

    A septum of improved design has replaced the standard tungsten septum with uniform thickness used in the deflector for the K1200 cyclotron at Michigan State University [1]. A V-notch in the leading edge enhanced radiation cooling, and an increased septum thickness away from the median plane enhanced conduction of heat to the water cooled housing. Previously observed degradation of beam transmission attributed to thermally induced deformation of the septum was greatly improved with the new septum. The demonstrated power dissipation with an Ar beam was 900 W.

  17. Hysteroscopic Transcervical Resection of Uterine Septum

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Hua, Xiangdong; Gu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Dazhen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the method of diagnosis for uterine septum and the clinical effect of hysteroscopic transcervical resection of the septum. Methods: One-hundred ninety cases of patients with uterine septum who were diagnosed and treated at our hospital during 2007–2011 were selected, and their general information, perioperative status, postoperative recovery treatment, and postoperative pregnancy rates were statistically analyzed. Results: All 190 patients were cured with one surgery, with an average hysteroscopic operating time of 22.60 ± 10.67 minutes and intraoperative blood loss of 15.74 ± 9.64 mL. There were no complications such as uterine perforation, water intoxication, infection, or heavy bleeding. Among the 115 patients that we followed up, 86 became pregnant and delivered infants, 81 of which were born at term and 5 that were born premature. Conclusion: The combination of hysteroscopy and laparoscopy is still the most reliable method for the diagnosis of uterine septum. With a shorter operative time, less blood loss, a significantly increased postoperative pregnancy rate and live birth rate, and a significantly lower spontaneous abortion rate, transcervical resection of the septum was the preferred method for the treatment of uterine septum, and surgical instruments and skills were critical to the prognosis of uterine septum. PMID:24398191

  18. Middle Interhemispheric Variant of Holoprosencephaly - Presenting as Non-Visualized Cavum Septum Pellucidum and An Interhemispheric Cyst in A 19-Weeks Fetus.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Akhila; Nayak, Shalini S; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Girisha, Katta M; Shetty, Jyothi

    2015-09-01

    Middle Interhemispheric variant (MIH) is a rare subtype of holoprosencephaly (HPE), also known as syntelencephaly. We present a case of MIH, which was diagnosed as an interhemispheric cyst on antenatal sonography at 19 weeks, but later diagnosed as MIH variant of holoprosencephaly after a postabortal MRI and perinatal autopsy. PMID:26500966

  19. Surgery of the nasal septum and turbinates

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The following article presents nasal septum and turbinate surgery. First an overview with special consideration of the anatomical and physiological background is given followed by indications for surgical procedures. Key steps of the gold standard procedure first described by Cottle and common variations are presented. Furthermore, some techniques dealing with special problems of the septumplasty are discussed followed by an overview on complications and long term results. However, it should be mentioned that studies on surgical procedures of the nasal septum are still not sufficient as higher evidence levels are very rare. Within a separated chapter techniques for closure of septum perforations are presented and indications particularly in the background of the standard procedure of bridge flaps forwarded by Schultz-Coulon are discussed. The second part focusses on turbinate surgery. Accordingly, anatomical and physiological basics are presented followed by indications for surgical procedures and the surgical steps of different procedures as well as postsurgical treatment and long term results. PMID:22073086

  20. Increased incidence and size of cavum septum pellicidum in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, Elliott A.; Qin, Yufeng; Nguyen, Vy; Johnson, Joel; Pinter, Joseph D.; Simon, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a result of a hemizygotic microdeletion that results in a variety of impairments in children including greater risk for psychiatric ailments in adulthood. We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to accurately quantify the length and, for the first time, volume, of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) in children aged 7 to 14 years with 22q11.2DS and typically developing (TD) controls. Significantly greater anteroposterior length and greater CSP volumes were found in children with 22q11.2DS compared to controls. Furthermore, the largest CSP were found only in the 22q11.2DS group and with a much higher incidence than previously reported in the literature. Given the significant midline anomalies in the brains of those affected by 22q11.2DS, large CSP may be a biomarker of atypical brain development. The implication of these larger CSP for cognitive and behavioral development is a topic in need of further investigation. PMID:20074913

  1. Biventricular Mural Endocarditis on the Intraventricular Septum.

    PubMed

    Mori, Makoto; Hosoba, Soh; Yoshimura, Stephanie; Lattouf, Omar

    2015-10-28

    Mural endocarditis is an inflammation and disruption of the nonvalvular endocardial surface of the cardiac chambers. We present a rare case of mural endocarditis on the intraventricular (IV) septum on both the left and right ventricular side with intact valvular annulus. This case highlights the complexity of the operative and postoperative management in an unprecedented case of biventricular mural endocarditis.

  2. Septal stapler use during septum surgery.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Güven; Cingi, Cemal; Kaya, Ercan

    2013-03-01

    Although discussions regarding nasal packing are still ongoing, to eliminate any possible complications, surgeons have used nasal packing for many years. Septoplasty is one of the most frequently performed operations by head and neck surgeons. Any methods to diminish the surgical time or bring comfort to the surgeon will be well appreciated. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate the usefulness of the stapler method by comparing preoperative and postoperative results from the visual analog scale (VAS), nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE), rhinosinusitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ), and acoustic rhinomanometry values. In addition, we evaluated pain scores, postoperative complications, and breathing after nasal packing, stapling, and trans-septal suturing techniques. Patients were divided into three groups. In the first group, deviated cartilage was removed or repositioned and mucoperichondrial flaps were closed with a bioresorbable stapler after septoplasty. Four or five staples were placed on the septum. In the second group, the septum was sutured continuously with 4/0 Pegelak (Doğsan TR). In the third group, Merocel packs were used without any sutures and were kept for 48 h. Nasal packing leads to patient discomfort after septal surgery; however, there is no difference in patient comfort between closing the mucoperichondrial flaps by suturing the septum or using a stapler. After surgery, there were no differences between the groups in terms of successful breathing. This situation was assessed by endoscopic examination and acoustic rhinomanometry. Thus, there was no objective or subjective difference. Stapling increases the doctor's comfort level and surgical time is optimized. Although experienced surgeons can easily suture the septum, less experienced ones have some difficulty; therefore, stapling may provide more benefit to the latter. Further, four staples are sufficient to close the septum.

  3. Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Jassar, P; Stafford, N D; MacDonald, A W

    1999-05-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest benign tumour of the major salivary glands. It can also occur in minor salivary glands, mainly in the oral cavity, but also in other sites in the head and neck both within and outwith the upper aerodigestive tract. We present a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum with consideration of the clinical management and a review of the literature.

  4. Monitoring Chitin Deposition During Septum Assembly in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Arcones, Irene; Roncero, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of the septum is a critical step during cytokinesis in the fungal cell. Moreover, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae septum assembly depends mostly on the proper synthesis and deposition of chitin and, accordingly, on the timely regulation of chitin synthases. In this chapter, we will see how to follow chitin synthesis by two complementary approaches: monitoring chitin deposition in vivo at the septum by calcofluor staining and fluorescence microscopy, and measuring the chitin synthase activities responsible for this synthesis. PMID:26519305

  5. Reproductive Outcome Following Hysteroscopic Treatment of Uterine Septum

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Seddigheh; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Andarieh, Maryam Ghanbari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Septate uterus is the most common uterine anomaly and a cause for miscarriage and infertility. Existing data suggested a better reproductive outcome of uterine septum following hysteroscopic septum resection. Objective: Current study was administered to share our experience in hystroscopic septum resection for reproductive outcome following hysteroscopic treatment of uterine septum and specifically focusing on different treatment protocols after hysteroscopic septum resection. Methods& materials: This study was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data that was obtained from medical records of infertile women who had undergone transvaginal hysteroscopy and used different treatment protocols after hysteroscopic correction of uterine septum in Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center between April 2005 and February 2014. Results: The total number of infertile women underwent hysteroscopy uterine septoplasty was 106. The hysteroscopy septoplasty resulted in an overall pregnancy rate of 67% and a live birth 57.5%. Pregnancy rate for patients who had not male infertility was 92.1%. The chi-square test did not reveal any statistically significant difference in side affect, pregnancy, live birth, abortion, preterm deliveries, and term deliveries rate between these patients either with consistent hormone therapy plus IUD insertion or with alternate hormone therapy plus IUD after hysteroscopic metroplasty. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated hysteroscopic septum resection to remove a uterine septum in women with infertility is safe and may be an efficacious procedure. Treatment following hysteroscopic septum resection, either the consistent or the alternate protocol is both beneficial to improve pregnancy rate. PMID:25685079

  6. Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S B; Kennedy, K S; Parker, G S; Tatum, S A

    1990-11-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of glandular tissue occurring in the head and neck region. There have been several reports of metastasis of this benign-appearing tumor from the salivary glands to distant sites, suggesting hematogenous spread and implantation. Although occurrence of pleomorphic adenoma on the nasal septum has been described, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of recurrent septal pleomorphic adenoma with histologically benign tissue in an enlarged metastatic ipsilateral submandibular lymph node, suggesting lymphatic spread. The literature concerning the subject is reviewed. Wide septal excision and modified neck dissection is the recommended treatment.

  7. Focal Atrial Tachycardia Surrounding the Anterior Septum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zulu; Ouyang, Jinge; Liang, Yanchun; Jin, Zhiqing; Yang, Guitang; Liang, Ming; Li, Shibei; Yu, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background— Focal atrial tachycardias (ATs) surrounding the anterior atrial septum (AAS) have been successfully ablated from the right atrial septum (RAS), the aortic cusps, and the aortic mitral junction. However, the strategy for mapping and ablation of AAS-ATs has not been well defined. Methods and Results— Of 227 consecutive patients with AT, 47 (20.7%; mean age, 56.3±11.6 years) with AAS-ATs were studied; among them, initial ablation was successful at RAS in only 5 of 14 patients and at noncoronary cusp (NCC) in 28 of 33 patients. In 45 of the 47 patients, the 46 of 48 AAS-ATs were eliminated at RAS in 8 patients, NCC in 35 patients (earliest activation time at NCC was later than that at RAS by 5–10 ms in 6 patients), and aortic mitral junction in 3 patients (all with negative P wave in lead aVL and positive P wave in the inferior leads), including 1 patient whose 2 ATs were eliminated separately from the NCC and the aortic mitral junction. Conclusions— Most of the ATs surrounding the AAS can be eliminated from within the NCC, which is usually the preferential ablation site. Ablation at the RAS and aortic mitral junction should be considered when supported by P-wave morphologies on surface ECG and results of activation mapping and ablation. PMID:25908691

  8. DESIGN OF BEAM-EXTRACTION SEPTUM MAGNET FOR THE SNS.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; LEE,Y.Y.; RANK,J.; TUOZZOLO,J.

    2001-06-18

    The beam-extraction process from the SNS accumulator ring [1,2] requires a Lambertson septum magnet. In this paper we discuss the geometrical and magnetic field requirements of the magnet and present results obtained from two and three dimensional magnetic field calculations that shows the field quality in the regions of interest of the septum magnet.

  9. The APS direct-drive pulsed septum magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sheynin, S.; Lopez, F.; Milton, S.V.

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of four separate machines: linac, booster, positron accumulator ring (PAR) and storage ring (SR), plus three transfer lines interconnecting the machines. At least one thin, pulsed septum magnet is located at each splice joint. The stray field tolerances for two of these septum magnets are very stringent. As an example, for clean operation during the proposed top-up mode in the storage ring, the stray fields from the septum magnet must not exceed 1 G-m. The septum wall thickness must also not exceed 2.4 mm. To meet these requirements, direct-drive septum magnets with magnetic shield pipe around the stored beam region were developed and built. These magnets have now been tested and installed, and are used in daily operation. We describe the magnet(s) design, the measurement results, the actual operation, and performance.

  10. Nonlinear excited waves on the interventricular septum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Naoaki; Harada, Yoshifumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Using a novel ultrasonic noninvasive imaging method, we observe some phase singularities in propagating excited waves on a human cardiac interventricular septum (IVS) for a healthy young male. We present a possible physical model explaining one-dimensional dynamics of phase singularities in nonlinearly excited waves on the IVS. We show that at least one of the observed phase singularities in the excited waves on the IVS can be explained by the Bekki-Nozaki hole solution of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation without any adjustable parameters. We conclude that the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation is such a suitable model for one-dimensional dynamics of cardiac phase singularities in nonlinearly excited waves on the IVS.

  11. Medial septum regulates the hippocampal spatial representation

    PubMed Central

    Mamad, Omar; McNamara, Harold M.; Reilly, Richard B.; Tsanov, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal circuitry undergoes attentional modulation by the cholinergic medial septum. However, it is unclear how septal activation regulates the spatial properties of hippocampal neurons. We investigated here what is the functional effect of selective-cholinergic and non-selective septal stimulation on septo-hippocampal system. We show for the first time selective activation of cholinergic cells and their differential network effect in medial septum of freely-behaving transgenic rats. Our data show that depolarization of cholinergic septal neurons evokes frequency-dependent response from the non-cholinergic septal neurons and hippocampal interneurons. Our findings provide vital evidence that cholinergic effect on septo-hippocampal axis is behavior-dependent. During the active behavioral state the activation of septal cholinergic projections is insufficient to evoke significant change in the spiking of the hippocampal neurons. The efficiency of septo-hippocampal processing during active exploration relates to the firing patterns of the non-cholinergic theta-bursting cells. Non-selective septal theta-burst stimulation resets the spiking of hippocampal theta cells, increases theta synchronization, entrains the spiking of hippocampal place cells, and tunes the spatial properties in a timing-dependent manner. The spatial properties are augmented only when the stimulation is applied in the periphery of the place field or 400–650 ms before the animals approached the center of the field. In summary, our data show that selective cholinergic activation triggers a robust network effect in the septo-hippocampal system during inactive behavioral state, whereas the non-cholinergic septal activation regulates hippocampal functional properties during explorative behavior. Together, our findings uncover fast septal modulation on hippocampal network and reveal how septal inputs up-regulate and down-regulate the encoding of spatial representation. PMID:26175674

  12. Deformities of the nasal septum in human foetuses.

    PubMed

    Ruano-Gil, D; Montserrat-Viladiu, J M; Vilanova-Trías, J; Burgés-Vila, J

    1980-06-01

    In a seris of 50 embryos and foetuses ranging from 20 mm to 190 mm in length two foetuses of 34 and 37 mm (48 to 50 days old) were found, that presented deformities of the septum of the cartilaginous nasal capsule, representing 4% of our material. The deformities consisted of curves of the nasal septum, located to both vomeronasal nerves. We therefore think that this study is interesting because it adds a new factor, the congenital one, to the etiology of deformities of the nasal septum.

  13. A Rare Case of Lipomatous Hypertrophy of the Interventricular Septum

    PubMed Central

    Matsiras, Sotirios; Vassilikos, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy secondary to interventricular septum hypertrophy is usually considered a typical phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In rare cases other conditions such as tumors or lipomatous hypertrophy of the interventricular septum may have a similar presentation. We present a case of a male patient who presented for routine cardiology work up and was diagnosed of having ventricular septal hypertrophy secondary to localized lipomatous hypertrophy. PMID:27358712

  14. Pulsed power supply for three APS septum magnets

    SciTech Connect

    McGhee, D.G.

    1991-03-24

    Three septum magnets will be operated at a repetition-rate of 2 Hz. Two of the septum magnets are identical and operate at the same values; these are the synchrotron extraction and the storage ring injection magnets. They are transformer septum magnets, with a primary inductance of 23 {mu}H and resistance of 6.3 m{Omega}, and must be pulsed at a 2 Hz rate to extract beam from the synchrotron and inject beam into the storage ring at 7.7 GeV. The third septum magnet is used to inject electrons into the synchrotron at 650 MeV or positrons at 450 MeV. It is also a transformer septum magnet, with a primary inductance of 21 {mu}H and resistance of 6.7 m{Omega}, and must be pulsed at a 2 Hz rate. A design study was performed of the power supply proposed in the APS Title I design. This supply produces a pulse that is approximately a half-sine-wave with a base width of approximately 1/3 ms; its peakcurrent is adjustable from 470 A to 4.7 kA and is repeatable within {plus_minus}0.05%. The septum steel is reset by a half-sine pulse of reverse polarity a few milliseconds after the forward current pulse. No beam is present during reset. The use of the transformer design minimizes the cost of the capacitors used for energy storage.

  15. Analysis of cardiac interventricular septum motion in different respiratory states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautz, Lennart; Feng, Li; Otazo, Ricardo; Hennemuth, Anja; Axel, Leon

    2016-03-01

    The interaction between the left and right heart ventricles (LV and RV) depends on load and pressure conditions that are affected by cardiac contraction and respiration cycles. A novel MRI sequence, XD-GRASP, allows the acquisition of multi-dimensional, respiration-sorted and cardiac-synchronized free-breathing image data. In these data, effects of the cardiac and respiratory cycles on the LV/RV interaction can be observed independently. To enable the analysis of such data, we developed a semi-automatic exploration workflow. After tracking a cross-sectional line positioned over the heart, over all motion states, the septum and heart wall border locations are detected by analyzing the grey-value profile under the lines. These data are used to quantify septum motion, both in absolute units and as a fraction of the heart size, to compare values for different subjects. In addition to conventional visualization techniques, we used color maps for intuitive exploration of the variable values for this multi-dimensional data set. We acquired short-axis image data of nine healthy volunteers, to analyze the position and the motion of the interventricular septum in different breathing states and different cardiac cycle phases. The results indicate a consistent range of normal septum motion values, and also suggest that respiratory phase-dependent septum motion is greatest near end-diastolic phases. These new methods are a promising tool to assess LV/RV ventricle interaction and the effects of respiration on this interaction.

  16. Septum Development in Neurospora crassa: The Septal Actomyosin Tangle

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Álvarez, Diego Luis; Bartnicki-García, Salomón; Seiler, Stephan; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Septum formation in Neurospora crassa was studied by fluorescent tagging of actin, myosin, tropomyosin, formin, fimbrin, BUD-4, and CHS-1. In chronological order, we recognized three septum development stages: 1) septal actomyosin tangle (SAT) assembly, 2) contractile actomyosin ring (CAR) formation, 3) CAR constriction together with plasma membrane ingrowth and cell wall construction. Septation began with the assembly of a conspicuous tangle of cortical actin cables (SAT) in the septation site >5 min before plasma membrane ingrowth. Tropomyosin and myosin were detected as components of the SAT from the outset. The SAT gradually condensed to form a proto-CAR that preceded CAR formation. During septum development, the contractile actomyosin ring remained associated with the advancing edge of the septum. Formin and BUD-4 were recruited during the transition from SAT to CAR and CHS-1 appeared two min before CAR constriction. Actin patches containing fimbrin were observed surrounding the ingrowing septum, an indication of endocytic activity. Although the trigger of SAT assembly remains unclear, the regularity of septation both in space and time gives us reason to believe that the initiation of the septation process is integrated with the mechanisms that control both the cell cycle and the overall growth of hyphae, despite the asynchronous nature of mitosis in N. crassa. PMID:24800890

  17. Nasal septum perforation in patient with pyoderma gangrenosum

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Camilla Bezerra da Cruz; Felix, Felippe; Paes, Vania; de Azevedo, Julia Alves; Grangeiro, Eliza Raquel Negrão; Riccio, Jonatah Lucas N.; Rito, Helen Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the coca (Erythroxylon coca). It can be used in many ways, but the most common is the drug inhalation. The Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction at nasal mucous membrane and its chronic use can cause necrosis and nasal septum perforation. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon idiopathic disease characterized by ulcerations, usually observed on the legs. Its diagnosis is most common an exclusion of others diseases. So far, there is no specific treatment based on evidence by randomized controlled trials. Objective: Describe the rare association between Pyoderma gangrenosum and cocaine. Case Report: E. A., 27-year-old woman with destruction of nasal septum and palate who has been using a big amount of cocaine, been necessary note the difference from which disease cause de damage. Final Comments: Also there are only three cases of Pyoderma gangrenosum complicated with nasal septum perforation in cocaine users. PMID:25991946

  18. Upflow bioreactor with septum and pressure release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Conly L.; Hansen, Carl S.; Pack, Kevin; Milligan, John; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Tolman, C. Wayne; Tolman, Kenneth W.

    2010-04-20

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes means for releasing pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In one configuration, the septum includes a releasable portion having an open position and a closed position. The releasable portion is configured to move to the open position in response to pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In the open position fluid communication between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is increased. Alternatively the lower chamber can include a pressure release line that is selectively actuated by pressure buildup. The pressure release mechanism can prevent the bioreactor from plugging and/or prevent catastrophic damage to the bioreactor caused by high pressures.

  19. An approach to the nasal septum in children.

    PubMed

    Healy, G B

    1986-11-01

    Surgery of the nasal septum has long been discouraged in the pediatric population. Concerns about growth and development of the nose have led surgeons to adopt an extremely cautious attitude toward the correction of nasal septal deformities in childhood. More recently, studies have shown that with proper preservation of septal cartilage, surgery can be safely undertaken in this area. Frequently, however, exposure to the nasal septum is limited in small children due to the size of the nasal vestibule. Sublabial septoplasty has been safely carried out now in ten patients ranging in age from 4 to 9 years. This approach allows for complete access to the nasal septum while avoiding any external cosmetic deformity. The nasal septum has been preserved in all cases through morsalization and repositioning. Growth and development of the nose has been followed for up to 60 months without evidence of deformity or alteration. Sublabial septoplasty would, therefore, appear to be a safe and cosmetically acceptable approach to the correction of severe nasal septal deformities of childhood. PMID:3773624

  20. A 77-118 GHz RESONANCE-FREE SEPTUM POLARIZER

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiueh, Tzihong; Teng, Hsiao-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of polarized radiation often reveal specific physical properties of emission sources, such as the strengths and orientations of magnetic fields offered by synchrotron radiation and Zeeman line emission, and the electron density distribution caused by free-free emission. Polarization-capable, millimeter/sub-millimeter telescopes are normally equipped with either septum polarizers or ortho-mode transducers (OMT) to detect polarized radiation. Though the septum polarizer is limited to a significantly narrower bandwidth than the OMT, it possesses advantageous features unparalleled by the OMT when it comes to determining astronomical polarization measurements. We design an extremely wide-band circular waveguide septum polarizer, covering 42% bandwidth, from 77 GHz to 118 GHz, without any undesired resonance, challenging the conventional bandwidth limit. Stokes parameters, constructed from the measured data between 77 GHz and 115 GHz, show that the leakage from I to Q and U is below ±2%, and the Q – U mutual leakage is below ±1%. Such a performance is comparable to other modern polarizers, but the bandwidth of this polarizer can be at least twice as wide. This extremely wide-band design removes the major weakness of the septum polarizer and opens up a new window for future astronomical polarization measurements.

  1. Echinococcal Cyst of the Interventricular Septum with Right Ventricular Protrusion

    PubMed Central

    Eren, E. Ergin; Aykut, Serap; Kayihan, Attila; Aydogan, Hakki; Dagsali, Sabri

    1989-01-01

    Although echinococcosis (echinococcal hydatidosis) is common in sheep-raising countries such as Turkey, cardiac involvement is rare; the presence of a hydatid cyst in the interventricular septum is rarer still. We report a case of hydatid cyst of the interventricular septum that was first revealed by 2-dimensional echocardiography and then confirmed by right ventricular angiography. The cyst was removed surgically under cardiopulmonary bypass. Within the context of the medical literature concerning this rare lesion, we discuss this case and 10 other cases of cardiac hydatidosis, previously unreported in the world literature, that we have treated from January 1967 through January 1987. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1989;16:292-5) Images PMID:15227384

  2. Early Stage Relapsing Polychondritis Diagnosed by Nasal Septum Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Moody, Sandra; Komori, Masafumi; Jibatake, Akira; Yaegashi, Makito

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammation of cartilaginous tissues, the diagnosis of which is usually delayed by a mean period of 2.9 years from symptom onset. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with nasal pain and fever. Physical examination of the nose was grossly unremarkable, but there was significant tenderness of the nasal bridge. Acute sinusitis was initially diagnosed due to thickened left frontal sinus mucosa on computed tomography (CT); however, there was no improvement after antibiotic intake. Repeat CT showed edematous inflammation of the nasal septum; biopsy of this site demonstrated erosion and infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils in the hyaline cartilage. Relapsing polychondritis was confirmed by the modified McAdam's criteria and can be diagnosed at an early stage by nasal septum biopsy; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with nasal symptoms alone or persistent sinus symptoms. PMID:26843866

  3. Ameloblastoma of the Nasal Septum Origin: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zatoński, Tomasz; Roszkowska, Anna; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background. Ameloblastoma is the most common odontogenic tumor. It represents about 1% of all tumors of the jaw. Extragnathic location of the ameloblastoma is typical and extremely rare. Case Report. We report a case of ameloblastoma of the nasal septum origin, causing nasal obstruction. According to our information, this is the first reported case of ameloblastoma coming from the nasal septum as a primary tumor without maxillary sinus involvement. Conclusions. Ameloblastoma can not only locate in the maxilla and mandible, but also in other regions of the craniofacial. Ameloblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors causing nasal obstruction. Nonspecific clinical features of sinonasal ameloblastoma make it extremely important to perform accurate diagnostic imaging and histopathological examination. PMID:24171127

  4. Crisscross heart with dextrocardia and intact interventricular septum

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, P. Kader; Kalathingathodika, Sajeer; Chakanalil, Govindan Sajeev; Sony, Manuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Crisscross heart is a rare congenital heart disease characterized by a twisted atrioventricular connection, as a result of rotation of the ventricular mass along its long axis. We report an asymptomatic 48-year-old woman referred to us for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Further evaluation showed situs solitus, dextrocardia with normal atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connection, and a crisscross relation of the atrioventricular valves. Unlike the usual case of crisscross heart, our patient had an intact ventricular septum. PMID:24701094

  5. Septum posticum cysts: an uncommon cause of chronic back pain.

    PubMed

    Wyler, A R; Loeser, J D; Killien, F C

    1975-09-01

    The authors describe two patients with posterior thoracic pain associated with cysts of the septum posticum. One patient's pain was relieved by surgical removal of the cysts; the second patient's symptoms temporarily resolved after myelography. Posterior thoracic pain can be ascribed to myelographically proven arachnoid cysts when the pain is persistent, positionally exacerbated and associated with radicular sensory changes. Excision of the cysts may provide pain relief for some patients.

  6. Some thoughts on an eddy current septum magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K. |

    1995-08-01

    It is the purpose of this report to describe the thinking and work that went into thoroughly understanding, a specific eddy current septum magnet that will be used in the APS and needs ``fixing.`` The goal is to go beyond mere qualitative understanding and carry the analysis far enough to recognize the real problems of this magnet and to develop the tools to solve them. While it would be very tempting to write this report in very general terms, it would be very difficult to achieve complete generality, and one would risk losing the focus on this specific magnet that needs to have an improved performance. The discussion contains, however, so many generally useful concepts and procedures that it might further be useful for designers of other eddy current septum magnets both at the APS and elsewhere. Since it is necessary not only to have a deep qualitative understanding of several aspects of this type of magnet, but also to quantitatively assess what has to be done to achieve the desired performance, fairly heavy use of mathematical tools was made. In doing so it became clear that the extensive use of these tools is essential not only for this purpose, but also to get the required good qualitative understanding of the device. For instance, it turns out that in this particular instance, an important part of the underlying physics does not become clear until one seems to run into what one might consider, at first, a mathematical problem, whose resolution is not clear until one has found the solution, which then seems ``obvious.`` Even though iron in the septum has a nonlinear relationship between B and H, assuming a constant permeability is sufficient to obtain the information needed to develop a sufficient understanding of the magnet to make some crucial decisions.

  7. The fission yeast cytokinetic contractile ring regulates septum shape and closure

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajan, Sathish; Munteanu, Emilia Laura; Arasada, Rajesh; Pollard, Thomas D.; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During cytokinesis, fission yeast and other fungi and bacteria grow a septum that divides the cell in two. In fission yeast closure of the circular septum hole by the β-glucan synthases (Bgs) and other glucan synthases in the plasma membrane is tightly coupled to constriction of an actomyosin contractile ring attached to the membrane. It is unknown how septum growth is coordinated over scales of several microns to maintain septum circularity. Here, we documented the shapes of ingrowing septum edges by measuring the roughness of the edges, a measure of the deviation from circularity. The roughness was small, with spatial correlations indicative of spatially coordinated growth. We hypothesized that Bgs-mediated septum growth is mechanosensitive and coupled to contractile ring tension. A mathematical model showed that ring tension then generates almost circular septum edges by adjusting growth rates in a curvature-dependent fashion. The model reproduced experimental roughness statistics and showed that septum synthesis sets the mean closure rate. Our results suggest that the fission yeast cytokinetic ring tension does not set the constriction rate but regulates septum closure by suppressing roughness produced by inherently stochastic molecular growth processes. PMID:26240178

  8. Septum of the gallbladder, clinical implications and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, A. A.; Englestein, D.; Cohen, M.; Kunichevsky, M.; Reiss, R.

    1986-01-01

    We report four patients with a congenital gallbladder septum whose symptoms resembled those of cholelithiasis, in one case giving rise to acute cholecystitis. Cholecystectomy relieved symptoms in all cases and examination of the operative specimen confirmed the clinical diagnosis and X-ray findings. Ultrasonography made a positive diagnosis in the last two cases and no stones were found in any of the cases described. Cholecystectomy is advocated in symptomatic patients with this condition, even when gallstones are not present. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3534837

  9. Characterizing Septum Inhibition in Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Novel Drug Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Respicio,L.; Nair, P.; Huang, Q.; Anil, B.; Tracz, S.; Truglio, J.; Kisker, C.; Raleigh, D.; Ojima, I.; et al

    2008-01-01

    A temperature sensitive mutation in the cell division protein FtsZ was used in combination with transcriptional analysis to identify biomarkers for inhibition of septum formation. Crystallography and modeling revealed that the glycine for aspartate substitution at amino acid 210 was located in helix 8 of the protein, adjacent to the T7 synergy loop. To verify the molecular behavior of FtsZD210G, the in vitro activity and structural stability were evaluated as a function of temperature. These analyses confirmed that the FtsZD210G mutant had reduced GTPase and polymerization activity compared to wild-type FtsZ, and CD spectroscopy demonstrated that both FtsZD210G and wild-type FtsZ had similar structure and stability. Significantly, the FtsZD210G merodiploid strain of M. tuberculosis had compromised growth at 37 C, substantiating the suitability of FtsZD210G as a molecular tool for global analysis in response to improper FtsZ polymerization and septum inhibition. Advanced model-based bioinformatics and transcriptional mapping were used to identify high-content multiple features that provide biomarkers for the development of a rational drug screening platform for discovering novel chemotherapeutics that target cell division.

  10. Nasal septum injury in preterm infants using nasal prongs 1

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Suely de Fátima Santos Freire; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena; de Sousa, Nayara Francisca Cabral; da Silva, Daiana Vieira Câmara; Leal, Luciana Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with nasal septum injury in premature infants using reused and new nasal prongs. METHOD: the study was a cohort from an open therapeutic intervention. The sample included 70 infants with a gestational age inferior to 37 weeks, who used nasal prongs and were hospitalized at the neonatal service of a hospital in Recife-PE, in the Northeast of Brazil. The data were collected in patient files through the assessment of the application of the device and of the nasal septum. Multinomial Logistic Regression and Survival analyses were applied. RESULTS: the incidence of nasal injury corresponded to 62.9%. In the multiple analysis, only the length of the infant's treatment was a determinant factor for the occurrence and severity of the injuries. CONCLUSION: the type of nasal prong does not serve as a risk factor for the nasal injury. The high incidence of nasal injury indicates the need to adapt the nursing care with emphasis on prevention. PMID:25493679

  11. Dissociated Roles for the Lateral and Medial Septum in Elemental and Contextual Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandreau, Ludovic; Jaffard, Robert; Desmedt, Aline

    2007-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the septum plays a predominant role in fear learning, yet the direction of this control is still a matter of debate. Increasing data suggest that the medial (MS) and lateral septum (LS) would be differentially required in fear conditioning depending on whether a discrete conditional stimulus (CS) predicts, or not,…

  12. Early depictions of the human anterior nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Pirsig, Wolfgang; Sokiranski, Roman

    2006-06-01

    In the literature, remarks on the depiction of the anterior nasal septum in prehistoric times cannot be found. Studying works of art from some archaeological sites of Asia, Asia Minor, Near East, Egypt, and Southeastern Europe the anatomical depiction of the columella and the nostrils in human figures are shown. These figures or heads, partly appearing as masks, were made of ivory, stone, marble, terracotta, steatite, reeds and clay, or of burned limestone. Faces and figures sculpted in the time between the Upper Palaeolithic (30,000 - 25,000 BC) and the Early Bronze Age (3,300 - 2,400 BC) are presented as examples of our ancestors' outstanding skill to create works of art with an astonishing ability to observe anatomical details. The tendency to create a human nose in a natural manner can already be recognized in the figurines of the Upper Palaeolithic.

  13. Hemangioma of the Interatrial Septum: CT and MRI Features

    SciTech Connect

    Hrabak-Paar, Maja; Huebner, Marisa; Stern-Padovan, Ranka; Lusic, Mario

    2011-02-15

    Hemangioma of the heart is a rare primary benign tumor mainly appearing as enhancing, homogenous, well-circumscribed mass. We report a case of a 61-year-old asymptomatic woman, whose echocardiography showed a cardiac mass, which was described as the atypical myxoma of the right atrium. For further imaging, contrast-enhanced computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging were undertaken, which showed a tumor located in the interatrial septum with imaging characteristics of hemangioma. In the literature, cardiac hemangioma is usually described as an intensely enhancing mass. In our opinion, early peripheral puddling of contrast material with filling in on delayed images is a typical pattern of its enhancement. This characteristic, in addition to high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, allows differentiation of a hemangioma from other benign and malignant tumors.

  14. Ischaemic stroke with intact atrial septum--exclude arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Doering, Friederike; Eicken, Andreas; Hess, John

    2014-02-01

    A 44-year-old woman was referred to our centre for interventional cardiac catheterisation. The diagnostic work-up after a preceding ischaemic stroke led to the assumption of a patent foramen ovale due to a positive bubble study. Before the planned percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale, we performed a second bubble study, which showed an intact atrial septum. However, after two to three heart cycles bubbles could be detected in the left atrium, assuming a right-to-left shunt of an extracardiac origin most likely in the lung. We therefore performed cardiac catheterisation, yielding a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in the lower lobe of the right lung. This was successfully closed interventionally by placing a Cook coil, as well as several plugs into the malformation and feeding vessels. PMID:23347820

  15. Pneumocephalus in Child Following Bilateral Otomastoiditis and Nasal Septum Infection.

    PubMed

    Soni, Jai Prakash; Choudhary, Sandeep; Makwana, Mohan; Tripathi, Nikita

    2016-07-01

    Pneumocephalus is collection of gas or air within the cranial cavity, commonly associated with trauma, cranial surgery, air embolism, open meningomyelocele; and rarely as a result of central nervous system infections. Asymptomatic pneumocephalus usually recovers spontaneously within few days. Untreated pneumocephalus can progress to tension pneumocephalus, manifesting as severe headache, dizziness, cranial nerve palsy, mental changes, seizure and disorientation. Herein, we report a rare case of pneumocephalus in a 9-month infant with subdural effusion following infection of nasal septum and otomastoiditis. There was no sign of meningitis but CThead showed communication of intracranial dura mater across widened foramen caecum with pre-nasal space, and bilateral otomastoiditis with erosion of anterior and lateral wall of right mastoid bone. The patient was treated successfully and discharged without sequelae. PMID:27504559

  16. Pediatric frontal mucocele secondary to a bifid frontal sinus septum.

    PubMed

    Plikaitis, Christina M; Purzycki, Adam R; Couture, Daniel; David, Lisa R

    2010-09-01

    A mucocele is a mucus-containing sac lined with epithelium that arises within a sinus when its drainage is compromised. The frontal sinus is the most common location, with frontal mucocele development occurring when the nasofrontal duct becomes obstructed because of polyps, bone tumors, prior surgery, sinusitis, trauma, or anatomic variation. We report an unusual case of a sterile pediatric frontal mucocele presenting as a slowly enlarging forehead mass due to a bifid frontal sinus septum. A 9-year-old girl presented to the craniofacial clinic for evaluation of a right frontal mass that had been slowly growing over the past year. She was otherwise healthy and had no history of previous trauma or sinus infections. Computed tomography (CT) scan results revealed a localized frontal fluid collection with protrusion and thinning of the anterior frontal bone between 2 midline bony septii. Surgical cranialization of the frontal sinus was performed. The anatomy of her lesion seen both on CT scan and intraoperatively likely explains this unusual case presentation. Instead of the usual inciting event of an intact frontal sinus drainage system becoming blocked, this patient seemed to have a primary developmental lack of any drainage system that led to her mucocele. During formation of her frontal sinus, she developed a bifid septum within the midline that excluded a portion of her frontal sinus from the lateral nasofrontal ducts. With mucus-producing epithelium trapped within these bony confines, pressure began to mount with expansion and thinning of the bone both anteriorly and posteriorly. The lack of any infectious symptoms and sterile culture results may support that this space developed primarily and was never in continuity with the external drainage system. Only 4 other patients have been reported with asymptomatic forehead swelling as the only presenting symptom, with the age ranging from 33 to 79 years. This patient represents the first clinical report of a congenital

  17. Assessment of nasal septum after Le Fort I osteotomy with computer tomography.

    PubMed

    Moroi, Akinori; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Saida, Yuriko; Hotta, Asami; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tunoda, Tatsuya; Saito, Yuuki; Ueki, Koichiro

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Le Fort I osteotomy on nasal septum deviation and differences in left and right airway sizes, and to determine whether the nasal septum was affected by differences in the direction of movement. Forty patients underwent conventional Le Fort I osteotomy, and computed tomography (CT) was performed preoperatively, and 1 week and 1 year postoperatively. The nasal septum angle and airway area were measured at the anterior, middle, and posterior positions on the CT images Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on each difference in movement (impaction ≥5 mm or other; anterior movement or other; and impaction asymmetry or other). There were no significant differences in the nasal septum angle and the airway of all patients. Among the patient groups, there were no significant differences in the nasal septum angle and airway. We concluded that conventional LI osteotomy did not influence the nasal septum deviation or the left and right airway asymmetry. Differences in the method of moving the maxilla have not been shown to affect changes in the nasal septum.

  18. An anatomical, histological and magnetic resonance imaging study of the nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Saunders, M W; Jones, N S; Kabala, J; Lowe, J

    1995-10-01

    Considerable variations are present in the thickness of the normal nasal septum. These were studied and measured in cadavers and from MRI scans. In addition, a histological analysis was performed to determine whether cavernous tissue is present at any point in the septum. The nasal septum reaches maximum thickness antero-superiorly where the mucosa may be as thick a 5.0 mm (average 3.5 mm) and the minimum thickness lies inferiorly where the mucosa is often thinner than 0.5 mm. The area of maximum septal thickness lies at the region of the nasal valve and its contribution towards nasal airway resistance must be significant. No cavernous tissue was identified in the nasal septum.

  19. The case of a cyst hydatid localized within the interatrial septum.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Ozalp; Onen, Ahmet; Yildiz, Fidan; Yilmaz, Erkan; Erdal, Cenk A; Sanli, Aydin; Kilci, Göksel; Algin, Ibrahim; Itil, Oya; Açikel, Unal

    2004-07-01

    The ratio of cardiac involvement of Echinoccocus granulosus is 0.02-2% and although seen rarely, involvement of the interatrial septum has also been reported in the published literature. The present case was a 19-year-old male university student admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and dizziness. Computerized tomography of the cranium revealed a cystic mass located at the frontal region and enucleation of the cyst was performed during surgery. A cystic lesion 5 x 4 cm in size was detected within the interatrial septum on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during the postoperative period and the patient was referred to our clinic. Open heart surgery was performed and a hydatid cyst that involved the interatrial septum was enucleated. The cyst wall was sutured to the interatrial septum. No complications developed during the postoperative period. The patient was discharged on the fifth day of hospitalization and medical therapy was started with albendazole. PMID:15353883

  20. The case of a cyst hydatid localized within the interatrial septum.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Ozalp; Onen, Ahmet; Yildiz, Fidan; Yilmaz, Erkan; Erdal, Cenk A; Sanli, Aydin; Kilci, Göksel; Algin, Ibrahim; Itil, Oya; Açikel, Unal

    2004-07-01

    The ratio of cardiac involvement of Echinoccocus granulosus is 0.02-2% and although seen rarely, involvement of the interatrial septum has also been reported in the published literature. The present case was a 19-year-old male university student admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and dizziness. Computerized tomography of the cranium revealed a cystic mass located at the frontal region and enucleation of the cyst was performed during surgery. A cystic lesion 5 x 4 cm in size was detected within the interatrial septum on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during the postoperative period and the patient was referred to our clinic. Open heart surgery was performed and a hydatid cyst that involved the interatrial septum was enucleated. The cyst wall was sutured to the interatrial septum. No complications developed during the postoperative period. The patient was discharged on the fifth day of hospitalization and medical therapy was started with albendazole.

  1. Regulation of affect by the lateral septum: implications for neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Teige P; Chambers, R Andrew; Russell, David S

    2004-08-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that the lateral septum (LS) plays a critical role in regulating processes related to mood and motivation. This review presents findings from the basic neuroscience literature and from some clinically oriented research, drawing from behavioral, neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular studies in support of such a role, and articulates models and hypotheses intended to advance our understanding of these functions. Neuroanatomically, the LS is connected with numerous regions known to regulate affect, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. Through its connections with the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the LS regulates motivation, both by stimulating the activity of midbrain dopamine neurons and regulating the consequences of this activity on the ventral striatum. Evidence that LS function could impact processes related to schizophrenia and other psychotic spectrum disorders, such as alterations in LS function following administration of antipsychotics and psychotomimetics in animals, will also be presented. The LS can also diminish or enable fear responding when its neural activity is stimulated or inhibited, respectively, perhaps through its projections to the hypothalamus. It also regulates behavioral manifestations of depression, with antidepressants stimulating the activity of LS neurons, and depression-like phenotypes corresponding to blunted activity of LS neurons; serotonin likely plays a key role in modulating these functions by influencing the responsiveness of the LS to hippocampal input. In conclusion, a better understanding of the LS may provide important and useful information in the pursuit of better treatments for a wide range of psychiatric conditions typified by disregulation of affective functions.

  2. Properties and Mechanobiological Behavior of Bovine Nasal Septum Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Correro-Shahgaldian, Maria Rita; Introvigne, Jasmin; Ghayor, Chafik; Weber, Franz E; Gallo, Luigi M; Colombo, Vera

    2016-05-01

    Bovine nasal septum (BNS) is a source of non-load bearing hyaline cartilage. Little information is available on its mechanical and biological properties. The aim of this work was to assess the characteristics of BNS cartilage and investigate its behavior in in vitro mechanobiological experiments. Mechanical tests, biochemical assays, and microscopic assessment were performed for tissue characterization. Compressions tests showed that the tissue is viscoelastic, although values of elastic moduli differ from the ones of other cartilaginous tissues. Water content was 78 ± 1.4%; glycosaminoglycans and collagen contents-measured by spectrophotometric assay and hydroxyproline assay-were 39 ± 5% and 25 ± 2.5% of dry weight, respectively. Goldner's Trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy proved isotropic cells distribution and results of earlier cell division. Furthermore, gene expression was measured after uniaxial compression, showing variations depending on compression time as well as trends depending on equilibration time. In conclusion, BNS has been characterized at several levels, revealing that bovine nasal tissue is regionally homogeneous. Results suggest that, under certain conditions, BNS could be used to perform in vitro cartilage loading experiments.

  3. Umbilical cyst due to patent urachus in a fetus with complete urorectal septum malformation sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kodandapani, Sreelakshmi; Shetty, Jyothi; Kumar, Pratap; Girisha, Katta M.

    2012-01-01

    Urorectal septum malformation sequence is a sporadic malformation due to failure of septation of primitive cloaca with no anal opening. Umbilical cyst can be associated with chromosomal aneuploidy such as trisomy 18 or trisomy 13. We report on a fetus with complete urorectal septum malformation sequence with an umbilical cyst resulting from a patent urachus and with meconium as its content. This report adds to the variety of the causes of umbilical cyst and the spectrum of consequences of urorectal septal defect.

  4. [The differential diagnosis of benign neoplasms of the nasal septum (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rauchfuss, A; Städtler, F

    1981-04-01

    More than 90 per cent of neoplasms of the nasal septum are malignant. A 37 year old man with a bleeding nasal cavity neoplasm, which histologically was a pleomorphic adenoma is reported. These benign lesions usually occur in the salivary glands and this case is discussed with due regard to the unusual site of origin. The rare reports of pleomorphic adenomas of the nasal septum, especially regarding management and prognosis, are reviewed.

  5. Septum volume and food-storing behavior are related in parids.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Michael W; Gould, Kristy L; Smulders, Tom V; DeVoogd, Timothy J

    2002-06-01

    The hippocampal formation (HF) of food-storing birds is larger than non-storing species, and the size of the HF in food-storing Black-Capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) varies seasonally. We examined whether the volume of the septum, a medial forebrain structure that shares reciprocal connections with the HF, demonstrates the same species and seasonal variation as has been shown in the HF. We compared septum volume in three parid species; non-storing Blue Tits (Parus caeruleus) and Great Tits (Parus major), and food-storing Black-Capped Chickadees. We found the relative septum volume to be larger in chickadees than in the non-storing species. We also compared septum and nucleus of the diagonal band (NDB) volume of Black-Capped Chickadees at different times of the year. We found that the relative septum volume varies seasonally in food-storing birds. The volume of the NDB does not vary seasonally. Due to the observed species and seasonal variation, the septum, like the hippocampal formation of food-storing birds, may be specialized for some aspects of food-storing and spatial memory.

  6. Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Roopa G; Rajanna, Konandur; Mahapatra, Roy D; Dorasala, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (-0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ≤0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice.

  7. Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Roopa G.; Mahapatra, Roy D.; Dorasala, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (−0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ≤0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519

  8. Variation in the Developmental and Morphological Interaction Between the Nasal Septum and Facial Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Foster, Austin; Holton, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    While the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the facial skeleton, there is evidence that this relationship is highly variable. To better appreciate the precise role of the septum, it is important understand the variable interaction between the septum and surrounding skeleton during ontogeny. Here we analyzed nasal septal and facial skeletal postnatal phenotypic variation using cross-sectional samples of C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J mice. Initial observations indicated between-strain variation in the magnitude of septal deviation, suggesting differences in septal and facial skeletal interaction. We examined whether variation in septal deviation is due to ontogenetic differences in septal size, or whether variation in facial skeletal growth imposes spatial constraints on the septum. Using microCT we quantified septal size and deviation, and collected coordinate landmark data, which we analyzed using geometric morphometrics. C3H/HeJ mice were significantly more deviated than C57BL/6J during development. We found no differences in septal size between the two strains. However, while both strains exhibited an ontogenetic increase in snout length, C3H/HeJ mice exhibited a non-allometric reduction in nasal bone length. This appears to be influenced by between-strain variation in the spatial relationship between the nasal septum and nasofrontal suture. Unlike C57BL/6J mice, the C3H/HeJ nasal septum is positioned anterior to the nasofrontal suture potentially limiting an early direct influence of septal growth (e.g., through interstitial expansion) on sutural growth. Ultimately, our results underscore that while the septum is a key facial growth center, its precise influence on facial growth varies even in narrow morphological and taxonomic ranges. Anat Rec, 299:730-740, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Radial strain assessment of the interventricular septum wall by a new technique in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Moladoust, H; Mokhtari-Dizaji, M; Ojaghi-Haghighi, Z; D'hooge, J; Noohi, F; Khaledifar, A; Khajavi, A

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to design a new approach for the acquisition of regional radial strain from the middle portion of the interventricular septum. We designed and wrote a program in Matlab (computer-assisted method) for use on a personal computer so that the septum thickness throughout the cardiac cycle could be measured instantaneously. Computer-assisted and conventional manual methods were used on the same 2D echocardiography image frames. Then, real-time 2D color Doppler myocardial imaging and conventional 2D imaging of the septum walls of 12 healthy participants at rest using apical four-chamber view were acquired. Wall thickness was measured using both the computerized program and velocity data used for tracking the segment and intensity line profile modification automatically. Then, the radial strain was estimated. Bland-Altman statistical analysis shows good agreement between the computer-assisted method and conventional manual method. The average of the peak and mean radial strains from the mid-septum of 12 healthy participants were 63.5 +/- 10.7 and 31.7 +/- 7.5%, respectively. We introduced a simple approach that is capable of radial strain estimation of the septum wall, which cannot be measured by current Doppler based methods in echocardiography systems. PMID:17657520

  10. The malar septum: the anatomic basis of malar mounds and malar edema.

    PubMed

    Pessa, J E; Garza, J R

    1997-01-01

    The anatomy of malar mounds and malar edema is evaluated in a series of 18 fresh cadaver dissections. Dye injection, histologic evaluation, and gross anatomic dissection are used to identify a previously unrecognized fascial structure of the lower eyelid and cheek. The malar septum originates from orbital rim periosteum superiorly and inserts into cheek skin 2.5 to 3 cm inferior to the lateral canthus. This fascial structure acts as a relatively impermeable barrier that allows tissue edema and hemoglobin pigment to accumulate above its cutaneous insertion. The malar septum, which acts as both a functional and a structural barrier, defines the lower boundary of several clinical entities: malar mounds, malar edema, malar festoons, and periorbital ecchymosis. The permeability characteristics of the malar septum suggest that, at least in some persons, malar mounds may be accentuated by chronic lower eyelid edema, and these characteristics may imply a time course in the progressive development from malar edema to malar mounds and, ultimately, to malar festoons. The anatomy of the malar septum is clinically relevant because it defines the four anatomic compartments of the malar mound that should be considered during surgery: the superior compartment of suborbicularis oculi fat, orbicularis oculi muscle, and superficial cheek fat and cheek skin superior to the cutaneous insertion of the malar septum.

  11. Laser reshaping of nasal septum cartilage: clinical results for 40 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Emil N.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shekhter, Anatoliy B.; Svistushkin, Valeriy M.; Shinaev, Alexander N.

    2000-05-01

    Clinical results on sparing laser reshaping of nasal septum cartilage are reported for the first time. Forty patients have been treated with holmium laser to correct a deformed cartilage. The laser reshaping is a bloodless, painless procedure which takes few minutes to straighten nasal septum. The stability of the new shape and possible side effects have been examined during twelve months. The headache and other negative symptoms have disappeared, as a result of laser treatment for the most of patients. Rhinoscopic examination show an excellent long-term reshaping effects for nasal septum of 23 patients, and, also, good results for other 12 patients. For 5 patients only a little effect takes place. Our rhinomanometric examinations demonstrate a pronounced improvement of the breathing for 35 patients. No visible undesirable side effects were observed for all patients underwent to laser reshaping procedure.

  12. Giant cardiac hydatid cyst in the interventricular septum protruding to right ventricular epicardium☆

    PubMed Central

    Besir, Yuksel; Gucu, Arif; Surer, Suleyman; Rodoplu, Orhan; Melek, Mehmet; Tetik, Omer

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hydatid cyst is a rare condition, and the location of a hydatid cyst in the interventricular septum is exceptional. A 54-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with complaints of chest pain, shortness of breath and malaise. Transthoracic echocardiography defined a cystic mass lesion of 50 × 59 mm originating from apex of the heart protruding into and compressing the interventricular septum. The cyst was excised surgically and the patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day without symptoms. In our case, localization of the cystic mass was within interventricular septum which is an uncommon site. It limited both ventricular volumes significantly. In addition, this cyst was extensively protruding to the right ventricular epicardium. PMID:23438618

  13. Horizontal ventricular septum with dextroversion: hearts with and without aortic atresia.

    PubMed

    Thilenius, O G; Bharati, S; Lev, M; Karp, R B; Arcilla, R A

    1987-01-01

    Two hearts with horizontal ventricular septum, dextroversion (situs solitus), ventricular septal defects, and malaligned great vessels are reported. One of the hearts had aortic atresia and the infant died; the other patient had a Fontan-type physiologic correction. Reviewing the literature, the following conclusions are drawn: (a) Hearts with horizontal ventricular septum and those with criss-cross atrioventricular connections may be the result of different degrees of rotation of the ventricular muscle mass. This rotation is not likely to be postseptational but preseptational. (b) Only those hearts with a complete 180 degrees rotation should be called criss-cross hearts. (c) Partial rotation results in a horizontal septum such that the right ventricle is invariably superior, regardless of atrioventricular concordance or discordance, situs solitus or inversus, or dextroversion. (d) Physiologic surgical correction is often possible but has to be tailored to the details of each heart.

  14. Upflow bioreactor having a septum and an auger and drive assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Carl S.; Hansen, Conly L.

    2007-11-06

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes an auger positioned in the aperture of the septum. The vessel includes an opening in the top for receiving the auger. The auger extends from a drive housing, which is position over the opening and provides a seal around the opening. The drive housing is adjustable relative to the vessel. The position of the auger in the aperture can be adjusted by adjusting the drive housing relative to the vessel. The auger adjustment mechanism allows the auger to be accurately positioned within the aperture. The drive housing can also include a fluid to provide an additional seal around the shaft of the auger.

  15. Umbilical cyst due to patent urachus in a fetus with complete urorectal septum malformation sequence.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, Sreelakshmi; Shetty, Jyothi; Kumar, Pratap; Girisha, Katta M

    2012-03-01

    Urorectal septum malformation sequence is a sporadic malformation due to failure of septation of primitive cloaca with no anal opening. Umbilical cyst can be associated with chromosomal aneuploidy such as trisomy 18 or trisomy 13. We report on a fetus with complete urorectal septum malformation sequence with an umbilical cyst resulting from a patent urachus and with meconium as its content. This report adds to the variety of the causes of umbilical cyst and the spectrum of consequences of urorectal septal defect. PMID:27625803

  16. [The infundibular septum in congenital heart defects. Morphologico-angiocardiographic study of the double-outlet heart ventricle].

    PubMed

    Tůma, S; Povýsilová, V; Skovránek, J; Tax, P

    1990-10-19

    The authors investigated the infundibular septum in 40 archival heart preparations with a double outlet right ventricle. They compared the post-mortem findings with the previous angiocardiographic examination and the skiagram of the preparation made post mortem. They present also the corresponding findings obtained by echocardiography. The infundibular septum was in all instances the dominating intracardiac structure influencing the direction of the blood flow from the ventricles into outflow tracts in the direction towards the large arteries. In 15 instances the infundibular septum was shifted in an anterosuperior direction beneath the orifice of the pulmonary artery and it derived the blood current from the left ventricle through the defect in the ventricular septum into the aorta. The restricted blood flow through the aorta led to its hypoplasia, which in 11 instances was associated with coarctation or interruption of the aorta. In seven instances of posteroinferior shift the infundibular septum was straight. These cases were associated with coarctation or interruption of the aorta. In ventricular septum and with stenosis of the pulmonary artery. Based on these findings the authors assume that the shift of the infundibular septum in a double outlet right ventricle has a decisive position as regards haemodynamic manifestations of the defect and in the development of outflow tracts and large arteries. Last not least, information on the infundibular septum is also important for surgery of the defect. PMID:2257581

  17. [Disturbances of nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum and the rationale for its surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T

    2011-01-01

    Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.

  18. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  19. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  20. Biomechanics of the macaque postorbital septum investigated using finite element analysis: implications for anthropoid evolution.

    PubMed

    Nakashige, Mika; Smith, Amanda L; Strait, David S

    2011-01-01

    Finite element analysis was used to assess whether the postorbital septum plays a meaningful biomechanical role as a structural support for the circumorbital region in a species of macaque, an anthropoid primate. A finite element model was constructed of a Macaca fascicularis cranium that was subsequently modified to create a second model in which the septum was removed bilaterally. The models were subjected to forces and constraints simulating a molar bite, and resulting strains and displacements were recorded. Strain magnitudes at selected locations on the models were typically lower or unchanged in the model lacking septae, which would seem to be contrary to expectations. However, more broadly, relative to the model containing septae, the model without septae exhibited a mosaic pattern of strain increases and decreases in the circumorbital region. The model lacking septae also exhibited more asymmetric displacements in the orbital region, although not in precisely the manner predicted by prior experimental studies. Overall, the mechanical impact of the postorbital septum is minimal in macaques. These results, when considered along with those of prior experimental studies, suggest that either the postorbital septum in anthropoids did not evolve for mechanical reasons, or, if it did, it no longer plays such a role in extant taxa.

  1. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for treating pituitary adenoma via a sub-septum mucosa approach

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Sheng; Li, Keqin; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Jikuang; Gao, Xiang; Sun, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A novel sub-suptum mucusa approach was used to investigate the surgical method via an endonasal sub-septum-mucosa approach to pituitary adenoma under endoscopy. In this work, we aim to ensure the quality of operation and to reduce the operation trauma and complications. By endoscopy, the nasal mucosa was incised in the nasal septum, and all mucosal flaps were retained, a sub-septum-mucosa surgical corridor was made where the endoscope was used in the mucosa cavity for operation and to remove the pituitary adenoma. 52 patients (28 women, mean age 46.76 years) underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal sub-septum-mucosa approach for treating pituitary adenoma. 46 patients (88.5%) underwent gross total removal (GTR) for the tumor; 6 patients (11.5%) went through partial tumor removal (PTR). After operation, all nasal mucosa was retained, no complications such as nasal bleeding, loss of sense of smell or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Our results showed that treating pituitary adenoma using endonasal transsphenoidal surgeries by keeping nasal mucosa under neuroendoscopy tend to have smaller trauma. This novel method more advanced since it provides a clear operation field, a flexible transformation of operation modes and leads to less postoperative complications. PMID:26131087

  2. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Implant Positioning in the Maxillary Sinus Septum: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dragan, Eliza; Guillaume, Odri A.; Haba, Danisia; Olszewski, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to simulate implant placement in the maxillary sinus septum, as a potential alternative site to avoid sinus grafting. Material/Methods One hundred partially or completely edentulous patients, with their maxillary sinus septum present in the edentulous region, were selected from the database of the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Bruxelles, Belgium. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were created using 3D planning software. 3D reconstructions were performed for each maxillary sinus. Using the software implant library, the implants that presented the best fit with the maxillary sinus septum and that followed the established inclusion criteria were selected. Results All of the implants were inserted in premolar and molar regions. Most implants were inserted in the position of the second molar (21 of 55) or in the position of the first molar (17 of 55). In all sites the most frequently used implant was 4 mm in diameter and 7 mm in height. The mean coronal angle for the implant was 80.19±17.13 degrees and the mean sagittal angle was 94.83±9.94 degrees. The septal height represents 38.13% of the total available bone height (ABH). The mean percentage of the septum used to insert the implants was 47.33±2.47%. The septum increased the available bone height by a mean value of 2.18±1.47 mm. In 45 cases, the septa did not permit implant placement. Conclusions In completely edentulous patients, inserting implants in sinus septa does not exclude the need for sinus grafting, but in partially edentulous patients, this minimally invasive technique is an alternative to subantral augmentation. PMID:26363865

  3. [The application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, M V; Akimov, A V; Bagautdinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum. A total of 80 patients were recruited for the study. Half of them underwent plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. Forty patients were treated using no biotransplants. The functional state of nasal cavity mucosa was evaluated before and after surgery. It is concluded that the nanostructured bioplastic material used in the present study ensures efficacious reconstruction of nasal septum integrity after plastic correction of septal perforations.

  4. [The application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, M V; Akimov, A V; Bagautdinov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum. A total of 80 patients were recruited for the study. Half of them underwent plastic reconstruction of perforations in the nasal septum with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. Forty patients were treated using no biotransplants. The functional state of nasal cavity mucosa was evaluated before and after surgery. It is concluded that the nanostructured bioplastic material used in the present study ensures efficacious reconstruction of nasal septum integrity after plastic correction of septal perforations. PMID:25588475

  5. [THE RESULTS OF ENDOVASCULAR CLOSURE OF A SECONDARY DEFECT OF INTERATRIAL SEPTUM].

    PubMed

    Ditkivskiy, I O

    2016-02-01

    Efficacy and security of transcutaneous closure for secondary defect of interatrial septum (DIAS) in 299 patients, using occluders, were studied. Cardiac dysrythmia was the most frequent complication--in 10 (3.3%) patients, the apparatus shift was noted in 4 (1.3%), in 1 (0.3%)--the air embolism of right parts of the heart have occurred. In 289 (98.2%) patients normalization of right parts of heart was achieved. In 84.4% of patients the absence of a residual shunt immediately after the procedure was observed, before the check-out from the hospital--in 89.2%, and in 6 mo--in 97.7%. Transcutaneous closure of secondary DIAS constitutes a secure, effective and less traumatic method, than surgical treatment. Today endovascular method is considered a "gold standard" in treatment of this heart failure. Keywords: secondary defect of interatrial septum; transcutaneous closure; occluder. PMID:27244917

  6. Will Septal Correction Surgery for Deviated Nasal Septum Improve the Sense of Smell? A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neelima; Singh, P. P.; Bagla, Rahul Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Nasal obstruction due to deviated nasal septum is a common problem bringing a patient to an otorhinolaryngologist. Occasionally, these patients may also complain of olfactory impairment. We proposed to study the effect of septal deviation on the lateralised olfactory function and the change in olfaction after surgery of the septum (septoplasty). Methods. Forty-one patients with deviated nasal septum were evaluated for nasal airflow, olfactory score, and nasal symptomatology. Septoplasty was done under local anesthesia. Pre- and postoperative olfactory scores, airflow and olfactory scores, and nasal symptomatology and olfactory scores were compared and correlated. Results. The range of preoperative composite olfactory score (COS) on the side of septal deviation was 4–14 (mean 7.90 ± 2.234) and on the nonobstructed side was 9–18 (mean 14.49 ± 2.378). Severity of deviated nasal septum and preoperative COS of diseased side were correlated and the correlation was found to be significant (rho = −0.690, p = 0.000 (<0.001)). The preoperative mean COS (7.90 ± 2.234) was compared with the postoperative mean COS (12.39 ± 3.687) and the improvement was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.000 (<0.001)). Conclusion. We found improvement in olfactory function in 70.6% patients after surgery, no change in 20.1%, and reduced function in 7.6%. With the limitation of a small sample size and a potential repeat testing bias, we would conclude that correction of nasal septal deviation may lead to improvement in sense of smell. PMID:26491724

  7. Iron yoke eddy current induced losses with application to the ALS septum magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1991-08-16

    The theoretical development of relations governing the eddy current induced losses in iron electromagnet yokes is reviewed. A baseline laminated electromagnet design is analyzed and a parametric study illustrates the sensitivity of core losses to perturbations of various geometrical, material, and excitation parameters. Core losses and field gradients for the ALS septum magnets are calculated. Design modifications capable of eliminating transverse and longitudinal field gradients are discussed.

  8. Lupus vulgaris leading to perforation of nasal septum in a child.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Arora, Rahul; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is a common form of cutaneous tuberculosis in India, mostly involving the lower half of the body. Facial involvement is uncommon. Untreated disease may lead to significant morbidity due to atrophic scarring, mutilation, and deformity. We report a case of multi-focal LV in a 10-year-old boy affecting the nose and cheek that resulted in perforation of the nasal septum, a rarely reported complication.

  9. Beamstrahlung Photon Load on the TESLA Extraction Septum Blade(LCC-0104)

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, A

    2003-10-02

    This note describes work performed in the framework of the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee [1] to estimate the power load on the TESLA extraction septum blade due to beamstrahlung photons. It is shown, that under realistic conditions the photon load can be several orders of magnitude higher than what was estimated in the TESLA TDR [2] for the ideal Gaussian beams, potentially representing a serious limitation of the current design.

  10. Large Right Ventricular Clot in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum: In Defense of Biventricular Approach.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Nilanjan; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Awasthy, Neeraj; Iyer, Parvathi U; Girotra, Sumir; Iyer, Krishna S

    2016-09-01

    Thrombus formation within the right ventricle (RV) in the setting of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) is not a very common occurrence and can be catastrophic. We present the case of a seven-month-old child with PAIVS and RV clot who successfully underwent biventricular repair. We discuss the interesting case and the rationale for management by means of biventricular repair over single ventricle repair when feasible in such a setting.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of atrial septal defect identifies dysregulated genes during heart septum morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenju; Niu, Zhaoyi; Wang, Yi; Li, Yaxiong; Zou, Honglin; Yang, Li; Meng, Mingyao; Wei, Chuanyu; Li, Qinrui; Duan, Le; Xie, Yanhua; Zhang, Yayong; Cao, Yu; Han, Shen; Hou, Zongliu; Jiang, Lihong

    2016-01-10

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of most common birth defects, causing fetal loss and death in newborn all over the world. Atrial and ventricular septal defects were the most common CHD subtypes in most districts. During the past decades, several genes were identified to control atrial septum formation, and mutations of these genes can cause cardiac septation defects. However, the pathogenic mechanism of ASD on transcriptional levels has not been well elucidated yet. Herein, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis between normal and atrial septal defect (ASD) patients by Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Advanced bioinformatic analyses were employed to identify dysregulated genes in ASD. The results indicated that cardiac specific transcriptional factors (GATA4 and NKX2-5), extracellular signal molecules (VEGFA and BMP10) and cardiac sarcomeric proteins (MYL2, MYL3, MYH7, TNNT1 and TNNT3) were downregulated in ASD which may affect heart atrial septum formation, cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac muscle development. Importantly, cell cycle was dominant pathway among downregulated genes, and decreased expression of the proteins included in cell cycle may disturb cardiomyocyte growth and differentiation during atrial septum formation. Our study provided evidences of understanding pathogenic mechanism of ASD and resource for validation of CHD genomic studies.

  12. A new technique for the treatment of transverse vaginal septum by Foley catheter.

    PubMed

    Gezginç, Kazim; Yazici, Fatma; Karatayli, Rengin; Acar, Ali

    2011-10-01

    We report a new surgical technique for the management of transverse vaginal septum in a 13-year-old girl who presented with abdominal pain. Imaging techniques yielded hematocolpos. The patient and her family refused vaginal surgery in order to preserve hymenal integrity for sociocultural beliefs. At laparotomy, a vertical incision was made on posterior vaginal wall. An artery forceps was introduced from the hymenal opening while preserving the hymenal integrity. The septum located on the upper third of vagina was perforated by the help of a forceps introduced from posterior vaginal wall via an abdominal route. A Foley catheter was introduced from the introitus toward the septal perforation and was held by the forceps. The balloon of the catheter was placed on the perforated septum and it was insufflated with 10 ml of fluid. The Foley catheter was in place for 2 weeks. After removal of the catheter, she received oral contraceptive pills for 3 months postoperatively. She had regular spontaneous menses on follow-up for 6 months duration. PMID:21723165

  13. A reduced progenitor pool population accounts for the rudimentary appearance of the septum, medial pallium and dorsal pallium in birds.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Christine J

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing birds and mammals have focused on the similarities in brain development, architecture and connectivity. However, major differences in size, anatomy and organization exist in the telencephalon of adult birds and mammals. For instance, the septum, medial pallium and dorsal pallium of birds appear rudimentary compared with those of mammals. To identify the developmental processes that give rise to this difference in size and anatomy of the septum, medial pallium and dorsal pallium, the thickness of the ventricular zone that encompasses these regions was measured in embryonic birds (i.e. chickens, sparrows) and mammals (i.e. rabbits, hedgehogs, shrews, platypus). Cumulative bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling in chickens at embryonic day 7 and 8 was also used to examine levels of cell proliferation in the ventricular zone of the septum, medial pallium and dorsal pallium. The study's main finding is that the ventricular zone of the septum, medial pallium and dorsal pallium is thinner in birds than in mammals. In chickens, the septum, medial pallium and dorsal pallium ventricular zone harbor few proliferating (i.e. BrdU+) cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that a reduced progenitor pool population account for the 'rudimentary' appearance of the avian septum, medial pallium and dorsal pallium. PMID:21135539

  14. Increased frequency of mitral valve prolapse in patients with deviated nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Hasan Huseyin; Aparci, Mustafa; Arslan, Zekeriya; Ozturk, Cengiz; Isilak, Zafer; Balta, Sevket; Celik, Turgay; Iyisoy, Atila

    2015-07-01

    Any abnormality of collagen may affect the tissues with higher collagen content, e.g., joints, heart valves, and great arteries. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a characteristic of generalized collagen abnormality. Nasal septum (NS) is constituted by osseous and cartilaginous septums that are highly rich in collagen. We evaluated the co-existence of deviation of NS (DNS) in patients with MVP. We retrospectively evaluated the recordings of echocardiographic and nasal examinations of subjects with MVP and DNS. We analyzed the features of MVP and anatomical classification of DNS among subjects. Totally, 74 patients with DNS and 38 subjects with normal nasal passage were enrolled to the study. Presence of MVP was significantly higher in patients with DNS compared to normal subjects (63 vs 26%, p < 0.001). Prolapse of anterior, posterior and both leaflets was higher in patients with DNS. Thickness of anterior mitral leaflet was significantly increased in patients with DNS (3.57 ± 0.68 vs 4.59 ± 1.1 mm, p < 0.001) compared to normal subjects. Type I, II, and III, IV DNS were higher in frequency in patients with MVP while type V and VI were higher in normal subjects. DNS is highly co-existent with MVP and increased thickness of mitral anterior leaflet. Generalized abnormality of collagen which is the main component of mitral valves and nasal septum may be accounted for co-existence of MVP and DNS. Also co-existence of them may exaggerate the symptoms of patients with MVP due to limited airflow through the nasal passage.

  15. Large ductus arteriosus and intact ventricular septum associated with congenital absence of the pulmonary valve.

    PubMed Central

    Thanopoulos, B D; Fisher, E A; Hastreiter, A R

    1986-01-01

    Clinical, haemodynamic, angiocardiographic, and necropsy findings are reported in a newborn infant who presented with typical findings of the severe form of the syndrome of absent pulmonary valve. In addition to the usual findings of aneurysmal dilatation of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary insufficiency, and stenosis, this patient had an intact ventricular septum and large ductus arteriosus. The former is a rare finding and the latter is not known to have been reported in a patient with the severe form of this syndrome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3718801

  16. Bekki--Nozaki Hole in Traveling Excited Waves on Human Cardiac Interventricular Septum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekki, Naoaki; Harada, Yoshifumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    We observe some phase singularities in traveling excited waves noninvasively measured by a novel ultrasonic method, on a human cardiac interventricular septum (IVS) for a healthy young male. We present a possible physical model explaining a part of one-dimensional cardiac dynamics of the observed phase defects on the IVS. We show that at least one of the observed phase singularities in the excited waves on the IVS can be explained by the Bekki--Nozaki hole solution in the complex Ginzburg--Landau equation, although the creation and annihilation of phase singularities on the IVS give birth to a variety of complex patterns.

  17. Aneurysm of the interventricular membranous septum with thrombo-embolism--an indication for surgical repair?

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Salloum, J; Rancurel, G

    1993-12-01

    A 40-year-old woman with a significant neurological history presented with right hemiparesia, paraesthesia of the right upper member and of the hemiface. Computer tomography scanning revealed hypodensity along the right lateral ventricle which corresponded to the left hemiplegia which had developed when she was 20 years old. Arteriography of the four cervical axes was normal. Echocardiography visualized an aneurysm of the membraneous septum free of thrombosis without ventricular septal defect. The embolism was thought to be of cardiac origin and a decision was taken to correct it by surgery. Ten years after surgical repair no other neurological event has occurred. PMID:8131773

  18. Low-Velocity Nail-Gun Injuries to the Interventricular Septum: Report of Two Cases, One in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Michalsen, Kara L.; Iguidbashian, John P.; Kyser, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Nail-gun injury to the heart is rare. Nail-gun injury to the interventricular septum is rarer: we could find only 5 reported cases, and none involving a child. We report 2 additional cases, in which nails penetrated the interventricular septum without causing acute pericardial tamponade, heart block, or shunt across the septum. Transesophageal echocardiography provides a dynamic way to evaluate the patient preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. In the cases reported here, both the adult with multiple interventricular nails and the child with a single nail underwent foreign-object removal via median sternotomy. The child needed cardiopulmonary bypass for removal of the nail. There were no short-term or long-term sequelae from these interventricular septal injuries. PMID:26413027

  19. New treatment strategies for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: alcohol ablation of the septum: the new gold standard?

    PubMed

    Hess, Otto M; Sigwart, Ulrich

    2004-11-16

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal pattern of inheritance characterized by inappropriate myocardial hypertrophy. Annual mortality has been reported to be 1% to 2% and sudden death represents the most common cause. Treatment strategies are 1) medical therapy in patients with mild to moderate symptoms, 2) reduction of septal hypertrophy by surgical myectomy or alcohol ablation, and 3) implantation of an automatic cardioverter-defibrillator in the presence of non-sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. A debate has been started on whether surgical myectomy or alcohol ablation of the septum is the appropriate treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Surgical (transaortic) myectomy has been the gold standard in the past 20 to 30 years for treatment of symptomatic patients with significant hemodynamic outflow tract obstruction. However, modern interventional technologies allow reduction of the myocardial septum by injection of alcohol into the first or second septal branch under guidance of two-dimensional (2D)-contrast echocardiography. This percutaneous technique not only has a lower morbidity than surgical myectomy but can be guided precisely by 2D echocardiography. One potential complication is transient (<30%) or permanent (<10%) atrioventricular block III; however, this complication is relatively rare. A randomized trial comparing the two treatment modalities is lacking, and the chance is small that such a trial will be performed because alcohol ablation can be done with high success and low complication rates, leaving only complex interventions (with valvular reconstructions and so on) for surgical myectomy.

  20. Effect of Deviated Nasal Septum on Mean Platelet Volume: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Poorey, Vijay Kumar; Thakur, Pooja

    2014-12-01

    In E.N.T clinical practice, patients with nasal obstruction due to deviated nasal septum is a common presentation. Nasal airway obstruction is a common cause of upper airway obstruction further leading to obstructive and hypoxic manifestations. Mean platelet volume (MPV) levels increase in hypoxic conditions. MPV is one of the platelet activation index which reflects the platelet production rate. Present prospective study conducted in the department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck surgery, Gandhi Medical College and Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal, on 63 patients with the clinical evidence of DNS and 63 healthy age matched subjects as control group, aimed to evaluate the relationship between MPV levels and nasal obstruction due to deviated nasal septum (DNS). The diagnosis of patients with DNS was based on anterior rhinoscopy and endoscopic nasal examination. Blood samples were collected before surgical correction. In present study, the authors found that there is preponderance of DNS in the age group of 25-45 years being the most active age group, males having the higher incidence. Majority of cases of DNS being left sided and of obstructed type. MPV were significantly higher in patients with DNS than the control group. Among the cases MPV being higher in females and in the impacted type of DNS. Present study reemphasized the concept that MPV is increased in chronic nasal obstruction due to DNS and this increase is in accordance with the severity of DNS.

  1. Nasal septum changes in adolescent patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Tehnia; Wheatley, Francis Carter; Ansari, Kal; Lagravere, Manuel; Major, Michael; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans to measure changes in nasal septal deviation (NSD) after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) treatment in adolescent patients. Methods: This retrospective study involved 33 patients presenting with moderate to severe nasal septum deviation as an incidental finding. Out of these 33 patients, 26 were treated for transverse maxillary constriction with RME and seven, who did not undergo RME treatment, were included in the study as control group. CBCT scans were taken before appliance insertion and after appliance removal. These images were analyzed to measure changes in nasal septum deviation (NSD). Analysis of variance for repeated measures (ANOVA) was used. Results: No significant changes were identified in NSD regardless of the application or not of RME treatment and irrespective of the baseline deviation degree. Conclusion: This study did not provide strong evidence to suggest that RME treatment has any effect on NSD in adolescent patients; however, the results should be interpreted with caution, due to the small sample size and large variation amongst individual patient characteristics. PMID:27007761

  2. CyDiv, a Conserved and Novel Filamentous Cyanobacterial Cell Division Protein Involved in Septum Localization

    PubMed Central

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Trigo, Carla; Andrade, Derly; Riquelme, Brenda; Gómez-Lillo, Gabriela; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Díez, Beatriz; Vásquez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division), encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:26903973

  3. CyDiv, a Conserved and Novel Filamentous Cyanobacterial Cell Division Protein Involved in Septum Localization.

    PubMed

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Trigo, Carla; Andrade, Derly; Riquelme, Brenda; Gómez-Lillo, Gabriela; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Díez, Beatriz; Vásquez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division), encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:26903973

  4. Interaction of a vasopressin antagonist with vasopressin receptors in the septum of the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsa, D.M.; Brot, M.D.; Shewey, L.M.; Meyers, K.M.; Szot, P.; Miller, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of d(CH2)5-Tyr(Me)-arginine-8-vasopressin, an antagonist of peripheral pressoric (V1-type) vasopressin receptors, to label vasopressin binding sites in the septum of the rat brain was evaluated. Using crude membrane preparations from the septum, /sup 3/H-arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) specifically labels a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 2.9 nM and maximum binding site concentration of 19.8 fmole/mg protein. /sup 3/H-Antag also labels a single class of membrane sites but with higher affinity (Kd = 0.47 nM) and lower capacity (10.1 fmole/mg protein) than /sup 3/H-AVP. The rank order of potency of various competitor peptides for /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag binding was similar. Oxytocin was 100-1,000 fold less potent than AVP in competing for binding with both ligands. /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag showed similar labeling patterns when incubated with septal tissue slices. Unlabeled Antag also effectively antagonized vasopressin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in septal tissue slices.

  5. Anatomo-functional characterization of interatrial septum for catheter-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Magro, Beatrice; Oliva, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Secundum Atrial septal defect (ASD) and Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is becoming the most popular field of interest for catheter-based interventions. While there is a common agreement about the management of ASD patients, there is no complete agreement on which is the best management of PFO patients. In PFO patients, the real challenge for the clinician, beside secondary prevention of recurrent stroke, is to understand which the higher risk patients to refer for treatment are and which is the proper device to use. In this setting, the anatomo-functional characterization of interatrial septum seems to be of paramount importance for both ASD and PFO, not only for the device selection but also for therapeutic decision-making. In the present review the author overviews the main anatomic a functional characteristics of interatrial septum, obtained with the current available diagnostic tools, such as transcranial Doppler, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography and intracardiac echocardiography, and discusses the impact of such characteristics on catheter based closure. PMID:22254200

  6. CyDiv, a Conserved and Novel Filamentous Cyanobacterial Cell Division Protein Involved in Septum Localization.

    PubMed

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Trigo, Carla; Andrade, Derly; Riquelme, Brenda; Gómez-Lillo, Gabriela; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Díez, Beatriz; Vásquez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division), encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

  7. A New Membrane Protein Sbg1 Links the Contractile Ring Apparatus and Septum Synthesis Machinery in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Kriti; Palani, Saravanan; Cortés, Juan C. G.; Sato, Mamiko; Sevugan, Mayalagu; Ramos, Mariona; Vijaykumar, Shruthi; Osumi, Masako; Naqvi, Naweed I.; Ribas, Juan Carlos; Balasubramanian, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis in many organisms requires a plasma membrane anchored actomyosin ring, whose contraction facilitates cell division. In yeast and fungi, actomyosin ring constriction is also coordinated with division septum assembly. How the actomyosin ring interacts with the plasma membrane and the plasma membrane-localized septum synthesizing machinery remains poorly understood. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an attractive model organism to study cytokinesis, the β-1,3-glucan synthase Cps1p / Bgs1p, an integral membrane protein, localizes to the plasma membrane overlying the actomyosin ring and is required for primary septum synthesis. Through a high-dosage suppressor screen we identified an essential gene, sbg1+ (suppressor of beta glucan synthase 1), which suppressed the colony formation defect of Bgs1-defective cps1-191 mutant at higher temperatures. Sbg1p, an integral membrane protein, localizes to the cell ends and to the division site. Sbg1p and Bgs1p physically interact and are dependent on each other to localize to the division site. Loss of Sbg1p results in an unstable actomyosin ring that unravels and slides, leading to an inability to deposit a single contiguous division septum and an important reduction of the β-1,3-glucan proportion in the cell wall, coincident with that observed in the cps1-191 mutant. Sbg1p shows genetic and / or physical interaction with Rga7p, Imp2p, Cdc15p, and Pxl1p, proteins known to be required for actomyosin ring integrity and efficient septum synthesis. This study establishes Sbg1p as a key member of a group of proteins that link the plasma membrane, the actomyosin ring, and the division septum assembly machinery in fission yeast. PMID:27749909

  8. Treatment of gummy smile: Nasal septum dysplasia as etiologic factor and therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiao; Herrler, Tanja; Xu, Hua; Li, Qingfeng; Dai, Chuanchang

    2015-10-01

    Various techniques to improve gummy smile exist. Depending on the individual etiology, previous approaches have focused on osseous, dental, and soft-tissue aspects. On the basis of the identification of nasal septum dysplasia as etiologic factor of gummy smile, we propose a novel strategy for the improvement in the treatment of excessive gingival exposure. In this prospective controlled study, 121 Asian patients with gummy smile and 150 volunteers were examined and compared with regard to the developmental status of the nasal septal cartilage reflected by the columella upward maximum movability (CUMM) as objective measurement parameter. A total of 46 patients with significantly increased CUMM underwent surgical treatment for excessive gingival exposure by septum cartilage reinforcement and, where required, additional extension using an autologous cartilage graft or an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) implant. Gingival exposure at the fullest smile was photographed, measured, and analyzed before and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, and all possible complications were recorded. The results were evaluated in a patient satisfaction survey. CUMM showed a significant statistical difference between the patients desiring treatment for gummy smile (5.6 ± 0.92 mm) and volunteers (3.1 ± 0.76 mm), (p < 0.05). In the 46 patients who underwent surgical correction of gummy smile, the measured maximum gingival exposure at the fullest smile was 4.52 ± 1.7 mm preoperatively and significantly decreased to 1.79 ± 0.26 mm at 6 months postoperatively (p < 0.05). The overall complication rate was low, including transient stiffness of smile, implant deformation, and acute infection. The postoperative results were highly satisfactory in terms of aesthetic smile. This study proposes a novel strategy of reinforcement and extension of the nasal septum cartilage for the improvement of gummy smile confirming septal cartilage dysplasia as the etiologic factor.

  9. Atrial tachycardia originating from the atrial septum in a patient with dextrocardia and complex structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ya-Lei; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Lee, Pi-Chang; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2012-10-01

    We report a case with dextrocardia, corrected transposition of the great arteries. He also had an atrial septum defect (ASD) with patch repair. Activation map showed a centrifugal activation from a focal origin on the systemic lower left atrial ASD patch. Ablation of the origin can terminate the atrial tachycardia.

  10. A simple and fast technique for radiofrequency-assisted perforation of the atrial septum in congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Juan Pablo; Chaturvedi, Rajiv R

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) assisted perforation of the atrial septum was performed successfully in three infants using a 0.035” RF wire deployed through a Williams right posterior catheter. Balloon atrial septoplasty was performed over the 0.035” RF wire in two of them, shortening the procedural time. PMID:27011690

  11. Ectopic Acromegaly Arising from a Pituitary Adenoma within the Bony Intersphenoid Septum of a Patient with Empty Sella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Arzamendi, Audrey E.; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Latchaw, Richard E.; Lechpammer, Mirna; Arzumanyan, Hasmik

    2016-01-01

    Objective  To describe the work-up and treatment of rare ectopic acromegaly caused by a biopsy-proven somatotroph pituitary adenoma located within the bony intersphenoid septum of a patient with empty sella syndrome (ESS). Methods  We report the presentation, clinical course, diagnostic work-up, and lesion localization and treatment challenges encountered in a 55-year-old patient, with a brief review of relevant literature. Results  A 55-year-old African-American man presented with acromegaly and ESS. Attempts to definitively localize the causative tumor were unsuccessful, though petrosal sinus sampling supported central growth hormone production and imaging suggested bone-enclosed subsellar pituitary tissue. Endoscopic endonasal transphenoidal exploration was undertaken with resection of a somatotroph pituitary microadenoma, and subsequent clinical improvement and biochemical remission. Retrospective review revealed the patient's pituitary to have been located ectopically within a unique bony intersphenoid septum. Conclusion  This report describes the first known case of an ectopic pituitary adenoma located within the midline bony intersphenoid septum, which we postulate to have resulted from anomalous embryological pituitary migration. Intra-intersphenoid septal tumors should be considered in cases of apparent central acromegaly with ESS or absence of tumor tissue within the paranasal sinuses or other peripheral locations. Indexing  Acromegaly, ESS, pituitary adenoma, sphenoid sinus septum. PMID:27468406

  12. LocZ Is a New Cell Division Protein Involved in Proper Septum Placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Holečková, Nela; Molle, Virginie; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT How bacteria control proper septum placement at midcell, to guarantee the generation of identical daughter cells, is still largely unknown. Although different systems involved in the selection of the division site have been described in selected species, these do not appear to be widely conserved. Here, we report that LocZ (Spr0334), a newly identified cell division protein, is involved in proper septum placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae. We show that locZ is not essential but that its deletion results in cell division defects and shape deformation, causing cells to divide asymmetrically and generate unequally sized, occasionally anucleated, daughter cells. LocZ has a unique localization profile. It arrives early at midcell, before FtsZ and FtsA, and leaves the septum early, apparently moving along with the equatorial rings that mark the future division sites. Consistently, cells lacking LocZ also show misplacement of the Z-ring, suggesting that it could act as a positive regulator to determine septum placement. LocZ was identified as a substrate of the Ser/Thr protein kinase StkP, which regulates cell division in S. pneumoniae. Interestingly, homologues of LocZ are found only in streptococci, lactococci, and enterococci, indicating that this close phylogenetically related group of bacteria evolved a specific solution to spatially regulate cell division. PMID:25550321

  13. Theta oscillations regulate the speed of locomotion via a hippocampus to lateral septum pathway.

    PubMed

    Bender, Franziska; Gorbati, Maria; Cadavieco, Marta Carus; Denisova, Natalia; Gao, Xiaojie; Holman, Constance; Korotkova, Tatiana; Ponomarenko, Alexey

    2015-10-12

    Hippocampal theta oscillations support encoding of an animal's position during spatial navigation, yet longstanding questions about their impact on locomotion remain unanswered. Combining optogenetic control of hippocampal theta oscillations with electrophysiological recordings in mice, we show that hippocampal theta oscillations regulate locomotion. In particular, we demonstrate that their regularity underlies more stable and slower running speeds during exploration. More regular theta oscillations are accompanied by more regular theta-rhythmic spiking output of pyramidal cells. Theta oscillations are coordinated between the hippocampus and its main subcortical output, the lateral septum (LS). Chemo- or optogenetic inhibition of this pathway reveals its necessity for the hippocampal regulation of running speed. Moreover, theta-rhythmic stimulation of LS projections to the lateral hypothalamus replicates the reduction of running speed induced by more regular hippocampal theta oscillations. These results suggest that changes in hippocampal theta synchronization are translated into rapid adjustment of running speed via the LS.

  14. An excitatory ventral hippocampus to lateral septum circuit that suppresses feeding.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Patrick; Yang, Yunlei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has focused on feeding circuits residing in the hindbrain and midbrain that govern homeostatic or hedonic control of food intake. However, the feeding circuits controlling emotional or cognitive aspects of food intake are largely unknown. Here we use chemical genetics and optogenetic techniques to dissect appetite control circuits originating from ventral hippocampus (vHPC), a brain region implicated in emotion and cognition. We find that the vHPC projects functional glutamatergic synaptic inputs to the lateral septum (LS) and optogenetic activation of vHPC projections in LS reduces food intake. Consistently, food intake is suppressed by chemogenetic activation of glutamatergic neurons in the vHPC that project to the LS and inactivation of LS neurons blunts vHPC-induced suppression of feeding. Collectively, our results identify an anorexigenic neural circuit originating from vHPC to LS in the brain, revealing a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of anorexia or other appetite disorders.

  15. Visualization and functional dissection of coaxial paired SpoIIIE channels across the sporulation septum.

    PubMed

    Yen Shin, Jae; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Diaz-Celis, Cesar; Fleming, Tinya; Bustamante, Carlos; Pogliano, Kit

    2015-05-07

    SpoIIIE is a membrane-anchored DNA translocase that localizes to the septal midpoint to mediate chromosome translocation and membrane fission during Bacillus subtilis sporulation. Here we use cell-specific protein degradation and quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy in strains with a thick sporulation septum to investigate the architecture and function of the SpoIIIE DNA translocation complex in vivo. We were able to visualize SpoIIIE complexes with approximately equal numbers of molecules in the mother cell and the forespore. Cell-specific protein degradation showed that only the mother cell complex is required to translocate DNA into the forespore, whereas degradation in either cell reverses membrane fission. Our data suggest that SpoIIIE assembles a coaxially paired channel for each chromosome arm comprised of one hexamer in each cell to maintain membrane fission during DNA translocation. We show that SpoIIIE can operate, in principle, as a bi-directional motor that exports DNA.

  16. Partial urorectal septum malformation sequence in a kitten with disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brice S; Pain, Amélie; Meynaud-Collard, Patricia; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Szczerbal, Izabela; Switonski, Marek; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    A 2-month-old kitten exhibited simultaneously an imperforate anus, hypospadias, rectourethral fistula and genital dysgenesis (penis restricted to the glans, absence of prepuce and bifid scrotum). Surgical correction consisted of separation of the urinary and digestive tracts, perineal urethrostomy and connection of the rectum to the newly made anal opening. Pathological examination of the testes, conventionally removed at 9 months of age, showed no mature spermatozoa and underdevelopment of germ and Leydig cells. In humans, the absence of an anal opening in association with abnormal sexual development defines the urorectal septum malformation sequence. Here, we describe the first case of this syndrome in a kitten with a normal male karyotype (38,XY) and a normal coding sequence for the SRY gene. Both the rectourethral fistula and observed genital abnormalities might have been induced by a disturbance in the hedgehog signalling pathway. However, although four polymorphic sites were identified by DHH gene sequencing, none cosegregated with the malformation. PMID:24718294

  17. Theta oscillations regulate the speed of locomotion via a hippocampus to lateral septum pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Franziska; Gorbati, Maria; Cadavieco, Marta Carus; Denisova, Natalia; Gao, Xiaojie; Holman, Constance; Korotkova, Tatiana; Ponomarenko, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta oscillations support encoding of an animal's position during spatial navigation, yet longstanding questions about their impact on locomotion remain unanswered. Combining optogenetic control of hippocampal theta oscillations with electrophysiological recordings in mice, we show that hippocampal theta oscillations regulate locomotion. In particular, we demonstrate that their regularity underlies more stable and slower running speeds during exploration. More regular theta oscillations are accompanied by more regular theta-rhythmic spiking output of pyramidal cells. Theta oscillations are coordinated between the hippocampus and its main subcortical output, the lateral septum (LS). Chemo- or optogenetic inhibition of this pathway reveals its necessity for the hippocampal regulation of running speed. Moreover, theta-rhythmic stimulation of LS projections to the lateral hypothalamus replicates the reduction of running speed induced by more regular hippocampal theta oscillations. These results suggest that changes in hippocampal theta synchronization are translated into rapid adjustment of running speed via the LS. PMID:26455912

  18. Theta oscillations regulate the speed of locomotion via a hippocampus to lateral septum pathway.

    PubMed

    Bender, Franziska; Gorbati, Maria; Cadavieco, Marta Carus; Denisova, Natalia; Gao, Xiaojie; Holman, Constance; Korotkova, Tatiana; Ponomarenko, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta oscillations support encoding of an animal's position during spatial navigation, yet longstanding questions about their impact on locomotion remain unanswered. Combining optogenetic control of hippocampal theta oscillations with electrophysiological recordings in mice, we show that hippocampal theta oscillations regulate locomotion. In particular, we demonstrate that their regularity underlies more stable and slower running speeds during exploration. More regular theta oscillations are accompanied by more regular theta-rhythmic spiking output of pyramidal cells. Theta oscillations are coordinated between the hippocampus and its main subcortical output, the lateral septum (LS). Chemo- or optogenetic inhibition of this pathway reveals its necessity for the hippocampal regulation of running speed. Moreover, theta-rhythmic stimulation of LS projections to the lateral hypothalamus replicates the reduction of running speed induced by more regular hippocampal theta oscillations. These results suggest that changes in hippocampal theta synchronization are translated into rapid adjustment of running speed via the LS. PMID:26455912

  19. Division genes in Escherichia coli are expressed coordinately to cell septum requirements by gearbox promoters.

    PubMed

    Aldea, M; Garrido, T; Pla, J; Vicente, M

    1990-11-01

    The cell division ftsQAZ cluster and the ftsZ-dependent bolA morphogene of Escherichia coli are found to be driven by gearboxes, a distinct class of promoters characterized by showing an activity that is inversely dependent on growth rate. These promoters contain specific sequences upstream from the mRNA start point, and their -10 region is essential for the inverse growth rate dependence. Gearbox promoters are essential for driving ftsQAZ and bolA gene expression so that the encoded products are synthesized at constant amounts per cell independently of cell size. This mode of regulation would be expected for the expression of proteins that either play a regulatory role in cell division or form a stoichiometric component of the septum, a structure that, independently of cell size and growth rate, is produced once per cell cycle.

  20. Cell wall precursors are required to organize the chlamydial division septum

    PubMed Central

    Jacquier, Nicolas; Frandi, Antonio; Pillonel, Trestan; Viollier, Patrick; Greub, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Chlamydiales order are major bacterial pathogens that divide at mid-cell, without a sequence homologue of the FtsZ cytokinetic tubulin and without a classical peptidoglycan cell wall. Moreover, the spatiotemporal mechanisms directing constriction in Chlamydia are not known. Here we show that the MreB actin homologue and its conserved regulator RodZ localize to the division furrow in Waddlia chondrophila, a member of the Chlamydiales order implicated in human miscarriage. RodZ is recruited to the septal site earlier than MreB and in a manner that depends on biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II by the MurA enzyme. By contrast, crosslinking of lipid II peptides by the Pbp3 transpeptidase disperses RodZ from the septum. Altogether, these findings provide a cytological framework for understanding chlamydial cytokinesis driven by septal cell wall synthesis. PMID:24709914

  1. Interradicular septum as guide for pilot drill in postextractive implantology: a technical note.

    PubMed

    El Haddad, Elias; Lauritano, Dorina; Carinci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of teeth results in rapid bone resorption both vertically and horizontally in the first month. The loss of alveolar ridge reduces the chance of implant rehabilitation. The atraumatic extraction, implant placement in extraction socket, and an immediate prosthesis have been proposed as alternative therapies to maintain the volume and contours tissue and reduce time and cost of treatment. Thus, this paper aims to present a clinical case where the extraction was performed using interradicular septum as guide for pilot drill in postextractive implantology with implant placement and immediate provisionalization in a inferior molar. The advantages of this technique are to place the implant exactly in the center of the alveolar ridge, to mantain the edges of the alveolar ridge and reduce postextractive bone resorption, and has great advantages in final prosthetic rehabilitation.

  2. Static lung compliance and body pressures in Tupinambis merianae with and without post-hepatic septum.

    PubMed

    Klein, Wilfried; Abe, Augusto S; Perry, Steven F

    2003-04-15

    The surgical removal of the post-hepatic septum (PHS) in the tegu lizard, Tupinambis merianae, significantly reduces resting lung volume (V(Lr)) and maximal lung volume (V(Lm)) when compared with tegus with intact PHS. Standardised for body mass (M(B)), static lung compliance was significantly less in tegus without PHS. Pleural and abdominal pressures followed, like ventilation, a biphasic pattern. In general, pressures increased during expiration and decreased during inspiration. However, during expiration pressure changes showed a marked intra- and interindividual variation. The removal of the PHS resulted in a lower cranio-caudal intracoelomic pressure differential, but had no effect on the general pattern of pressure changes accompanying ventilation. These results show that a perforated PHS that lacks striated muscle has significant influence on static breathing mechanics in Tupinambis and by analogy provides valuable insight into similar processes that led to the evolution of the mammalian diaphragm.

  3. Basal cell adenoma of nasal septum: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinying; Chen, Haihong; Wang, Shenqing

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma is an uncommon benign salivary gland neoplasm, presenting isomorphic basaloid cells with a prominent basal cell layer. Basal cell adenoma arising from the nasal septum is exceptionally rare. Reports on positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-fluorine-18-fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG-PET) imaging for basal cell adenoma are limited. Here, we present the case of a 49-year-old man who had the symptoms of intermittent repeated bleeding from the left nose for half a year. 18FDG-PET scanning showed increased accumulation of 18FDG with its characteristic benign pathology has a potential to malignancy. After removal of the mass, the patient became symptom free. Pathology showed basal cell adenoma. The evidence of active and growing cells was present in the specimen.

  4. The presence of pacemaker HCN channels identifies theta rhythmic GABAergic neurons in the medial septum

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Viktor; Hangya, Balázs; Kránitz, Kinga; Ludányi, Anikó; Zemankovics, Rita; Katona, István; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Freund, Tamás F; Borhegyi, Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    The medial septum (MS) is an indispensable component of the subcortical network which synchronizes the hippocampus at theta frequency during specific stages of information processing. GABAergic neurons exhibiting highly regular firing coupled to the hippocampal theta rhythm are thought to form the core of the MS rhythm-generating network. In recent studies the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated non-selective cation (HCN) channel was shown to participate in theta synchronization of the medial septum. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HCN channel expression correlates with theta modulated firing behaviour of MS neurons by a combined anatomical and electrophysiological approach. HCN-expressing neurons represented a subpopulation of GABAergic cells in the MS partly overlapping with parvalbumin (PV)-containing neurons. Rhythmic firing in the theta frequency range was characteristic of all HCN-expressing neurons. In contrast, only a minority of HCN-negative cells displayed theta related activity. All HCN cells had tight phase coupling to hippocampal theta waves. As a group, PV-expressing HCN neurons had a marked bimodal phase distribution, whereas PV-immunonegative HCN neurons did not show group-level phase preference despite significant individual phase coupling. Microiontophoretic blockade of HCN channels resulted in the reduction of discharge frequency, but theta rhythmic firing was perturbed only in a few cases. Our data imply that HCN-expressing GABAergic neurons provide rhythmic drive in all phases of the hippocampal theta activity. In most MS theta cells rhythm genesis is apparently determined by interactions at the level of the network rather than by the pacemaking property of HCN channels alone. PMID:18565991

  5. A functional glutamatergic neurone network in the medial septum and diagonal band area.

    PubMed

    Manseau, F; Danik, M; Williams, S

    2005-08-01

    The medial septum and diagonal band complex (MS/DB) is important for learning and memory and is known to contain cholinergic and GABAergic neurones. Glutamatergic neurones have also been recently described in this area but their function remains unknown. Here we show that local glutamatergic neurones can be activated using 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline in regular MS/DB slices, or mini-MS/DB slices. The spontaneous glutamatergic responses were mediated by AMPA receptors and, to a lesser extend, NMDA receptors, and were characterized by large, sometimes repetitive activity that elicited bursts of action potentials postsynaptically. Similar repetitive AMPA receptor-mediated bursts were generated by glutamatergic neurone activation within the MS/DB in disinhibited organotypic MS/DB slices, suggesting that the glutamatergic responses did not originate from extrinsic glutamatergic synapses. It is interesting that glutamatergic neurones were part of a synchronously active network as large repetitive AMPA receptor-mediated bursts were generated concomitantly with extracellular field potentials in intact half-septum preparations in vitro. Glutamatergic neurones appeared important to MS/DB activation as strong glutamatergic responses were present in electrophysiologically identified putative cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurones. In agreement with this, we found immunohistochemical evidence that vesicular glutamate-2 (VGLUT2)-positive puncta were in proximity to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)- and VGLUT2-positive neurones. Finally, MS/DB glutamatergic neurones could be activated under more physiological conditions as a cholinergic agonist was found to elicit rhythmic AMPA receptor-mediated EPSPs at a theta relevant frequency of 6-10 Hz. We propose that glutamatergic neurones within the MS/DB can excite cholinergic and GABAergic neurones, and that they are part of a connected

  6. A functional glutamatergic neurone network in the medial septum and diagonal band area

    PubMed Central

    Manseau, F; Danik, M; Williams, S

    2005-01-01

    The medial septum and diagonal band complex (MS/DB) is important for learning and memory and is known to contain cholinergic and GABAergic neurones. Glutamatergic neurones have also been recently described in this area but their function remains unknown. Here we show that local glutamatergic neurones can be activated using 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline in regular MS/DB slices, or mini-MS/DB slices. The spontaneous glutamatergic responses were mediated by AMPA receptors and, to a lesser extend, NMDA receptors, and were characterized by large, sometimes repetitive activity that elicited bursts of action potentials postsynaptically. Similar repetitive AMPA receptor-mediated bursts were generated by glutamatergic neurone activation within the MS/DB in disinhibited organotypic MS/DB slices, suggesting that the glutamatergic responses did not originate from extrinsic glutamatergic synapses. It is interesting that glutamatergic neurones were part of a synchronously active network as large repetitive AMPA receptor-mediated bursts were generated concomitantly with extracellular field potentials in intact half-septum preparations in vitro. Glutamatergic neurones appeared important to MS/DB activation as strong glutamatergic responses were present in electrophysiologically identified putative cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurones. In agreement with this, we found immunohistochemical evidence that vesicular glutamate-2 (VGLUT2)-positive puncta were in proximity to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)- and VGLUT2-positive neurones. Finally, MS/DB glutamatergic neurones could be activated under more physiological conditions as a cholinergic agonist was found to elicit rhythmic AMPA receptor-mediated EPSPs at a theta relevant frequency of 6–10 Hz. We propose that glutamatergic neurones within the MS/DB can excite cholinergic and GABAergic neurones, and that they are part of a connected

  7. Septum Formation in Escherichia coli: Characterization of Septal Structure and the Effects of Antibiotics on Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Burdett, I. D. J.; Murray, R. G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Septa can be demonstrated in sections of Escherichia coli strains B and B/r after fixation with acrolein and glutaraldehyde. The septum consists of an ingrowth of the cytoplasmic membrane and the mucopeptide layer; the outer membrane is excluded from the septum until the cells begin to separate. Mesosomes have also been observed. The septum is highly labile and, except in the chain-forming strains, E. coli D22 env A and CRT 97, not easily preserved by standard procedures. The labile nature of the septum may be due to the presence of autolysin(s) located at the presumptive division site. Blocking division by addition of ampicillin (2 to 5 μg/ml) to cells of E. coli B/r produces a bulge at the middle of the cells; bulge formation is stopped by addition of chloramphenicol. Cephalosporins also induce bulge formation but may stop cell elongation as well as division. Bulge formation, due to the presumed action of an autolysin(s), may be an initial step in the septation sequence when the mucopeptide is modified to allow construction of the septum. In a nonseptate filament-forming strain, PAT 84, which ceases to divide at 42 C, bulge formation only occurs in the presence of ampicillin at the time of a shift-down at 30 C or at 42 C in the presence of NaCl (0.25 to 0.34 M). Experiments with chloramphenicol suggest that the filaments are fully compartmentalized but fail to divide owing to the inactivation, rather than loss of synthesis, of an autolysin at 42 C. Images PMID:4209778

  8. Persistent high grade flurodeoxyglucose uptake in lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum on dual time point imaging and with ambient warming.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, K K; Sudhakar, N; Shibu, D K; Kurup, E R R; Shinto, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterized by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum that usually spares the fossa ovalis. LHIS showing flurodeoxyglucose uptake has been reported, and is presumed to be due to activated brown adipose tissue (BAT). We here report a case of a patient who had isolated mediastinal uptake in interatrial septum, mimicking metastasis. Rescanning with external warming to deactivate BAT and a delayed time point image was done, which showed persistent and progressively increasing metabolic uptake respectively, suggesting that LHIS uptake might be unrelated to activated BAT or inflammation.

  9. Persistent High Grade Flurodeoxyglucose Uptake in Lipomatous Hypertrophy of the Interatrial Septum on Dual Time Point Imaging and with Ambient Warming

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Sudhakar, N.; Shibu, D. K.; Kurup, E. R. R.; Shinto, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is a relatively uncommon disorder of the heart characterized by benign fatty infiltration of the interatrial septum that usually spares the fossa ovalis. LHIS showing flurodeoxyglucose uptake has been reported, and is presumed to be due to activated brown adipose tissue (BAT). We here report a case of a patient who had isolated mediastinal uptake in interatrial septum, mimicking metastasis. Rescanning with external warming to deactivate BAT and a delayed time point image was done, which showed persistent and progressively increasing metabolic uptake respectively, suggesting that LHIS uptake might be unrelated to activated BAT or inflammation. PMID:25191115

  10. Development of septum-free injector for gas chromatography and its application to the samples with a high boiling point.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Murase, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Kazumi; Kuno, Minoru; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2006-11-01

    A novel apparatus with a simple structure has been developed for introducing samples into the vaporizing chamber of a gas chromatograph. It requires no septum due to the gas sealing structure over the carrier gas supply line. The septum-free injector made it possible to use injection port temperatures as high as 450 degrees C. Repetitive injection of samples with boiling points below 300 degrees C resulted in peak areas with relative standard deviations between 1.25 and 3.28% (n=5) and good linearity (r(2)>0.9942) for the calibration curve. In the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and a base oil, the peak areas of components with high boiling points increased as the injection port temperature was increased to 450 degrees C.

  11. Increased metabolic activity in the septum and habenula during stress is linked to subsequent expression of learned helplessness behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mirrione, Martine M.; Schulz, Daniela; Lapidus, Kyle A. B.; Zhang, Samuel; Goodman, Wayne; Henn, Fritz A.

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrollable stress can have a profound effect on an organism's ability to respond effectively to future stressful situations. Behavior subsequent to uncontrollable stress can vary greatly between individuals, falling on a spectrum between healthy resilience and maladaptive learned helplessness. It is unclear whether dysfunctional brain activity during uncontrollable stress is associated with vulnerability to learned helplessness; therefore, we measured metabolic activity during uncontrollable stress that correlated with ensuing inability to escape future stressors. We took advantage of small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) to probe in vivo metabolic activity in wild type Sprague Dawley rats during uncontrollable, inescapable, unpredictable foot-shock stress, and subsequently tested the animals response to controllable, escapable, predictable foot-shock stress. When we correlated metabolic activity during the uncontrollable stress with consequent behavioral outcomes, we found that the degree to which animals failed to escape the foot-shock correlated with increased metabolic activity in the lateral septum and habenula. When used a seed region, metabolic activity in the habenula correlated with activity in the lateral septum, hypothalamus, medial thalamus, mammillary nuclei, ventral tegmental area, central gray, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and rostromedial tegmental nucleus, caudal linear raphe, and subiculum transition area. Furthermore, the lateral septum correlated with metabolic activity in the preoptic area, medial thalamus, habenula, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and caudal linear raphe. Together, our data suggest a group of brain regions involved in sensitivity to uncontrollable stress involving the lateral septum and habenula. PMID:24550809

  12. [Nasal endoscope surgery of acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland on nasal septum: a case report].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiuzhen; Wang, Jizhe

    2016-02-01

    A 67-year-old male patient was admitted because of "the right side nasal obstruction repeatedly for 4 years". He got nasal obstruction 4 years ago, especially for the right side nasal cavity, sometimes got blood in his nasal discharge, then the symptom relieved after accepting treatment in local hospital. During the 4 years, the symptom repeatedly occurrence. Three days before hospitalization, the CT examination indicated abnormal things in his nasal cavity and the bone of his nasal sinus had been destroyed. Some abnormal organism were sent to pathological examination, and the report indicated it is acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland. During the nasal endoscope surgery, a red goiter was found in his nose with its surface crude and brittle. Then we cut the goiter by nasal endoscope, during the operation we find the bottom of the goiter is on the nasal septum. Two weeks after the operation, the patient received the radiation therapy. One year after the operation he doesn't get the abnormal symptom and the nasal MRI not found recidivation. PMID:27373103

  13. Melanin concentrating hormone induces hippocampal acetylcholine release via the medial septum in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi-Hong; Fukuda, Satoru; Minakawa, Yoichi; Yasuda, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Sawamura, Shigehito; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ishii, Noriko

    2013-06-01

    Among various actions of melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), its memory function has been focused in animal studies. Although MCH neurons project to various areas in the brain, one main target site of MCH is hippocampal formation for memory consolidation. Recent immunohistochemical study shows that MCH neurons directly project to the hippocampal formation and may indirectly affect the hippocampus through the medial septum nucleus (MS). It has been reported that sleep is necessary for memory and that hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release is indispensable for memory consolidation. However, there is no report how MCH actually influences the hippocampal ACh effluxes in accordance with the sleep-wake cycle changes. Thus, we investigated the modulatory function of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH on the sleep-wake cycle and ACh release using microdialysis techniques. Icv injection of MCH significantly increased the rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM episode time and the hippocampal, not cortical, ACh effluxes. There was a significant correlation between REM episode time and hippocampal ACh effluxes, but not between REM episode time and cortical ACh effluxes. Microinjection of MCH into the MS increased the hippocampal ACh effluxes with no influence on the REM episode time. It appears that the effect sites of icv MCH for prolongation of REM episode time may be other neuronal areas than the cholinergic neurons in the MS. We conclude that MCH actually increases the hippocampal ACh release at least in part through the MS in rats.

  14. Visualization and functional dissection of coaxial paired SpoIIIE channels across the sporulation septum

    DOE PAGES

    Shin, Jae Yen; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Diaz-Celis, Cesar; Fleming, Tinya; Bustamante, Carlos; Pogliano, Kit

    2015-05-07

    SpoIIIE is a membrane-anchored DNA translocase that localizes to the septal midpoint to mediate chromosome translocation and membrane fission during Bacillus subtilis sporulation. Here we use cell-specific protein degradation and quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy in strains with a thick sporulation septum to investigate the architecture and function of the SpoIIIE DNA translocation complex in vivo. We were able to visualize SpoIIIE complexes with approximately equal numbers of molecules in the mother cell and the forespore. Cell-specific protein degradation showed that only the mother cell complex is required to translocate DNA into the forespore, whereas degradation in either cell reversesmore » membrane fission. Our data suggest that SpoIIIE assembles a coaxially paired channel for each chromosome arm comprised of one hexamer in each cell to maintain membrane fission during DNA translocation. We show that SpoIIIE can operate, in principle, as a bi-directional motor that exports DNA.« less

  15. GABAA receptor signaling in the lateral septum regulates maternal aggression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal aggression (maternal defense) is a fierce aggression produced by lactating females towards intruders that plays an important role in protection of vulnerable offspring. Enhancement of GABAA receptor signaling by benzodiazepines increases maternal aggression and we recently found indirect evidence that lateral septum (LS) could be a key site where benzodiazepines elevate aggression. In this study, we directly tested the hypothesis that activation of GABAA receptors in LS would promote maternal aggression while inhibition of this receptor would decrease aggression. Site-directed injections to LS were made using the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline (3-30 ng), or the GABAA receptor agonists, chlordiazepoxide, a benzodiazepine (2.5-5 μg), and muscimol (0.05–5 ng). Maternal aggression and other behavioral measures were then evaluated in lactating mice. Neither GABAA receptor agonist elevated aggression, which could reflect a ceiling effect. However, 7 ng of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, in LS significantly decreased maternal aggression without altering other maternal behaviors or light-dark box performance, suggesting some GABAA receptor signaling in LS is required for full maternal aggression expression. Together these results confirm a role for GABAA receptor signaling in LS in the regulation of maternal aggression. PMID:20001101

  16. Effective Modulation of Male Aggression through Lateral Septum to Medial Hypothalamus Projection.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Chin; Wang, Li; D'Amour, James A; Yumita, Tomohiro; Chen, Genghe; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Chang, Brian C; Bernstein, Hannah; You, Xuedi; Feng, James E; Froemke, Robert C; Lin, Dayu

    2016-03-01

    Aggression is a prevalent behavior in the animal kingdom that is used to settle competition for limited resources. Given the high risk associated with fighting, the central nervous system has evolved an active mechanism to modulate its expression. Lesioning the lateral septum (LS) is known to cause "septal rage," a phenotype characterized by a dramatic increase in the frequency of attacks. To understand the circuit mechanism of LS-mediated modulation of aggression, we examined the influence of LS input on the cells in and around the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl)-a region required for male mouse aggression. We found that the inputs from the LS inhibited the attack-excited cells but surprisingly increased the overall activity of attack-inhibited cells. Furthermore, optogenetic activation of the projection from LS cells to the VMHvl terminated ongoing attacks immediately but had little effect on mounting. Thus, LS projection to the ventromedial hypothalamic area represents an effective pathway for suppressing male aggression. PMID:26877081

  17. Novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, Andrea; Giovannozzi, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fast-pulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the incoming or outgoing beam.

  18. Histaminergic system of the lateral septum in the modulation of anxiety-like behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Valizadegan, Farhad; Rostami, Parvin; Rezayof, Ameneh

    2008-03-31

    The central histaminergic system is known to have modulatory influence on anxiety-related behaviour both in animals and humans through histamine H1 and/or H2 receptors. In the present study, the effects of intra-lateral septal microinjections of histaminergic agents on anxiety-related behaviours in male Wistar rats have been investigated. As a model of anxiety, the elevated plus-maze which is a useful test to investigate the effects of anxiogenic or anxiolytic drugs in rodents was used. Intra-lateral septal administration of histamine (0.5 and 1 microg/rat) decreased the percentage of open arm entries and open arm time but not locomotor activity, showing an anxiogenic response. The intra-lateral septal injections of different doses of the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, pyrilamine (5, 10 and 20 microg/rat) or the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, ranitidine (5, 10 and 20 microg/rat) could not significantly alter the anxiety-like parameters in the plus-maze test. However, intra-lateral septal injections of different doses of pyrilamine (10 and 20 microg/rat) or ranitidine (10 and 20 microg/rat) significantly reversed histamine (1 microg/rat)-induced anxiogenic effect. The results may indicate that the histaminergic system of lateral septum modulate anxiety-like behaviour through histamine H1 and H2 receptors.

  19. Tianeptine and its enantiomers: effects on spatial memory in rats with medial septum lesions.

    PubMed

    Morris, R G; Kelly, S; Burney, D; Anthony, T; Boyer, P A; Spedding, M

    2001-08-01

    Tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant that exhibits clinical efficacy in measures of depression and anxiety, has been reported to enhance learning and memory in rats under certain conditions, an effect not observed with other tricyclic antidepressants. The present study explores further the possibility that tianeptine or its enantiomers (S 16190 and S 16191) can enhance either learning or retention in animals in which the hippocampus has been made partially dysfunctional. The effects of tianeptine and its enantiomers were tested using an open field watermaze test, in rats with partial lesions of the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MSDB). When given to normal rats, tianeptine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not significantly affect learning as compared to animals injected with saline. We therefore created, in other animals, partial ibotenic acid lesions of MSDB and showed histochemically that these lesions reduced but did not abolish the density of acetylcholinesterase staining in the hippocampus. They impaired both the acquisition of place-navigation and the long-term retention of spatial information over 7 days. Against the baseline of impaired performance in animals with these lesions, neither tianeptine (10 mg/kg) nor its enantiomers (5 mg/kg) affected the rate of acquisition of place navigation. However, tianeptine did enhance the retention of spatial memory over 7 days. These results are discussed in relation to different effects that tianeptine may have on learning including its ability to block stress-induced dendritic re-modelling of the hippocampus.

  20. Kindling of the lateral septum and the amygdala: effects on anxiety in rats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Earl; Gunton, Deborah J

    2011-10-24

    Long-term kindling of limbic system structures may produce substantial changes in emotional behavior in rats. This study examined long-term changes in two kindled structures that have opposite effects on anxiety, the lateral septum and the central nucleus of the amygdala. The purpose of the experiment was to examine the specificity of the emotional effects of kindling by employing a double dissociation design. Animals were tested in two common animal models of anxiety, the water-lick conflict test and the elevated plus-maze. In the conflict test amygdala-kindled animals demonstrated a significant anxiolytic effect when compared with sham-kindled animals. This effect was potentiated by chlordiazepoxide. Septally-kindled animals exhibited a significant anticonflict effect when compared to sham-kindled animals in the first session. Septally-kindled animals spent significantly more time on the open arms of the elevated plus-maze than did sham-kindled animals. Observed changes persisted 6weeks after the termination of 150 kindling sessions. The effects of long-term kindling were highly consistent with those of disruption rather than facilitation.

  1. Interaction of the tracheal tubules of Scutigera coleoptrata (Chilopoda, Notostigmophora) with glandular structures of the pericardial septum

    PubMed Central

    Hilken, Gero; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Müller, Carsten H.G.; Sombke, Andy; Wirkner, Christian S.; Rosenberg, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Notostigmophora (Scutigeromorpha) exhibit a special tracheal system compared to other Chilopoda. The unpaired spiracles are localized medially on the long tergites and open into a wide atrium from which hundreds of tracheal tubules originate and extend into the pericardial sinus. Previous investigators reported that the tracheal tubules float freely in the hemolymph. However, here we show for the first time that the tracheal tubules are anchored to a part of the pericardial septum. Another novel finding is this part of the pericardial septum is structured as an aggregated gland on the basis of its specialized epithelium being formed by hundreds of oligocellular glands. It remains unclear whether the pericardial septum has a differently structure in areas that lack a connection with tracheal tubules. The tracheal tubules come into direct contact with the canal cells of the glands that presumably secrete mucous substances covering the entire luminal cuticle of the tracheal tubules. Connections between tracheae and glands have not been observed in any other arthropods. PMID:26257546

  2. Design of a Class of Antennas Utilizing MEMS, EBG and Septum Polarizers including Near-field Coupling Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ilkyu

    Recent developments in mobile communications have led to an increased appearance of short-range communications and high data-rate signal transmission. New technologies provides the need for an accurate near-field coupling analysis and novel antenna designs. An ability to effectively estimate the coupling within the near-field region is required to realize short-range communications. Currently, two common techniques that are applicable to the near-field coupling problem are 1) integral form of coupling formula and 2) generalized Friis formula. These formulas are investigated with an emphasis on straightforward calculation and accuracy for various distances between the two antennas. The coupling formulas are computed for a variety of antennas, and several antenna configurations are evaluated through full-wave simulation and indoor measurement in order to validate these techniques. In addition, this research aims to design multi-functional and high performance antennas based on MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) switches, EBG (Electromagnetic Bandgap) structures, and septum polarizers. A MEMS switch is incorporated into a slot loaded patch antenna to attain frequency reconfigurability. The resonant frequency of the patch antenna can be shifted using the MEM switch, which is actuated by the integrated bias networks. Furthermore, a high gain base-station antenna utilizing beam-tilting is designed to maximize gain for tilted beam applications. To realize this base-station antenna, an array of four dipole-EBG elements is constructed to implement a fixed down-tilt main beam with application in base station arrays. An improvement of the operating range with the EBG-dipole array is evaluated using a simple linkbudget analysis. The septum polarizer has been widely used in circularly polarized antenna systems due to its simple and compact design and high quality of circularity. In this research, the sigmoid function is used to smoothen the edge in the septum design, which

  3. Role of lateral septum glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors in food intake.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Sarah J; Jackson, Christine M; Greene, Hayden E; Lilly, Nicole; Maske, Calyn B; Vallejo, Samantha; Williams, Diana L

    2016-07-01

    Hindbrain glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) neurons project to numerous forebrain areas, including the lateral septum (LS). Using a fluorescently labeled GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, Exendin 4 (Ex4), we demonstrated GLP-1 receptor binding throughout the rat LS. We examined the feeding effects of Ex4 and the GLP-1R antagonist Exendin (9-39) (Ex9) at doses subthreshold for effect when delivered to the lateral ventricle. Intra-LS Ex4 suppressed overnight chow and high-fat diet (HFD) intake, and Ex9 increased chow and HFD intake relative to vehicle. During 2-h tests, intra-LS Ex9 significantly increased 0.25 M sucrose and 4% corn oil. Ex4 can cause nausea, but intra-LS administration of Ex4 did not induce pica. Furthermore, intra-LS Ex4 had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. We investigated the role of LS GLP-1R in motivation for food by examining operant responding for sucrose on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, with and without a nutrient preload to maximize GLP-1 neuron activation. The preload strongly suppressed PR responding, but blockade of GLP-1R in the intermediate subdivision of the LS did not affect motivation for sucrose under either load condition. The ability of the nutrient load to suppress subsequent chow intake was significantly attenuated by intermediate LS Ex9 treatment. By contrast, blockade of GLP-1R in the dorsal subdivision of the LS increased both PR responding and overnight chow intake. Together, these studies suggest that endogenous activity of GLP-1R in the LS influence feeding, and dLS GLP-1Rs, in particular, play a role in motivation. PMID:27194565

  4. Maternal Defense is Modulated by Beta Adrenergic Receptors in Lateral Septum in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, Melissa-Ann L.; Lee, Grace; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal defense (offspring protection) is a critical and highly conserved component of maternal care in mammalian systems that involves dramatic shifts in a female’s behavioral response to social cues. Numerous changes occur in neuronal signaling and connectivity in the postpartum female, including decreases in norepinephrine (NE) signaling in subregions of the CNS. In this study using a strain of mice selected for maternal defense, we examined whether possible changes in NE signaling in the lateral septum (LS) could facilitate expression of maternal aggression. In separate studies that utilized a repeated measures design, mice were tested for maternal defense following intra-LS injections of either the β adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (10 μg or 30 μg) or vehicle (Experiment 1), the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (2 μg) or vehicle (Experiment 2), or the β1 receptor antagonist, atenolol (Experiment 3). Mice were also evaluated for light-dark performance and pup retrieval. 30 μg of the agonist isoproterenol significantly decreased number of attacks and time aggressive relative to vehicle without affecting pup retrieval or light/dark box performance. In contrast, the antagonist propranolol significantly increased maternal aggression (lowered latency to attack and increased total attack time) without altering light/dark box test. The β1 specific antagonist, atenolol, significantly decreased latency to attack (1 μg v. vehicle) without altering other measures. Although the findings were identified in a unique strain of mice that may or may not apply to other strains, the results of these studies support the hypothesis that changes in NE signaling in LS during the postpartum period contribute to the expression of offspring protection. PMID:21480688

  5. Neurogenesis of the cholinergic medial septum in female and male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Schaevitz, Laura R; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2005-12-01

    Sex differences exist in the structure and function of the cholinergic septo-hippocampal system throughout the lifespan of mammals. How and when these sex differences originate is unclear. Because estrogen modulates sexual differentiation of several brain regions during development and influences neurogenesis in adult mammals, we hypothesized that sexual dimorphism of the cholinergic septo-hippocampal system would extend to its neurogenesis. A birthdating agent 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected into pregnant dams on one of eight gestational days, ranging from embryonic day (E)10 to E17. The offspring were euthanized at 2 months of age, and brains were processed for BrdU and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity to label cholinergic neurons that became postmitotic on a given embryonic day and survived to adulthood. Unbiased stereology was used to compare the number of double-labeled neurons in the medial septum (MS) of female and male offspring. Cholinergic neurons in the MS were generated primarily between E11 and E14, similar to other published reports. We found sex differences in the pattern of peak neurogenesis but not in the length of neurogenesis, or in total number of neurons generated in the MS. Additionally, in adult female and male mice, we estimated the total number of cholinergic neurons using unbiased stereology and found no sex differences in the number of cholinergic neurons or in the volume of the MS in adulthood. These results suggest that sex differences noted in the function of the postnatal cholinergic septo-hippocampal system may originate from its neurogenesis.

  6. Glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in transgenic mouse septum: an anti-GFP immunofluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Verimli, Ural; Sehirli, Umit S

    2016-09-01

    The septum is a basal forebrain region located between the lateral ventricles in rodents. It consists of lateral and medial divisions. Medial septal projections regulate hippocampal theta rhythm whereas lateral septal projections are involved in processes such as affective functions, memory formation, and behavioral responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons of the septal region possess the 65 and 67 isoforms of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. Although data on the glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in the septal region generally appears to indicate glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 dominance, different studies have given inconsistent results in this regard. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain information on the distributions of both of these glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms in the septal region in transgenic mice. Two animal groups of glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice were utilized in the experiment. Brain sections from the region were taken for anti-green fluorescent protein immunohistochemistry in order to obtain estimated quantitative data on the number of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons. Following the immunohistochemical procedures, the mean numbers of labeled cells in the lateral and medial septal nuclei were obtained for the two isoform groups. Statistical analysis yielded significant results which indicated that the 65 isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase predominates in both lateral and medial septal nuclei (unpaired two-tailed t-test p < 0.0001 for LS, p < 0.01 for MS). This study is the first to reveal the dominance of glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 in the septal region in glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. PMID:26643381

  7. The role of NMDA receptors of the medial septum and dorsal hippocampus on memory acquisition.

    PubMed

    Khakpai, Fatemeh; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-04-01

    The glutamatergic neurons in the medial septal/diagonal band of broca (MS/DB) affect the hippocampal functions by modulating the septo-hippocampal neurons. Our study investigated the possible role of NMDA receptors of the medial septum nucleus (MS) and dorsal hippocampus (CA1) on memory acquisition in male Wistar rats. Animals were bilaterally implanted with chronic cannulae in the MS and CA1. Rats were trained in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance task, and tested 24h after training to measure step-through latency as memory retrieval. Our results indicated that pre-training intra-MS or intra-CA1 infusions of NMDA (0.125 μg/rat) and D-AP7 (0.012 μg/rat) increased and decreased memory acquisition, respectively when compared to saline control group. Also, pre-training intra-CA1 and intra-MS injection of an effect dose of D-AP7 (0.012 μg/rat) along with an effect dose of NMDA (0.125 μg/rat) impaired memory acquisition. Interestingly, pre-training intra-CA1/MS infusion of D-AP7 (0.012 μg/rat) diminished memory response produced by pre-training injection of NMDA (0.125 μg/rat) in the MS/CA1, respectively (cross injection or bilateral injection). Also, all above doses of drugs did not alter locomotor activity. These results suggest that the glutamatergic pathway between the MS and CA1 regions is involved in memory acquisition process. PMID:26780596

  8. Glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in transgenic mouse septum: an anti-GFP immunofluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Verimli, Ural; Sehirli, Umit S

    2016-09-01

    The septum is a basal forebrain region located between the lateral ventricles in rodents. It consists of lateral and medial divisions. Medial septal projections regulate hippocampal theta rhythm whereas lateral septal projections are involved in processes such as affective functions, memory formation, and behavioral responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons of the septal region possess the 65 and 67 isoforms of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. Although data on the glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in the septal region generally appears to indicate glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 dominance, different studies have given inconsistent results in this regard. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain information on the distributions of both of these glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms in the septal region in transgenic mice. Two animal groups of glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice were utilized in the experiment. Brain sections from the region were taken for anti-green fluorescent protein immunohistochemistry in order to obtain estimated quantitative data on the number of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons. Following the immunohistochemical procedures, the mean numbers of labeled cells in the lateral and medial septal nuclei were obtained for the two isoform groups. Statistical analysis yielded significant results which indicated that the 65 isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase predominates in both lateral and medial septal nuclei (unpaired two-tailed t-test p < 0.0001 for LS, p < 0.01 for MS). This study is the first to reveal the dominance of glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 in the septal region in glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice.

  9. Septum and medial frontal cortex contribution to spatial problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Poucet, B; Herrmann, T

    1990-03-26

    An attempt was made to contrast the effects of lesions to the medial frontal cortex and septum in two spatial tasks. In the fixed-goal (FG) task, the food was located on the same table throughout testing, and the start table was randomly varied from day to day. In the variable-goal (VG) task, the start table remained constant but the food was randomly distributed on one or the other of the two remaining tables. In both tasks, normal animals performed better than frontal and septal rats whose performance, however, improved over days in the FG, but not in the VG, task. In both tasks, significant improvement within days was found in medial frontal animals, but not in septal animals. Additional analyses revealed that septal animals had a general pattern of disrupted exploration and a tendency to use a response strategy (i.e. to repeat the same response both within and between days) which decreased over days in the FG task. In contrast, medial frontal animals did not demonstrate disrupted exploration nor any response tendency. It is concluded that both septal and medial frontal cortical damage produce a common spatial working memory impairment. However, there is some evidence to suggest that this common memory impairment could result from disruption of distinct mechanisms in septal and frontal animals. It is proposed that medial frontal lesions could affect some specific mechanism related either to attentional processes or to the ability to anticipate future events, whereas septal damage would interfere with the building of comprehensive and flexible spatial memories. PMID:2340101

  10. Glutamate, GABA, and glutamine are synchronously upregulated in the mouse lateral septum during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic structural and functional remodeling occurs in the postpartum brain for the establishment of maternal care, which is essential for the growth and development of young offspring. Glutamate and GABA signaling are critically important in modulating multiple behavioral performances. Large scale signaling changes occur in the postpartum brain, but it is still not clear to what extent the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA change and whether the ratio of glutamate/GABA remains balanced. In this study, we examined the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum female mice. In postpartum females (relative to virgins), tissue levels of glutamate and GABA were elevated in LS and increased mRNA was found for the respective enzymes producing glutamate and GABA, glutaminase (Gls) and glutamate decarboxylase 1 and 2 (Gad1 and Gad2). The common precursor, glutamine, was elevated as was the enzyme that produces it, glutamate-ammonia ligase (Glul). Additionally, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine were positively correlated and the glutamate/GABA ratio was almost identical in the postpartum and virgin females. Collectively, these findings indicate that glutamate and GABA signaling are increased and that the ratio of glutamate/GABA is well balanced in the maternal LS. The postpartum brain may provide a useful model system for understanding how glutamate and GABA are linked despite large signaling changes. Given that some mental health disorders, including depression and schizophrenia display dysregulated glutamate/GABA ratio, and there is increased vulnerability to mental disorders in mothers, it is possible that these postpartum disorders emerge when glutamate and GABA changes are not properly coordinated. PMID:25451092

  11. The Modulatory Role of the Lateral Septum on Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Singewald, Georg M; Rjabokon, Alesja; Singewald, Nicolas; Ebner, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The lateral septum (LS) has been shown to have a key role in emotional processes and stress responses. However, the exact role of the LS on stress modulation is not clear, as previous lesion studies mostly used electrolytic lesions, thereby destroying the whole septal area, including medial components and/or fibers of passage. The aim of the present study was therefore, to investigate the effects of selective excitotoxic ablation of the LS on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses in rats. Bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the LS increased hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to forced swim stress indicated by enhanced plasma ACTH and corticosterone responses and higher stress-induced c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Moreover, LS-lesioned animals showed a more passive coping style in the forced swim test indicated by increased floating and reduced struggling/swimming behavior compared with sham-lesioned controls. Interestingly, intraseptal corticosteroid receptor blockade modulated behavioral stress coping but failed to change HPA axis stress responses. Further experiments aimed at elucidating underlying neurochemical mechanisms revealed that intraseptal administration of the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 increased and prolonged stress-induced ACTH and corticosterone levels mimicking lesion effects, while the agonist 8-OH-DPAT suppressed HPA axis activity facilitating the inhibitory role of the LS. In addition, 8-OH-DPAT-injected animals showed increased active and decreased passive coping strategies during forced swimming suggesting antidepressant efficacy. Taken together, our data suggest that the LS promotes active stress coping behavior and is involved in a HPA-inhibitory mechanism that is at least in part mediated by septal 5-HT1A receptors and does not involve a glucocorticoid mediated feedback mechanism. PMID:21160468

  12. Interconnection and synchronization of neuronal populations in the mouse medial septum/diagonal band of Broca.

    PubMed

    Leão, Richardson N; Targino, Zé H; Colom, Luis V; Fisahn, André

    2015-02-01

    The medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBB) is crucial for hippocampal theta rhythm generation (4-12 Hz). However, the mechanisms behind theta rhythmogenesis are still under debate. The MS/DBB consists, in its majority, of three neuronal populations that use acetylcholine, GABA, or glutamate as neurotransmitter. While the firing patterns of septal neurons enable the MS/DBB to generate rhythmic output critical for the generation of the hippocampal theta rhythm, the ability to synchronize these action potentials is dependent on the interconnectivity between the three major MS/DBB neuronal populations, yet little is known about intraseptal connections. Here we assessed the connectivity between pairs of MS/DBB neurons with paired patch-clamp recordings. We found that glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons provide intraseptal connections and produce sizable currents in MS/DBB postsynaptic cells. We also analyzed linear and nonlinear relationships between the action potentials fired by pairs of neurons belonging to various MS/DBB neuronal populations. Our results show that while the synchrony index for action potential firing was significantly higher in pairs of GABAergic neurons, coherence of action potential firing in the theta range was similarly low in all pairs analyzed. Recurrence analysis demonstrated that individual action potentials were more recurrent in cholinergic neurons than in other cell types. Implementing sparse connectivity in a computer model of the MS/DBB network reproduced our experimental data. We conclude that the interplay between the intrinsic membrane properties of different MS/DBB neuronal populations and the connectivity among these populations underlie the ability of the MS/DBB network to critically contribute to hippocampal theta rhythmogenesis.

  13. Glutamate, GABA, and glutamine are synchronously upregulated in the mouse lateral septum during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C

    2014-12-01

    Dramatic structural and functional remodeling occurs in the postpartum brain for the establishment of maternal care, which is essential for the growth and development of young offspring. Glutamate and GABA signaling are critically important in modulating multiple behavioral performances. Large scale signaling changes occur in the postpartum brain, but it is still not clear to what extent the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA change and whether the ratio of glutamate/GABA remains balanced. In this study, we examined the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum female mice. In postpartum females (relative to virgins), tissue levels of glutamate and GABA were elevated in LS and increased mRNA was found for the respective enzymes producing glutamate and GABA, glutaminase (Gls) and glutamate decarboxylase 1 and 2 (Gad1 and Gad2). The common precursor, glutamine, was elevated as was the enzyme that produces it, glutamate-ammonia ligase (Glul). Additionally, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine were positively correlated and the glutamate/GABA ratio was almost identical in the postpartum and virgin females. Collectively, these findings indicate that glutamate and GABA signaling are increased and that the ratio of glutamate/GABA is well balanced in the maternal LS. The postpartum brain may provide a useful model system for understanding how glutamate and GABA are linked despite large signaling changes. Given that some mental health disorders, including depression and schizophrenia display dysregulated glutamate/GABA ratio, and there is increased vulnerability to mental disorders in mothers, it is possible that these postpartum disorders emerge when glutamate and GABA changes are not properly coordinated.

  14. Electrophysiological and autoradiographical evidence of V1 vasopressin receptors in the lateral septum of the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dreifuss, J.J.

    1987-11-01

    Extracellular recordings were obtained from single neurons located in the lateral septum, an area known to receive a vasopressinergic innervation in the rat brain. Approximately half of the neurons tested responded to 8-L-arginine vasopressin (AVP) by a marked increase in firing rate at concentrations greater than 1 nM. The effect of vasopressin was blocked by synthetic structural analogues possessing antagonistic properties on peripheral vasopressin and oxytocin receptors. Oxytocin was much less potent than vasopressin in firing septal neurons, and a selective oxytocic agonist was totally ineffective. The action of vasopressin on neuronal firing was mimicked by the vasopressor agonist (2-phenylalanine,8-ornithine)vasotocin but not by the selective antidiuretic agonist 1-deamino(8-D-arginine)vasopressin. In a parallel study, sites that bind (/sup 3/H)AVP at low concentration (1.5 nM) were found by in vitro autoradiography in the lateral septum. Adjacent sections were also incubated with 1.5 mM (/sup 3/H)AVP and, in addition, with 100 nM (2-phenylalanine,8-ornithine)vasotocin or 1-deamino(8-D-arginine)vasopressin--i.e., the same compounds as those used for the electrophysiological study. Results showed that the vasopressor agonist, but not the antidiuretic agonist, displaced (/sup 3/H)AVP, thus indicating that the vasopressin binding sites detected by autoradiography in the septum were V1 (vasopressor type) rather than V2 (antidiuretic type) receptors. Based on the electrophysiological evidence, we conclude that these receptors, when occupied, lead to increased firing of lateral septal neurons.

  15. MicroRNA expression is altered in lateral septum across reproductive stages.

    PubMed

    Saul, M C; Zhao, C; Driessen, T M; Eisinger, B E; Gammie, S C

    2016-01-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) inhibit RNA targets and may contribute to postpartum central nervous system (CNS) gene expression changes, although this has never been tested. In the present study, we directly evaluated miRNA levels using RNA sequencing during reproduction in female mice in the lateral septum (LS). We found the reliable and robust changes of miRNAs away from the virgin stage at the three other stages, namely pregnant, day 1 postpartum, and day 8 postpartum. For a given miRNA that was significantly different from the virgin condition in more than one group, the direction of change was always the same. Overall, we identified 32 upregulated miRNAs and 25 downregulated miRNAs that were consistently different from the virgin state. 'Arm switching' occurs for miR-433-3 and miR-7b. Unexpectedly, a third of upregulated miRNAs (relative to virgin) were highly localized within the 12qF1 region of chromosome 12 that includes the Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster implicated in stem cell and neuronal differentiation. Over 1500 genes were targeted by multiple upregulated miRNAs with about 100 genes targeted by five or more miRNAs. Over 1000 genes were targeted by multiple downregulated miRNAs with about 50 genes targeted by five or more miRNAs. Half of the target genes were regulated by up and downregulated miRNAs, indicating homeostatic regulation. Transcriptional regulation was the most enriched pathway for genes linked to up or down regulated miRNAs. Other enriched pathways included protein kinase activity (e.g., MAP kinase), CNS development, axon guidance, neurotrophin signaling, neuron development/differentiation, and neurogenesis. Previously published postpartum LS gene expression changes were enrichment for LS miRNA targets, as expected. Surprisingly, postpartum gene expression changes from other regions were also enriched against LS miRNA targets, suggesting a core group of miRNAs may act across the CNS during reproduction. Together, we directly examine miRNAs and find

  16. MicroRNA expression is altered in lateral septum across reproductive stages.

    PubMed

    Saul, M C; Zhao, C; Driessen, T M; Eisinger, B E; Gammie, S C

    2016-01-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) inhibit RNA targets and may contribute to postpartum central nervous system (CNS) gene expression changes, although this has never been tested. In the present study, we directly evaluated miRNA levels using RNA sequencing during reproduction in female mice in the lateral septum (LS). We found the reliable and robust changes of miRNAs away from the virgin stage at the three other stages, namely pregnant, day 1 postpartum, and day 8 postpartum. For a given miRNA that was significantly different from the virgin condition in more than one group, the direction of change was always the same. Overall, we identified 32 upregulated miRNAs and 25 downregulated miRNAs that were consistently different from the virgin state. 'Arm switching' occurs for miR-433-3 and miR-7b. Unexpectedly, a third of upregulated miRNAs (relative to virgin) were highly localized within the 12qF1 region of chromosome 12 that includes the Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster implicated in stem cell and neuronal differentiation. Over 1500 genes were targeted by multiple upregulated miRNAs with about 100 genes targeted by five or more miRNAs. Over 1000 genes were targeted by multiple downregulated miRNAs with about 50 genes targeted by five or more miRNAs. Half of the target genes were regulated by up and downregulated miRNAs, indicating homeostatic regulation. Transcriptional regulation was the most enriched pathway for genes linked to up or down regulated miRNAs. Other enriched pathways included protein kinase activity (e.g., MAP kinase), CNS development, axon guidance, neurotrophin signaling, neuron development/differentiation, and neurogenesis. Previously published postpartum LS gene expression changes were enrichment for LS miRNA targets, as expected. Surprisingly, postpartum gene expression changes from other regions were also enriched against LS miRNA targets, suggesting a core group of miRNAs may act across the CNS during reproduction. Together, we directly examine miRNAs and find

  17. Comparative cephalopod shell strength and the role of septum morphology on stress distribution.

    PubMed

    Lemanis, Robert; Zachow, Stefan; Hoffmann, René

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of complexly folded septa in ammonoids has long been a controversial topic. Explanations of the function of these folded septa can be divided into physiological and mechanical hypotheses with the mechanical functions tending to find widespread support. The complexity of the cephalopod shell has made it difficult to directly test the mechanical properties of these structures without oversimplification of the septal morphology or extraction of a small sub-domain. However, the power of modern finite element analysis now permits direct testing of mechanical hypothesis on complete, empirical models of the shells taken from computed tomographic data. Here we compare, for the first time using empirical models, the capability of the shells of extant Nautilus pompilius, Spirula spirula, and the extinct ammonite Cadoceras sp. to withstand hydrostatic pressure and point loads. Results show hydrostatic pressure imparts highest stress on the final septum with the rest of the shell showing minimal compression. S. spirula shows the lowest stress under hydrostatic pressure while N. pompilius shows the highest stress. Cadoceras sp. shows the development of high stress along the attachment of the septal saddles with the shell wall. Stress due to point loads decreases when the point force is directed along the suture as opposed to the unsupported chamber wall. Cadoceras sp. shows the greatest decrease in stress between the point loads compared to all other models. Greater amplitude of septal flutes corresponds with greater stress due to hydrostatic pressure; however, greater amplitude decreases the stress magnitude of point loads directed along the suture. In our models, sutural complexity does not predict greater resistance to hydrostatic pressure but it does seem to increase resistance to point loads, such as would be from predators. This result permits discussion of palaeoecological reconstructions on the basis of septal morphology. We further suggest that the ratio

  18. Comparative cephalopod shell strength and the role of septum morphology on stress distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zachow, Stefan; Hoffmann, René

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of complexly folded septa in ammonoids has long been a controversial topic. Explanations of the function of these folded septa can be divided into physiological and mechanical hypotheses with the mechanical functions tending to find widespread support. The complexity of the cephalopod shell has made it difficult to directly test the mechanical properties of these structures without oversimplification of the septal morphology or extraction of a small sub-domain. However, the power of modern finite element analysis now permits direct testing of mechanical hypothesis on complete, empirical models of the shells taken from computed tomographic data. Here we compare, for the first time using empirical models, the capability of the shells of extant Nautilus pompilius, Spirula spirula, and the extinct ammonite Cadoceras sp. to withstand hydrostatic pressure and point loads. Results show hydrostatic pressure imparts highest stress on the final septum with the rest of the shell showing minimal compression. S. spirula shows the lowest stress under hydrostatic pressure while N. pompilius shows the highest stress. Cadoceras sp. shows the development of high stress along the attachment of the septal saddles with the shell wall. Stress due to point loads decreases when the point force is directed along the suture as opposed to the unsupported chamber wall. Cadoceras sp. shows the greatest decrease in stress between the point loads compared to all other models. Greater amplitude of septal flutes corresponds with greater stress due to hydrostatic pressure; however, greater amplitude decreases the stress magnitude of point loads directed along the suture. In our models, sutural complexity does not predict greater resistance to hydrostatic pressure but it does seem to increase resistance to point loads, such as would be from predators. This result permits discussion of palaeoecological reconstructions on the basis of septal morphology. We further suggest that the ratio

  19. Comparative cephalopod shell strength and the role of septum morphology on stress distribution.

    PubMed

    Lemanis, Robert; Zachow, Stefan; Hoffmann, René

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of complexly folded septa in ammonoids has long been a controversial topic. Explanations of the function of these folded septa can be divided into physiological and mechanical hypotheses with the mechanical functions tending to find widespread support. The complexity of the cephalopod shell has made it difficult to directly test the mechanical properties of these structures without oversimplification of the septal morphology or extraction of a small sub-domain. However, the power of modern finite element analysis now permits direct testing of mechanical hypothesis on complete, empirical models of the shells taken from computed tomographic data. Here we compare, for the first time using empirical models, the capability of the shells of extant Nautilus pompilius, Spirula spirula, and the extinct ammonite Cadoceras sp. to withstand hydrostatic pressure and point loads. Results show hydrostatic pressure imparts highest stress on the final septum with the rest of the shell showing minimal compression. S. spirula shows the lowest stress under hydrostatic pressure while N. pompilius shows the highest stress. Cadoceras sp. shows the development of high stress along the attachment of the septal saddles with the shell wall. Stress due to point loads decreases when the point force is directed along the suture as opposed to the unsupported chamber wall. Cadoceras sp. shows the greatest decrease in stress between the point loads compared to all other models. Greater amplitude of septal flutes corresponds with greater stress due to hydrostatic pressure; however, greater amplitude decreases the stress magnitude of point loads directed along the suture. In our models, sutural complexity does not predict greater resistance to hydrostatic pressure but it does seem to increase resistance to point loads, such as would be from predators. This result permits discussion of palaeoecological reconstructions on the basis of septal morphology. We further suggest that the ratio

  20. Comparative cephalopod shell strength and the role of septum morphology on stress distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zachow, Stefan; Hoffmann, René

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of complexly folded septa in ammonoids has long been a controversial topic. Explanations of the function of these folded septa can be divided into physiological and mechanical hypotheses with the mechanical functions tending to find widespread support. The complexity of the cephalopod shell has made it difficult to directly test the mechanical properties of these structures without oversimplification of the septal morphology or extraction of a small sub-domain. However, the power of modern finite element analysis now permits direct testing of mechanical hypothesis on complete, empirical models of the shells taken from computed tomographic data. Here we compare, for the first time using empirical models, the capability of the shells of extant Nautilus pompilius, Spirula spirula, and the extinct ammonite Cadoceras sp. to withstand hydrostatic pressure and point loads. Results show hydrostatic pressure imparts highest stress on the final septum with the rest of the shell showing minimal compression. S. spirula shows the lowest stress under hydrostatic pressure while N. pompilius shows the highest stress. Cadoceras sp. shows the development of high stress along the attachment of the septal saddles with the shell wall. Stress due to point loads decreases when the point force is directed along the suture as opposed to the unsupported chamber wall. Cadoceras sp. shows the greatest decrease in stress between the point loads compared to all other models. Greater amplitude of septal flutes corresponds with greater stress due to hydrostatic pressure; however, greater amplitude decreases the stress magnitude of point loads directed along the suture. In our models, sutural complexity does not predict greater resistance to hydrostatic pressure but it does seem to increase resistance to point loads, such as would be from predators. This result permits discussion of palaeoecological reconstructions on the basis of septal morphology. We further suggest that the ratio

  1. Roles of the novel coiled-coil protein Rng10 in septum formation during fission yeast cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yajun; Lee, I-Ju; Sun, Mingzhai; Lower, Casey A.; Runge, Kurt W.; Ma, Jianjie; Wu, Jian-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Rho GAPs are important regulators of Rho GTPases, which are involved in various steps of cytokinesis and other processes. However, regulation of Rho-GAP cellular localization and function is not fully understood. Here we report the characterization of a novel coiled-coil protein Rng10 and its relationship with the Rho-GAP Rga7 in fission yeast. Both rng10Δ and rga7Δ result in defective septum and cell lysis during cytokinesis. Rng10 and Rga7 colocalize on the plasma membrane at the cell tips during interphase and at the division site during cell division. Rng10 physically interacts with Rga7 in affinity purification and coimmunoprecipitation. Of interest, Rga7 localization is nearly abolished without Rng10. Moreover, Rng10 and Rga7 work together to regulate the accumulation and dynamics of glucan synthases for successful septum formation in cytokinesis. Our results show that cellular localization and function of the Rho-GAP Rga7 are regulated by a novel protein, Rng10, during cytokinesis in fission yeast. PMID:27385337

  2. In vitro study on the disinfectability of two split-septum needle-free connection devices using different disinfection procedures

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Steffen; Exner, Martin; Simon, Arne

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the external disinfection of two needle-free connection devices (NFC) using Octeniderm® (spraying and wiping technique) vs. Descoderm® pads (wiping technique). The split-septum membrane of the NFC was contaminated with >105 CFU K. pneumoniae or S. epidermidis. The efficacy of the disinfection at 30 sec. exposure time was controlled by taking a swab sample and by flushing the NFC with sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Disinfection with octenidine dihydrochloride 0.1 g, 1-Propanol 30.0 g, and 2-Propanol 45.0 g in 100 g solution was highly effective (CFU reduction ≥4 log) against both microorganisms, whereas the use of 63.1 g 2-Propanol in 100 ml solution led to residual contamination with S. epidermidis. Our investigation underlines that (i) in clinical practice disinfection of NFCs before use is mandatory, and that (ii) details of disinfection technique are of utmost importance regarding their efficacy. Our investigation revealed no significant differences between both split-septum NFC types. Clinical studies are needed to confirm a possible superiority of disinfectants with long-lasting residual antimicrobial activity. PMID:26693394

  3. Contributions of turgor pressure, the contractile ring, and septum assembly to forces in cytokinesis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Stephen A; Minc, Nicolas; Boudaoud, Arezki; Chang, Fred

    2012-09-11

    A paradigm of cytokinesis in animal cells is that the actomyosin contractile ring provides the primary force to divide the cell. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cytokinesis also involves a conserved cytokinetic ring, which has been generally assumed to provide the force for cleavage (see also [5]). However, in contrast to animal cells, cytokinesis in yeast cells also requires the assembly of a cell wall septum, which grows centripetally inward as the ring closes. Fission yeast, like other walled cells, also possess high (MPa) turgor pressure. Here, we show that turgor pressure is an important factor in the mechanics of cytokinesis. Decreasing effective turgor pressure leads to an increase in cleavage rate, suggesting that the inward force generated by the division apparatus opposes turgor pressure. The contractile ring, which is predicted to provide only a tiny fraction of the mechanical stress required to overcome turgor, is largely dispensable for ingression; once septation has started, cleavage can continue in the absence of the contractile ring. Scaling arguments and modeling suggest that the large forces for cytokinesis are not produced by the contractile ring but are driven by the assembly of cell wall polymers in the growing septum.

  4. Nail-patella-syndrome in a young patient followed up over 10 years: relevance of the sagittal trochlear septum for patellofemoral pathology

    PubMed Central

    Konrads, Christian; Reppenhagen, Stephan; Plumhoff, Piet; Rudert, Maximilian; Steinert, Andre; Barthel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nail-patella-syndrome (NPS) is a rare autosomal-dominant inherited disease with pathologies of nails, skeleton, kidneys, and eyes. Linkage to a mutated gene was found. It codes for the transcription-factor LMX1B. In most cases knees are symptomatic. Patients have hypoplastic patellae, which are laterally subluxated. In those individuals a sagittal trochlear fibrous septum was found, dividing the anterior knee-joint-space. In the literature the etiology and clinical significance of this anatomic abnormality is unclear. Based on clinical and intraoperative findings we developed a theory regarding knee pathology in nail-patella-syndrome. Successful treatment via early resection of the septum with sustained good outcome is presented. Methods: In a symptomatic six-year-old boy with nail-patella-syndrome we resected the fibrous sagittal septum adherent to the trochlea femoris and we balanced the patella via lateral release and medial plication in both knee joints. We analyzed the clinical outcome of this procedure prospectively over 10 years. Results: Postoperatively the hypoplastic patellae stayed centered and stable during further skeletal development. The patient was still pain free with normal range of motion of both operated knee joints after 10 years of follow-up. Discussion: In patients with nail-patella-syndrome and a subluxated or dislocated patella we recommend diagnostics with magnetic-resonance-imaging and early surgical treatment via resection of the trochlear septum and soft-tissue-balancing of the patella. When the septum displaces the patella and prevents physiological articulation of the patella with the trochlea femoris, early septum resection is likely to be important for a good functional outcome and proper development of the patellofemoral joint during growth. PMID:27247258

  5. Midline Brain Abnormalities Across Psychotic and Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Landin-Romero, Ramón; Amann, Benedikt L; Sarró, Salvador; Guerrero-Pedraza, Amalia; Vicens, Victor; Rodriguez-Cano, Elena; Vieta, Eduard; Salvador, Raymond; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Radua, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are known to have increased prevalence of abnormalities in midline brain structures, such as a failure of the septum pellucidum to fuse (cavum septum pellucidum) and the absence of the adhesio interthalamica. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these abnormalities across a large multidiagnostic sample. Presence of cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica was assessed in 639 patients with chronic schizophrenia, delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or a first episode of psychosis, mania or unipolar depression. This was compared with 223 healthy controls using logistic-regression-derived odds ratios (OR). Patients with psychotic or mood disorders showed an increased prevalence of both abnormalities (OR of cavum septum pellucidum = 2.1, OR of absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 2.6, OR of both cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 3.8, all P < .001). This increased prevalence was separately observed in nearly all disorders as well as after controlling for potential confounding factors. This study supports a general increased prevalence of midline brain abnormalities across mood and psychotic disorders. This nonspecificity may suggest that these disorders share a common neurodevelopmental etiology.

  6. [Personal experiences with extended frontolateral laryngectomy and simultaneous reconstruction using a cartilage/mucous membrane transplant from the nasal septum].

    PubMed

    Szmeja, Z; Szyfter, W; Wójtowicz, J; Kruk-Zagajewska, A

    1994-04-01

    From 1979 to 1992, 219 extended frontolateral laryngectomies were performed in Poznań with simultaneous reconstruction of the larynx using a mucochondral nasal septum flap. During following examinations local recurrences were observed in 7 cases and metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in 3 cases. Complete healing of the flap was seen in 172 patients. In these cases the laryngeal lumen was found to be wide and the transplanted mucosa was normal. In 14 patients there appeared to be partial rotation of the flap, narrowing the reconstructed lumen. Among the causes of failure were the use of a too flexible, thin septal cartilage and wound infection. Detailed acoustic recordings of postoperative voices are presented as examples of successful surgery. PMID:8021157

  7. A case report of aphallia with urorectal septum malformation sequence in a newborn: a very rarely seen condition

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Ravinder; Shastri, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Aphallia (absence of penis) is an extremely rare abnormality which has rarely been described in medical literature and can be part of the urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSMS). URSMS has hardly been reported in medical literature and includes the absence of perineal and anal openings in association with ambiguous genitalia and urogenital, colonic, and lumbosacral anomalies. This case report tells the importance of detailed examination of infants that are diagnosed with aphallia. We report a case of a newborn who was diagnosed as aphallia with the URSMS syndrome after birth. The neonate had an endocardial cushion defect (atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect) and bilateral agenesis of the kidney. The neonate succumbed to death secondary to hypoplastic lung leading to respiratory failure. PMID:26673776

  8. Infusions of muscimol into the lateral septum do not reduce rats' defensive behaviors toward a cat odor stimulus.

    PubMed

    Chee, San-San A; Patel, Ronak; Menard, Janet L

    2015-01-01

    The lateral septum (LS) is implicated in behavioral defense. We tested whether bilateral infusions of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the LS suppress rats' defensive responses to cat odor. Rats received intra-LS infusions of either saline or muscimol (40 ng/rat) and were exposed to either a piece of a cat collar that had been previously worn by a cat or to a control (cat odor free) collar. Rats exposed to the cat odor collar displayed more head-out postures, while intra-LS application of muscimol reduced the number of head-out postures. However, this reduction was also present in rats exposed to a control (cat odor free) collar. This latter finding suggests that despite its involvement in other defensive behaviors (e.g., open arm avoidance in the elevated plus maze), the LS does not selectively regulate rats' receptor defensive responding to the olfactory cues present in our cat odor stimulus.

  9. Cholinergic medial septum neurons do not degenerate in aged 129/Sv control or p75(NGFR)-/-mice.

    PubMed

    Ward, N L; Stanford, L E; Brown, R E; Hagg, T

    2000-01-01

    Cholinergic medial septum neurons express TrkA and p75 nerve growth factor receptor (p75(NGFR)) and interactions between TrkA and p75(NGFR) are necessary for high-affinity binding and signaling of nerve growth factor (NGF) through TrkA. In adult p75(NGFR)-deficient (-/-) mice, retrograde transport of NGF and other neurotrophins by these neurons is greatly reduced, however, these neurons maintain their cholinergic phenotype and size. Reduced transport of NGF has been proposed to play a role in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigated whether chronic and long-term absence of p75(NGFR) (and possibly reduced NGF transport and TrkA binding) would affect the cholinergic septohippocampal system during aging in mice. In young (6-8 months), middle aged (12-18 months), and aged (19-23 months) 129/Sv control mice the total number of choline acetyltransferase-positive medial septum neurons and the mean diameter and cross sectional area of the cholinergic cell bodies were similar. The cholinergic hippocampal innervation, as measured by the density of acetylcholinesterase-positive fibers in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was also similar across all ages. These parameters also did not change during aging in p75(NGFR) -/- mice and the number and size of the choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons and the cholinergic innervation density were largely similar as in control mice at all ages. These results suggest that p75(NGFR) does not play a major role in the maintenance of the number or morphology of the cholinergic basal forebrain neurons during aging of these mice. Alternatively, p75(NGFR) -/- mice may have developed compensatory mechanisms in response to the absence of p75(NGFR).

  10. Abnormal Motion of the Interventricular Septum after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Comprehensive Evaluation with MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong Hoon; Chun, Eun Ju; Chang, Huk-Jae; Park, Kay-Hyun; Lim, Cheong; Kim, Shin-Jae; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To define the mechanism associated with abnormal septal motion (ASM) after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) using comprehensive MR imaging techniques. Materials and Methods Eighteen patients (mean age, 58 ± 12 years; 15 males) were studied with comprehensive MR imaging using rest/stress perfusion, rest cine, and delayed enhancement (DE)-MR techniques before and after CABG. Myocardial tagging was also performed following CABG. Septal wall motion was compared in the ASM and non-ASM groups. Preoperative and postoperative results with regard to septal wall motion in the ASM group were also compared. We then analyzed circumferential strain after CABG in both the septal and lateral walls in the ASM group. Results All patients had normal septal wall motion and perfusion without evidence of non-viable myocardium prior to surgery. Postoperatively, ASM at rest and/or stress state was documented in 10 patients (56%). However, all of these had normal rest/stress perfusion and DE findings at the septum. Septal wall motion after CABG in the ASM group was significantly lower than that in the non-ASM group (2.1±5.3 mm vs. 14.9±4.7 mm in the non-ASM group; p < 0.001). In the ASM group, the degree of septal wall motion showed a significant decrease after CABG (preoperative vs. postoperative = 15.8±4.5 mm vs. 2.1±5.3 mm; p = 0.007). In the ASM group after CABG, circumferential shortening of the septum was even larger than that of the lateral wall (-20.89±5.41 vs. -15.41±3.7, p < 0.05) Conclusion Abnormal septal motion might not be caused by ischemic insult. We suggest that ASM might occur due to an increase in anterior cardiac mobility after incision of the pericardium. PMID:21076588

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteins Involved in Mycolic Acid Synthesis and Transport Localize Dynamically to the Old Growing Pole and Septum

    PubMed Central

    Cantaloube, Sylvain; Bonne, Mélanie; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Laval, Françoise; Daffé, Mamadou; Zerbib, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism that controls space-time coordination of elongation and division of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is critical for fighting the tubercle bacillus. Most of the numerous enzymes involved in the synthesis of Mycolic acid - Arabinogalactan-Peptidoglycan complex (MAPc) in the cell wall are essential in vivo. Using a dynamic approach, we localized Mtb enzymes belonging to the fatty acid synthase-II (FAS-II) complexes and involved in mycolic acid (MA) biosynthesis in a mycobacterial model of Mtb: M. smegmatis. Results also showed that the MA transporter MmpL3 was present in the mycobacterial envelope and was specifically and dynamically accumulated at the poles and septa during bacterial growth. This localization was due to its C-terminal domain. Moreover, the FAS-II enzymes were co-localized at the poles and septum with Wag31, the protein responsible for the polar localization of mycobacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The dynamic localization of FAS-II and of the MA transporter with Wag31, at the old-growing poles and at the septum suggests that the main components of the mycomembrane may potentially be synthesized at these precise foci. This finding highlights a major difference between mycobacteria and other rod-shaped bacteria studied to date. Based on the already known polar activities of envelope biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we propose the existence of complex polar machinery devoted to the biogenesis of the entire envelope. As a result, the mycobacterial pole would represent the Achilles' heel of the bacillus at all its growing stages. PMID:24817274

  12. Hysteroscopy- and laparoscopy-based diagnosis and treatment of girls with unbroken hymen with an obstructing uterine septum: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obstructing uterine septum is a rare uterine malformation. Patients with obstructing uterine septum are usually treated with laparouterotomy, causing obvious injury to both the uterus and body of the patients. Therefore, using the natural channel of the vagina is undoubtedly the best way to carry out the surgery. However, obstructing uterine septum usually occurs in puberty in girls without a history of sexual intercourse, thus iatrogenic damage to the hymen during the diagnosis and treatment cannot probably be avoided. However, Chinese people traditionally tend to use hymen intactness as a standard to judge whether an unmarried woman is chaste. Therefore, in China, to protect the hymen from damage during hysteroscopic diagnosis and treatment is of special significance for girls and women with unbroken hymens. None of the previously reported cases were treated with electrosurgical obstructing uterine septum excision based on B-ultrasound-guided hymen-protecting hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Case presentation Case 1 patient was a virgo intacta 13-year-old Chinese girl. She was admitted due to an 8-day post-menstruation lower abdominal pain. With the guidance of B-ultrasound, we observed a 30mm×20mm mixed echogenicity mass in her uterine cavity. Case 2 patient was a virgo intacta 14-year-old Chinese girl. She was admitted to our hospital more than 6 months after secondary dysmenorrhea and 6 days after B-ultrasound-diagnosed uterine malformations. We observed a 30mm×25mm mixed echoic area in her uterine cavity with the guidance of B-ultrasound. Both patients were surgically treated without hymen damage with B-ultrasound-guided combined therapy of hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. A needle electrode with an 8mm diameter was placed into their uterine cavities under hysteroscopy. After obstructing uterine septum removal, their uterine cavities showed normal morphology. To protect their hymens, misoprostol was placed into their rectums to soften their cervices

  13. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive, fast-spiking neurons in the medial septum/diagonal band complex of the rat: intracellular recordings in vitro.

    PubMed

    Morris, N P; Harris, S J; Henderson, Z

    1999-01-01

    The medial septum/diagonal band complex is composed predominantly of cholinergic and GABAergic neurons, and it projects to the hippocampal formation. A proportion of the GABAergic neurons contain parvalbumin, a calcium-binding protein that has previously been localized in fast-spiking, non-accommodating GABAergic neurons in the cerebral cortex and neostriatum. The aim of the present study was to determine whether parvalbumin is localized preferentially in a similar electrophysiological class of neuron in the medial septum/diagonal band complex. The study was carried out using in vitro intracellular recording, intracellular biocytin filling and parvalbumin immunocytochemistry. Three main classes of neurons were identified according to standard criteria: burst-firing, slow-firing and fast-firing neuronal populations. The fast-firing neurons were subdivided into two subpopulations based on whether or not they displayed accommodation. The fast-spiking, non-accommodating cells were furthermore found to be spontaneously active at resting potentials, and to possess action potentials of significantly (P < 0.05) shorter duration (half width: 0.61 +/- 0.12 ms) than those of the regular-spiking, accommodating neurons (1.0 +/- 0.34 ms). Of the neurons that were successfully filled with biocytin and processed for parvalbumin immunoreactivity, 82% of the fast-spiking, non-accommodating cells possessed parvalbumin immunoreactivity, while none of the regular-spiking, accommodating neurons were found to be immunoreactive for parvalbumin. The slow-firing neurons, shown previously to be cholinergic, did not stain for parvalbumin immunoreactivity, in agreement with studies showing parvalbumin to be localized solely in GABAergic neurons in the medial septum/diagonal band complex. In conclusion, these findings suggest the presence of a previously uncharacterized population of neurons in the medial septum/diagonal band complex that generate high-frequency, non-adaptive discharge. This

  14. Intervention in the critically ill neonate and infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and intact atrial septum.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, J P

    2001-06-01

    Neonates that present with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and intact atrial septum (IAS) pose a major management problem for the pediatric cardiac team. They are critically ill newborns with profound hypoxemia and acidosis that require immediate attention. Controversy exists as to the most appropriate management strategy. In one series where a primary and emergent surgical-staged reconstructive procedure was performed, the in-house hospital mortality was 65% and the overall survival was 17%. With equal abysmal results, transcatheter creation of an atrial septal defect (ASD) using conventional balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) with or without the combination of blade atrial septotomy had an unacceptable high risk of cardiac perforation leading to tamponade and death. However, using more modern transcatheter techniques of transseptal perforation of the atrial septum followed by progressive and serial balloon septoplasty, creating an ASD, significantly reduced the risk of the procedure. In one series, 16 consecutive neonates underwent this type of interventional procedure without procedural mortality. The management strategy of creating an ASD in the catheterization lab followed by Stage I reconstructive surgical repair 3-5 days after the initial catheterization procedure improved the in-house survival to 57%. Unfortunately, there continues to be significant attrition of these patients undergoing Stage II and III reconstructive repair, which supports cardiac transplantation as an alternative strategy. There have been echocardiographic and histopathologic studies of these neonates, and an important echo classification of left atrial morphology has been described with perhaps some prognostic implication. In addition, autopsy specimens have demonstrated significant "arterialization" of the pulmonary venous architecture that likely dooms the patient with single ventricle physiology to a poor outcome. Future improvement in transcatheter techniques and materials offer

  15. Differences in Akt signaling and metabolism gene expression in the right heart, intraventricular septum and left heart of rodents.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiyang; Shen, Shutong; Zhang, Min; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xinli; Wang, Nan; Cao, Yunshan

    2015-01-01

    The right heart is functionally and structurally different from the left heart; however, potential differences in Akt signaling and the expression of metabolic genes between the right heart and left heart in different rodents are still unknown. Using Western blotting and real time quantification polymerase chain reaction, we measured the levels of total Akt, phosphorylated Akt and its downstream targets as well as metabolism genes including glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 4. We found that phosphorylated Akt and proline-rich Akt substrate 40 levels were significantly increased in the RV compared with the LV in rats but only had an increased trend in mice. Correspondingly, GLUT4 was significantly increased in the RV compared with the LV both in mice and rats. PGC-1α was significantly increased in the RV compared with the LV in mice but only had an increased trend in rats. Moreover, Akt signaling activity and metabolism genes' expression in the IVS were similar to the RV in mice but to the LV in rats. There were some differences in the activity of Akt signaling and in the levels of metabolism genes among the right ventricle, interventricular septum and left ventricle. Also, the diversity of activity of Akt and metabolism genes between the right ventricle and left ventricle are different between rats and mice. In conclusion, the activity of Akt signaling and the levels of metabolism genes are different among the right ventricle, interventricular septum and left ventricle providing some potential clues for exploring the roles of Akt signaling and cardiac metabolisms in different parts of the heart. Additionally, the differences in Akt activity and metabolism genes' levels between the

  16. Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in a Neonate With Transposition of Great Arteries and Intact Ventricular Septum: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohsen; Kirshbom, Paul M; Kopf, Gary S; Steele, Margaret M; Sullivan, Jill M

    2015-07-01

    Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with intact ventricular septum (IVS) has very favorable short- and long-term surgical outcome. Although rare, when associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH), it exhibits significant mortality risk and management challenges. We report the case of a neonate with TGA with IVS and PPH who underwent successful early surgical repair with emphasis on clinical management and review of the literature.

  17. Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity. PMID:24665426

  18. Role of Hand1/eHAND in the dorso-ventral patterning and interventricular septum formation in the embryonic heart.

    PubMed

    Togi, Kiyonori; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Yamauchi, Ryoko; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Kita, Toru; Tanaka, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    Molecular mechanisms for the dorso-ventral patterning and interventricular septum formation in the embryonic heart are unknown. To investigate a role of Hand1/eHAND in cardiac chamber formation, we generated Hand1/eHAND knock-in mice where Hand1/eHAND cDNA was placed under the control of the MLC2V promoter. In Hand1/eHAND knock-in mice, the outer curvature of the right and left ventricles expanded more markedly. Moreover, there was no interventricular groove or septum formation, although molecularly, Hand1/eHAND knock-in hearts had two ventricles. However, the morphology of the inner curvature of the ventricles, the atrioventricular canal, and the outflow tract was not affected by Hand1/eHAND expression. Furthermore, expression of Hand1/eHAND in the whole ventricles altered the expression patterns of Chisel, ANF, and Hand2/dHAND but did not affect Tbx5 expression. In contrast, the interventricular septum formed normally in transgenic embryos overexpressing Hand1/eHAND in the right ventricle but not in the boundary region. These results suggested that Hand1/eHAND is involved in expansion of the ventricular walls and that absence of Hand1/eHAND expression in the boundary region between the right and left ventricles may be critical in the proper formation of the interventricular groove and septum. Furthermore, Hand1/eHAND is not a master regulatory gene that specifies the left ventricle myocyte lineage but may control the dorso-ventral patterning in concert with additional genes.

  19. Garvicin A, a Novel Class IId Bacteriocin from Lactococcus garvieae That Inhibits Septum Formation in L. garvieae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Martínez, Beatriz; Ruiz-Barba, José Luis; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F.; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Gibello, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus garvieae 21881, isolated in a human clinical case, produces a novel class IId bacteriocin, garvicin A (GarA), which is specifically active against other L. garvieae strains, including fish- and bovine-pathogenic isolates. Purification from active supernatants, sequence analyses, and plasmid-curing experiments identified pGL5, one of the five plasmids found in L. garvieae [M. Aguado-Urda et al., PLoS One 7(6):e40119, 2012], as the coding plasmid for the structural gene of GarA (lgnA), its putative immunity protein (lgnI), and the ABC transporter and its accessory protein (lgnC and lgnD). Interestingly, pGL5-cured strains were still resistant to GarA. Other putative bacteriocins encoded by the remaining plasmids were not detected during purification, pointing to GarA as the main inhibitor secreted by L. garvieae 21881. Mode-of-action studies revealed a potent bactericidal activity of GarA. Moreover, transmission microscopy showed that GarA seems to act by inhibiting septum formation in L. garvieae cells. This potent and species-specific inhibition by GarA holds promise for applications in the prevention or treatment of infections caused by pathogenic strains of L. garvieae in both veterinary and clinical settings. PMID:23666326

  20. Improvements in Memory after Medial Septum Stimulation Are Associated with Changes in Hippocampal Cholinergic Activity and Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Sung Eun; Chang, Won Seok; Kim, Sung June; Chang, Jin Woo

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been found to have therapeutic effects in patients with dementia, but DBS mechanisms remain elusive. To provide evidence for the effectiveness of DBS as a treatment for dementia, we performed DBS in a rat model of dementia with intracerebroventricular administration of 192 IgG-saporins. We utilized four groups of rats, group 1, unlesioned control; group 2, cholinergic lesion; group 3, cholinergic lesion plus medial septum (MS) electrode implantation (sham stimulation); group 4, cholinergic lesions plus MS electrode implantation and stimulation. During the probe test in the water maze, performance of the lesion group decreased for measures of time spent and the number of swim crossings over the previous platform location. Interestingly, the stimulation group showed an equivalent performance to the normal group on all measures. And these are partially reversed by the electrode implantation. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus was decreased in lesion and implantation groups, whereas activity in the stimulation group was not different from the normal group. Hippocampal neurogenesis was increased in the stimulation group. Our results revealed that DBS of MS restores spatial memory after damage to cholinergic neurons. This effect is associated with an increase in hippocampal cholinergic activity and neurogenesis. PMID:25101288

  1. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and right ventricular dependent coronary circulation through the "vessels of Wearn".

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Atif Ali; Snodgrass, Brett Thomas; Kaine, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We present an autopsy case of a male baby born at 35 weeks of gestation with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS), who had coronary blood flow that was dependent on outflow from the right ventricle through the vessels described by Wearn. At 7 weeks of age, he underwent single ventricle palliation consisting of ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus and placement of a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. The patient experienced a perioperative myocardial infarction, requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Progressive hemodynamic decline resulted in death 8 days after surgery. Autopsy revealed acute and remote infarctions in both ventricles and fibromuscular dysplasia of the subepicardial and intramural coronary arteries. In 1926, Grant first reported the association between PAIVS and secondary dysplasia of the heart vasculature and hypothesized that the high pressure resulted in dilation of the myocardial sinusoids. Confusion secondary to the unmeritorious dismissal of the myocardial sinusoids has obscured the pathogenesis of PAIVS and led to several publications suggesting second heart field abnormalities as a disease model for PAIVS. We discuss the pathogenesis of PAIVS, the ventriculocoronary arterial connections and the sinusoidal relationship to the vessels described by Wearn, and we attempt to correct the solecism plaguing the nomenclature of myocardial vasculature. PMID:23332812

  2. A randomized comparison of fluoroscopic techniques for implanting pacemaker lead on the right ventricular outflow tract septum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongli; Wei, Huiqiang; Tang, Jiaojiao; Liu, Lie; Wu, Shulin; Lin, Chunying; Zhang, Qianhuan; Liang, Yuanhong; Chen, Silin

    2016-05-01

    Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) septal pacing is commonly performed under the standard fluoroscopic positions during procedure. The aim of the prospective, randomized study was to evaluate the accuracy of the combination of standard fluoroscopic and left lateral (LL) fluoroscopic views for determination of RVOT septal position compared with standard fluoroscopic views alone. We prospectively enrolled patients who had indications for implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups based on intraoperative fluoroscopic views as follows: LL group (three standard fluoroscopic views + LL fluoroscopic view) or standard group (three standard fluoroscopic views). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) determination of pacing sites was applied in all patients 3 days after pacemaker implantation. The implantation success rate of RVOT septal pacing was compared between groups. A total of 143 patients (59 males, mean age 57.6 ± 16.3 years) with symptomatic bradyarrhythmia were studied, of whom, 72 patients were randomized to LL group and 71 to standard group. TTE determination of pacing sites was compared with two groups. In the LL group, 60 patients (83 %) were achieved in RVOT septal position. In the standard group, however, the position of RVOT septum was only observed in 48 patients (68 %). The success rate of RVOT septal position in LL group was significantly higher than standard group (p = 0.029). Comparing to traditional views, combining LL view in the procedure will approve the accuracy of RVOT septal pacing site.

  3. Allopregnanolone microinjected into the lateral septum or dorsal hippocampus reduces immobility in the forced swim test: participation of the GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Contreras, Carlos M; García-Ríos, Rosa Isela

    2009-10-01

    Allopregnanolone is a 5α-reduced metabolite of progesterone with actions on γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors that produce antidepressant-like effects. However, little is known about the target brain regions that mediate its antidepressant-like effects. In this study, allopregnanolone (2.0 μg/0.3 μl/rat) or its vehicle (35% cyclodextrin solution) were microinjected into the lateral septum, septofimbrial, or dorsal hippocampus of male Wistar rats that had previously received intraperitoneal injections of either saline or the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1.0 mg/kg), and its effects were evaluated in the open field and forced swim tests. Allopregnanolone microinjected into the lateral septum or dorsal hippocampus, but not septofimbrial nucleus, induced a longer latency to the first immobility and a shorter total immobility time in the forced swim test compared with vehicle. Bicuculline pretreatment reversed the effect of allopregnanolone. None of the treatments produced significant changes in crossings in the open field test. In conclusion, allopregnanolone produces an antidepressant-like effect in rats submitted to the forced swim test through actions on GABAA receptors located in the lateral septum and dorsal hippocampus, which is consistent with the antistress effect of GABAA agonists in these particular brain structures.

  4. Our experience with transcanalicular laser-assisted endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (TCLADCR) in patients of chronic dacryocystitis with deviated nasal septum.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruchi; Nagpal, Smriti; Kumar, Sushil; Kamal, Saurabh; Dangda, Sonal; Bodh, Sonam Angmo

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to study the operative difficulties and success rate of transcanalicular laser-assisted endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy in patients of chronic dacryocystitis with deviated nasal septum (DNS). A prospective interventional clinical study of 36 consecutive patients suffering from chronic dacryocystitis with nasolacrimal duct obstruction with DNS undergoing primary TCLADCR from March to June 2011 was carried out. Diode laser was used to create a 16-mm(2) ostium which was enlarged to 64 mm(2) using Blakesley's forceps. Success was defined as anatomical patency and absence of symptoms at 12 months of follow-up. Out of the 36 patients, 25 were females with ages 20-72 years, and 19 were left sided. There were 12 high, 12 mid and 12 basal DNS towards the side of surgery, mild to moderate in severity. Intraoperatively there was difficulty in visualising the aiming beam in the nose, tedious manipulation of endoscope and excessive bleeding in 3 patients. Increased bleeding and failures were significantly higher in high DNS (Fisher exact test-2 tailed: 0.0045). The procedure was successful in 94.4 % cases with average ostium size of 21.94 mm(2) at 12 months and no statistically significant difference in success rates between mild and moderate DNS (Fisher exact test-2 tailed: 1.000). Also there was no difference in the complication rate between mild and moderate DNS (Fisher exact test-2 tailed: 0.0841). TCLADCR is an effective procedure in patients with mild to moderate mid and basal DNS and obviates the need for multiple procedures and a cutaneous scar.

  5. Functional cooperation between the hippocampal subregions and the medial septum in unreinforced and reinforced spatial memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kana; Okaichi, Hiroshige

    2010-06-19

    Anatomical connections between the medial septum (MS) and hippocampus (Hipp) via the fimbria-fornix suggest that functional cooperation between these structures may be important for the acquisition and use of spatial reference memories. The present study examined the extent to which this was true for both an unreinforced learning task (object exploration task) and a reinforced learning task (Morris water maze task). In Experiment 1, we compared the performance of MS/Hipp contralateral- and MS/Hipp ipsilateral-lesioned rats. MS/Hipp contralateral-lesioned rats exhibited deficient performance in both the object exploration and Morris water maze tasks. In Experiment 2, we examined the task performance of MS/CA1 contralateral-, MS/CA1 ipsilateral-, MS/CA3 contralateral- and MS/CA3 ipsilateral-lesioned rats. Contralateral MS/CA3 and MS/CA1 lesions were respectively associated with deficient performance at the spatial recognition test and object recognition test in the object exploration task. None of the lesioned rats performed deficiently in the Morris water maze task. These results indicate the importance of spatial reference memory of a functional cooperation between the MS and Hipp as a whole, irrespective of reward contingency. In contrast, functional cooperation between the MS and each of CA1 and CA3 played an important role in the performance of the unreinforced voluntary task, but not in the reinforced task. Further, the functional cooperation of both MS/CA3 and MA/CA1 were important in the spatial reference memory with the unreinforced task. PMID:20144657

  6. Functional cooperation between the hippocampal subregions and the medial septum in unreinforced and reinforced spatial memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kana; Okaichi, Hiroshige

    2010-06-19

    Anatomical connections between the medial septum (MS) and hippocampus (Hipp) via the fimbria-fornix suggest that functional cooperation between these structures may be important for the acquisition and use of spatial reference memories. The present study examined the extent to which this was true for both an unreinforced learning task (object exploration task) and a reinforced learning task (Morris water maze task). In Experiment 1, we compared the performance of MS/Hipp contralateral- and MS/Hipp ipsilateral-lesioned rats. MS/Hipp contralateral-lesioned rats exhibited deficient performance in both the object exploration and Morris water maze tasks. In Experiment 2, we examined the task performance of MS/CA1 contralateral-, MS/CA1 ipsilateral-, MS/CA3 contralateral- and MS/CA3 ipsilateral-lesioned rats. Contralateral MS/CA3 and MS/CA1 lesions were respectively associated with deficient performance at the spatial recognition test and object recognition test in the object exploration task. None of the lesioned rats performed deficiently in the Morris water maze task. These results indicate the importance of spatial reference memory of a functional cooperation between the MS and Hipp as a whole, irrespective of reward contingency. In contrast, functional cooperation between the MS and each of CA1 and CA3 played an important role in the performance of the unreinforced voluntary task, but not in the reinforced task. Further, the functional cooperation of both MS/CA3 and MA/CA1 were important in the spatial reference memory with the unreinforced task.

  7. Significance of Late Gadolinium Enhancement at Right Ventricular Attachment to Ventricular Septum in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond H; Maron, Barry J; Olivotto, Iacopo; Assenza, Gabriele E; Haas, Tammy S; Lesser, John R; Gruner, Christiane; Crean, Andrew M; Rakowski, Harry; Rowin, Ethan; Udelson, James; Lombardi, Massimo; Tomberli, Benedetta; Spirito, Paolo; Formisano, Francesco; Marra, Martina P; Biagini, Elena; Autore, Camillo; Manning, Warren J; Appelbaum, Evan; Roberts, William C; Basso, Cristina; Maron, Martin S

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with extensive late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is a novel marker for increased risk for sudden death (SD) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Small focal areas of LGE confined to the region of right ventricular (RV) insertion to ventricular septum (VS) have emerged as a frequent and highly visible CMR imaging pattern of uncertain significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of LGE confined to the RV insertion area in patients with HC. CMR was performed in 1,293 consecutive patients with HC from 7 HC centers, followed for 3.4 ± 1.7 years. Of 1,293 patients (47 ± 14 years), 134 (10%) had LGE present only in the anterior and/or inferior areas of the RV insertion to VS, occupying 3.7 ± 2.9% of left ventricular myocardium. Neither the presence nor extent of LGE in these isolated areas was a predictor of adverse HC-related risk, including SD (adjusted hazard ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 1.50, p = 0.53; adjusted hazard ratio 1.16/10% increase in LGE, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 4.65, p = 0.83, respectively). Histopathology in 20 HC hearts show the insertion areas of RV attachment to be composed of a greatly expanded extracellular space characterized predominantly by interstitial-type fibrosis and interspersed disorganized myocyte patterns and architecture. In conclusion, LGE confined to the insertion areas of RV to VS was associated with low risk of adverse events (including SD). Gadolinium pooling in this region of the left ventricle does not reflect myocyte death and repair with replacement fibrosis or scarring.

  8. Differential expression of voltage-gated K+ currents in medial septum/diagonal band complex neurons exhibiting distinct firing phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R; Perez-Cordova, Miriam G; Colom, Luis V

    2011-08-01

    The medial septum/diagonal band complex (MSDB) controls hippocampal excitability, rhythms and plastic processes. Medial septal neuronal populations display heterogeneous firing patterns. In addition, some of these populations degenerate during age-related disorders (e.g. cholinergic neurons). Thus, it is particularly important to examine the intrinsic properties of theses neurons in order to create new agents that effectively modulate hippocampal excitability and enhance memory processes. Here, we have examined the properties of voltage-gated, K(+) currents in electrophysiologically-identified neurons. These neurons were taken from young rat brain slices containing the MS/DB complex. Whole-cell, patch recordings of outward currents were obtained from slow firing, fast-spiking, regular-firing and burst-firing neurons. Slow firing neurons showed depolarization-activated K(+) current peaks and densities larger than in other neuronal subtypes. Slow firing total current exhibited an inactivating A-type current component that activates at subthreshold depolarization and was reliably blocked by high concentrations of 4-AP. In addition, slow firing neurons expressed a low-threshold delayed rectifier K(+) current component with slow inactivation and intermediate sensitivity to tetraethylammonium. Fast-spiking neurons exhibited the smaller I(K) and I(A) current densities. Burst and regular firing neurons displayed an intermediate firing phenotype with I(K) and I(A) current densities that were larger than the ones observed in fast-spiking neurons but smaller than the ones observed in slow-firing neurons. In addition, the prevalence of each current differed among electrophysiological groups with slow firing and regular firing neurons expressing mostly I(A) and fast spiking and bursting neurons exhibiting mostly delayer rectifier K(+) currents with only minimal contributions of the I(A). The pharmacological or genetic modulations of these currents constitute an important target

  9. Atrial septum defect closure device in a beating heart, from the perspective of a researcher in artificial organs.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2012-12-01

    Transcatheter closure of atrial septum defect (ASD) with a closure device is increasing, but the history of clinical use of this procedure is still short, and the efficacy and long-term safety remain unproved. The total number of closure devices implanted throughout the world has not been counted accurately. Therefore, the probability of complications occurring after implantation is uncertain. Device-related complications that occur suddenly late after implantation are life-threatening, and quite often necessitate emergency surgical intervention. In Japanese medical journals, authors reporting closure devices have mentioned no complications and problems in their facilities. Detailed studies of device-related complications and device removal have not been reported in Japan. In fact, this literature search found an unexpectedly large number of reports of various adverse events from many overseas countries. When follow-up duration is short and the number of patients is small, the incidence of complications cannot be determined. Rare complications may emerge in a large series with a long observation period. Consequently, the actual number of incidents related to ASD closure devices is possibly several times higher than the number reported. Guidelines for long-term patient management for patients with an implanted closure device are necessary and post-marketing surveillance is appropriate. Development of a national database, a worldwide registration system, and continuous information disclosure will improve the quality of treatment. The devices currently available are not ideal in view of reports of late complications requiring urgent surgery and the need for life-long follow-up. An ideal device should be free from complications during life, and reliability is indispensable.

  10. Large Scale Expression Changes of Genes Related to Neuronal Signaling and Developmental Processes Found in Lateral Septum of Postpartum Outbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Eisinger, Brian E.; Zhao, Changjiu; Driessen, Terri M.; Saul, Michael C.; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated gene expression changes across the CNS are required to produce the mammalian maternal phenotype. Lateral septum (LS) is a brain region critically involved with aspects of maternal care, and we recently examined gene expression of whole septum (LS and medial septum) in selectively bred maternal mice. Here, we expand on the prior study by 1) conducting microarray analysis solely on LS in virgin and postpartum mice, 2) using outbred mice, and 3) evaluating the role of sensory input on gene expression changes. Large scale changes in genes related to neuronal signaling were identified, including four GABAA receptor subunits. Subunits α4 and δ were downregulated in maternal LS, likely reflecting a reduction in the extrasynaptic, neurosteroid-sensitive α4/δ containing receptor subtype. Conversely, subunits ε and θ were increased in maternal LS. Fifteen K+ channel related genes showed altered expression, as did dopamine receptors Drd1a and Drd2 (both downregulated), hypocretin receptor 1 (Hcrtr1), kappa opioid receptor 1 (Oprk1), and transient receptor potential channel 4 (Trpc4). Expression of a large number of genes linked to developmental processes or cell differentiation were also altered in postpartum LS, including chemokine (C-X-C) motif ligand 12 (Cxcl12), fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7), plasma membrane proteolipid (Pllp), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2). Additional genes that are linked to anxiety, such as glutathione reductase (Gsr), exhibited altered expression. Pathway analysis also identified changes in genes related to cyclic nucleotide metabolism, chromatin structure, and the Ras gene family. The sensory presence of pups was found to contribute to the altered expression of a subset of genes across all categories. This study suggests that both large changes in neuronal signaling and the possible terminal differentiation of neuronal and/or glial cells play important roles in producing the maternal state. PMID:23717492

  11. Activation of dopamine D1 receptors in the medial septum improves scopolamine-induced amnesia in the dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Ardjmand, Abolfazl; Ahmadi, Shamseddin; Rezayof, Ameneh

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the influence of intra-medial septum (intra-MS) injections of dopamine D1 receptor agents on amnesia induced by intra-CA1 injections of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, scopolamine. This study used a step-through inhibitory (passive) avoidance task to assess memory in adult male Wistar rats. The results showed that in the animals that received post-training intra-MS injections of saline, intra-CA1 administrations of scopolamine (0.75, 1, and 2 μg/rat) decreased inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory consolidation as evidenced by a decrease in step-through latency on the test day, which was suggestive of drug-induced amnesia. Post-training intra-MS injections of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393 at doses of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.3 μg/rat had no effect, but at dose of 0.5 μg/rat impaired IA memory consolidation. Interestingly, intra-MS injections of SKF38393 (0.15, 0.3 and 0.5 μg/rat) significantly prevented amnesia induced by intra-CA1 injections of scopolamine (1 μg/rat). Intra-MS injections of a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.5 and 0.75 μg/rat) by itself impaired IA memory consolidation, and also at dose of 0.75 μg/rat increased amnesia induced by intra-CA1 administrations of an ineffective dose of scopolamine (0.5 μg/rat). Post-training intra-MS injections of ineffective doses of SCH23390 (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 μg/rat) prevented an effective dose of SKF38393 response to the impaired effect of scopolamine. These results suggest that dopamine D1 receptors in the MS via projection neurons to the hippocampus affect impairment of memory consolidation induced by intra-CA injections of scopolamine.

  12. Distribution and role of Kv3.1b in neurons in the medial septum diagonal band complex.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Z; Lu, C B; Janzsó, G; Matto, N; McKinley, C E; Yanagawa, Y; Halasy, K

    2010-03-31

    The medial septum diagonal band complex (MS/DB) projects via cholinergic and GABAergic pathways to the hippocampus and plays a key role in the hippocampal theta rhythm. In the MS/DB we have previously described a population of fast spiking GABAergic neurons that contain parvalbumin and mediate theta frequency activity in vitro. The Kv3.1 potassium channel is a delayed rectifier channel that plays a major role in fast spiking neurons in the CNS, and has previously been localized in the MS/DB. To determine which cell types in the MS/DB express the Kv3.1b ion channel subunit, transgenic mice in which the expression of GABAergic and glutamate markers are associated with the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP; GAD67-GFP and VGluT2-GFP mice, respectively) were used for immunofluorescence and axonal tract tracing. Electrophysiological studies were also carried out on rat MS/DB slices to examine the role of the Kv3.1 channel in theta frequency oscillations. The results for the MS/DB were as follows: (1) cholinergic cells did not express GFP in either GAD67-GFP or VGluT2-GFP mice, and there was GAD67 immunoreactivity in GFP-positive neurons in GAD67-GFP mice and in a small proportion (6%) of GFP-positive neurons in VGluT2-GFP mice. (2) Kv3.1b immunofluorescence was associated with the somata of GABAergic neurons, especially those that contained parvalbumin, and with a minority of glutamatergic neurons, but not with cholinergic neurons, and with GABAergic axonal terminal-like processes around certain GABAergic neurons. (3) Both Kv3.1b-positive and -negative GABAergic neurons were septo-hippocampal, and there was a minor projection to hippocampus from VGluT2-GFP neurons. (4) Kainate-induced theta oscillations in the MS/DB slice were potentiated rather than inhibited by the Kv3.1 blocker 4-aminopyridine, and this agent on its own produced theta frequency oscillations in MS/DB slices that were reduced by ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptor antagonists and abolished

  13. Neuronal damage using fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence and gliosis in the gerbil septum submitted to various durations of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Jae-Chul; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Dae Hwan; Cho, Geum-Sil; Yan, Bing Chun; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Hui Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2013-10-01

    The extent of neuronal damage/death in some brain regions is highly correlated to duration time of transient ischemia. In the present study, we carried out neuronal degeneration/death and glial changes in the septum 4 days after 5, 10, 15, and 20 min of transient cerebral ischemia using gerbils. To examine neuronal damage, Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a marker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence staining was used. F-J B positive ((+)) cells were detected in the septo-hippocampal nucleus (SHN) of the septum only in the 20 min ischemia-group; the mean number of F-J B(+) neurons was 14.9 ± 2.5/400 μm(2) in a section. Gliosis of astrocytes and microglia was examined using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), respectively. In all the ischemia-groups, GFAP- and Iba-1-immunoreactive astrocytes and microglia, respectively, were increased in number, and apparently tended to be increased in their immunoreactivity. Especially, in the 20 min ischemia-group, the number and immunoreactivity of Iba-immunoreactive microglia was highest and strongest in the ischemic SHN 4 days after ischemia-reperfusion. In brief, our findings showed that neuronal damage/death in the SHN occurred and gliosis was apparently increased in the 20 min ischemia-group at 4 days after ischemia-reperfusion.

  14. Modifications of the falciform process in the eye of beloniformes (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha): evolution of a curtain-like septum in the eye.

    PubMed

    Reckel, Frank; Melzer, Roland R

    2004-04-01

    In order to comparatively analyze curtain-like septa in the eyes of visually orientated "close-to-surface-predators" among atherinomorph teleosts, we examined the eyes of 24 atherinomorph species under a binocular microscope with regard to the falciform process and related structures in the vitreous cavity. Additionally, falciform process samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. All the studied representatives of the Cyprinodontiformes and Atheriniformes, and of one of the beloniform suborder, Adrianichthyioidei, possess a "typical" processus falciformis. In the eyes of the representatives of the other beloniform suborder, Belonoidei, however, pigmented structures that originate in the region of the optic disc and protrude into the vitreous cavity were noted. In the Hemiramphidae (halfbeaks) and Exocoetidae (flying fishes) these pigmented structures have a more cone-like shape, whereas in the Belonidae (needlefishes) and Scomberesocidae (sauries) horizontally oriented heavily pigmented curtain-like septa occur that divide the vitreous cavity dorsoventrally. It is suggested that the "typical" processus falciformis represents a plesiomorphic feature within the Atherinomorpha, whereas the pigmented modifications of the falciform process must be seen as a synapomorphic character state of the Belonoidei. The curtain-like septum of the Belonidae and Scomberesocidae might have evolved from the cone-like structures that are found in the Exocoetoidea. The functional significance of the pigmented structures in the eye is as yet not clear, except for the curtain-like septum found in Belonidae. It might play a role in visual orientation near the water surface at Snell's window.

  15. Modifications of the falciform process in the eye of beloniformes (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha): evolution of a curtain-like septum in the eye.

    PubMed

    Reckel, Frank; Melzer, Roland R

    2004-04-01

    In order to comparatively analyze curtain-like septa in the eyes of visually orientated "close-to-surface-predators" among atherinomorph teleosts, we examined the eyes of 24 atherinomorph species under a binocular microscope with regard to the falciform process and related structures in the vitreous cavity. Additionally, falciform process samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. All the studied representatives of the Cyprinodontiformes and Atheriniformes, and of one of the beloniform suborder, Adrianichthyioidei, possess a "typical" processus falciformis. In the eyes of the representatives of the other beloniform suborder, Belonoidei, however, pigmented structures that originate in the region of the optic disc and protrude into the vitreous cavity were noted. In the Hemiramphidae (halfbeaks) and Exocoetidae (flying fishes) these pigmented structures have a more cone-like shape, whereas in the Belonidae (needlefishes) and Scomberesocidae (sauries) horizontally oriented heavily pigmented curtain-like septa occur that divide the vitreous cavity dorsoventrally. It is suggested that the "typical" processus falciformis represents a plesiomorphic feature within the Atherinomorpha, whereas the pigmented modifications of the falciform process must be seen as a synapomorphic character state of the Belonoidei. The curtain-like septum of the Belonidae and Scomberesocidae might have evolved from the cone-like structures that are found in the Exocoetoidea. The functional significance of the pigmented structures in the eye is as yet not clear, except for the curtain-like septum found in Belonidae. It might play a role in visual orientation near the water surface at Snell's window. PMID:15052593

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Ansary, Althaf; Manjunatha, C M; Ibhanesebhor, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Colpocephaly is a rare abnormality of the brain, described as persistence of primitive foetal configuration of lateral ventricles. It has been found in association with several abnormalities of the brain. Herein we report a case of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum, confirmed antenatally with foetal MRI following diagnostic suspicion based on absent septum pellucidum at prenatal sonography.

  17. Expression of c-Fos protein in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca and CA3 region, associated with the temporary inactivation of the supramammillary area.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lourdes

    2016-07-01

    The supramammillary (SuM) area is part of the diencephalic nuclei comprising the mammillary bodies, and is a key structure in the memory and spatial learning processes. It is a critical region in the modulation/generation of hippocampal theta rhythm. In addition, many papers have recently shown a clear involvement of this structure in the processes of spatial learning and memory in animal models, although it is still not known how it modulates spatial navigation and response emotional. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of the temporary inactivation of the SuM area on synaptic plasticity of crucial structures in the formation of spatial memory and emotional response. Sprague-Dawley rats were asigned in three groups: a control group where the animals were not subjected to any treatment, and two groups where the rats received microinjections of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the SuM area (5ng diluted in 0.5μl of saline) or saline (0.5μl). The microinjections were administered 90min before the perfusion. Later, cellular activity in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBB) and CA3 region of the dorsal hippocampus was assessed, by measuring the immediate early gene c-fos. The results show a clear hiperactivity cellular in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca and a clear hypoactivity cellular in the CA3 region of the hippocampus when there was a functional inactivation of the SuM area. It suggests that the SuM area seems to be part of the connection and information input pathways to CA3 region of the hippocampal formation, key for proper functioning in spatial memory and emotional response. PMID:26802745

  18. Expression of c-Fos protein in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca and CA3 region, associated with the temporary inactivation of the supramammillary area.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lourdes

    2016-07-01

    The supramammillary (SuM) area is part of the diencephalic nuclei comprising the mammillary bodies, and is a key structure in the memory and spatial learning processes. It is a critical region in the modulation/generation of hippocampal theta rhythm. In addition, many papers have recently shown a clear involvement of this structure in the processes of spatial learning and memory in animal models, although it is still not known how it modulates spatial navigation and response emotional. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of the temporary inactivation of the SuM area on synaptic plasticity of crucial structures in the formation of spatial memory and emotional response. Sprague-Dawley rats were asigned in three groups: a control group where the animals were not subjected to any treatment, and two groups where the rats received microinjections of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the SuM area (5ng diluted in 0.5μl of saline) or saline (0.5μl). The microinjections were administered 90min before the perfusion. Later, cellular activity in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBB) and CA3 region of the dorsal hippocampus was assessed, by measuring the immediate early gene c-fos. The results show a clear hiperactivity cellular in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca and a clear hypoactivity cellular in the CA3 region of the hippocampus when there was a functional inactivation of the SuM area. It suggests that the SuM area seems to be part of the connection and information input pathways to CA3 region of the hippocampal formation, key for proper functioning in spatial memory and emotional response.

  19. Effects of neural androgen receptor disruption on aggressive behavior, arginine vasopressin and galanin systems in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis and lateral septum.

    PubMed

    Marie-Luce, Clarisse; Raskin, Kalina; Bolborea, Matei; Monin, Marion; Picot, Marie; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in the nervous system in the regulation of aggressive behavior and arginine vasopressin and galanin systems by testosterone. For this purpose, we used a conditional mouse line selectively lacking AR gene in the nervous system, backcrossed onto the C57BL/6J strain. Adult males were gonadectomized and supplemented with similar amounts of testosterone. When tested on two consecutive days in the resident intruder paradigm, fewer males of the mutant group exhibited aggressive behavior compared to their control littermates. In addition, a high latency to the first offensive attack was observed for the few animals that exhibited fighting behavior. This alteration was associated with a normal anogenital chemoinvestigation of intruder males. In olfactory discrimination tasks, sexual experience enhanced preference towards female-soiled bedding rather than male-soiled bedding and estrus females rather than intact males, regardless of genotype. This indicated that the behavioral alteration induced by neural AR mutation occurs in brain areas located downstream from the olfactory bulb. Quantification of the sexually dimorphic cell populations expressing preprovasopressin and galanin mRNAs in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) and vasopressin-neurophysin 2 and galanin immunoreactivity in the lateral septum showed no significant differences between the two genotypes. The present findings indicate that the neural AR is required in the expression of aggressive behavior but not in the sexual differentiation of AVP and galanin cell number in the BNST and fiber immunoreactivity in the lateral septum. They also suggest that AR in the nervous system could mediate activational effects of testosterone in the regulation of aggressive behavior during adulthood.

  20. Effects of placing micro-implants of melatonin in the pars tuberalis, pars distalis and the lateral septum of the forebrain on the secretion of FSH and prolactin, and testicular size in rams.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, G A

    1994-08-01

    Previous studies involving the placement of microimplants of melatonin in the brain in sheep exposed to long days have provided evidence that melatonin acts within or close to the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) to mediate the effects of daylength on cycles in reproduction, moulting and other seasonal characteristics. To extend these observations, groups of Soay rams have now been treated with micro-implants of melatonin placed in the pars tuberalis (PT) and pars distalis (PD) of the pituitary gland, and in the lateral septum of the forebrain (septum). The PT and septum are potential target sites for the action of melatonin based on the localized binding of iodomelatonin assessed by in situ autoradiography. The animals were initially exposed to alternating 16-week periods of long days (16 h light: 8 h darkness; 16L:8D) and short days (8L:16D) to entrain the seasonal cycles. The treatments were started at 10 weeks into a period of long days when the animals had a physiology normally observed in summer (low blood plasma concentrations of FSH and high concentrations of prolactin), and they remained under long days throughout the experiments. In experiment 1, animals received micro-implants of melatonin placed in the PT (n = 6) or PD (n = 4), or received empty implants in similar sites (n = 4) or no surgery (n = 4; total control, n = 8). In experiment 2, groups of animals received microimplants of melatonin placed in the lateral septum (septum, n = 7) or received corresponding control treatments (total control, n = 8). The micro-implants consisted of 22 gauge stainless-steel needles with melatonin fused inside the tip. They were inserted bilaterally in the selected sites and left in place for 14 weeks. The biological effects of the treatments were assessed by measuring the changes in the blood plasma concentrations of FSH and prolactin, growth of the teses and moulting of the pelage over a period of 28 weeks (14 weeks treatment and 14 weeks post-treatment). The

  1. Effects of an acidic fibroblast growth factor fragment analog on learning and memory and on medial septum cholinergic neurons in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Tooyama, I; Li, A J; Oomura, Y; Kimura, H

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effects of repeated subcutaneous injections of an acidic fibroblast growth factor fragment analog, [Ala16] acidic fibroblast growth factor (1-29), on learning and memory and on the choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity of forebrain neurons in senescence-accelerated mice. One group of accelerated senescence-prone mice (accelerated senescence-prone-8) received [Ala16] acidic fibroblast growth factor (1-29), whereas the other group of accelerated senescence-prone-8 mice and a group of accelerated senescence-resistant mice (control) received vehicle solution. Injections began at three weeks after birth and were given weekly for 10 months. In a passive avoidance test, the mean retention latency at three, six and nine months of age was significantly longer in controls (vehicle-treated accelerated senescence-resistant-1) and acidic fibroblast growth factor fragment-treated accelerated senescence-prone-8 than in vehicle-treated accelerated senescence-prone-8 mice, and the latency in acidic fibroblast growth factor fragment-treated accelerated senescence-prone-8 mice was significantly shorter than that in controls only at nine months of age. In the Morris water maze task, the mean latency to climb onto the platform was significantly longer in acidic fibroblast growth factor fragment- and vehicle-treated accelerated senescence-prone-8 mice than in controls. However, the mean latency in the third and fourth trial blocks was significantly shorter for acidic fibroblast growth factor fragment-treated accelerated senescence-prone-8 than for vehicle-treated accelerated senescence-prone-8 mice. In the probe trials, controls and acidic fibroblast growth factor fragment-treated accelerated senescence-prone-8 mice spent significantly more time in the quadrant in which the platform had previously been located than in the other three quadrants. In acidic fibroblast growth factor fragment-treated accelerated senescence-prone-8 mice, the density of medial septum

  2. The histaminergic H1, H2, and H3 receptors of the lateral septum differentially mediate the anxiolytic-like effects of histamine on rats' defensive behaviors in the elevated plus maze and novelty-induced suppression of feeding paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chee, San-San A; Menard, Janet L

    2013-05-27

    The neural histaminergic system is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including anxiety. Histaminergic neurons are localized in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus and share bidirectional connections with the lateral septum, an area well implicated in anxiety. The current study examined whether the histaminergic system of the lateral septum regulates rats' defensive behaviors in two animal models of anxiety, the elevated plus maze (EPM) and novelty-induced suppression of feeding paradigm (NISF). We found that bilateral infusions of histamine (1.0 μg and 5.0 μg) into the lateral septum selectively decreased rats' defensive behaviors in the EPM (both doses) and NISF (1.0 μg only). Follow-up studies found that pre-infusions of the H1 and H2 antagonists, pyrilamine (20 μg) and ranitidine (20 μg) respectively, reversed the anxiolytic-like effects of intra-LS histamine (1.0 μg) in the NISF but not in the EPM, while pre-infusions of the H3 antagonist ciproxifan (200 pg) attenuated the anxiolytic-like effects of intra-LS histamine in the EPM but not in the NISF. This double dissociation suggests that H1 and H2 receptors in the lateral septum, likely via a post-synaptic mechanism, mediate the anxiolytic-like effects of histamine in the NISF but not in the EPM. In contrast, lateral septal H3 receptors mediate, likely pre-synaptically, the anxiolytic-like effects of histamine in the EPM but not in the NISF. Our findings indicate that these receptors differentially contribute to rats' specific defensive behaviors in the EPM and NISF, that is, avoidance of open spaces and neophagia respectively.

  3. The F-actin capping protein is required for hyphal growth and full virulence but is dispensable for septum formation in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria E; Garrido, Carlos; Cantoral, Jesús M; Schumacher, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Filamentous (F-) actin is an integral part of the cytoskeleton allowing for cell growth, intracellular motility, and cytokinesis of eukaryotic cells. Its assembly from G-actin monomers and its disassembly are tightly regulated processes involving a number of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) such as F-actin nucleators and cross-linking proteins. F-actin capping protein (CP) is an alpha/beta heterodimer known from yeast and higher eukaryotes to bind to the fast growing ends of the actin filaments stabilizing them. In this study, we identified the orthologs of the two CP subunits, named BcCPA1 and BcCPB1, in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and showed that the two proteins physically interact in a yeast two-hybrid approach. GFP-BcCPA1 fusion proteins were functional and localized to the assumed sites of F-actin accumulation, i.e. to the hyphal tips and the sites of actin ring formation. Deletion of bccpa1 had a profound effect on hyphal growth, morphogenesis, and virulence indicating the importance of F-actin capping for an intact actin cytoskeleton. As polarized growth - unlike septum formation - is impaired in the mutants, it can be concluded that the organization and/or localization of actin patches and cables are disturbed rather than the functionality of the actin rings.

  4. Cholinergic neuronal lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal bands of Broca induce contextual fear memory generalization and impair acquisition of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Knox, Dayan; Keller, Samantha M

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (Hipp) are critical for extinction memory. Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic input to the vmPFC and Hipp is critical for neural function in these substrates, which suggests BF cholinergic neurons may be critical for extinction memory. In order to test this hypothesis, we applied cholinergic lesions to different regions of the BF and observed the effects these lesions had on extinction memory. Complete BF cholinergic lesions induced contextual fear memory generalization, and this generalized fear was resistant to extinction. Animals with complete BF cholinergic lesions could not acquire cued fear extinction. Restricted cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) mimicked the effects that BF cholinergic lesions had on contextual fear memory generalization and acquisition of fear extinction. Cholinergic lesions in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca and nucleus basalis (hDBB/NBM) induced a small deficit in extinction of generalized contextual fear memory with no accompanying deficits in cued fear extinction. The results of this study reveal that MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons are critical for inhibition and extinction of generalized contextual fear memory, and via this process, may be critical for acquisition of cued fear extinction. Further studies delineating neural circuits and mechanisms through which MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons facilitate these emotional memory processes are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26606423

  5. Cholinergic neuronal lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal bands of Broca induce contextual fear memory generalization and impair acquisition of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Knox, Dayan; Keller, Samantha M

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (Hipp) are critical for extinction memory. Basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic input to the vmPFC and Hipp is critical for neural function in these substrates, which suggests BF cholinergic neurons may be critical for extinction memory. In order to test this hypothesis, we applied cholinergic lesions to different regions of the BF and observed the effects these lesions had on extinction memory. Complete BF cholinergic lesions induced contextual fear memory generalization, and this generalized fear was resistant to extinction. Animals with complete BF cholinergic lesions could not acquire cued fear extinction. Restricted cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) mimicked the effects that BF cholinergic lesions had on contextual fear memory generalization and acquisition of fear extinction. Cholinergic lesions in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca and nucleus basalis (hDBB/NBM) induced a small deficit in extinction of generalized contextual fear memory with no accompanying deficits in cued fear extinction. The results of this study reveal that MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons are critical for inhibition and extinction of generalized contextual fear memory, and via this process, may be critical for acquisition of cued fear extinction. Further studies delineating neural circuits and mechanisms through which MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons facilitate these emotional memory processes are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 3 Is Downregulated and Its Expression Is Shifted From Neurons to Astrocytes in the Mouse Lateral Septum During the Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3) plays diverse and complex roles in brain function, including synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission. We recently found that mGluR3 is downregulated in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum females using microarray and qPCR analysis. In this study, we used double fluorescence immunohistochemical approaches to characterize mGluR3 changes in LS of the postpartum brain. The number of mGluR3-immunoractive cells was significantly reduced in the dorsal (LSD) and intermediate (LSI) but not ventral (LSV) parts of the LS in postpartum versus virgin females. mGluR3 immunoreactivity in the LS was found predominantly in neurons (~70%), with a smaller portion (~20%–30%) in astrocytes. Colocalization analysis revealed a reduced mGluR3 expression in neurons but an increased astrocytic localization in postpartum LSI. This change in the pattern of expression suggests that mGluR3 expression is shifted from neurons to astrocytes in postpartum LS, and the decrease in mGluR3 is neuron-specific. Because mGluR3 is inhibitory and negatively regulates glutamate and GABA release, decreases in neuronal expression would increase glutamate and GABA signaling. Given our recent finding that ~90% of LS neurons are GABAergic, the present data suggest that decreases in mGluR3 are a mechanism for elevated GABA in LS in the postpartum state. PMID:25739438

  7. Infusion of GAT1-saporin into the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band disrupts self-movement cue processing and spares mnemonic function.

    PubMed

    Köppen, Jenny R; Winter, Shawn S; Stuebing, Sarah L; Cheatwood, Joseph L; Wallace, Douglas G

    2013-09-01

    Degeneration of the septohippocampal system is associated with the progression of Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Impairments in mnemonic function and spatial orientation become more severe as DAT progresses. Although evidence supports a role for cholinergic function in these impairments, relatively few studies have examined the contribution of the septohippocampal GABAergic component to mnemonic function or spatial orientation. The current study uses the rat food-hoarding paradigm and water maze tasks to characterize the mnemonic and spatial impairments associated with infusing GAT1-Saporin into the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB). Although infusion of GAT1-Saporin significantly reduced parvalbumin-positive cells in the MS/VDB, no reductions in markers of cholinergic function were observed in the hippocampus. In general, performance was spared during spatial tasks that provided access to environmental cues. In contrast, GAT1-Saporin rats did not accurately carry the food pellet to the refuge during the dark probe. These observations are consistent with infusion of GAT1-Saporin into the MS/VDB resulting in spared mnemonic function and use of environmental cues; however, self-movement cue processing was compromised. This interpretation is consistent with a growing literature demonstrating a role for the septohippocampal system in self-movement cue processing.

  8. The F-actin capping protein is required for hyphal growth and full virulence but is dispensable for septum formation in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria E; Garrido, Carlos; Cantoral, Jesús M; Schumacher, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Filamentous (F-) actin is an integral part of the cytoskeleton allowing for cell growth, intracellular motility, and cytokinesis of eukaryotic cells. Its assembly from G-actin monomers and its disassembly are tightly regulated processes involving a number of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) such as F-actin nucleators and cross-linking proteins. F-actin capping protein (CP) is an alpha/beta heterodimer known from yeast and higher eukaryotes to bind to the fast growing ends of the actin filaments stabilizing them. In this study, we identified the orthologs of the two CP subunits, named BcCPA1 and BcCPB1, in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and showed that the two proteins physically interact in a yeast two-hybrid approach. GFP-BcCPA1 fusion proteins were functional and localized to the assumed sites of F-actin accumulation, i.e. to the hyphal tips and the sites of actin ring formation. Deletion of bccpa1 had a profound effect on hyphal growth, morphogenesis, and virulence indicating the importance of F-actin capping for an intact actin cytoskeleton. As polarized growth - unlike septum formation - is impaired in the mutants, it can be concluded that the organization and/or localization of actin patches and cables are disturbed rather than the functionality of the actin rings. PMID:27647239

  9. The involvement of medial septum 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors on ACPA-induced memory consolidation deficit: possible role of TRPC3, TRPC6 and TRPV2.

    PubMed

    Najar, Farzaneh; Nasehi, Mohammad; Haeri-Rohani, Seyed-Ali; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-11-01

    The present study evaluates the roles of serotonergic receptors of the medial septum on amnesia induced by arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA; as selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist) in adult male Wistar rats. Cannulae were implanted in the medial septum of the brain of the rats. The animals were trained in a passive avoidance learning apparatus, and were tested 24 hours after training for step-through latency. Results indicated that post-training medial septum administration of CP94253 (5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist) and cinancerine (as 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) reduced the step-through latency showing an amnesic response, while GR127935 (5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist) and αm5htm (as 5-HT2A/2B/2D receptor agonist) did not alter memory consolidation by themselves. On continuing the test, the results showed that CP94253 increased and GR127935 did not alter ACPA (0.02 µg/rat)-induced memory impairment, respectively. Other data indicated that αm5htm induced a modulatory effect, while cinancerine restored ACPA-induced amnesia. Using SKF-96365 (inhibitor of transient receptor potential TRPC3/6 and TRPV2 channels) demonstrated that TRPC3, TRPC3 and TRPV2 channels have a significant role, according to our results. PMID:26464456

  10. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  11. A newly identified mouse hypothalamic area having bidirectional neural connections with the lateral septum: the perifornical area of the anterior hypothalamus rich in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Kosei; Nishi, Mayumi

    2015-09-01

    While previous studies and brain atlases divide the hypothalamus into many nuclei and areas, uncharacterised regions remain. Here, we report a new region in the mouse anterior hypothalamus (AH), a triangular-shaped perifornical area of the anterior hypothalamus (PeFAH) between the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and fornix, that abundantly expresses chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). The PeFAH strongly stained with markers for chondroitin sulfate/CSPGs such as Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and antibodies against aggrecan and chondroitin 6 sulfate. Nissl-stained sections of the PeFAH clearly distinguished it as a region of comparatively low density compared to neighboring regions, the paraventricular nucleus and central division of the anterior hypothalamic area. Immunohistochemical and DNA microarray analyses suggested that PeFAH contains sparsely distributed calretinin-positive neurons and a compact cluster of enkephalinergic neurons. Neuronal tract tracing revealed that both enkephalin- and calretinin-positive neurons project to the lateral septum (LS), while the PeFAH receives input from calbindin-positive LS neurons. These results suggest bidirectional connections between the PeFAH and LS. Considering neuronal subtype and projection, part of PeFAH that includes a cluster of enkephalinergic neurons is similar to the rat perifornical nucleus and guinea pig magnocellular dorsal nucleus. Finally, we examined c-Fos expression after several types of stimuli and found that PeFAH neuronal activity was increased by psychological but not homeostatic stressors. These findings suggest that the PeFAH is a source of enkephalin peptides in the LS and indicate that bidirectional neural connections between these regions may participate in controlling responses to psychological stressors.

  12. Altered neuronal responses and regulation of neurotrophic proteins in the medial septum following fimbria-fornix transection in CNTF- and leukaemia inhibitory factor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Thomas; Steup, Andreas; Schnell, Oliver; Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Zhi, Qixia; Guijarro, Christian; Kirsch, Matthias; Hofmann, Hans-Dieter

    2006-10-01

    Degeneration of axotomized GABAergic septohippocampal neurones has been shown to be enhanced in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-deficient mice following fimbria-fornix transection (FFT), indicating a neuroprotective function of endogenous CNTF. Paradoxically, however, the cholinergic population of septohippocampal neurones was more resistant to axotomy in these mutants. As leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been identified as a potential neuroprotective factor for the cholinergic medial septum (MS) neurones, FFT-induced responses were compared in CNTF(-/-), LIF(-/-) and CNTF/LIF double knockout mice. In CNTF(-/-) mice, FFT-induced cholinergic degeneration was confirmed to be attenuated as compared with wildtype mice. The expression of both LIF and LIF receptor beta was increased in the MS providing a possible explanation for the enhanced neuronal resistance to FFT in these animals. However, ablation of the LIF gene also produced paradoxical effects; following FFT in LIF(-/-) mice no loss of GABAergic or cholinergic MS neurones was detectable during the first postlesional week, suggesting that other efficient neuroprotective mechanisms are activated in these animals. In fact, enhanced activation of astrocytes, a source of neurotrophic proteins, was indicated by increased up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin expression. In addition, mRNA levels for neurotrophin signalling components (e.g. nerve growth factor, p75(NTR)) were differentially regulated. The positive effect on axotomized cholinergic neurones seen in CNTF(-/-) and LIF(-/-) mice as well as the increased up-regulation of astrogliose markers was abolished in CNTF/LIF double knockout animals. Our results indicate that endogenous CNTF and LIF are involved in the regulation of neuronal survival following central nervous system lesion and are integrated into a network of neurotrophic signals that mutually influence their expression and function. PMID:17074046

  13. Activation of serotonin2A receptors in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex enhanced working memory in the hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Bo; Zhang, Li; Sun, Yi-Na; Han, Ling-Na; Wu, Zhong-Heng; Zhang, Qiao-Jun; Liu, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin2A (5-HT2A) receptors are highly expressed in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex (MS-DB), especially in parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons linked to hippocampal theta rhythm, which is involved in cognition. Cognitive impairments commonly occur in Parkinson's disease. Here we performed behavioral, electrophysiological, neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies in rats with complete unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to assess the importance of dopamine (DA) depletion and MS-DB 5-HT2A receptors for working memory. The MFB lesions resulted in working memory impairment and decreases in firing rate and density of MS-DB PV-positive neurons, peak frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm, and DA levels in septohippocampal system and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to control rats. Intra-MS-DB injection of high affinity 5-HT2A receptor agonist TCB-2 enhanced working memory, increased firing rate of PV-positive neurons and peak frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm, elevated DA levels in the hippocampus and mPFC, and decreased 5-HT level in the hippocampus in control and lesioned rats. Compared to control rats, the duration of the excitatory effect produced by TCB-2 on the firing rate of PV-positive neurons was markedly shortened in lesioned rats, indicating dysfunction of 5-HT2A receptors. These findings suggest that unilateral lesions of the MFB in rats induced working memory deficit, and activation of MS-DB 5-HT2A receptors enhanced working memory, which may be due to changes in the activity of septohippocampal network and monoamine levels in the hippocampus and mPFC. PMID:25486618

  14. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  15. Effects of nicotine stimulation on spikes, theta frequency oscillations, and spike-theta oscillation relationship in rat medial septum diagonal band Broca slices

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Dong; Peng, Ce; Ou-yang, Gao-xiang; Henderson, Zainab; Li, Xiao-li; Lu, Cheng-biao

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Spiking activities and neuronal network oscillations in the theta frequency range have been found in many cortical areas during information processing. The aim of this study is to determine whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate neuronal network activity in rat medial septum diagonal band Broca (MSDB) slices. Methods: Extracellular field potentials were recorded in the slices using an Axoprobe 1A amplifier. Data analysis was performed off-line. Spike sorting and local field potential (LFP) analyses were performed using Spike2 software. The role of spiking activity in the generation of LFP oscillations in the slices was determined by analyzing the phase-time relationship between the spikes and LFP oscillations. Circular statistic analysis based on the Rayleigh test was used to determine the significance of phase relationships between the spikes and LFP oscillations. The timing relationship was examined by quantifying the spike-field coherence (SFC). Results: Application of nicotine (250 nmol/L) induced prominent LFP oscillations in the theta frequency band and both small- and large-amplitude population spiking activity in the slices. These spikes were phase-locked to theta oscillations at specific phases. The Rayleigh test showed a statistically significant relationship in phase-locking between the spikes and theta oscillations. Larger changes in the SFC were observed for large-amplitude spikes, indicating an accurate timing relationship between this type of spike and LFP oscillations. The nicotine-induced spiking activity (large-amplitude population spikes) was suppressed by the nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (0.3 μmol/L). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that large-amplitude spikes are phase-locked to theta oscillations and have a high spike-timing accuracy, which are likely a main contributor to the theta oscillations generated in MSDB during nicotine receptor activation. PMID:23474704

  16. The hippocamposeptal pathway generates rhythmic firing of GABAergic neurons in the medial septum and diagonal bands: an investigation using a complete septohippocampal preparation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Manseau, Frédéric; Goutagny, Romain; Danik, Marc; Williams, Sylvain

    2008-04-01

    The medial septum diagonal band area (MS/DB) projects to the hippocampus through the fornix/fimbria pathway and is implicated in generating hippocampal theta oscillations. The hippocampus also projects back to the MS/DB, but very little is known functionally about this input. Here, we investigated the physiological role of hippocamposeptal feedback to the MS/DB in a complete in vitro septohippocampal preparation containing the intact interconnecting fornix/fimbria pathway. We demonstrated that carbachol-induced rhythmic theta-like hippocampal oscillations recorded extracellularly were synchronized with powerful rhythmic IPSPs in whole-cell recorded MS/DB neurons. Interestingly, we found that these IPSPs evoked rebound spiking in GABAergic MS/DB neurons. In contrast, putative cholinergic and glutamatergic MS/DB neurons responded only weakly with rebound spiking and, as a result, were mostly silent during theta-like oscillations. We next determined the mechanism underlying the rebound spiking that followed the IPSPs in MS/DB GABAergic neurons using phasic electrical stimulation of the fornix/fimbria pathway. We demonstrate that the increased rebound spiking was attributable to the activation of I(h) current, because it was significantly reduced by low concentrations of the I(h) antagonist ZD7288 [4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino) pyridinium chloride]. Together, these results suggest that rhythmical activity in hippocampus is transferred to the MS/DB and can preferentially phase the spiking of GABAergic MS/DB neurons because of their significant expression of I(h) currents. Our data demonstrate that hippocamposeptal inhibition facilitates theta rhythmic discharges in MS/DB GABAergic neurons while favoring the inhibition of most ACh and glutamate neurons. PMID:18400909

  17. GPR139, an Orphan Receptor Highly Enriched in the Habenula and Septum, Is Activated by the Essential Amino Acids L-Tryptophan and L-Phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changlu; Bonaventure, Pascal; Lee, Grace; Nepomuceno, Diane; Kuei, Chester; Wu, Jiejun; Li, Qingqin; Joseph, Victory; Sutton, Steven W; Eckert, William; Yao, Xiang; Yieh, Lynn; Dvorak, Curt; Carruthers, Nicholas; Coate, Heather; Yun, Sujin; Dugovic, Christine; Harrington, Anthony; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2015-11-01

    GPR139 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor expressed in the central nervous system. To identify its physiologic ligand, we measured GPR139 receptor activity from recombinant cells after treatment with amino acids, orphan ligands, serum, and tissue extracts. GPR139 activity was measured using guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)-triphosphate binding, calcium mobilization, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases phosphorylation assays. Amino acids L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) activated GPR139, with EC50 values in the 30- to 300-μM range, consistent with the physiologic concentrations of L-Trp and L-Phe in tissues. Chromatography of rat brain, rat serum, and human serum extracts revealed two peaks of GPR139 activity, which corresponded to the elution peaks of L-Trp and L-Phe. With the purpose of identifying novel tools to study GPR139 function, a high-throughput screening campaign led to the identification of a selective small-molecule agonist [JNJ-63533054, (S)-3-chloro-N-(2-oxo-2-((1-phenylethyl)amino)ethyl) benzamide]. The tritium-labeled JNJ-63533054 bound to cell membranes expressing GPR139 and could be specifically displaced by L-Trp and L-Phe. Sequence alignment revealed that GPR139 is highly conserved across species, and RNA sequencing studies of rat and human tissues indicated its exclusive expression in the brain and pituitary gland. Immunohistochemical analysis showed specific expression of the receptor in circumventricular regions of the habenula and septum in mice. Together, these findings suggest that L-Trp and L-Phe are candidate physiologic ligands for GPR139, and we hypothesize that this receptor may act as a sensor to detect dynamic changes of L-Trp and L-Phe in the brain.

  18. Proper Actin Ring Formation and Septum Constriction Requires Coordinated Regulation of SIN and MOR Pathways through the Germinal Centre Kinase MST-1

    PubMed Central

    Heilig, Yvonne; Dettmann, Anne; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R.; Schmitt, Kerstin; Valerius, Oliver; Seiler, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear DBF2p-related (NDR) kinases constitute a functionally conserved protein family of eukaryotic regulators that control cell division and polarity. In fungi, they function as effector kinases of the morphogenesis (MOR) and septation initiation (SIN) networks and are activated by pathway-specific germinal centre (GC) kinases. We characterized a third GC kinase, MST-1, that connects both kinase cascades. Genetic and biochemical interactions with SIN components and life cell imaging identify MST-1 as SIN-associated kinase that functions in parallel with the GC kinase SID-1 to activate the SIN-effector kinase DBF-2. SID-1 and MST-1 are both regulated by the upstream SIN kinase CDC-7, yet in an opposite manner. Aberrant cortical actomyosin rings are formed in Δmst-1, which resulted in mis-positioned septa and irregular spirals, indicating that MST-1-dependent regulation of the SIN is required for proper formation and constriction of the septal actomyosin ring. However, MST-1 also interacts with several components of the MOR network and modulates MOR activity at multiple levels. MST-1 functions as promiscuous enzyme and also activates the MOR effector kinase COT-1 through hydrophobic motif phosphorylation. In addition, MST-1 physically interacts with the MOR kinase POD-6, and dimerization of both proteins inactivates the GC kinase hetero-complex. These data specify an antagonistic relationship between the SIN and MOR during septum formation in the filamentous ascomycete model Neurospora crassa that is, at least in part, coordinated through the GC kinase MST-1. The similarity of the SIN and MOR pathways to the animal Hippo and Ndr pathways, respectively, suggests that intensive cross-communication between distinct NDR kinase modules may also be relevant for the homologous NDR kinases of higher eukaryotes. PMID:24762679

  19. Activation of serotonin2A receptors in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex enhanced working memory in the hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Bo; Zhang, Li; Sun, Yi-Na; Han, Ling-Na; Wu, Zhong-Heng; Zhang, Qiao-Jun; Liu, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin2A (5-HT2A) receptors are highly expressed in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex (MS-DB), especially in parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons linked to hippocampal theta rhythm, which is involved in cognition. Cognitive impairments commonly occur in Parkinson's disease. Here we performed behavioral, electrophysiological, neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies in rats with complete unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to assess the importance of dopamine (DA) depletion and MS-DB 5-HT2A receptors for working memory. The MFB lesions resulted in working memory impairment and decreases in firing rate and density of MS-DB PV-positive neurons, peak frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm, and DA levels in septohippocampal system and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to control rats. Intra-MS-DB injection of high affinity 5-HT2A receptor agonist TCB-2 enhanced working memory, increased firing rate of PV-positive neurons and peak frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm, elevated DA levels in the hippocampus and mPFC, and decreased 5-HT level in the hippocampus in control and lesioned rats. Compared to control rats, the duration of the excitatory effect produced by TCB-2 on the firing rate of PV-positive neurons was markedly shortened in lesioned rats, indicating dysfunction of 5-HT2A receptors. These findings suggest that unilateral lesions of the MFB in rats induced working memory deficit, and activation of MS-DB 5-HT2A receptors enhanced working memory, which may be due to changes in the activity of septohippocampal network and monoamine levels in the hippocampus and mPFC.

  20. Optimal angulations for obtaining an en face view of each coronary aortic sinus and the interventricular septum: Correlative anatomy around the left ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shumpei; Fukuzawa, Koji; Takaya, Tomofumi; Takamine, Sachiko; Ito, Tatsuro; Kinugasa, Mitsuo; Shigeru, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Sei; Nishii, Tatsuya; Kono, Atsushi K; Yoshida, Akihiro; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2015-05-01

    An optimal image intensifier angulation used for obtaining an en face view of a target structure is important in electrophysiologic procedures performed around each coronary aortic sinus (CAS). However, few studies have revealed the fluoroscopic anatomy of the target area. This study investigated the optimal angulation for each CAS and the interventricular septum (IVS). The study included 102 consecutive patients who underwent computed tomography coronary angiography. The optimal angle for each CAS was determined by rotating the volume-rendered image around the vertical axis. The angle formed between the anteroposterior axis and IVS was measured using the horizontal section. The frontal direction was defined as zero, positive, or negative if the en face view of the target CAS was obtained in the frontal view, left anterior oblique (LAO) direction, or right anterior oblique (RAO) direction, respectively. The optimal angles for the left, right, and non-CASs were 120.3 ± 10.5°, 4.8 ± 16.3°, and -110.0 ± 13.8°, respectively. The IVS angle was 42.6 ± 8.5°. Accordingly, the optimal image intensifier angulations for the left, right, and non-CASs and the IVS were estimated to be RAO 60°, LAO 5°, LAO 70°, and RAO 50°, respectively. The IVS angle was the most common independent predictor of the optimal angle for each CAS. Differences in the optimal angulations for each CAS and the IVS are demonstrated. The biplane angulation needs to be tailored according to the individual patients and target structures for electrophysiologic procedures.

  1. Lanthanum and zinc sensitivity of GABAA-activated currents in adult medial septum/diagonal band neurons from ethanol dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Frye, G D; Fincher, A S; Grover, C A; Jayaprabhu, S

    1996-05-13

    The impact of chronic ethanol treatment, sufficient to induce tolerance and physical dependence, on GABAA receptor function was studied in acutely isolated neurons from the medial septum/nucleus diagonal band (MS/nDB) of adult rats using whole cell, patch-clamp recordings. In ethanol-naive Controls, GABA (0.3-300 microM) induced concentration-dependent increases in Cl- current with a threshold of 0.3-1 microM, a mean maximal current of 7645 +/- 2148 pA at 100-300 microM, an EC50 of 11.3 +/- 1.3 microM and a slope of 1.53 +/- 0.07. GABA-activated currents in neurons from animals receiving two weeks of ethanol liquid diet treatment did not differ significantly on any of these measures. The rate of GABAA receptor desensitization (t1/2 = 6.49 +/- 1.19 s) estimated as the time required for loss of 50% of peak current during sustained application of 10 microM GABA, as well as the residual steady state current remaining following complete desensitization for controls was unchanged by chronic ethanol. The impact of chronic ethanol treatment on the GABAA receptor modulation by lanthanum and zinc which act as positive and negative allosteric modulators, respectively, was also evaluated. Test pulses of 3 microM GABA in control neurons showed maximal potentiation by 141 +/- 30% at approximately 1000 microM lanthanum with an EC50 of 107 +/- 34 microM and a slope of approximately 1. Lanthanum potentiation remained the same following chronic ethanol treatment. Initial estimates based on fitted concentration response curves suggested that maximal inhibition of 3 microM GABA responses by zinc at the level of 70.2 +/- 8.5% in control cells was significantly increased by chronic ethanol treatment to 95.3 +/- 2.5%, although the IC50 of 60.2 +/- 25 microM was not changed. However, this difference was not supported by direct tests of maximal 3-10 mM zinc concentrations. These results suggest that chronic ethanol treatment, sufficient to induce tolerance and physical dependence, probably

  2. Transcriptional responses of the nerve agent-sensitive brain regions amygdala, hippocampus, piriform cortex, septum, and thalamus following exposure to the organophosphonate anticholinesterase sarin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the acute toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents is known to result from acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of neuropathology following nerve agent-induced seizure are not well understood. To help determine these pathways, we previously used microarray analysis to identify gene expression changes in the rat piriform cortex, a region of the rat brain sensitive to nerve agent exposure, over a 24-h time period following sarin-induced seizure. We found significant differences in gene expression profiles and identified secondary responses that potentially lead to brain injury and cell death. To advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in sarin-induced toxicity, we analyzed gene expression changes in four other areas of the rat brain known to be affected by nerve agent-induced seizure (amygdala, hippocampus, septum, and thalamus). Methods We compared the transcriptional response of these four brain regions to sarin-induced seizure with the response previously characterized in the piriform cortex. In this study, rats were challenged with 1.0 × LD50 sarin and subsequently treated with atropine sulfate, 2-pyridine aldoxime methylchloride, and diazepam. The four brain regions were collected at 0.25, 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after seizure onset, and total RNA was processed for microarray analysis. Results Principal component analysis identified brain region and time following seizure onset as major sources of variability within the dataset. Analysis of variance identified genes significantly changed following sarin-induced seizure, and gene ontology analysis identified biological pathways, functions, and networks of genes significantly affected by sarin-induced seizure over the 24-h time course. Many of the molecular functions and pathways identified as being most significant across all of the brain regions were indicative of an inflammatory response. There were also a number of

  3. Effects of estrogen and fimbria/fornix transection on p75NGFR and ChAT expression in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R B; Pfaff, D W

    1992-04-01

    NGF receptor-expressing cells located in the basal forebrain have recently been shown to contain estrogen (E) receptors (Toran-Allerand and MacLusky. 1989. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 15: 954). In the present study, we have examined the effects of E-treatment on p75NGFR and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression by neurons in the medial septum (MS) and the vertical (VDB) and horizontal (HDB) limbs of the diagonal band of Broca using immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. First, since E-treatment has been shown to affect neuronal survival and to stimulate synaptic reorganization and growth within various regions of the brain, we hypothesized that E-treatment might attenuate the loss of p75NGFR immunoreactivity (IR) which occurs in the MS and VDB following transection of the fimbria/fornix. Contrary to our hypothesis, E-treatment did not attenuate the effects of fimbria/fornix transection. In fact, E-treatment alone produced a significant decrease in the number of p75NGFR-IR cells detected in the MS. Subsequent experiments confirmed that chronic E-treatment produces a down-regulation of both p75NGFR-IR and p75NGFR mRNA in the MS and VDB. In the MS, estrogen appeared to affect a subpopulation of p75NGFR-expressing neurons which were also affected by fimbria/fornix transection since the effects of these two treatments were not additive. In addition, effects of E-treatment on p75NGFR-IR were sex-specific (observed in females but not in males) and were reversible in the MS after 2 weeks, but not after 4 weeks (allowing 2 weeks recovery), of E-treatment. A time-course analysis revealed that effects of E-treatment on p75NGFR-IR were not observed until after 16 days (MS) or 30 days (VDB) of E-treatment and were preceded by a significant and transient increase in ChAT expression in both the MS and VDB. The data are consistent with the possibility that continuous, long-term exposure to gonadal steroids may contribute to a loss of p75NGFR-expressing neurons

  4. Windsock deformity of interatrial septum

    PubMed Central

    Chigurupati, Keerthi; Senniappan, Kirubanand; Gadhinglajkar, Shrinivas; Sreedhar, Rupa; Mathew, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Classical “Windsock deformity” is associated with ruptured aneurysmal sinus of Valsalva. The echocardiographic definition for Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) in children based on dimensions is lacking. Rupture of an ASA, though uncommon, may lead to cardiac failure due to acute RV volume overload. An untreated ASA may be complicated with thrombus formation. PMID:27716705

  5. Optic Nerve Hypoplasia Syndrome: A Review of the Epidemiology and Clinical Associations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Borchert, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Opinion statement Background Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) has developed into a leading cause of congenital blindness. The frequently associated features of hypopituitarism and absent septum pellucidum were felt to have embryonic linkage as “septo-optic dysplasia” or “de Morsier’s syndrome.” More recent studies have suggested these associations are independent of one another. This review provides an assessment of the historical and recent evidence linking neuroradiologic, endocrinologic and developmental morbidity in patients with ONH. The prenatal risk factors, heritability, and genetic mutations associated with ONH are described. Results Recognition of the critical association of ONH with hypopituitarism should be attributed to William Hoyt, not Georges de Morsier. De Morsier never described a case of ONH or recognized its association with hypopituitarism or missing septum pellucidum. Hypopituitarism is caused by hypothalamic dysfunction. This, and other more recently identified associations with ONH, such as developmental delay and autism, are independent of septum pellucidum development. Other common neuroradiographic associations such as corpus callosum hypoplasia, gyrus dysplasia, and cortical heterotopia may have prognostic significance. The predominant prenatal risk factors for ONH are primiparity and young maternal age. Presumed risk factors such as prenatal exposure to drugs and alcohol are not supported by scrutiny of the literature. Heritability and identified gene mutations in cases of ONH are rare. Conclusion Children with ONH require monitoring for many systemic, developmental, and even life-threatening problems independent of the severity of ONH and presence of brain malformations including abnormalities of the septum pellucidum. “Septo-optic dysplasia” and “de Morsier’s syndrome” are historically inaccurate and clinically misleading terms. PMID:23233151

  6. Optic nerve hypoplasia: septo-optic-pituitary dysplasia syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Acers, T E

    1981-01-01

    Forty-five patients with the common clinical factor of optic nerve hypoplasia are analyzed regarding their clinical appearance, echographic and computed tomographic measurements of the optic nerves, and the correlation of anatomic size with visual function. Computed axial tomographic studies of the midline brain were performed on all 45 patients to determine the incidence of correlated structural defects, especially the septum pellucidum, and neuroendocrine dysfunction. Review of the spectrum of septo-optic-pituitary syndrome is separately developed to include historical background, embryogenesis, histopathology, and pathogenesis of the three major components of the syndrome. In summary, 45 patients had optic nerve hypoplasia, 32 with evidence of segmental or partial hypoplasia and 13 with evidence of complete or diffuse hypoplasia--the optic nerve hypoplasia syndrome. Twelve of these patients demonstrated absence of the septum pellucidum by computed axial tomography--the septo-optic dysplasia syndrome. Of these 12 patients with partial or complete absence of the septum pellucidum, six demonstrated evidence of pituitary hypofunction--the septo-optic-pituitary dysplasia syndrome. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 a FIGURE 3 b FIGURE 4 a FIGURE 4 b FIGURE 4 c FIGURE 4 d PMID:7043865

  7. Effects of beta-amyloid protein on M1 and M2 subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the medial septum-diagonal band complex of the rat: relationship with cholinergic, GABAergic, and calcium-binding protein perikarya.

    PubMed

    González, Iván; Arévalo-Serrano, Juan; Sanz-Anquela, José Miguel; Gonzalo-Ruiz, Alicia

    2007-06-01

    Cortical cholinergic dysfunction has been correlated with the expression and processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein. However, it remains unclear as to how cholinergic dysfunction and beta-amyloid (Abeta) formation and deposition might be related to one another. Since the M1- and M2 subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are considered key molecules that transduce the cholinergic message, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of the injected Abeta peptide on the number of M1mAchR- and M2mAChR-immunoreactive cells in the medial septum-diagonal band (MS-nDBB) complex of the rat. Injections of Abeta protein into the retrosplenial cortex resulted in a decrease in M1mAChR and M2mAChR immunoreactivity in the MS-nDBB complex. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant reduction in the number of M1mAChR- and M2mAChR-immunoreactive cells in the medial septum nucleus (MS) and in the horizontal nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) as compared to the corresponding hemisphere in control animals and with that seen in the contralateral hemisphere, which corresponds to the PBS-injected side. Co-localization studies showed that the M1mAChR protein is localized in GABA-immunoreactive cells of the MS-nDBB complex, in particular those of the MS nucleus, while M2mAChR protein is localized in both the cholinergic and GABAergic cells. Moreover, GABAergic cells containing M2mAChR are mainly localized in the MS nucleus, while cholinergic cells containing M2mAChR are localized in the MS and the HDB nuclei. Our findings suggest that Abeta induces a reduction in M1mAChR- and M2mAChR-containing cells, which may contribute to impairments of cholinergic and GABAergic transmission in the MS-nDBB complex.

  8. Exercise leads to the re-emergence of the cholinergic/nestin neuronal phenotype within the medial septum/diagonal band and subsequent rescue of both hippocampal ACh efflux and spatial behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joseph M; Savage, Lisa M

    2016-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functioning in a range of species, presumably through an increase in neurotrophins throughout the brain, but in particular the hippocampus. The current study assessed the ability of exercise to restore septohippocampal cholinergic functioning in the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) rat model of the amnestic disorder Korsakoff Syndrome. After voluntary wheel running or sedentary control conditions (stationary wheel attached to the home cage), PTD and control rats were behaviorally tested with concurrent in vivo microdialysis, at one of two time points: 24-h or 2-weeks post-exercise. It was found that only after the 2-week adaption period did exercise lead to an interrelated sequence of events in PTD rats that included: (1) restored spatial working memory; (2) rescued behaviorally-stimulated hippocampal acetylcholine efflux; and (3) within the medial septum/diagonal band, the re-emergence of the cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase [ChAT+]) phenotype, with the greatest change occurring in the ChAT+/nestin+ neurons. Furthermore, in control rats, exercise followed by a 2-week adaption period improved hippocampal acetylcholine efflux and increased the number of neurons co-expressing the ChAT and nestin phenotype. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which exercise can modulate the mature cholinergic/nestin neuronal phenotype leading to improved neurotransmitter function as well as enhanced learning and memory. PMID:26836322

  9. Chronic exposure to nerve growth factor increases acetylcholine and glutamate release from cholinergic neurons of the rat medial septum and diagonal band of Broca via mechanisms mediated by p75NTR.

    PubMed

    Huh, Carey Y L; Danik, Marc; Manseau, Frédéric; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Williams, Sylvain

    2008-02-01

    Basal forebrain neurons play an important role in memory and attention. In addition to cholinergic and GABAergic neurons, glutamatergic neurons and neurons that can corelease acetylcholine and glutamate have recently been described in the basal forebrain. Although it is well known that nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes synaptic function of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, how NGF affects the newly identified basal forebrain neurons remains undetermined. Here, we examined the effects of NGF on synaptic transmission of medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) neurons expressing different neurotransmitter phenotypes. We used MS-DBB neurons from 10- to 13-d-old rats, cultured on astrocytic microislands to promote the development of autaptic connections. Evoked and spontaneous postsynaptic currents were recorded, and neurotransmitters released were characterized pharmacologically. We found that chronic exposure to NGF significantly increased acetylcholine and glutamate release from cholinergic MS-DBB neurons, whereas glutamate and GABA transmission from noncholinergic MS-DBB neurons were not affected by NGF. Interestingly, the NGF-induced increase in neurotransmission was mediated by p75(NTR). These results demonstrate a previously unidentified role of NGF and its receptor p75(NTR); their interactions are crucial for cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission in the septohippocampal pathway. PMID:18256260

  10. In vitro activation of the medial septum-diagonal band complex generates atropine-sensitive and atropine-resistant hippocampal theta rhythm: an investigation using a complete septohippocampal preparation.

    PubMed

    Goutagny, Romain; Manseau, Frédéric; Jackson, Jesse; Danik, Marc; Williams, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    The medial septum and diagonal band complex (MS-DB) is believed to play a key role in generating theta oscillations in the hippocampus, a phenomenon critical for learning and memory. Although the importance of the MS-DB in hippocampal theta rhythm generation is generally accepted, it remains to be determined whether the MS-DB alone can generate hippocampal oscillations or is only a transducer of rhythmic activity from other brain areas. Secondly, it is known that hippocampal theta rhythm can be separated into an atropine-sensitive and insensitive component. However, it remains to be established if the MS-DB can generate both types of rhythm. To answer these questions, we used a new in vitro rat septohippocampal preparation placed in a hermetically separated two side recording chamber. We showed that carbachol activation of the MS-DB generated large theta oscillations in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. These oscillations were blocked by applying either the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline or the AMPA/kainate antagonist DNQX to the hippocampus. Interestingly, the application of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine produced only a partial decrease in the amplitude, without modification of the frequency, of theta. These results show for the first time, that upon optimal excitation, the MS-DB alone is able to generate hippocampal oscillations in the theta frequency band. Moreover, these MS-DB generated theta oscillations are mediated by muscarinic and nonmuscarinic receptors and have a pharmacological profile similar to theta rhythm observed in awake animals. PMID:18306282

  11. Dynamic changes in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the lateral septum during social play behavior in juvenile rats: Implications for sex-specific regulation of social play behavior.

    PubMed

    Bredewold, R; Schiavo, J K; van der Hart, M; Verreij, M; Veenema, A H

    2015-10-29

    Social play is a motivated and rewarding behavior that is displayed by nearly all mammals and peaks in the juvenile period. Moreover, social play is essential for the development of social skills and is impaired in social disorders like autism. We recently showed that the lateral septum (LS) is involved in the regulation of social play behavior in juvenile male and female rats. The LS is largely modulated by GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, but their role in social play behavior is unknown. Here, we determined whether social play behavior is associated with changes in the extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS and to what extent such changes modulate social play behavior in male and female juvenile rats. Using intracerebral microdialysis in freely behaving rats, we found no sex difference in extracellular GABA concentrations, but extracellular glutamate concentrations are higher in males than in females under baseline conditions and during social play. This resulted in a higher glutamate/GABA concentration ratio in males vs. females and thus, an excitatory predominance in the LS of males. Furthermore, social play behavior in both sexes is associated with significant increases in extracellular release of GABA and glutamate in the LS. Pharmacological blockade of GABA-A receptors in the LS with bicuculline (100 ng/0.5 μl, 250 ng/0.5 μl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in both sexes. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors) in the LS with AP-5+CNQX (2mM+0.4mM/0.5 μl, 30 mM+3mM/0.5 μl) dose-dependently decreased the duration of social play behavior in females, but did not alter social play behavior in males. Together, these data suggest a role for GABA neurotransmission in the LS in the regulation of juvenile social play behavior in both sexes, while glutamate neurotransmission in the LS is involved in the sex-specific regulation of juvenile social

  12. Femoral-facial syndrome with malformations in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Leal, Evelia; Macías-Gómez, Nelly; Rodríguez, Lisa; Mercado, F Miguel; Barros-Núñez, Patricio

    2003-01-01

    The femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome (FFS) is a very rare association of femoral and facial abnormalities. Maternal diabetes mellitus has been mainly involved as the causal agent. We report the second case of FFS with anomalies in the central nervous system (CNS) including corticosubcortical atrophy, colpocephaly, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of the falx cerebri and absent septum pellucidum. The psychomotor development has been normal. We propose that the CNS defects observed in these patients are part of the spectrum of abnormalities in the FFS.

  13. [Congenital mydriasis as an initial sign of septo-optic dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Carrascosa-Romero, M C; Ruiz-Cano, R; Martínez-López, F; Alfaro-Ponce, B; Pérez-Pardo, A

    2013-10-01

    Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD)[MIM182230] consisting of a heterogeneous and uncommon condition characterised by the classictriad: optic nerve hypoplasia, abnormalities of pituitary hormone, and defects of thebrain midline (including agenesis of the septum pellucidum and/or the corpus callosum; ithas also been described associated cortical malformations, it was referred to as SOD plus syndrome).We report the first known case in which the initial diagnostic sign of SOD was a bilateralmydriasis as a manifestation ofhypoplasia of both optic nerves, pituitary hypoplasia andcerebral dysgenesis with neuronal migration disorder.We discuss thedifferential diagnosis of congenital mydriasis.

  14. Newborn with Supernumerary Marker Chromosome Derived from Chromosomes 11 And 22- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    VAHIDI MEHRJARDI, Mohammad Yahya; DEHGHAN TEZERJANI, Masoud; NORI-SHADKAM, Mahmoud; KALANTAR, Seyed Mehdi; DEHGHANI, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of supernumerary chromosome is important for genetic counseling and prognosis. Here, we used SNP array and conventional karyotyping method to identify a denovo marker chromosome originated from chromosome 22 and 11 in a newborn transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in 2015. Clinical abnormalities identified in the newborn were dysmorphic face, intrauterine growth retardation, atrial septal defect (ASD), the hypoplasia of corpus callosum and septum pellucidum. These clinical abnormalities can be related to this marker, and it may help genetic counselor for predicting abnormality risk in susceptible individuals as well as prenatal diagnosis. PMID:27141501

  15. Newborn with Supernumerary Marker Chromosome Derived from Chromosomes 11 And 22- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vahidi Mehrjardi, Mohammad Yahya; Dehghan Tezerjani, Masoud; Nori-Shadkam, Mahmoud; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Dehghani, Mohammadreza

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of supernumerary chromosome is important for genetic counseling and prognosis. Here, we used SNP array and conventional karyotyping method to identify a denovo marker chromosome originated from chromosome 22 and 11 in a newborn transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in 2015. Clinical abnormalities identified in the newborn were dysmorphic face, intrauterine growth retardation, atrial septal defect (ASD), the hypoplasia of corpus callosum and septum pellucidum. These clinical abnormalities can be related to this marker, and it may help genetic counselor for predicting abnormality risk in susceptible individuals as well as prenatal diagnosis. PMID:27141501

  16. Newborn with Supernumerary Marker Chromosome Derived from Chromosomes 11 And 22- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vahidi Mehrjardi, Mohammad Yahya; Dehghan Tezerjani, Masoud; Nori-Shadkam, Mahmoud; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Dehghani, Mohammadreza

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of supernumerary chromosome is important for genetic counseling and prognosis. Here, we used SNP array and conventional karyotyping method to identify a denovo marker chromosome originated from chromosome 22 and 11 in a newborn transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in 2015. Clinical abnormalities identified in the newborn were dysmorphic face, intrauterine growth retardation, atrial septal defect (ASD), the hypoplasia of corpus callosum and septum pellucidum. These clinical abnormalities can be related to this marker, and it may help genetic counselor for predicting abnormality risk in susceptible individuals as well as prenatal diagnosis.

  17. Third Ventricular Glioblastoma Multiforme: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Omid R.; Quadri, Syed A.; Farr, Saman; Gupta, Ravi; Bieber, Andrew J.; Dyurgerova, Anya; Corsino, Casey; Miulli, Dan; Siddiqi, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) typically presents in the supratentorial white matter, commonly within the centrum semiovale as a ring-enhancing lesion with areas of necrosis. An atypical presentation of this lesion, both anatomically as well as radiographically, is significant and must be part of the differential for a neoplasm in this anatomical location. Case Description We present a case of a 62-year-old woman with headaches, increasing somnolence, and cognitive decline for several weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated mild left ventricular dilatation with a well-marginated, homogeneous, and nonhemorrhagic lesion located at the ceiling of the third ventricle within the junction of the septum pellucidum and fornix, without exhibiting the typical radiographic features of hemorrhage or necrosis. Final pathology reports confirmed the diagnosis of GBM. Conclusion This case report describes an unusual location for the most common primary brain neoplasm. Moreover, this case identifies the origin of a GBM related to the paracentral ventricular structures infiltrating the body of the fornix and leaves of the septum pellucidum. To our knowledge this report is the first reported case of a GBM found in this anatomical location with an entirely atypical radiographic presentation. PMID:26623232

  18. Regional distribution of neuropeptide Y and its receptor in the porcine central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Busch-Sørensen, M; Sheikh, S P; O'Hare, M; Tortora, O; Schwartz, T W; Gammeltoft, S

    1989-05-01

    The regional distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity and receptor binding was studied in the porcine CNS. The highest amounts of immunoreactive NPY were found in the hypothalamus, septum pellucidum, gyrus cinguli, cortex frontalis, parietalis, and piriformis, corpus amygdaloideum, and bulbus olfactorius (200-1,000 pmol/g wet weight). In the cortex temporalis and occipitalis, striatum, hippocampus, tractus olfactorius, corpus mamillare, thalamus, and globus pallidus, the NPY content was 50-200 pmol/g wet weight, whereas the striatum, colliculi, substantia nigra, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis contained less than 50 pmol/g wet weight. The receptor binding of NPY was highest in the hippocampus, corpus fornicis, corpus amygdaloideum, nucleus accumbens, and neurohypophysis, with a range of 1.0-5.87 pmol/mg of protein. Intermediate binding (0.5-1.0 pmol/mg of protein) was found in the septum pellucidum, columna fornicis, corpus mamillare, cortex piriformis, gyrus cinguli, striatum, substantia grisea centralis, substantia nigra, and cerebellum. In the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, corpus pineale, colliculi, corpus geniculatum mediale, nucleus ruber, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis, receptor binding of NPY was detectable but less than 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. No binding was observed in the bulbus and tractus olfactorius and adenohypophysis. In conclusion, immunoreactive NPY and its receptors are widespread in the porcine CNS, with predominant location in the limbic system, olfactory system, hypothalamoneurohypophysial tract, corpus striatum, and cerebral cortex.

  19. [Giant aneurysm of the inter-atrial septum].

    PubMed

    Akoudad, H; Cherti, M; Chaouki, S; Ztot, S; Haddour, L; el Mrabet, I; el Khadiri, A; Benmimoun, E G; Arharbi, A

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a large atrial septal aneurysm and a review of the literature. Atrial septal aneurysm is found in 1-8% of normal subjects. Its prevalence is higher among patients with ischemic stroke. Transesophageal echocardiography is an optimal tool for the diagnosis of atrial septal aneurysm. The clinical course may be complicated by arterial embolism, but mechanical complications may also occur, as in this case. Due to the lack of general agreement, treatment options should be discussed on an individual basis for patients with atrial septal aneurysm. PMID:10093663

  20. Nasal septum perforation in patient with pyoderma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Maia, Camilla Bezerra da Cruz; Felix, Felippe; Paes, Vania; de Azevedo, Julia Alves; Grangeiro, Eliza Raquel Negrão; Riccio, Jonatah Lucas N; Rito, Helen Cruz

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: A cocaína é extraída das folhas do arbusto da coca (Erythroxylon coca), podendo ser consumida de várias formas, mas o modo mais comum é pela aspiração da droga, sendo absorvida pela mucosa nasal, causando vasoconstricção, levando o seu uso crônico à perfuração de septo nasal. Pioderma gangrenoso é uma doença inflamatória rara, idiopática que se caracteriza pela presença de úlceras destrutivas principalmente em membros inferiores. Seu diagnóstico clínico é muitas vezes de exclusão.Objetivo: Descrever a raridade de associação entre Pioderma Gangrenoso e cocaína.Relato de Caso: E. A., 27 anos, com apresentação atípica de Pioderma Gangrenoso com perfurações de septo nasal e palato duro usuária de grande quantidade de cocaína, sendo necessário diferenciar qual patologia causou esse dano.Comentários Finais: Além da necessidade dessa diferenciação, apenas existem três casos relatados na literatura, envolvendo o Pioderma Gangrenoso complicado com perfuração de septo nasal em usuários de cocaína.

  1. The association of sphenoidal encephalocele and right anophthalmia with septo-optic dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Erol, Fatih Serhat; Ucler, Necati; Kaplan, Metin; Yilmaz, Ilhan

    2012-01-01

    Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is an extremely rare congenital anomaly, characterized with optic nerve hypoplasia and absence of septum pellucidum and/or pituitary dysfunction. In addition to classical findings of SOD, we report for the first time an 11-year-old boy, with encephalocele extending to the right sphenoidal sinus, right anophthalmia and normal pituitary functions. Despite all the major anomalies, the patient's presenting symptoms were very few and during the 11-year period the SDO had caused no complaints in our case. These findings show that the SOD course may be fairly benign. No neurological problem was encountered in the patient's follow-up, except headache. We believe that SOD should be kept in mind because of its rarity and the severity of its combined pathologies.

  2. An infant with diaphragmatic hernia, anophthalmia and cardiac defect: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging autopsy.

    PubMed

    Ceylaner, S; Gozer, H E; Ceylaner, G; Ertas, I E; Kizilates, S U; Edguer, T

    2006-01-01

    We present an infant with diaphragmatic hernia, anophthalmia and cardiac defect evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) autopsy. This female infant was born at 39th weeks by vaginal delivery and presented with diaphragmatic hernia, anophthalmia, cardiac defect and died due to respiratory problems at 28th hours of life. MRI autopsy showed internal organ abnormalities including congenital hernia of the left diaphragm, secondary hypoplasia of the left lung, atrial and ventricular septal defect, dilatation of calices of the kidneys, bilateral anophthalmia, hypoplasia of the optic nerves, hyperintensity of pituitary gland possibly due to bleeding and a cyst of the septum pellucidum. This article shows that MRI autopsy is a valuable method for the evaluation of cases with congenital anomalies if autopsy is not possible.

  3. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction. PMID:27468040

  4. Non-surgical treatment of massive traumatic corpus callosum hematoma after blunt head injury: A case report.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, A; Elgamal, E; Elsayed, A A; Wasserberg, J; Kuncz, A

    2016-01-01

    Massive hematoma of the corpus callosum caused by blunt head trauma is an extremely rare lesion. Most frequent traumatic lesions involve the corpus callosum are diffuse axonal injuries. They might be associated with small hemorrhagic foci in the hemispheric and brain stem white matter, intraventricular hemorrhages, subarachnoid hemorrhages, traumatic lesions of the septum pellucidum and fornix. Many cases of corpus callosum injury present with permanent disconnection syndrome. We present a case of a 32-year-old female suffered blunt head trauma resulted in massive corpus callosum hematoma which was managed non-surgically. The patient initially had a reduced conscious level and symptoms of disconnection syndrome, and significant recovery was observed at 6 months follow up. PMID:27375150

  5. Optic nerve hypoplasia with hypopituitarism. Septo-optic dysplasia with hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Patel, H; Tze, W J; Crichton, J U; McCormick, A Q; Robinson, G C; Dolman, C L

    1975-02-01

    Four children had optic nerve hypoplasia with hypopituitarism, and their clinical picture varied with age. The newborn had apnea, hypotonia, seizures, hyopglycemia, and prolong jaundice. The young infant had defective vision, behavioral delay, hypotonia, and seizures. Except for a mildly receding lower jaw and a high-arched palate, the appearance of the patients was not unusual. The fasting blood glucose level was mildly depressed. In two cases the liver was palpable and results of liver function tests were abnormal. The older child, who was blind and mentally retarded, had growth failure. The extent of the pituitary hormone deficiencies was variable, including diabetes insipidus. The septum pellucidum was not invariably absent. Clinical and pathological findings indicate that the brain lesion might be more diffuse than hitherto recognized. Early recognition of this syndrome and timely intervention might diminish serious sequels. PMID:1119454

  6. Non-surgical treatment of massive traumatic corpus callosum hematoma after blunt head injury: A case report.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, A; Elgamal, E; Elsayed, A A; Wasserberg, J; Kuncz, A

    2016-01-01

    Massive hematoma of the corpus callosum caused by blunt head trauma is an extremely rare lesion. Most frequent traumatic lesions involve the corpus callosum are diffuse axonal injuries. They might be associated with small hemorrhagic foci in the hemispheric and brain stem white matter, intraventricular hemorrhages, subarachnoid hemorrhages, traumatic lesions of the septum pellucidum and fornix. Many cases of corpus callosum injury present with permanent disconnection syndrome. We present a case of a 32-year-old female suffered blunt head trauma resulted in massive corpus callosum hematoma which was managed non-surgically. The patient initially had a reduced conscious level and symptoms of disconnection syndrome, and significant recovery was observed at 6 months follow up.

  7. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction.

  8. Relationship of the location of the ventricular catheter tip and function of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shoko Merrit; Kitagawa, Ryo; Teramoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The long-term maintenance of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt function depends on the correct placement of the catheter tip in the lateral ventricle. The relationship between the location of the ventricular catheter tip and VP shunt function was analyzed in 52 patients. The location of the ventricular catheter tip was classified into one of the following five groups: (i) Group A--superior to the foramen of Monro; (ii) Group B--in the center of the lateral ventricle body; (iii) Group C--in the third ventricle; (iv) Group D--contacting the ventricle wall; and (v) Group E--in the septum pellucidum. VP shunt function was defined as well controlled hydrocephalus when the Evan's ratio of the ventricular size was < 0.3. The VP shunt functioned well in 14 of 52 patients (26.9%), the shunt valve pressure was incorrectly set in 21 (40.4%), and irreversible shunt malfunction was identified in 17 (32.7%). Among the 14 patients with a well-functioning shunt, 13 were in Groups A or B with an odds ratio (OR) of 17.875 (p<0.05). In the 17 irreversible shunt malfunctions, 13 were identified in Groups C, D, or E with an OR of 0.123 (p<0.05). Long term VP shunt function or failure due to irreversible malfunction is directly influenced by the position of the ventricular catheter tip. Ideal points for positioning the ventricular catheter tip are superior to the foramen of Monro and in the center of the lateral ventricle body. Early shunt revision may be required for patients in whom the catheter tip contacts the ventricle wall or is located in the septum pellucidum.

  9. Agnathia-holoprosencephaly associated with a 46,XY,-21,+t(21q;21q) karyotype

    SciTech Connect

    Niedermeyer, K.K.; McCorquodale, M.M.; Burton, B.K.

    1994-09-01

    We report an unusual case of agnathia-holoprosencephaly associated with Down syndrome due to a 21/21 translocation. The patient presented prenatally at 21 wks gestation. A fetal ultrasound revealed multiple CNS anomalies including hydrocephalus, compressed cerebellum, absent septum pellucidum and possible cranial meningocele or encephalocele. High resolution ultrasound & fetal karyotype were recommended. The patient refused & elected to have a pregnancy termination. Chromosomal analysis performed on products of conception revealed a 46,XY,-21,+t(21q;21q) karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and confirmed the 21/21 translocation chromosome. An autopsy revealed agnathia and multiple CNS anomalies including absence of the septum pellucidum, absence of the corpus callosum, arhinencephaly, an occiptal meningoencephalocele, dilation of the lateral ventricles, and extensive dysgenesis & heterotopias of the central cerebrum & mid-brain. Additional abnormalities included a persistent left superior vena cava, atrial & ventricular septal defects, irregular length of the fingers with absence of the middle phalanges of the right 2nd and 5th & left 5th digits and bilateral simian creases. Agnathia can be an isolated abnormality but often is associated with holoprosencephaly and/or situs inversus. The majority of familial case of agnathis-holoprosencephaly was caused by an inherited unbalanced translocation resulting in duplication of 6p and monosomy of 18p. Our patient had a translocation form of trisomy 21 but did not have a phenotype consistent with Down syndrome. Trisomy 21 has not been previously reported in other cases of agnathia-holoprosencephaly. Whether the chromosomal abnormality caused the phenotypic abnormalities or if it is a coincidental finding cannot be determined.

  10. A New Perspective for Spreader Graft Use in Severely Deviated Septum: Is Septal Continuity an Obligation for a Stable and Straight Nasal Septum?

    PubMed

    Sirinoglu, Hakan; Yesiloglu, Nebil; Ersoy, Burak

    2016-08-01

    Severe septal deviation is a challenging deformity usually treated using aggressive surgical methods, and extracorporeal septoplasty (ECS) is a commonly used method for this issue. However, this method has severe risks and complications such as the recurrent deformity or nasal saddling. In this article, we present an alternative solution to ECS procedure for the correction of severe septal deviation. Sixteen patients with severe c- or s-shaped septal deviation with a mean age of 26.5 years were included in the study. The entire deviated part of the septal cartilage was resected as a vertical block creating a full-thickness defect between the most cranial and caudal parts of the septal cartilage. After that, two spreader grafts were placed bilaterally facilitating the septal integrity and leaving the full-thickness septal defect unchanged. The surgical results were evaluated using the preoperative and postoperative facial photographs and patient satisfaction was determined using nine relevant questions of DAS-59 scale. The only complication observed in the follow-up period of 19 months was hanging columella deformity which was corrected at the postoperative first year. The mean length of the resected septal segment was 12.4 mm. The mean length of the resultant septal cartilage defect after the vertical resection was 5.9 mm. The mean length of the placed spreader grafts was 25.6 mm. The comparison of the preoperative and postoperative photographs showed significant improvement of the nasal contour and considerable correction of the septal deviation. The statistical evaluation of the answers given to the questions of the DAS-59 scale clearly demonstrates that a significant degree of patient satisfaction was achieved. Severe septal deviation may be successfully corrected by full-thickness resection of the deviated part and reconstruction with bilateral spreader grafts with a low risk of postoperative complications. PMID:27494592

  11. Conditional deletion of WT1 in the septum transversum mesenchyme causes congenital diaphragmatic hernia in mice.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Ariza, Laura; Rojas, Anabel; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe birth defect. Wt1-null mouse embryos develop CDH but the mechanisms regulated by WT1 are unknown. We have generated a murine model with conditional deletion of WT1 in the lateral plate mesoderm, using the G2 enhancer of the Gata4 gene as a driver. 80% of G2-Gata4(Cre);Wt1(fl/fl) embryos developed typical Bochdalek-type CDH. We show that the posthepatic mesenchymal plate coelomic epithelium gives rise to a mesenchyme that populates the pleuroperitoneal folds isolating the pleural cavities before the migration of the somitic myoblasts. This process fails when Wt1 is deleted from this area. Mutant embryos show Raldh2 downregulation in the lateral mesoderm, but not in the intermediate mesoderm. The mutant phenotype was partially rescued by retinoic acid treatment of the pregnant females. Replacement of intermediate by lateral mesoderm recapitulates the evolutionary origin of the diaphragm in mammals. CDH might thus be viewed as an evolutionary atavism. PMID:27642710

  12. Identification and functional annotation of mycobacterial septum formation genes using cell division mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gaiwala Sharma, Sujata S; Kishore, Vimal; Raghunand, Tirumalai R

    2016-01-01

    The major virulence trait of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is its ability to enter a latent state in the face of robust host immunity. Clues to the molecular basis of latency can emerge from understanding the mechanism of cell division, beginning with identification of proteins involved in this process. Using complementation of Escherichia coli mutants, we functionally annotated M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis homologs of divisome proteins FtsW and AmiC. Our results demonstrate that E. coli can be used as a surrogate model to discover mycobacterial cell division genes, and should prove invaluable in delineating the mechanisms of this fundamental process in mycobacteria.

  13. Re: 'Treatment of gummy smile: Nasal septum dysplasia as etiologic factor and therapeutic target'.

    PubMed

    Polo, Mario

    2015-10-01

    An evaluation and commentary of a recently suggested technique for the correction of gummy smiles is presented. A comparison of long-term stability reported with other surgical techniques, is also performed. From the results reported, use of this technique could offer a treatment option for those affected with excessive gingival display on smiling (gummy smile).

  14. Conditional deletion of WT1 in the septum transversum mesenchyme causes congenital diaphragmatic hernia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Ariza, Laura; Rojas, Anabel; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe birth defect. Wt1-null mouse embryos develop CDH but the mechanisms regulated by WT1 are unknown. We have generated a murine model with conditional deletion of WT1 in the lateral plate mesoderm, using the G2 enhancer of the Gata4 gene as a driver. 80% of G2-Gata4Cre;Wt1fl/fl embryos developed typical Bochdalek-type CDH. We show that the posthepatic mesenchymal plate coelomic epithelium gives rise to a mesenchyme that populates the pleuroperitoneal folds isolating the pleural cavities before the migration of the somitic myoblasts. This process fails when Wt1 is deleted from this area. Mutant embryos show Raldh2 downregulation in the lateral mesoderm, but not in the intermediate mesoderm. The mutant phenotype was partially rescued by retinoic acid treatment of the pregnant females. Replacement of intermediate by lateral mesoderm recapitulates the evolutionary origin of the diaphragm in mammals. CDH might thus be viewed as an evolutionary atavism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16009.001 PMID:27642710

  15. Assessment of the effect of deviated nasal septum on the structure of nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junguo; Dou, Xin; Liu, Dingding; Song, Panpan; Qian, Xiaoyun; Wang, Shoulin; Gao, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of DNS on the structure of nasal cavity. The paranasal sinus coronal view CT of 108 patients with DNS and 129 hospitalized patients without DNS was retrospectively analyzed. The transverse diameter of nasal cavity (a), transverse diameter of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (b), angle between maxillary and palatal bone, interalveolar distance, and maxillary rotation distance were measured. The ratio of a/b in experimental group was 0.367 ± 0.006 which was significantly (P = 0.0023) less than that in control group (0.391 ± 0.005). For the angle between maxillary and palatal bone, there was no significant difference found between DNS and control group for both right and left sides. The interalveolar distance was 40.75 mm in experimental group, and 38.8 mm in control (P = 0.0002). For the maxillary rotation distance, findings were considered as significant (P < 0.0001) in experimental group (11.25 mm) compared with control (10.1 mm). The present study demonstrates that long-term DNS affects the development of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, as well as increases the interalveolar distance and maxillary rotation distance. These influences may be caused by the alteration of airflow inside the nasal cavities.

  16. Nasal septum-derived multipotent progenitors: a potent source for stem cell-based regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Abbas; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Ahmadbeigi, Naser; Yazdani, Saeed Oraee; Mojtahed, Mohammad; Amanpour, Saeid; Soleimani, Masoud

    2011-12-01

    Thus far, autologous adult stem cells have attracted great attention for clinical purposes. In this study, we aimed at identifying and comprehensively characterizing a subpopulation of multipotent cells within human nasal septal cartilage. We also conducted a comparative investigation with other well-established stem cells such as bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, adipose tissue-mesenchymal stem cells, and unrestricted somatic stem cells. The isolated clonal population was characterized using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nasal septal progenitors (NSP) expressed critical pluripotency and mesoectodermal stem cell markers. They also shared many characteristics with MSC in expression of CD90, CD105, CD106, CD166, and HLA-ABC and lack of expression of CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. NSP distinctly presented CD133 (Prominin-1). These cells could proliferate rapidly in vitro with a higher clonogenic potential and showed a longer lifespan than other studied cells. This population bears some other multipotent properties in showing a high capacity to be differentiated into other lineages including chondrocytes, osteocytes, and neural-like cell types. Another strong/positive feature of this population was their ability to be safely expanded ex vivo with no susceptibility to chromosomal abnormality or tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, NSP could be considered as an alternative autologous cell source that can bring them to the top of therapeutic applications. PMID:21401444

  17. Laser capture microdissection to identify septum-associated proteins in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Fischer, Reinhard; Teichert, Ines; Kück, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    To spatially resolve genetic differences at the cellular level, the laser-capture microdissection technique was developed. With this method cells can be cut from tissues with a laser beam and analyzed for DNA, RNA or protein composition. Here we adapted the technique to isolate septal microtubule-organizing center (MTOC)-associated proteins in Aspergillus nidulans About 3000 septa were collected and subjected to peptide fingerprinting by mass-spectrometric analysis. We identified the microtubule polymerase AlpA and found it interacts with ApsB specifically at sMTOCs, suggesting that AlpA might be involved in the assembly or the functioning of this protein complex. PMID:26951366

  18. Some behavioral effects of transecting ventral or dorsal fiber connections of the septum in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ross, J F; Grossman, L; Grossman, S P

    1975-03-01

    The behavioral effects of large electrolytic lesions in the septal area were compared with those of knife cuts that severed the ventral or dorsal connections of this structure. Rats with septal lesions lost weight and were transiently hyperdipsic. Ventral cuts produced similar effects, but dorsal cuts did not. All three operations decreased the latency to eat in a novel environment, increased the intake of sweetened milk, enhanced acquisition of a food-rewarded running response, and facilitated acquisition of a shuttle box avoidance response, The lesion, but neither of the knife cuts, reduced the effects of punishment and impaired the acquisition of a one-way avoidance response. PMID:1150960

  19. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome: Time to Revisit Case Series.

    PubMed

    Shubhakaran; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-09-01

    We read a case report by Manghera et al (JAPI, Vol 62 page No. 76-67), which was in response to an earlier case report by Ola et al.1 Here we would like to share our experience and views as under- The authors in the correspondence have said that crossed cerebellar atrophy is an unusual and rare finding. We in our study of 28 patients of DDMS, have found cerebellar atrophy in nine patients along with cerebral atrophy.2 Out of nine patients with cerebellar atrophy three patients had diffuse bilateral atrophy, only one patient had unilateral cerebellar atrophy which was controlateral to left cerebral hemiatrophy (CHA). This is similar to the findings of the authors and the patho-physiology quoted by authors is worth appreciation. Other parenchymal changes observed in our study were cerebral peduncle atrophy in three patients, and thalamic atrophy with lentiform nucleus hypoplasia in 11 patients. Seven cases of CHA were associated with ipsilateral large schizencephalic cleft with absence of the septum pellucidum whereas two had porencephaly. Five patients had left-sided hippocampal sclerosis (HS), four were concordant and one was discordant. PMID:27608884

  20. Extraventricular neurocytoma in the left temporal lobe: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    JI, YU-CHEN; HU, JING-XIA; LI, YAN; YAN, PENG-XIANG; ZUO, HUAN-CONG

    2016-01-01

    Central neurocytoma (CNC) often develops in the ventricular system adjacent to the interventricular foramen and septum pellucidum. According to the World Health Organization, CNCs are classified as grade II tumors, and in recent years it has been reported that CNCs have occasionally occurred in rare areas of the central nervous system. The current study describes a rare case of CNC located in the left temporal lobe of a 49-year-old man, who had been experiencing headaches for 3 weeks. Computed tomography identified a round, well-demarcated, 3.3-cm tumor in the left temporal lobe. The patient underwent surgery and the tumor was totally resected. Histological analysis demonstrated that the resected tumor tissue contained clusters of small cells with regular nuclear morphology, and round nuclei with fine chromatin. Immunohistochemically, neuronal differentiation markers, including synaptophysin and neuronal nuclear antigen, were expressed in the tumor cells. Histopathological examination of the resected tissue confirmed a diagnosis of extraventricular neurocytoma. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 3 months post-surgery and demonstrated no evidence of tumor recurrence. PMID:27313678

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with lateral cerebral ventriculomegaly in English Bulldogs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christopher T; Glass, Eric N; Seiler, Gabriela; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Mai, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Multiple congenital or developmental anomalies associated with the central nervous system have been reported in English Bulldogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify and describe the prevalence and MRI characteristics of these anomalies and their association with presence and degree of cerebral ventriculomegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of 50 English Bulldogs were evaluated. Forty-eight dogs had some degree of cerebral ventriculomegaly, 27 of which had an otherwise normal brain. Presence of lateral ventriculomegaly was not significantly associated with presence of another intracranial lesion. Appearance of the septum pellucidum was variable, ranging from intact to incomplete or completely absent. The corpus callosum was subjectively thinned in all but three dogs, two of which had normal lateral ventricles. Fusion of the rostral colliculi was not found in any dog. A persistent craniopharyngeal canal was identified in one dog. Aqueductal stenosis caused by fusion of the rostral colliculi was not identified in any dog. Findings indicated that cerebral ventriculomegaly is a common finding in English Bulldogs with or without other intracranial lesions, aqueductal stenosis caused by fusion of the rostral colliculi is unlikely to be a common etiology leading to obstructive hydrocephalus, and a large craniopharyngeal canal is a rare finding that has unknown clinical significance at this time.

  2. Atypical Features in a Large Turkish Family Affected with Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Cevik, Betul; Aksoy, Durdane; Sahbaz, E. Irmak; Basak, A. Nazli

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the clinical features of several members of the same family diagnosed with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and cerebral lesions, demyelinating neuropathy, and late-age onset without a significant cardiac involvement and presenting with similar symptoms, although genetic testing was negative for the GAA repeat expansion in one patient of the family. The GAA repeat expansion in the frataxin gene was shown in all of the family members except in a young female patient. MRI revealed arachnoid cysts in two patients; MRI was consistent with both cavum septum pellucidum-cavum vergae and nodular signal intensity increase in one patient. EMG showed demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy in another patient. The GAA expansion-negative 11-year-old female patient had mental-motor retardation, epilepsy, and ataxia. None of the patients had significant cardiac symptoms. Description of FRDA families with different ethnic backgrounds may assist in identifying possible phenotypic and genetic features of the disease. Furthermore, the genetic heterogeneity observed in this family draws attention to the difficulty of genetic counseling in an inbred population and to the need for genotyping all affected members before delivering comprehensive genetic counseling.

  3. Atypical Features in a Large Turkish Family Affected with Friedreich Ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Semiha; Cevik, Betul; Aksoy, Durdane; Sahbaz, E Irmak; Gundogdu Eken, Aslı; Basak, A Nazli

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the clinical features of several members of the same family diagnosed with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and cerebral lesions, demyelinating neuropathy, and late-age onset without a significant cardiac involvement and presenting with similar symptoms, although genetic testing was negative for the GAA repeat expansion in one patient of the family. The GAA repeat expansion in the frataxin gene was shown in all of the family members except in a young female patient. MRI revealed arachnoid cysts in two patients; MRI was consistent with both cavum septum pellucidum-cavum vergae and nodular signal intensity increase in one patient. EMG showed demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy in another patient. The GAA expansion-negative 11-year-old female patient had mental-motor retardation, epilepsy, and ataxia. None of the patients had significant cardiac symptoms. Description of FRDA families with different ethnic backgrounds may assist in identifying possible phenotypic and genetic features of the disease. Furthermore, the genetic heterogeneity observed in this family draws attention to the difficulty of genetic counseling in an inbred population and to the need for genotyping all affected members before delivering comprehensive genetic counseling. PMID:27668106

  4. [Intraventricular arachnoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Rico-Cotelo, María; Diaz-Cabanas, Lucía; Allut, Alfredo G; Gelabert-Gonzalez, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. Intracranial arachnoids cysts are considered benign developmental anomalies that occur within the arachnoid membrane and generally contain clear and colourless fluid resembling cerebrospinal fluid. The prevalence of these cysts is higher in the first two decades of life, and the incidence is widely quoted as approximately 1% of all space-occupying intracranial lesions. Arachnoids cysts in the elderly person are a rare occurrence. We report the unusual presentation of a woman with an intraventricular arachnoid cyst treated with endoscopic technique. CASE REPORT. A 75-year-old woman presented with progressive hemiparesis of two years duration. Cranial MR imaging showed a right parieto-occipital intraventricular cyst with local mass effect and moderate dilatation of lateral ventricles. A right-sided burr hole was made and the arachnoids cyst was reached and cysto-ventricle shunting was realized. This was followed by a septum pellucidum fenestration. There were no complications during the surgery and the patient presented no symptoms at time of discharge. CONCLUSIONS. The neuroendoscopic approach to intraventricular arachnoid cysts was effective with few complications.

  5. Atypical Features in a Large Turkish Family Affected with Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Cevik, Betul; Aksoy, Durdane; Sahbaz, E. Irmak; Basak, A. Nazli

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the clinical features of several members of the same family diagnosed with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and cerebral lesions, demyelinating neuropathy, and late-age onset without a significant cardiac involvement and presenting with similar symptoms, although genetic testing was negative for the GAA repeat expansion in one patient of the family. The GAA repeat expansion in the frataxin gene was shown in all of the family members except in a young female patient. MRI revealed arachnoid cysts in two patients; MRI was consistent with both cavum septum pellucidum-cavum vergae and nodular signal intensity increase in one patient. EMG showed demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy in another patient. The GAA expansion-negative 11-year-old female patient had mental-motor retardation, epilepsy, and ataxia. None of the patients had significant cardiac symptoms. Description of FRDA families with different ethnic backgrounds may assist in identifying possible phenotypic and genetic features of the disease. Furthermore, the genetic heterogeneity observed in this family draws attention to the difficulty of genetic counseling in an inbred population and to the need for genotyping all affected members before delivering comprehensive genetic counseling. PMID:27668106

  6. Neuronavigation-assisted single transseptal catheter implantation and shunt in patients with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and accentuated lateral ventricles dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Carvi Nievas, Mario N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To assess the treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus with accentuated lateral ventricles dilatation by employing a single biventricular neuronavigation-assisted transseptal-implanted catheter with programmable valve and distal peritoneal derivation. Methods: A neuronavigation-assisted single transseptal biventricular catheter implantation with distal peritoneal shunt system was performed in 11 patients with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and accentuated lateral ventricles dilatations between 2001 and 2010. Patients with concomitant third ventricle dilatation were excluded. Several sequential frustrated attempts of temporary drainage occlusion on both sides confirmed the isolation of the lateral ventricles. Neuronavigation was employed to accurately establish the catheter surgical corridor (trajectory) across the lateral ventricles and throughout the septum pellucidum. The neurological and radiological outcomes were assessed at least 6 months after the procedure. Results: Catheter implantation was successfully performed in all patients. Only one catheter was found to be monoventricular on delayed computer tomography controls. Procedure-related complications (bleeding of infections) were not observed. No additional neurological deficits were found after shunt surgery. Six months after procedure, none required additional ventricular catheter implantations or shunt revisions. Radiological and clinical controls confirmed the shunt function and the improved neurological status of all patients. Conclusion: Single neuronavigation-assisted transseptal-implanted biventricular catheter is a valid option for the treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus with accentuated lateral ventricles dilatation. This technique reduces the number of catheters and minimizes the complexity and timing of the surgical procedure as well as potential infection's risks associated with the use of multiple shunting systems. PMID:21541201

  7. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Biventricular Hydrocephalus Caused by a Giant Basilar Apex Aneurysm via a Staged Combination of Endoscopy and Endovascular Embolization: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Setty, Pradeep; Volkov, Andrey; Richards, Boyd; Barrett, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Biventricular hydrocephalus caused by a Giant Basilar Apex Aneurysm (GBAA) is a rare finding that presents unique and challenging treatment decisions. We report a case of GBAA causing a life-threatening biventricular hydrocephalus in which both the aneurysm and hydrocephalus were given definitive treatment through a staged, minimally invasive approach. An obtunded 82-year-old male was found to have biventricular hydrocephalus caused by an unruptured GBAA obstructing the foramina of Monro. The patient was treated via staged, minimally invasive technique that first involved endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum to create communication between the lateral ventricles. A programmable ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was then placed with a high-pressure setting. The patient was then loaded with dual anti-platelet therapy prior to undergoing endovascular coiling of the GBAA with adjacent stenting of the Posterior Cerebral Artery. He remained on dual anti-platelet therapy and the shunt setting was lowered at the bedside to treat the hydrocephalus. At 6-month follow up, the patient had returned to his cognitive baseline, speaking fluently and appropriately. Biventricular hydrocephalus caused by a GBAA can successfully be treated in a minimally invasive fashion utilizing a combination of endoscopy and endovascular therapy, even when a stent-assisted coiling is needed.

  8. The fornix of the human brain: evidence of left/right asymmetry on axial MRI scans.

    PubMed

    Supprian, T; Hofmann, E

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the observation that there is a left/right asymmetry of the anterior columns of the fornix in the human brain. This asymmetry is present in the position of the two columns of the fornix in relation to the septum pellucidum. The left columna fornicis was found to be located caudal to the right, and this can be readily visualized on axial MRI scans. This difference was seen in most of the subjects, but in some subjects there was no left/right-difference and in a few the asymmetry was inverse. The asymmetry of the fornix with respect to the anterior-posterior axis was independent of the well-known dissimilar lateral ventricular volumes. However, the left/right difference in the position of the fornix was evident in subjects with or without differences in ventricular volumes. This suggests that the mechanism underlying the development of asymmetry of the fornix is independent of the mechanism leading to ventricular asymmetry. So far, no functional relevance has been ascribed to such differences in location. The finding is gaining interest in connection with recent reports of asymmetries in hippocampal subfields. Studies of fornical lesions should therefore give attention to possible side-to-side differences.

  9. Emerging tumor entities and variants of CNS neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Cenacchi, Giovanna; Giangaspero, Felice

    2004-03-01

    Since the appearance in 2000 of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms, numerous descriptions of new entities or variants have appeared in the literature. In the group of neuronal and mixed glioneuronal neoplasms are lesions with distinctive morphological features that are still not included in a precise classification, including extraventricular neurocytoma, papillary glioneuronal tumor, rosette-forming glioneuronal of the fourth ventricle, glioneuronal with neuropil-like rosette, and DNT-like tumor of the septum pellucidum. The glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like rosette and oligodendroglioma with neurocytic differentiation represent morphological variants of genetically proven diffuse gliomas. The lipoastrocytoma and the pilomixoid astrocytoma enlarge the group of astrocytic lesions. Rare, low-grade gliomas of the spinal cord with extensive leptomeningeal dissemination associated with unusual neuroimaging are described. The chordoid glioma of the third ventricle and the papillary tumor of the pineal region seem to be correlated by a common histogenesis from the specialized ependyma of the subcommissural organ. An embryonal tumor with neuropil and true rosettes combining features of neuroblastoma and ependymoblastoma is discussed. These new, recently described lesions indicate that the complex morphologic spectrum of CNS tumors is far from being completely delineated.

  10. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Athletes: Progressive Tauopathy following Repetitive Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Gavett, Brandon E.; Budson, Andrew E.; Santini, Veronica E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Stern, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed “dementia pugilistica” and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review the 47 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 professional athletes: one football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes, Parkinsonism, and speech and gait abnormalities. Neuropathologically, CTE is characterized by atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem, with ventricular dilatation and a fenestrated cavum septum pellucidum. Microscopically, there are extensive tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles, and spindle-shaped and threadlike neurites throughout the brain. The neurofibrillary degeneration of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies by preferential involvement of the superficial cortical layers, irregular, patchy distribution in the frontal and temporal cortices, propensity for sulcal depths, prominent perivascular, periventricular and subpial distribution, and marked accumulation of tau-immunoreactive astrocytes. Deposition of beta amyloid, most commonly as diffuse plaques, occurs in fewer than half the cases. CTE is a neuropathologically distinct, slowly progressive tauopathy with a clear environmental etiology. PMID:19535999

  11. [The application of the lyophilized xenodermoimplants for the plastic correction of the external auditory canal and nasal septum perforation].

    PubMed

    Antoniv, V F; Popadyuk, V I; Aksenov, V M; Antoniv, T V; Korshunova, I A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of atresia of the external auditory canal (EAC). Atresia of external acoustic meatus is a result of a mechanical or thermal injury but can also develop after a surgical intervention for the removal of foreign bodies, benign and malignant tumours. This condition is frequently associated with the narrowing and obliteration of EAC leading to the marked impairment of hearing despite preservation of the middle ear structures. Plastic correction of the external auditory canal for the purpose of its broadening does not always produce the desired result. To improve the efficiency of such intervention, we made use of the lyophilized xenodermoimplants based on porcine skin. Such preparation were applied in 19 patients; patency of the external auditory canal was restored in 16 cases. PMID:27367342

  12. GABAergic neurons of the medial septum play a nodal role in facilitation of nociception-induced affect.

    PubMed

    Ang, Seok Ting; Lee, Andy Thiam Huat; Foo, Fang Chee; Ng, Lynn; Low, Chian-Ming; Khanna, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the functional details of the influence of medial septal region (MSDB) on spectrum of nociceptive behaviours by manipulating intraseptal GABAergic mechanisms. Results showed that formalin-induced acute nociception was not affected by intraseptal microinjection of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, or on selective lesion of septal GABAergic neurons. Indeed, the acute nociceptive responses were dissociated from the regulation of sensorimotor behaviour and generation of theta-rhythm by the GABAergic mechanisms in MSDB. The GABAergic lesion attenuated formalin-induced unconditioned cellular response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and blocked formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), and as well as the contextual fear induced on conditioning with brief footshock. The effects of lesion on nociceptive-conditioned cellular responses were, however, variable. Interestingly, the lesion attenuated the conditioned representation of experimental context in dorsal hippocampus field CA1 in the F-CPA task. Collectively, the preceding suggests that the MSDB is a nodal centre wherein the GABAergic neurons mediate nociceptive affect-motivation by regulating cellular mechanisms in ACC that confer an aversive value to the noxious stimulus. Further, in conjunction with a modulatory influence on hippocampal contextual processing, MSDB may integrate affect with context as part of associative learning in the F-CPA task. PMID:26487082

  13. GABAergic neurons of the medial septum play a nodal role in facilitation of nociception-induced affect

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Seok Ting; Lee, Andy Thiam Huat; Foo, Fang Chee; Ng, Lynn; Low, Chian-Ming; Khanna, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the functional details of the influence of medial septal region (MSDB) on spectrum of nociceptive behaviours by manipulating intraseptal GABAergic mechanisms. Results showed that formalin-induced acute nociception was not affected by intraseptal microinjection of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, or on selective lesion of septal GABAergic neurons. Indeed, the acute nociceptive responses were dissociated from the regulation of sensorimotor behaviour and generation of theta-rhythm by the GABAergic mechanisms in MSDB. The GABAergic lesion attenuated formalin-induced unconditioned cellular response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and blocked formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA), and as well as the contextual fear induced on conditioning with brief footshock. The effects of lesion on nociceptive-conditioned cellular responses were, however, variable. Interestingly, the lesion attenuated the conditioned representation of experimental context in dorsal hippocampus field CA1 in the F-CPA task. Collectively, the preceding suggests that the MSDB is a nodal centre wherein the GABAergic neurons mediate nociceptive affect-motivation by regulating cellular mechanisms in ACC that confer an aversive value to the noxious stimulus. Further, in conjunction with a modulatory influence on hippocampal contextual processing, MSDB may integrate affect with context as part of associative learning in the F-CPA task. PMID:26487082

  14. The transmission of masticatory forces and nasal septum: structural comparison of the human skull and Gothic cathedral.

    PubMed

    Hilloowala, Rumy; Kanth, Hrishi

    2007-07-01

    This study extrapolates the transmission of masticatory forces to the cranium based on the architectural principles of Gothic cathedrals. The most significant finding of the study, obtained by analysis of coronal CT scans, is the role of the hard palate, and especially the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid in masticatory force transmission. The study also confirms, experimentally, the paths of masticatory forces, cited in literature but based purely on morphological observations. Human skulls and Gothic cathedrals have similar morphological and functional characteristics. The load exerted by the roof of the cathedral is transmitted to the ground by piers and buttresses. These structures also resist the shearing forces exerted by high winds. Similarly, the mid-facial bones of the skull transmit the vertical as well as the lateral masticatory forces from the maxillary dentition to the skull base. The nonload bearing walls and stained glass windows of the cathedral correspond to the translucent wall of the maxilla. The passageway between the aisle and the nave of the cathedral is equivalent to the meatal openings in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.

  15. Cavitation-based third ventriculostomy using MRI-guided focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Alkins, Ryan; Huang, Yuexi; Pajek, Dan; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-01-01

    Object Transcranial focused ultrasound is increasingly being investigated as a minimally invasive treatment for a range of intracranial pathologies. At higher peak rarefaction pressures than those used for thermal ablation, focused ultrasound can initiate inertial cavitation and create holes in the brain by fractionation of the tissue elements. The authors investigated the technical feasibility of using MRI-guided focused ultrasound to perform a third ventriculostomy as a possible noninvasive alternative to endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus. Methods A craniectomy was performed in male pigs weighing 13–19 kg to expose the supratentorial brain, leaving the dura mater intact. Seven pigs were treated through the craniectomy, while 2 pigs were treated through ex vivo human skulls placed in the beam path. Registration and targeting was done using T2-weighted MRI sequences. For transcranial treatments a CT scan was used to correct the beam from aberrations due to the skull and maintain a small, high-intensity focus. Sonications were performed at both 650 kHz and 230 kHz at a range of intensities, and the in situ pressures were estimated both from simulations and experimental data to establish a threshold for tissue fractionation in the brain. Results In craniectomized animals at 650 kHz, a peak pressure ≥ 22.7 MPa for 1 second was needed to reliably create a ventriculostomy. Transcranially at this frequency the ExAblate 4000 was unable to generate the required intensity to fractionate tissue, although cavitation was initiated. At 230 kHz, ventriculostomy was successful through the skull with a peak pressure of 8.8 MPa. Conclusions This is the first study to suggest that it is possible to perform a completely noninvasive third ventriculostomy using ultrasound. This may pave the way for future studies and eventually provide an alternative means for the creation of CSF communications in the brain, including perforation of the septum pellucidum or

  16. Twin studies of posttraumatic stress disorder: differentiating vulnerability factors from sequelae.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Koenen, Karestan C; Afari, Niloofar; Lyons, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined by one's response to an environmental event. However, genetic factors are important in determining people's response to that event, and even their likelihood of being exposed to particular traumatic events in the first place. Classical twin designs can decompose genetic and environmental sources of variance. Such studies are reviewed extensively elsewhere, and we cover them only briefly in this review. Instead, we focus primarily on the identical co-twin control design. This design makes it possible to resolve the "chicken-egg" dilemma inherent in standard case-control designs, namely, distinguishing risk from sequelae. Abnormalities that are present in both the twin with PTSD and the unaffected co-twin suggest pre-existing vulnerability indicators. These include smaller hippocampal volume, large cavum septum pellucidum, more neurological soft signs, lower general intellectual ability, and poorer performance in the specific cognitive abilities of executive function, attention, declarative memory, and processing of contextual cues. In contrast, abnormalities in a twin with PTSD that are not present in the identical co-twin suggest consequences of PTSD or trauma exposure. These include psychophysiological responding, higher resting anterior cingulate metabolism, event-related potential abnormalities associated with attentional processes, recall intrusions, and possibly some types of chronic pain. Most co-twin control studies of PTSD have been small and come from the same twin registry of middle-aged male veterans. Consequently, there is a great need for replication and extension of the findings, particularly in women and younger individuals. The creation of new twin registries would do much toward accomplishing this goal. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:21443892

  17. A Case Report of Catatonia and Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome With Multiple Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Yu-Jie; Lee, Yu; Lin, Chin-Chuen; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe a case with complicated clinical presentations who was difficult to treat. We described the possible etiologies and differential diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), catatonia, and infection, in details. This patient was also referred to neuro-intensive care unit for extensive workup and treatments by neurologist guidelines. In addition, we also used lorazepam–diazepam protocol and antipsychotics, but both failed to completely relieve her symptoms. She eventually responded to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A 60-year-old female patient with schizophrenia was diagnosed to suspected pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and retarded catatonia at first. The brain computed tomography revealed no significant finding. She developed NMS caused by the administration of low-dose quetiapine (200 mg) after carbamazepine was discontinued. The Francis–Yacoub NMS rating scale (F-Y scale) total score was 90. We utilized lorazepam–diazepam protocol and prescribed bromocriptine and amantadine, but NMS was not improved. Meanwhile, we arranged the brain magnetic resonance imaging to survey the physical problem, which revealed agenesis of septum pellucidum and dilated lateral ventricles. She was then transferred to the neuro-intensive care unit on the 15th hospital day for complete study. The results of cerebrospinal fluid study and electroencephalography were unremarkable. She was transferred back to psychiatric ward on the 21st hospital day with residual catatonic and parkinsonian symptoms of NMS, and the F-Y scale total score was 63. Finally, her residual catatonic condition that followed NMS got improved after 11 sessions of ECT. On the 47th hospital day, the F-Y scale total score was 9. This report underscores that the ECT is an effective treatment for a patient of NMS when other treatments have failed. PMID:26512569

  18. Mechanisms for the adverse effects of late gestational increases in maternal cortisol on the heart revealed by transcriptomic analyses of the fetal septum

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Charles E.; Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Antolic, Andrew; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown in sheep that 10 days of modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol resulting from maternal infusion of cortisol (1 mg/kg/day) caused fetal heart enlargement and Purkinje cell apoptosis. In subsequent studies we extended the cortisol infusion to term, finding a dramatic incidence of stillbirth in the pregnancies with chronically increased cortisol. To investigate effects of maternal cortisol on the heart, we performed transcriptomic analyses on the septa using ovine microarrays and Webgestalt and Cytoscape programs for pathway inference. Analyses of the transcriptomic effects of maternal cortisol infusion for 10 days (130 day cortisol vs 130 day control), or ∼25 days (140 day cortisol vs 140 day control) and of normal maturation (140 day control vs 130 day control) were performed. Gene ontology terms related to immune function and cytokine actions were significantly overrepresented as genes altered by both cortisol and maturation in the septa. After 10 days of cortisol, growth factor and muscle cell apoptosis pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with our previous histologic findings. In the term fetuses (∼25 days of cortisol) nutrient pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with altered metabolism and reduced mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial number by mitochondrial DNA expression confirmed a significant decrease in mitochondria. The metabolic pathways modeled as altered by cortisol treatment to term were different from those modeled during maturation of the heart to term, and thus changes in gene expression in these metabolic pathways may be indicative of the fetal heart pathophysiologies seen in pregnancies complicated by stillbirth, including gestational diabetes, Cushing's disease and chronic stress. PMID:24867915

  19. Identification of Phosphoinositide-Binding Protein PATELLIN2 as a Substrate of Arabidopsis MPK4 MAP Kinase during Septum Formation in Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takamasa; Matsushima, Chiyuki; Nishimura, Shingo; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Sasabe, Michiko; Machida, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases controls many cellular and physiological processes, which include intracellular signal transduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of such controls and numerous substrates of protein kinases remain to be characterized. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is of particular importance in a variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling processes. In plant cells, the progression of cytokinesis is an excellent example of an intracellular phenomenon that requires the MAPK cascade. However, the way in which MAPKs control downstream processes during cytokinesis in plant cells remains to be fully determined. We show here that comparisons, by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, of phosphorylated proteins from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and mutant plants defective in a MAPK cascade allow identification of substrates of a specific MAPK. Using this method, we identified the PATELLIN2 (PATL2) protein, which has a SEC14 domain, as a substrate of MPK4 MAP kinase. PATL2 was concentrated at the cell division plane, as is MPK4, and had binding affinity for phosphoinositides. This binding affinity was altered after phosphorylation of PATL2 by MPK4, suggesting a role for the MAPK cascade in the formation of cell plates via regeneration of membranes during cytokinesis. PMID:27335345

  20. [The process of ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarct associated with left ventricular aneurysm and ventricular septum rupture treated with radical surgery].

    PubMed

    Hůla, J

    1997-01-01

    Even after a successful operation of mechanical complications on account of acute myocardial infarction gradually developing adverse remodelling of the left ventricle has to be envisaged. In a six-year clinical study by means of echocardiography the authors followed up systematically some cardiac dimensions and volumes and functional systolic and diastolic left ventricular parameters. The changes pertained in particular to the endsystolic and enddiastolic volume, the ejection fraction, the peak maximum rate, early and late diastolic filling and their ratio as well as to indirect values of the mean pressure in the pulmonary artery. These changes, which at first indicated impaired relaxation, are caused subsequently by increasing stiffness of the left ventricle. With regard to the large number of complicated pathophysiological phenomena pertaining to active relaxation and passive elastic properties of the left ventricle during ventricular diastole, different Doppler parameters must be evaluated very carefully, individually and with regard to the clinical condition. Attention is drawn to the importance of complicating mitral regurgitations and an increased pressure in the left atrium and lesser circulation after aneurysmectomy of the left ventricle. Mitral regurgitation has an impact on the process of left ventricular filling investigated by means of diastolic Doppler functions. Despite limitations of echocardiographic methods within the framework of assessment of diastolic left ventricular functions after myocardial infarction echocardiography remains the main means for evaluating left ventricular function by a non-invasive route and its position in this respect is irreplaceable. Further experimental work is needed for better understanding, use and more intelligent interpretation of non-invasive parameters of left ventricular function also in these complicated conditions after surgery of mechanical complications resulting from myocardial infarction. PMID:9221569

  1. [Vaginal vault fixation and reinforcement of the rectovaginal septum technique for the treatment of vault prolapse associated or not with rectocele].

    PubMed

    Pigne, Alain; Faux, A; Deval, B

    2011-04-01

    The most important current concept in therapeutic management of female genital prolapse is the use of non absorbable prosthesis through a vaginal approach. The application of these surgical techniques to repair prolapse aims to restore the anatomic position of the pelvis, while preserving urinary, bowel and sexual functions. Since 2005, we use the Apogee® prosthesis for the treatment of both the vault prolapse and associated posterior colpocele. The purpose of this paper is the detailed description of the technique of placement of Apogee® prosthetic system, so that it can be useful to clarify the key points of this surgical reconstructive surgical technique and different gestures associated with the placement of this type of prosthesis.

  2. Mechanisms for the adverse effects of late gestational increases in maternal cortisol on the heart revealed by transcriptomic analyses of the fetal septum.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elaine M; Wood, Charles E; Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Antolic, Andrew; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    We have previously shown in sheep that 10 days of modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol resulting from maternal infusion of cortisol (1 mg/kg/day) caused fetal heart enlargement and Purkinje cell apoptosis. In subsequent studies we extended the cortisol infusion to term, finding a dramatic incidence of stillbirth in the pregnancies with chronically increased cortisol. To investigate effects of maternal cortisol on the heart, we performed transcriptomic analyses on the septa using ovine microarrays and Webgestalt and Cytoscape programs for pathway inference. Analyses of the transcriptomic effects of maternal cortisol infusion for 10 days (130 day cortisol vs 130 day control), or ∼25 days (140 day cortisol vs 140 day control) and of normal maturation (140 day control vs 130 day control) were performed. Gene ontology terms related to immune function and cytokine actions were significantly overrepresented as genes altered by both cortisol and maturation in the septa. After 10 days of cortisol, growth factor and muscle cell apoptosis pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with our previous histologic findings. In the term fetuses (∼25 days of cortisol) nutrient pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with altered metabolism and reduced mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial number by mitochondrial DNA expression confirmed a significant decrease in mitochondria. The metabolic pathways modeled as altered by cortisol treatment to term were different from those modeled during maturation of the heart to term, and thus changes in gene expression in these metabolic pathways may be indicative of the fetal heart pathophysiologies seen in pregnancies complicated by stillbirth, including gestational diabetes, Cushing's disease and chronic stress.

  3. Tracking the Fear Memory Engram: Discrete Populations of Neurons within Amygdala, Hypothalamus, and Lateral Septum Are Specifically Activated by Auditory Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher W.; Wilson, Yvette M.; Gunnersen, Jenny M.; Murphy, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Memory formation is thought to occur via enhanced synaptic connectivity between populations of neurons in the brain. However, it has been difficult to localize and identify the neurons that are directly involved in the formation of any specific memory. We have previously used "fos-tau-lacZ" ("FTL") transgenic mice to identify…

  4. A neurologist's reflections on boxing. V. Conclude remarks.

    PubMed

    Unterharnscheidt, F

    1995-01-01

    reparation or restitution of the destroyed neural tissue of the brain. What is destroyed remains so, a restitution ad integrum does not occur. As the result of the diffuse loss of neurons in the brain a cerebral atrophy exists. The septum pellucidum, which consists of two thin lamellae, and is small or very small in a normal brain, forms a Cavum septi pellucidi, which is considerably enlarged. The walls of this structure, especially in its dorsal parts are considerably thinned; they show fenestrations and are, in dorsal parts no longer detectable, so that a direct connection between the two lateral ventricles exists. The clinically and morphologically existing permanent brain damage is the result of the boxing activity. Diagnostically, processes of another origin, such as alcoholism, luetic processes, other forms of dementia, etc. can undoubtedly be excluded. A permanent brain damage develops in professional and amateur boxers. The objection, which are voiced by members of the different Amateur Boxing Association, that such permanent brain damage in amateur boxers today no longer exists, after stricter protective measurements were introduced, is not tenable. Individuals who represent today the opinion, that a permanent brain damage or punch drunkenness in boxers does not occur, are not familiar with the pertinent medical literature. The argument, the injury quotient in boxing is lower than in all other athletic activities is not sound, since the statistics show only the inconsequential injuries of boxers, as lesions of the skin of the face, injuries of the hand, fractures, etc. but not the much more important and severe permanent brain damage, which is not taken into consideration in these so-called statistics. Besides of the permanent brain damage of former boxers as the result of the repeated and numerous blows against their head, severe permanent damage of the eyes and the hearing organ exists.

  5. Is There Chronic Brain Damage in Retired NFL Players? Neuroradiology, Neuropsychology, and Neurology Examinations of 45 Retired Players

    PubMed Central

    Casson, Ira R.; Viano, David C.; Haacke, E. Mark; Kou, Zhifeng; LeStrange, Danielle G.

    2014-01-01

    majority of retired players had normal clinical mental status and central nervous system (CNS) neurological examinations. Four players (9%) had microbleeds in brain parenchyma identified in SWI, and 3 (7%) had a large cavum septum pellucidum with brain atrophy. The number of concussions/dings was associated with abnormal results in SWI and DTI. Neuropsychological testing revealed isolated impairments in 11 players (24%), but none had dementia. Nine players (20%) endorsed symptoms of moderate or severe depression on the BDI and/or met criteria for depression on PHQ; however, none had dementia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, or cerebellar dysfunction. The number of football-related concussions was associated with isolated abnormalities on the clinical neurological examination, suggesting CNS dysfunction. The APOE4 allele was present in 38% of the players, a larger number than would be expected in the general male population (23%-26%). Conclusion: MRI lesions and neuropsychological impairments were found in some players; however, the majority of retired NFL players had no clinical signs of chronic brain damage. Clinical Relevance: These results need to be reconciled with the prevailing view that a career in football frequently results in chronic brain damage. PMID:25177413

  6. Hyphomycetes in the snow from gymnosperm trees.

    PubMed

    Czeczuga, B; Orłowska, M

    1998-01-01

    The presence of 26 hyphomycete species was noted in snow water collected from coniferous trees. Camposporium pellucidum, Monodictys peruviana, Polystratorictus fusarioideus, Sporidesmium moniliforme, Tripospermum acerinum and Veronaea botryosa were recorded for the first time to Poland. Among the 26 species found in snow water from coniferous trees predominance of the socalled aero-aquatic hyphomycetes and only a few species belong to the group of aquatic hyphomycetes.

  7. Endoscopic laser treatment of uterine malformations.

    PubMed

    Donnez, J; Nisolle, M

    1997-07-01

    Hysteroscopic resection of an intrauterine septum may benefit patients suffering from infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss. A partial or complete uterine septum can be easily resected using a Nd-YAG laser. If present, the vaginal septum may also be removed during the same procedure. The reproductive outcome of women treated by operative hysteroscopy for an intrauterine septum is reviewed. To avoid pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn, the removal of the horn and the homolateral tube may be performed by either bipolar coagulation or a CO2 laser.

  8. Extreme variation in the atrial septation of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    de Bakker, Desiderius M; Wilkinson, Mark; Jensen, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    Caecilians (order Gymnophiona) are elongate, limbless, snake-like amphibians that are the sister-group (closest relatives) of all other recent amphibians (frogs and salamanders). Little is known of their cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, but one nearly century old study suggests that Hypogeophis (family Indotyphlidae), commonly relied upon as a representative caecilian species, has atrial septation in the frontal plane and more than one septum. In contrast, in other vertebrates there generally is one atrial septum in the sagittal plane. We studied the adult heart of Idiocranium (also Indotyphlidae) using immunohistochemistry and confirm that the interatrial septum is close to the frontal plane. Additionally, a parallel right atrial septum divides three-fourths of the right atrial cavity of this species. Idiocranium embryos in the Hill collection reveal that atrial septation initiates in the sagittal plane as in other tetrapods. Late developmental stages, however, see a left-ward shift of visceral organs and a concordant rotation of the atria that reorients the atrial septa towards the frontal plane. The gross anatomies of species from six other caecilian families reveal that (i) the right atrial septum developed early in caecilian evolution (only absent in Rhinatrematidae) and that (ii) rotation of the atria evolved later and its degree varies between families. In most vertebrates a prominent atrial trabeculation associates with the sinuatrial valve, the so-called septum spurium, and the right atrial septum seems homologous to this trabeculation but much more developed. The right atrial septum does not appear to be a consequence of body elongation because it is absent in some caecilians and in snakes. The interatrial septum of caecilians shares multiple characters with the atrial septum of lungfishes, salamanders and the embryonic septum primum of amniotes. In conclusion, atrial septation in caecilians is based on evolutionarily conserved structures but

  9. Extreme variation in the atrial septation of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    de Bakker, Desiderius M; Wilkinson, Mark; Jensen, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    Caecilians (order Gymnophiona) are elongate, limbless, snake-like amphibians that are the sister-group (closest relatives) of all other recent amphibians (frogs and salamanders). Little is known of their cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, but one nearly century old study suggests that Hypogeophis (family Indotyphlidae), commonly relied upon as a representative caecilian species, has atrial septation in the frontal plane and more than one septum. In contrast, in other vertebrates there generally is one atrial septum in the sagittal plane. We studied the adult heart of Idiocranium (also Indotyphlidae) using immunohistochemistry and confirm that the interatrial septum is close to the frontal plane. Additionally, a parallel right atrial septum divides three-fourths of the right atrial cavity of this species. Idiocranium embryos in the Hill collection reveal that atrial septation initiates in the sagittal plane as in other tetrapods. Late developmental stages, however, see a left-ward shift of visceral organs and a concordant rotation of the atria that reorients the atrial septa towards the frontal plane. The gross anatomies of species from six other caecilian families reveal that (i) the right atrial septum developed early in caecilian evolution (only absent in Rhinatrematidae) and that (ii) rotation of the atria evolved later and its degree varies between families. In most vertebrates a prominent atrial trabeculation associates with the sinuatrial valve, the so-called septum spurium, and the right atrial septum seems homologous to this trabeculation but much more developed. The right atrial septum does not appear to be a consequence of body elongation because it is absent in some caecilians and in snakes. The interatrial septum of caecilians shares multiple characters with the atrial septum of lungfishes, salamanders and the embryonic septum primum of amniotes. In conclusion, atrial septation in caecilians is based on evolutionarily conserved structures but

  10. A secure method of nasal endotracheal tube stabilization with suture and rubber tube.

    PubMed

    Ota, Y; Karakida, K; Aoki, T; Yamazaki, H; Arai, I; Mori, Y; Nakatogawa, N; Suzuki, T

    2001-12-01

    A new method of stabilizing the nasal endotrascheal tube was described. The tube was secured to the anterior portion of the nasal septum with braided silk thread, which was tightened over the rubber tube to keep air route of the cuff open. There found no complications such as unplanned extubation, necrosis and infections of the nasal septum.

  11. Topographic anatomy of the fetal inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, and pulmonary veins: Variations in Chiari's network.

    PubMed

    Naito, Michiko; Yu, Hee Chul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2015-07-01

    To understand anomalies in Chiari's network better, we assessed the topographical anatomy of the fetal inferior vena cava (IVC), coronary sinus, and atria. We examined sagittal serial paraffin sections of 15 human fetuses of crown-rump length 24-36 mm, corresponding to a gestational age of 8 weeks. Although their outflow tract morphologies were similar, these 15 specimens could be classified into two groups. In eight specimens, the left common cardinal vein reached the body wall, whereas in the other seven the vein was obliterated near the left pulmonary vein. Irrespective of the group in which the specimen was included, the anteroposterior arrangement of the coronary sinus, the sinus septum (septum), and the right sinus valve (right valve) could be classified into three types: the right valve-septum-coronary sinus arrangement in seven specimens; the right valve-coronary sinus-septum arrangement in five; and the coronary sinus-right valve-septum arrangement in three. Depending on differences in topographical anatomy, the sinus septum separated the coronary sinus opening from either the right or the left atrium. Likewise, the coronary sinus opening was either adjacent to or distant from the IVC terminal. Rather than the counter-side position of the right valve being at the IVC terminal, the left sinus valve protruded leftward, forming an incomplete interatrial septum. Fetal variations seemed to be closely connected with individual variations and a high frequency of Chiari's network anomalies in adults.

  12. A Benign Cardiac Growth but Not So Indolent

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sahadev T.; Biederman, Robert W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac lipomatous hypertrophy is a rare benign condition that usually involves the interatrial septum. Due to its benign nature it rarely requires intervention. Its presence outside the interatrial septum is reported infrequently. We present a case of lipomatous hypertrophy in the intraventricular septum that was complicated by a severe, symptomatic, and disabling dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The symptoms significantly improved following the excision of the mass. In our case transthoracic echocardiogram was used to visualize the mass and measure the severity of the obstruction; Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to characterize the mass and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27293911

  13. Efferent connections of the septal area in the pigeon.

    PubMed

    Krayniak, P F; Siegel, A

    1978-01-01

    The efferent connections of the septum in the pigeon were studied with the use of anterograde (3H-leucine autoradiography) and retrograde (horseradish peroxidase histochemistry) transport methods. It was observed that the dorsal septum projects to the lateral hypothalamus, portions of the periventricular hypothalamus, dorsomedial thalamus and midbrain reticular formation. Fibers from the ventral half of the septum (i.e., nucleus of the diagonal band) project to medial and lateral sectors of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial thalamus, lateral habenular nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. In addition, fibers originating from this region also project to the hippocampal and parahippocampal cortices.

  14. A Benign Cardiac Growth but Not So Indolent.

    PubMed

    Wani, Adil S; Reddy, Sahadev T; Harinath, Lakshmi; Biederman, Robert W W

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac lipomatous hypertrophy is a rare benign condition that usually involves the interatrial septum. Due to its benign nature it rarely requires intervention. Its presence outside the interatrial septum is reported infrequently. We present a case of lipomatous hypertrophy in the intraventricular septum that was complicated by a severe, symptomatic, and disabling dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The symptoms significantly improved following the excision of the mass. In our case transthoracic echocardiogram was used to visualize the mass and measure the severity of the obstruction; Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to characterize the mass and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27293911

  15. An unusually accentuated diastolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in aortic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Rudominer, Rebecca; Saric, Muhamed; Benenstein, Ricardo; Skolnick, Adam H

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with endocarditis involving the aortic valve and resulting in moderate aortic insufficiency. Transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated an unusually accentuated diastolic anterior motion of the anterior mitral valve leaflet toward the interventricular septum. The anterior leaflet remained within a few millimeters of the septum throughout diastole, with a narrow jet of aortic insufficiency separating the anterior leaflet from the septum. We hypothesize that the particularly long anterior mitral leaflet was drawn toward the septum during diastole due to the Venturi effect of the aortic insufficiency jet within a narrow ventricular outflow tract. This accentuated diastolic anterior motion may be a diastolic correlate of systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. PMID:22678922

  16. Light-guided hysteroscopic resection of complete septate uterus with preservation of duplicated cervix.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn; Chen, Mei-Jou; Shih, Jin-Chung; Chen, Chin-Der; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study, performed at a tertiary university hospital, was to propose a novel method of hysteroscopic resection of complete septate uterus with preservation of duplicated cervix. The retrospective study included 5 women with complete septate uterus and cervical duplication and who also experienced infertility with or without pregnancy loss. All patients underwent bougie-guided or light-guided hysteroscopic perforation of the uterine septum above the endocervix, followed by septum resection. The success rate of complete uterine septum perforation under bougie guidance was 60% (3 of 5 procedures), and of light guidance was 100% (2 procedures). After hysteroscopic septum resection, 2 of 5 women achieved pregnancy within 3 months and delivered uneventfully at term. It is concluded that light guidance is superior to bougie guidance for hysteroscopic perforation of complete septate uterus with preservation of the duplicated cervix.

  17. Pulmonary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease - pulmonary atresia; Cyanotic heart disease - pulmonary atresia; Valve - disorder pulmonary atresia ... septum may also have a poorly developed tricuspid valve. They may also have an underdeveloped right ventricle ...

  18. Snoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies can make some people's noses stuffy and cause them to snore. Blocked nasal passages or airways (due to a cold or sinus infection ) can cause a rattling snore. A deviated septum (say: DEE- ...

  19. IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE STORAGE OF GROUND WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING VOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of volatile organic analytes from water samples by the Teflon septum surface used with standard glass 40-ml sample collection vials was investigated. Analytes tested included alkanes, isoalkanes, olefins, cycloalkanes, a cycloalkene, monoaromatics, a polynuclear arom...

  20. Surgical approach to the superior mid-orbit.

    PubMed

    Krohn-Hansen, Dag; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Meling, Torstein R; Haaskjold, Erling

    2013-09-01

    Access to the superior mid-orbit is required for procedures on the levator muscle in the correction of upper eyelid ptosis and in surgery aimed at local lesions in this region. The purpose with this human cadaver study was to clarify the anatomical substrate for a surgical approach to the levator muscle and the upper mid-orbit structures, in which the orbital septum and the retroseptal fat pad is not harmed during surgery. Macro-anatomical dissections and histological examinations were performed on five human orbits from three formalin embalmed cadaver heads. It was found that the orbital septum extends posteriorly from its junction with the levator aponeurosis. This posterior continuation of the orbital septum encloses the superior orbital fat pad and separates this from the anterior surface of the levator muscle. In between the orbital septum and the levator, there is a dissection space that provides a minimal invasive access corridor to the structures in the upper mid-orbit.

  1. A new atrial septostomy technique.

    PubMed

    Park, S C; Zuberbuhler, J R; Neches, W H; Lenox, C C; Zoltun, R A

    1975-01-01

    Balloon atrial septostomy is usually ineffective if the atrial septum is thickened. A technique for incising the atrial septum is described. A no. 6 French catheter was modified to enclose a tiny surgical blade. The distal end of the blade was pivoted to the catheter tip, and the proximal end was attached to a guide wire in the catheter lumen. Advancing the guide wire protruded the blade through a slit in the long axis of the tip of the catheter. Atrial septostomy was performed in five newborn lambs in vivo and in adult dog hearts and human hearts in vitro by advancing the catheter tip across the atrial septum with the blade retracted and withdrawing it to the right atrium with the blade extended. Eight to 12 mm lacerations of the atrial septum were produced and could be extended by subsequent balloon septostomy. The technique may be useful when balloon septostomy has been ineffective.

  2. Nose Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... suffer. For example, the stuffy nose of the common cold can make it hard for you to breathe, sleep, or get comfortable. Many problems besides the common cold can affect the nose. They include Deviated septum - ...

  3. Fission yeast septation.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Juan C G; Ramos, Mariona; Osumi, Masako; Pérez, Pilar; Ribas, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In animal cells cytokinesis relies on the contraction of an actomyosin ring that pulls the plasma membrane to create a cleavage furrow, whose ingression finally divides the mother cell into two daughter cells. Fungal cells are surrounded by a tough and flexible structure called cell wall, which is considered to be the functional equivalent of the extracellular matrix in animal cells. Therefore, in addition to cleavage furrow ingression, fungal cytokinesis also requires the centripetal formation of a septum wall structure that develops between the dividing cells, whose genesis must be strictly coordinated with both the actomyosin ring closure and plasma membrane ingression. Here we briefly review what is known about the septum structure and composition in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the recent progress about the relationship between septum biosynthesis and actomyosin ring constriction, and the importance of the septum and ring in the steady progression of the cleavage furrow. PMID:27574536

  4. Fission yeast septation

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Juan C. G.; Ramos, Mariona; Osumi, Masako; Pérez, Pilar; Ribas, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In animal cells cytokinesis relies on the contraction of an actomyosin ring that pulls the plasma membrane to create a cleavage furrow, whose ingression finally divides the mother cell into two daughter cells. Fungal cells are surrounded by a tough and flexible structure called cell wall, which is considered to be the functional equivalent of the extracellular matrix in animal cells. Therefore, in addition to cleavage furrow ingression, fungal cytokinesis also requires the centripetal formation of a septum wall structure that develops between the dividing cells, whose genesis must be strictly coordinated with both the actomyosin ring closure and plasma membrane ingression. Here we briefly review what is known about the septum structure and composition in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the recent progress about the relationship between septum biosynthesis and actomyosin ring constriction, and the importance of the septum and ring in the steady progression of the cleavage furrow. PMID:27574536

  5. Three sisters with septate uteri: another reference to bidirectional theory.

    PubMed

    Ergün, A; Pabuccu, R; Atay, V; Kücük, T; Duru, N K; Güngör, S

    1997-01-01

    A case report of three sisters with different degrees of septate uteri, a rare familial aggregation, is presented. The youngest sister was diagnosed with a complete uterine septum with cervical duplication and complete longitudinal vaginal septum. She also had a bilateral partial ureteral duplication. Investigation of the family showed that the eldest sister had a complete uterine septum and her pregnancy had terminated with a vaginal delivery following premature rupture of the membranes. The asymptomatic middle sister showed an incomplete uterine septum. Finally, the mother was normal with respect to urogenital anatomy. These types of Müllerian anomalies cannot be explained by the classical theory of unidirectional Müllerian duct development; the alternative bidirectional theory is proposed instead. Additionally, the results are suggestive that the prevalence of major uterine malformations may be higher than generally thought, due to asymptomatic cases.

  6. Laparoscopic excision of rectosigmoid endometriotic plaque and cul de sac obliteration in deeply infiltrating endometriosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fragulidis, G P; Oreopulu, F V; Vezakis, A; Sofoudis, C; Kalambokas, E; Koutoulidis, V; Vlahos, N F

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis represents a main cause of infertility and pelvic pain affecting 3-43% among reproductive age women. Deep pelvic endometriosis is defined as subperitoneal infiltration of endometrial implants in the uterosacral ligaments, rectum, rectovaginal septum, vagina or bladder. The authors present a case of a 29-year-old patient who underwent laparoscopic excision of extensive endometriotic plaque in rectovaginal septum accompanied with deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) and chronic pelvic pain (CPP). PMID:27328509

  7. Heterogeneity of Left Ventricular Signal Characteristics in Response to Acute Vagal Stimulation during Ventricular Fibrillation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Alireza; Elayda, MacArthur A.; Dragnev, Lubomir; Frank, Christopher M.; Qu, Jihong; Afonso, Valtino X.; Rasekh, Abdi; Saeed, Mohammad; Cheng, Jie; Shuraih, Mossaab; Massumi, Ali; Razavi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that long-term vagal stimulation is protective against ventricular fibrillation; however, the effects of acute vagal stimulation during ventricular fibrillation in the normal heart have not been investigated. We examined the effects of acute vagal stimulation on ventricular fibrillation in a canine model. In 4 dogs, we induced 30-second periods of ventricular fibrillation by means of intraventricular pacing. During 2 of the 4 periods of fibrillation that we analyzed, vagal stimulation was delivered through electrodes in the caudal ends of the vagus nerves. Noncontact unipolar electrograms were recorded from 3 ventricular regions: the basal septum, apical septum, and lateral free wall. We then computed the most frequent cycle length, mean organization index, and mean electrogram amplitude for each region. During fibrillation, vagal stimulation shortened the most frequent cycle lengths in the basal septum (P=0.02) and apical septum (P=0.0001), but not in the lateral wall (P=0.46). In addition, vagal stimulation significantly reduced the mean organization indices in the apical septum (P <0.001) and lateral wall (P <0.001), but not in the basal septum (P=0.19). Furthermore, vagal stimulation raised the mean electrogram amplitude in the basal septum (P <0.01) but lowered it substantially in the apical septum (P=0.00005) and lateral wall (P=0.00003). We conclude that vagal stimulation acutely affects the characteristics of ventricular fibrillation in canine myocardium in a spatially heterogeneous manner. This nonuniformity of response may have implications with regard to manipulating the autonomic system as a means of modifying the substrate for ventricular dysrhythmias. PMID:22199421

  8. Lateral septoaponeurotic artery: source of bleeding in blepharoplasty performed in asians.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Byung Gun; Kim, Yu Jin; Chung, In Hyuk

    2003-02-01

    In standard blepharoplasty, the orbital septum is opened commonly to enter the preaponeurotic space. This is to anchor the leading edge of the levator palpebral fascia to the skin of a proposed supratarsal fold and to remove supraorbital fat. Incision of the orbital septum is involved occasionally with accidental injury to an inconstant arterial branch at its lateral side, which causes severe bleeding. Anatomic knowledge of the vessel on the orbital septum is conducive to preventing accidental arterial injury. The authors encountered a relatively large artery running vertically at the lateral side of the orbital septum in 50 eyelids of 230 blepharoplasty patients (460 eyelids). They investigated the branch by injecting red latex into the ophthalmic arteries in 20 hemidissected faces of fresh cadavers. At the lateral aspect of the orbital septum, a branch of the superior lateral palpebral artery, which we named the lateral septoaponeurotic artery (LASA), was confirmed in five of 13 specimens. The LASA originates from the superior lateral palpebral artery just after it divides into peripheral and marginal arcades. The LASA pierces the levator aponeurosis and orbital septum at the upper level of the tarsal plate. It anastomoses with a branch of the supraorbital artery at the superior aspect of the orbit. The authors think severe bleeding occurs when the LASA is injured during blepharoplasties. Cautious treatment of the lateral septoaponeurotic vessel minimizes undesirable complications.

  9. Histotripsy for Pediatric Cardiac Applications: In Vivo Neonatal Pig Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ryan M.; Owens, Gabe; Ensing, Gregory; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the in vivo feasibility of using histotripsy to non-invasively create a flow channel between the ventricles by generating a perforation of the ventricular septum, clinically referred to as a ventricular septum defect (VSD). The overall goal is to develop a non-invasive procedure to aid in the treatment of neonatal patients with complex congenital heart diseases such as Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). Histotripsy is a therapeutic ultrasound technique that produces mechanical fractionation of soft tissue through controlled cavitation. The study was conducted in a live and intact neonatal pig model. The ventricular septum in the neonatal pig heart was treated with histotripsy delivered by a spherically focused 1 MHz transducer positioned outside the chest wall. Histotripsy treatment was applied using 5-cycle ultrasound pulses at 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency with 12-18 MPa peak negative pressure. The treatment was guided and monitored with ultrasound imaging. In all nine subjects treated, a bubble cloud was generated on the ventricular septum using histotripsy, and visualized with ultrasound imaging. Within 20 seconds to 4 minutes following the initiation of a bubble cloud, a VSD was created in all nine pigs and confirmed by the detection of blood flow through the ventricular septum with color Doppler ultrasound. Gross morphology and histology on all hearts showed a demarcated perforation in the ventricular septum. This study shows that a VSD can be created in an intact neonatal animal using extracorporeal histotripsy under real-time ultrasound guidance.

  10. The Cell Biology of Fission Yeast Septation.

    PubMed

    García Cortés, Juan C; Ramos, Mariona; Osumi, Masako; Pérez, Pilar; Ribas, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    In animal cells, cytokinesis requires the formation of a cleavage furrow that divides the cell into two daughter cells. Furrow formation is achieved by constriction of an actomyosin ring that invaginates the plasma membrane. However, fungal cells contain a rigid extracellular cell wall surrounding the plasma membrane; thus, fungal cytokinesis also requires the formation of a special septum wall structure between the dividing cells. The septum biosynthesis must be strictly coordinated with the deposition of new plasma membrane material and actomyosin ring closure and must occur in such a way that no breach in the cell wall occurs at any time. Because of the high turgor pressure in the fungal cell, even a minor local defect might lead to cell lysis and death. Here we review our knowledge of the septum structure in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and of the recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between septum biosynthesis and actomyosin ring constriction and how the two collaborate to build a cross-walled septum able to support the high turgor pressure of the cell. In addition, we discuss the importance of the septum biosynthesis for the steady ingression of the cleavage furrow.

  11. In situ morphology of the foramen ovale in the fetal and neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Momma, K; Ito, T; Ando, M

    1992-12-01

    In situ cross-sectional morphology of the foramen ovale was studied after rapid whole-body freezing of the fetal and neonatal rat. In the fetus, the foramen ovale was open widely toward the left atrium with a thin, short primum septum. The opening area of the foramen ovale was 40% of the cross-section of the thoracic inferior vena cava, and the ratio of the long diameter to the short diameter was 2 to 1. After birth, the primum septum became longer, thicker, and straighter, with less leftward bowing. The opening of the foramen ovale diminished in the first 2 d and closed completely 3 d after birth. Postnatal thickening of the primum septum was very remarkable, increasing by 400% in the first 2d, while only minimal change was noticed in the right and the left atrial walls. The length of the primum septum was short and was only 90% of the diameter of the fossa ovalis in the fetus. It increased and reached 97% and 111% of the diameter of the fossa ovalis 1 and 2 d after birth, respectively. The septum secundum also grew rapidly after birth, and its length and width increased by 40% and 29% after 1 and 2 d, respectively. These observations indicate a sudden, explosive growth of the atrial septum in the early neonatal period in the rat. PMID:1287556

  12. Septal flash and septal rebound stretch have different underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, John; Huntjens, Peter R; Prinzen, Frits W; Delhaas, Tammo; Lumens, Joost

    2016-02-01

    Abnormal left-right motion of the interventricular septum in early systole, known as septal flash (SF), is frequently observed in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Transseptal pressure gradient and early active septal contraction have been proposed as explanations for SF. Similarities in timing (early systole) and location (septum) suggest that SF may be related to septal systolic rebound stretch (SRSsept). We aimed to clarify the mechanisms generating SF and SRSsept. The CircAdapt computer model was used to isolate the effects of timing of activation of the left ventricular free wall (LVFW), right ventricular free wall (RVFW), and septum on SF and SRSsept. LVFW and septal activation times were varied by ±80 ms relative to RVFW activation time. M-mode-derived wall motions and septal strains were computed and used to quantify SF and SRSsept, respectively. SF depended on early activation of the RVFW relative to the LVFW. SF and SRSsept occurred in LBBB-like simulations and against a rising transseptal pressure gradient. When the septum was activated before both LVFW and RVFW, no SF occurred despite the presence of SRSsept. Computer simulations therefore indicate that SF and SRSsept have different underlying mechanisms, even though both can occur in LBBB. The mechanism of leftward motion during SF is early RVFW contraction pulling on and straightening the septum when unopposed by the LVFW. SRSsept is caused by late LVFW contraction following early contraction of the septum. Changes in transseptal pressure gradient are not the main cause of SF in LBBB.

  13. Evolution and development of ventricular septation in the amniote heart.

    PubMed

    Poelmann, Robert E; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Vicente-Steijn, Rebecca; Wisse, Lambertus J; Bartelings, Margot M; Everts, Sonja; Hoppenbrouwers, Tamara; Kruithof, Boudewijn P T; Jensen, Bjarke; de Bruin, Paul W; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Kuratani, Shigeru; Vonk, Freek; van de Put, Jeanne M M S; de Bakker, Merijn A; Richardson, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    During cardiogenesis the epicardium, covering the surface of the myocardial tube, has been ascribed several functions essential for normal heart development of vertebrates from lampreys to mammals. We investigated a novel function of the epicardium in ventricular development in species with partial and complete septation. These species include reptiles, birds and mammals. Adult turtles, lizards and snakes have a complex ventricle with three cava, partially separated by the horizontal and vertical septa. The crocodilians, birds and mammals with origins some 100 million years apart, however, have a left and right ventricle that are completely separated, being a clear example of convergent evolution. In specific embryonic stages these species show similarities in development, prompting us to investigate the mechanisms underlying epicardial involvement. The primitive ventricle of early embryos becomes septated by folding and fusion of the anterior ventricular wall, trapping epicardium in its core. This folding septum develops as the horizontal septum in reptiles and the anterior part of the interventricular septum in the other taxa. The mechanism of folding is confirmed using DiI tattoos of the ventricular surface. Trapping of epicardium-derived cells is studied by transplanting embryonic quail pro-epicardial organ into chicken hosts. The effect of decreased epicardium involvement is studied in knock-out mice, and pro-epicardium ablated chicken, resulting in diminished and even absent septum formation. Proper folding followed by diminished ventricular fusion may explain the deep interventricular cleft observed in elephants. The vertical septum, although indistinct in most reptiles except in crocodilians and pythonidsis apparently homologous to the inlet septum. Eventually the various septal components merge to form the completely septated heart. In our attempt to discover homologies between the various septum components we aim to elucidate the evolution and development

  14. Tendon impingement of the extensor digiti minimi: clinical cases series and cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Moon-Jib; Chung, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Jong-Pil; Kim, Myeung-Ju; Lee, Kyung-Joon

    2012-09-01

    The authors describe two unique clinical cases of closed extensor digiti minimi (EDM) tendon injuries after hyperflexion of the wrist with full finger flexion and one case of chronic tenosynovitis around the EDM tendon. All three cases were thought to be related to the bifurcation of the EDM tendon and synovial septum. Subsequently, variations in EDM tendons were investigated in 49 cadaveric hands with a focus on patterns of tendon bifurcation and their relationships with the surrounding synovial sheath. The EDM tendon was found to be bifurcated in 74% (n = 36) of hands and all of these hands contained a synovial septum. In 9 (25%) hands, the EDM tendon bifurcated proximal to the retinaculum, in 15 (42%), it bifurcated distal to the retinaculum, and in the other 12 hands (33%), the tendon bifurcated at the retinacular level. In 6 of the 15 hands with an infraretinacular bifurcation, the tendon was found to impinge on the synovial septum during passive flexion of the wrist with full finger flexion, and the mean distance between the synovial septum and the bifurcation point in these specimens was 0.6 cm (range, 0.4-0.7 cm), which was differed significantly from hands not showing impingement (P = 0.01). This study shows that distal bifurcation of the EDM tendon may lead to tendon impingement on the septum and suggests that this is a potential etiology of chronic tenosynovitis of the fifth compartment and of acute closed tendon injuries.

  15. Morphogenic Protein RodZ Interacts with Sporulation Specific SpoIIE in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Muchová, Katarína; Chromiková, Zuzana; Bradshaw, Niels; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    The first landmark in sporulation of Bacillus subtilis is the formation of an asymmetric septum followed by selective activation of the transcription factor σF in the resulting smaller cell. How the morphological transformations that occur during sporulation are coupled to cell-specific activation of transcription is largely unknown. The membrane protein SpoIIE is a constituent of the asymmetric sporulation septum and is a crucial determinant of σF activation. Here we report that the morphogenic protein, RodZ, which is essential for cell shape determination, is additionally required for asymmetric septum formation and sporulation. In cells depleted of RodZ, formation of asymmetric septa is disturbed and σF activation is perturbed. During sporulation, we found that SpoIIE recruits RodZ to the asymmetric septum. Moreover, we detected a direct interaction between SpoIIE and RodZ in vitro and in vivo, indicating that SpoIIE-RodZ may form a complex to coordinate asymmetric septum formation and σF activation. We propose that RodZ could provide a link between the cell shape machinery and the coordinated morphological and developmental transitions required to form a resistant spore. PMID:27415800

  16. Septal Surgery Challenges in Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Apaydin, Fazil

    2016-08-01

    During rhinoplasty, the most stressful areas of the nasal cartilaginous septum are at the key area and anterior nasal spine. A stable fixation of the caudal septum to respond to these stresses is of utmost importance. The prerequisite for a successful fixation is a well-prepared recipient bed for caudal septum and suture fixation. The bed can be opened by using scissors, osteotome, or powered instrumentation. Simple or multiple sutures passing from the bone and/or surrounding soft tissues are used for fixation. At the key area, if a complete separation of the L-strut occurs, it should be sutured to nasal bones and upper lateral cartilages. The septum should be supported by splinting spreader grafts to increase stability. To prevent dorsal irregularities, a dorsal onlay camouflage graft should be used. The best way is to take cautions to prevent such a mishap. That is why a dorsal segment of 12 to 15 mm should be preserved, at least at the key area, and part of the mucoperichondrium should stay attached to the septum. PMID:27494579

  17. Systems Genetics of the Lateral Septal Nucleus in Mouse: Heritability, Genetic Control, and Covariation with Behavioral and Morphological Traits

    PubMed Central

    Talishinsky, Alexander; Rosen, Glenn D.

    2012-01-01

    The lateral septum has strong efferent projections to hypothalamic and midbrain regions, and has been associated with modulation of social behavior, anxiety, fear conditioning, memory-related behaviors, and the mesolimbic reward pathways. Understanding natural variation of lateral septal anatomy and function, as well as its genetic modulation, may provide important insights into individual differences in these evolutionarily important functions. Here we address these issues by using efficient and unbiased stereological probes to estimate the volume of the lateral septum in the BXD line of recombinant inbred mice. Lateral septum volume is a highly variable trait, with a 2.5-fold difference among animals. We find that this trait covaries with a number of behavioral and physiological phenotypes, many of which have already been associated with behaviors modulated by the lateral septum, such as spatial learning, anxiety, and reward-seeking. Heritability of lateral septal volume is moderate (h2 = 0.52), and much of the heritable variation is caused by a locus on the distal portion of chromosome (Chr) 1. Composite interval analysis identified a secondary interval on Chr 2 that works additively with the Chr 1 locus to increase lateral septum volume. Using bioinformatic resources, we identified plausible candidate genes in both intervals that may influence the volume of this key nucleus, as well as associated behaviors. PMID:22952935

  18. Wideband unbalanced waveguide power dividers and combiners

    DOEpatents

    Halligan, Matthew; McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2016-05-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to waveguide dividers and waveguide combiners for application in radar systems, wireless communications, etc. Waveguide dividers-combiners can be manufactured in accordance with custom dimensions, as well as in accordance with waveguide standards such that the input and output ports are of a defined dimension and have a common impedance. Various embodiments are presented which can incorporate one or more septum(s), one or more pairs of septums, an iris, an input matching region, a notch located on the input waveguide arm, waveguide arms having stepped transformer regions, etc. The various divider configurations presented herein can be utilized in high fractional bandwidth applications, e.g., a fractional bandwidth of about 30%, and RF applications in the Ka frequency band (e.g., 26.5-40 GHz).

  19. [Congenital laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft].

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J A; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K; Pedersen, S A

    1989-01-01

    A typical case of congenital laryngo-trachea-esophageal cleft (LTEC) is presented with a Review of the literature. LTEC is a rare congenital anomaly caused by defective fusion of the septum between larynx/trachea and hypopharynx/esophagus. The septum is formed by fusion of two lateral folds growing medially in very early foetal life. Fusion progresses in a cranial direction. Disturbances in septum formation result in LTEC. The disease gives respiratory problems with aspiration and excessive salivary production. The diagnosis is best made by intubating the larynx and examining the postcricoid region and anterior wall of the esophagus endoscopically. Stapling of the stomach, tracheostomy and secondary operative closure of the cleft has proved effective in the treatment of LTEC. PMID:2911891

  20. An association between left axis deviation and an aneurysmal defect in children with a perimembranous ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed Central

    Farrú-Albohaire, O; Arcil, G; Hernández, I

    1990-01-01

    Conspicuous left axis deviation was found in two thirds (27 patients) of 44 children with a perimembranous ventricular septal defect, echocardiographic signs of apposition of the septal tricuspid valve leaflet, and an aneurysm of the membranous septum. In 10 patients earlier electrocardiograms did not show left axis deviation; this feature appeared when the aneurysm of the membranous septum was first seen on the echocardiogram. None of the 44 controls with perimembranous ventricular septal defect but without an aneurysm had left axis deviation. This study suggests that the appearances of conspicuous left axis deviation in a patient with ventricular septal defect indicate a spontaneous reduction in the defect by apposition of the septal tricuspid valve leaflet and by the formation of an aneurysm of the membranous septum. Images PMID:2393613

  1. Nasal toxicity of cocaine: a hypercoagulable effect?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R.; Shah, R.; Baredes, S.; Spillert, C. R.; Lazaro, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Nasal insufflation of cocaine injures the nasal mucosa and can perforate the septum. Cocaine-induced vasoconstriction resulting in ischemia is one of the methods that may be responsible for this damage. We are determining whether cocaine also produces a hypercoagulable state that may compound factors which have been previously established to cause damage to the nasal mucosa and septum. This study uses Modified Recalcification Time (MRT), a test developed in our laboratory that has the ability to measure the overall coagulation process. Our study revealed no connection between cocaine and enhanced platelet function or monocyte-released tissue factor. The coagulation process was unaffected by the addition of the drug, so we conclude that cocaine does not cause a hypercoagulable state and cannot assist in the explanation regarding the ischemic changes of the nasal septum. PMID:10800286

  2. Enhanced Harmonic Generation via Breaking of Phase-Matching Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergan, Ekaterina; Gibson, George

    2016-05-01

    We discuss experimental results of third harmonic generation (THG) with a focused Gaussian beam in the semi-infinite limit, using two methods. The first method involves placing a metal septum at the waist such that the laser drills a small pinhole, which in turn disrupts the beam after the waist. The second method uses a very thin septum as a separator for two gasses: one with a large third order susceptibility (before the focus), and the other with a small susceptibility (after the focus). Both methods inhibit harmonic generation immediately after the beam waist, leading to increased conversion efficiency and better mode quality. Our work involves studies of conversion efficiency with varying septum thickness and gas pressure, and the results are compared to computer simulations. We would like to acknowledge support from the NSF under Grant No. PHY-1306845.

  3. The permeation of nalmefene hydrochloride across different regions of ovine nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Du, Gani; Gao, Yongliang; Nie, Shufang; Pan, Weisan

    2006-12-01

    The permeability of nalmefene hydrochloride (NH) across different regions of ovine nasal mucosa was investigated in vitro. Five different regions of ovine nasal mucosa (superior turbinate mucosa, middle turbinate mucosa, inferior turbinate mucosa, posterior septum mucosa, and anterior septum mucosa) were studied. The results showed that the permeability coefficients of NH through different regions of nasal mucosa were different, and the suitable regions for the absorption of NH were the middle turbinate mucosa, the posterior septum mucosa and the superior turbinate. At the same time, the middle turbinate mucosa was the largest region among the five regions, thus it was the main absorption region for NH. The high uniformity of the middle turbinate mucosa also made it the most suitable model for the permeation of NH in vitro.

  4. Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Iqg1 governs actomyosin ring assembly prior to cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Stephen G; Morgan, David O

    2014-03-01

    Contraction of the actomyosin ring (AMR) provides the centripetal force that drives cytokinesis. In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), assembly and contraction of the AMR is coordinated with membrane deposition and septum formation at the bud neck. A central player in this process is Iqg1, which promotes recruitment of actin to the myosin ring and links AMR assembly with that of septum-forming components. We observed early actin recruitment in response to inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity, and we find that the Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation state of Iqg1 is a determining factor in the timing of bud neck localization of both Iqg1 and actin, with both proteins accumulating prematurely in cells expressing nonphosphorylatable Iqg1 mutants. We also identified the primary septum regulator Hof1 as a binding partner of Iqg1, providing a regulatory link between the septation and contractile pathways that cooperate to complete cytokinesis. PMID:24413167

  5. Rare combination of anomalies and its management with conservative and effective approach

    PubMed Central

    Thangarajan, Saravanan Thirumalai; Choudhury, Minati; Padmanabhan, T. V.; Shanmuganathan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Transverse vaginal septum is a rare anomaly that results from incomplete fusion of urogenital sinus, and the vaginal parts of the Mullerian duct. Cervical atresia/dysgenesis is still a rare uterovaginal anomaly that can be congenital or acquired leading to fertility problems. Transverse vaginal septum when it coexists with cervical dysgenesis, it becomes a rare combination where management becomes highly complex. This case report deals with interdisciplinary role of conservative surgical management and custom made prosthetic appliances in the management of transverse vaginal septum and cervical atresia at an early stage and perhaps this goes to be the first-line treatment option with the expertise in laparoscopic surgery along with prosthetic management. PMID:27110080

  6. Endoscopic evaluation of the nasopharynx, pharynx, and larynx of Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D E; DeBowes, R M; Gaughan, E M; Yvorchuk, K E; St-Jean, G

    1994-07-01

    Endoscopy of the nasopharynx, pharynx, and larynx was performed in each of 25 adult Jersey cows, age and body weight of which ranged from 2 to 6 years and 300 to 365 kg, respectively. The endoscopic appearance of normal anatomic structures of the proximal portion of the airway were described. Observations specific to female dairy cattle were: the nasal septum, which tapered caudodorsally in the distal third of the nasal passage; the ability to observe both ethmoturbinates from the same viewing side; presence of a pharyngeal septum; the nasopharyngeal opening of the auditory tubes dorsolateral to the pharyngeal septum; and the appearance of the larynx--a triangular epiglottis with round borders and prominent corniculate process of the arytenoid cartilages. Tracheoscopy was performed in 13 cows. Of 11 cows for which the soft palate could be observed immediately after withdrawing the endoscope, 7 had dorsal displacement of the soft palate.

  7. Dopamine agonists produce functional recovery from septal lesions which affect hypothalamic defensive attack in cats.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Maki, S

    1987-03-31

    Effects of lesions of the lateral septum and subsequent administration of methamphetamine (MAT, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or apomorphine (APO, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) on thresholds for defensive attack elicited by electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VM) were examined. Hissing and directed attack were selected for threshold determination. Thresholds were measured under two situations: one with provocation by a human and the other without it. Electrolytic lesions of the lateral septum enhanced the facilitative influences exerted by the provocation on the thresholds, however, subsequent administration of MAT or APO abolished or tended to abolish the enhancement. The rapid recovery of function was interpreted to have taken place due to excessive dopaminergic inputs to the spared tissue of the lateral septum, and a gating mechanism of neuronal information by dopamine was suggested. PMID:3032366

  8. Septo-hippocampal signal processing: breaking the code.

    PubMed

    Tsanov, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The septo-hippocampal connections appear to be a key element in the neuromodulatory cholinergic control of the hippocampal neurons. The cholinergic neuromodulation is well established in shifting behavioral states of the brain. The pacemaker role of medial septum in the limbic theta rhythm is demonstrated by lesions and pharmacological manipulations of GABAergic neurons, yet the link between the activity of different septal neuronal classes and limbic theta rhythm is not fully understood. We know even less about the information transfer between the medial septum and hippocampus--is there a particular kind of processed information that septo-hippocampal pathways transmit? This review encompasses fundamental findings together with the latest data of septo-hippocampal signal processing to tackle the frontiers of our understanding about the functional significance of medial septum to the hippocampal formation.

  9. [The mechanical properties of the lungs in patients with congenital heart defects in the immediate postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Zatevakhina, M V; Nikitin, E S; Tskhovrebov, S V; Makrushin, I M; Suvorova, G Iu; Safonova, E M

    1998-01-01

    Static compliance and inspiratory resistance were assessed in 218 patients aged over 3 years after open-heart surgery for correction of congenital heart disease during the immediate postoperative period without complications. Cst in the immediate postoperative period in patients with Fallot's tetralogy, intraventricular septum defect, intraatrial septum defect, and incomplete form of atrioventricular communication was higher than in patients operated on for Fallot's tetralogy with a previous systemic-pulmonary anastomosis and pulmonary artery atresia, whereas Rinsp was virtually the same in all groups. Age-specific differences were noted. The data are recommended for use as reference values in stress. PMID:9770809

  10. Regulation of contractile ring formation and septation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Willet, Alaina H; McDonald, Nathan A; Gould, Kathleen L

    2015-12-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has become a powerful model organism for cytokinesis studies, propelled by pioneering genetic screens in the 1980s and 1990s. S. pombe cells are rod-shaped and divide similarly to mammalian cells, utilizing a medially-placed actin-and myosin-based contractile ring. A cell wall division septum is deposited behind the constricting ring, forming the new ends of each daughter cell. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of contractile ring formation through formin proteins and the role of the division septum in S. pombe cell division.

  11. Prosthetic Management of a Nasal Septal Defect using a Custom Made Unilateral Intranasal Stent: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Harshakumar; Rodrigues, Sheela Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Various etiologies including congenital malformations, infections, trauma, iatrogenic causes or complications of systemic diseases can result in perforation of the nasal septum. The common symptoms associated with such defects include difficulty in breathing, nasal twang in voice, rhinorrhea, etc. Obturation can be achieved by insertion of a unilateral nasal stent. An attempt has been made in the present report to address the prosthetic management of pateint having nasal septum perforation utilizing a unilateral, custom made heat cured acrylic stent and the details of the technique are presented. PMID:27656584

  12. Congenital web of the common bile duct in association with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Papaziogas, Basilios; Lazaridis, Charalampos; Pavlidis, Theodoros; Galanis, Ioannis; Paraskevas, George; Papaziogas, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Congenital web formations are extremely rare anomalies of the extrahepatic biliary tree. The age at presentation and the clinical symptomatology of these anomalies depend on the grade of the biliary obstruction. We report a case of a common bile duct septum in association with cholelithiasis in a 30-year-old woman. The diagnosis was made on preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and confirmed with intraoperative cholangiography. Because all known causes of acquired web formation were excluded, a congenital origin of the web was assumed. The patient was treated with a hepaticoduodenostomy above the level of the septum. The embryological aspects of this rare anomaly are described.

  13. [Transposition of great vessels in Cantrell syndrome].

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, L; Mikołajczak-Mejer, U; Zinka, E

    1993-04-01

    A case is presented of complete transposition of great vessels with atrial and ventricular septum defect and coarctation of the pulmonary artery in Cantrell syndrome. The Cantrell syndrome consists of: congenital heart disease, defect of pericardium, diaphragm, sternum, and anterior abdomen wall. In all cases of Cantrell syndrome described as yet ventricular septum defect was present alone or in combination with other intracardiac defects. The presented case is the first report of congenital abnormality in the from of d-TGA in Cantrell syndrome. PMID:8249420

  14. Concealed Left Ventricle to Right Atrium Fistula Complicating Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Onzuka, Tatsushi; Morishige, Shoji; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Yasutaka

    2016-09-01

    We report a case of aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis presenting with subaortic stenosis without perivalvular leakage and vegetations in the left ventricular outflow and right atrium, the latter being attached to the atrioventricular septum. Intraoperatively, an abscess that had formed on the aortic annulus and perforated to the right atrium was unexpectedly found, the fistula being occluded by vegetations. Even when no left-to-right shunts are detected by imaging, vegetations adjacent to the atrioventricular septum may conceal a left ventricle-right atrium fistula, resulting in prosthetic valve endocarditis presenting clinically as subaortic stenosis without perivalvular leakage. PMID:27549556

  15. Apparatus and method for deterministic control of surface figure during full aperture polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Feit, Michael Dennis; Steele, William Augustus

    2013-11-19

    A polishing system configured to polish a lap includes a lap configured to contact a workpiece for polishing the workpiece; and a septum configured to contact the lap. The septum has an aperture formed therein. The radius of the aperture and radius the workpiece are substantially the same. The aperture and the workpiece have centers disposed at substantially the same radial distance from a center of the lap. The aperture is disposed along a first radial direction from the center of the lap, and the workpiece is disposed along a second radial direction from the center of the lap. The first and second radial directions may be opposite directions.

  16. Influence of the short-axis cine acquisition protocol on the cardiac function evaluation: A reproducibility study

    PubMed Central

    Marchesseau, Stephanie; Ho, Jamie X.M.; Totman, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define the optimal cardiac short-axis cine acquisition protocol for the assessment of the left and rightventricular functions. Materials and methods 20 volunteers were recruited and breath-hold CINE images were acquired on a Siemens Prisma 3T MRI. Four short-axis acquisition planes were defined from the 4-chamber view. AV Junctions: short-axis slices parallel to the plane that cuts through the external right and left atrioventricular junctions. Left AV Junctions: short-axis slices parallel to the plane that cuts through both left atrioventricular junctions. Septum: short-axis slices perpendicular to the septum with one cutting through the septum junction. LongAxis: short-axis slices perpendicular to the long axis with one cutting through the septum junction. Intra and inter reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman coefficient of variation (CV) and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). The influence of the protocol on the ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume (SV) was quantified statistically using pair-wise CV and Pearson’s correlation coefficient R2. Results All protocols led to high reproducibility for the LV EF (mean intra CV = 3.83%, mean inter CV = 4.81%, lowest CV = 4.20% (AV junctions) and highest CV = 5.24% (Left AV Junctions)). Reproducibility of the RV measurements was lower (mean intra CV = 7.84%, mean inter CV = 9.17%). Septum protocol led to significantly lower variability compared to the other 3 protocols for RV EF (CV = 7.62% (Septum), CV = 8.42% (Long Axis), CV = 9.54% (Left AV Junctions) and CV = 11.08% (AV Junctions) with Lin’s CCC varying from 0.4 (AV Junctions) to 0.69 (Septum) for inter-observer reproducibility). No differences in group average for clinical parameters was found for both LV and RV clinical measurements. However, patient-specific RV EF evaluation is dependent on the chosen protocol (CV = 9.95%, R2 = 0.52). Conclusion Based on the results of the study cine mode short

  17. Mitral insufficiency caused by left atrial chordae.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Hale Unal; Uslu, Nevzat; Aslan, Muzaffer; Gul, Mehmet; Aksu, Huseyin

    2012-04-01

    We report an unusual case of moderate mitral regurgitation caused by abnormal insertion of chordae tendinea to the interatrial septum and tethering the middle scallop of the anterior mitral leaflet. This is an extremely rare congenital abnormality causing mitral regurgitation. PMID:22176469

  18. Acute Pancreatitis, Hepatitis and Bone Erosion in Acute Yellow Phosphorous Compound Poisoning – A Rare Complication

    PubMed Central

    Kamarthi, Prabhakar; Gopu, Arun Vardharaju; Prasad, Reddy; Srinivasa, Chandrakala

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis and hepatitis following ingestion of yellow phosphorous. The condition of the patient progressed to encephalopathy and bony erosion of the nasal septum. Fungal mass was observed in both the nasal cavities by endoscopy. Microbiological investigation revealed the identity of the fungus as Aspergillus flavus and Candida tropicalis. Patient improved with fluconazole treatment. PMID:27504287

  19. Acute Pancreatitis, Hepatitis and Bone Erosion in Acute Yellow Phosphorous Compound Poisoning - A Rare Complication.

    PubMed

    Kamarthi, Prabhakar; Subramani, Parimala; Gopu, Arun Vardharaju; Prasad, Reddy; Srinivasa, Chandrakala

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis and hepatitis following ingestion of yellow phosphorous. The condition of the patient progressed to encephalopathy and bony erosion of the nasal septum. Fungal mass was observed in both the nasal cavities by endoscopy. Microbiological investigation revealed the identity of the fungus as Aspergillus flavus and Candida tropicalis. Patient improved with fluconazole treatment. PMID:27504287

  20. The septal mucosa decongests with naphazoline: a study of mucosal dynamics with sonography.

    PubMed

    Tasman, A J; Soor, A; Zaiss, M; Weidauer, H

    1999-01-01

    A new method using B-mode and power-Doppler-mode (pD) sonography for the investigation of changes in nasal mucosa swelling and perfusion was developed. The effect of naphazoline (0.25 mg/mL) on the nasal mucosa was visualized and recorded in 1-minute intervals in 40 patients. The effect of normal saline solution was studied in 27 healthy volunteers. The decongestant and normal saline were applied by flooding the anterior nasal cavity. A computer program automatically quantified pD color information. Normal saline solution induced a 4.8 +/- 2.4% increase in perfusion (+/- SEM, n.s.) after 5 minutes. In the naphazoline group, changes in stereometry were measured on B-mode-sequences in 24 (60%) and perfusion changes in 24 participants (60%). In 16 of 40 patients (40%), both stereometry and perfusion were analyzed. After 10 minutes, the septum and inferior turbinate mucosa thickness were reduced by 17 +/- 2.8% (p < 0.001) and 25 +/- 2.6% (p < 0.001). Perfusion of the septum and inferior turbinate mucosa as visualized with pD-sonography decreased by 33 +/- 3.3% (p < 0.001). The reduction of bloodflow induced by naphazoline as visualized with pD-sonography is within the range of perfusion changes found in LDF and Xenon clearance studies. Decongestion of the septum mucosa demonstrates erectile properties of the septum, which may contribute to the increase of nasal patency after nasal decongestion.

  1. Chronic rhino-orbital mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis (Rhizomucor variabilis) in India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a chronic case of rhino-orbital zygomycosis caused by Mucor irregularis, formerly known as Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis, a rare mycotic agent in humans. The infection caused progressive destruction of the nasal septum, soft and hard palate, leading to collapse of the nose bridge...

  2. Increased septal 5-HIAA efflux in rats that do not develop learned helplessness after inescapable stress.

    PubMed

    Ronan, P J; Steciuk, M; Kramer, G L; Kram, M; Petty, F

    2000-07-01

    Learned helplessness is a behavioral deficit that can be induced by exposure to inescapable stress. Previous studies have implicated the lateral septum in mediating this phenomenon, and in this brain region, serotonin plays an important role in the development, maintenance, prevention, and reversal of learned helplessness behavior. Using the technique of in vivo microdialysis, we measured the efflux of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and their respective metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), from the lateral septum of rats that either developed or did not develop learned helplessness. During the microdialysis session all rats were subjected to restraint stress. Control groups included naïve, home cage rats as well as tested control rats that were subjected to the identical handling, restraint, and shuttlebox testing as the rats that received inescapable shock. Overall, levels of 5-HIAA were significantly higher in non-helpless rats. There were no significant effects of restraint or differences in levels of 5-HT, DA, or DOPAC. We propose that this increase in 5-HIAA is indicative of an overall increase in serotonin metabolism in the lateral septum of rats that do not become helpless after inescapable stress. This increased serotonin metabolism in the lateral septum may protect the animal from adverse behavioral consequences of inescapable stress. J. Neurosci. Res. 61:101-106, 2000. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:10861805

  3. Laser Atrial Septostomy: An Engineering Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Shachar, Giora; Cohen, Mark H.; Riemenschneider, Thomas A.; Beder, Stanley D.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reproducible method for atrial septostomy in live animals, which would be independent of both atrial septal thickness and left atrial size. Seven mongrel dogs monitored electrocardiographically were anesthetized and instrumented with systemic and pulmonary arterial lines. A modified Mullin's transseptal sheath was advanced under fluoroscopic control to interrogate the left atrium and atrial septum. A 400 micron regular quartz or a laser heated metallic tip fiber was passed through the sheath up to the atrial septum. Lasing of the atrial septum was done with an Argon laser at power output of 5 watts. In three dogs, an atrial septosomy catheter was passed to the left atrium through the laser atrial septostomy and balloon atrial septostomy was performed. The laser atrial septostomy measured 3 x 5 mm in diameter. This interatrial communication could be enlarged with a balloon septostomy to over one cm in diameter. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic monitoring were stable during the procedure. Engineering problems included: 1) radioluscency of the laser fibers thus preventing fluoroscopic localization of the fiber course; and 2) the inability to increase lateral vaporization of the atrial septum. It is concluded that further changes in the lasing fibers need to be made before the method can be considered for clinical use.

  4. Well-Tolerated and Undiscovered Common Atrium until Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyungjoong; Choi, Jiwook; Doo, Youngjae; Yun, Yeong Seop; Kim, Jongwook

    2016-01-01

    Common atrium is a rare congenital heart disease characterized by complete absence of the interatrial septum, and is commonly accompanied by malformation of the atrioventricular valve. Most patients with common atrium experience symptoms during childhood. Here, we describe a patient with common atrium who experienced his first obvious symptom at 48 years of age. PMID:27721956

  5. Modulation of Hippocampal Theta Oscillations and Spatial Memory by Relaxin-3 Neurons of the Nucleus Incertus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Sherie; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco E.; Hossain, M. Akhter; Lin, Feng; Kuei, Chester; Liu, Changlu; Wade, John D.; Sutton, Steven W.; Nunez, Angel; Gundlach, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal theta rhythm is thought to underlie learning and memory, and it is well established that "pacemaker" neurons in medial septum (MS) modulate theta activity. Recent studies in the rat demonstrated that brainstem-generated theta rhythm occurs through a multisynaptic pathway via the nucleus incertus (NI), which is the primary source of the…

  6. A useful trick for difficult transseptal access during cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Conte, Giulio; Chierchia, Gian-Battista; Brugada, Pedro

    2014-02-01

    A 76-year-old man with history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery was referred to our department for cryoballoon ablation of symptomatic drug-resistant paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Thick septum can complicate such procedures; we describe a useful maneuver to circumvent this problem.

  7. Topographical differences in distribution and responsiveness of trigeminal sensitivity within the human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meusel, Thomas; Negoias, Simona; Scheibe, Mandy; Hummel, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    The study was designed to provide a topographical map of the sensitivity of the human nasal respiratory epithelium towards trigeminal chemosensory stimuli. As an electrophysiological measure of intranasal trigeminal activation at the level of the epithelium, we used the so-called negative mucosa potential (NMP), a measure that represents the sum of generator potentials of trigeminal receptor neurons after chemical stimulation. Sixty subjects participated (30 men and 30 women; mean age 23.5 years). Measurements were made in response to stimulation with menthol, CO(2), ethanol, and cinnamaldehyde, which are known to activate trigeminal receptors to various degrees. Recordings of the NMP were made from five intranasal sites: the anterior septum, the posterior septum, the tip of the middle turbinate, the tip of the lower turbinate, and the lateral side wall of the posterior nasal cavity. The recording electrode was positioned under endoscopic control. The largest NMP amplitudes were recorded at the anterior septum in response to stimulation with CO(2). Comparing all recording sites, significant differences were observed between responses at the posterior septum and the lateral side wall of the posterior nasal cavity in response to stimulation by ethanol, menthol, and CO(2). These findings suggest that the presence of topographical and chemosensory differences in the responsiveness of the nasal mucosa to irritants.

  8. Distribution of vasopressin in the forebrain of spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Greta J; De Vries, Geert J; Villalba, Constanza; Weldele, Mary L; Place, Ned J; Coscia, Elizabeth M; Glickman, Steve E; Forger, Nancy G

    2006-09-01

    The extreme virilization of the female spotted hyena raises interesting questions with respect to sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Females are larger and more aggressive than adult, non-natal males and dominate them in social encounters; their external genitalia also are highly masculinized. In many vertebrates, the arginine vasopressin (VP) innervation of the forebrain, particularly that of the lateral septum, is associated with social behaviors such as aggression and dominance. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of VP cells and fibers in the forebrains of adult spotted hyenas. We find the expected densely staining VP immunoreactive (VP-ir) neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, as well as an unusually extensive distribution of magnocelluar VP-ir neurons in accessory regions. A small number of VP-ir cell bodies are present in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; however, there are extensive VP-ir fiber networks in presumed projection areas of these nuclei, for example, the subparaventricular zone and lateral septum, respectively. No significant sex differences were detected in the density of VP-ir fibers in any area examined. In the lateral septum, however, marked variability was observed. Intact females exhibited a dense fiber network, as did two of the four males examined; the two other males had almost no VP-ir septal fibers. This contrasts with findings in many other vertebrate species, in which VP innervation of the lateral septum is consistently greater in males than in females.

  9. The therapeutic value of medical photography.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J D; Woolford, T J; Lundall, C

    1993-10-01

    Medical photography is shown to have therapeutic value in illustrating to a patient a previously hidden clinical lesion. The sight of the extent and nature of a hole in her nasal septum which the patient had caused by picking her nose allowed her to stop this habit where previous medication and psychotherapy had failed.

  10. Switching from Contextual to Tone Fear Conditioning and Vice Versa: The Key Role of the Glutamatergic Hippocampal-Lateral Septal Neurotransmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandreau, Ludovic; Desgranges, Bertrand; Jaffard, Robert; Desmedt, Aline

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to directly assess the role of the glutamatergic hippocampal-lateral septal (HPC-LS) neurotransmission in tone and contextual fear conditioning. We found that pretraining infusion of glutamatergic acid into the lateral septum promotes tone conditioning and concomitantly disrupts contextual conditioning.…

  11. Infective endocarditis following coil occlusion of perimembranous ventricular septal defect with the Nit-Occlud(®) Le device

    PubMed Central

    El-Sisi, Amal M; Menaissy, Yasser M; Bekheet, Samia A

    2016-01-01

    The Nitinol coil system was recently developed by “PFM” specifically for the transcatheter occlusion of ventricular septal defects (VSD). The device consists of a coil fitted with polyester fibers designated for the closure of perimembranous defects with an aneurysmal septum and some muscular VSDs. We report a case of fatal acute infective endocarditis 10 days following the procedure. PMID:27011695

  12. Histogenesis of alcoholic fibrosis and cirrhosis in the baboon.

    PubMed

    Popper, H; Lieber, C S

    1980-03-01

    Sequential liver specimens of 18 baboons exposed for up to 6 years to alcohol on a nutritionally adequate diet, as well as those of pair-fed controls, were examined by light microscopy. Whereas control animals failed to develop pathologic changes, in all baboons exposed, ethanol produced initial steatosis and subsequently fibrosis. Emphasis was on the pattern of the fiber accumulations as related to lesions of the hepatocytes. Segmented neutrophilic leukocytes were rarely observed, and the picture of frank alcoholic hepatitis was absent, but diffusely increased mononuclear sinusoidal cells and interstitial clusters of such cells with PAS-positive macrophages were abundant. Fibrosis proceeding to septum formation was associated mainly with large-droplet steatosis. Septum formation was initiated by excess layers of reticulin around steatotic hepatocytes or, more frequently, by linking of fiber accumulations around the clusters of mononuclear cells, in both instances with subsequent deposition of collagen fibers. Both processes were prominent in the centrolobular zone, creating a perivenous net-like fibrosis, but septum formation also started within the lobular parenchyma and eventually linked with the barely altered portal tracts. Fifteen alcohol-fed baboons developed septums, with diffuse septal fibrosis in 5; 4 proceeded to septal cirrhosis and 1 each to micronodular and to mixed micromacronodular cirrhosis. Cirrhosis in the baboons thus develops without the conspicuous polymorphonuclear inflammation characteristic of human alcoholic hepatitis. These observations indicate a pathway to cirrhosis over creeping fibrosis that might play a role also in man, instead of (or supplementing) the one proceeding over alcoholic hepatitis.

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF A DC BUMP AT THE STORAGE RING INJECTION STRAIGHT SECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.M.; Shaftan, T.; Kramer, S.K.; Fliller, R.; Guo, W.; Heese, R.; Yu, L.H.; Parker, B.; Willeke, F.J.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS II beam injection works with a DC septum, a pulsed septum and four fast kicker magnets. The kicker power supplies each produce a two revolution period pulsed field, 5.2 {micro}s half sine waveform, using {approx}5kA drive voltage. The corresponding close orbit bump amplitude is {approx}15mm. It is desired that the bump is transparent to the users for top-off injection. However, high voltage and short pulse power supplies have challenges to maintain pulse-to-pulse stability and magnet-to-magnet reproducibility. To minimize these issues, we propose implementing a DC local bump on top of the fast bump to reduce the fast kicker strength by a factor of 2/3. This bump uses two storage ring corrector magnets plus one additional magnet at the septum to create a local bump. Additionally, these magnets could provide a DC bump to simulate the septum position effects on the store beam lifetime. This paper presents the detail design of this DC injection bump and related beam dynamics.

  14. 76 FR 31616 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... clots formed in blood vessels, primarily in thromboemblic diseases such as myocardial infarction and... tricuspid valve. More specifically, the technology pertains to a new device for myocardial septal traversal... interventrical myocardial septum through which a catheter-delivered tensioning system is guided. The...

  15. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  16. Septoplasty and decongestant improve distribution of nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jiaoping; Fan, Yunping; Feng, Shaoyan; Xia, Wentong; Wang, Jingqing; Li, Huabin

    2011-12-01

    This study prospectively examined the intranasal distribution of nasal spray after nasal septal correction and decongestant administration. A cohort of 20 patients was assessed for the distribution of nasal spray before and after nasal septum surgery. Sprays were dyed and administered one puff per nostril when patients hold their head up in an upright position. Before and after decongestant administration, the intranasal distribution was semi-quantitatively determined by nasal endoscopy. The results showed that the dyed drug was preferentially sprayed onto the nasal vestibule, the head of the inferior turbinate, the anterior part of septum and nasal floor. As far as the anterior-inferior segment of the nasal cavity was concerned, the distribution was found to be influenced neither by the decongestant nor by the surgery (P>0.05). However, both the decongestant and surgery expanded the distribution to the anatomical structures in the superior and posterior nasal cavity such as olfactory fissure, middle turbinate head and middle nasal meatus. No distribution was observed in the sphenoethmoidal recess, posterior septum, tail of inferior turbinate and nasopharynx. It was concluded that nasal septum surgery and decongestant administration significantly improves nasal spray distribution in the nasal cavity. PMID:22173509

  17. Acetylcholine, Histamine, and Cognition: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandina, Patrizio; Efoudebe, Marcel; Cenni, Gabriele; Mannaioni, Pierfrancesco; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    The forebrain cholinergic neurons are localized in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), the major source of cholinergic innervation to the neocortex and to the amygdala, and in the medium septum-banda diagonalis complex, which provides cholinergic inputs to the hippocampus (Mesulam et al. 1983; Woolf et al. 1984; Nicoll 1985). Basic and…

  18. Disrupting the Grid Cells' Need for Speed.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Robin; Burgess, Neil

    2016-08-01

    Hinman et al. demonstrate the presence of two speed signals in the rodent medial entorhinal cortex that are differentially affected by muscimol inactivation of medial septum. The results reveal important constraints on several computational models of grid cell firing. PMID:27497218

  19. CELL DIVISION IN SPIROGYRA. II. CYTOKINESIS.

    PubMed

    Fowke, L C; Pickett-Heaps, J D

    1969-12-01

    Cytokinesis in cells of Spirogyra sp. was studied with both light and electron microscopes. Early formation of the cross wall was achieved by annular ingrowth of a septum; the cross wall was completed by a phragmoplast containing Golgi vesicles, longitudinally aligned microtubules, and associated electron-dense material. Spirogyra may represent an intermediate stage in the evolution of the phragmoplast seen in higher plants.

  20. Titanium Mini-Plate for Securing Septal Cartilage – A Case of High-Impact Nasal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, A; Fishman, JM; Majumdar, A; Draper, MR

    2009-01-01

    A technique is presented of securing the cartilaginous nasal septum using titanium mini-plates in the repair of a complex open comminuted type I nasoethmoid fracture, with internal impaction of the external cartilaginous nose. This technique allows primary skin closure and obviates the need for external metal-work and the attendant potential complications. PMID:19622261

  1. [The structure of the nasopharyngeal duct of Tupaia glis (Diard 1820). A comparison with primates and European insectivores (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wöhrmann-Repenning, A

    1978-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal duct of Tupaia glis was studied and compared with other Primates and some Insectivores. In T. glis as in other Primates the ductus nasopharyngeus is separated by the septum nasi into two parallel passages whereas in Insectivores it is a simple undivided duct.

  2. Distribution, structure and projections of the frog intracardiac neurons.

    PubMed

    Batulevicius, Darius; Skripkiene, Gertruda; Batuleviciene, Vaida; Skripka, Valdas; Dabuzinskiene, Anita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2012-05-21

    Histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase was used to determine the distribution of intracardiac neurons in the frog Rana temporaria. Seventy-nine intracardiac neurons from 13 frogs were labelled iontophoretically by the intracellular markers Alexa Fluor 568 and Lucifer Yellow CH to determine their structure and projections. Total neuronal number per frog heart was (Mean ± SE) 1374 ± 56. Largest collections of neurons were found in the interatrial septum (46%), atrioventricular junction (25%) and venal sinus (12%). Among the intracellularly labelled neurons, we found the cells of unipolar (71%), multipolar (20%) and bipolar (9%) types. Multiple processes originated from the neuron soma, hillock and proximal axon. These processes projected onto adjacent neuron somata and cardiac muscle fibers within the interatrial septum. Average total length of the processes from proximal axon was 348 ± 50 μm. Average total length of processes from soma and hillock was less, 118 ± 27 μm and 109 ± 24 μm, respectively. The somata of 59% of neurons had bubble- or flake-shaped extensions. Most neurons from the major nerves in the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the ventricle. In contrast, most neurons from the ventral part of the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the atria. Our findings contradict to a view that the frog intracardiac ganglia contain only non-dendritic neurons of the unipolar type. We conclude that the frog intracardiac neurons are structurally complex and diverse. This diversity may account for the complicated integrative functions of the frog intrinsic cardiac ganglia.

  3. 38 CFR 4.97 - Schedule of ratings-respiratory system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...—respiratory system. Rating DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND THROAT 6502Septum, nasal, deviation of: Traumatic only, With 50-percent obstruction of the nasal passage on both sides or complete obstruction on one side 10 6504Nose, loss of part of, or scars: Exposing both nasal passages 30 Loss of part of one ala, or...

  4. 38 CFR 4.97 - Schedule of ratings-respiratory system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...—respiratory system. Rating DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND THROAT 6502Septum, nasal, deviation of: Traumatic only, With 50-percent obstruction of the nasal passage on both sides or complete obstruction on one side 10 6504Nose, loss of part of, or scars: Exposing both nasal passages 30 Loss of part of one ala, or...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4780 - Intranasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4780 Intranasal splint. (a) Identification... septum and the nasal cavity. It is placed in the nasal cavity after surgery or trauma. The...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4780 - Intranasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4780 Intranasal splint. (a) Identification... septum and the nasal cavity. It is placed in the nasal cavity after surgery or trauma. The...

  7. Perineal raphe with special reference to its extension to the anus: a histological study using human fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Li, Xiang Wu; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Wilting, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The raphe of the human penis and scrotum is considered to develop secondarily after disappearance of the initial midline seam by fusion of the bilateral genital folds. However, the fetal development was still obscure. We examined histological sections of 30 fetuses (17 males and 13 females) at 10–15 weeks. In male fetuses, the scrotum was not yet clearly identified because of no descent of testis. The perineal raphe was thin and wavy at 10 weeks, and it was continuous with and took a direction same as the inferior wall of the closed penile urethra after physiological hypospadias. Depending on growth of the bulbospongiosus muscle and corpus spongiosus penis, the midline intermuscular septum obtained a connection to the subcutaneous wavy raphe and made the latter thick and straight at 12–15 weeks. Notably, the perineal raphe extended posteriorly to attach to the external anal sphincter. In female fetuses, an epithelial fusion occurred along a short distance at the posterior end of the vestibule. However, in front of the external anal sphincter, a large midline mesenchymal tissue from the urorectal septum did not contain a raphe-like structure. Moreover, since the bilateral bulbospongiosus muscles were separated widely by the vestibule, they did not provide a midline septum. Fetal development of the perineal raphe was accelerated by reinforcement from the muscular septum. In contrast, without such a muscular support, the female raphe could not maintain its growth even if the seed appeared at the posterior end of the vestibule. PMID:27382513

  8. Phospho-Regulation of the Neurospora crassa Septation Initiation Network

    PubMed Central

    Heilig, Yvonne; Schmitt, Kerstin; Seiler, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Proper cell division is essential for growth and development of uni- and multicellular organisms. The fungal septation initiation network (SIN) functions as kinase cascade that connects cell cycle progression with the initiation of cytokinesis. Miss-regulation of the homologous Hippo pathway in animals results in excessive cell proliferation and formation of tumors, underscoring the conservation of both pathways. How SIN proteins interact and transmit signals through the cascade is only beginning to be understood. Moreover, our understanding of septum formation and its regulation in filamentous fungi, which represent the vast majority of the fungal kingdom, is highly fragmentary. We determined that a tripartite kinase cascade, consisting of CDC-7, SID-1 and DBF-2, together with their regulatory subunits CDC-14 and MOB-1, is important for septum formation in the model mold Neurospora crassa. DBF-2 activity and septum formation requires auto-phosphorylation at Ser499 within the activation segment and phosphorylation of Thr671 in the hydrophobic motif by SID-1. Moreover, SID-1-stimulated DBF-2 activity is further enhanced by CDC-7, supporting a stepwise activation mechanism of the tripartite SIN kinase cascade in fungi. However, in contrast to the situation described for unicellular yeasts, the localization of the entire SIN cascade to spindle pole bodies is constitutive and cell cycle independent. Moreover, all SIN proteins except CDC-7 form cortical rings prior to septum initiation and localize to constricting septa. Thus, SIN localization and activity regulation significantly differs in unicellular versus syncytial ascomycete fungi. PMID:24205386

  9. Cholinergic Septo-Hippocampal Innervation Is Required for Trace Eyeblink Classical Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontan-Lozano, Angela; Troncoso, Julieta; Munera, Alejandro; Carrion, Angel Manuel; Delgado-Garcia, Jose Maria

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of a selective lesion in rats, with 192-IgG-saporin, of the cholinergic neurons located in the medial septum/diagonal band (MSDB) complex on the acquisition of classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms. The MSDB lesion induced a marked deficit in the acquisition, but not in the retrieval, of eyeblink classical…

  10. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  11. Multipotent epithelial cells in the process of regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial tunicates.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazuo; Sugino, Yasuo; Sunanaga, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Shigeki

    2008-01-01

    The cellular and molecular features of multipotent epithelial cells during regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial tunicates are described in the present study. The epicardium has been regarded as the endodermal tissue-forming epithelium in the order Enterogona, because only body fragments having the epicardium exhibit the regenerative potential. Epicardial cells in Polycitor proliferus have two peculiar features; they always accompany coelomic undifferentiated cells, and they contain various kinds of organelles in the cytoplasm. During strobilation a large amount of organelles are discarded in the lumen, and then, each tissue-forming cell takes an undifferentiated configuration. Septum cells in the stolon are also multipotent in Enterogona. Free cells with a similar configuration to the septum inhabit the hemocoel. They may provide a pool for epithelial septum cells. At the distal tip of the stolon, septum cells are columnar in shape and apparently undifferentiated. They are the precursor of the stolonial bud. In Pleurogona, the atrial epithelium of endodermal origin is multipotent. In Polyandrocarpa misakiensis, it consists of pigmented squamous cells. The cells have ultrastructurally fine granules in the cytoplasm. During budding, coelomic cells with similar morphology become associated with the atrial epithelium. Then, cells of organ placodes undergo dedifferentiation, enter a cell division cycle, and commence morphogenesis. Retinoic acid-related molecules are involved in this dedifferentiation process of multipotent cells. We conclude that in colonial tunicates two systems support the flexibility of tissue remodeling during regeneration and asexual reproduction; dedifferentiation of epithelial cells and epithelial transformation of coelomic free cells.

  12. Human serum provided additional values in growth factors supplemented medium for human chondrocytes monolayer expansion and engineered cartilage construction.

    PubMed

    Chua, K H; Aminuddin, B S; Fuzina, N H; Ruszymah, B H I

    2004-05-01

    We have previously formulated an optimized human chondrocytes growth medium based on 2% fetal bovine serum supplementation. For clinical usage, the animal serum must be replaced by patient own serum. We investigated the effects of human serum concentration for human nasal septum chondrocytes monolayer culture and cartilage reconstruction. Human serum demonstrated a dose dependent manner in promoting chondrocytes growth and cartilage engineering.

  13. Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

  14. Salivary gland anlage tumor in a neonate presenting with respiratory distress: radiographic and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, M A; Lin, A C; Chang, K W; Berry, G J; Barnes, P D; Fischbein, N J

    2009-05-01

    We present a case of congenital salivary gland anlage tumor (SGAT) of the nasal septum in a 2-week-old infant who had difficulty breathing through her nose since birth. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a circumscribed mass within the nasal cavity that did not communicate with the intracranial compartment. Differential diagnosis and clinical significance of recognizing this rare lesion are reviewed.

  15. Atrial development in the human heart: an immunohistochemical study with emphasis on the role of mesenchymal tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessels, A.; Anderson, R. H.; Markwald, R. R.; Webb, S.; Brown, N. A.; Viragh, S.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the atrial chambers in the human heart was investigated immunohistochemically using a set of previously described antibodies. This set included the monoclonal antibody 249-9G9, which enabled us to discriminate the endocardial cushion-derived mesenchymal tissues from those derived from extracardiac splanchnic mesoderm, and a monoclonal antibody recognizing the B isoform of creatine kinase, which allowed us to distinguish the right atrial myocardium from the left. The expression patterns obtained with these antibodies, combined with additional histological information derived from the serial sections, permitted us to describe in detail the morphogenetic events involved in the development of the primary atrial septum (septum primum) and the pulmonary vein in human embryos from Carnegie stage 14 onward. The level of expression of creatine kinase B (CK-B) was found to be consistently higher in the left atrial myocardium than in the right, with a sharp boundary between high and low expression located between the primary septum and the left venous valve indicating that the primary septum is part of the left atrial gene-expression domain. This expression pattern of CK-B is reminiscent of that of the homeobox gene Pitx2, which has recently been shown to be important for atrial septation in the mouse. This study also demonstrates a poorly appreciated role of the dorsal mesocardium in cardiac development. From the earliest stage investigated onward, the mesenchyme of the dorsal mesocardium protrudes into the dorsal wall of the primary atrial segment. This dorsal mesenchymal protrusion is continuous with a mesenchymal cap on the leading edge of the primary atrial septum. Neither the mesenchymal tissues of the dorsal protrusion nor the mesenchymal cap on the edge of the primary septum expressed the endocardial tissue antigen recognized by 249-9G9 at any of the stages investigated. The developing pulmonary vein uses the dorsal mesocardium as a conduit to reach

  16. Asymmetric cell division in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its unique features.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Srinivasan; Nagaraja, Mukkayyan; Sebastian, Jees; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2014-03-01

    Recently, several reports showed that about 80 % of mid-log phase Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG cells divide symmetrically with 5-10 % deviation in the septum position from the median. However, the mode of cell division of the pathogenic mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, using electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy of septum- and nucleoid-stained live and fixed cells, and live cell time-lapse imaging, we show the occurrence of asymmetric cell division with unusually deviated septum/constriction in 20 % of the 15 % septating M. tuberculosis cells in the mid-log phase population. The remaining 80 % of the 15 % septating cells divided symmetrically but with 2-5 % deviation in the septum/constriction position, as reported for M. smegmatis, M. marinum, and M. bovis BCG cells. Both the long and the short portions of the asymmetrically dividing M. tuberculosis cells with unusually deviated septum contained nucleoids, thereby generating viable short and long cells from each asymmetric division. M. tuberculosis short cells were acid fast positive and, like the long cells, further readily underwent growth and division to generate micro-colony, thereby showing that they were neither mini cells, spores nor dormant forms of mycobacteria. The freshly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients' sputum samples, which are known for the prevalence of oxidative stress conditions, also contained short cells at the same proportion as that in the mid-log phase population. The probable physiological significance of the generation of the short cells through unusually deviated asymmetric cell division is discussed.

  17. Dietary choline reverses some, but not all, effects of folate deficiency on neurogenesis and apoptosis in fetal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Johnson, Amy R; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-06-01

    In mice, maternal dietary folate, a cofactor in 1-carbon metabolism, modulates neurogenesis and apoptosis in the fetal brain. Similarly, maternal dietary choline, an important methyl-donor, also influences these processes. Choline and folate are metabolically interrelated, and we determined whether choline supplementation could reverse the effects of folate deficiency on brain development. Timed-pregnant mice were fed control (CT), folate-deficient (FD), or folate-deficient, choline-supplemented (FDCS) AIN-76 diets from d 11 to 17 (E11-17) of pregnancy, and on E17, fetal brains were collected for analysis. Compared with the CT group, the FD group had fewer neural progenitor cells undergoing mitosis in the ventricular zones of the developing mouse brain septum (47%; P < 0.01), hippocampus (29%; P < 0.01), striatum (34%; P < 0.01), and anterior and mid-posterior neocortex (33% in both areas; P < 0.01). In addition, compared with CT, the FD diet almost doubled the rate of apoptosis in the fetal septum and hippocampus (P < 0.01). In the FDCS group, the mitosis rates generally were intermediate between those of the CT and FD groups; mitosis rates in the septum and striatum were significantly greater compared with the FD group and were significantly lower than in the CT group only in the septum and neocortex. In the FDCS group, the hippocampal apoptosis rate was significantly lower than in the FD group (P < 0.01) and was the same as in the CT group. In the septum, the apotosis rate in the FDCS group was intermediate between the CT and FD groups' rates. These results suggest that neural progenitor cells in fetal forebrain are sensitive to maternal dietary folate during late gestation and that choline supplementation can modify some, but not all, of these effects. PMID:20392884

  18. On the nature of lithologic contacts in the Gabriel Peak tectonic belt, north Cascades, Washington: Decreasing probability of large-scale (> 4 km) net displacement of the Skagit core relative to the Gabriel Peak Orthogneiss

    SciTech Connect

    Kriens, B.J.; Chappelear, D.F. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Previous interpretations of the NW-striking contact zone between the Gabriel Peak Orthogneiss and undifferentiated Skagit Complex have suggested that there is a continuous NW-striking shear zone present throughout its ca. 90 km map length, and that there is the possibility of large displacement between the two units. The authors' detailed mapping of the northern half of the contact zone (from Red Mtn. to Rainbow Lake) suggests that a continuous shear zone does not exist, and that the amount of displacement in the contact zone is therefore limited. In their map area, the contact zone is characterized by a relatively thin, discontinuous septum of kyanite-bearing metasediments (Hozameen-Methow protolith) sandwiched between compositionally heterogeneous orthogneisses of the Skagit Complex on the W and Gabriel Peak Orthogneiss on the E. The southern 35 km of the area contains ductilely deformed intrusive contacts between all units: dikes and xenoliths were found in the vicinity of the main unit contacts, and the authors have found no pervasive fabric asymmetries or large (> 2 m-long) brittle faults at the main contacts or within the units. However, the northern 10 km of the area (the Red Mtn. area) contains a 1 m-thick band of mylonite, modified by a brittle fault, at the metasedimentary septum-Gabriel Peak Orthogneiss contact. Minimum strike length of both secondary structures is about 2.5 km. Since these structures die out within 5 km to the S and 10 km to the N, the amount of net displacement attributable to these structures must be small (probably no more than 2--4 km). In addition, the brittle fault cuts into the metasedimentary septum near both ends of the septum here, and since this septum is no larger than about 3 km x 1 km in area, the authors feel that displacement on the brittle fault is further constrained to be less than 1--2 km.

  19. Association between septal deviation and sinonasal papilloma.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takenori; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Honkura, Yohei; Oshima, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Sinonasal papilloma is a common benign epithelial tumor of the sinonasal tract and accounts for 0.5% to 4% of all nasal tumors. The etiology of sinonasal papilloma remains unclear, although human papilloma virus has been proposed as a major risk factor. Other etiological factors, such as anatomical variations of the nasal cavity, may be related to the pathogenesis of sinonasal papilloma, because deviated nasal septum is seen in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. We, therefore, investigated the involvement of deviated nasal septum in the development of sinonasal papilloma. Preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings of 83 patients with sinonasal papilloma were evaluated retrospectively. The side of papilloma and the direction of septal deviation showed a significant correlation. Septum deviated to the intact side in 51 of 83 patients (61.4%) and to the affected side in 18 of 83 patients (21.7%). Straight or S-shaped septum was observed in 14 of 83 patients (16.9%). Even after excluding 27 patients who underwent revision surgery and 15 patients in whom the papilloma touched the concave portion of the nasal septum, the concave side of septal deviation was associated with the development of sinonasal papilloma (p = 0.040). The high incidence of sinonasal papilloma in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling viruses and pollutants. The present study supports the causative role of human papilloma virus and toxic chemicals in the occurrence of sinonasal papilloma.

  20. Distribution and targets of the relaxin-3 innervation of the septal area in the rat.

    PubMed

    Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco E; Otero-García, Marcos; Sánchez-Pérez, Ana M; Núñez, Angel; Ma, Sherie; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2012-06-15

    Neural tracing studies have revealed that the rat medial and lateral septum are targeted by ascending projections from the nucleus incertus, a population of tegmental GABA neurons. These neurons express the relaxin-family peptide, relaxin-3, and pharmacological modulation of relaxin-3 receptors in medial septum alters hippocampal theta rhythm and spatial memory. In an effort to better understand the basis of these interactions, we have characterized the distribution of relaxin-3 fibers/terminals in relation to different septal neuron populations identified using established protein markers. Dense relaxin-3 fiber plexuses were observed in regions of medial septum containing hippocampal-projecting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, and parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons. In lateral septum (LS), relaxin-3 fibers were concentrated in the ventrolateral nucleus of rostral LS and the ventral nucleus of caudal LS, with sparse labeling in the dorsolateral and medial nuclei of rostral LS, dorsal nucleus of caudal LS, and ventral portion nuclei. Relaxin-3 fibers were also observed in the septofimbrial and triangular septal nuclei. In the medial septum, we observed relaxin-3-immunoreactive contacts with ChAT-, PV-, and glutamate decarboxylase-67-positive neurons that projected to hippocampus, and contacts between relaxin-3 terminals and calbindin- and calretinin-positive neurons. Relaxin-3 colocalized with synaptophysin in nerve terminals in all septal areas, and ultrastructural analysis revealed these terminals were symmetrical and contacted spines, somata, dendritic shafts, and occasionally other axonal terminals. These data predict that this GABA/peptidergic projection modulates septohippocampal activity and hippocampal theta rhythm related to exploratory navigation, defensive and ingestive behaviors, and responses to neurogenic stressors.

  1. Marine Collagen Scaffolds for Nasal Cartilage Repair: Prevention of Nasal Septal Perforations in a New Orthotopic Rat Model Using Tissue Engineering Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bermueller, Christian; Elsaesser, Alexander F.; Sewing, Judith; Baur, Nina; von Bomhard, Achim; Scheithauer, Marc; Notbohm, Holger; Rotter, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Autologous grafts are frequently needed for nasal septum reconstruction. Because they are only available in limited amounts, there is a need for new cartilage replacement strategies. Tissue engineering based on the use of autologous chondrocytes and resorbable matrices might be a suitable option. So far, an optimal material for nasal septum reconstruction has not been identified. The aim of our study was to provide the first evaluation of marine collagen for use in nasal cartilage repair. First, we studied the suitability of marine collagen as a cartilage replacement matrix in the context of in vitro three dimensional cultures by analyzing cell migration, cytotoxicity, and extracellular matrix formation using human and rat nasal septal chondrocytes. Second, we worked toward developing a suitable orthotopic animal model for nasal septum repair, while simultaneously evaluating the biocompatibility of marine collagen. Seeded and unseeded scaffolds were transplanted into nasal septum defects in an orthotopic rat model for 1, 4, and 12 weeks. Explanted scaffolds were histologically and immunohistochemically evaluated. Scaffolds did not induce any cytotoxic reactions in vitro. Chondrocytes were able to adhere to marine collagen and produce cartilaginous matrix proteins, such as collagen type II. Treating septal cartilage defects in vivo with seeded and unseeded scaffolds led to a significant reduction in the number of nasal septum perforations compared to no replacement. In summary, we demonstrated that marine collagen matrices provide excellent properties for cartilage tissue engineering. Marine collagen scaffolds are able to prevent septal perforations in an autologous, orthotopic rat model. This newly described experimental surgical procedure is a suitable way to evaluate new scaffold materials for their applicability in the context of nasal cartilage repair. PMID:23621795

  2. Septa and processes: convergent evolution of the orbit in haplorhine primates and strigiform birds.

    PubMed

    Menegaz, Rachel A; Kirk, E Christopher

    2009-12-01

    According to the "nocturnal visual predation hypothesis" (NVPH), the convergent eyes and orbits of primates result from selection for improved stereoscopic depth perception to facilitate manual capture of prey at night. Within primates, haplorhines share additional derived orbital morphologies, including a postorbital septum and greater orbital convergence than any other mammalian clade. While the homology and function of the haplorhine septum remain controversial, experimental data suggest that septa evolved to inhibit mechanical disturbance of the orbital contents by the anterior temporalis muscle during mastication. According to this "insulation hypothesis," haplorhines are particularly susceptible to disruption of the orbital contents because they have large and highly convergent eyes and orbits. However, comparative tests of the insulation hypothesis have been hindered by the morphological uniqueness of the haplorhine septum among mammals. Among birds, owls (Strigiformes) exhibit an expanded postorbital process that may be functionally analogous to the haplorhine septum. Here we present a comparative analysis of orbital morphology in 103 avian species that tests two hypotheses: (1) large, convergent orbits are associated with nocturnal visual predation, and (2) the strigiform postorbital process and haplorhine postorbital septum similarly function to insulate the eyes from contractions of mandibular adductors. Strigiforms, as nocturnal visual predators, possess relatively large orbits and exhibit the highest degree of orbital convergence in our sample. Notably, orbital convergence does not scale with orbit size in birds as in mammals. Owls are also unique among the birds examined in possessing extensive, plate-like postorbital processes that largely isolate the orbits from the temporal fossae. Furthermore, dissections of four owl species demonstrate that the expanded strigiform postorbital process deflects the path of mandibular adductors around the eye

  3. Plesiosaur-bearing rocks from the Late Cretaceous Tahora Fm, Mangahouanga, New Zealand - a palaeoenvironmental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, Vivi; Raine, J. Ian

    2010-05-01

    Mangahouanga Stream, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand is world-famous for its high southern latitude vertebrate fossils including plesiosaurs, mosasaurs and more rarely, dinosaurs. The fossils are preserved in the conglomeratic facies of the Maungataniwha Sandstone Member of the Tahora Formation. A palynological investigation of sediments from the boulders hosting vertebrate fossils reveals well-preserved palynological assemblages dominated by pollen and spores from land plants but also including marine dinoflagellate cysts in one sample. The palynofacies is strongly dominated by wood fragments including charcoal, and the sample taken from a boulder hosting plesiosaur vertebrae is entirely terrestrially derived, suggesting a fresh-water habitat for at least some of these plesiosaurs. The key-pollen taxa Nothofagidites senectus and Tricolpites lilliei, together with the dinocyst Isabelidinium pellucidum and the megaspore Grapnelispora evansii, strongly indicate an early Maastrichtian age for the host rock. The terrestrial palynoflora reflects a mixed vegetation dominated by podocarp conifers and angiosperms with a significant tree-fern subcanopy component. The presence of taxa with modern temperate distributions such as Nothofagus (southern beech), Proteaceae and Cyatheaceae (tree-ferns), indicates a mild-temperate climate and lack of severe winter freezing during the latest Cretaceous, providing an ecosystem which most probably made it possible for polar dinosaurs to overwinter. The paper is dedicated to Mrs Joan Wiffen who with her great persistence, enthusiasm and courage put Mangahouanga on the world map, becoming a role model for many young scientists.

  4. Synthesis, algal inhibition activities and QSAR studies of novel gramine compounds containing ester functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Yu, Liangmin; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xia, Shuwei; Zhao, Haizhou

    2009-05-01

    2,5,6-Tribromo-1-methylgramine (TBG), isolated from bryozoan Zoobotryon pellucidum was shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of larval settlement. In order to improve the compatibility of TBG and its analogues with other ingredients in antifouling paints, structural modification of TBG was focused mainly on halogen substitution and N-substitution. Two halogen-substitute gramines and their derivatives which contain ester functional groups at N-position of gramines were synthesized. Algal inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds against algae Nitzschia closterium were evaluated and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50) range was 1.06-6.74 μg ml-1. Compounds that had a long chain ester group exhibited extremely high antifouling activity. Quantitive Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies with multiple linear regression analysis were applied to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors and biological activity of the synthesized compounds. The results show that the toxicity (log (1/EC50)) is correlated well with the partition coefficient log P. Thus, these products have potential function as antifouling agents.

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization within 26 strains of the genus Cylindrospermum (Nostocaceae, Cyanobacteria), with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Jeffrey R; Bohunická, Markéta; Lukešová, Alena; Hrčková, Kristýna; Vaccarino, Melissa A; Chesarino, Nicholas M

    2014-02-01

    Twenty-six strains morphologically identified as Cylindrospermum as well as the closely related taxon Cronbergia siamensis were examined microscopically as well as phylogenetically using sequence data for the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA revealed three distinct clades. The clade we designate as Cylindrospermum sensu stricto contained all five of the foundational species, C. maius, C. stagnale, C. licheniforme, C. muscicola, and C. catenatum. In addition to these taxa, three species new to science in this clade were described: C. badium, C. moravicum, and C. pellucidum. Our evidence indicated that Cronbergia is a later synonym of Cylindrospermum. The phylogenetic position of Cylindrospermum within the Nostocaceae was not clearly resolved in our analyses. Cylindrospermum is unusual among cyanobacterial genera in that the morphological diversity appears to be more evident than sequence divergence. Taxa were clearly separable using morphology, but had very high percent similarity among ribosomal sequences. Given the high diversity we noted in this study, we conclude that there is likely much more diversity remaining to be described in this genus. PMID:26988018

  6. Trophic ecology in a Northern Brittany (Batz Island, France) kelp ( Laminaria digitata) forest, as investigated through stable isotopes and chemical assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the relationships between the food web's structure and the nutritive value of basal food sources in a Northern Brittany (France) Laminaria digitata bed. Stable isotopes were used to identify the food sources consumed by benthic invertebrates, and the nutritive value of primary producers was assessed according to four descriptors (total organic matter, C/N ratio, proteins content, lipids content). Although the food web appeared to be based on a wide diversity of food sources, only Rhodophyta (red algae) and biofilms (epilithic and epiphytic) were heavily consumed by grazers. In contrast, Phaeophyta (brown algae), which are dominant in this habitat, have no specialized grazer (with the exception of Helcion pellucidum, specialized grazer of Laminaria digitata). This selective consumption may be related to the higher protein content and lower C/N ratio of Rhodophyta and biofilms, in comparison with Phaeophyta. Fresh brown algae are thus of poor nutritive value, but processes associated with their degradation are likely to improve this nutritive value, leading in the assimilation of detritus by filter-feeders, revealed by high δ13C in these consumers. Our results thus suggest that the nutritive value of basal food sources may be an important factor involved in the structuration of kelp-associated food webs.

  7. Exercises in anatomy: holes between the ventricles.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    Holes between the ventricles are the commonest congenital cardiac malformations. As yet, however, there is no consensus as to how they can best be described and categorized. In this, our third exercise in cardiac anatomy, we address the issue of classification of ventricular septal defects. We begin our demonstration by analysing the normal heart. We show that the larger part of the ventricular septum is made up of its muscular component. The membranous part accounts for only a small portion, which is located centrally within the cardiac base. This small membranous part forms a boundary between the right-sided chambers and the aortic root. Holes at this site, therefore, which account for the commonest defects closed surgically, will open centrally in the cardiac base, being located postero-inferiorly relative to the supraventricular crest. We then show that the larger part of the crest itself is a free-standing muscular sleeve, which lifts the leaflets of the pulmonary valve away from the cardiac base. Only a very small part of the muscle forming the right ventricular outlet is located in the septal position. Turning our attention to malformed hearts, we show how holes between the ventricles can open centrally at the cardiac base, open to the inlet or outlet of the right ventricle or open within the substance of the apical muscular septum. We demonstrate, however, that description of such geographical location of the defects does not paint the full picture, since lesions with markedly different phenotypic features can open in comparable geographic locations. We illustrate how it is the phenotypic features, as seen from the right ventricle, which convey the crucial information for the surgeon with regard to the location of the atrioventricular conduction axis, using hearts with holes opening to the inlet of the right ventricle with muscular as opposed to partially fibrous borders to emphasize this point. We continue by showing how holes with different phenotypes can

  8. Demystifying Septoplasty in Children

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão; Lima, Rosa Grazielle de; Lima, Francis Vinícius Fontes de; Barreto, Valéria Maria Prado; Santos, Arlete Cristina Granizo; Júnior, Ronaldo Carvalho Santos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Septum deviation in children may alter the early physiologic process of breathing, causing obligatory oral breathing and consequently changing craniofacial development and even intellect. Because of these consequences, septoplasty should be performed as early as possible. Materials and Methods The retrospective study reviewed the results of septoplasty in 40 children under 12 years old who had follow-up after surgery for a maximum period of 7 years. The research was submitted to the ethics committee and approved with protocol number 10331912.0.0000.0058. Results Forty patients underwent septoplasty, 39 (97.5%) had cauterization of inferior turbinate and associated procedure, 20 (50%) had adenotonsillectomy, and 17 (42.5%) had adenoidectomy. Conclusion Nasal septum deviation should be corrected early to provide the harmonious growth of the face and to enable normal development of the child, without the occurrence of nasal deformity. PMID:25992064

  9. Aortic Coarctation 28 Days after an Arterial Switch Operation in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Toru; Higaki, Takashi; Okura, Masahiro; Kojima, Ai; Uchita, Shunji; Izutani, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    Aortic coarctation rarely occurs after an arterial switch operation for D-transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum. We report the case of a neonate patient in whom aortic coarctation developed 28 days after an uncomplicated arterial switch operation. Preoperatively, the aorta was noted to have an irregular shape, but there was no pressure gradient across the lesion. The patient underwent successful reoperation to correct the coarctation. We hope that our report raises awareness of a rare early complication after arterial switch operation with intact ventricular septum, and the need to carefully monitor the aortic isthmus in patients who have aortic irregularities, even in the absence of a pressure gradient. PMID:27547151

  10. Vasopressin receptors in the brain, liver and kidney of rats following osmotic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, R; Szot, P; Dorsa, D M

    1991-03-29

    The binding site concentration (Bmax) and equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for [3H]-arginine vasopressin (AVP) binding sites were measured in limbic brain areas (septum, dorsal hippocampus, amygdala) and liver and kidney of control and osmotically stimulated male Wistar rats. Membrane binding was performed in these five areas 30, 60 and 180 min following intraperitoneal injection of hypertonic saline. This paradigm resulted in no significant change in binding characteristics in the septum, dorsal hippocampus, amygdala and liver from control treated rats. In contrast, the kidney Bmax was significantly reduced 60 min following osmotic stimulation, with no effect on affinity. These results also suggest that AVP receptors in the CNS are relatively resistant to regulatory effects of an acute AVP exposure. PMID:1828184

  11. Double-outlet right ventricle: Pathology and angiocardiography.

    PubMed

    Freedom, Robert M.; Yoo, Shi-Joon

    2000-01-01

    Double-outlet right ventricle is but one form of abnormal ventriculoarterial connection. The definition that more than half of each great artery originates above the morphologically right ventricle is arbitrary. As pointed out by Lecompte, those features that should be defined in hearts with the ventriculoarterial connection of double-outlet right ventricle (and indeed other forms of abnormal ventriculoarterial connection) include the nature of the infundibular septum, ventriculoinfundibular fold, trabeculoseptomargin-alis, attachments of infundibular septum to anterior or posterior limb of trabeculoseptomargin-alis, the size and position of the ventricular septal defect, the spatial relation of great artery(s) to the ventricular septal defect, the spatial relationship between the great, and the distance between the tricuspid and pulmonary valves and the semilunar valves. Copyright 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company

  12. Angiographic studies of atrioventricular discordance.

    PubMed

    Attie, F; Soni, J; Ovseyevitz, J; Muñoz-Castellanos, L; Testelli, M R; Buendia, A

    1980-08-01

    The results and value of conventional and axial angiocardiography were studied in 26 cases of atrioventricular discordance (AVD). The angiographic anatomy of this malformation was analyzed to determine the precise characteristics of atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections. The left and right ventricles in atrial situs solitus and levocardia show angiographic features that differ from those seen in atrial situs solitus and dextrocardia. The same differences are found in atrial situs inversus. Regardless of the type of ventriculoarterial connections, the ventricles maintain the same angiographic characteristics. The ventricular septum in AVD in situs solitus and levocardia and situs inversus and dextrocardia has a peculiar orientation. The use of axial angiocardiography facilitates detection and localization of the ventricular septal defect. In cases of malposition of the heart, the conventional frontal view allows visualization of the ventricular septum in all of its length. The axial projection is useful in diagnosing left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

  13. Cor triatiratum dexter: a rare cause of isolated right atrial enlargement.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dinesh; Sivasankaran, S; Venkateshwaran, S; Sasidharan, Bijulal

    2013-01-01

    Cor triatriatum sinistrum (division of the left atrium) is a recognized clinical and surgical entity. Division of the right atrium, also known as cor triatriatum dexter, is an extremely rare congenital abnormality in which persistence of the right valve of the embryonic systemic sinus venosus divides the right atrium into two chambers. Typically, the right atrial partition is due to exaggerated fetal eustachian and thebesian valves, which together form an incomplete septum across the lower part of the atrium. This septum may range from a reticulum to a substantial sheet of tissue. Cor triatriatum dexter can be diagnosed at any age, especially if it is incidentally discovered. Usually, this anomaly is recorded at necropsy. This report describes the case of a divided right atrium evaluated for nonspecific symptoms and unexplained cardiomegaly with right atrial enlargement.

  14. Resectoscopic management of müllerian fusion defects.

    PubMed

    DeCherney, A H; Russell, J B; Graebe, R A; Polan, M L

    1986-05-01

    Of the 103 patients taken to the operating room for hysteroscopic resection of a septum, 72 underwent successful resection of the septum. The initial hysterogram can identify those patients who may benefit from the procedure but cannot discriminate between bicornuate and septate uteri. Knowledge of the size and contour of the uterus is essential to the final decision to proceed transcervically, opposed to transabdominally. In the transcervical repair group, at the time this article was written, there were 58 term deliveries and 5 ongoing pregnancies greater than 30 weeks (1 had a spontaneous abortion after surgery and subsequently conceived a term pregnancy), for a successful pregnancy rate of 86%. This correlated well with the pregnancy rates observed after metroplasty. Therefore, hysteroscopic resection constitutes a valuable alternative to the classical transabdominal approach.

  15. Mesotocin and nonapeptide receptors promote estrildid flocking behavior.

    PubMed

    Goodson, James L; Schrock, Sara E; Klatt, James D; Kabelik, David; Kingsbury, Marcy A

    2009-08-14

    Proximate neural mechanisms that influence preferences for groups of a given size are almost wholly unknown. In the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata), blockade of nonapeptide receptors by an oxytocin (OT) antagonist significantly reduced time spent with large groups and familiar social partners independent of time spent in social contact. Opposing effects were produced by central infusions of mesotocin (MT, avian homolog of OT). Most drug effects appeared to be female-specific. Across five estrildid finch species, species-typical group size correlates with nonapeptide receptor distributions in the lateral septum, and sociality in female zebra finches was reduced by OT antagonist infusions into the septum but not a control area. We propose that titration of sociality by MT represents a phylogenetically deep framework for the evolution of OT's female-specific roles in pair bonding and maternal functions. PMID:19679811

  16. Overview of fission yeast septation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Pilar; Cortés, Juan C G; Martín-García, Rebeca; Ribas, Juan C

    2016-09-01

    Cytokinesis is the final process of the vegetative cycle, which divides a cell into two independent daughter cells once mitosis is completed. In fungi, as in animal cells, cytokinesis requires the formation of a cleavage furrow originated by constriction of an actomyosin ring which is connected to the plasma membrane and causes its invagination. Additionally, because fungal cells have a polysaccharide cell wall outside the plasma membrane, cytokinesis requires the formation of a septum coincident with the membrane ingression. Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a unicellular, rod-shaped fungus that has become a popular model organism for the study of actomyosin ring formation and constriction during cell division. Here we review the current knowledge of the septation and separation processes in this fungus, as well as recent advances in understanding the functional interaction between the transmembrane enzymes that build the septum and the actomyosin ring proteins. PMID:27155541

  17. A Broadband Terahertz Waveguide T-Junction Variable Power Splitter.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Kimberly S; Mendis, Rajind; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2016-06-29

    In order for the promise of terahertz (THz) wireless communications to become a reality, many new devices need to be developed, such as those for routing THz waves. We demonstrate a power splitting router based on a parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) T-junction excited by the TE1 waveguide mode. By integrating a small triangular septum into the waveguide plate, we are able to direct the THz light down either one of the two output channels with precise control over the ratio between waveguide outputs. We find good agreement between experiment and simulation in both amplitude and phase. We show that the ratio between waveguide outputs varies exponentially with septum translation offset and that nearly 100% transmission can be achieved. The splitter operates over almost the entire range in which the waveguide is single mode, providing a sensitive and broadband method for THz power splitting.

  18. Three-dimensional particle trajectories and waste beam losses in injection dump beam line of SNS accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The SNS ring injection dump beam line has been suffering high beam losses since its commissioning. In order to understand the mechanisms of the beam losses, we have performed 3D simulation studies of the beam line. The 3D models consist of three injection chicane dipoles and one injection dump septum magnet. 3D particle trajectories in the models are computed. We then extend particle optics calculations to the injection dump. Our studies have clearly shown some design and operation problems, that cause beam losses in the injection dump beam line. These include incorrect chicane dipole settings, incorrect position of a chicane dipole, too small aperture of injection dump septum, and inadequate focusing downstream. This paper reports our findings and the remedies to the injection beam loss problems.

  19. ACCELERATOR SYSTEMS MODIFICATIONS FOR A SECOND TARGET STATION AT THE OAK RIDGE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Plum, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    A second target station is planned for the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source. The ion source will be upgraded to increase the peak current from 38 to 49 mA, additional superconducting RF cavities will be added to the linac to increase the H beam energy from 938 to 1300 MeV, and the accumulator ring will receive modifications to the injection and extraction systems to accommodate the higher beam energy. After pulse compression in the storage ring one sixth of the beam pulses (10 out of 60 Hz) will be diverted to the second target by kicker and septum magnets added to the existing Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) line. No further modifications will be made to the RTBT so that when the kicker and septum magnets are turned off the original beam transport lattice will be unaffected. In this paper we will discuss these and other planned modifications and upgrades to the accelerator facility.

  20. Coconut Atrium: Transmural Calcification of the Entire Left Atrium

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Carlos Del; Weinstein, Paul; Kunnelis, Constantine; DiStefano, Peter; Ebers, Gloria M.

    2000-01-01

    Massive calcification of the left atrium usually spares the interatrial septum, which provides a cleavage plane for surgical access to the mitral valve. Endoatriectomy with mitral valve replacement is the currently accepted corrective procedure because it affords maximum exposure while decreasing the risk of embolization and intraoperative hemorrhage. We describe a case in which the entire left atrium, including the septum, was thickly calcified and resembled a coconut shell. This condition prevented surgical correction of severe mitral stenosis. To our knowledge, this is the most severe case of left atrial calcification yet reported in the literature. Although it is not possible to establish preoperatively that the atrium is completely calcified and impossible to incise, when predisposing factors and evidence of complete transmural calcification are present, the surgeon should be aware of this possibility and should weigh carefully the decision to operate. PMID:10830629

  1. Process for coating an object with silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for coating a carbon or graphite object with silicon carbide by contacting it with silicon liquid and vapor over various lengths of contact time. In the process, a stream of silicon-containing precursor material in gaseous phase below the decomposition temperature of said gas and a co-reactant, carrier or diluent gas such as hydrogen is passed through a hole within a high emissivity, thin, insulating septum into a reaction chamber above the melting point of silicon. The thin septum has one face below the decomposition temperature of the gas and an opposite face exposed to the reaction chamber. The precursor gas is decomposed directly to silicon in the reaction chamber. A stream of any decomposition gas and any unreacted precursor gas from said reaction chamber is removed. The object within the reaction chamber is then contacted with silicon, and recovered after it has been coated with silicon carbide.

  2. VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT IN A CRAB-EATING FOX (CERDOCYON THOUS).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Marlos Gonçalves; de Córdova, Fabiano Mendes; Ramos, Adriano Tony; Viana, Eduardo Borges; de Castro Conti, Laura Monteiro

    2016-06-01

    Congenital heart diseases are not commonly diagnosed in wild animals. It is not surprising that few reports exist in the literature, so that prevalence of these anomalies is unknown in wild species. We report a case of a ventricular septal defect documented in a free-ranging crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). This animal presented with rapid, labored breathing, and on physical examination, pulmonary crackles and a holosystolic murmur were auscultated. The echocardiogram with Doppler showed discontinuity of the dorsal section of the ventricular septum, which allowed a turbulent systolic flow to move from the left to the right ventricle. The postmortem examination confirmed the absence of a dorsal connection between the septum and the atrioventricular junction, and pronounced left ventricular myocardial dilation was observed on histopathology. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect in a crab-eating fox. PMID:27468048

  3. Topographical differences in the trigeminal sensitivity of the human nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Mandy; Zahnert, Thomas; Hummel, Thomas

    2006-09-18

    The aim of the study was to investigate differences in the distribution of intranasal trigeminal receptors in humans using an electrophysiological measure of trigeminally induced activation, the negative mucosa potential. A total of 29 young, healthy volunteers participated, results were on the basis of data from 18 participants. The trigeminal irritant CO2 was presented using a computer-controlled olfactometer. Negative mucosa potential recording sites included the anterior olfactory cleft, the anterior septum, and the lower turbinate. Lowest amplitudes of the negative mucosa potential were found in the olfactory cleft, maximum amplitudes at the septum. Intranasal measurements of CO2 concentrations suggested that these differences were not due to the intranasal distribution of CO2. These results are compatible with the idea that the trigeminal system acts as a sentinel of the human airways.

  4. [Differential diagnosis and treatment of complex renal cysts detected by ultrasound screening of the abdominal cavity organs].

    PubMed

    Ukhal', M I; Ukhal', E M; Kvasha, A N

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound screening of the abdominal cavity organs was performed in 98 patients, and renal cysts were revealed in 31 patientsare. 11 (26,6%) of 31 patients had renal cysts with complex structure. In 4 patients, complex cysts were located in parapelvic zone, in 7 patients - in different parts of the renal parenchyma. Pharmaco-Doppler sonography and computed tomography with bolus contrast enhancement in 7 patients with complex parenchymal cysts had revealed indirect signs of a malignant process - septums, thickening of the walls of cysts and septums, foci of calcination, increased blood circulation in the thickened renal cyst walls, venous stasis on the periphery of cysts and renal medulla, increasing the density of the thickened walls. Results of morphological studies have confirmed the presence of a malignant process in 5 of these 7 patients. In 4 patients with parapelvic cysts malignant process in ectomized layers was not revealed.

  5. Transvaginal repair of recurrent rectovaginal fistula with laparoscopic-assisted rectovaginal mobilization.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, M A; Pelosi, M A

    1997-12-01

    This study examines the use of laparoscopic upper rectovaginal mobilization to facilitate the transvaginal repair of recurrent rectovaginal fistulas. A 39-year-old female presented with fecal and gas incontinence consequent to an obstetrically related rectovaginal fistula with five unsuccessful transvaginal repairs over a 5-year period. Her condition was successfully treated by a transphincteric approach that combined an extensive laparoscopic dissection of the rectovaginal space from above with transvaginal dissection of the rectovaginal space from below to create complete mobilization between the two organs and to permit an excellent, tension-free closure of the rectal defect. Successful fistula closure and restoration of anal continence were achieved. The patient remains cured 18 months postsurgery. Laparoscopic mobilization of the upper rectovaginal septum followed by transvaginal division of the lower septum permits a more extensive mobilization and release of tension for fistula repair than that typically noted by the vaginal route alone. PMID:9449089

  6. Prosthetic occlusive device for an internal passageway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, J. B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An occlusive device is disclosed for surgical implant to occlude the lumen of an internal organ. The device includes a cuff having a backing collar and two isolated cuff chambers. The fluid pressure of one chamber is regulated by a pump/valve reservoir unit. The other chamber is unregulated in pressure but its fluid volume is adjusted by removing or adding fluid to a septum/reservoir by means of a hypodermic needle. Pressure changes are transmitted between the two cuff chambers via faying surfaces which are sufficiently large in contact area and thin as to transmit pressure generally without attenuation. By adjusting the fluid volume of the septum, the operating pressure of the device may be adjusted to accommodate tubular organs of different diameter sizes as well as to compensate for changes in the organ following implant without reoperation.

  7. Fetal cardiac interventions: an update of therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article aims to present updated therapeutic options for fetal congenital heart diseases. Methods Data source for the present study was based on comprehensive literature retrieval on fetal cardiac interventions in terms of indications, technical approaches and clinical outcomes. Results About 5% of fetal congenital heart diseases are critical and timely intrauterine intervention may alleviate heart function. Candidates for fetal cardiac interventions are limited. These candidates may include critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The advocated option are prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of atrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Conclusion Fetal cardiac interventions are feasible at midgestation with gradually improved technical success and fetal/postnatal survival due mainly to a well-trained multidisciplinary team, sophisticated equipment and better postnatal care. PMID:25372914

  8. Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Laughlin, D S; Ialeggio, D M; Trupkiewicz, J G; Sleeper, M M

    2016-09-01

    The Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect is an uncommon type of ventricular septal defect characterised in humans by a traditionally perimembranous ventricular septal defect, anterior deviation (cranioventral deviation in small animal patients) of the muscular outlet septum causing malalignment relative to the remainder of the muscular septum, and overriding of the aortic valve. This anomaly is reported infrequently in human patients and was identified in a 45-day-old Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, with signs of poor growth and a cardiac murmur. This case report describes the findings in this penguin and summarises the anatomy and classification of this cardiac anomaly. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a veterinary patient.

  9. [CHANGES OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY OF CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CLEAN-UP WORKERS WITH STABLE ANGINA].

    PubMed

    Nastina, O

    2014-01-01

    Changes of global and local myocardial contractility of Chernobyl accident clean-up workers (ChA CW) with stable angina were investigated. There were discovered that regular long-term treatment of ChA CW with stable angina using of antiischemic and metabolic drugs promoted to stabilization of global and local myocardial contractility indexes. Ejection fraction, degree of contraction of front-rear systolic left ventricle size, systolic thickness of interventricular septum sufficiently increased. Step-by-step worsening of global and local myocardial contractility indexes in cases of non-regular treatment was taken place. Sufficient differences between indexes of ejection fraction, left ventricle end-diastolic volume, systolic thickness and excursion of interventricular septum in stable angina patients of general population and ChA CW were discovered. Results of global and local myocardial contractility monitoring in ChA CW with stable angina substantiate the advisability of long-term supporting treatment using evidence-based drugs.

  10. Mitotic Exit and Separation of Mother and Daughter Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    Productive cell proliferation involves efficient and accurate splitting of the dividing cell into two separate entities. This orderly process reflects coordination of diverse cytological events by regulatory systems that drive the cell from mitosis into G1. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, separation of mother and daughter cells involves coordinated actomyosin ring contraction and septum synthesis, followed by septum destruction. These events occur in precise and rapid sequence once chromosomes are segregated and are linked with spindle organization and mitotic progress by intricate cell cycle control machinery. Additionally, critical parts of the mother/daughter separation process are asymmetric, reflecting a form of fate specification that occurs in every cell division. This chapter describes central events of budding yeast cell separation, as well as the control pathways that integrate them and link them with the cell cycle. PMID:23212898

  11. Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2001-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  12. A Broadband Terahertz Waveguide T-Junction Variable Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, Kimberly S.; Mendis, Rajind; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-06-01

    In order for the promise of terahertz (THz) wireless communications to become a reality, many new devices need to be developed, such as those for routing THz waves. We demonstrate a power splitting router based on a parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) T-junction excited by the TE1 waveguide mode. By integrating a small triangular septum into the waveguide plate, we are able to direct the THz light down either one of the two output channels with precise control over the ratio between waveguide outputs. We find good agreement between experiment and simulation in both amplitude and phase. We show that the ratio between waveguide outputs varies exponentially with septum translation offset and that nearly 100% transmission can be achieved. The splitter operates over almost the entire range in which the waveguide is single mode, providing a sensitive and broadband method for THz power splitting.

  13. Cell shape dynamics during the staphylococcal cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, João M; Fernandes, Pedro B; Vaz, Filipa; Pereira, Ana R; Tavares, Andreia C; Ferreira, Maria T; Pereira, Pedro M; Veiga, Helena; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Filipe, Sérgio R; Pinho, Mariana G

    2015-08-17

    Staphylococcus aureus is an aggressive pathogen and a model organism to study cell division in sequential orthogonal planes in spherical bacteria. However, the small size of staphylococcal cells has impaired analysis of changes in morphology during the cell cycle. Here we use super-resolution microscopy and determine that S. aureus cells are not spherical throughout the cell cycle, but elongate during specific time windows, through peptidoglycan synthesis and remodelling. Both peptidoglycan hydrolysis and turgor pressure are required during division for reshaping the flat division septum into a curved surface. In this process, the septum generates less than one hemisphere of each daughter cell, a trait we show is common to other cocci. Therefore, cell surface scars of previous divisions do not divide the cells in quadrants, generating asymmetry in the daughter cells. Our results introduce a need to reassess the models for division plane selection in cocci.

  14. Beam loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanGinneken, A.; Edwards, D.; Harrison, M.

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents results from simulations of beam losses during the operation of a superconducting accelerator. The calculations use a combination of hadron/electromagnetic cascade plus elastic scattering codes with accelerator tracking routines. These calculations have been used in conjunction with the design of the Fermilab Tevatron. First accelerator geometry is described. The rest of the paper discusses a detailed attempt to simulate a fast extraction cycle, essentially in chronological order. Beginning with an unperturbed beam, the simulation generates proton phase-space distributions incident on the electrostatic septum. These interact either elastically or inelastically with the septum wires, and the products of these interactions are traced through the machine. Where these leave the accelerator, energy deposition levels in the magnets are calculated together with the projected response of the beam-loss monitors in this region. Finally, results of the calculation are compared with experimental data. (AIP)

  15. Design of a 90{degree} overmoded waveguide bend

    SciTech Connect

    Nantista, C.; Kroll, N.M.; Nelson, E.M.

    1993-04-01

    A design for a 90{degree} bend for the TE{sub 01} mode in over-moded circular waveguide is presented. A pair of septa, symmetrically placed perpendicular to the plane of the bend, are adiabatically introduced into the waveguide before the bend and removed after it. Introduction of the curvature excites five propagating modes in the curved section. The finite element field solver YAP is used to calculate the propagation constants of these modes in the bend, and the guide diameter, septum depth, septum thickness, and bend radius are set so that the phase advances of all five modes through the bend are equal modulo 2{pi}. To a good approximation these modes are expected to recombine to form a pure mode at the end of the bend.

  16. SNS EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY PROTOTYPE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    MI,J.L.; SANDBERG,J.; SANDERS,R.; SOUKAS,A.; ZHANG,W.

    2000-06-27

    The SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) accumulator ring Extraction System consists of a Fast kicker and a Lambertson Septum magnet. The proposed design will use 14 kicker magnets powered by an Extraction Kicker Power Supply System. They will eject the high power beam from the SNS accumulator ring into RTBT (Ring to Target Beam Tunnel) through a Lambertson Septum magnet. This paper describes some test results of the SNS Extraction Kicker power supply prototype. The high repetition rate of 60 pulse per second operation is the challenging part of the design. In the prototype testing, a 3 kA damp current of 700ns pulse-width, 200 nS rise time and 60 Hz repetition rate at 32 kV PFN operation voltage has been demonstrated. An Extraction kicker power supply system design diagram is depicted.

  17. Injection/Extraction Studies In The Non-scaling FFAG For The Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, J.; Berg, J. Scott; Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.

    2011-10-06

    The Neutrino Factory is under intensive study in the framework of the International Design Study for future precision neutrino oscillation physics. According to the current baseline the major part of muon acceleration is foreseen to take part in the non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (NS-FFAG) ring. The NS-FFAG lattice design was recently modified to accommodate long straight sections necessary for the injection/extraction systems. The length of the long drift was optimized minimizing the necessary septum field, which according to present studies needs to be below 2 T. The injection/extraction schemes allowing to reuse the kickers for both signs of muons are presented. The design of the kicker system based on current technology is discussed. The preliminary design of a septum magnet focused on minimization of the stray field leakage is studied.

  18. Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Laughlin, D S; Ialeggio, D M; Trupkiewicz, J G; Sleeper, M M

    2016-09-01

    The Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect is an uncommon type of ventricular septal defect characterised in humans by a traditionally perimembranous ventricular septal defect, anterior deviation (cranioventral deviation in small animal patients) of the muscular outlet septum causing malalignment relative to the remainder of the muscular septum, and overriding of the aortic valve. This anomaly is reported infrequently in human patients and was identified in a 45-day-old Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, with signs of poor growth and a cardiac murmur. This case report describes the findings in this penguin and summarises the anatomy and classification of this cardiac anomaly. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a veterinary patient. PMID:27286906

  19. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    PubMed

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming.

  20. Evaluation of diseased coronary arterial branches by polar representations of thallium-201 rotational myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Iino, T.; Toyosaki, N.; Katsuki, T.; Noda, T.; Natsume, T.; Yaginuma, T.; Hosoda, S.; Furuse, M.

    1987-09-01

    The perfusion territories in polar representations of stress Tl-201 rotational myocardial imaging in patients with angina pectoris who had one diseased coronary segment were analyzed. The lesions proximal or distal to the first major septal perforator in left anterior descending arteries were detected by the presence or absence of defects at the base of the anterior septum. Right coronary artery lesions were detected by the presence of defects at the basal posterior septum, in contrast to the preservation of myocardial uptake at this portion in lesions of the left circumflex artery. The specific defect patterns were detected in cases with lesions at the first diagonal, obtuse marginal, and posterolateral branches. Recognition of these defects in the polar maps allows detailed detection of diseased coronary arterial branches.

  1. EXTRACTION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE BSNS/RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.; CHEN, Y.; CHI, Y.L.; JIANG, Y.L.; KANG, W.; PANG, J.B.; QIN, Q.; WANG, S.; WANG, W.

    2006-06-23

    The BSNS extraction system takes use one of the four dispersion-free straight sections. Five vertical kickers and one Lambertson septum magnet are used for the one-turn extraction. The rise time of less 250 ns and the total kicking angle of 20 mrad are required for the kickers that are grouped into two tanks. The design for the kicker magnets and the PFN is also given. To reduce the low beam loss in the extraction channels due to large halo emittance, large apertures are used for both the kickers and septum. Stray magnetic field inside and at the two ends of the circulating path of the Lambertson magnet and its effect to the beam has been studied.

  2. Right oblique subxiphoid view for two-dimensional echocardiographic visualization of the right ventricle in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Marino, B; Ballerini, L; Marcelletti, C; Piva, R; Pasquini, L; Zacché, C; Giannico, S; De Simone, G

    1984-11-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography in the right oblique subxiphoid view (ROSV) was used to visualize all right ventricular components in 351 patients younger than 2 years of age (100 normal and 251 with various types of congenital heart disease). The ROSV, which is anterior and parallel to the ventricular septum, displays all right-sided cardiac components, the left atrium and the aorta. This view provided the correct diagnosis in patients with pulmonary stenosis or atresia with intact ventricular septum, Ebstein's anomaly, tricuspid atresia, infundibular ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot and truncus arteriosus. In all patients studied with the ROSV, an excellent definition of morphologic characteristics, equivalent to that in the right oblique axial angiocardiographic view, was achieved. The ROSV should be used routinely to delineate the right ventricular anatomy in all infants with congenital heart disease. PMID:6496327

  3. A Broadband Terahertz Waveguide T-Junction Variable Power Splitter

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Kimberly S.; Mendis, Rajind; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    In order for the promise of terahertz (THz) wireless communications to become a reality, many new devices need to be developed, such as those for routing THz waves. We demonstrate a power splitting router based on a parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) T-junction excited by the TE1 waveguide mode. By integrating a small triangular septum into the waveguide plate, we are able to direct the THz light down either one of the two output channels with precise control over the ratio between waveguide outputs. We find good agreement between experiment and simulation in both amplitude and phase. We show that the ratio between waveguide outputs varies exponentially with septum translation offset and that nearly 100% transmission can be achieved. The splitter operates over almost the entire range in which the waveguide is single mode, providing a sensitive and broadband method for THz power splitting. PMID:27352772

  4. Sphenoid sinus barotrauma after scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Kuk; Cho, Seok Hyun; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old male patient operated on for sphenoid sinus barotrauma after scuba diving. The patient attended our emergency department because of intractable headache but did not improve with conservative treatment. After computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination, he was diagnosed with sphenoid sinusitis that extended to the nasal septum. He therefore underwent surgery for sinus ventilation and abscess drainage.

  5. Zenker’s diverticulum: aetiopathogenesis, symptoms and diagnosis. Comparison of operative methods

    PubMed Central

    Nehring, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Zenker’s diverticulum is an alimentary tract pouch localized in the area of the upper esophageal sphincter. Treatment procedure complications and coexisting diseases constitute a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Characteristic symptoms and signs facilitate differential diagnosis, simultaneously being real patient maladies. There are many treatment procedures leading to pouch septum reduction and decrease of upper esophageal sphincter pressure. After years of experience in operating and endoscopic treatments we found it necessary to compare these different methods. PMID:24868270

  6. Fine Structure of Fossilized Bacteria in Volyn Kerite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlenko, V. M.; Zhmur, S. I.; Duda, V. I.; Suzina, N. E.; Osipov, G. A.; Dmitriev, V. V.

    2000-12-01

    Ultrathin sectioning and cryofracture of fibrous kerite, sampled from 1.8-1.75 billion year old Volyn sediments (Ukraine), revealed in bacteria-like bodies the presence of structures similar to sheath, cell wall, periplasm, cytoplasm, septum, membranes, intramembrane particles, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate inclusions. On the strength of these data and also the fatty acid profiles of these microfossils, we concluded that fibrous kerites are biogenic formations, namely fossilized bacterial mats.

  7. Simple mesothelial pericardial cyst in a rare location.

    PubMed

    Ranchordás, Sara; Gomes, Catarina; Abecasis, Miguel; Gouveia, Rosa; Abecasis, João; Lopes, Luís R; Fazendas, Paula

    2016-09-01

    Pericardial cysts are rare and generally benign intrathoracic lesions, most frequently located in the cardiophrenic angles, but other locations have been described. We present a case of a pericardial cyst in a previously undescribed site. Our patient presented with a cyst in the interventricular septum which was discovered as an incidental finding. After surgical excision of the cyst, it was described pathologically as a simple mesothelial pericardial cyst. The explanation of this rare condition is uncertain, but some hypotheses can be outlined.

  8. Pattern of pulmonary venous blood flow in the hypoplastic left heart syndrome in the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Better, D; Apfel, H; Zidere, V; Allan, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether restriction at the atrial septum in the newborn with hypoplastic left heart syndrome can be predicted accurately by examining the pattern of pulmonary venous flow in the fetus. A restrictive atrial septum can contribute to haemodynamic instability before surgery for this lesion and has been associated with an increased mortality.
DESIGN—Pulmonary venous pulsed Doppler tracings were compared between fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and controls. The size of the atrial septal defect on the postnatal echocardiogram was graded according to the degree of restriction. Pulsed Doppler tracings of pulmonary venous blood flow were obtained in 18 fetuses with left atrial outflow atresia and compared with 77 controls, adjusted for gestational age. Postnatal echocardiograms were available for analysis in 13 of 18 neonates.
SETTING—A tertiary referral centre for fetal cardiology and paediatric cardiac surgery.
RESULTS—Fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome were different from controls in all pulmonary vein indices measured. As assessed from the postnatal echocardiogram, there were seven fetuses with a restrictive atrial septum. In these fetuses, the systolic flow velocity (p < 0.01), S/D ratio (p < 0.01), and peak reversal wave (p < 0.001) in the pulmonary vein tracing showed a good correlation with the degree of restriction.
CONCLUSIONS—The Doppler pattern of pulmonary venous flow in the fetus with hypoplastic left heart syndrome appears to be a reliable predictor of restriction of the atrial septum in the neonate. This may help in the immediate post-delivery management of these infants before surgery.


Keywords: fetus; congenital heart defects; echocardiography; risk factors PMID:10336926

  9. Space shuttle galley water system test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A water system for food rehydration was tested to determine the requirements for a space shuttle gallery flight system. A new food package concept had been previously developed in which water was introduced into the sealed package by means of a needle and septum. The needle configuration was developed and the flow characteristics measured. The interface between the food package and the water system, oven, and food tray was determined.

  10. A rare case of Enterococcus faecalis-induced orbital cellulitis and myositis

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Piyush; Ichhpujani, Parul; Bansal, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an infection of soft tissue behind the orbital septum. Common pathogens isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a straightforward diagnosis and usually responds to empirical treatment without any sequela. We report a case of orbital cellulitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis, which was complicated by myositis of levator palpebrae superioris. To the best of our knowledge, only one case report exists dating way back to 1986. PMID:27688288

  11. A Rare Case of Left Ventricular Intramural Hemangioma Diagnosed Using 1.5-T Cardiac MRI with Histopathological Correlation and Successfully Treated by Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Marrone, Gianluca; Sciacca, Sergio D'Ancona, Giuseppe Pilato, Michele; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2010-02-15

    Hemangiomas are vascular tumors composed of blood vessels, frequently localized in the skin and subcutaneous muscles; their localization in the heart is exceptional. The most common localizations are the lateral walls of the left ventricle, the anterior wall, and the septum. Mostly, these tumors grow intracavitarily, rarely intramurally. We describe a singular case of left ventricular intramural hemangioma, detected and diagnosed using newer magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities, confirmed by histopathological results, and treated successfully by surgery.

  12. A rare case of Enterococcus faecalis-induced orbital cellulitis and myositis.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Piyush; Ichhpujani, Parul; Bansal, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-08-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an infection of soft tissue behind the orbital septum. Common pathogens isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a straightforward diagnosis and usually responds to empirical treatment without any sequela. We report a case of orbital cellulitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis, which was complicated by myositis of levator palpebrae superioris. To the best of our knowledge, only one case report exists dating way back to 1986. PMID:27688288

  13. Phragmoplast of the green alga Spirogyra is functionally distinct from the higher plant phragmoplast.

    PubMed

    Sawitzky, H; Grolig, F

    1995-09-01

    Cytokinesis in the green alga Spirogyra (Zygnemataceae) is characterized by centripetal growth of a septum, which impinges on a persistent, centrifugally expanding telophase spindle, leading to a phragmoplast-like structure of potential phylogenetic significance (Fowke, L. C., and J. D. Pickett-Heaps. 1969. J. Phycol. 5:273-281). Combining fluorescent tagging of the cytoskeleton in situ and video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy of live cells, the process of cytokinesis was investigated with emphasis on cytoskeletal reorganization and concomitant redistribution of organelles. Based on a sequence of cytoskeletal arrangements and the effects of cytoskeletal inhibitors thereon, cytokinetic progression could be divided into three functional stages with respect to the contribution of microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs): (1) Initiation: in early prophase, a cross wall initial was formed independently of MFs and MTs at the presumptive site of wall growth. (2) Septum ingrowth: numerous organelles accumulated at the cross wall initial concomitant with reorganization of the extensive peripheral interphase MF array into a distinct circumferential MF array. This array guided the ingrowing septum until it contacted the expanding interzonal MT array. (3) Cross wall closure: MFs at the growing edge of the septum coaligned with and extended along the interzonal MTs toward the daughter nuclei. Thus, actin-based transportation of small organelles during this third stage occurred, in part, along a scaffold previously deployed in space by MTs. Displacement of the nuclei-associated interzonal MT array by centrifugation and depolymerization of the phragmoplast-like structure showed that the success of cytokinesis at the third stage depends on the interaction of both MF and MT cytoskeletons. Important features of the phragmoplast-like structure in Spirogyra were different from the higher plant phragmoplast: in particular, MFs were responsible for the

  14. Septal Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Expression Determines Suppression of Cocaine-Induced Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Harasta, Anne E; Power, John M; von Jonquieres, Georg; Karl, Tim; Drucker, Daniel J; Housley, Gary D; Schneider, Miriam; Klugmann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its receptor GLP-1R are a key component of the satiety signaling system, and long-acting GLP-1 analogs have been approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Previous reports demonstrate that GLP-1 regulates glucose homeostasis alongside the rewarding effects of food. Both palatable food and illicit drugs activate brain reward circuitries, and pharmacological studies suggest that central nervous system GLP-1 signaling holds potential for the treatment of addiction. However, the role of endogenous GLP-1 in the attenuation of reward-oriented behavior, and the essential domains of the mesolimbic system mediating these beneficial effects, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the central regions of highest Glp-1r gene activity are essential in mediating responses to drugs of abuse. Here, we show that Glp-1r-deficient (Glp-1r−/−) mice have greatly augmented cocaine-induced locomotor responses and enhanced conditional place preference compared with wild-type (Glp-1r+/+) controls. Employing mRNA in situ hybridization we located peak Glp-1r mRNA expression in GABAergic neurons of the dorsal lateral septum, an anatomical site with a crucial function in reward perception. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of dorsal lateral septum neurons revealed that genetic Glp-1r ablation leads to increased excitability of these cells. Viral vector-mediated Glp-1r gene delivery to the dorsal lateral septum of Glp-1r−/− animals reduced cocaine-induced locomotion and conditional place preference to wild-type levels. This site-specific genetic complementation did not affect the anxiogenic phenotype observed in Glp-1r−/− controls. These data reveal a novel role of GLP-1R in dorsal lateral septum function driving behavioral responses to cocaine. PMID:25669605

  15. [Nasal obstruction and mouth breathing: the ENT's point of view].

    PubMed

    Leboulanger, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Obstructive diseases of children's upper airways are frequent, mostly caused by tonsils and adenoids hypertrophy. A nasal septum deviation or a lower turbinate hypertrophy may also cause a significant obstruction. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy must be performed in case of clinical obstruction, sometimes documented by a sleep study. A tonsils' hypertrophy without significant obstruction and clinical symptoms is not an indication of adenotonsillectomy, even in case of snoring or if an orthodontic treatment is planned.

  16. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yang; Meng, Wen-Jin; Swathirajan, Swathy; Harris, Stephen Joel; Doll, Gary Lynn

    2001-07-17

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

  17. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yang; Meng, Wen-Jin; Swathirajan, Swathy; Harris, Stephen J.; Doll, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

  18. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yang; Meng, Wen-Jin; Swathirajan, Swathy; Harris, Stephen Joel; Doll, Gary Lynn

    2002-01-01

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

  19. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Li, Y.; Meng, W.J.; Swathirajan, S.; Harris, S.J.; Doll, G.L.

    1997-04-29

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell`s operating environment. Stainless steels rich in Cr, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers. 6 figs.

  20. Transpulmonary echocardiography to guide stent implantation into coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Teramachi, Yozo; Suda, Kenji; Yoshimoto, Hironaga; Kishimoto, Shintaro; Kudo, Yoshiyuki; Iemura, Motofumi

    2015-05-01

    Although stent implantation into aortic coarctation has been performed solely under fluoroscopy, we successfully applied intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) to guide this procedure in a 13-year-old patient. Placing an intracardiac echocardiographic catheter in the left pulmonary artery facing upward, we readily visualized the precise anatomy of coarctation, measured the pressure gradient, and monitored the stent inflation process. This report suggests a new application of ICE for intervention with structural and vascular diseases other than interatrial septum.

  1. Septal complex of the telencephalon of lizards: III. Efferent connections and general discussion.

    PubMed

    Font, C; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A; Hoogland, P V; Martinez-Garcia, F

    1998-11-30

    The projections of the septum of the lizard Podarcis hispanica (Lacertidae) were studied by combining retrograde and anterograde neuroanatomical tracing. The results confirm the classification of septal nuclei into three main divisions. The nuclei composing the central septal division (anterior, lateral, medial, dorsolateral, and ventrolateral nuclei) displayed differential projections to the basal telencephalon, preoptic and anterior hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area, dorsal hypothalamus, mammillary complex, dorsomedial anterior thalamus, ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus, raphe nucleus, torus semicircularis pars laminaris, reptilian A8 nucleus/substantia nigra and central gray. For instance, only the medial septal nucleus projected substantially to the thalamus whereas the anterior septum was the only nucleus projecting to the caudal midbrain including the central gray. The anterior and lateral septal nuclei also differ in the way in which their projection to the preoptic hypothalamus terminated. The midline septal division is composed of the dorsal septal nucleus, nucleus septalis impar and nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure. The latter two nuclei projected to the lateral habenula and, at least the nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure, to the mammillary complex. The dorsal septal nucleus projected to the preoptic and periventricular hypothalamus and the anterior thalamus, but its central part seemed to project to the caudal midbrain (up to the midbrain central gray). Finally, the ventromedial septal division (ventromedial septal nucleus) showed a massive projection to the anterior and the lateral tuberomammillary hypothalamus. Data on the connections of the septum of P. hispanica and Gecko gekko are discussed from a comparative point of view and used for better understanding of the functional anatomy of the tetrapodian septum.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Aspergillus Nidulans Mutants Defective in Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, S. D.; Morrell, J. L.; Hamer, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Filamentous fungi undergo cytokinesis by forming crosswalls termed septa. Here, we describe the genetic and physiological controls governing septation in Aspergillus nidulans. Germinating conidia do not form septa until the completion of their third nuclear division. The first septum is invariantly positioned at the basal end of the germ tube. Block-and-release experiments of nuclear division with benomyl or hydroxyurea, and analysis of various nuclear division mutants demonstrated that septum formation is dependent upon the third mitotic division. Block-and-release experiments with cytochalasin A and the localization of actin in germlings by indirect immunofluorescence showed that actin participated in septum formation. In addition to being concentrated at the growing hyphal tips, a band of actin was also apparent at the site of septum formation. Previous genetic analysis in A. nidulans identified four genes involved in septation (sepA-D). We have screened a new collection of temperature sensitive (ts) mutants of A. nidulans for strains that failed to form septa at the restrictive temperature but were able to complete early nuclear divisions. We identified five new genes designated sepE, G, H, I and J, along with one additional allele of a previously identified septation gene. On the basis of temperature shift experiments, nuclear counts and cell morphology, we sorted these cytokinesis mutants into three phenotypic classes. Interestingly, one class of mutants fails to form septa and fails to progress past the third nuclear division. This class of mutants suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism in A. nidulans that ensures the continuation of nuclear division following the initiation of cytokinesis. PMID:8150280

  3. Nasal bone grafts from the removed hump used as overlay grafts to camouflage concave lateral crura.

    PubMed

    Kubilay, Utku; Erdogdu, Suleyman; Sezen, Ozan Seymen

    2014-01-01

    Alar cartilage consists of a medial crus, middle crus and lateral crus. The lateral crus is an important aesthetic and functional structure of the nose. A 32-year-old male patient with concave lateral crura was operated by the authors. An open rhinoplasty with a dorsal approach to the septum is preferred. The nasal bones harvested from the hump, which is an autogenous graft trimmed and sutured on both concave lateral crura as an overlay camouflage grafts. Satisfactory result was achieved.

  4. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB–FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved, coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces. PMID:27053678

  5. Myocardialization of the cardiac outflow tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van den Hoff, M. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Ruijter, J. M.; Lamers, W. H.; Bennington, R. W.; Markwald, R. R.; Wessels, A.

    1999-01-01

    During development, the single-circuited cardiac tube transforms into a double-circuited four-chambered heart by a complex process of remodeling, differential growth, and septation. In this process the endocardial cushion tissues of the atrioventricular junction and outflow tract (OFT) play a crucial role as they contribute to the mesenchymal components of the developing septa and valves in the developing heart. After fusion, the endocardial ridges in the proximal portion of the OFT initially form a mesenchymal outlet septum. In the adult heart, however, this outlet septum is basically a muscular structure. Hence, the mesenchyme of the proximal outlet septum has to be replaced by cardiomyocytes. We have dubbed this process "myocardialization." Our immunohistochemical analysis of staged chicken hearts demonstrates that myocardialization takes place by ingrowth of existing myocardium into the mesenchymal outlet septum. Compared to other events in cardiac septation, it is a relatively late process, being initialized around stage H/H28 and being basically completed around stage H/H38. To unravel the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the induction and regulation of myocardialization, an in vitro culture system in which myocardialization could be mimicked and manipulated was developed. Using this in vitro myocardialization assay it was observed that under the standard culture conditions (i) whole OFT explants from stage H/H20 and younger did not spontaneously myocardialize the collagen matrix, (ii) explants from stage H/H21 and older spontaneously formed extensive myocardial networks, (iii) the myocardium of the OFT could be induced to myocardialize and was therefore "myocardialization-competent" at all stages tested (H/H16-30), (iv) myocardialization was induced by factors produced by, most likely, the nonmyocardial component of the outflow tract, (v) at none of the embryonic stages analyzed was ventricular myocardium myocardialization-competent, and finally

  6. Izogenic cartilage transfer in rhinoplasty procedure.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Baris; Bicer, Ahmet; Aytop, Derya

    2015-01-01

    Cartilage is commonly grafted during primary and secondary rhinoplasties as a means of addressing both functional and esthetic issues. Generally, such grafts are taken from the nasal septum, but auricular conchae or ribs may serve as donor sites if needed. However, the latter often entail considerable morbidity and graft mismatch. To circumvent these drawbacks, use of implants or processed cartilage (allogenic or xenogenic in origin) has been proposed. Herein, the isogenic transfer of nasal septal cartilage between identical twins is reported. PMID:25569406

  7. Cardiac varix in the right atrium

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Manabu; Kimura, Chieri; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year old man underwent transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography, which revealed what appeared to be an asymptomatic primary mobile tumour located in the right atrium. During surgery, the mass was found to be associated with the right atrial septum and was subsequently resected. Histopathology of the mass revealed a cardiac varix with phleboliths. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and no signs of recurrence at the 10-month follow-up. PMID:22314009

  8. Subvalvular aortic stenosis as a cause of sudden death: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Turan, Arzu Akcay; Guven, Taner; Karayel, Ferah; Pakis, Isil; Gurpinar, Kagan; Ozaslan, Abdi

    2006-03-01

    Sudden death is defined as a death that occurs suddenly, develops during an unpredictable course, and is due to natural or unnatural causes. Although there is no universally standardized definition on how "sudden" a sudden death is, WHO defines sudden death as a death that occurs within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms. The aim of this study is to present 2 rarely reported autopsy cases and to emphasize the importance of systemic autopsy at sudden death. On macroscopic examination, crescent-shaped, thick, fibrous membranes, located 5 mm and 3 mm away from the aortic valves, were detected. Fibrous membranes extended from the ventricular septum to the left ventricular outflow tract, thus apparently narrowing this region. Left ventricular wall and septum were slightly thickened, and there were scattered grayish-white areas of a small diameter. These became more intense in the septum and myocardium of the left ventricle on the anterior plane of the myocardial sections. In both cases, the aortic valves of were thickened and also markedly narrowed on one of them. In this case, the fibrous membrane adhered to the aortic valve and extended to the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve at one side. Both aortic valves comprised 3 leaflets. Other valves and coronary arteries showed no macroscopic pathologic findings. Microscopic examination of both cases demonstrated that the fibrous membrane comprising abundant collagen fibers was situated on the ventricular septum. Hypertrophy, moderate to severe interstitial fibrosis, and focal areas of scarring were observed in the specimens taken from the septal and ventricular myocardium. No abnormality was found on the conduction system examinations. Toxicologic analysis results in blood were negative. Based on the findings, membranous-type (discrete type) subvalvular aortic stenosis, diagnosed during the autopsy, was considered as the cause of sudden death in both cases.

  9. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB-FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved,coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces.

  10. Colonic triplication associated with anorectal malformation: case presentation of a rare embryological disorder.

    PubMed

    Gisquet, Heloise; Lemelle, Jean Louis; Lavrand, Frederic; Droulle, Pierre; Schmitt, Michel

    2006-07-01

    Tubular colonic triplication is an extremely rare hindgut malformation, with only 2 reports in the literature to date. The present authors describe the new and unusual case of a boy born with an imperforate anus, rectovesical fistula, and 3 distinct left colons. The bladder was divided by an incomplete septum. Prenatal ultrasound suggested colonic duplication. Surgical management involved resection of the triplicated segment and posterosagittal anorectal pull through. PMID:16818042

  11. Synaptic Targets of Medial Septal Projections in the Hippocampus and Extrahippocampal Cortices of the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Unal, Gunes; Joshi, Abhilasha; Viney, Tim J; Kis, Viktor; Somogyi, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Temporal coordination of neuronal assemblies among cortical areas is essential for behavioral performance. GABAergic projections from the medial septum and diagonal band complex exclusively innervate GABAergic interneurons in the rat hippocampus, contributing to the coordination of neuronal activity, including the generation of theta oscillations. Much less is known about the synaptic target neurons outside the hippocampus. To reveal the contribution of synaptic circuits involving the medial septum of mice, we have identified postsynaptic cortical neurons in wild-type and parvalbumin-Cre knock-in mice. Anterograde axonal tracing from the septum revealed extensive innervation of the hippocampus as well as the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices, and the retrosplenial cortex. In all examined cortical regions, many septal GABAergic boutons were in close apposition to somata or dendrites immunopositive for interneuron cell-type molecular markers, such as parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, N-terminal EF-hand calcium-binding protein 1, cholecystokinin, reelin, or a combination of these molecules. Electron microscopic observations revealed septal boutons forming axosomatic or axodendritic type II synapses. In the CA1 region of hippocampus, septal GABAergic projections exclusively targeted interneurons. In the retrosplenial cortex, 93% of identified postsynaptic targets belonged to interneurons and the rest to pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the GABAergic innervation from the medial septum and diagonal band complex contributes to temporal coordination of neuronal activity via several types of cortical GABAergic interneurons in both hippocampal and extrahippocampal cortices. Oscillatory septal neuronal firing at delta, theta, and gamma frequencies may phase interneuron activity. PMID:26631464

  12. Orbital emphysema as an ophthalmologic emergency.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, J A; Beck, R W; Hoffman, R O

    1984-11-01

    Orbital emphysema is generally a benign, self-limited condition. However, if a fracture produces a ball-valve effect allowing air to enter but not to leave the orbit, and if the orbital septum remains intact, then extremely high intraorbital pressure and visual loss is possible. Two cases are described of visual loss from orbital emphysema, in a 33-year-old man and a 28-year-old man, which were successfully treated by a lateral canthotomy and cantholysis.

  13. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  14. SU-D-12A-04: Investigation of a 2D Antiscatter Grid for Flat Panel Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Altunbas, C; Kavanagh, B; Miften, M; Zhong, Y; Shaw, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To improve CT number accuracy and contrast sensitivity, a novel 2D antiscatter grid (ASG) for flat panel detector (FPD) based CBCT imaging was evaluated. Experiments were performed to characterize the scatter rejection and contrast sensitivity performance of ASG. The reduction in primary transmission for various ASG geometries was also evaluated by a computational model. Methods: The 2D ASG design was based on multi-hole collimators used in Nuclear Medicine. It consisted of abutted hexagon shaped apertures with 2.5 mm pitch and 32 mm height, and separated by 0.25 mm thick lead septa. Scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and mean primary transmission were measured using a benchtop FPD/x-ray source system. Acrylic slabs of varying thicknesses were imaged with a contrast-detail phantom to measure CNR and SPR under different scatter conditions. Primary transmission was also measured by averaging pixel values in flood field images without the phantom. We additionally explored variation of primary transmission with pitch and septum thickness using a computational model of our ASG. Results: Our 2D ASG reduced the SPR from 3.3 to 0.12, and improved CNR by 50% in 20 cm thick slab phantom projections acquired at 120 kVp. While the measured primary transmission was 72.8%, our simulations show that primary transmission can be increased to 86% by reducing the septum thickness to 0.1 mm. Primary transmission further increases to 93% if septum thickness of 0.1 mm is used in conjunction with an increased pitch of 4 mm. Conclusion: The 2D ASG appears to be a promising scatter rejection device, offering both superior scatter rejection and improved contrast sensitivity. Though its lead footprint reduced primary transmission, our work shows that optimization of aperture pitch and septum thickness can significantly improve the primary transmission.

  15. Urogenital sinus-ejaculatory duct cyst: a case report with a proposed clinical classification and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mayersak, J S

    1989-11-01

    A 31-year-old infertile white man presented with difficulty with defecation secondary to a large urogenital sinus-ejaculatory duct cyst. Computerized axial tomography and ultrasound evaluation were accomplished before retroperitoneal transvesical surgical removal of the cyst. A computerized tomography scan detected a septum in the cyst. A clinical classification is presented of the various retrovesical cystic lesions in the male patient and the literature is reviewed.

  16. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the ethmoid bone

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Noor; Cresswell, Manuela; Sharma, Rishi; Maheshwar, Arcot

    2014-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman presented with headache and diplopia, and a mass in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses was found on CT scan. The patient underwent examination under anaesthesia showing a mass arising from the ethmoid, apparently from the nasal septum. Biopsies taken showed an aneurysmal bone cyst. The patient opted against surgery and has been managed conservatively. A second CT scan 4 years later showed significant increase in size. PMID:24706701

  17. SepG coordinates sporulation-specific cell division and nucleoid organization in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Willemse, Joost; Claessen, Dennis; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial cell division is a highly complex process that requires tight coordination between septum formation and chromosome replication and segregation. In bacteria that divide by binary fission a single septum is formed at mid-cell, a process that is coordinated by the conserved cell division scaffold protein FtsZ. In contrast, during sporulation-specific cell division in streptomycetes, up to a hundred rings of FtsZ (Z rings) are produced almost simultaneously, dividing the multinucleoid aerial hyphae into long chains of unigenomic spores. This involves the active recruitment of FtsZ by the SsgB protein, and at the same time requires sophisticated systems to regulate chromosome dynamics. Here, we show that SepG is required for the onset of sporulation and acts by ensuring that SsgB is localized to future septum sites. Förster resonance energy transfer imaging suggests direct interaction between SepG and SsgB. The beta-lactamase reporter system showed that SepG is a transmembrane protein with its central domain oriented towards the cytoplasm. Without SepG, SsgB fails to localize properly, consistent with a crucial role for SepG in the membrane localization of the SsgB-FtsZ complex. While SsgB remains associated with FtsZ, SepG re-localizes to the (pre)spore periphery. Expanded doughnut-shaped nucleoids are formed in sepG null mutants, suggesting that SepG is required for nucleoid compaction. Taken together, our work shows that SepG, encoded by one of the last genes in the conserved dcw cluster of cell division and cell-wall-related genes in Gram-positive bacteria whose function was still largely unresolved,coordinates septum synthesis and chromosome organization in Streptomyces. PMID:27053678

  18. The function of chitin synthases 2 and 3 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The morphology of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, all lacking chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) and two of them deficient in either Chs3 (calR1 mutation) or Chs2 was observed by light and electron microscopy. Cells deficient in Chs2 showed clumpy growth and aberrant shape and size. Their septa were very thick; the primary septum was absent. Staining with WGA-gold complexes revealed a diffuse distribution of chitin in the septum, whereas chitin was normally located at the neck between mother cell and bud and in the wall of mother cells. Strains deficient in Chs3 exhibited minor abnormalities in budding pattern and shape. Their septa were thin and trilaminar. Staining for chitin revealed a thin line of the polysaccharide along the primary septum; no chitin was present elsewhere in the wall. Therefore, Chs2 is specific for primary septum formation, whereas Chs3 is responsible for chitin in the ring at bud emergence and in the cell wall. Chs3 is also required for chitin synthesized in the presence of alpha-pheromone or deposited in the cell wall of cdc mutants at nonpermissive temperature, and for chitosan in spore walls. Genetic evidence indicated that a mutant lacking all three chitin synthases was inviable; this was confirmed by constructing a triple mutant rescued by a plasmid carrying a CHS2 gene under control of a GAL1 promoter. Transfer of the mutant from galactose to glucose resulted in cell division arrest followed by cell death. We conclude that some chitin synthesis is essential for viability of yeast cells. PMID:2050738

  19. Salivary-type neoplasms of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Batsakis, J G

    1991-08-01

    Salivary-type neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are numerically dominated by adenoid cystic carcinomas and pleomorphic adenomas. All others, benign or malignant, are rarely encountered and are usually biologically and histologically low-grade. Sites of origin in the sinonasal tract conform to the density and distribution of the seromucous glands and hence are most often nasal (septum and turbinates) or ostial.

  20. Reproductive impairment and the malformed uterus.

    PubMed

    Jones, H W

    1981-08-01

    The reproductive potential of the malformed uterus is assessed, with emphasis on problems of vertical and lateral fusion. An obstructive transverse vaginal septum, which appears to result from a rare autosomal recessive gene, can be encountered in infancy or may not manifest symptoms until the onset of menstruation when menstrual blood accumulates. Hysterectomy is the recommended treatment, except in rare cases where there is only partial failure of the cervix to develop or there is a very short distance between the vagina and the endometrial cavity. Only 1 case of successful reproduction has been documented among women with this condition. Pregnancies have been reported in instances of partial transverse vaginal septum; however, postpartum pyometra and pyocolpos can develop, requiring emergency surgical drainage. Symptoms in women with obstructed lateral fusion are related to the site of obstruction. Reproduction may occur after removal of the vaginal septum in women with a uterus didelphys with a double vagina and low vaginal obstruction. Ectopic pregnancies have been reported inw women with an obstructed rudimentary horn. Unilateral obstruction is almost always accompanied by absence of the ipsilateral kidney, suggesting that bilateral obstruction is associated with bilateral kidney agenesis with consequent nonviability of the developing embryo. Reproduction appears to be somewhat compromised by infertility, pregnancy wastage, and premature labor in patients with either a didelphic or a unicornuate uterus. The bicornuate uterus causes only minimal reproductive problems, while the septate uterus is almost always associated with reproductive failure. Examination under anesthesia or laparoscopy may be required to distinguish between these 2 types of double uterus. Excision of the septum by wedge is the recommended operative treatment of a septate uterus. After this procedure, 77% of patients in 1 series had a term delivery. 73% of all pregnancies following the

  1. Possible involvement of central C-type natriuretic polypeptide receptor on water intake in spontaneously hypertensive rats, but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, K; Makino, I; Goto, E; Katsuragi, T; Furukawa, T

    1999-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the possible role of brain C-type natriuretic polypeptide receptor (GC-B) in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The level of GC-B mRNA in various regions of the brain in both SHR and WKY was examined in the present study. The GC-B mRNA was unevenly distributed in rat brain, the transcript being expressed predominantly in the hypothalamus and cerebellum but comparatively at low level in the striatum and septum. However, the level in the septum was 3-fold higher in SHR than than in age-matched WKY, while no differences were observed in other regions of the brain. Intracerebroventricular administration of antisense oligonucleotide to GC-B mRNA inhibits the night-time water intake in SHR, but not in WKY. However, the daily food intake was not significantly altered by the injection of antisense oligonucleotide in both strains. These results demonstrate that the brain GC-B mRNA, particularly in septum, is increased in SHR and this increase may be closely related to the regulation of water-drinking behaviour in SHR.

  2. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor regulates programmed cell death during flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    Flower development and fertilization are tightly controlled in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to permit the fertilization of a maximum amount of ovules as well as proper embryo and seed development, a subtle balance between pollen tube growth inside the transmitting tract and pollen tube exit from the septum is needed. Both processes depend on a type of programmed cell death that is still poorly understood. Here, it is shown that a Kunitz protease inhibitor related to water-soluble chlorophyll proteins of Brassicaceae (AtWSCP, encoded by At1g72290) is involved in controlling cell death during flower development in A. thaliana. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biology approaches revealed that WSCP physically interacts with RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION) and that this interaction in turn inhibits the activity of RD21 as a pro-death protein. The regulatory circuit identified depends on the restricted expression of WSCP in the transmitting tract and the septum epidermis. In a respective Atwscp knock-out mutant, flowers exhibited precocious cell death in the transmitting tract and unnatural death of septum epidermis cells. As a consequence, apical-basal pollen tube growth, fertilization of ovules, as well as embryo development and seed formation were perturbed. Together, the data identify a unique mechanism of cell death regulation that fine-tunes pollen tube growth.

  3. Sound Absorption of a 2DOF Resonant Liner with Negative Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Cataldi, P.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an experimental study conducted to determine the effect of negative bias flow on the sound absorption of a two degree-of-freedom liner. The backwall for the liner was designed to act as a double-Helmholtz resonator so as to act as a hard wall at all frequencies except at its resonant frequencies. The effect of bias flow is investigated for a buried septum porosity of 2% and 19.5% for bias flow orifice Mach numbers up to 0.311. The bias flow appears to modify the resistance and reactance of the backwall alone at lower frequencies up to about 2 kHz, with marginal effects at higher frequencies. Absorption coefficients close to unity are achieved for a frequency range of 500 - 4000 Hz for the overall liner for a septum porosity of 2% and orifice Mach number of 0.128. Insertion loss tests performed in a flow duct facility for grazing flow Mach numbers up to 0.2 and septum Mach numbers up to 0.15 showed that negative bias flow can increase insertion loss by as much as 10 dB at frequencies in the range of 500 D 1400 Hz compared to no grazing flow. The effectiveness of the negative bias flow is diminished as the grazing flow velocity is increased.

  4. Folic acid deficiency during late gestation decreases progenitor cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in fetal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Brown, Elliott C; Mar, Mei-Heng; Albright, Craig D; Nadeau, Marie R; Zeisel, Steven H

    2004-01-01

    In mice and rats, maternal dietary choline intake during late pregnancy modulates mitosis and apoptosis in progenitor cells of the fetal hippocampus and septum. Because choline and folate are interrelated metabolically, we investigated the effects of maternal dietary folate availability on progenitor cells in fetal mouse telencephalon. Timed-pregnant mice were fed a folate-supplemented (FS), control (FCT) or folate-deficient (FD) AIN-76 diet from d 11-17 of pregnancy. FD decreased the number of progenitor cells undergoing cell replication in the ventricular zones of the developing mouse brain septum (46.6% of FCT), caudate putamen (43.5%), and neocortex (54.4%) as assessed using phosphorylated histone H3 (a specific marker of mitotic phase) and confirmed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling of the S phase. In addition, 106.2% more apoptotic cells were found in FD than in FCT fetal septum. We observed 46.8% more calretinin-positive cells in the medial septal-diagonal band region of FD compared with pups from control dams. FS mice did not differ significantly from FCT mice in any of these measures. These results suggest that progenitor cells in fetal forebrain are sensitive to maternal dietary folate during late gestation. PMID:14704311

  5. Cytoarchitecture and efferent projections of the nucleus incertus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco E; Teruel, Vicent; Barcia-González, Jorge; Ruiz-Torner, Amparo; Valverde-Navarro, Alfonso A; Martínez-Soriano, Francisco

    2003-09-01

    The nucleus incertus is located caudal to the dorsal raphe and medial to the dorsal tegmentum. It is composed of a pars compacta and a pars dissipata and contains acetylcholinesterase, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and cholecystokinin-positive somata. In the present study, anterograde tracer injections in the nucleus incertus resulted in terminal-like labeling in the perirhinal cortex and the dorsal endopyriform nucleus, the hippocampus, the medial septum diagonal band complex, lateral and triangular septum medial amygdala, the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, and the lateral habenula. The hypothalamus contained dense plexuses of fibers in the medial forebrain bundle that spread in nearly all nuclei. Labeling in the suprachiasmatic nucleus filled specifically the ventral half. In the midbrain, labeled fibers were observed in the interpeduncular nuclei, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pericentral inferior colliculus, pretectal area, the raphe nuclei, and the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis. Retrograde tracer injections were made in areas reached by anterogradely labeled fibers including the medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, habenula, nucleus reuniens, superior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, and interpeduncular nuclei. All these injections gave rise to retrograde labeling in the nucleus incertus but not in the dorsal tegmental nucleus. These data led us to conclude that there is a system of ascending projections arising from the nucleus incertus to the median raphe, mammillary complex, hypothalamus, lateral habenula, nucleus reuniens, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, medial septum, and hippocampus. Many of the targets of the nucleus incertus were involved in arousal mechanisms including the synchronization and desynchronization of the theta rhythm.

  6. Cross talk between NDR kinase pathways coordinates cytokinesis with cell separation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sneha; Govindaraghavan, Meera; McCollum, Dannel

    2014-08-01

    NDR (nuclear Dbf-2-related) kinases constitute key regulatory nodes in signaling networks that control multiple biological processes such as growth, proliferation, mitotic exit, morphogenesis, and apoptosis. Two NDR pathways called the septation initiation network (SIN) and the morphogenesis Orb6 network (MOR) exist in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The SIN promotes cytokinesis, and the MOR drives cell separation at the end of cytokinesis and polarized growth during interphase. We showed previously that cross talk exists between these two pathways, with the SIN inhibiting the MOR during cytokinesis through phosphorylation of the MOR component Nak1 by the SIN Sid2 kinase. The reason for this inhibition remained uncertain. We show here that failure to inhibit MOR signaling during cytokinesis results in cell lysis at the site of septum formation. Time-lapse analysis revealed that MOR signaling during cytokinesis causes cells to prematurely initiate septum degradation/cell separation. The cell lysis phenotype is due to premature initiation of cell separation because it can be rescued by mutations in genes required for cell separation/septum degradation. We also shed further light on how the SIN inhibits the MOR. Sid2 phosphorylation of the MOR proteins Sog2 and Nak1 is required to prevent cell lysis during cytokinesis. Together, these results show that SIN inhibition of the MOR enforces proper temporal ordering of cytokinetic events.

  7. Ontogeny of Septohippocampal Modulation of Delay Eyeblink Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Thomas C.; Freeman, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of disrupting the septohippocampal theta system on the developmental emergence of delay eyeblink conditioning. Theta oscillations are defined as electroencephalographic (EEG) waveforms with a frequency between 3–8 Hz. Hippocampal theta oscillations are generated by inputs from the entorhinal cortex and the medial septum. Theta activity has been shown to facilitate learning in a variety of paradigms, including delay eyeblink conditioning. Lesions of the medial septum disrupt theta activity and slow the rate at which delay eyeblink conditioning is learned (Berry & Thompson, 1979). The role of the septohippocampal theta system in the ontogeny of eyeblink conditioning has not been examined. In the current study, infant rats received an electrolytic lesion of the medial septum on postnatal day (P)12. Rats were later given eyeblink conditioning for 6 sessions with an auditory conditioned stimulus on P17–P19, P21–23, or P24–P26. Lesions impaired eyeblink conditioning on P21–23 and P24–26 but not on P17–19. The results suggest that the septohippocampal system comes online to facilitate acquisition of eyeblink conditioning between P19 and P21. Developmental changes in septohippocampal modulation of the cerebellum may play a significant role in the ontogeny of eyeblink conditioning. PMID:25604349

  8. Organization of the pallium in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis. I: Morphology and axonal projection pattern of neurons revealed by intracellular biocytin labeling.

    PubMed

    Roth, Gerhard; Laberge, Frédéric; Mühlenbrock-Lenter, Sabine; Grunwald, Wolfgang

    2007-03-20

    The cytoarchitecture and axonal projection pattern of pallial areas was studied in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis by intracellular injection of biocytin into a total of 326 neurons forming 204 clusters. Five pallial regions were identified, differing in morphology and projection pattern of neurons. The rostral pallium receiving the bulk of dorsal thalamic afferents has reciprocal connections with all other pallial areas and projects to the septum, nucleus accumbens, and anterior dorsal striatum. The medial pallium projects bilaterally to the medial pallium, septum, nucleus accumbens, mediocentral amygdala, and hypothalamus and ipsilaterally to the rostral, dorsal, and lateral pallium. The ventral part of the medial pallium is distinguished by efferents to the eminentia thalami and the absence of contralateral projections. The dorsal pallium has only ipsilateral projections running to the rostral, medial, and lateral pallium; septum; nucleus accumbens; and eminentia thalami. The lateral pallium has ipsilateral projections to the olfactory bulbs and to the rostral, medial, dorsal, and ventral pallium. The ventral pallium including the striatopallial transition area (SPTA) has ipsilateral projections to the olfactory bulbs, rostral and lateral pallium, dorsal striatopallidum, vomeronasal amygdala, and hypothalamus. The medial pallium can be tentatively homologized with the mammalian hippocampal formation, the dorsal pallium with allocortical areas, the lateral pallium rostrally with the piriform and caudally with the entorhinal cortex, the ventral pallium with the accessory olfactory amygdala. The rostral pallium, with its projections to the dorsal and ventral striatopallidum, resembles the mammalian frontal cortex.

  9. Tricuspid atresia: analysis of coronary artery distribution and ventricular morphology.

    PubMed Central

    Deanfield, J E; Tommasini, G; Anderson, R H; Macartney, F J

    1982-01-01

    There is still disagreement concerning the precise nature of the anterior ventricular chamber in "tricuspid atresia". Some argue that it is a right ventricle, while our own previous studies have suggested it is comparable to the outlet chamber seen in classical "single ventricle". We have compared the morphology of the anterior ventricular chambers in 48 examples of tricuspid atresia (absent right atrioventricular connection), 24 hearts with double inlet to the left ventricular chamber, and 15 hearts with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. Since there is further disagreement concerning the nature of the coronary artery which delimits the posterior extent of the ventricular septum in these hearts, we analysed the position of this vessel relative to external reference points on the atrioventricular junction. No significant difference was found with respect to the morphometry of hearts with tricuspid atresia (absent right atrioventricular connection) and those with double inlet. In both groups, however, significant differences were shown between hearts with ventriculoarterial concordance and discordance. Coronary artery disposition was the same in both groups and different from that found in hearts with pulmonary atresia and intact septum. We conclude that the ventricular morphology is comparable in hearts with tricuspid atresia (absent right atrioventricular connection) and those with double inlet to a left ventricular chamber. The lesions are distinguishable by their atrioventricular connection which is nevertheless univentricular in both. Images PMID:7138712

  10. Projections from the medial cortex in the brain of lizards: correlation of anterograde and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase with Timm staining.

    PubMed

    Olucha, F; Martinez-Garcia, F; Poch, L; Schwerdtfeger, W K; Lopez-Garcia, C

    1988-10-22

    Efferent projections of the medial cortex of the lizards Podarcis hispanica and Gallotia stehlinii were studied by examining the transport of horseradish peroxidase; results were correlated with those from Timm-stained sections. Two efferent systems were found. The first reaches the distal part of the outer plexiform layer in the medial, dorsomedial, and dorsal cortices, i.e., zones that are negative to Timm staining, and possibly originates from horizontal fusiform neurons. The second reaches the Timm-positive zones in the cortex and septum and is topographically arranged: the vertical portion of the intermediate and caudal medial cortex and the entire rostral medial cortex project to the inner two-thirds of the outer plexiform layer of the dorsomedial cortex and of the medial subfield of the dorsal cortex; to the paraventricular zone of the inner plexiform layer of the medial cortex; and bilaterally to the dorsal part of the dorsal precommissural septum. The dorsal part of the intermediate and caudal medial cortex and the ventralmost folded part of its caudal edge project rostrally to the juxtasomatic zone of the outer plexiform layer and the entire inner plexiform layer of the intermediate and lateral subfields of the dorsal cortex and to the ventral part of the dorsal septum. In its intense Timm reaction and its ultrastructural properties, as reported in earlier studies, the Timm-positive fiber system of the lizard brain shows a close resemblance to the mossy fiber system of the mammalian hippocampus.

  11. Distribution of parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the rat septal area.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J R; Coveñas, R; Lara, J; Aijón, J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of parvalbumin (PV)-containing neurons and processes in the septal area of the rat brain was studied using a monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method. PV-immunoreactive neurons were mainly located in the medial septum/diagonal band complex and in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, showing a high density of heavily immunostained neurons and fibers. Nonimmunoreactive cells surrounded by PV-positive cells and processes were observed in the same region, but no pericellular basket-like arrangements were found. On the contrary, the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral nuclei of the lateral septum were practically devoid of PV-positive neurons and processes. Thus, in these nuclei only a very low density of isolated neurons was labeled; these were specially scattered in the ventrolateral septal nucleus and in the dorsolateral septal nucleus just below the corpus callosum. Delicate PV-positive axonal plexuses were also observed in the dorsal and intermediate nuclei of the lateral septum. The immunopositive neurons displayed very different sizes and morphologies among the various septal nuclei and inside each of them, indicating that they do not belong to a single morphological class of neurons. Finally, the distribution of PV in the rat septal area is not directly related to cholinergic and GABAergic septal neurons.

  12. Relation between hippocampal gamma waves and behavioral disturbances induced by phencyclidine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Leung, L S

    2000-06-15

    The relationship between hippocampal electrical activity and behavioral hyperactivity induced by either phencyclidine (PCP) or methamphetamine (MAP) was examined in freely behaving rats. The EEGs at the hippocampal CA1 region were simultaneously recorded with the animal's behavior for 2 h after administration of either PCP or MAP. PCP (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) significantly increased locomotor activity including rearing, walking, head-weaving and circling. Spectral analysis of the EEG showed that hippocampal gamma waves (30-70 Hz), but not other frequency bands, were significantly increased from 5 to 120 min after systemic injection of PCP. Inactivation of the medial septum with muscimol, a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A agonist, 15 min prior to injection of PCP, suppressed both hippocampal gamma waves and locomotor activity. MAP (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also increased locomotor activity for longer than 2 h. During the behavioral hyperactivity induced by MAP, hippocampal EEG showed θ and gamma rhythms that were not significantly different from those during walking before MAP. However, MAP-induced behavioral activity was suppressed by pre-injection of muscimol in the medial septum, which also decreased hippocampal gamma activity. It is suggested that the medial septum plays a role in mediating behavioral disturbances induced by both PCP and MAP through control of the hippocampal electrical activity, and that hippocampal gamma waves may play a permissible role in the expression of behaviors.

  13. Glutamatergic projection from the nucleus incertus to the septohippocampal system.

    PubMed

    Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Rahmani, Yasamin; Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Teruel-Martí, Vicent; Martínez-Ricós, Joana

    2012-05-31

    Recent findings support a relevant role of the nucleus incertus in the control of the hippocampal activity through the modulation of theta rhythm. Previous studies from our group have shown that this nucleus is a critical relay between reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum/diagonal band, regarded as the main activator and the pacemaker of the hippocampal oscillations, respectively. Besides, the nucleus incertus is highly linked to activated states related to the arousal response. The neurotransmission of the nucleus incertus, however, remains uncertain. Only GABA and the neuromodulator relaxin 3 are usually considered to be involved in its contribution to the septohippocampal system. In this work, we have analyzed the existence of an excitatory projection from the nucleus incertus to the medial septum. We have found a group of glutamatergic neurons in the nucleus incertus projecting to the medial septum. Moreover, we were able to describe a segregated distribution of calbindin and calretinin neurons. While calretinin expression was restricted to the nucleus incertus pars compacta, calbindin positive neurons where observed both in the pars dissipata and the pars compacta of the nucleus. The present work provides innovative data supporting an excitatory component in the pontoseptal pathway.

  14. Unique spatiotemporal activation pattern of Cdc42 by Gef1 and Scd1 promotes different events during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bin; Hercyk, Brian S; Mattson, Nicholas; Mohammadi, Ahmad; Rich, Julie; DeBruyne, Erica; Clark, Mikayla M; Das, Maitreyi

    2016-04-15

    The Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 regulates cell polarity and localizes to the cell division site. Cdc42 is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). We report that Cdc42 promotes cytokinesis via a unique spatiotemporal activation pattern due to the distinct action of its GEFs, Gef1 and Scd1, in fission yeast. Before cytokinetic ring constriction, Cdc42 activation, is Gef1 dependent, and after ring constriction, it is Scd1 dependent. Gef1 localizes to the actomyosin ring immediately after ring assembly and promotes timely onset of ring constriction. Gef1 is required for proper actin organization during cytokinesis, distribution of type V myosin Myo52 to the division site, and timely recruitment of septum protein Bgs1. In contrast, Scd1 localizes to the broader region of ingressing membrane during cytokinetic furrowing. Scd1 promotes normal septum formation, andscd1Δcells display aberrant septa with reduced Bgs1 localization. Thus we define unique roles of the GEFs Gef1 and Scd1 in the regulation of distinct events during cytokinesis. Gef1 localizes first to the cytokinetic ring and promotes timely constriction, whereas Scd1 localizes later to the ingressing membrane and promotes septum formation. Our findings are consistent with reports that complexity in GTPase signaling patterns enables exquisite precision over the control of cellular processes. PMID:26941334

  15. Unique spatiotemporal activation pattern of Cdc42 by Gef1 and Scd1 promotes different events during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bin; Hercyk, Brian S.; Mattson, Nicholas; Mohammadi, Ahmad; Rich, Julie; DeBruyne, Erica; Clark, Mikayla M.; Das, Maitreyi

    2016-01-01

    The Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 regulates cell polarity and localizes to the cell division site. Cdc42 is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). We report that Cdc42 promotes cytokinesis via a unique spatiotemporal activation pattern due to the distinct action of its GEFs, Gef1 and Scd1, in fission yeast. Before cytokinetic ring constriction, Cdc42 activation, is Gef1 dependent, and after ring constriction, it is Scd1 dependent. Gef1 localizes to the actomyosin ring immediately after ring assembly and promotes timely onset of ring constriction. Gef1 is required for proper actin organization during cytokinesis, distribution of type V myosin Myo52 to the division site, and timely recruitment of septum protein Bgs1. In contrast, Scd1 localizes to the broader region of ingressing membrane during cytokinetic furrowing. Scd1 promotes normal septum formation, and scd1Δ cells display aberrant septa with reduced Bgs1 localization. Thus we define unique roles of the GEFs Gef1 and Scd1 in the regulation of distinct events during cytokinesis. Gef1 localizes first to the cytokinetic ring and promotes timely constriction, whereas Scd1 localizes later to the ingressing membrane and promotes septum formation. Our findings are consistent with reports that complexity in GTPase signaling patterns enables exquisite precision over the control of cellular processes. PMID:26941334

  16. Dysplasia of the atrioventricular valves associated with conduction system anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Daliento, L; Nava, A; Fasoli, G; Mazzucco, A; Thiene, G

    1984-01-01

    Clinical, vectorcardiographic, and echocardiographic data from two siblings with atrial septal defects and dysplasia of the mitral and tricuspid valves are reported. Vectorcardiograms showed that both siblings had abnormal ventricular activation with initial electrical forces directed posteriorly. One sibling died after surgery, and necropsy showed incomplete differentiation of the leaflets and tensor apparatus producing anomalies resembling "mitral arcade." Serial histological examination of the conducting tissue showed that the atrioventricular node was located on the left side of the atrial septum, that the central fibrous body and the membranous septum were hypoplastic, and that an accessory nodoventricular pathway originating in the compact node joined the left side of the ventricular septum. This accessory pathway was probably the cause of the unusual ventricular activation. Dysplasia of the mitral and tricuspid valves together with hypoplasia of the central fibrous body and the presence of accessory pathways are probably part of a malformative complex caused by incomplete differentiation of both the cardiac atrioventricular valves and the junctional area. Images PMID:6696801

  17. Surgical repair of true left ventricular aneurysm in an infant: a rare complication after unsuccessful perventricular VSD closure.

    PubMed

    Ozyilmaz, Isa; Saygi, Murat; Yildiz, Okan; Erek, Ersin; Guzeltas, Alper

    2014-10-01

    A 2.5-month-old female patient presented for closure of a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large muscular ventricular septal defect. After perventricular closure of the defect was performed with an Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder, peroperative transesophageal echocardiography revealed that the device had been implanted in the wrong area of the ventricular septum. The device was retrieved and a large mid-muscular defect with extension to the outlet septum was closed with a patch of Dacron which was secured with 5-0 sutures. A perforation in the ventricular septum due to attempted perventricular device delivery was seen, and it was repaired primarily. In the eighth month of follow-up, transthoracic echocardiography revealed an aneurysm in the posterior wall of the left ventricle. The patient's electrocardiogram showed pathological Q waves and ST-segment elevation in leads DII, DIII, and aVF consistent with subacute inferior myocardial infarction. At subsequent surgery, this was found to be a true aneurysm, located in area of distribution of the obtuse marginal branch of the left circumflex coronary artery in the posterior wall of the left ventricle. The aneurysm was closed off using a Dacron patch, and the sac was resected. Development of a true aneurysm is a rare but important complication of attempted perventricular VSD closure.

  18. Behavior and the cholinergic parameters in olfactory bulbectomized female rodents: Difference between rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Stepanichev, Mikhail; Markov, Daniil; Pasikova, Natalia; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2016-01-15

    Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) in rodents induces a wide spectrum of functional disturbances, including behavioral, neurochemical, and neuromorphological alterations. We have examined the effects of OBX on behavior and the parameters of the cholinergic system in female rats and mice. In rats, OBX resulted in the appearance of some depressive-like behavioral marks, such as the decreased sucrose consumption, hyperactivity, impaired short-term memory and anxiety-like behavioral features, such as shortened presence in the center of the open field arena or open arms of the elevated plus-maze and an enhancement of avoidance behavior. These behavioral abnormalities could be associated with disturbances in hippocampal function, this suggestion being supported by the presence of cellular changes in this brain structure. No effect of OBX on the number of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band as well as on the acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity in the septum, hippocampus, and neocortex could be detected. In contrast, in mice, OBX impaired spontaneous alternation behavior and decreased the number of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band. These data demonstrate that rats and mice differently respond to OBX, in particular, OBX does not significantly affect the cholinergic system in rats. PMID:26431763

  19. Characterization and in vivo regulation of V sub 1 -type vasopressin receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shewey, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Specific, high affinity binding sites for ({sup 3}H)-arginine{sup 8}-vasopressin (AVP) have been characterized in Long-Evans rat septal membranes. Binding displacement studies with peptide analogs of AVP indicate that this binding site is similar to the V{sub 1} (pressor)-type receptor for AVP. When added to rat brain septal slices that had been pre-labeled with ({sup 3}H)-myoinositol, AVP stimulated the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol-1-phosphate (IP{sub 1}) in the presence of lithium in a dose-dependent manner. This stimulation was completely inhibited by the specific V{sub 1} antagonists, d(CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP, indicating that AVP stimulates hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in rat brain septum through an interaction with V{sub 1}-type AVP receptors. Binding studies of AVP receptors in the septum of heterozygous (HE) and homozygous, Brattleboro (BB) rats revealed an increased number of receptors with a lower affinity for AVP in the HO-BB rat when compared to the HE-BB rat. AVP-stimulated accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} was significantly greater in the septum of the HO-BB rat than in the HE-BB rat. AVP receptor binding capacity correlated with release of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} for all three groups studied.

  20. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    SciTech Connect

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  1. PprA, a pleiotropic protein for radioresistance, works through DNA gyrase and shows cellular dynamics during postirradiation recovery in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Kota, Swathi; Charaka, Vijaya Kumar; Misra, H S

    2014-08-01

    PprA, a pleiotropic protein involved in radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans was detected in multiprotein DNA processing complex identified from this bacterium. pprA mutant expressing GFP-PprA could restore its wild type resistance of γ radiation. Under normal conditions, GFP-PprA expressing cells showed PprA localization on both septum trapped nucleoids (STN) and nucleoids located elsewhere (MCN). Cell exposed to 4 kGy γ radiation showed nearly 2 h growth lag and during this growth arrest phase, the majority of the cells had GFP-PprA located on MCN. While in late phase (~120 min) PIR cells, when cells are nearly out of growth arrest, PprA was maximally found with STN. These cells when treated with nalidixic acid showed diffused localization of PprA across the septum. gyrA disruption mutant of D. radiodurans showed growth inhibition, which increased further in gyrA pprA mutant. Interestingly, gyrA mutant showed ~20-fold less resistance to γ radiation as compared to wild type, which did increase further in gyrA pprA mutant. These results suggested that PprA localization undergoes a dynamic change during PIR, and its localization on nucleoid near septum and functional interaction with gyrase A might suggest a mechanism that could explain PprA role in genome segregation possibly through topoisomerase II.

  2. Endocarditis and Incomplete Endothelialization 12 Years after Amplatzer Septal Occluder Deployment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Allan K; Palafox, Brian A; Starr, Joanne P; Gates, Richard N; Berdjis, Farbouch

    2016-06-01

    A 4-year-old boy had a 15-mm atrial septal defect repaired percutaneously with use of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder. At age 16 years, he presented with a week's history of fever, chills, dyspnea, fatigue, and malaise. Cultures grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed a 1.25 × 1.5-cm pedunculated mass on the left aspect of the atrial septum just superior to the mitral valve, and a smaller vegetation on the right inferior medial aspect of the septum. At surgery, visual examination of both sides of the septum revealed granulation tissue, the pedunculated mass, the small vegetation, and exposed metal wires that suggested incomplete endothelialization of the occluder. We removed the occluder and patched the septal defect. The patient returned to full activity after 4 months and was asymptomatic 3 years postoperatively. Our report reinforces the need for further investigation into prosthetic device endothelialization, endocarditis prophylaxis, and recommended levels of physical activity in patients whose devices might be incompletely endothelialized. In addition to reporting our patient's case, we review the medical literature on this topic. PMID:27303238

  3. Frequency-dependent, cell type-divergent signaling in the hippocamposeptal projection.

    PubMed

    Mattis, Joanna; Brill, Julia; Evans, Suzanne; Lerner, Talia N; Davidson, Thomas J; Hyun, Minsuk; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Huguenard, John R

    2014-08-27

    Hippocampal oscillations are critical for information processing, and are strongly influenced by inputs from the medial septum. Hippocamposeptal neurons provide direct inhibitory feedback from the hippocampus onto septal cells, and are therefore likely to also play an important role in the circuit; these neurons fire at either low or high frequency, reflecting hippocampal network activity during theta oscillations or ripple events, respectively. Here, we optogenetically target the long-range GABAergic projection from the hippocampus to the medial septum in rats, and thereby simulate hippocampal input onto downstream septal cells in an acute slice preparation. In response to optogenetic activation of hippocamposeptal fibers at theta and ripple frequencies, we elicit postsynaptic GABAergic responses in a subset (24%) of septal cells, most predominantly in fast-spiking cells. In addition, in another subset of septal cells (19%) corresponding primarily to cholinergic cells, we observe a slow hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential and a decrease in input resistance, particularly in response to prolonged high-frequency (ripple range) stimulation. This slow response is partially sensitive to GIRK channel and D2 dopamine receptor block. Our results suggest that two independent populations of septal cells distinctly encode hippocampal feedback, enabling the septum to monitor ongoing patterns of activity in the hippocampus.

  4. Spatiotemporal distribution of caudal-type homeobox proteins during development of the hindgut and anorectum in human embryos

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao Bing; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Wei Lin; Yuan, Zheng Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the spatiotemporal distribution of human caudal-type homeobox proteins CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 during development of the hindgut and anorectum in the embryo and to explore the possible roles of CDX genes during morphogenesis of the hindgut and anorectum. Methods. Embryos (89) were cut into sections serially and sagittally. From gestation weeks 4–9, CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 proteins were detected on the caudal midline by immunohistochemical staining. Results. During week 4, extensive immunoreactivity of CDX1, CDX2 and CDX4 was detected in the dorsal urorectal septum, urogenital sinus and hindgut. From weeks 5–7, CDX1-, CDX2- and CDX4- positive cells were detected mainly in the mesenchyme of the urorectal septum and hindgut. The levels of CDX2 and CDX4 immunoreactivity were lower compared to CDX1. During weeks 8 and 9, the anorectal epithelium stained positive for CDX1 and CDX4, and the anal epithelium was positive for CDX2. Conclusions. The CDX proteins are constantly distributed during development of the hindgut and anorectum and exhibit overlapping distribution patterns in the cloaca/hindgut, suggesting they are important in the morphogenesis of the human hindgut and anorectum. CDX genes might be involved in development of the anorectal epithelium after the rectum has separated from the urorectal septum. PMID:27042391

  5. Identification of the sex pheromone of Isoceras sibirica Alpheraky (Lepidoptera, Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintong; Liu, Hongxia; Zhao, Wenmei; Liu, Jinlong; Zong, Shixiang

    2011-01-01

    We discovered that extracts of the female sex pheromone gland of the carpenterworm moth Isoceras sibirica Alpheraky, a pest of Asparagus officinalis Linn., contained (Z)-7-tetradecen-1-ol (Z7-14:OH), (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol (Z9-14:OH), (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), and (Z)-9-hexadecadecenyl acetate (Z9-16:Ac). The average levels of the chemicals in a single sex pheromone gland of a calling moth were (0.71 +/- 0.24) ng, (1.42 +/- 0.44) ng, (4.36 +/- 0.32) ng, (8.71 +/- 0.26) ng, and (0.82 +/- 0.38) ng, respectively. The electroantennography (EAG) analysis of these chemicals and their analogues demonstrated that Z9-14:Ac triggered significantly the male EAG response. Traps with rubber septa lure impregnated with Z9-14:Ac (500 microg/septum), Z7-14:Ac (250 microg/septum), and Z9-16:Ac (50 microg/septum) were more effective in catching male moths than traps with other baits or virgin females. Addition of Z7-14:OH and Z9-14:OH to rubber septa did not enhance the efficiency of the trap. PMID:22191219

  6. Anatomical variations in the human paranasal sinus region studied by CT

    PubMed Central

    PÉREZ-PIÑAS, I.; SABATÉ, J.; CARMONA, A.; CATALINA-HERRERA, C. J.; JIMÉNEZ-CASTELLANOS, J.

    2000-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses is essential for the clinician. Conventional radiology does not permit a detailed study of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, and has now largely been replaced by computerised tomographic (CT) imaging. This gives an applied anatomical view of the region and the anatomical variants that are very often found. The detection of these variants to prevent potential hazards is essential for the use of current of endoscopic surgery on the sinuses. In the present work, we have studied the anatomical variants observed in the nasal fossae and paranasal sinuses in 110 Spanish subjects, using CT in the coronal plane, complemented by horizontal views. We have concentrated on the variants of the nasal septum, middle nasal concha, ethmoid unciform process and ethmoid bulla, together with others of lesser frequency. The population studied showed great anatomical variability, and a high percentage (67%) presented one or more anatomical variants. Discounting agger nasi air cells and asymmetry of both cavities of the sphenoidal sinus, which were present in all our cases, the variations most often observed were, in order, deviation of the nasal septum, the presence of a concha bullosa, bony spurs of the nasal septum and Onodi air cells. PMID:11005714

  7. Endocarditis and Incomplete Endothelialization 12 Years after Amplatzer Septal Occluder Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Allan K.; Starr, Joanne P.; Gates, Richard N.; Berdjis, Farbouch

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy had a 15-mm atrial septal defect repaired percutaneously with use of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder. At age 16 years, he presented with a week's history of fever, chills, dyspnea, fatigue, and malaise. Cultures grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed a 1.25 × 1.5-cm pedunculated mass on the left aspect of the atrial septum just superior to the mitral valve, and a smaller vegetation on the right inferior medial aspect of the septum. At surgery, visual examination of both sides of the septum revealed granulation tissue, the pedunculated mass, the small vegetation, and exposed metal wires that suggested incomplete endothelialization of the occluder. We removed the occluder and patched the septal defect. The patient returned to full activity after 4 months and was asymptomatic 3 years postoperatively. Our report reinforces the need for further investigation into prosthetic device endothelialization, endocarditis prophylaxis, and recommended levels of physical activity in patients whose devices might be incompletely endothelialized. In addition to reporting our patient's case, we review the medical literature on this topic. PMID:27303238

  8. Behavior and the cholinergic parameters in olfactory bulbectomized female rodents: Difference between rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Stepanichev, Mikhail; Markov, Daniil; Pasikova, Natalia; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2016-01-15

    Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) in rodents induces a wide spectrum of functional disturbances, including behavioral, neurochemical, and neuromorphological alterations. We have examined the effects of OBX on behavior and the parameters of the cholinergic system in female rats and mice. In rats, OBX resulted in the appearance of some depressive-like behavioral marks, such as the decreased sucrose consumption, hyperactivity, impaired short-term memory and anxiety-like behavioral features, such as shortened presence in the center of the open field arena or open arms of the elevated plus-maze and an enhancement of avoidance behavior. These behavioral abnormalities could be associated with disturbances in hippocampal function, this suggestion being supported by the presence of cellular changes in this brain structure. No effect of OBX on the number of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band as well as on the acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity in the septum, hippocampus, and neocortex could be detected. In contrast, in mice, OBX impaired spontaneous alternation behavior and decreased the number of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band. These data demonstrate that rats and mice differently respond to OBX, in particular, OBX does not significantly affect the cholinergic system in rats.

  9. Development of the human tail bud and splanchnic mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryozo

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to shed some light on anorectal development from a viewpoint of the tail bud and splanchnic mesenchyme for better understanding of the morphogenesis of the human anorectum. Human embryos ranging from Carnegie stage 11 to 23 (CS 11 to 23) were adopted in this study. Seventeen embryos preserved at the Congenital Anomaly Research Center of Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine were histologically examined. The cloaca, extending caudally to the hindgut, was dramatically enlarged, particularly both its dorsal portion and membrane, that is, the cloacal membrane resulting from the development of the tailgut derived from the tail bud. The splanchnic mesenchyme surrounding the hindgut was spread out in the direction of the urorectal septum ventrally, suggesting that it participated in the formation of the septum. No fusion of the urorectal septum and the cloacal membrane was found. The splanchnic mesenchyme proliferated and developed into smooth muscle (circular and longitudinal) layers from cranial to caudal along the hindgut. The tail bud seems to cause both the adequate dilation of the dorsal cloaca and the elongation of the cloacal membrane; its dorsal portion in particular will be necessary for normal anorectal development. The splanchnic mesenchyme developed and descended toward the pectinate line and formed the internal sphincter muscle at the terminal bowel.

  10. Analysis of the histologic features in the differential diagnosis of intrahepatic neonatal cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Bellomo-Brandao, Maria Angela; Escanhoela, Cecilia AF; Meirelles, Luciana R; Porta, Gilda; Hessel, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To compare the histologic features of the liver in intrahepatic neonatal cholestasis (IHNC) with infectious, genetic-endocrine-metabolic, and idiopathic etiologies. METHODS: Liver biopsies from 86 infants with IHNC were evaluated. The inclusion criteria consisted of jaundice beginning at 3 mo of age and a hepatic biopsy during the 1st year of life. The following histologic features were evaluated: cholestasis, eosinophilia, giant cells, erythropoiesis, siderosis, portal fibrosis, and the presence of a septum. RESULTS: Based on the diagnosis, patients were classified into three groups: group 1 (infectious; n = 18), group 2 (genetic-endocrine-metabolic; n = 18), and group 3 (idiopathic; n = 50). There were no significant differences with respect to the following variables: cholestasis, eosinophilia, giant cells, siderosis, portal fibrosis, and presence of a septum. A significant difference was observed with respect to erythropoiesis, which was more severe in group 1 (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: A significant difference was observed in IHNC of infectious etiology, in which erythropoiesis was more severe than that in genetic-endocrine-metabolic and idiopathic etiologies, whereas there were no significant differences among cholestasis, eosinophilia, giant cells, siderosis, portal fibrosis, and the presence of a septum. PMID:19152454

  11. Magnetic resonance characterization of septal bounce: findings of blood impact physiology.

    PubMed

    Angheloiu, George O; Rayarao, Geetha; Williams, Ronald; Yamrozik, June; Doyle, Mark; Biederman, Robert W W

    2015-01-01

    'Septal bounce' is a pathognomonic sign of constrictive pericarditis (CP). The objectives of the study are to resolve the etiology of the septal bounce, to generate septal bounce-related diagnostic tools, and to prove that its presence is related to the mechanical interaction between the atrioventricular inflow and the inter-ventricular septum. We compared steady state free precession four-chamber images between 11 CP patients and 11 controls via cardiac magnetic resonance. The septal bounce was composed of two movements observed during every cardiac cycle, simultaneous with the rapid filling and atrial systole respectively. Three parameters (measured at end-systole) were generated: right ventricular (RV) clamp (compression ratio of the RV)-greater in CP (0.88 ± 0.03) than controls (0.85 ± 0.03, p = 0.02), tri-septal angle between the tricuspid valve annulus plane and the interventricular septum (81° ± 9° vs. 91° ± 7°, p = 0.01), and impact angle between the tricuspid inflow vector and septum (8.6° ± 8.7° vs. 0° ± 6.6°, p = 0.01). The accuracy, positive predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of these parameters in differentiating CP from controls ranged from 100 to 82 %. A forth parameter-septal flow ratio, gauging the proportion of tricuspid inflow impacting the septum, was markedly higher in CP than controls (0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.01 ± 0.03, p < 0.0001) with 100 % sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. The septal bounce consists of two sequential movements during each cardiac cycle, is time-related with the rapid ventricular filling and atrial systole, and likely represents a result of the tricuspid blood inflow impacting the interventricular septum. Four septal bounce-derived parameters have a good accuracy in differentiating CP from volunteers. PMID:25266227

  12. Synaptic Targets of Medial Septal Projections in the Hippocampus and Extrahippocampal Cortices of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Abhilasha; Viney, Tim J.; Kis, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Temporal coordination of neuronal assemblies among cortical areas is essential for behavioral performance. GABAergic projections from the medial septum and diagonal band complex exclusively innervate GABAergic interneurons in the rat hippocampus, contributing to the coordination of neuronal activity, including the generation of theta oscillations. Much less is known about the synaptic target neurons outside the hippocampus. To reveal the contribution of synaptic circuits involving the medial septum of mice, we have identified postsynaptic cortical neurons in wild-type and parvalbumin-Cre knock-in mice. Anterograde axonal tracing from the septum revealed extensive innervation of the hippocampus as well as the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices, and the retrosplenial cortex. In all examined cortical regions, many septal GABAergic boutons were in close apposition to somata or dendrites immunopositive for interneuron cell-type molecular markers, such as parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, N-terminal EF-hand calcium-binding protein 1, cholecystokinin, reelin, or a combination of these molecules. Electron microscopic observations revealed septal boutons forming axosomatic or axodendritic type II synapses. In the CA1 region of hippocampus, septal GABAergic projections exclusively targeted interneurons. In the retrosplenial cortex, 93% of identified postsynaptic targets belonged to interneurons and the rest to pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the GABAergic innervation from the medial septum and diagonal band complex contributes to temporal coordination of neuronal activity via several types of cortical GABAergic interneurons in both hippocampal and extrahippocampal cortices. Oscillatory septal neuronal firing at delta, theta, and gamma frequencies may phase interneuron activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Diverse types of GABAergic interneurons coordinate the firing of cortical principal cells required for memory

  13. Collagen remodeling after myocardial infarction in the rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Cleutjens, J. P.; Verluyten, M. J.; Smiths, J. F.; Daemen, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    In this study changes in the amount and distribution of types I and III collagen mRNA and protein were investigated in the rat heart after induction of a left ventricular myocardial infarction (MI). Sham operated rats served as controls. The animals were sacrificed at different time intervals after operation. Northern blotting of cardiac RNA and hybridization with cDNA probes for types I and III procollagen revealed a 5- to 15-fold increase in the infarcted left ventricle. Type III procollagen mRNA levels were already increased at day 2 after MI, whereas type I procollagen mRNA followed this response at day 4 after MI. This increase was sustained for at least 21 days in the infarcted left ventricle for type III procollagen mRNA, whereas type 1 procollagen mRNA levels were still elevated at 90 days after MI. In the noninfarcted right ventricle a 5- to 7-fold increase was observed for both type I and type III procollagen mRNA levels, but only at day 4 after MI. In the non-infarcted septum a transient increase was observed for type I procollagen mRNA from day 7-21 (4- to 5-fold increase) and a decline to sham levels thereafter. In the septum type III procollagen mRNA levels were only elevated at 7 days after MI (4- to 5-fold increase) compared with sham operated controls. In situ hybridization with the same types I and III procollagen probes showed procollagen mRNA-producing cells in the infarcted area around necrotic cardiomyocytes, and in the interstitial cells in the non-infarcted part of the myocardium. No labeling was detected above cardiomyocytes. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that the collagen mRNA producing cells have a myofibroblast-like phenotype in the infarcted myocardium and are fibroblasts in the noninfarcted septum and right ventricle. The increase in types I and III procollagen mRNA in both infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium was followed by an increased collagen deposition, measured by computerized morphometry on

  14. Visualization of regional cerebrospinal fluid flow with a dye injection technique in focal arachnoid pathologies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Takeda, Masaaki; Mitsuhara, Takafumi; Morishige, Mizuki; Yamada, Naoto; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2015-05-01

    Surgical lysis of the thickened arachnoid membrane is the first choice of treatment in spinal arachnoid pathologies that cause flow disturbances or blockage of CSF. However, it is important to consider that while extensive lysis of the arachnoid may temporarily provide a wide pathway for CSF, an extensive lytic procedure may later cause secondary adhesion. Thus, it is ideal for the proper extent of the arachnoid lysis to be determined after careful analysis of regional CSF flow. The authors report their limited experience with intraoperative visualization of CSF flow in spinal arachnoid pathologies. Two patients with a dorsal arachnoid web (DAW) with cervical syringomyelia and 1 patient with focal adhesive arachnoiditis causing edema of the spinal cord were surgically treated at the authors' institution between 2007 and 2013. In all cases, the presence of a DAW or focal adhesive arachnoiditis was suspected from the findings on MRI, namely 1) an indentation on the upper thoracic spinal cord and 2) syringomyelia and/or edema of the spinal cord above the indentation. Exploratory surgery disclosed a transversely thickened arachnoid septum on the dorsal side of the indented cord. To prove blockage of the CSF by the septum and to decide on the extent of arachnoid lysis, regional CSF flow around the arachnoid septum was visualized by subarachnoid injection of gentian violet solution close to the web. Injected dye stagnated just close to the arachnoid septum in all cases, and these findings documented CSF blockage by the septum. In 2 cases, a 2-minute observation showed that the injected dye stayed close to the web without diffusion. The authors performed not only resection of the web itself but also lysis of the thickened arachnoid on both sides of the spinal cord to make a CSF pathway on the ventral side. In the third case, the dye stagnated close to the web at first but then diffused through the nerve root to the ventral CSF space. The lysis procedure was completed

  15. Coronary blood flow in rats native to simulated high altitude and in rats exposed to it later in life.

    PubMed

    Turek, Z; Turek-Maischeider, M; Claessens, R A; Ringnalda, B E; Kreuzer, F

    1975-03-22

    In rats exposed to a simulated high altitude of 3500 m for their whole prenatal and postnatal life a severe cardiac hypertrophy develops. In rats born and first staying 5 weeks at sea level and then being exposed to simulated high altitude, only a unilateral right cardiac hypertrophy occurs. In both groups nutritional coronary blood flow was estimated in left ventricle, right ventricle, and septum and was compared with control animals of similar age. Coronary blood flow was measured at hypoxia in all groups. At first cardiac output was determined by the Fick principle, then 86Rb was applied and the animals were killed after 55 sec. Activity of 86Rb was measured in both cardiac ventricles and septum and the fractional uptake was calculated. According to Sapirstein (1956, 1958) the distribution of 86-RB follows the distribution of cardiac output and from both these data the nutritional blood flow to the parts of the heart may be estimated. Cardiac output was similar in rats exposed to simulated high altitude later in life ('newcomers') and in control animals, but it was significantly lower in rats born in the low pressure chamber ('natives'). Fractions of cardiac output supplying cardiac ventricles and septum in rats from both hypoxic groups were significantly higher than in control animals. In the 'natives' they were significantly higher than in the 'newcomers'. The fractions of cardiac output in both 'newcomers' and 'natives' remained significantly higher than those of the control animals, also when calculated per gram of heart tissue. Nutritional coronary blood flow (in ml/min) was higher in both ventricles and septum of the 'newcomers' and in the right ventricle of the 'natives', and lower in the septum of the 'natives', when compared with control animals. Coronary blood flow per gram of heart tissue (in ml/min.g) was significantly higher in all cardiac parts of the 'newcomers', but it was about the same in all cardiac parts of the 'natives' when compared with

  16. SecA Localization and SecA-Dependent Secretion Occurs at New Division Septa in Group B Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Brega, Sara; Caliot, Elise; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2013-01-01

    Exported proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), which include proteins localized to the bacterial surface or secreted into the extracellular environment, are key players for commensal and pathogenic interactions in the mammalian host. These proteins are transported across the cytoplasmic membrane via the general SecA secretory pathway and those containing the so-called LPXTG sorting motif are covalently attached to the peptidoglycan by sortase A. How SecA, sortase A, and LPXTG proteins are spatially distributed in GBS is not known. In the close relative Streptococcus pyogenes, it was shown that presence of the YSIRKG/S motif (literally YSIRKX3Gx2S) in the signal peptide (SP) constitutes the targeting information for secretion at the septum. Here, using conventional and deconvolution immunofluorescence analyses, we have studied in GBS strain NEM316 the localization of SecA, SrtA, and the secreted protein Bsp whose signal peptide contains a canonical YSIRKG/S motif (YSLRKykfGlaS). Replacing the SP of Bsp with four other SPs containing or not the YSIRKG/S motif did not alter the localized secretion of Bsp at the equatorial ring. Our results indicate that secretion and cell wall-anchoring machineries are localized at the division septum. Cell wall- anchored proteins displayed polar (PilB, Gbs0791), punctuate (CspA) or uniform distribution (Alp2) on the bacterial surface. De novo secretion of Gbs0791 following trypsin treatment indicates that it is secreted at the septum, then redistributed along the lateral sides, and finally accumulated to the poles. We conclude that the ±YSIRK SP rule driving compartimentalized secretion is not true in S. agalactiae. PMID:23762438

  17. Utility of balloon assisted technique in trans catheter closure of very large (≥35 mm) atrial septal defects

    PubMed Central

    Rangaswamy Balasubramanian, Vidhyakar; Selvaraj, Raja; Saktheeswaran, Maheshkumar; Satheesh, Santhosh; Jayaraman, Balachander

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few published data is available on the outcomes of balloon assisted techniques (BATs) for trans catheter closure (TCC) of very large (Defined as ≥35 mm size) ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). Objective To study the utility of BAT as against conventional techniques (CT) in TCC of very large ostium secundum ASD (≥35 mm) over the past 5-year period and to find out the association of different morphological features of the defects in relation to TCC outcomes. Study design and methods Descriptive single center retrospective study of patients with very large ostium secundum ASD (≥35 mm size) who were subjected to TCC. Results Thirty-three out of 36 patients with ≥35 mm ASD and complex morphological features underwent successful TCC. The study patients had high prevalence of absent aortic and posterior rims with posterior mal-alignment of the septum. BAT was successful in 28/31 (90.3%) patients while CT had a success rate of 16%. The mean trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) ASD size with BAT success 37 (SD 1.3) mm and CT failure 36.2 (SD 1.1) mm was not different (P=0.06). On univariate analysis of different morphological features, posterior mal alignment of the septum was associated failure of CT (P=0.01). There was no urgent referral for surgery and patients did well on follow up. Conclusions Balloon assisted device closure of (≥35 mm) ASD had 90% success rate. BAT helps in controlled delivery and device alignment in very large ASD with posterior malalignment of the septum and is often helpful when CT fails. PMID:24649421

  18. Treatment of congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Sara Yvonne; Rall, Katharina; Campo, Rudi; Oppelt, Peter; Isaacson, Keith

    2011-03-01

    The prevalence of müllerian malformations is 1 in 200, or 0.5%. A third of the anomalies are septate, a third bicornuate uteri, 10% arcuate uterus, 10% didelphis and unicornuate uterus, and < 5% uterine and vaginal aplasia. Correct diagnosis of the malformation is most important but often very difficult. Correct treatment can only be performed if the malformation is clear. Longitudinal vaginal septums have to be removed due to potential obstetric problems. Transverse vaginal septums can cause hematocolpos and pain and have to be incised crosswise and excised so as not to shorten the vagina at the same time. Congenital vaginal agenesis occurs in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome patients and in androgen insensitivity syndrome. The first choice for surgical treatment should be the new laparoscopic-assisted creation of a neovagina. Septate uterus has to be distinguished from a bicornuate uterus. Even if it is not proven to be a cause for infertility, the chance of miscarriage can be diminished by performing hysteroscopic metroplasty. Repair of a uterine septum in infertility patients often improves pregnancy rates. In contrast, surgical repair of a bicornuate uterus requires an abdominal metroplasty. This should only be performed if the patient has recurrent fetal loss due to the uterine structural defect. In a unicornuate uterus it is most important to determine if there is a second uterine horn that can cause cyclic pain if it has functioning endometrium. The only surgical option in these cases is to remove the rudimentary uterus with endometrium and hematometra, respectively.

  19. The Reconstruction of Nasal Septal Perforation with High Density Porous Polyethylene Covered with Fascia Lata: An Experimental Study on Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Onar, Vedat; Sayin, Ibrahim; Onol, Suzan Deniz; Aydin, Tamer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Evaluation of a new material, high-density porous polyethylene (HDPP), which is covered with fascia lata, for experimental nasal septal perforation closure. Methods Twenty New Zealand albino rabbits were included and divided into study and control groups. A lateral incision was made from the lateral aspect of the left nares to the incisura nasomaxillaris. After exposure of the cavum nasi, the nasal mucoperichondrium was elevated bilaterally. A full-thickness 0.5×0.5-cm perforation was created over the septum nasi with a No. 11 surgical blade. A fascia lata graft was used for the study group. The HDPP was covered with fascia lata and placed under the elevated mucosa. HDPP without a fascial covering was used in the control group. Four months after the procedure, magnetic resonance imaging was performed to evaluate resorption of the material. The animals were sacrificed, and the nasal septum was completely removed. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed on the nasal septum. Results All rabbits had survived after the 4-month period. Macroscopically, nine of 10 (90%) perforations were closed in the fascia lata-covered HDPP group. Histopathological examination of these nine rabbits revealed that the continuity of cartilage was disturbed in the perforation areas. Granulation tissue was inverted in areas in which the cartilage continuity was disturbed. The HDPP had remained intact at the edge of the perforation. In the HDPP group, six of 10 implants were still perforated (60%) and four (40%) were closed. The fascia lata-covered HDPP implant had a significantly higher perforation closure rate than that of the HDPP implant alone (P<0.05). Conclusion In cases of septal perforation, it is better to cover the HDPP implant with fascia lata. This covered implant can be used for the repair of nasal septal perforations. HDPP implants are easy to work with and avoid the increased operative time and morbidity associated with harvesting autografts

  20. Regional variation in morphology of vertebral centra and intervertebral joints in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Nowroozi, B N; Harper, C J; De Kegel, B; Adriaens, D; Brainerd, E L

    2012-04-01

    The vertebral column of fishes has traditionally been divided into just two distinct regions, abdominal and caudal. Recently, however, developmental, morphological, and mechanical investigations have brought this traditional regionalization scheme into question. Alternative regionalization schema advocate the division of the abdominal vertebrae into cervical, abdominal, and in some cases, transitional regions. Here, we investigate regional variation at the level of the vertebrae and intervertebral joint (IVJ) tissues in the striped bass, Morone saxatilis. We use gross dissection, histology, and polarized light imaging to quantify vertebral height, width, length, IVJ length, IVJ tissue volume and cross-sectional area, and vertical septum fiber populations, and angles of insertion. Our results reveal regional differences between the first four (most rostral) abdominal vertebrae and IVJs and the next six abdominal vertebrae and IVJs, supporting the recognition of a distinct cervical region. We found significant variation in vertebral length, width, and height from cranial to caudal. In addition, we see a significant decline in the volume of notochordal cells and the cross-sectional area of the fibrous sheath from cranial to caudal. Further, polarized light imaging revealed four distinct fiber populations within the vertical septum in the cervical and abdominal regions in contrast with just one fiber population found in the caudal region. Measurement of the insertion angles of these fiber populations revealed significant differences between the cervical and abdominal regions. Differences in vertebral, IVJ, and vertical septum morphology all predict greater range of motion and decreased stiffness in the caudal region of the fish compared with the cervical and abdominal regions. PMID:22109664