Science.gov

Sample records for serendipitous backyard hybridization

  1. Serendipitous backyard hybridization and the origin of crops

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Colin E.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Robertson, Ashley; Filer, Denis L.; Harris, Stephen A.; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2007-01-01

    Backyard gardens, dump heaps, and kitchen middens are thought to have provided important venues for early crop domestication via generation of hybrids between otherwise isolated plant species. However, this process has rarely been demonstrated empirically. For the majority of polyploid crops, it remains uncertain to what extent hybridization and polyploidization preceded domestication or were precipitated by human activities. Using archaeological, ethnobotanical, geographical, and genetic data, we investigate the extent and significance of predomestication cultivation, backyard sympatry, and spontaneous hybridization for the Mimosoid legume tree Leucaena, which is used as a food crop throughout south-central Mexico. We show that predomestication cultivation was widespread, involved numerous independent transitions from the wild to cultivation, and resulted in extensive artificial sympatry of 2–6 species locally and 13 species in total. Using chloroplast and rapidly evolving nuclear-encoded DNA sequences, we demonstrate that hybridization in Leucaena has been extensive and complex, spawning a diverse set of novel hybrids as a result of juxtaposition of species in cultivation. The scale and complexity of hybridization in Leucaena is significantly greater than that documented for any other Mexican plant domesticates so far. However, there are striking parallels between Leucaena and the other major Mexican perennial domesticates Agave and Opuntia, which show very similar domestication via backyard hybridization pathways. Our results suggest that backyard hybridization has played a central role in Mesoamerican crop domestication and demonstrate that the simple step of bringing species together in cultivation can provide a potent trigger for domestication. PMID:17704256

  2. Serendipitous backyard hybridization and the origin of crops.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Colin E; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Robertson, Ashley; Filer, Denis L; Harris, Stephen A; Bailey, C Donovan

    2007-09-04

    Backyard gardens, dump heaps, and kitchen middens are thought to have provided important venues for early crop domestication via generation of hybrids between otherwise isolated plant species. However, this process has rarely been demonstrated empirically. For the majority of polyploid crops, it remains uncertain to what extent hybridization and polyploidization preceded domestication or were precipitated by human activities. Using archaeological, ethnobotanical, geographical, and genetic data, we investigate the extent and significance of predomestication cultivation, backyard sympatry, and spontaneous hybridization for the Mimosoid legume tree Leucaena, which is used as a food crop throughout south-central Mexico. We show that predomestication cultivation was widespread, involved numerous independent transitions from the wild to cultivation, and resulted in extensive artificial sympatry of 2-6 species locally and 13 species in total. Using chloroplast and rapidly evolving nuclear-encoded DNA sequences, we demonstrate that hybridization in Leucaena has been extensive and complex, spawning a diverse set of novel hybrids as a result of juxtaposition of species in cultivation. The scale and complexity of hybridization in Leucaena is significantly greater than that documented for any other Mexican plant domesticates so far. However, there are striking parallels between Leucaena and the other major Mexican perennial domesticates Agave and Opuntia, which show very similar domestication via backyard hybridization pathways. Our results suggest that backyard hybridization has played a central role in Mesoamerican crop domestication and demonstrate that the simple step of bringing species together in cultivation can provide a potent trigger for domestication.

  3. Backyard Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotsch, Margaret; Harris, Shannon

    1990-01-01

    Described is a backyard activity that can be used to introduce children to the divisions of the plant and animal kingdoms in their local environment. Preparation, procedures and followup are discussed. Background information on taxonomy and two activity cards are provided. (CW)

  4. Serendipitous Stencil Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Printing, stamping, and rubbings are enjoyed by all ages, and the image-making capabilities of this media are endless and very spontaneous. In printmaking, images can be repeated, overlapped, inked in various colors, cut up, reassembled, and manipulated. Students find these methods to be engaging and serendipitous. This lesson, designed for eighth…

  5. Backyard Infrared Trapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    In this time of concern over climate change due to the atmospheric greenhouse effect, teachers often choose to extend relevant classroom work by the use of physical models to test statements. Here we describe an activity in which inexpensive backyard models made from cardboard boxes covered with various household transparent materials allow…

  6. Backyard Infrared Trapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    In this time of concern over climate change due to the atmospheric greenhouse effect, teachers often choose to extend relevant classroom work by the use of physical models to test statements. Here we describe an activity in which inexpensive backyard models made from cardboard boxes covered with various household transparent materials allow…

  7. Backyard Conservation: Bringing Conservation from the Countryside to Your Backyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildlife Habitat Council, Silver Spring, MD.

    This guide highlights 10 conservation activities, adapted from farms and ranches, that can be used in the backyard. Each activity provides background information and instructions on how to complete the activity. The activities concern: (1) tree planting; (2) wildlife habitat; (3) backyard ponds; (4) nutrient management; (5) terracing; (6) water…

  8. Backyard Infrared Trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Thomas C.

    2014-12-01

    In this time of concern over climate change due to the atmospheric greenhouse effect,1 teachers often choose to extend relevant classroom work by the use of physical models to test statements. Here we describe an activity in which inexpensive backyard models made from cardboard boxes covered with various household transparent materials allow students to explore how transmission of visible and infrared light can affect the temperature.2 Our basic setup is shown schematically in Fig. 1, in which a black-lined box with a thermometer in contact with the bottom is covered with transparent (to visible light) household materials.

  9. Representation of Serendipitous Scientific Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program defines and implements an innovative kind of data structure than can be used for representing information derived from serendipitous discoveries made via collection of scientific data on long exploratory spacecraft missions. Data structures capable of collecting any kind of data can easily be implemented in advance, but the task of designing a fixed and efficient data structure suitable for processing raw data into useful information and taking advantage of serendipitous scientific discovery is becoming increasingly difficult as missions go deeper into space. The present software eases the task by enabling definition of arbitrarily complex data structures that can adapt at run time as raw data are transformed into other types of information. This software runs on a variety of computers, and can be distributed in either source code or binary code form. It must be run in conjunction with any one of a number of Lisp compilers that are available commercially or as shareware. It has no specific memory requirements and depends upon the other software with which it is used. This program is implemented as a library that is called by, and becomes folded into, the other software with which it is used.

  10. Web life: Backyard Worlds: Planet 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-04-01

    Much as its name suggests, Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 focuses on the hunt for a ninth planet in our solar system, along with other possible “rogue” planets that astronomers now believe may abound in the galaxy.

  11. Cataclysmic Variables in the Backyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    The last decade has seen plummeting prices and significant advances in CCD-camera and smart-telescope technology, reaching all the way to the humblest of telescopes. There are now thousands of well-equipped amateur astronomers interested in using their telescopes for research, and many hundreds already doing so in coordinated campaigns. Variable star science has benefited tremendously. Since it's always dark and always clear somewhere, coordinated photometry can accumulate nearly 24-hour coverage... and since the observers own their telescopes, very long campaigns are feasible, with little worry about weather. I'll describe one network of observers, the Center for Backyard Astrophysics (CBA). The telescope apertures are 20-50 cm, enabling good signal-to-noise and time resolution down to V=18. We organize campaigns of time-series photometry of cataclysmic variables (novae, dwarf novae, magnetic variables, some X-ray binaries) - and routinely achieve thousand-hour campaigns with no significant aliasing, since the telescopes are distributed around the world. This enables sensitive searches for periodic signals, extending even to long time scales (months). We now produce most of the world's supply of accretion-disk precession periods, and keep close watch on all the other clocks in cataclysmic variables (orbit, white-dwarf rotation and pulsation, and quasiperiodic oscillations).

  12. Cataclysmic Variables in the Backyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The last decade has seen plummeting prices and significant advances in CCD-camera and smart-telescope technology, reaching all the way to the humblest of telescopes. There are now thousands of well-equipped amateur astronomers interested in using their telescopes for research, and many hundreds already doing so in coordinated campaigns. Variable star science has benefited tremendously. Since it's always dark and always clear somewhere, coordinated photometry can accumulate nearly 24-hour coverage - and since the observers own their telescopes, very long campaigns are feasible, with little worry about weather. I'll describe one network of observers, the Center for Backyard Astrophysics (CBA). The telescope apertures are 20-50 cm, enabling good signal-to-noise and time resolution down to V=18. We organize campaigns of time-series photometry of cataclysmic variables (novae, dwarf novae, magnetic variables, some X-ray binaries) - and routinely achieve thousand-hour campaigns with no significant aliasing, since the telescopes are distributed around the world. This enables sensitive searches for periodic signals, extending even to long time scales (months). We now produce most of the world's supply of accretion-disk precession periods, and keep close watch on all the other clocks in cataclysmic variables (orbit, white-dwarf rotation and pulsation, and quasiperiodic oscillations).

  13. Backyard poultry: legislation, zoonoses and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, M L; Roberts, V

    2014-10-01

    In law, backyard poultry are "food-producing animals" and "farmed animals" and are subject to regulations regarding welfare, prescribing, banned procedures, disposal of carcases, feeding bans, notifiable diseases and disease surveillance in addition to those applying to most other pets. Many owners and some veterinary surgeons are unclear about the requirements of these regulations. Backyard poultry are also associated with some different zoonotic disease risks to mammalian pets. Because a high proportion of poultry morbidity and mortality relates to infectious diseases, the health of backyard poultry is amenable to improvement through basic husbandry, biosecurity, hygiene and preventive medicine measures that can be incorporated into a simple "flock-health plan". This article reviews these topics.

  14. Cherenkov radiation as a serendipitous phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadmensky, S. G.

    2015-05-01

    A brief account is given of P A Cherenkov's Voronezh years, a period during which the future Nobel laureate in physics attended school (in the village of Novaya Chigla near Voronezh) and studied at Voronezh State University. The history of the serendipitous discovery of the radiation which was to be named after him is described and its importance for modern science is discussed. Possible modern approaches are considered to explain — without using the concept of 'cold nuclear synthesis' — some other unexpected experimental results on the nonthermonuclear fusion of light nuclei stimulated by electron beams and by laser and gamma radiations.

  15. The NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansbury, George B.; NuSTAR

    2015-01-01

    A great breakthrough in studying the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) population is the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), the first focusing X-ray observatory with high sensitivity at > 10 keV. Here we present results from the NuSTAR serendipitous survey, the largest area (~7 deg2) component of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey programme. The source statistics are relatively good for a high energy X-ray survey, with ~150 detections and ~100 spectroscopically identified sources to-date. Studying the X-ray emission at > 10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, allows intrinsic properties such as column densities and luminosities to be well constrained. The X-ray analysis is supplemented by broad-band UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution (SED) analyses. The dominant source population sampled by the NuSTAR serendipitous survey is quasars with L(10-40)keV > 1044 erg/s. This population is broadly similar to the population of nearby high-energy selected AGNs sampled by Swift/BAT, but scaled up in luminosity and mass.

  16. 45 CFR 674.7 - Exception for serendipitous finds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.7 Exception for serendipitous finds. A person who makes a serendipitous discovery of a meteorite in Antarctica which could not have been reasonably anticipated, may collect the meteorite for scientific research purposes, provided that the meteorite is collected in the manner...

  17. 45 CFR 674.7 - Exception for serendipitous finds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.7 Exception for serendipitous finds. A person who makes a serendipitous discovery of a meteorite in Antarctica which could not have been reasonably anticipated, may collect the meteorite for scientific research purposes, provided that the meteorite is collected in the manner...

  18. 45 CFR 674.7 - Exception for serendipitous finds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.7 Exception for serendipitous finds. A person who makes a serendipitous discovery of a meteorite in Antarctica which could not have been reasonably anticipated, may collect the meteorite for scientific research purposes, provided that the meteorite is collected in the manner...

  19. 45 CFR 674.7 - Exception for serendipitous finds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.7 Exception for serendipitous finds. A person who makes a serendipitous discovery of a meteorite in Antarctica which could not have been reasonably anticipated, may collect the meteorite for scientific research purposes, provided that the meteorite is collected in the manner...

  20. 45 CFR 674.7 - Exception for serendipitous finds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.7 Exception for serendipitous finds. A person who makes a serendipitous discovery of a meteorite in Antarctica which could not have been reasonably anticipated, may collect the meteorite for scientific research purposes, provided that the meteorite is collected in the manner...

  1. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    PubMed

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.

  2. Backyard Woods bring your vision to life

    Treesearch

    Michael Majeski; Stephen Bratkovich; Gina Childs; Dean Granholm; Dennis Haugen; Theresa Heyer; Jill Pokorny

    2005-01-01

    Perhaps you dream of sitting on a deck, overlooking lush green scenery. Or you may want to attract birds, deer, or other animals, or harvest special forest products or mature trees. You may even want to improve your land for your children and grandchildren. Whatever your vision, with a little planning and work, your backyard woods can be a true jewel to you, your...

  3. Dwarf Discoveries from Serendipitous Field Star Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Wayne

    2016-05-01

    For the past two years, The University of Colorado, in collaboration with Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN) has been taking Sloans r' and i' images of approximately 200 galaxies during each new moon period to provide ground data in support of the approximately 1100 hours of warm Spitzer time awarded to Dr. Mansi Kasliwal's Caltech SPIRITS program. Currently there are over 6,000 images in this archive. Small telescope scientists routinely image the same fields, building similar archives brimming with science potential. This paper reports the technique to develop serendipitous observations of dwarf field stars. Answers to questions surrounding the dwarf's early life in proximity to non-hierarchal multiple star groups, about how dwarfs not only survive but are so numerous are well within the capabilities of small telescope scientists. The role of the small telescope scientist is of vital importance in these (re)discovery, confirmation, monitoring and reporting tasks.

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic chlorozincate and a molecular zinc complex involving the in situ formed imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium cation: serendipitous oxidative cyclization, structures and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Buvaylo, Elena A; Kokozay, Vladimir N; Linnik, Rostyslav P; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu; Skelton, Brian W

    2015-08-14

    Two novel compounds, the organic-inorganic hybrid [L](2)[ZnCl(4)] (1) and the coordination complex LZnCl(3) (2), where L is the 2-methyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium cation, were prepared using the oxidative condensation-cyclization of 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde and CH(3)NH(2)·HCl in methanol in the presence of Zn(2+) cations. The metal-free interaction of the organic components afforded the salt [L][Cl]·1.5H(2)O (3). The use of methylamine hydrochloride instead of its aqueous solution is believed to be responsible for the cyclocondensation with the formation of L instead of the expected Schiff base ligand. Compounds 1-3 have been obtained as single crystals and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The structure of 1 is described as layers of cations and anions stacked along the c-axis, with the minimum ZnZn distance being 8.435 Å inside a layer. In the crystal lattice of 3, the cations are arranged in stacks propagating along the a-axis; the 1D H-bonding polymer built of chloride ions and water molecules runs parallel to a column of stacked cations. The organic cations in salts 1 and 3 show various patterns of π-π stacking. The discrete molecular structure of 2 shows coordination of a Zn atom to the N(pyridyl) atom, which enables one of the chloride atoms attached to the metal centre to interact with a π-system of the positively charged imidazolium ring. Numerous C-HCl contacts in a 1-3 are seen as space-filling van der Waals interactions of minor importance in determining crystal packing. The (1)H NMR studies suggest that the Zn-N coordination found in the solid-state structure of 2 is not retained in dmso, and 1, 2 and 3 are completely dissociated in solution. The emission spectra of 1 and 2 (λ(max) = 455 and 445 nm, respectively) exhibit red-shifts of fluorescence wavelength when compared to 3 and differ in the shapes and maxima of the emission as well as in relative

  5. The prepared mind. [Serendipitous discovery of demulsifier

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, N.E.S. )

    1994-09-01

    Products derived from the work of scientists with serendipity, or an imagined faculty for making fluke discoveries by looking for one thing and finding another, include the well-known examples of Teflon, penicillin, X-rays, Velcro, nylon, saccharin, and Nutrasweet. This dream of every scientist came true for the author in the discovery of a dithiocarbamate compound that could be used as a water-clarifying agent for oil fields that produce water. The new agent enables oil companies to discharge water produced in offshore drilling facilities without upsetting the clarity of the aquatic environment. The EPA limit for oil in discharged water is 48 ppm. Failure to maintain this limit will result in shutdown of the platform. The alternative is to pipe the produced water to onshore facilities for treatment before discharge, which costs a good bit more. The serendipitous discovery of the dithiocarbamate compound discussed here as a unique water-clarifying agent has also led to important fundamental advances. The new agent allows producers to use existing water treatment equipment and remain in compliance with the latest limits on oil content. This compound has made it more economical to operate offshore oil and gas production facilities in the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea.

  6. Serendipitous Findings While Researching Oxygen Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This review is based on the honor of receiving the Discovery Award from the Society of Free Radical Biology and Medicine. The review is reflective and presents our thinking which led to experiments that yielded novel observations. Critical questioning of our understanding of oxygen free radicals in biomedical problems led us to use and develop more direct and extremely sensitive methods. This included nitrone free radical spin-trapping and HPLC-electrochemical detection. This technology led to the pioneering use of salicylate to trap hydroxyl free radicals and show increased flux in ischemia/reperfused brain regions and to also first sensitively detect 8-hydroxy-droxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in oxidative-damaged DNA and help assess its role in cancer development. We demonstrated that Methylene Blue (MB) photo-induced formation of 8-hydroxy-guanine in DNA and RNA and discovered that MB sensitively photo-inactivated RNA viruses including HIV and the West Nile Virus. Studies in experimental stroke led us to serendipitously discover that α-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) was neuroprotective if given after the stroke. This led to extensive commercial development of NXY-059, a PBN derivative, for the treatment of stroke. More recently we discovered that PBN-nitrones have potent anti-cancer activity and are active in preventing hearing loss caused by acute acoustical trauma. PMID:19439210

  7. Serendipitous findings while researching oxygen free radicals.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Robert A

    2009-04-15

    This review is based on the honor of receiving the Discovery Award from the Society of Free Radical Biology and Medicine. The review is reflective and presents our thinking that led to experiments that yielded novel observations. Critical questioning of our understanding of oxygen free radicals in biomedical problems led us to use and develop more direct and extremely sensitive methods. This included nitrone free radical spin trapping and HPLC-electrochemical detection. This technology led to the pioneering use of salicylate to trap hydroxyl free radicals and show increased flux in ischemia/reperfused brain regions and also to first sensitively detect 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine in oxidatively damaged DNA and help assess its role in cancer development. We demonstrated that methylene blue (MB) photoinduces formation of 8-hydroxyguanine in DNA and RNA and discovered that MB sensitively photoinactivates RNA viruses, including HIV and the West Nile virus. Studies in experimental stroke led us serendipitously to discover that alpha-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) was neuroprotective if given after the stroke. This led to extensive commercial development of NXY-059, a PBN derivative, for the treatment of stroke. More recently we discovered that PBN nitrones have potent anti-cancer activity and are active in preventing hearing loss caused by acute acoustical trauma.

  8. The Madagascar Bloom - a serendipitous study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srokosz, M. A.; Quartly, G.

    2012-12-01

    The late austral summer (February-April) phytoplankton bloom that occurs east of Madagascar, exhibits significant interannual variability and at its largest extent covers ~1% of the world's ocean surface area. The bloom raises many intriguing questions about how it begins, is sustained, propagates to the east, exports carbon and ends. It has been observed and studied using satellite ocean colour observations, but the lack of in situ data makes it difficult to address these questions. Here we describe observations that were made on a cruise in February 2005 serendipitously. These show clearly for the first time the existence of both a deep chlorophyll maximum at ~70-110m depths (seen in SeaSoar fluorimeter data) and a surface chlorophyll signature (seen in SeaWiFS satellite ocean colour data). The observations also show the modulation of biological signature at the surface by the eddy field, but not apparently of the deep chlorophyll maximum. In situ observations indicate that Trichodesmium dominates the bloom nearer to Madagascar, while the diatom Rhizosolenia clevei (and its symbiont Richelia intracellularis) dominates further from the island. In addition, SeaSoar Optical Plankton Counter (OPC), temperature and salinity data suggest that the surface bloom seen in the SeaWiFS data is confined to the shallow (~30m) mixed layer. It is hypothesised that the interannual variability in bloom intensity may be due to variations in coastal upwelling and thus the supply of iron, which is a micronutrient that can limit diazotroph growth.

  9. The Madagascar Bloom: A serendipitous study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srokosz, M. A.; Quartly, G. D.

    2013-01-01

    The late austral summer (February-April) phytoplankton bloom that occurs east of Madagascar exhibits significant interannual variability and at its largest extent covers ~1% of the world's ocean surface area. The bloom raises many intriguing questions about how it begins, is sustained, propagates to the east, exports carbon, and ends. It has been observed and studied using satellite ocean color observations, but the lack of in situ data makes it difficult to address these questions. Here we describe observations that were made serendipitously on a cruise in February 2005. These show clearly for the first time the simultaneous existence of a deep chlorophyll maximum at ~70-110 m depths (seen in SeaSoar fluorimeter data) and a surface chlorophyll signature [seen in Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite ocean color data]. The observations also show the modulation of the biological signature at the surface by the eddy field but not of the deep chlorophyll maximum. Trichodesmium dominates the bloom nearer to Madagascar, while the diatom Rhizosolenia clevei (and its symbiont Richelia intracellularis) dominates further from the island. The surface bloom seen in the SeaWiFS data is confined to the shallow (~30 m) mixed layer. It is hypothesized that the interannual variability in bloom intensity may be due to variations in coastal upwelling and thus the supply of iron, which is a micronutrient that can limit diazotroph growth.

  10. The Bullfrog in the Bomb Shelter and Other Backyard Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, David O.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of a bullfrog in an abandoned fallout shelter in the backyard of his parents' newly acquired farmhouse, the author challenges the reader to look for other "backyard beasties" in their own environment for help in gaining an understanding of how, when, and why interactions take place as a method of acquiring…

  11. ChaMP Serendipitous Galaxy Cluster Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Green, P.J.; Vikhlinin, A.; Kim, D.-W.; Perley, D.; Cameron, R.; Silverman, J.; Mossman, A.; Burenin, R.; Jannuzi, B.T.; Kim, M.; Smith, M.G.; Smith, R.C.; Tananbaum, H.; Wilkes, B.J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /SLAC /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Moscow, Space Res. Inst. /NOAO, Tucson /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2006-04-03

    We present a survey of serendipitous extended X-ray sources and optical cluster candidates from the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP). Our main goal is to make an unbiased comparison of X-ray and optical cluster detection methods. In 130 archival Chandra pointings covering 13 square degrees, we use a wavelet decomposition technique to detect 55 extended sources, of which 6 are nearby single galaxies. Our X-ray cluster catalog reaches a typical flux limit of about {approx} 10{sup -14} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, with a median cluster core radius of 21''. For 56 of the 130 X-ray fields, we use the ChaMP's deep NOAO/4m MOSAIC g', r', and i' imaging to independently detect cluster candidates using a Voronoi tessellation and percolation (VTP) method. Red-sequence filtering decreases the galaxy fore/background contamination and provides photometric redshifts to z {approx} 0.7. From the overlapping 6.1 square degree X-ray/optical imaging, we find 115 optical clusters (of which 11% are in the X-ray catalog) and 28 X-ray clusters (of which 46% are in the optical VTP catalog). The median redshift of the 13 X-ray/optical clusters is 0.41, and their median X-ray luminosity (0.5-2 keV) is L{sub X} = (2.65 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup 43} ergs s{sup -1}. The clusters in our sample that are only detected in our optical data are poorer on average ({approx} 4{sigma}) than the X-ray/optically matched clusters, which may partially explain the difference in the detection fractions.

  12. The BMW-Chandra Serendipitous Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Mottini, M.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2004-08-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalog drawn from all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10 ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by Lazzati et al. (1999) and Campana et al. (1999), which can characterize point-like as well as extended sources, we identified 21325 sources. Among them, 16758 are serendipitous, i.e. not associated with the targets of the pointings, and do not require a non-automated analysis. This makes our catalog the largest compilation of Chandra sources to date. The 0.5--10 keV absorption corrected fluxes of these sources range from ˜ 3× 10-16 to 9×10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 with a median of 7× 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalog consists of count rates and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5--7 keV; soft, 0.5--2 keV; and hard band, 2--7 keV), and source positions relative to the highest signal-to-noise detection among the three bands. The wavelet algorithm also provides an estimate of the extension of the source which we refined with a σ -clipping method. We report on the main properties of the sources in our catalog, such as sky coverage ( ˜ 8 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1) and cosmological log N--log S for a subset at high Galactic latitude (∣ b ∣ > 20o) for a flux as low as ˜ 1.5 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. Support for this work was provided by the Italian MIUR.

  13. The cosmic web in our own backyard.

    PubMed

    Ibata, Rodrigo A; Lewis, Geraint F

    2008-01-04

    On the largest scales, matter is strung out on an intricate pattern known as the cosmic web. The tendrils of this web should reach right into our own cosmic backyard, lacing the Galactic halo with lumps of dark matter. The search for these lumps, lit up by stars that formed within them, is a major astronomical endeavor, although it has failed to find the huge expected population. Is this a dark matter crisis, or does it provide clues to the complexities of gas physics in the early universe? New technologies in the coming decade will reveal the answer.

  14. Serendipitous detection of an errant central venous catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, J.A.; Romdall, K.; Griep, R.

    1985-09-01

    The inappropriate placement of a patient's central venous catheter in the pleural space by the serendipitous injection of Tc-99m labeled red blood cells through the catheter during a GI bleeding study was discovered. Position and patency of central venous lines can be incidentally evaluated by using existing central venous catheters for administration of radiopharmaceuticals during radionuclide imaging studies.

  15. Serendipitous Science Engagement: A Family Self-Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder-Weiss, Dana

    2017-01-01

    While opportunities for spontaneous, undesigned, serendipitous science engagement (SSE) are abundant and evidence regarding its affordances is accumulating, little is known about its nature. In this paper, I present a model defining and identifying SSE, which consists of a personal and a contextual continuum. To explore the nature of family SSE, I…

  16. The WWW Cabinet of Curiosities: A Serendipitous Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Josie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the WWW is able to be fruitfully understood as a research tool when we utilise the metaphor of the cabinet of curiosities, the wunderkammer. It unpeels some of the research attributes of the metaphor as it reveals the multiplicity of connectivity on the web that provides serendipitous interactions between unexpected…

  17. Serendipitous Science Engagement: A Family Self-Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder-Weiss, Dana

    2017-01-01

    While opportunities for spontaneous, undesigned, serendipitous science engagement (SSE) are abundant and evidence regarding its affordances is accumulating, little is known about its nature. In this paper, I present a model defining and identifying SSE, which consists of a personal and a contextual continuum. To explore the nature of family SSE, I…

  18. The Swift-XRT imaging Performances and Serendipitous Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, A.; Perri, M.; Capalbi, M.; Abbey, A.F.; Angelini, L.; Beardmore, A.; Burrows, D.N.; Campana, S.; Chincaini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.; Evans, P.A.; Giommi, P.; Godet, O.; Guidorzi, C.; Grupe, D.; Hill, J.E.; Kennea, J.A.; La Parola, V.; Mangano, V.; Mineo, T.; Morris, D.C.; Nousek, J.A.; Osborne, J.P.; Page, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    We are exploiting thc Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) deepest GR.B follow-up observations to study the cosmic X-Ray Background (XRB) population in the 0.2-10 keV energy band. We present some preliminary results of a serendipitous survey performed on 221 fields observed with exposure longer than 10 ks. We show that the XRT is a profitable instrument for surveys and that it is particularly suitable for the search and observation of ext,ended objects like clusters of galaxies. We used the brightest serendipitous sources and the longest observations to test. the XRT optics performance and the background characteristics all over the field of view, in different energy bands during the first 2.5 years of fully operational missions.

  19. Serendipitous Offline Learning in a Neuromorphic Robot.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Terrence C; Kleinhans, Ashley; Mundy, Andrew; Conradt, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a hybrid neuromorphic learning paradigm that learns complex sensorimotor mappings based on a small set of hard-coded reflex behaviors. A mobile robot is first controlled by a basic set of reflexive hand-designed behaviors. All sensor data is provided via a spike-based silicon retina camera (eDVS), and all control is implemented via spiking neurons simulated on neuromorphic hardware (SpiNNaker). Given this control system, the robot is capable of simple obstacle avoidance and random exploration. To train the robot to perform more complex tasks, we observe the robot and find instances where the robot accidentally performs the desired action. Data recorded from the robot during these times is then used to update the neural control system, increasing the likelihood of the robot performing that task in the future, given a similar sensor state. As an example application of this general-purpose method of training, we demonstrate the robot learning to respond to novel sensory stimuli (a mirror) by turning right if it is present at an intersection, and otherwise turning left. In general, this system can learn arbitrary relations between sensory input and motor behavior.

  20. Serendipitous Offline Learning in a Neuromorphic Robot

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Terrence C.; Kleinhans, Ashley; Mundy, Andrew; Conradt, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a hybrid neuromorphic learning paradigm that learns complex sensorimotor mappings based on a small set of hard-coded reflex behaviors. A mobile robot is first controlled by a basic set of reflexive hand-designed behaviors. All sensor data is provided via a spike-based silicon retina camera (eDVS), and all control is implemented via spiking neurons simulated on neuromorphic hardware (SpiNNaker). Given this control system, the robot is capable of simple obstacle avoidance and random exploration. To train the robot to perform more complex tasks, we observe the robot and find instances where the robot accidentally performs the desired action. Data recorded from the robot during these times is then used to update the neural control system, increasing the likelihood of the robot performing that task in the future, given a similar sensor state. As an example application of this general-purpose method of training, we demonstrate the robot learning to respond to novel sensory stimuli (a mirror) by turning right if it is present at an intersection, and otherwise turning left. In general, this system can learn arbitrary relations between sensory input and motor behavior. PMID:26913002

  1. VIEW FROM THE BACKYARDS OF THE RESIDENCES ON THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE BACKYARDS OF THE RESIDENCES ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF BIRCH CIRCLE SHOWING CAMP H.M. SMITH RECREATIONAL FACILITIES ON THE LEFT, CLOTHESLINES TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. VIEW OF BACKYARD AREA BEHIND FACILITIES 529 (BIRCH CIRCLE) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BACKYARD AREA BEHIND FACILITIES 529 (BIRCH CIRCLE) AND 606 (CEDAR DRIVE). VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Shaken, not stirred: a serendipitous study of ants and earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Lighton, John R B; Duncan, Frances D

    2005-08-01

    There is anecdotal evidence for profound behavioral changes prior to and during earthquakes in many organisms, including arthropods such as ants. Behavioral or physiological analysis has often, in light of these reports, been proposed as a means of earthquake prediction. We report here a serendipitous study of the effect of the powerful Landers earthquake in the Mojave Desert, USA (Richter magnitude 7.4) on ant trail dynamics and aerobic catabolism in the desert harvester ant Messor pergandei. We monitored trail traffic rates to and from the colony, trail speed, worker mass distributions, rates of aerobic catabolism and temperature at ant height before and during the earthquake, and for 3 days after the earthquake. Contrary to anecdotal reports of earthquake effects on ant behavior, the Landers earthquake had no effect on any measured aspect of the physiology or behavior of M. pergandei. We conclude that anecdotal accounts of the effects of earthquakes or their precursors on insect behavior should be interpreted with caution.

  4. IRAS Serendipitous Survey Observations of Pluto and Charon.

    PubMed

    Sykes, M V; Cutri, R M; Lebofsky, L A; Binzel, R P

    1987-09-11

    On 16 August 1983 the Infrared Astronomical Satellite made two separate pointed observations of Pluto and its moon Charon. Because of the small angular displacement of the system between the times of measurement, the Pluto-Charon system was identified as a source in the Serendipitous Survey (SSC 14029+0518). Detections were made at 60 and 100 micrometers with color-corrected flux densities of 581 +/- 58 and 721 +/- 123 millijanskys, respectively. Pluto is best described as having a dark equatorial band, and brighter polar caps of methane ice extending to +/-45 degrees latitude, at most. An upper limit of approximately 9 meter-amagats is placed on the column abundance of a methane atmosphere on Pluto, which is comparable to recent upper limits based on independent ground-based spectroscopy.

  5. IRAS serendipitous survey observations of Pluto and Charon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Cutri, Roc M.; Lebofsky, Larry A.; Binzel, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    On Aug. 16, 1983, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite made two separate pointed observations of Pluto and its moon Charon. Because of the small angular displacement of the system between the times of measurement, the Pluto-Charon system was identified as a source in the Serendipitous Survey (SSC 14029+0518). Detections were made at 60 and 100 micrometers with color-corrected flux densities of 581 + or - 58 and 721 + or - 123 millijanskys, respectively. Pluto is best described as having a dark equatorial band, and brighter polar caps of methane ice extending to + or - 45 deg latitude, at most. An upper limit of approximately 9 meter-amagats is placed on the column abundance of a methane atmosphere on Pluto, which is comparable to recent upper limits based on independent ground-based spectroscopy.

  6. Serendipitous discovery of novel bacterial methionine aminopeptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, Artem G; Pokross, Matthew; Walter, Richard L; Mekel, Marlene; Barnett, Bobby L; Amburgey, Jack; Seibel, William L; Soper, Shari J; Djung, Jane F; Fairweather, Neil; Diven, Conrad; Rastogi, Vinit; Grinius, Leo; Klanke, Charles; Siehnel, Richard; Twinem, Tracy; Andrews, Ryan; Curnow, Alan

    2007-02-15

    In this article we describe the application of structural biology methods to the discovery of novel potent inhibitors of methionine aminopeptidases. These enzymes are employed by the cells to cleave the N-terminal methionine from nascent peptides and proteins. As this is one of the critical steps in protein maturation, it is very likely that inhibitors of these enzymes may prove useful as novel antibacterial agents. Involvement of crystallography at the very early stages of the inhibitor design process resulted in serendipitous discovery of a new inhibitor class, the pyrazole-diamines. Atomic-resolution structures of several inhibitors bound to the enzyme illuminate a new mode of inhibitor binding. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Avian influenza surveillance in backyard poultry of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Buscaglia, C; Espinosa, C; Terrera, M V; De Benedetti, R

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an exotic disease in Argentina. A surveillance program for AI was conducted in backyard poultry during 1998-2005 in two regions: 1) region A, which included the avian population in the provinces that border Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, and 2) region B, which included the rest of the provinces of the country. More than 8000 serum samples were tested for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or agar gel immunodiffusion tests, and more than 18,000 tracheal and cloacal swabs were tested for virus by isolation in embryonated specific-pathogen-free eggs. This study was part of the AI prevention program in Argentina, which includes other avian populations such as commercial poultry and all the controls for importation and exportation of live birds. The results from backyard poultry were negative for AI.

  8. Galactic Sources Detected in the NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Lansbury, George B.; Rahoui, Farid; Clavel, Maïca; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Hong, JaeSub; Aird, James; Alexander, David M.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) provides an improvement in sensitivity at energies above 10 keV by two orders of magnitude over non-focusing satellites, making it possible to probe deeper into the Galaxy and universe. Lansbury and collaborators recently completed a catalog of 497 sources serendipitously detected in the 3-24 keV band using 13 deg2 of NuSTAR coverage. Here, we report on an optical and X-ray study of 16 Galactic sources in the catalog. We identify 8 of them as stars (but some or all could have binary companions), and use information from Gaia to report distances and X-ray luminosities for 3 of them. There are 4 CVs or CV candidates, and we argue that NuSTAR J233426-2343.9 is a relatively strong CV candidate based partly on an X-ray spectrum from XMM-Newton. NuSTAR J092418-3142.2, which is the brightest serendipitous source in the Lansbury catalog, and NuSTAR J073959-3147.8 are low-mass X-ray binary candidates, but it is also possible that these 2 sources are CVs. One of the sources is a known high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), and NuSTAR J105008-5958.8 is a new HMXB candidate that has strong Balmer emission lines in its optical spectrum and a hard X-ray spectrum. We discuss the implications of finding these HMXBs for the surface density (log N-log S) and luminosity function of Galactic HMXBs. We conclude that with the large fraction of unclassified sources in the Galactic plane detected by NuSTAR in the 8-24 keV band, there could be a significant population of low-luminosity HMXBs.

  9. Analyzing Serendipitous Asteroid Observations in Imaging Data using PHOTOMETRYPIPELINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ard, Christopher; Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    Asteroids are nearly ubiquitous in the night sky, making them present in the majority of imaging data taken every night. Serendipitous asteroid observations represent a treasure trove to Solar System researchers: accurate positional measurements of asteroids provide important constraints on their sometimes highly uncertain orbits, whereas calibrated photometric measurements can be used to establish rotational periods, intrinsic colors, or photometric phase curves.We present an add-on to the PHOTOMETRYPIPELINE (PP, github.com/mommermi/photometrypipeline, see Poster presentation 123.42) that identifies asteroids that have been observed serendipitously and extracts astrometry and calibrated photometry for these objects. PP is an open-source Python 2.7 software suite that provides image registration, aperture photometry, photometric calibration, and target identification with only minimal human interaction.Asteroids are identified based on approximate positions that are pre-calculated for a range of dates. Using interpolated coordinates, we identify potential asteroids that might be in the observed field and query their exact positions and positional uncertainties from the JPL Horizons system. The method results in robust astrometry and calibrated photometry for all asteroids in the field as a function of time. Our measurements will supplement existing photometric databases of asteroids and improve their orbits.We present first results using this procedure based on imaging data from the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope.This work was done in the framework of NAU's REU summer program that is supported by NSF grant AST-1461200. PP was developed in the framework of the "Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey" (MANOS) and is supported by NASA SSO grants NNX15AE90G and NNX14AN82G.

  10. Marek's disease in backyard chickens, a study of pathological findings and viral loads in tumorous and non-tumorous birds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a major cause of mortality in backyard chickens. The diagnosis of MD is complex, however, and knowledge on Marek’s disease virus (MDV) in spontaneous field cases such as in backyard chickens is largely unknown. Forty backyard chickens with presumptive MD diagnosis based on hi...

  11. Enantioselective Rh-Catalyzed Hydroacylation of Olefins: From Serendipitous Discovery to Rational Design

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Rh-catalysed hydroacylation allows the construction of chiral ketones from olefins and aldehydes. Since James' and Young's serendipitous discovery of the enantioselective 4-pentenal cyclisation, both intra and intermolecular variants have emerged that enable broader applications. PMID:25277153

  12. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  13. Serendipitous Observations of Asteroids by the K2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentsen, Geert

    2015-11-01

    The K2 mission is using the unique assets of the Kepler space telescope to perform long-baseline, high-cadence, high-precision photometry of targets selected by the community. Unlike the original Kepler mission, the loss of two reaction wheels requires K2 to point near the ecliptic plane. As a result, thousands of faint asteroids can be seen to pass through the target pixel masks that are downlinked to earth after each ~75-day observing campaign. I will show how these serendipitous observations of asteroids can be used to obtain lightcurves for faint (V>18) objects which are otherwise challenging to target from the ground. In particular, I will demonstrate that the data are well-suited to identify small asteroids with rotation periods near or below the ~2 hour "spin barrier". I will also highlight the K2 data of other solar system bodies, including the comets, trans-Neptunian objects and Jupiter trojans for which dedicated pixel masks have been (or will be) downlinked. Owing to its ecliptic pointing and 1.4-meter diameter mirror, K2 is offering unique time-series photometry of small solar system bodies at a precision which is unlikely to be rivaled by the future, smaller-aperture photometric missions such as TESS and PLATO.

  14. The BMW-Chandra survey. Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Mignani, R. P.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Mottini, M.

    2009-07-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalogue derived from Chandra ACIS-I observations (exposure time > 10ks) public as of March 2003 by using a wavelet detection algorithm (Lazzati et al. 1999; Campana et al. 1999). The catalogue contains a total of 21325 sources, 16758 of which are serendipitous. Our sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2keV, S/N=3) is ~ 8 deg2 for FX ≥ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1, and ~ 2 deg2 for FX ≥ 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalogue contains information on positions, count rates (and errors) in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7keV; soft, 0.5-2keV; and hard, 2-7keV), and in four additional energy bands, SB1 (0.5-1keV), SB2 (1-2keV), HB1 (2-4keV), and HB2 (4-7keV), as well as information on the source extension, and cross-matches with the FIRST, IRAS, 2MASS, and GSC-2 catalogues.

  15. Evaluation of Maryland backyard flocks and biosecurity practices.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-06-01

    Domesticated poultry are susceptible to infectious and zoonotic diseases and can serve as a transmission source to other bird and human populations. In recent years, the number of noncommercial poultry has been on the rise in the United States. To evaluate potential risks of this growing population, a descriptive epidemiologic survey was conducted among Maryland backyard flocks. Owner and flock demographics were characterized as well as management practices such as husbandry, human-to-bird interaction, bird exposure risks, poultry health status, and biosecurity. Data from the 41 returned questionnaires indicated a median flock size of 38 birds (range, 3-901). Chickens accounted for 86.5% of the reported birds overall. Just over half of the owners (51.2%) kept chickens only, with the remaining backyard flocks consisting of chickens, other gallinaceous species, waterfowl, or a combination. Of flocks with multiple species, 70.0% of owners did not keep them separate. Almost two thirds of owners (61.0%) had kept poultry for < or = 5 yr, with 44.0% of all flocks on free range. Over the past 2 yr, predation was the highest cause of specific mortality (57.1%) followed by disease (30.2%), unknown (8.7%), and injury (4.0%), and over half of owners (56.1%) reported signs of disease in their flock within the last 6 mo. Biosecurity practices were highly variable among flocks. Data from this study identified gaps in the disease prevention and biosecurity practices of backyard flocks. These results can be useful in developing educational extension and outreach programs as well as policies, in efforts to further mitigate the spread of diseases.

  16. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens.

  17. Radiography and Ultrasonography in the Backyard Poultry and Waterfowl Patient.

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-E; Moerke-Schindler, Torsten; Vorbrüggen, Susanne; Cramer, Kerstin

    2017-09-01

    The keeping of backyard poultry and waterfowl as pets has become increasingly popular in recent years, resulting in a rising case load of these patients in veterinary practices. Diagnostic imaging techniques are taking a leading role in rapid diagnosis in the live bird. We provide an overview of the most important points regarding radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging procedures in these birds. We also review the most commonly documented radiographic and ultrasonographic signs in these species, as well as discuss unique anatomic characteristics with which the veterinarian should be familiar.

  18. Galactic Sources Detected in the NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John; Lansbury, George; Rahoui, Farid; Clavel, Maica; Fornasini, Francesca; Hong, JaeSub; Aird, James; Alexander, David M.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Krivonos, Roman; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) provides an improvement in sensitivity at energies above 10 keV by two orders of magnitude over non-focusing satellites, making it possible to probe deeper into the Galaxy and Universe. Lansbury and collaborators recently completed a catalog of 497 sources serendipitously detected in the 3-24 keV band using 13 square degrees of NuSTAR coverage. Many of these NuSTAR "serendips" have counterparts at soft X-ray and other wavelengths, and about half of them have been classified, primarily via ground-based optical spectroscopy. While Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are, by far, the largest group within the classified sources, Galactic sources have also been identified based on optical spectra showing emission or absorption lines at zero redshift, previous classifications, or other observed features. We have carried out an optical and X-ray study of 16 Galactic serendips that include X-ray binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, and active stars. We focus, in particular, on constraints on the population of High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) as their overall numbers and fraction that include black holes vs. neutron stars is relevant to predictions for the types of compact object mergers that we expect to see with gravitational wave detectors. Also, X-rays from HMXBs may be important for heating the early Universe. In addition to the HMXBs, we will report on results of observations of other serendips, including a relatively bright and variable source with unusual properties that may be an ultracompact X-ray binary. Finally, we discuss on-going work to classify more of the serendips in the Galactic plane.

  19. Organized Autotelescopes for Serendipitous Event Survey (OASES): Design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimatsu, Ko; Tsumura, Kohji; Ichikawa, Kohei; Usui, Fumihiko; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Kotani, Takayuki; Sarugaku, Yuki; Wada, Takehiko; Nagase, Koichi; Watanabe, Jun-ichi

    2017-08-01

    Organized Autotelescopes for Serendipitous Event Survey (OASES) is an optical observation project that aims to detect and investigate stellar occultation events by kilometer-sized trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). In this project, multiple low-cost observation systems for wide-field and high-speed photometry were developed in order to detect rare and short-timescale stellar occultation events. The observation system consists of commercial off-the-shelf 0.28 m aperture f/1.58 optics providing a 2.3 × 1.8° field of view. A commercial CMOS camera is coupled to the optics to obtain full-frame imaging with a frame rate greater than 10 Hz. As of 2016 September, this project exploits two observation systems, which are installed on Miyako Island, Okinawa, Japan. Recent improvements in CMOS technology in terms of high-speed imaging and low readout noise mean that the observation systems are capable of monitoring ∼2000 stars in the Galactic plane simultaneously with magnitudes down to V ∼ 13.0, providing ∼20% photometric precision in light curves with a sampling cadence of 15.4 Hz. This number of monitored stars is larger than for any other existing instruments for coordinated occultation surveys. In addition, a precise time synchronization method needed for simultaneous occultation detection is developed using faint meteors. The two OASES observation systems are executing coordinated monitoring observations of a dense stellar field in order to detect occultations by kilometer-sized TNOs for the first time.

  20. Prevalence and differentiation of diseases in Maryland backyard flocks.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-09-01

    Several epidemiologic surveillance studies have implicated backyard flocks as a reservoir for poultry diseases; however, much debate still exists over the risk these small flocks pose. To evaluate this concern, the prevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Salmonella was determined in 39 Maryland backyard flocks. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds throughout nine counties in Maryland. Through PCR and ELISA analysis, disease prevalence and seroprevalence were determined in flocks, respectively, for the following: ND (0%, 23%); ILT (26%, 77%); MG (3%, 13%); and Salmonella (0%, not done). Vaccine status could not be accurately confirmed. Premise positives were further differentiated and identified by partial nucleotide sequencing. Screening of the 10 ILT premise positives showed that most were live attenuated vaccines: eight matched a tissue culture origin vaccine, one matched a chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine, and one was CEO related. The single MG-positive flock, also positive for the CEO-related sequence, was identified as the infectious S6 strain. The prevalence rates for these economically important poultry diseases ranged from none to relatively low, with the vast majority of sampled flocks presenting no clinical signs.

  1. Campylobacter infections in children exposed to infected backyard poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tras, W F; Holt, H R; Tayel, A A; El-Kady, N N

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease which has a worldwide public health impact. The disease is endemic in Egypt; however, the epidemiology in animals and humans has not been fully characterized. The objective of this study was to compare the risk of Campylobacter faecal carriage in children exposed to Campylobacter-infected vs. non-infected backyard poultry and to identify risk factors for a backyard being classified as infected. A total of 103 households which owned backyard poultry were sampled from a rural community in Egypt. Within these households 379 poultry and 106 children were tested for C. jejuni and C. coli; 23·5% and 5·5% of poultry were positive for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. In the studied households; 12·3% of children were positive for C. jejuni, and 2·8% were positive for C. coli. Using logistic regression, households with poultry positive for C. jejuni had 3·86 (95% confidence interval 1·0-15·0) times the odds of having children positive for C. jejuni compared to those housed with poultry which all tested negative. Backyard poultry may present a transmission route of C. jejuni to children. Backyards with poor cleaning and disinfection, wet litter and manure disposed of within the backyard had increased odds of being positive for C. jejuni. Enhancing biosecurity and management in poultry backyards may reduce the risk of the disease.

  2. Bright PSN in NGC5128 (Centaurus A) Discovered By Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marples, Peter; Bock, Greg; Parker, Stuart

    2016-02-01

    During the ongoing Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS), Peter Marples discovered a possible supernova using data from a 300mm F7 SCT telescope at Loganholme Observatory, Queensland, Australia.

  3. Revelations in our own backyard: Chandra's unique Galactic center discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoff, Sera

    2009-09-01

    Before the launch of Chandra, our Galactic center supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, had never been positively identified outside the radio bands. A great deal has changed in the last decade, starting with the discovery that our own backyard harbors a very weak, yet clearly active, galactic nucleus. I will review how this revelation has been a boon for accretion studies around black holes in general, and has helped us place our own Galaxy in context with the AGN zoology. While the focus of my talk will be on this topic, I will also touch on how Chandra's exquisite resolution has unveiled active star formation, entirely new populations of faint sources and transients, as well as extreme gas dynamics and hints of prior, more typical AGN-like activity in our Galactic center.

  4. Revelations in our own backyard: Chandra's unique Galactic Center discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markoff, Sera

    2010-04-01

    Before the launch of Chandra, our Galactic Center supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, had never been positively identified outside the radio bands. A great deal has changed in the past decade, starting with the discovery that our own backyard harbors a very weak, yet clearly active, galactic nucleus. I will review how this revelation has been a boon for accretion studies around black holes in general and has helped us place our own Galaxy in context within the active galactic nuclei (AGN) zoology. Chandra's exquisite resolution has also unveiled entirely new populations of faint sources and transients, as well as regions of extreme gas dynamics and hints of prior, more typical AGN-like activity in our Galactic Center.

  5. Questionnaire study and postmortem findings in backyard chicken flocks in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Leena; Rossow, Laila; Huovilainen, Anita; Soveri, Timo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2015-01-22

    Although modern commercial poultry production today is based on large farms and intensive husbandry, keeping backyard poultry has regained popularity in industrialized countries. However, the health status of backyard flocks is still relatively poorly documented. A questionnaire was sent to the owners of 376 backyard poultry flocks (<500 birds) in order to study health management procedures and characterize backyard poultry populations in Finland. Information was also collected on the postmortem findings from non-commercial flocks using necropsy data from the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira). Backyard flocks in Finland are small in size (<50 birds), comprising mainly chickens. Based on the results of the questionnaire, the health of such flocks is good, mortality low and vaccinations are not commonly used. Most of the flocks were registered in the national poultry register. The standard biosecurity practices are not generally applied and contact with wild birds, pets and farm animals is frequent, which can make the flocks more prone to infectious diseases. We conducted an 11-year retrospective study of the postmortem necropsy findings of the Evira in order to document the diseases, which caused mortality in backyard chickens in Finland. Necropsy was performed on a total of 132 non-commercial laying hens during 2000 - 2011. The most common postmortem findings were Marek's disease (27%) and colibacillosis (17%). This study is the first to report data on characteristics of and management practices for backyard chicken flocks in Finland. Close connections with commercial flocks are rare and farms are usually distantly located suggesting that the risk that these backyard flocks pose to commercial poultry is low.

  6. Avian influenza H5N1 vaccination efficacy in Egyptian backyard poultry.

    PubMed

    Kandeil, Ahmed; Mostafa, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; El-Taweel, Ahmed Nageh; Gomaa, Mokhtar; Galal, Hussein; Kayali, Ghazi; Ali, Mohamed A

    2017-09-25

    Raising backyard poultry under low biosecurity conditions is a common practice in Egypt. While vaccination is routinely applied in Egypt in commercial settings to curb the spread of avian influenza viruses, it remains less commonly used in backyard settings. We assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a H5N1 vaccine based on a contemporary Egyptian clade 2.2.1.2 virus among turkeys, ducks, geese, and chickens raised together in a backyard setting. Results showed that this vaccine elicits an immune response in all tested species reaching up to a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 10 log2 after a booster dose. However, this response varied between species. When challenged, vaccinated birds survived and shed less virus in comparison with unvaccinated birds. However, unvaccinated ducks showed no symptoms of infection and survived the duration of the experiment. Moreover, vaccinated ducks shed more virus as compared to vaccinated birds of other species. Hence, we recommend avoiding mixing various species in the backyards of Egypt. Our data indicates that vaccination can be effective in the backyard setting in Egypt, although planning should consider the species covered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Search for serendipitous Oort cloud object occultation in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jie-Rou; Liu, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang

    2015-08-01

    Serendipitous occultation search is a way to study small objects in the outer Solar system like trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) by extracting and analyzing the diffraction pattern in the occultation lights. There are already some reported detections in both optical and X-ray bands in this kind of search. Except for KBOs, this method also has the potential to extend the search to a distance as far away as the Oort cloud region (beyond a few thousands AU). As the distance is larger, a shorter wavelength is needed to have a smaller Fresnel scale, with which occultation may be more easily detected. Here we introduce the serendipitous occultation method we used in searching Oort cloud objects occultation, and present the results of using Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array data of Sco X-1 taken from 1996 February to 2012 January.

  8. Not in whose backyard Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people's reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

  9. Not in whose backyard? Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1992-04-01

    The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people`s reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located? This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

  10. Backyard poultry flocks and salmonellosis: a recurring, yet preventable public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Behravesh, Casey Barton; Brinson, Denise; Hopkins, Brett A; Gomez, Thomas M

    2014-05-01

    Poultry are well recognized as possible carriers of Salmonella species. As part of the local foods movement, backyard poultry flocks have increased in popularity in recent years. Between 1996 and 2012, 45 outbreaks of human Salmonella infections linked to live poultry from mail-order hatcheries were documented. This review examines the history of live poultry-associated salmonellosis in humans in the United States, the current status of the issue, and what can be done to help prevent these illnesses. An integrated One Health approach involving the mail-order hatchery industry, feed stores, healthcare providers, veterinarians, and backyard flock owners is needed to help prevent live poultry-associated salmonellosis.

  11. "Looking over the Backyard Fence": Householders and Mosquito Control.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Samir; Lamichhane, Ram Sharan; Clark, Kim; Beatty, Shelley; Fatouros, Maria; Neville, Peter; Oosthuizen, Jacques

    2017-03-02

    (1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. In Australia's developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality. Consequently, mosquito prevention in these locations is predominantly the responsibility of the residents. This research addressed a gap, both in understanding the degree to which "backyard" mosquito breeding has the potential to contribute to local mosquito problems, and in assessing what residents "think and do" about mosquito control within their home environment. (2) Methods: The study was conducted in the Town of Bassendean, a metropolitan Local Government Area of Perth, Western Australia, in close proximity to two natural, productive mosquito breeding sites, namely Ashfield Flats and Bindaring Park. A total of 150 householders were randomly surveyed during the summer of 2015-2016, to gauge residents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP (knowledge, attitudes, and practices) Survey) in regards to mosquitoes, their breeding and ecology, and avoidance or minimization strategies. The survey comprised nine questions covering residents' knowledge (3 questions), attitudes (3 questions), and practices (3 questions), as well as additional questions regarding the basic demographics of the resident. Larvae were collected from backyard containers and reared to adults for species identification. A series of Encephalitis Vector Surveillance carbon dioxide (EVS CO₂) traps were also deployed, to assess adult mosquito

  12. Search for serendipitous Oort cloud object occultation in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J.-R.; Liu, C.-Y.; Chang, H.-K.; Chen, K.-T.

    2015-10-01

    The existence of Oort cloud objects remains a hypothesis since proposed more than half a century ago. Here we report the results of search for serendipitous occultation events caused by Oort Cloud Objects (OCOs) using Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA) data of Sco X-1 taken from 1996 February to 2012 January. We also investigate the dependence of detection efficiency on OCO size to better define the sensible size range of our approach.

  13. Mineral content of eggs from backyard chickens reared under differing conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Among US consumers, there is a growing movement in which individuals focus on the development of a more sustainable lifestyle by eating food cultivated close to or at their home. This includes raising backyard chickens for eggs in both rural and urban area. Eggs are a valuable source of many nutrien...

  14. Causes of mortality in backyard chickens in northern California: 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Mete, Ash; Giannitti, Federico; Barr, Bradd; Woods, Leslie; Anderson, Mark

    2013-06-01

    A 5-yr retrospective study was conducted to characterize the spectrum of diseases causing mortality in 1301 backyard chickens submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory in Davis, California. Infectious diseases were diagnosed in the majority (60.4%). Viral diseases comprised 50% of the infectious entities, followed by bacterial diseases with an incidence of 39%. Marek's disease in the viral group and Escherichia coli in the bacterial group were the most commonly diagnosed infectious diseases. Zoonotic agents including Aspergillus sp., Salmonella sp., Listeria sp., Mycobacterium sp., Candida sp., and Baylisascaris sp. were detected in 46 (3.5%) birds. Among noninfectious conditions, fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome and reproductive tract adenocarcinoma were the leading causes of mortality. This analysis provides an overview of backyard chicken diseases for practitioners and avian pathologists working with backyard poultry. In addition, this study illustrates that backyard chickens do not seem to pose a major risk to public health, although zoonoses do comprise a notable portion (5.9% of all infectious cases) of isolated agents.

  15. Science Is for the Birds: Promoting Standards-Based Learning through Backyard Birdwatching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    Explains forest fragmentation, the destruction of physical habitats for animals such as birds and points out the importance of studies on habitat and biodiversity. Introduces project ideas for songbird populations and their habitats which can be conducted in backyards or schoolyards. (YDS)

  16. An Examination of the NIMBY Syndrome: Why Not in My Backyard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, John M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    According to 308 responses from households in 3 New Hampshire towns, those who held "Not in My Backyard" (NIMBY) beliefs about waste management facilities were primarily motivated by child health concerns. Those willing to host a recycling center or who believed recycling was a fad were less likely to have NIMBY attitudes. (SK)

  17. Explorations in Backyard Biology: Drawing on Nature in the Classroom, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, R. Gary

    This book is designed to guide students grades 4-6 in exploring new worlds of adventure in the life sciences. Students read short features on creatures as near as their own backyards, are invited to expand their interest with classroom and field activities, and are shown how to use drawing and writing skills to record their experiences in a…

  18. A survey for selected avian viral pathogens in backyard chicken farms in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, L; Tammiranta, N; Ek-Kommonen, C; Soveri, T; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson Ahomaa, M; Huovilainen, A

    2017-04-01

    Backyard poultry are regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious avian diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anaemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5.4%) had chickens seropositive for avian influenza virus. No farms had chickens seropositive for Newcastle disease virus. Of the 51 farms, five (10%) had chickens positive for coronavirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all backyard chicken coronaviruses collected were QX type infectious bronchitis viruses. All chickens tested for avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were negative. To our knowledge, there is no evidence to date to suggest that these diseases would have been transmitted between commercial and non-commercial flocks.

  19. Explorations in Backyard Biology: Drawing on Nature in the Classroom, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, R. Gary

    This book is designed to guide students grades 4-6 in exploring new worlds of adventure in the life sciences. Students read short features on creatures as near as their own backyards, are invited to expand their interest with classroom and field activities, and are shown how to use drawing and writing skills to record their experiences in a…

  20. Science Is for the Birds: Promoting Standards-Based Learning through Backyard Birdwatching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    Explains forest fragmentation, the destruction of physical habitats for animals such as birds and points out the importance of studies on habitat and biodiversity. Introduces project ideas for songbird populations and their habitats which can be conducted in backyards or schoolyards. (YDS)

  1. Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases in Backyard Poultry Farms in the Poyang Lake Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Jiang, Zhiben; Jin, Zhenyu; Tan, Hua; Xu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C) of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573, 95% CI: 2.148–20.115, P=0.001). In Region B, the most significant factor was contact of poultry with neighboring backyard waterfowls (OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.555–10.122, P=0.004). In Region C, significant factors were poultry purchase from local live bird markets (OR: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.243–11.255, P=0.019), and contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 3.379, 95% CI: 1.058–10.791, P=0.040). In summary, backyard poultry was significantly affected by neighboring commercial poultry and close contact with wild birds. The results are expected to improve our understanding of the transmission risks of infectious diseases in a typical backyard poultry environment in rural China, and address the need to improve local farming practices and

  2. How backyard poultry flocks influence the effort required to curtail avian influenza epidemics in commercial poultry flocks.

    PubMed

    Smith, G; Dunipace, S

    2011-06-01

    This paper summarizes the evidence that the contribution of backyard poultry flocks to the on-going transmission dynamics of an avian influenza epidemic in commercial flocks is modest at best. Nevertheless, while disease control strategies need not involve the backyard flocks, an analysis of the contribution of each element of the next generation matrix to the basic reproduction number indicates that models which ignores the contribution of backyard flocks in estimating the effort required of strategies focused one host type (e.g. commercial flocks only) necessarily underestimate the level of effort to an extent that may matter to policy makers.

  3. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices.

    PubMed

    Shanta, I S; Hasnat, Md A; Zeidner, N; Gurley, E S; Azziz-Baumgartner, E; Sharker, M A Y; Hossain, K; Khan, S U; Haider, N; Bhuyan, A A; Hossain, Md A; Luby, S P

    2017-10-01

    Poultry is commonly raised by households in rural Bangladesh. In 2007, the Government of Bangladesh began a mass media campaign to disseminate 10 recommended precautions to prevent transmission of H5N1 from poultry to humans. This longitudinal study explored the contribution of backyard poultry on household economy and nutrition and compared poultry-raising practices to government recommendations. From 2009 to 2012, we enrolled a nationally representative sample of 2489 primary backyard poultry raisers from 115 rural villages selected by probability proportional to population size. Researchers interviewed the raisers to collect data on poultry-raising practices. They followed the raisers for 2-12 months to collect data on household income and nutrition from poultry. Income from backyard poultry flocks accounted for 2.8% of monthly household income. Return on annual investment (ROI) per flock was 480%. Yearly, median family consumption of eggs was one-fifth of the total produced eggs and three poultry from their own flock. Respondents' reported practices conflicted with government recommendations. Sixty per cent of raisers had never heard of avian influenza or 'bird flu'. Among the respondents, 85% handled sick poultry or poultry that died due to illness, and 49% slaughtered or defeathered sick poultry. In 37% of households, children touched poultry. Fifty-eight per cent never washed their hands with soap after handling poultry, while <1% covered their nose and mouth with a cloth when handling poultry. Only 3% reported poultry illness and deaths to local authorities. These reported practices did not improve during the study period. Raising backyard poultry in rural Bangladesh provides important income and nutrition with an excellent ROI. Government recommendations to reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission did not impact the behaviour of poultry producers. Further research should prioritize developing interventions that simultaneously reduce the risk of

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Swift/UVOT Serendipitous Source Catalog (Yershov, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yershov, V. N.

    2015-11-01

    The first version of the Swift UVOT serendipitous source catalogue (UVOTSSC) provides positions and magnitudes, as well as errors and upper limits of confirmed sources for observations taken from start of operations in 2005 until October 1st of 2010. The first version of the Swift UVOT Serendipitous Source Catalogue (UVOTSSC) has been produced by processing the image data obtained from the Swift Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) from the beginning of the mission (2005) until 1st of October of 2010. The data processing was performed at the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL, University College London, U.K.) using Swift FTOOLS from NASA's High Energy Astrophysics Software (HEASoft-6.11), with some customising of the UVOT packages in order to get more complete source detection and properly apply quality flags to those sources that were detected within the UVOT image artefacts. The total number of observations with 17'x17' images used for version 1 of the catalogue is 23,059, giving 6,200,016 sources in total, of which 2,027,265 have multiple entries in the source table because they have been detected in more than one observation. Some sources were only observed in one filter. The total number of entries in the source table is 13,860,568. The S/N ratio for all sources exceeds 5 for at least one UVOT filter, the rest of the filters having a S/N greater than 3. (3 data files).

  5. Sero-survey of Avian Influenza in backyard poultry and wild bird species in Iran-2014.

    PubMed

    Fallah Mehrabadi, M H; Bahonar, A R; Vasfi Marandi, M; Sadrzadeh, A; Tehrani, F; Salman, M D

    2016-06-01

    In almost all villages in Iran backyard birds, especially chickens, are kept for egg and meat production. AI H9N2 subtype is endemic in Iran. Therefore, estimation of AI prevalence among these birds is important to determine the risk of transmission of infection to commercial farms. The aim of this study was to estimate subclinical infections or previous exposure to H5, H7, and H9 subtypes and to identify potentially important determinants of prevalence of this infectious at premises level in backyard poultry, bird gardens, zoos, and wild bird markets in Iran. A survey was conducted using a cross-sectional design throughout the entire country. A total of 329 villages, seven bird gardens, three zoos and five wild bird markets were included. In each village four families that kept birds were included in the collection of biological samples and background information. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used as the screening test and all ELISA-positive samples were examined with the HI test to differentiate H5, H7, and H9. Among the bird gardens, eight of 15 premises (53.3%) were positive in both the ELISA test and HI for H9N2. Testing of samples collected in the villages revealed that 296 out of 329 villages (90%) had positive ELISA tests and also HI tests for H9. The HI-H9 mean titers in positive units were significantly higher than negative units (P<.001). This study revealed no significant statistical differences between risk variables in seropositive and seronegative bird gardens in the case of H9 (P>.05). The results of this study showed that among the risk variables, mountainous area was a protective factor and lack of hygienic disposal of dead birds was a risk factor for AI; this was also observed in rural poultry. The high sero-prevalence of influenza H9N2 in rural domestic poultry indicates that the disease is endemic. It is necessary to include backyard poultry in any surveillance system and control strategy due to the existence of AIV in

  6. "Regime of Truth" as a Serendipitous Event: An Essay Concerning the Relationship between Research Data and the Generation of Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garratt, Dean

    1998-01-01

    Argues that realist researchers regard serendipitous events in research with suspicion, resulting in the lack of analysis of the role of serendipity in the generation of research ideas. Analyzes the significance and impact of serendipity in the process of a case study. Deliberates the problematic nature of constructing research stories. (DSK)

  7. Ensemble quasar spectral variability from the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafinelli, Roberto; Vagnetti, Fausto; Middei, Riccardo

    Variations of the X-ray spectral slope have been found in many Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at moderate luminosities and redshifts, typically showing a ``softer when brighter'' behaviour. However, similar studies are not usually performed for high-luminosity AGNs. We present an analysis of the spectral variability based on a large sample of quasars in wide intervals of luminosity and redshift, measured at several different epochs, extracted from the fifth release of the XMM Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue. Our analysis confirms a ``softer when brighter'' trend also for our sample, extending to high luminosity and redshift the general behaviour previously found. These results can be understood in light of current spectral models, such as intrinsic variations of the X-ray primary radiation, or superposition with a constant reflection component.

  8. Search for serendipitous TNO occultation events in X-rays with Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Liu, Chih-Yuan; Shang, Jie-Rou

    2015-09-01

    Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), which include Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and yet-to-discover Oort Cloud Objects, are an important population of members of the solar system. Its population properties, such as size distribution, carry information imprinted during the early epoch of the solar system formation. TNOs smaller than about ten kilometers are not directly observable. Their existence, however, may be detected through occultation events of background targets that they cause. Search for such serendipitous occultation events have been conducted in optical and X-ray bands. Since the Fresnel scale is about 30 times smaller in X-rays, using X-ray occultation events one may explore TNOs smaller than that can be done in optical bands. Here I will report X-ray sources suitable for such a study with Athena observations. The estimated Athena detection rate of occultation events, based on different model assumptions of TNO size distribution, will also be presented.

  9. SDSS-IV MaNGA: A Serendipitous Observation of a Potential Gas Accretion Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Stark, David V.; Huang, Song; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Lin, Lihwai; Tremonti, Christy; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Boquien, Médéric; Brownstein, Joel R.; Drory, Niv; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Knapen, Johan H.; Maiolino, Roberto; Malanushenko, Olena; Masters, Karen L.; Merrifield, Michael R.; Pace, Zach; Pan, Kaike; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Schneider, Donald P.; Stott, John P.; Thomas, Daniel; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2016-12-01

    The nature of warm, ionized gas outside of galaxies may illuminate several key galaxy evolutionary processes. A serendipitous observation by the MaNGA survey has revealed a large, asymmetric Hα complex with no optical counterpart that extends ≈8″ (≈6.3 kpc) beyond the effective radius of a dusty, starbursting galaxy. This Hα extension is approximately three times the effective radius of the host galaxy and displays a tail-like morphology. We analyze its gas-phase metallicities, gaseous kinematics, and emission-line ratios and discuss whether this Hα extension could be diffuse ionized gas, a gas accretion event, or something else. We find that this warm, ionized gas structure is most consistent with gas accretion through recycled wind material, which could be an important process that regulates the low-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function.

  10. Search for serendipitous trans-Neptunian object occultation in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Liu, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Ting

    2013-02-01

    To study the population properties of small, remote objects beyond Neptune's orbit in the outer Solar system, of kilometre size or smaller, serendipitous occultation search is so far the only way. For hectometre-sized trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), optical shadows actually disappear because of diffraction. Observations at shorter wavelengths are needed. Here, we report the effort of TNO occultation search in X-rays using Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array data of Sco X-1 taken from 2007 June to 2011 October. No definite TNO occultation events were found in the 334-ks data. We investigate the detection efficiency dependence on the TNO size to better define the sensible size range of our approach and suggest upper limits to the TNO size distribution in the size range from 30 to 300 m. A list of X-ray sources suitable for future larger facilities to observe is proposed.

  11. Quasar X-Ray Spectral Variability From The XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafinelli, Roberto; Vagnetti, F.; Middei, R.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray spectral variability analyses of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with moderate luminosities and redshifts typically shows a behaviour. Such trend has not yet been investigated for high-luminosity AGNs, nor for a wider redshift range. We present an analysis of the spectral variability based on a large sample of quasars, measured at several different epochs, extracted from the latest release of the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue. Our analysis confirms a softer when brighter trend also for our sample, extending to high luminosity and redshift the general trend previously found. This results will be discussed in relation to current spectral models, such as intrinsic variations of the X-ray primary radiation, or superposition with a constant reflection component.

  12. Serendipitous Discovery of RR Lyrae Stars in the Leo V Ultra-faint Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Gustavo E.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Förster, Francisco; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Martinez, Jorge; Galbany, Lluis; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Hamuy, Mario; de Jaeger, Thomas; Maureira, Juan Carlos; San Martín, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    During the analysis of RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) discovered in the High Cadence Transient Survey (HiTS) taken with the Dark Energy Camera at the 4 m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, we found a group of three very distant, fundamental mode pulsator RR Lyrae (type ab). The location of these stars agrees with them belonging to the Leo V ultra-faint satellite galaxy, for which no variable stars have been reported to date. The heliocentric distance derived for Leo V based on these stars is 173 ± 5 kpc. The pulsational properties (amplitudes and periods) of these stars locate them within the locus of the Oosterhoff II group, similar to most other ultra-faint galaxies with known RRLs. This serendipitous discovery shows that distant RRLs may be used to search for unknown faint stellar systems in the outskirts of the Milky Way.

  13. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Delhomme, Nicolas; Sundström, Görel; Zamani, Neda; Lantz, Henrik; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Höppner, Marc P; Jern, Patric; Van de Peer, Yves; Lundeberg, Joakim; Grabherr, Manfred G; Street, Nathaniel R

    2015-01-01

    After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation.

  14. α-Amino Acid Rich Photophytonic Nanoparticles of Algal Origin Serendipitously Reveal Antimigratory Property against Cancer.

    PubMed

    Misra, Santosh K; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron S; Ostadhossein, Fatemeh; Daza, Enrique A; Saldivar, Zachary M; Sharma, Brajendra K; Pan, Dipanjan

    2017-06-28

    Spheroidal nanoparticles of algal ("phytonic") origin were synthesized and composed of carbonaceous architectures and surface-rich oxygenated functional groups. Nanoparticles were negatively charged and efficiently luminescent after ultraviolet-range excitation and called as "photophytonic" nanoparticles. A multitude of analytical techniques confirmed the rich profusion of hydroxyl, carboxylate, and amines at the nanoscale, while spectroscopic investigation indicated the presence of α-amines, a signature functionality present in amino acids. Confirmed via a series of biological assays, i.e., growth regression, antimigration, and protein-regression studies, photophytonic nanoparticles serendipitously revealed remarkable anticancer activity against various stages of breast cancer cells, barring the need for an encapsulated drug. We report that nanoparticles derived from algal biomass exhibit intrinsic antimigratory properties against cancer, likely due to the rich abundance of α-amino acids.

  15. OMCat: Catalogue of Serendipitous Sources Detected with the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Harrus, Ilana; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Mushotsky, Richard F.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    The Optical Monitor Catalogue of serendipitous sources (OMCat) contains entries for every source detected in the publically available XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) images taken in either the imaging or "fast" modes. Since the OM records data simultaneously with the X-ray telescopes on XMM-Newton, it typically produces images in one or more near-UV/optical bands for every pointing of the observatory. As of the beginning of 2006, the public archive had covered roughly 0.5% of the sky in 2950 fields. The OMCat is not dominated by sources previously undetected at other wavelengths; the bulk of objects have optical counterparts. However, the OMCat can be used to extend optical or X-ray spectral energy distributions for known objects into the ultraviolet, to study at higher angular resolution objects detected with GALEX, or to find high-Galactic-latitude objects of interest for UV spectroscopy.

  16. Serendipitous EUV sources detected during the first year of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer right angle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K.; Craig, N.; Sirk, M. M.; Drake, J. J.; Fruscione, A.; Vallerga, J. V.; Malina, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    We report the detection of 114 extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 58 - 740 A) sources, of which 99 are new serendipitous sources, based on observations made with the imaging telescopes on board the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) during the Right Angle Program (RAP). These data were obtained using the survey scanners and the Deep Survey instrument during the first year of the spectroscopic guest observer phase of the mission, from January 1993 to January 1994. The data set consists of 162 discrete pointings whose exposure times are typically two orders of magnitude longer than the average exposure times during the EUVE all-sky survey. Based on these results, we can expect that EUVE will serendipitously detect approximately 100 new EUV sources per year, or about one new EUV source per 10 sq deg, during the guest observer phase of the EUVE mission. New EUVE sources of note include one B star and three extragalactic objects. The B star (HR 2875, EUVE J0729 - 38.7) is detected in both the Lexan/B (approximately 100 A) and Al/Ti/C (approximately 200 A) bandpasses, and the detection is shown not to be a result of UV leaks. We suggest that we are detecting EUV and/or soft x rays from a companion to the B star. Three sources, EUVE J2132+10.1, EUVE J2343-14.9, and EUVE J2359-30.6 are identified as the active galactic nuclei MKN 1513, MS2340.9-1511, and 1H2354-315, respectively.

  17. First Results from one SEXSI Program: Serendipitous Extragalactic X-ray Source Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, F.; Mao, P.; Helfand, D.

    2000-10-01

    The raison d'etre for the Chandra Observatory when it was proposed 25 years ago was to resolve the X-ray background. It is not clear whether this goal will literally be achieved by Chandra, but it is already apparent from the first moderately deep pointings that new contributing populations are being discovered. To date, however, published surveys include fewer than 175 2-10 keV sources below the ASCA limit of ~ 1 x 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 (at which, 23% of the XRB is resolved). Less than three-quarters of these sources have secure optical identifications or interesting (R>23) upper limits, and less than a quarter have spectroscopically confirmed redshifts. Furthermore, the total surveyed area amounts to less than 0.4 deg2, rendering impossible the simplest goal of constructing a global logN - logS, let alone individual number-flux distributions for various classes of background contributors. Recognizing the need for a large, unbiased survey of optically identified extragalactic X-ray sources over a broad range of observed fluxes, we have begun a project to identify and classify a large sample (>1000) of objects detected serendipitously in high-latitude Chandra fields. This Serendipitous Extragalactic X-ray Source Identification (SEXSI) program is utilizing the optical and infrared facilities of the MDM, Palomar, and Keck Observatories to obtain imaging and spectroscopy in selected Chandra fields in order to identify (or tightly constrain the properties of) optical counterparts for all X-ray sources with 1.0 x 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 > fx(2-10 keV) > 3.0 x 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1. We report here our initial results from thirteen Chandra fields which increase by more than a factor of two the number of identified sources reported to date.

  18. Serendipitous EUV sources detected during the first year of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer right angle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K.; Craig, N.; Sirk, M. M.; Drake, J. J.; Fruscione, A.; Vallerga, J. V.; Malina, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    We report the detection of 114 extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 58 - 740 A) sources, of which 99 are new serendipitous sources, based on observations made with the imaging telescopes on board the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) during the Right Angle Program (RAP). These data were obtained using the survey scanners and the Deep Survey instrument during the first year of the spectroscopic guest observer phase of the mission, from January 1993 to January 1994. The data set consists of 162 discrete pointings whose exposure times are typically two orders of magnitude longer than the average exposure times during the EUVE all-sky survey. Based on these results, we can expect that EUVE will serendipitously detect approximately 100 new EUV sources per year, or about one new EUV source per 10 sq deg, during the guest observer phase of the EUVE mission. New EUVE sources of note include one B star and three extragalactic objects. The B star (HR 2875, EUVE J0729 - 38.7) is detected in both the Lexan/B (approximately 100 A) and Al/Ti/C (approximately 200 A) bandpasses, and the detection is shown not to be a result of UV leaks. We suggest that we are detecting EUV and/or soft x rays from a companion to the B star. Three sources, EUVE J2132+10.1, EUVE J2343-14.9, and EUVE J2359-30.6 are identified as the active galactic nuclei MKN 1513, MS2340.9-1511, and 1H2354-315, respectively.

  19. Serendipitous EUV sources detected during the first year of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer right angle program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K.; Craig, N.; Sirk, M. M.; Drake, J. J.; Fruscione, A.; Vallerga, J. V.; Malina, R. F.

    1994-11-01

    We report the detection of 114 extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 58 - 740 A) sources, of which 99 are new serendipitous sources, based on observations made with the imaging telescopes on board the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) during the Right Angle Program (RAP). These data were obtained using the survey scanners and the Deep Survey instrument during the first year of the spectroscopic guest observer phase of the mission, from January 1993 to January 1994. The data set consists of 162 discrete pointings whose exposure times are typically two orders of magnitude longer than the average exposure times during the EUVE all-sky survey. Based on these results, we can expect that EUVE will serendipitously detect approximately 100 new EUV sources per year, or about one new EUV source per 10 sq deg, during the guest observer phase of the EUVE mission. New EUVE sources of note include one B star and three extragalactic objects. The B star (HR 2875, EUVE J0729 - 38.7) is detected in both the Lexan/B (approximately 100 A) and Al/Ti/C (approximately 200 A) bandpasses, and the detection is shown not to be a result of UV leaks. We suggest that we are detecting EUV and/or soft x rays from a companion to the B star. Three sources, EUVE J2132+10.1, EUVE J2343-14.9, and EUVE J2359-30.6 are identified as the active galactic nuclei MKN 1513, MS2340.9-1511, and 1H2354-315, respectively.

  20. A cross-sectional study of ownership of backyard poultry in two areas of Palmerston North, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, C Y; Stevenson, M A; Rawdon, T G

    2010-06-01

    To determine the proportion of residential land parcels with backyard poultry in an urban and urban-rural fringe area of provincial New Zealand. To document key husbandry and biosecurity practices of owners of backyard poultry, and to identify factors that might assist animal health authorities in locating backyard poultry flocks in the event of an infectious disease emergency. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken, in which residents of 449 land parcels in an urban and urban-rural fringe area within and adjacent to the city of Palmerston North, respectively, were visited between February and November 2006. Residents were asked if backyard poultry were kept on the premises. Details recorded for those that kept poultry included the type and number of birds kept, and details of management and biosecurity practices. The geographical distribution of poultry-positive land parcels was assessed for evidence of spatial clustering. Backyard poultry were kept on 3.5 (95% CI=2.1- 5.0)% of land parcels; 1.6 (95% CI=0.7-3.4)% in the urban area and 18.9 (95% CI=11.6-29.3)% in the urban-rural fringe area. There were no significant clusters of poultry-positive land parcels in either area. On all poultry-positive parcels birds were allowed, for at least a portion of the day, to range freely over the property. Three poultry-positive land parcels were within a distance of 1 km of a commercial poultry enterprise in the urban-rural fringe area. Most owners of backyard poultry used feed prepared commercially. The prevalence of ownership of backyard poultry in this area of New Zealand was low, and varied according to classification of the land, viz urban, or urban-rural fringe. The close proximity of backyard flocks to the single commercial enterprise in the urban-rural fringe area reiterates the importance of strict biosecurity measures on commercial farms. In the event of an infectious disease emergency, it is proposed that a sampling frame of owners of backyard poultry might be

  1. Presence of influenza viruses in backyard poultry and swine in El Yali wetland, Chile.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Vasquez, N; Di Pillo, F; Lazo, A; Jiménez-Bluhm, P; Schultz-Cherry, S; Hamilton-West, C

    2016-11-01

    In South America little is known regarding influenza virus circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations. Backyard productive systems (BPS) that breed swine and poultry are widely distributed throughout Chile with high density in the central zone, and several BPS are located within the "El Yali" (EY) ecosystem, which is one of the most important wetlands in South America. Here, 130 different wild bird species have been described, of them, at least 22 species migrate yearly from North America for nesting. For this reason, EY is considered as a high-risk zone for avian influenza virus. This study aims to identify if backyard poultry and swine bred in the EY ecosystem have been exposed to influenza A virus and if so, to identify influenza virus subtypes. A biosecurity and handling survey was applied and samples were collected from BPS in two seasons (spring 2013 and fall 2014) for influenza seroprevalence, and in one season (fall 2014) for virus presence. Seroprevalence at BPS level was 42% (95% CI:22-49) during spring 2013 and 60% (95% CI 43-72) in fall 2014. rRT-PCR for the influenza A matrix gene indicated a viral prevalence of 27% (95% CI:14-39) at BPS level in fall 2014. Eight farms (73% of rRT-PCR positive farms) were also positive to the Elisa test at the same time. One BPS was simultaneously positive (rRT-PCR) in multiple species (poultry, swine and geese) and a H1N2 virus was identified from swine, exemplifying the risk that these BPS may pose for generation of novel influenza viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. et spec. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae) from a backyard site in Öland, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jaschhof, Mathias; Jaschhof, Catrin

    2015-09-15

    A new genus containing a single new species of Porricondylinae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described and named Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. nov., spec. nov. The sole known specimen of L. hortensis, a male, was Malaise trapped in a backyard site on the Baltic island of Öland, southeast Sweden, in summer 2014. Morphological evidence supports our hypothesis that Linnaeomyia is most closely related to Neurepidosis Spungis, 1987. Several male genital characters, notably the spine-bearing gonostyli and the vestigial ejaculatory apodeme, substantiate the generic distinctiveness of L. hortensis. Although a backyard discovery, L. hortensis is unlikely to be a synanthropic species.

  3. Backyard chickens in the United States: a survey of flock owners.

    PubMed

    Elkhoraibi, C; Blatchford, R A; Pitesky, M E; Mench, J A

    2014-11-01

    Although it has become increasingly popular to keep backyard chickens in the United States, few studies have provided information about these flocks. An online survey of backyard chicken owners was conducted, advertised through Master Gardeners' websites, social platforms, and other sites. The survey had 56 questions about flock history, husbandry, health care, and owner attitudes and demographics. Surveys received (n = 1,487) came almost equally from urban, suburban, and rural areas. Most (71%) respondents owned fewer than 10 chickens and had kept chickens for less than 5 yr (70%). Major reasons for keeping chickens were as food for home use (95%), gardening partners (63%), pets (57%), or a combination of these. Rural respondents had larger flocks (P ≤ 0.001) and were more likely to keep chickens as a source of income or for show (P ≤ 0.001) than urban and suburban respondents. Owners thought that eggs/meat from their chickens were more nutritious (86%), safer to consume (84%), and tasted better (95%) than store-bought products, and also that the health and welfare of their chickens was better (95%) than on commercial farms. The majority (59%) indicated no flock health problems in the last 12 mo. However, there was a lack of awareness about some poultry health conditions. Many knew either little or nothing about exotic Newcastle or Marek's disease, and most (61%) did not vaccinate against Marek's. Respondents wanted to learn more about various flock management topics, especially how to detect (64%) and treat (66%) health problems. The Internet was the main source of information (87%) used by backyard flock owners, followed by books/magazines (62%) and feed stores (40%). Minimizing predation was the most cited challenge (49%), followed by providing adequate feed at low cost (28%), dealing with soil management (25%), and complying with zoning regulations (23%). The evidence obtained from this survey will help to determine what information and resources are

  4. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx and Esophagus with Pulmonary Metastasis in a Backyard Laying Hen.

    PubMed

    Laura, Nordio; Marta, Vascellari; Giacomo, Berto; Luca, Bano

    2016-09-01

    A backyard laying hen exhibiting muscular atrophy, dyspnea, and absence of egg production was analyzed for diagnostic insights. Gross findings revealed the presence of a large ulcerated mass with irregular edges involving the caudal part of the oropharynx and the cranial part of the esophagus, occluding the lumen of the esophagus and compressing the trachea. Small nodular lesions were detected also in the lungs. Histologically, both esophageal and pulmonary masses were characterized by nests of pleomorphic epithelial cells with squamous differentiation. The diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with the uncommon feature of pulmonary metastasis.

  5. Sticktight fleas associated with fowl pox in a backyard chicken flock in California.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, C R; Bickford, A A; Cooper, G L; Charlton, B R

    1997-01-01

    A mixed breed rooster, from a backyard flock of 13 chickens, was received at California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch for postmortem examination. The bird presented with thickened, featherless, scab-encrusted skin around the head region. Numerous sticktight fleas were found attached to the encrusted skin. Microscopic evaluation of the skin revealed a lymphoplasmacytic reaction in the dermis with visible embedded flea mouthparts. Also noted histologically in this region were epidermal hyperplasia and ballooned epidermal cells containing intracytoplasmic inclusions indicative of fowl poxvirus.

  6. Quasar spectral variability from the XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafinelli, R.; Vagnetti, F.; Middei, R.

    2017-04-01

    Context. X-ray spectral variability analyses of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with moderate luminosities and redshifts typically show a "softer when brighter" behaviour. Such a trend has rarely been investigated for high-luminosity AGNs (Lbol ≳ 1044 erg/s), nor for a wider redshift range (e.g. 0 ≲ z ≲ 5). Aims: We present an analysis of spectral variability based on a large sample of 2700 quasars, measured at several different epochs, extracted from the fifth release of the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue. Methods: We quantified the spectral variability through the parameter β defined as the ratio between the change in the photon index Γ and the corresponding logarithmic flux variation, β = -ΔΓ/Δlog FX. Results: Our analysis confirms a softer when brighter behaviour for our sample, extending the previously found general trend to high luminosity and redshift. We estimate an ensemble value of the spectral variability parameter β = -0.69 ± 0.03. We do not find dependence of β on redshift, X-ray luminosity, black hole mass or Eddington ratio. A subsample of radio-loud sources shows a smaller spectral variability parameter. There is also some change with the X-ray flux, with smaller β (in absolute value) for brighter sources. We also find significant correlations for a small number of individual sources, indicating more negative values for some sources.

  7. A serendipitous all sky survey for bright objects in the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. E.; Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M. J.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Bannister, M. T.; Schmidt, B. P.; McNaught, R.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Beshore, E.

    2015-02-01

    We use seven year's worth of observations from the Catalina Sky Survey and the Siding Spring Survey covering most of the northern and southern hemisphere at galactic latitudes higher than 20° to search for serendipitously imaged moving objects in the outer solar system. These slowly moving objects would appear as stationary transients in these fast cadence asteroids surveys, so we develop methods to discover objects in the outer solar system using individual observations spaced by months, rather than spaced by hours, as is typically done. While we independently discover eight known bright objects in the outer solar system, the faintest having V=19.8±0.1, no new objects are discovered. We find that the survey is nearly 100% efficient at detecting objects beyond 25 AU for V≲19.1 (V≲18.6 in the southern hemisphere) and that the probability that there is one or more remaining outer solar system object of this brightness left to be discovered in the unsurveyed regions of the galactic plane is approximately 32%.

  8. ON THE SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF A Li-RICH GIANT IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 362

    SciTech Connect

    D’Orazi, Valentina; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Lucatello, Sara; Momany, Yazan; Angelou, George C.; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; Sollima, Antonio; Lattanzio, John C.

    2015-03-10

    We have serendipitously identified the first lithium-rich giant star located close to the red giant branch bump in a globular cluster. Through intermediate-resolution FLAMES spectra we derived a lithium abundance of A(Li) = 2.55 (assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium), which is extremely high considering the star’s evolutionary stage. Kinematic and photometric analysis confirm the object as a member of the globular cluster NGC 362. This is the fourth Li-rich giant discovered in a globular cluster, but is the only one known to exist at a luminosity close to the bump magnitude. The three previous detections are clearly more evolved, located close to, or beyond, the tip of their red giant branch. Our observations are able to discard the accretion of planets/brown dwarfs, as well as an enhanced mass-loss mechanism as a formation channel for this rare object. While the star sits just above the cluster bump luminosity, its temperature places it toward the blue side of the giant branch in the color–magnitude diagram. We require further dedicated observations to unambiguously identify the star as a red giant: we are currently unable to confirm whether Li production has occurred at the bump of the luminosity function or if the star is on the pre-zero-age horizontal branch. The latter scenario provides the opportunity for the star to have synthesized Li rapidly during the core helium flash or gradually during its red giant branch ascent via some extra mixing process.

  9. Murchison Widefield Array Observations of Anomalous Variability: A Serendipitous Night-time Detection of Interplanetary Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Tingay, S. J.; Manoharan, P. K.; Macquart, J. P.; Hancock, P.; Morgan, J.; Mitchell, D. A.; Ekers, R. D.; Wayth, R. B.; Trott, C.; Murphy, T.; Oberoi, D.; Cairns, I. H.; Feng, L.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hurley Walker, N.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston Hollitt, M.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    We present observations of high-amplitude rapid (2 s) variability toward two bright, compact extragalactic radio sources out of several hundred of the brightest radio sources in one of the 30^\\circ × 30^\\circ Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) Epoch of Reionization fields using the MWA at 155 MHz. After rejecting intrinsic, instrumental, and ionospheric origins we consider the most likely explanation for this variability to be interplanetary scintillation (IPS), likely the result of a large coronal mass ejection propagating from the Sun. This is confirmed by roughly contemporaneous observations with the Ooty Radio Telescope. We see evidence for structure on spatial scales ranging from <1000 to \\gt {10}6 km. The serendipitous night-time nature of these detections illustrates the new regime that the MWA has opened for IPS studies with sensitive night-time, wide-field, low-frequency observations. This regime complements traditional dedicated strategies for observing IPS and can be utilized in real-time to facilitate dedicated follow-up observations. At the same time, it allows large-scale surveys for compact (arcsec) structures in low-frequency radio sources despite the 2\\prime resolution of the array.

  10. Ensemble spectral variability study of Active Galactic Nuclei from the XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafinelli, R.; Vagnetti, F.; Middei, R.

    2016-02-01

    The variability of the X-Ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGN) usually includes a change of the spectral slope. This has been investigated for a small sample of local AGNs by Sobolewska and Papadakis [1], who found that slope variations are well correlated with flux variations, and that the spectra are typically steeper in the bright phase (softer when brighter behaviour). Not much information is available for the spectral variability of high-luminosity AGNs and quasars. In order to investigate this phenomenon, we use data from the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue, Data Release 5, which contains X- Ray observations for a large number of active galactic nuclei in a wide luminosity and redshift range, for several different epochs. This allows to perform an ensemble analysis of the spectral variability for a large sample of quasars. We quantify the spectral variability through the spectral variability parameter β, defined by Trevese and Vagnetti [2] as the ratio between the change in spectral slope and the corresponding logarithmic flux variation. We find that the spectral variability of quasars has a softer when brighter behaviour, similarly to local AGNs.

  11. Novel route to chaetomellic acid A and analogues: serendipitous discovery of a more competent FTase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Bellesia, Franco; Choi, Seoung-ryoung; Felluga, Fulvia; Fiscaletti, Giuliano; Ghelfi, Franco; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Parsons, Andrew F.; Poulter, C. Dale; Roncaglia, Fabrizio; Sabbatini, Massimo; Spinelli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A new practical route to chaetomellic acid A (ACA), based on the copper catalysed radical cyclization (RC) of (Z)-3-(2,2-dichloropropanoyl)-2-pentadecylidene-1,3-thiazinane, is described. Remarkably, the process entailed: i) a one-pot preparation of the intermediate N-α-perchloroacyl-2-(Z)-alkyliden-1,3-thiazinanes starting from N-(3-hydroxypropyl)palmitamide, ii) a two step smooth transformation of the RC products into ACA and iii) only one intermediate chromatographic purification step. The method offers a versatile approach to the preparation of ACA analogues, through the synthesis of an intermediate maleic anhydride with a vinylic group at the end of the aliphatic tail, a function that can be transformed through a thiol-ene coupling. Serendipitously, the disodium salt of 2-(9-(butylthio)nonyl)-3-methylmaleic acid, that we prepared as a representative sulfurated ACA analogue, was a more competent FTase inhibitor than ACA. This behaviour was analysed by a molecular docking study. PMID:23182215

  12. Serendipitous findings from an Illinois ED nursing educational survey reflect a crisis in emergency nursing.

    PubMed

    Keough, Vicki A; Schlomer, Rita S; Bollenberg, Barbara W

    2003-02-01

    A survey conducted by the Research Council Of Illinois ENA was intended to assess educational needs, but it revealed some very important serendipitous findings. This survey gave a voice to the frustrations of emergency nurses. A 31-question survey was distributed to 900 Illinois ENA members requesting information about their educational needs. The last question, which formed the basis of this report, asked respondents to list the 3 biggest challenges they face on a daily basis. In addition to the information regarding educational offerings, the survey revealed that ED nurses were overburdened and frustrated in their jobs. Specifically, the nurses identified 7 areas of greatest concern: (1) insufficient and inexperienced staff; (2) increased responsibilities; (3) lack of administrative support; (4) lack of rewards or incentives to stay; (5) low morale among staff; (6) difficulty balancing work and family; and (7) increasing violence in the emergency department. The first step toward addressing a growing crisis in emergency nursing is to listen to the voices of emergency nurses themselves and let their frustrations be heard. The spontaneous comments of emergency nurses point to serious, pervasive, systemic problems in emergency nursing. Such problems will not be solved by "quick fixes" such as sign on bonuses, but rather by listening carefully to the concerns of experienced nurses.

  13. Putative Human and Avian Risk Factors for Avian Influenza Virus Infections in Backyard Poultry in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Sheta, Basma M.; Fuller, Trevon L.; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y.; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Aziz, Soad Abdel; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A.; Elbokl, Mohamed M.; Habbak, Lotfy Z.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1,084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010–2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242)and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n = 51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F = 15.7, p< 0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F= 29.5, p< 0.0001). PMID:24315038

  14. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues.

    PubMed

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians.

  15. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumoviruses in Oman backyard poultry.

    PubMed

    Al-Shekaili, Thunai; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) are economically important viral pathogens infecting chickens globally. Identification of endemic IBV and aMPV strains promotes better control of both diseases and prevents production losses. Orophrayngeal swab samples were taken from 2317 birds within 243 different backyard flocks in Oman. Swabs from each flock were examined by RT-PCR using part-S1 and G gene primers for IBV and aMPV respectively. Thirty-nine chicken flocks were positive for IBV. Thirty two of these were genotyped and they were closely related to 793/B, M41, D274, IS/1494/06 and IS/885/00. 793/B-like IBV was also found in one turkey and one duck flock. Five flocks were positive for aMPV subtype B. Though no disease was witnessed at the time of sampling, identified viruses including variant IBV strains, may still pose a threat for both backyard and commercial poultry in Oman. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens (Gallus domesticus) in and around Shimoga.

    PubMed

    Javaregowda, Ananda K; Kavitha Rani, B; Revanna, Suresh Patel; Udupa, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51.36 %) were found positive for cestodes, includes 73 (77.6 %) Raillietina tetragona, 12 (12.8 %) Raillietina echinobothrida and 9 (9.6 %) Raillietina cesticillus. Whereas, 53 (28.96 %) were found harbouring nematode parasites includes 33 (62.3 %) had Ascaridia galli, 12 (22.6 %) had Heterakis gallinarum and 8 (15.1 %) had both A. galli and H. gallinarum infection. The remaining 36 (19.67 %) had mixed infections of both cestode and nematode parasites. The microscopic examination of the gut contents and faecal samples showed presence of coccidian oocysts and eggs of A. galli, H. gallinarum and Capillaria spp. respectively.

  17. Putative human and avian risk factors for avian influenza virus infections in backyard poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sheta, Basma M; Fuller, Trevon L; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Abdel Aziz, Soad; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A; Elbokl, Mohamed M; Habbak, Lotfy Z; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-01-10

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010-2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242) and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n=51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F=15.7, p<0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F=29.5, p<0.0001).

  18. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, I.; Joardar, S. N.; Ganguli, D.; Das, P. K.; Sarkar, U.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coliweek post-hatch period chicks were contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05). As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock) in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock) which also differs significantly (p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production. PMID:27047068

  19. Using Implementation and Program Theory to Examine Communication Strategies in National Wildlife Federation's Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Dain; Dann, Shari L.

    2004-01-01

    Our evaluative approach used implementation theory and program theory, adapted from Weiss (1998) to examine communication processes and results for a national wildlife habitat stewardship education program. Using a mail survey of 1427 participants certified in National Wildlife Federation's (NWF) Backyard Wildlife Habitat (BWH) program and a study…

  20. Using Implementation and Program Theory to Examine Communication Strategies in National Wildlife Federation's Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Dain; Dann, Shari L.

    2004-01-01

    Our evaluative approach used implementation theory and program theory, adapted from Weiss (1998) to examine communication processes and results for a national wildlife habitat stewardship education program. Using a mail survey of 1427 participants certified in National Wildlife Federation's (NWF) Backyard Wildlife Habitat (BWH) program and a study…

  1. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants.

  2. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls from uncontrolled burning of garden and domestic waste (backyard burning).

    PubMed

    Hedman, Björn; Näslund, Morgan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-11-15

    To assess emissions of dioxins (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and PCB from uncontrolled domestic combustion of waste ("backyard burning"), test combustions in barrels and open fires were monitored. The waste fuels used were garden waste, paper, paper and plastic packaging, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), PVC, and electronic scrap. Combustions including PVC and electronic scrap emitted several orders of magnitude more dioxins than the other waste fuels. Emissions from the other fuels had considerable variations, but the levels were difficult to relate to waste composition. Emission factors of PCDD/F and PCB from the backyard burning ranged from 2.2 to 13 000 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg. The levels found in ash usually were less than 5% of the total. For assessment of total emissions of dioxins and PCB from backyard burning of low and moderately contaminated wastes, an emission factor range of 4-72 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg is suggested. These figures implythat combusting waste in the backyard could contribute substantially to total emissions, even if the amounts of fuel involved are equivalent to just a few tenths of a percent of the amounts combusted in municipal waste incinerators.

  3. Random Plasma Glucose in Serendipitous Screening for Glucose Intolerance: Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study 2

    PubMed Central

    Ziemer, David C.; Kolm, Paul; Foster, Jovonne K.; Weintraub, William S.; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K.; Varughese, Rincy M.; Tsui, Circe W.; Koch, David D.; Twombly, Jennifer G.; Venkat Narayan, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background With positive results from diabetes prevention studies, there is interest in convenient ways to incorporate screening for glucose intolerance into routine care and to limit the need for fasting diagnostic tests. Objective The aim of this study is to determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) could be used to screen for glucose intolerance. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants The participants of this study include a voluntary sample of 990 adults not known to have diabetes. Measurements RPG was measured, and each subject had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test several weeks later. Glucose intolerance targets included diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose110 (IFG110; fasting glucose, 110–125 mg/dl, and 2 h glucose < 140 mg/dl). Screening performance was measured by area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AROC). Results Mean age was 48 years, and body mass index (BMI) was 30.4 kg/m2; 66% were women, and 52% were black; 5.1% had previously unrecognized diabetes, and 24.0% had any “high-risk” glucose intolerance (diabetes or IGT or IFG110). The AROC was 0.80 (95% CI 0.74–0.86) for RPG to identify diabetes and 0.72 (0.68–0.75) to identify any glucose intolerance, both highly significant (p < 0.001). Screening performance was generally consistent at different times of the day, regardless of meal status, and across a range of risk factors such as age, BMI, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure. Conclusions RPG values should be considered by health care providers to be an opportunistic initial screening test and used to prompt further evaluation of patients at risk of glucose intolerance. Such “serendipitous screening” could help to identify unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes. PMID:18335280

  4. Random plasma glucose in serendipitous screening for glucose intolerance: screening for impaired glucose tolerance study 2.

    PubMed

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Foster, Jovonne K; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Varughese, Rincy M; Tsui, Circe W; Koch, David D; Twombly, Jennifer G; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    With positive results from diabetes prevention studies, there is interest in convenient ways to incorporate screening for glucose intolerance into routine care and to limit the need for fasting diagnostic tests. The aim of this study is to determine whether random plasma glucose (RPG) could be used to screen for glucose intolerance. This is a cross-sectional study. The participants of this study include a voluntary sample of 990 adults not known to have diabetes. RPG was measured, and each subject had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test several weeks later. Glucose intolerance targets included diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose(110) (IFG(110); fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dl, and 2 h glucose < 140 mg/dl). Screening performance was measured by area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AROC). Mean age was 48 years, and body mass index (BMI) was 30.4 kg/m(2); 66% were women, and 52% were black; 5.1% had previously unrecognized diabetes, and 24.0% had any "high-risk" glucose intolerance (diabetes or IGT or IFG(110)). The AROC was 0.80 (95% CI 0.74-0.86) for RPG to identify diabetes and 0.72 (0.68-0.75) to identify any glucose intolerance, both highly significant (p < 0.001). Screening performance was generally consistent at different times of the day, regardless of meal status, and across a range of risk factors such as age, BMI, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure. RPG values should be considered by health care providers to be an opportunistic initial screening test and used to prompt further evaluation of patients at risk of glucose intolerance. Such "serendipitous screening" could help to identify unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes.

  5. Strongly variable AGNs found in the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamizasa, N.; Terashima, Y.; Awaki, H.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray variability is a well-known property of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Variability on short timescales implies the presence of a relatively low-mass supermassive black hole, which is of great interest to understand evolution of AGNs and physics of growth of black holes. We made our sample consisting of objects showing strong variability from the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue (DR3) to search for such a class of objects. We required sources to satisfy the following conditions: (1) the probability that the source is constant < 10^-5 , (2) the count rate for EPIC-pn in 0.2-12 keV >= 0.1 cts/s and (3) Galactic latitude |b| >= 10 deg. 718 sources fulfilled these criteria, and 53 among them were selected as AGNs based on X-ray and optical properties. Four of these were not recognized as AGN in the past and detailed analysis of these four was performed. Their lightcurves show intensity changes by a factor of two or more on timescales of several thousand seconds. The high energy part of their X-ray spectra were fitted by a power-law model with a photon index 1.8-1.9 for two objects and 2.3-2.6 for the others, which are the ranges for broad-line and narrow-line Seyfert 1s, respectively. Soft X-ray excess was seen in three of these objects, and expressed by a blackbody with kT ˜ 0.10-0.17 keV.

  6. Attempt of Serendipitous Science During the Mojave Volatile Prospector Field Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, T. L.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J.; Lim, D. S. S.; Cook, A.; Elphic, R.; Deans, M.; Fluckiger, L.; Fritzler, E.; Hunt, David

    2015-01-01

    On 23 October a partial solar eclipse occurred across parts of the southwest United States between approximately 21:09 and 23:40 (UT), with maximum obscuration, 36%, occurring at 22:29 (UT). During 21-26 October 2014 the Mojave Volatile Prospector (MVP) field expedition deployed and operated the NASA Ames Krex2 rover in the Mojave desert west of Baker, California (Fig. 1, bottom). The MVP field expedition primary goal was to characterize the surface and sub-surface soil moisture properties within desert alluvial fans, and as a secondary goal to provide mission operations simulations of the Resource Prospector (RP) mission to a Lunar pole. The partial solar eclipse provided an opportunity during MVP operations to address serendipitous science. Science instruments on Krex2 included a neutron spectrometer, a near-infrared spectrometer with associated imaging camera, and an independent camera coupled with software to characterize the surface textures of the areas encountered. All of these devices are focused upon the surface and as a result are downward looking. In addition to these science instruments, two hazard cameras are mounted on Krex2. The chief device used to monitor the partial solar eclipse was the engineering development unit of the Near-Infrared Volatile Spectrometer System (NIRVSS) near-infrared spectrometer. This device uses two separate fiber optic fed Hadamard transform spectrometers. The short-wave and long-wave spectrometers measure the 1600-2400 and 2300-3400 nm wavelength regions with resolutions of 10 and 13 nm, respectively. Data are obtained approximately every 8 seconds. The NIRVSS stares in the opposite direction as the front Krex2.

  7. On the Serendipitous Discovery of a Li-rich Giant in the Globular Cluster NGC 362

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Angelou, George C.; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; Lattanzio, John C.; Lucatello, Sara; Momany, Yazan; Sollima, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    We have serendipitously identified the first lithium-rich giant star located close to the red giant branch bump in a globular cluster. Through intermediate-resolution FLAMES spectra we derived a lithium abundance of A(Li) = 2.55 (assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium), which is extremely high considering the star’s evolutionary stage. Kinematic and photometric analysis confirm the object as a member of the globular cluster NGC 362. This is the fourth Li-rich giant discovered in a globular cluster, but is the only one known to exist at a luminosity close to the bump magnitude. The three previous detections are clearly more evolved, located close to, or beyond, the tip of their red giant branch. Our observations are able to discard the accretion of planets/brown dwarfs, as well as an enhanced mass-loss mechanism as a formation channel for this rare object. While the star sits just above the cluster bump luminosity, its temperature places it toward the blue side of the giant branch in the color-magnitude diagram. We require further dedicated observations to unambiguously identify the star as a red giant: we are currently unable to confirm whether Li production has occurred at the bump of the luminosity function or if the star is on the pre-zero-age horizontal branch. The latter scenario provides the opportunity for the star to have synthesized Li rapidly during the core helium flash or gradually during its red giant branch ascent via some extra mixing process. Based on observations taken with ESO telescopes under program 094.D-0363(A).

  8. Exploration of the Kuiper Belt by serendipitous occultations using Ultraphot and MeFos instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roques, F.; Guinouard, I.; Doressoundiram, A.; Felenbok, P.; Boissel, Y.; Sicardy, B.

    2008-09-01

    The exploration of the Kuiper Belt is possible using serendipitous stellar occultations [1]. We conducted observations with a multi-photometer instrument at the Pic du Midi Bernard-Lyot 2-m telescope, with Ultracam at the William-Herschel Telescope (WHT) and ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) [2]. We detected three events. We also worked on the possibility to use the ESO guiding cameras. Tests were done on ESO's 3.6-m, 2.2-m and NTT telescopes. An Australian team [3] used the fibers spectrograph 6df in straight-through mode on the UK Schmidt telescope (UKST) with the approach of the French analysis. These observations demonstrate that a multi-fibers instrument coupled with fast acquisition is the best tool for exploring the small object population in the Outer Solar System. The optimal configuration for recording several targets simultaneously is the coupling of a fiber set on a large field, with a camera in fast photometry mode. The Paris Observatory team has pushed forward a plan in two steps : (1) The first step is to upgrade MEFOS[5], a 29 fibers spectrograph which has equipped the ESO 3.6-m telescope during 100 nights in 1993. The project is to design a new fiber link and to replace the spectrograph with a fast camera and mount it on the 1.93-m telescope at Observatoire de Haute Provence (South of France). This will provide at very short term a multi image fibre photometric instrument, at very low cost, in the Northern hemisphere. (2) The second step is to build a dedicated instrument, UltraPhot, for the UT2 unit of ESO's Very Large Telescope. This project will provide, also at short term, a very performant instrument for multi-object fast photometry in the Southern hemisphere. The association of fast photometry with a multi-fiber instrument and a 8-meters telescope provides a unique possibility to perform fast precise photometry on several targets in a large field. UltraPhot would use the same fiber positioning system as for FLAMES, a multi-object spectrograph

  9. Chlamydia gallinacea: a widespread emerging Chlamydia agent with zoonotic potential in backyard poultry.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Luther, M; Macklin, K; Pugh, D; Li, J; Zhang, J; Roberts, J; Kaltenboeck, B; Wang, C

    2017-10-01

    Chlamydia gallinacea, a new chlamydial agent, has been reported in four European countries as well as Argentina and China. Experimentally infected chickens with C. gallinacea in previous study showed no clinical signs but had significantly reduced gains in body weight (6·5-11·4%). Slaughterhouse workers exposed to infected chickens have developed atypical pneumonia, indicating C. gallinacea is likely a zoonotic agent. In this study, FRET-PCR confirmed that C. gallinacea was present in 12·4% (66/531) of oral-pharyngeal samples from Alabama backyard poultry. Phylogenetic comparisons based on ompA variable domain showed that 16 sequenced samples represented 14 biotypes. We report for the first time the presence of C. gallinacea in North America, and this warrants further research on the organism's pathogenicity, hosts, transmission, and zoonotic potential.

  10. Revelations in our own backyard: Chandra’s unique Galactic Center discoveries

    PubMed Central

    Markoff, Sera

    2010-01-01

    Before the launch of Chandra, our Galactic Center supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, had never been positively identified outside the radio bands. A great deal has changed in the past decade, starting with the discovery that our own backyard harbors a very weak, yet clearly active, galactic nucleus. I will review how this revelation has been a boon for accretion studies around black holes in general and has helped us place our own Galaxy in context within the active galactic nuclei (AGN) zoology. Chandra’s exquisite resolution has also unveiled entirely new populations of faint sources and transients, as well as regions of extreme gas dynamics and hints of prior, more typical AGN-like activity in our Galactic Center. PMID:20368467

  11. A natural outbreak of clinical toxoplasmosis in a backyard flock of guinea fowl in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelli H; Wilson, Floyd D; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kiupel, Matti

    2012-12-01

    A case of a naturally occurring infection with Toxoplasma gondii in a backyard flock of guinea fowl in north Mississippi is reported. To our knowledge, this is the first worldwide report of a natural clinical infection in a flock of guinea fowl. This case was two of seven birds lost out of approximately 20 guinea fowl present in the flock. Birds reportedly exhibited lethargy prior to death. Necropsy examinations were performed on two of the dead birds. There were no gross lesions; however, intralesional protozoan cysts suggestive of T. gondii were observed microscopically. One of two guinea fowl demonstrated dramatic microscopic pathology consisting of variable multifocal necrosis, fibrin exudation, and inflammation of spleen, lung, and heart associated with protozoa cysts and tachyzoites compatible with toxoplasmosis. The bone marrow also exhibited multifocal necrosis and fibrin exudation, as well as marked erythroid and lesser granulocytic hyperplasia with intralesional protozoan cysts. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR.

  12. Influenza A Virus in Backyard Pigs and Poultry in Rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Osbjer, K; Berg, M; Sokerya, S; Chheng, K; San, S; Davun, H; Magnusson, U; Olsen, B; Zohari, S

    2017-10-01

    Surveillance of influenza virus in humans and livestock is critical, given the worldwide public health threats and livestock production losses. Livestock farming involving close proximity between humans, pigs and poultry is often practised by smallholders in low-income countries and is considered an important driver of influenza virus evolution. This study determined the prevalence and genetic characteristics of influenza A virus (IAV) in backyard pigs and poultry in Cambodia. A total of 751 animals were tested by matrix gene-based rRT-PCR, and influenza virus was detected in 1.5% of sampled pigs, 1.4% of chickens and 1.0% of ducks, but not in pigeons. Full-length genome sequencing confirmed triple reassortant H3N2 in all IAV-positive pigs and various low pathogenic avian influenza subtypes in poultry. Phylogenetic analysis of the swine influenza viruses revealed that these had haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes originating from human H3N2 viruses previously isolated in South-East Asia. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed that several of the avian influenza subtypes detected were closely related to internal viral genes from highly pathogenic H5N1 and H9N2 formerly sequenced in the region. High sequence homology was likewise found with influenza A viruses circulating in pigs, poultry and wild birds in China and Vietnam, suggesting transboundary introduction and cocirculation of the various influenza subtypes. In conclusion, highly pathogenic subtypes of influenza virus seem rare in backyard poultry, but virus reassortment, involving potentially zoonotic and pandemic subtypes, appears to occur frequently in smallholder pigs and poultry. Increased targeted surveillance and monitoring of influenza circulation on smallholdings would further improve understanding of the transmission dynamics and evolution of influenza viruses in humans, pigs and poultry in the Mekong subregion and could contribute to limit the influenza burden. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Backyard Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

  15. Backyard Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

  16. Backyard Teas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Darrell D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes plants commonly found in residential areas that can be used for making tea: chicory, chickweed, red clover, goldenrod, gill-over-the-ground, pineapple weed, plantain, self-heal, sheep sorrel, and wild strawberry. Includes proper plant name, areas where the plant grows, identifying plant features, what part is used in making tea, and tea…

  17. Backyard Teas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Darrell D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes plants commonly found in residential areas that can be used for making tea: chicory, chickweed, red clover, goldenrod, gill-over-the-ground, pineapple weed, plantain, self-heal, sheep sorrel, and wild strawberry. Includes proper plant name, areas where the plant grows, identifying plant features, what part is used in making tea, and tea…

  18. Backyard Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sarah S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a field trip experience for the Earth Odyssey project for elementary school students focusing on biodiversity. Introduces the concept of diversity, field work, species richness, and the connection between animals and their habitat. (YDS)

  19. MASTER serendipitous observations of the gamma-ray flaring BL Lac CGRaBS J0211+1051

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudelina, I.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Tyurina, N.; Kuvshinov, D.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Zimnukhov, D.; Kornilov, M.; Tlatov, A.; Parhomenko, A. V.; Dormidontov, D.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Yu.; Varda, D.; Krushinski, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleschuk, V.; Gres, O.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.

    2011-01-01

    Following the gamma-ray flare of the BL Lac object CGRaBS J0211+1051 (also known as MG1 J021114+1051, and 1FGL J0211.2+1049, Abdo et al. 2010, ApJS, 188, 405) detected by Fermi LAT on 2011 January 23 (ATel #3120), we try to find images of the BL Lac in our DATA BASE. We find 16 serendipitous optical unfiltered observations by MASTER-Net sites from 03 feb 2004 to 26 Jan 2011. In all cases we use the same Apogee CCD on the wide field telescopes.

  20. The Brera multi-scale wavelet Chandra survey. I. Serendipitous source catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Mottini, M.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2008-09-01

    We present the BMW-Chandra source catalogue drawn from essentially all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10 ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by Lazzati et al. (1999) and Campana et al. (1999), which can characterise both point-like and extended sources, we identified 21 325 sources. Among them, 16 758 are serendipitous, i.e. not associated with the targets of the pointings, and do not require a non-automated analysis. This makes our catalogue the largest compilation of Chandra sources to date. The 0.5-10 keV absorption corrected fluxes of these sources range from ˜3× 10-16 to 9×10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 with a median of 7× 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalogue consists of count rates and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7 keV; soft, 0.5-2 keV; and hard, 2-7 keV), and source positions relative to the highest signal-to-noise detection among the three bands. The wavelet algorithm also provides an estimate of the extension of the source. We include information drawn from the headers of the original files, as well, and extracted source counts in four additional energy bands, SB1 (0.5-1 keV), SB2 (1-2 keV), HB1 (2-4 keV), and HB2 (4-7 keV). We computed the sky coverage for the full catalogue and for a subset at high Galactic latitude (mid b mid > 20°). The complete catalogue provides a sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2 keV, S/N =3) of 8 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜10-13 erg cm-2 s-1, and 2 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. Furthermore, we present the results of the cross-match with existing catalogues at different wavelengths (FIRST, IRAS, 2MASS, GSC2, and ChaMP). The total numbers of matches with the FIRST, IRASPSC, 2MASS, and GSC2 catalogues obtained after a closest-distance selection are 13, 87, 6700, and 4485, respectively. The catalogue is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130

  1. A Serendipitous Line Survey of Titan in the 1.3mm Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Butler, B. J.; Moullet, A.

    2012-10-01

    The millimeter and submillimeter bands are rich in rotational transitions from many molecular species detected and/or expected in the atmosphere of Titan. The lines are typically well-separated, and their line shapes, governed by both pressure broadening in the low- to mid-stratosphere and thermal broadening at higher altitudes, can be used to determine vertical abundance profiles given sufficient spectral resolution. This quantity of spectral lines have made Titan a popular target for millimeter and submillimeter radiotelescopes, which have reported detections of many nitriles along with CO (e.g. Muhleman et al 1984; Marten et al 1988; Tanguy et al 1990; Hidayat et al 1995; Gurwell & Muhleman 1995; Hidayat et al 1997; Marten et al 2002; Gurwell 2004; etc). The submillimeter bands are also covered by instruments on Cassini (CIRS) and Herschel (HIFI,SPIRE). The Submillimeter Array has been in operation for nearly 9 years, and during that time has observed Titan several times as a science target. In addition, Titan is utilized at the SMA as a primary standard for flux calibration in the 1.3mm, 1.1mm and 870 micron transmission windows. While each observation used for flux calibration is typically only 10-20 minutes in length, there have been many such observations during the SMA's operation. Thus, while in many small chunks, this SMA calibration data represents a sizable investment of telescope time, and presents an opportunity for use in a serendipitous line survey. This presentation will describe some initial results from an archival project to locate, calibrate, and combine data from multiple SMA observations of Titan, starting in the 1.3mm band. This will include, to our knowledge, the first reported detections in the millimeter bands of vibrationally excited HC3N (v7=1 and v7=2) and also CH3C2H as well as ongoing searches for HC5N and C2H3CN, and isotopic ratios in HC3N and CH3CN.

  2. Serological Screening Suggests Extensive Presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in Backyard Chickens in Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Taunde, Paula; Zandamela, Ana Felicidade; Junior, Alberto Pondja; Chilundo, Abel; Costa, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    A total of 459 serum samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens originating from 4 villages in Mandlakazi district, Southern Mozambique, were tested for the presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay [ELISA] kits. Anti-MG and anti-MS antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed and the overall seroprevalence was 48.8% [95% CI 39.1–57.8] and 84.5% [95% CI 76.8–90.4], respectively. The risk of being seropositive for both diseases was higher [P < 0.05] in Chidenguele village than other villages. It is concluded that MG and MS serum antibodies are present in backyard chickens. PMID:28243629

  3. Determination of the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus type 1) in Zambian backyard chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Musako, Chimuka; Abolnik, Celia

    2012-12-07

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces and 11 districts of Zambia to determine the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks. Of the chickens sampled, 73.9% tested positive for avian paramyxovirus type 1 antibodies by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence varied amongst the five provinces sampled, ranging from 82.6% in the Eastern Province to 48.3% in Luapula Province. Seroprevalence also varied amongst the 11 districts sampled, ranging from 91.3% in Monze district of Southern Province to 22.8% in Mufulira district of the Copperbelt province. Overall, the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks has increased since the previous study conducted in 1994.

  4. The 4-Point Backyard Diurnal Parllax Method Tested on a Challenging Far Away Target: Dwarf Planet 134340 Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Eduardo Manuel; Buchheim, Robert K.

    2013-05-01

    Asteroid distances can be easily determined using an amateur-level telescope and CCD from a single station, not requiring any data other than strictly derived from direct observations. Despite the simplicity of the 4-Point Backyard procedure - which only necessitates observations from two consecutive nights, just obtained at the beginning of each night and at each culmination - we had achieved an excellent accuracy for a set of asteroids out to a distance of 2.6 au. Now we have pushed the simple backyard diurnal parallax method in order to test its viability on a previously inconceivably distant target - Pluto - placed at more than ten times as far away our previous furthest measured asteroid. Surprisingly, our results were much better than expected. This project demonstrates the suitability of the method despite its evident simplicity, no matter how distant the asteroid target is. However, there are some special considerations with a distant target to ensure that the astrometry is performed with due care.

  5. Backyard Research on Cataclysmic Variables by a Consortium of Professional and Amateur Astronomers: DV UMa-A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanmunster, T.

    2006-06-01

    The Center for Backyard Astrophysics (CBA) is a multi-longitude network of small photometric telescopes, owned by talented amateurs, who study periodic phenomena in Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). The CBA is among the leading examples of successful partnerships between professional and amateur enthusiasts, producing vast amounts of high-quality variable star data. This poster paper highlights observational CBA results obtained on DV UMa, a most interesting eclipsing UGSU-type dwarf nova, that has been intensively monitored during its April 1997 superoutburst.

  6. Evaluation of Oral Bait Vaccine Efficacy Against Classical Swine Fever in Village Backyard Pig Farms in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Monger, V R; Stegeman, J A; Dukpa, K; Gurung, R B; Loeffen, W L A

    2016-12-01

    Control and eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in countries with a high proportion of backyard holdings is a challenge. Conventional attenuated Chinese C-strain vaccines, though safe and effective, are difficult to use in backyard farms due to various practical reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CSF oral bait vaccine in village backyard pig farms and to assess the farmers' knowledge on CSF and motivation on using oral vaccines. The pigs were fed the bait by the farmers themselves; one bait was given on day 0, followed by second bait on the next day. Seventy-three per cent (140 of 193 pigs) of vaccinated pigs had either a slight (2-fold-3-fold; 60 pigs) or significant (at least 4-fold; 80 pigs) increase of the antibody titre against CSFV. A significant increase of the antibody titres was mainly observed in pigs with no pre-vaccination titre (OR = 12, 95% CI = 4-40). The number of pigs with protective antibody titres (≥40) rose from 47 (24%) to 115 (60%) following vaccination. Only 30% of the farmers claimed to be familiar with CSF, although clinical signs they mentioned were rather unspecific and could relate to many other pig diseases. Most of the farmers claimed to be motivated to use oral vaccines if made available. The oral vaccine could be a substitute for the conventional attenuated CSF vaccines in areas where it is logistically difficult for veterinarians to visit. It may therefore be a useful tool to combat endemic CSF disease in regions where the disease continues to have a serious impact on the backyard farmers who depend on pig farming for their sustenance and livelihoods. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Biosecurity survey in relation to the risk of HPAI outbreaks in backyard poultry holdings in Thimphu city area, Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Wangdi, Chador; Rai, Purna Bdr

    2017-04-21

    A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the biosecurity and other practices of backyard poultry holdings and knowledge and practices of poultry keepers following an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in poultry in Thimphu city area, Bhutan. The study identified 62 backyard poultry holdings in 12 settlement areas, and the owners were subsequently interviewed. The birds are kept in a low-input low-output system, fed locally available scavenging feed base, and supplemented with food scraps and some grain. Although the birds are housed at night in a small coop to protect them against theft and predators, they are let loose during the day to scavenge in the homestead surroundings. This invariably results in mixing with other poultry birds within the settlement and wild birds, creating favorable conditions for disease spread within and between flocks. Moreover, the poultry keepers have a low level of knowledge and awareness related to the importance of biosecurity measures, as well as veterinary care of the birds and reporting systems. Of particular concern is that sick birds within backyard holdings may not be detected rapidly, resulting in silent spread of disease and increased risk of humans contacting the virus (e.g. HPAI) from infected poultry. Nevertheless, all the respondents have indicated that they know and practice hand washing using soap and water after handling poultry and poultry products, but rarely use face-masks and hand gloves while handling poultry or cleaning poultry house. This study highlights the importance of educating poultry keepers to improve the housing and management systems of poultry farming within the backyard holdings in the Thimphu city area in order to prevent future disease outbreaks.

  8. Exploring the Evolution of Star Formation and Dwarf Galaxy Properties with JWST/MIRI Serendipitous Spectroscopic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, Matteo; Sajina, Anna; De Zotti, Gianfranco; McKinney, Jed; Baronchelli, Ivano; Negrello, Mattia; Marchesini, Danilo; Roebuck, Eric; Shipley, Heath; Kurinsky, Noah; Pope, Alexandra; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Yan, Lin; Kirkpatrick, Allison

    2017-02-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope’s Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS), will offer nearly two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and >3× improvement in spectral resolution over our previous space-based mid-IR spectrometer, the Spitzer IRS. In this paper, we make predictions for spectroscopic pointed observations and serendipitous detections with the MRS. Specifically, pointed observations of Herschel sources require only a few minutes on source integration for detections of several star-forming and active galactic nucleus lines, out to z = 3 and beyond. But the same data will also include tens of serendipitous 0 ≲ z ≲ 4 galaxies per field with infrared luminosities ranging ∼106–1013 L ⊙. In particular, for the first time and for free we will be able to explore the L IR < 109 L ⊙ regime out to z ∼ 3. We estimate that with ∼ 100 such fields, statistics of these detections will be sufficient to constrain the evolution of the low-L end of the infrared luminosity function, and hence the star formation rate function. The above conclusions hold for a wide range in the potential low-L end of the IR luminosity function, and account for the PAH deficit in low-L, low-metallicity galaxies.

  9. Molecular detection of avian pox virus from nodular skin and mucosal fibrinonecrotic lesions of Iranian backyard poultry.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha; Namjoo, Abdolrasul

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, some outbreaks of skin lesions suspected to be avian pox were observed in the backyard poultry in different parts of western areas in Iran. Consequently, 328 backyard poultries with suspected signs of avian pox virus infection were sampled. All birds showed nodular lesions on unfeathered head skin and/or fibronecrotic lesions on mucus membrane of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. For histopathological analysis, the sections of tissue samples from cutaneous lesions of examined birds were stained with H&E method. For PCR, after DNA extraction a 578-bp fragment of avian pox virus from 4b core protein gene was amplified. Results showed 217 and 265 out of 328 (66.1 and 80.7%, respectively) samples were positive for avian pox virus on histopathological and PCR examination, respectively. In this study, the samples that had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies on pathologic examination were PCR positive. This study revealed that PCR is a valuable tool for identification of an avian pox virus and that the frequency of pox infection in backyard poultry in western areas of Iran is high.

  10. The Serendipitous Extragalactic X-Ray Source Identification (SEXSI) Program. III. Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckart, Megan E.; Stern, Daniel; Helfand, David J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mao, Peter H.; Yost, Sarah A.

    2006-07-01

    We present the catalog of 477 spectra from the Serendipitous Extragalactic X-ray Source Identification (SEXSI) program, a survey designed to probe the dominant contributors to the 2-10 keV cosmic X-ray background. Our survey covers 1 deg2 of sky to 2-10 keV fluxes of 1×10-14 ergs cm-2 s-1, and 2 deg2 for fluxes of 3×10-14 ergs cm-2 s-1. Our spectra reach to R-band magnitudes of <~24 and have produced identifications and redshifts for 438 hard X-ray sources. Typical completeness levels in the 27 Chandra fields studied are 40%-70%. The vast majority of the 2-10 keV selected sample are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with redshifts between 0.1 and 3; our highest redshift source lies at z=4.33. We find that few sources at z<1 have high X-ray luminosities, reflecting a dearth of high-mass, high-accretion-rate sources at low redshift, a result consistent with other recent wide-area surveys. We find that half of our sources show significant obscuration, with NH>1022 cm-2, independent of unobscured luminosity. We classify 168 sources as emission-line galaxies; all are X-ray-luminous (LX>1041 ergs s-1) objects with optical spectra lacking both high-ionization lines and evidence of a nonstellar continuum. The redshift distribution of these emission-line galaxies peaks at a significantly lower redshift than does that of the sources we spectroscopically identify as AGNs. We conclude that few of these sources, even at the low-luminosity end, can be powered by starburst activity. Stacking spectra for a subset of these sources in a similar redshift range, we detect [Ne V] λ3426 emission, a clear signature of AGN activity, confirming that the majority of these objects are Seyfert 2 galaxies in which the high-ionization lines are diluted by stellar emission. We find a total of 33 objects lacking broad lines in their optical spectra that have quasar X-ray luminosities (LX>1044 ergs s-1), the largest sample of such objects identified to date. In addition, we explore 17 AGNs

  11. Understanding the Nature of XMM-Newton Serendipitous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng

    XMM-Newton has carried out pointed observations of the X-ray sky for more than a decade. The XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog is ultimately intended to be the definitive catalog of X-ray sources that it detected. The newly released version 3XMM-DR5 is 60% larger than its predecessor 2XMMi-DR3 and contains 565,962 detections, corresponding to about 396,910 unique sources, from the first thirteen years of observations. It is the largest X-ray source catalog ever produced. Therefore it is a treasure for exploring the variety of the X-ray source populations and identifying rare important source types. We recently studied 4330 sources of the highest quality in the 2XMMi-DR3 catalog in order to investigate the properties of different classes of X-ray sources and to search for rare important objects. Based on various properties of identified sources with known nature, we came up with a new source classification scheme to classify the rest of the sources whose nature is unknown. The quality of the classification was ensured with significant manual inspection, allowing us to identify many special objects of significant science value but poorly studied in the literature. We have devoted a series of papers to report the detailed properties of some of these special objects. With our extensive experience and considering the large amount of new sources included in the 3XMM-DR5 catalog we propose to significantly expand the source sample to include 23,000 point sources that have S/N>15 in at least one detection in the new catalog. We will apply our new classification scheme to systematically classify them. A large amount of manual inspection will be devoted to ensure the production of a large sample of X-ray sources with reliable classification and identification, which will be a very valuable resource to the astronomical community. All the rare important objects discovered, either from our new sample or from our previous project but not fully explored, will be elaborated

  12. A community-based education trial to improve backyard poultry biosecurity in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Conan, Anne; Ponsich, Aurélia; Luce Goutard, Flavie; Khiev, Ratana; Tarantola, Arnaud; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-03-01

    The emergence and spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 has caused substantial poultry-related economic losses and public health concerns in relation to a potential pandemic. While biosecurity measures for commercial poultry industry are of the highest standards, these measures are difficult to implement and often unaffordable for backyard poultry farming, particularly in tropical and low-income settings. We designed a feasible biosecurity intervention to improve flock hygiene in Cambodia, - based on community hygiene, cleaning of poultry flock areas and human and poultry movement control. We conducted a cluster randomized and controlled intervention trial in 18 villages in Takeo province to evaluate improvements in biosecurity-related knowledge and practices. The intervention relied on community involvement and community education using special information dissemination tools. We trained village teams (VT) to assist villagers in implementing the intervention using a cascade training approach, in which a few individuals were trained, who in turn trained a larger group of people. During the 14 month follow up, we conducted observational and interview-based surveys (baseline vs. final surveys, VT supervision visits, monitoring surveys) to assess VTs' motivation, intervention messages dissemination and the implementation of recommended measures. Most of villagers (95%, confidence interval: 87.8-100.0%) in intervention villages received general information about how to raise poultry. Farmers in intervention villages reported to have made more changes (≥1 biosecurity related practice during the study period) compared with that of control villages (70.0% (260/372) vs. 22.6% (85/377), p value<0.01). When observing biosecurity-related practices in intervention villages, overall scores increased significantly (p<0.05). Practices such as use of quarantine cages for new and sick birds, limitation of people movement in backyards and waste management reached high

  13. Retrospective serological survey of influenza viruses in backyard pigs from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Carrera-Aguirre, Víctor; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Rivera-Benitez, Francisco; Rosas-Estrada, Karina; Pulido-Camarillo, Evelyn; Mercado-García, Carmen; Carreón-Nápoles, Rosalba; Haro-Tirado, Mario; Rosete, Dora P; Cabello, Carlos; Manjarrez, María E; Sánchez-Betancourt, Iván; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the presence of antibodies to four different influenza viruses (pH1N1, hH1N1, swH1N1, and swH3N2) in the sera of 2094 backyard pigs from Mexico City. The sera were obtained between 2000 and 2009. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the 2000-2009 period to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against pH1N1, hH1N1, swH1N1, and swH3N2 viruses in sera obtained from backyard pigs in Mexico City. Antibody detection was conducted with hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI) using four influenza viruses. We used linear regression to analyze the tendency of antibody serum titers throughout the aforementioned span. We observed that the antibody titers for the pH1N1, swH1N1, and swH3N2 viruses tended to diminish over the study period, whereas the antibodies to hH1N1 remained at low prevalence for the duration of the years analyzed in this study. A non-significant correlation (P > 0.05) between antibody titers for pH1N1 and swH1N1 viruses was observed (0.04). It contrasts with the significance of the correlation (0.43) observed between the swH1N1 and swH3N2 viruses (P < 0.01). Our findings showed no cross-antigenicity in the antibody response against the same subtype. Antibodies against pH1N1 virus were observed throughout the 10-year study span, implying that annual strains shared some common features with the pH1N1 virus since 2000, which would then be capable of supporting the ongoing presence of these antibodies. © John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

    2014-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characters of isolates of Pasteurella multocida obtained from back-yard poultry and from two outbreaks of avian cholera in avifauna in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J P; Dietz, H H; Bisgaard, M

    1998-01-01

    Two outbreaks of fowl cholera in the avifauna in Denmark, affecting primarily eiders but also cormorants, gulls and oyster-catchers were shown to be caused by the same clone of Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping, using the enzymes HpaII and HhaI and phenotypic characterization. This observation indicated spread by migratory birds. It was shown that the outbreak clone was closely related to isolates of Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida obtained from back-yard poultry in Denmark, including chickens, pheasants, turkeys and ducks. The only detectable difference between the outbreak clone and some of these strains concerned the size of one fragment. These results indicate a possible exchange of P. multocida ssp. multocida between populations of wild birds and back-yard poultry. Among the DNA fingerprinting methods used, restriction enzyme analysis offered the highest discrimination among thirty strains obtained from back-yard poultry. The restriction enzymes HpaII and HhaI generated almost the same number of profile types, 17 and 15 respectively, but only HpaII differentiated the outbreak clone from the group of closely related strains isolated from back-yard poultry. Ribotyping, using the same enzymes, resulted in 12 and 10 different profile types, respectively. The outbreak isolates did not harbour any plasmids, while six out of the 30 strains originating from back-yard poultry (20%) carried a cryptic plasmid of approximately 3.4 kb.

  16. Diversity and Prevalence of Ectoparasites on Backyard Chicken Flocks in California.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Amy C; Mullens, Bradley A

    2016-05-01

    Peridomestic ("backyard") chicken flocks are gaining popularity in the developed world (e.g., North America or Europe), yet little is known regarding prevalence or severity of their ectoparasites. Therefore, five birds on each of 20 properties throughout southern California were surveyed in summer for on-host (permanent) and off-host dwelling (temporary) ectoparasites. Only four premises (20%) were entirely free of ectoparasites. In declining order of prevalence (% of premises), permanent ectoparasites included six chicken louse species: Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (50%), Goniocotes gallinae (De Geer) (35%), Lipeurus caponis (L.) (20%), Menopon gallinae (L.) (15%), Menacanthus cornutus (Schömmer) (5%), and Cuclotogaster heterographus (Nitzsch) (5%). Only one flea species, Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood) (20%), was found. Three parasitic mite species were observed: Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (15%), Knemidocoptes mutans (Robin & Lanquetin) (10%), and Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (5%). Many infestations consisted of a few to a dozen individuals per bird, but M. stramineus, G. gallinae, M. cornutus, and E. gallinacea were abundant (dozens to hundreds of individuals) on some birds, and damage by K. mutans was severe on two premises. Off-host dwelling ectoparasites were rare (D. gallinae) or absent (Cimex lectularius L., Argasidae). Parasite diversity in peridomestic flocks greatly exceeds that is routinely observed on commercial chicken flocks and highlights a need for increased biosecurity and development of ectoparasite control options for homeowners.

  17. Anthrax in a backyard domestic dog in Ukraine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Skrypnyk, Artem; Bagamian, Karoun H; Nikolich, Mikeljon P; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Skrypnyk, Valeriy

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax has been reported in domestic and wild dogs throughout much of the world. Generally, canids are considered resistant to anthrax, although there are several reports of anthrax deaths in both wild and domestic canid populations. Prior to 2012, anthrax had not been reported in dogs in Ukraine, despite a long history in livestock and wildlife. An outbreak involving at least one cow and one dog was reported from a backyard setting in southern Ukraine in August of 2012. Laboratory results and epizootic data were compiled from official investigation reports of regional and state veterinary services involved in the case response. A single dog died after being fed meat and bones from an illegally slaughtered heifer that died of anthrax 5 days earlier. On the evening of the dog's death, the dog refused food or water; however, there were no other clinical signs. Laboratory tests of dog tissue included traditional bacteriology for Bacillus anthracis, a small rodent bioassay for virulence, and immunoprecipitation tests (IPT). IPT was positive, viable B. anthracis colonies were cultured, and a bioassay confirmed virulence. This was the first confirmed case of canid anthrax in Ukraine. This case report serves to remind veterinary officials that anthrax can affect a wide number of species. We advise surveillance systems remain flexible and include animals that might not otherwise be tested.

  18. The First Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 Citizen Science Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Schneider, Adam C.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Gagne, Jonathan; Trouille, Laura; Silverberg, Steven M.; Castro, Rosa; Fletcher, Bob; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a powerful tool for finding nearby brown dwarfs and searching for new planets in the outer solar system, especially with the incorporation of NEOWISE and NEOWISE Reactivation data. However, so far, searches for brown dwarfs in WISE data have yet to take advantage of the full depth of the WISE images. To efficiently search this unexplored space via visual inspection, we have launched anew citizen science project, called "Backyard Worlds: Planet 9," which asks volunteers to examine short animations composed of difference images constructed from time-resolved WISE co adds. We report the first new substellar object discovered by this project, WISEA J110125.95+540052.8, a T5.5 brown dwarf located approximately 34 pc from the Sun with a total proper motion of approx.0. "7/ yr. WISEA J110125.95+540052.8 has a WISE W2 magnitude of W2 = 15.37+/- 0.09; our sensitivity to this source demonstrates the ability of citizen scientists to identify moving objects via visual inspection that are 0.9 mag fainter than the W2 single-exposure sensitivity, a threshold that has limited prior motion-based brown dwarf searches with WISE.

  19. Esophagitis and Pharyngitis Associated with Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis in Backyard Chickens: Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Sary, Kathleen; Chénier, Sonia; Gagnon, Carl A; Shivaprasad, H L; Sylvestre, Doris; Boulianne, Martine

    2017-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a contagious viral respiratory disease of great economic importance for the global poultry industry caused by Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1). Lesions of the upper digestive tract caused by this virus have not been reported before. Two small flocks of backyard chickens experienced an outbreak of ILT, one in 2006 and the other in 2014. These birds had typical ILT lesions, characterized by a necrohemorrhagic laryngitis and tracheitis but were also affected by a severe erosive and necrotic esophagitis and pharyngitis. On microscopic examination of the esophagus and pharynx, numerous individual epithelial cells were degenerated or necrotic. Syncytial cells were present in the mucosa or sloughed in the overlying inflammatory crust, and some of these cells contained an amphophilic intranuclear viral inclusion. GaHV-1 was detected in tissues, from respiratory and digestive tracts, either by PCR, immunohistochemistry, or both diagnostic assays. This case stresses the importance for veterinarians, owners, and technicians to pay attention to different or atypical clinical manifestations of ILT given its highly contagious nature.

  20. The First Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 Citizen Science Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Schneider, Adam C.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Gagné, Jonathan; Trouille, Laura; Silverberg, Steven M.; Castro, Rosa; Fletcher, Bob; Mokaev, Khasan; Stajic, Tamara

    2017-06-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a powerful tool for finding nearby brown dwarfs and searching for new planets in the outer solar system, especially with the incorporation of NEOWISE and NEOWISE-Reactivation data. However, so far, searches for brown dwarfs in WISE data have yet to take advantage of the full depth of the WISE images. To efficiently search this unexplored space via visual inspection, we have launched a new citizen science project, called “Backyard Worlds: Planet 9,” which asks volunteers to examine short animations composed of difference images constructed from time-resolved WISE coadds. We report the first new substellar object discovered by this project, WISEA J110125.95+540052.8, a T5.5 brown dwarf located approximately 34 pc from the Sun with a total proper motion of ˜0.″7 {{yr}}-1. WISEA J110125.95+540052.8 has a WISE W2 magnitude of W2=15.37+/- 0.09; our sensitivity to this source demonstrates the ability of citizen scientists to identify moving objects via visual inspection that are 0.9 mag fainter than the W2 single-exposure sensitivity, a threshold that has limited prior motion-based brown dwarf searches with WISE.

  1. Pathology and frequency of Cheilospirura hamulosa (Nematoda, Acuarioidea) in Galliformes hosts from backyard flocks.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Tortelly, Rogério; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães

    2003-04-01

    This investigation reports data on frequency and pathology related to the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa in 28 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and 30 domestic chickens (Gallus g. domesticus) from backyard flocks of five localities of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The prevalence of C. hamulosa in pheasants was of 14.3%, with a mean intensity of 1.5 and range of infection of 1-2. In chickens these values were of 26.7%, 4 and 1-12, respectively. Parasitized birds did not present with clinical signs. In spite of the low parasite burdens, the lesions induced by C. hamulosa were severe in the two species of investigated hosts, causing severe gross lesions in the gizzard such as haemorrhages, ulcers and thickening of the mucosa and cuticle, and single yellowish nodules on the caudoventral muscle. The microscopic lesions, also severe, were characterized by chronic diffuse inflammatory processes and ulcers in the mucosa, and granulomas in the muscular, submucosa and serosa layers of this organ.

  2. A serendipitous discovery that in situ proteolysis is essential for the crystallization of yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, Corey R.; Gebauer, Damara; Zhang, Hailong; Tong, Liang

    2006-10-01

    Proteolysis in situ by a protease secreted by a contaminating fungus is essential for the crystallization of yeast CPSF-100. The cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) complex is required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3′-end of messenger RNA precursors in eukaryotes. During structural studies of the 100 kDa subunit (CPSF-100, Ydh1p) of the yeast CPSF complex, it was serendipitously discovered that a solution that is infected by a fungus (subsequently identified as Penicillium) is crucial for the crystallization of this protein. Further analyses suggest that the protein has undergone partial proteolysis during crystallization, resulting in the deletion of an internal segment of about 200 highly charged and hydrophilic residues, very likely catalyzed by a protease secreted by the fungus. With the removal of this segment, yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p) has greatly reduced solubility and can be crystallized in the presence of a minute amount of precipitant.

  3. A Serendipitous Discover that in situ Proteolysis is Essential for the Crystallization of Yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel,C.; Gebauer, D.; Zhang, H.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    The cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) complex is required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3'-end of messenger RNA precursors in eukaryotes. During structural studies of the 100 kDa subunit (CPSF-100, Ydh1p) of the yeast CPSF complex, it was serendipitously discovered that a solution that is infected by a fungus (subsequently identified as Penicillium) is crucial for the crystallization of this protein. Further analyses suggest that the protein has undergone partial proteolysis during crystallization, resulting in the deletion of an internal segment of about 200 highly charged and hydrophilic residues, very likely catalyzed by a protease secreted by the fungus. With the removal of this segment, yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p) has greatly reduced solubility and can be crystallized in the presence of a minute amount of precipitant.

  4. A serendipitous discovery that in situ proteolysis is essential for the crystallization of yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p)

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Corey R.; Gebauer, Damara; Zhang, Hailong; Tong, Liang

    2006-01-01

    The cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) complex is required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3′-end of messenger RNA precursors in eukaryotes. During structural studies of the 100 kDa subunit (CPSF-100, Ydh1p) of the yeast CPSF complex, it was serendipitously discovered that a solution that is infected by a fungus (subsequently identified as Penicillium) is crucial for the crystallization of this protein. Further analyses suggest that the protein has undergone partial proteolysis during crystallization, resulting in the deletion of an internal segment of about 200 highly charged and hydrophilic residues, very likely catalyzed by a protease secreted by the fungus. With the removal of this segment, yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p) has greatly reduced solubility and can be crystallized in the presence of a minute amount of precipitant. PMID:17012808

  5. The NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey: Hunting for the Most Extreme Obscured AGN at >10 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Aird, J.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Koss, M.; Lamperti, I.; Ajello, M.; Annuar, A.; Assef, R. J.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Del Moro, A.; Fuentes, C.; Harrison, F. A.; Marchesi, S.; Masini, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Ricci, C.; Saez, C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Treister, E.; Walton, D. J.; Zappacosta, L.

    2017-09-01

    We identify sources with extremely hard X-ray spectra (i.e., with photon indices of {{Γ }}≲ 0.6) in the 13 deg2 NuSTAR serendipitous survey, to search for the most highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected at > 10 {keV}. Eight extreme NuSTAR sources are identified, and we use the NuSTAR data in combination with lower-energy X-ray observations (from Chandra, Swift XRT, and XMM-Newton) to characterize the broadband (0.5–24 keV) X-ray spectra. We find that all of the extreme sources are highly obscured AGNs, including three robust Compton-thick (CT; {N}{{H}}> 1.5× {10}24 cm‑2) AGNs at low redshift (z< 0.1) and a likely CT AGN at higher redshift (z = 0.16). Most of the extreme sources would not have been identified as highly obscured based on the low-energy (< 10 keV) X-ray coverage alone. The multiwavelength properties (e.g., optical spectra and X-ray–mid-IR luminosity ratios) provide further support for the eight sources being significantly obscured. Correcting for absorption, the intrinsic rest-frame 10–40 keV luminosities of the extreme sources cover a broad range, from ≈ 5× {10}42 to 1045 erg s‑1. The estimated number counts of CT AGNs in the NuSTAR serendipitous survey are in broad agreement with model expectations based on previous X-ray surveys, except for the lowest redshifts (z< 0.07), where we measure a high CT fraction of {f}{CT}{obs}={30}-12+16 % . For the small sample of CT AGNs, we find a high fraction of galaxy major mergers (50% ± 33%) compared to control samples of “normal” AGNs.

  6. A network model of genomic hormone interactions underlying dementia and its translational validation through serendipitous off-target effect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While the majority of studies have focused on the association between sex hormones and dementia, emerging evidence supports the role of other hormone signals in increasing dementia risk. However, due to the lack of an integrated view on mechanistic interactions of hormone signaling pathways associated with dementia, molecular mechanisms through which hormones contribute to the increased risk of dementia has remained unclear and capacity of translating hormone signals to potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications in relation to dementia has been undervalued. Methods Using an integrative knowledge- and data-driven approach, a global hormone interaction network in the context of dementia was constructed, which was further filtered down to a model of convergent hormone signaling pathways. This model was evaluated for its biological and clinical relevance through pathway recovery test, evidence-based analysis, and biomarker-guided analysis. Translational validation of the model was performed using the proposed novel mechanism discovery approach based on ‘serendipitous off-target effects’. Results Our results reveal the existence of a well-connected hormone interaction network underlying dementia. Seven hormone signaling pathways converge at the core of the hormone interaction network, which are shown to be mechanistically linked to the risk of dementia. Amongst these pathways, estrogen signaling pathway takes the major part in the model and insulin signaling pathway is analyzed for its association to learning and memory functions. Validation of the model through serendipitous off-target effects suggests that hormone signaling pathways substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia. Conclusions The integrated network model of hormone interactions underlying dementia may serve as an initial translational platform for identifying potential therapeutic targets and candidate biomarkers for dementia-spectrum disorders such as Alzheimer

  7. Transmission dynamics of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in humans and swine in backyard farms in Tumbes, Peru.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Yeny O; Montgomery, Joel M; Kasper, Mathew R; Nelson, Martha I; Razuri, Hugo; Guezala, Maria C; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Barnes, John; Gilman, Robert H; Bausch, Daniel G; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the frequency of pH1N1 transmission between humans and swine on backyard farms in Tumbes, Peru. Two-year serial cross-sectional study comprising four sampling periods: March 2009 (pre-pandemic), October 2009 (peak of the pandemic in Peru), April 2010 (1st post-pandemic period), and October 2011 (2nd post-pandemic period). Backyard swine serum, tracheal swabs, and lung sample were collected during each sampling period. We assessed current and past pH1N1 infection in swine through serological testing, virus culture, and RT-PCR and compared the results with human incidence data from a population-based active surveillance cohort study in Peru. Among 1303 swine sampled, the antibody prevalence to pH1N1 was 0% pre-pandemic, 8% at the peak of the human pandemic (October 2009), and 24% in April 2010 and 1% in October 2011 (post-pandemic sampling periods). Trends in swine seropositivity paralleled those seen in humans in Tumbes. The pH1N1 virus was isolated from three pigs during the peak of the pandemic. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses likely represent two separate human-to-swine transmission events in backyard farm settings. Our findings suggest that human-to-swine pH1N1 transmission occurred during the pandemic among backyard farms in Peru, emphasizing the importance of interspecies transmission in backyard pig populations. Continued surveillance for influenza viruses in backyard farms is warranted. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infection in backyard chickens in the state of Entre Rios in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Xavier, J; Pascal, D; Crespo, E; Schell, H L; Trinidad, J A; Bueno, D J

    2011-04-01

    The present work was conducted to study the seroprevalence of Salmonella, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infection in backyard chickens located in Entre Ríos, Argentina, over 3 periods of time. A total of 2,441 sera samples were collected from backyard chickens belonging to 256 family farms in 16 counties in the state of Entre Ríos from January to May 2003 (first period), December 2004 to April 2005 (second period), and October 2006 to May 2007 (third period). The prevalence of family farms testing seropositive for Salmonella averaged 23.9, 15.9, and 28.6% during the first, second, and third period, respectively. The highest prevalence of Salmonella-seropositive farms recorded (66.7%) was on farms from Concordia county, and the lowest prevalence (0%) was on farms from La Paz county. In contrast, the prevalence of family farms seropositive for MG averaged 32.8, 55.1, and 76.2% during the first, second, and third periods, respectively. The highest prevalence of MG-seropositive farms (100%) was found in the counties of Victoria and Tala, and the lowest prevalence (8.7%) was found on farms on Colón county. The prevalence of family farms seropositive for MS averaged 68.6 and 100% during the first and second periods, respectively. The highest prevalence of MS-seropositive farms (100%) was on farms in 85% of the counties tested, and the lowest prevalence (21.7%) was on farms from Colón county. Salmonella, MG, and MS infection are present at high levels in backyard chicken farms, and this presents a high risk to commercial poultry production in Entre Ríos, the state with the highest chicken population and density in Argentina.

  9. Surveillance and Early Warning of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Using Backyard Chickens and Correlation to Human Neuroinvasive Cases.

    PubMed

    Chaintoutis, S C; Dovas, C I; Danis, K; Gewehr, S; Mourelatos, S; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Papanastassopoulou, M

    2015-08-01

    In 2010, a West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic was reported in Central Macedonia, Northern Greece, with 197 neuroinvasive disease (WNND) cases in humans. The following 3 years, WNV spreads to new areas of Greece and human cases reoccurred during the transmission periods. After the initial outbreak, a WNV surveillance system using juvenile backyard chickens was established in Central Macedonia (after the 2011 outbreak) and Eastern Macedonia-Thrace (after the 2012 outbreak). Sera were screened for the presence of antibodies against WNV using cELISA and serum neutralization test, to monitor the spread of WNV and to assess the correlation between the WNV point seroprevalence in chickens and the incidence rates of human WNND cases in the aforementioned areas. WNV seroprevalence in chickens was 10.4% (95% CI: 7-15) in Central Macedonia (2011) and 18.1% (95% CI: 14-23) in Eastern Macedonia-Thrace (2012). Seroprevalence in chickens and incidence rates of human WNND cases in Eastern Macedonia-Thrace were strongly positively correlated (ρ = 0.98, P = 0.005) at the regional unit level, with the incidence of WNND in humans increasing with increasing WNV point seroprevalence in chickens. In Central Macedonia, the correlation was weaker (ρ = 0.68, P = 0.20), apparently due to small number of reported human WNND cases. Another study was also conducted using juvenile backyard chickens in Central Macedonia, aiming to detect early WNV enzootic circulation, before the onset of human cases during 2011 and 2013. The first seroconverted chickens were detected about 1.5 months before the laboratory diagnosis of any human WNND cases in Central Macedonia, for both years. WNV surveillance, using juvenile backyard chickens, was reliable for the identification of areas with WNV enzootic and silent transmission, and for early warning. Timely diffusion of information to public health authorities facilitated the successful implementation of preparedness plans to protect public health.

  10. Salmonella Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: A Survey of Backyard Poultry Owners Residing in Seattle, Washington and the Surrounding Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Kauber, K; Fowler, H; Lipton, B; Meschke, J S; Rabinowitz, P

    2017-02-01

    Raising poultry flocks in urban backyard settings is becoming increasingly popular across the United States, but carries a risk of zoonotic infection. In the United States from 1990 to 2014, 53 outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to live poultry have been documented resulting in 2611 known illnesses, 387 known hospitalizations and five known deaths (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2015a, http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/resources/dont-play-chicken-with-your-health-poster-24x36_508.pdf). A cross-sectional descriptive study was developed to better understand knowledge, attitudes and practices of urban backyard poultry owners regarding Salmonella risk and prevention. The study included a survey of bird health, animal husbandry and hygiene practices, and knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to Salmonella risk. Participants were videotaped while caring for their birds, and the recordings were transcribed using notational analysis to determine whether reported practices differed from observed practices. The results indicated that while a large proportion of participants knew that exposure to Salmonella is an inherent risk associated with raising poultry and harvesting eggs, their reported and observed practices would not consistently reduce risk of transmission of Salmonella and other zoonotic diseases. Approximately one in four participants reported performing practices that increase risk of inoculation, such as snuggling and kissing birds or eating/drinking near them. None of the participants were observed kissing their birds on video; however, snuggling (holding birds to clothes) or touching their face during routine care was observed in approximately two-thirds of the video recordings. The video data provided a unique opportunity to compare reported practices with actions recorded during site visits. While the differences were not statistically significant, findings from our study suggest that flock owners may not accurately report the frequency

  11. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) on chickens (Gallus gallus) from small backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sychra, O; Harmat, P; Literák, I

    2008-04-15

    One hundred and sixty chickens (Gallus gallus) from 31 small, private backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera). At least one species of chewing lice was found on every bird examined. Seven species of chewing lice were identified in all; they had the following prevalences and mean intensities: Goniocotes gallinae (100%; 110 lice), Menopon gallinae (88%; 50), Menacanthus stramineus (48%; 17), Lipeurus caponis (35%; 12), Menacanthus cornutus (12%; 9), Cuclotogaster heterographus (1%; 4) and Goniocotes microthorax (1%; 3). Just two birds from a single flock were heavily infested with the ischnoceran species G. gallinae.

  12. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    PubMed

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds

  13. Assessment of the bioaccumulation of metals to chicken eggs from residential backyards.

    PubMed

    Grace, Emily J; MacFarlane, Geoff R

    2016-09-01

    Soil in urban areas contains the residues of past land-uses and practices. Urban farming (keeping chickens, vegetable gardening) requires soil disturbance and can increase exposure of residents to these contaminants. We measured the level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops across the Lower Hunter, NSW Australia. We compared the levels of metals in soil to Health Investigation Levels and metals in home-grown eggs to the levels in commercial eggs tested in this study or published by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. The levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs and were comparable to commercial eggs tested in this study. The Health Investigation Level for lead in soil (300mglead/kg soil) was exceeded at 7 of the 26 sites. The level of lead in home-grown eggs was generally higher than in commercial eggs. The reference health standard for meat (including chicken), fruit and vegetables of 0.1mglead/kg produce was exceeded in home-grown eggs from 7 of the 26 sites. There was a significant relationship between the lead level in eggs and the lead level in soil accessible to chickens. As soil lead increased, concentrations of lead in eggs tended to increase. No relationship was detected between the lead level in feed and in eggs. We recommend strategies to reduce ingestion of soil by chickens thereby reducing metal contamination in home-grown eggs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Paternal Mitochondrial Transmission in Intra-Species Caenorhabditis briggsae Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph A.; Howe, Dana K.; Coleman-Hulbert, Anna; Denver, Dee R.; Estes, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    To study mitochondrial–nuclear genetic interactions in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae, our three laboratories independently created 38 intra-species cytoplasmic–nuclear hybrid (cybrid) lines. Although the cross design combines maternal mitotypes with paternal nuclear genotypes, eight lines (21%) unexpectedly contained paternal mitotypes. All eight share in common ancestry of one of two genetically related strains. This unexpected parallel observation of paternal mitochondrial transmission, undesirable given our intent of creating cybrids, provides a serendipitous experimental model and framework to study the molecular and evolutionary basis of uniparental mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:27613821

  15. Detection of fowl poxvirus integrated with reticuloendotheliosis virus sequences from an outbreak in backyard chickens in India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sanchay K; Jana, Chandrakanta; Chand, Karam; Rehman, Waseem; Mondal, Bimalendu

    2011-01-01

    Fowl poxvirus (FPV) infection was observed in unvaccinated backyard chickens. A total of 15 birds were affected in a flock of 37. Pock lesions were observed on the comb, eyelids, beak and wattles. The birds appeared sick with roughened feathers and stunted growth. No mortality was recorded. DNA was isolated from scabs and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the 4b core protein gene of FPV, the envelope (env) gene of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and the region of FPV flanking REV 5´ long terminal repeat (LTR). Correct-size PCR products of 578 bp, 807 bp and 370 bp, respectively, were observed in agarose gel electrophoresis. Sequence analysis of these products suggests that the virus was an FPV with a genome containing an integrated near full-length REV provirus. Given the fact that REV has been associated with immunosuppression, its presence in the genome of FPV appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of fowl pox and presumably prolongs persistence of FPV in bird populations. In the present case, fowl pox has been observed to have persisted for about three years in fowl that were reared in backyard systems in villages.

  16. Virulence repertoire, characterization, and antibiotic resistance pattern analysis of Escherichia coli isolated from backyard layers and their environment in India.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Indranil; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Das, Pradip K; Das, Palas; Sar, Tapas K; Dutta, Tapan K; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Batabyal, Subhasis; Isore, Devi P

    2014-03-01

    This study was undertaken to observe the prevalence, serogroup, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)-associated virulence gene, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) pattern, and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli in backyard layers and their environment in India. From the 360 samples of healthy layers and their environment, 272 (75.5%) E. coli were isolated. The majority (28.67%) of them were untypeable. Among the studied virulence genes (papC, tsh, iucC, astA), 52 (14.32%) isolates were found to possess astA, including the isolates from the drinking water of the birds (4/272, 1.47%). These strains belonged to 18 different serogroups. Most of the isolates were typeable by RAPD and they produced different patterns. Phenotypic resistance of the isolates was most frequently observed to erythromycin (95.83%), chloramphenicol (87.52%), and cotrimoxazole (78.26%). None of the isolates was found to possess extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M) or quinolone resistance (qnrA) genes by PCR. The present study was the first attempt in India to assess APEC distribution in backyard poultry production.

  17. Comparative possession of Shiga toxin, intimin, enterohaemolysin and major extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from backyard and farmed poultry

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, I.; Joardar, S. N.; Das, P. K.; Sar, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to compare the occurrence of Escherichia coli possessing virulence and ESBL genes in backyard and farmed poultry. Three hundred and sixty samples from the poultry kept in backyard system and 120 samples from the farmed birds were collected from West Bengal, India. Among the E. coli isolates of backyard poultry (O2, O10, O25, O55, O60, O106, UT), none of them possessed any of the Shiga toxin genes and eight E. coli isolates (8/272; 2.9%) harboured eaeA gene alone. Whereas among the E. coli isolated from the farmed poultry (O17, O20, O22, O102, O114, O119, rough, UT), four isolates (4/78, 5.1%) harboured stx1/stx2 gene and 11 isolates (11/78, 14.1%) possessed eaeA gene. None of the E. coli isolates from the backyard poultry harboured any studied ESBL gene. Whereas 29.4% of E. coli isolates from the farmed poultry were found to possess the ESBL genes. PMID:27175158

  18. The Impact of Densification by Means of Informal Shacks in the Backyards of Low-Cost Houses on the Environment and Service Delivery in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Thashlin; Barnes, Jo M.; Pieper, Clarissa H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the state-sponsored low cost housing provided to previously disadvantaged communities in the City of Cape Town. The strain imposed on municipal services by informal densification of unofficial backyard shacks was found to create unintended public health risks. Four subsidized low-cost housing communities were selected within the City of Cape Town in this cross-sectional survey. Data was obtained from 1080 persons with a response rate of 100%. Illegal electrical connections to backyard shacks that are made of flimsy materials posed increased fire risks. A high proportion of main house owners did not pay for water but sold water to backyard dwellers. The design of state-subsidised houses and the unplanned housing in the backyard added enormous pressure on the existing municipal infrastructure and the environment. Municipal water and sewerage systems and solid waste disposal cannot cope with the increased population density and poor sanitation behaviour of the inhabitants of these settlements. The low-cost housing program in South Africa requires improved management and prudent policies to cope with the densification of state-funded low-cost housing settlements. PMID:21695092

  19. Development of a low-dose fast-dissolving tablet formulation of Newcastle disease vaccine for low-cost backyard poultry immunisation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The immunization of backyard poultry in rural and peri-urban areas worldwide is critical for providing adequate nutrition and income for small farmers and for ensuring global food security. A vaccine presentation for flocks of 30 to 50 birds that is stable at ambient temperatures could make it affor...

  20. Upper limits to the number of Oort Cloud objects based on serendipitous occultation events search in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Liu, Chih-Yuan; Shang, Jie-Rou

    2016-10-01

    Using all the RXTE archival data of Sco X-1 and GX 5-1, which amount to about 1.6 Ms in total, we searched for possible occultation events caused by Oort Cloud objects. The detection efficiency of our searching approach was studied with simulation. Our search is sensitive to object size of about 300 m in the inner Oort Cloud, taking 4000 au as a representative distance, and of 900 m in the outer Oort Cloud, taking 36 000 au as the representative distance. No occultation events were found in the 1.6 Ms data. We derived upper limits to the number of Oort Cloud objects, which are about three orders of magnitude higher than the highest theoretical estimates in the literature for the inner Oort Cloud, and about six orders higher for the outer Oort Cloud. Although these upper limits are not constraining enough, they are the first obtained observationally, without making any model assumptions about comet injection. They also provide guidance to such serendipitous occultation event search in the future.

  1. Serendipitous Discovery of a Projected Pair of QSOs Separated by 4.5 arcsec on the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, K. E.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krogager, J.-K.; Vestergaard, M.; Møller, P.; Arabsalmani, M.; Geier, S.; Noterdaeme, P.; Ledoux, C.; Saturni, F. G.; Venemans, B.

    2016-07-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of a projected pair of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) with an angular separation of Δθ = 4.50 arcsec. The redshifts of the two QSOs are widely different: one, our program target, is a QSO with a spectrum consistent with being a narrow line Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus at z = 2.05. For this target we detect Lyα, C iv, and C iii]. The other QSO, which by chance was included on the spectroscopic slit, is a Type 1 QSO at a redshift of z = 1.68, for which we detect C iv, C iii], and Mg ii. We compare this system to previously detected projected QSO pairs and find that only about a dozen previously known pairs have smaller angular separation. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, on the island of La Palma jointly operated by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  2. Serendipitous discovery of a dying Giant Radio Galaxy associated with NGC 1534, using the Murchison Widefield Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Ekers, Ron; Hunstead, Richard; Sadler, Elaine M.; Hindson, Luke; Hancock, Paul; Bernardi, Gianni; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, Frank; Cappallo, Roger; Corey, Brian; Deshpande, Avinash A.; Emrich, David; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Goeke, Robert; Greenhill, Lincoln; Hazelton, Bryna J.; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Kaplan, David L.; Kasper, Justin; Kratzenberg, Eric; Lonsdale, Colin; Lynch, Mervyn; Mitchell, Daniel; McWhirter, Russell; Morales, Miguel; Morgan, Edward; Oberoi, Divya; Offringa, André; Ord, Stephen; Prabu, Thiagaraj; Rogers, Alan; Roshi, Anish; Shankar, Udaya; Srivani, K.; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Tingay, Steven; Waterson, Mark; Wayth, Randall B.; Webster, Rachel; Whitney, Alan; Williams, Andrew; Williams, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Recent observations with the Murchison Widefield Array at 185 MHz have serendipitously unveiled a heretofore unknown giant and relatively nearby (z = 0.0178) radio galaxy associated with NGC 1534. The diffuse emission presented here is the first indication that NGC 1534 is one of a rare class of objects (along with NGC 5128 and NGC 612) in which a galaxy with a prominent dust lane hosts radio emission on scales of ˜700 kpc. We present details of the radio emission along with a detailed comparison with other radio galaxies with discs. NGC 1534 is the lowest surface brightness radio galaxy known with an estimated scaled 1.4-GHz surface brightness of just 0.2 mJy arcmin-2. The radio lobes have one of the steepest spectral indices yet observed: α = -2.1 ± 0.1, and the core to lobe luminosity ratio is <0.1 per cent. We estimate the space density of this low brightness (dying) phase of radio galaxy evolution as 7 × 10-7 Mpc-3 and argue that normal AGN cannot spend more than 6 per cent of their lifetime in this phase if they all go through the same cycle.

  3. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  4. Concurrent Fowlpox and Candidiasis Diseases in Backyard Chickens with Unusual Pox Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Fusae; Yamamoto, Yu; Sato, Yasuo; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Goto, Makiko; Murakami, Ryukoh

    2016-09-01

    Concurrent fowlpox and candidiasis diseases occurred in a backyard chicken flock. Four deceased chickens (one Nagoya breed and three white silkie chickens) were examined for diagnosis. At necropsy, white curd-like plaques were observed in the crop. Fungal elements that stained positive for Candida albicans with immunohistochemistry were distributed throughout the tongue, choanal mucosa, esophagus, and crop. Typical fowlpox lesions, composed of proliferating epithelial cells with ballooning degeneration and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions, were observed in the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and skin around the cloaca. Interestingly, hyperplastic interfollicular epithelium with rare virus inclusions was observed in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Some bursal follicles were replaced by proliferating epithelial cells. These proliferating cells immunohistochemically stained positive for cytokeratin. PCR and subsequent genetic sequencing detected the C. albicans gene in the crop, and fowlpox virus genes in the BF. These results indicate that this outbreak was a rare presentation of fowlpox in spontaneously infected chickens, with unusual pox lesions in the BF.

  5. Beyond the NIMBY (not-in-my-backyard) impasse II: Public participation in an age of distrust

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.

    1988-01-01

    With the intensification of not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) responses to both nuclear and chemical waste management and facility siting, we revisit public participation goals, processes, mechanisms and results to evaluate the uses and limits of public participation for achieving legitimate siting decisions. The deepening loss of trust of the American public in most institutions jeopardizes all preemptive nuclear and hazardous waste facility siting decisions, and carefully structured public participation efforts including some form of power sharing offer the best hope of devising legitimate and durable decisions. We review the key factors in the general siting milieu as well as the thickets of public participation-public involvement. Outcomes of six public participation (PP) case studies are presented and analyzed for problems as well as common factors contributing to their success or failure. The uses as well as the limits of PP in complex nuclear and hazardous waste management and siting processes are considered. 38 refs., 1 tab.

  6. “Looking over the Backyard Fence”: Householders and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Mainali, Samir; Lamichhane, Ram Sharan; Clark, Kim; Beatty, Shelley; Fatouros, Maria; Neville, Peter; Oosthuizen, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. In Australia’s developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality. Consequently, mosquito prevention in these locations is predominantly the responsibility of the residents. This research addressed a gap, both in understanding the degree to which “backyard” mosquito breeding has the potential to contribute to local mosquito problems, and in assessing what residents “think and do” about mosquito control within their home environment. (2) Methods: The study was conducted in the Town of Bassendean, a metropolitan Local Government Area of Perth, Western Australia, in close proximity to two natural, productive mosquito breeding sites, namely Ashfield Flats and Bindaring Park. A total of 150 householders were randomly surveyed during the summer of 2015–2016, to gauge residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP (knowledge, attitudes, and practices) Survey) in regards to mosquitoes, their breeding and ecology, and avoidance or minimization strategies. The survey comprised nine questions covering residents’ knowledge (3 questions), attitudes (3 questions), and practices (3 questions), as well as additional questions regarding the basic demographics of the resident. Larvae were collected from backyard containers and reared to adults for species identification. A series of Encephalitis Vector Surveillance carbon dioxide (EVS CO2) traps were also deployed, to assess adult

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE AGNs. I. SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES AND SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF NEW DUAL AGNs

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena; Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis; Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura; Leon-Tavares, Jonathan; Chavushyan, Vahram H.

    2013-01-20

    A sample of 10 nearby intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs) drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is presented. The aim of this work is to provide estimations of the black hole (BH) mass for the sample galaxies from the dynamics of the broad-line region. For this purpose, a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the objects was done. Using Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagnostic diagrams, we have carefully classified the objects as true intermediate-type AGNs and found that 80%{sup +7.2%} {sub -17.3%} are composite AGNs. The BH mass estimated for the sample is within 6.54 {+-} 0.16 < log M {sub BH} < 7.81 {+-} 0.14. Profile analysis shows that five objects (J120655.63+501737.1, J121607.08+504930.0, J141238.14+391836.5, J143031.18+524225.8, and J162952.88+242638.3) have narrow double-peaked emission lines in both the red (H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548,6583 and [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6716, 6731) and the blue (H{beta} and [O III] {lambda}{lambda}4959, 5007) regions of the spectra, with velocity differences ({Delta}V) between the double peaks within 114 km s{sup -1} < {Delta}V < 256 km s{sup -1}. Two of them, J121607.08+504930.0 and J141238.14+391836.5, are candidates for dual AGNs since their double-peaked emission lines are dominated by AGN activity. In searches of dual AGNs, type 1, type II, and intermediate-type AGNs should be carefully separated, due to the high serendipitous number of narrow double-peaked sources (50% {+-} 14.4%) found in our sample.

  8. Stockmanship competence and its relation to productivity and economic profitability: the context of backyard goat production in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Alcedo, M J; Ito, K; Maeda, K

    2015-03-01

    A stockperson has a significant influence on the productivity and welfare of his animals depending on his stockmanship competence. In this study, stockmanship competence (SC) is defined as the capacity of the stockperson to ensure the welfare of his animals by providing his animals' needs. The study was conducted to evaluate the SC of backyard goat raisers and examine its relationship to goat productivity and economic profitability. There were 101 respondents for this study who have all undertaken farmer livestock school on integrated goat management (FLS-IGM). Interview was conducted in Region I, Philippines on September 3 to 30, 2012 and March 4 to 17, 2013. Data on SC, goat productivity and farmer's income were gathered. Questions regarding SC were formulated based on the Philippine Recommendations for Goat Production and from other scientific literature. Housing, feeding, breeding and health and husbandry management were the indicators used in computing stockmanship competence index score (SCIS). Pearson correlation using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was carried out to analyse the relationship between SCIS, productivity and income. Based from the results of the study, a majority of the respondents raised native and upgraded goats. The computed mean SCIS before and after undergoing FLS-IGM were 38.52% and 75.81% respectively, a percentage difference of 65.23%. Both index scores resulted in significant differences in productivity and income. The median mature weight and mortality rate of goats before FLS-IGM was 14 kg and 30% respectively. After FLS-IGM, median mature weight was 19 kg and mortality rate decreased from 30% to 11.11%. Likewise, fewer goat diseases were observed by farmers who were able to undergo FLS-IGM. With regard to income, there was a 127.34% difference on the median net income derived by farmers. Result implies that improved SC could lead not only to increased productivity and income of backyard goat raisers but also to

  9. [Serological detection of Brucella suis, influenza virus and Aujeszky's disease virus in backyard and small swine holders in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Dibarbora, Marina; Cappuccio, Javier A; Aznar, María N; Bessone, Fernando A; Piscitelli, Hernán; Pereda, Ariel J; Pérez, Daniel R

    Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina. Antibodies against H1 pandemic were detected in 80% of the farms while 11%, 11.7% and 6.0% of the producers were positive to influenza H3 cluster 2, AV and Bs, respectively. None of the producers was aware of the risk factors concerning the transmission of diseases from pigs to humans. A percentage of 47% of them buy pigs for breeding from other farmers and markets. With regard to biosecurity measures, only 16% of the farms had perimeter fences. The results of this study demonstrate that productive characterization and disease surveys are important to improve productivity and to reduce the risk of disease transmission among animals and humans. The study of sanitary status and risk factors is necessary for better control and eradication of diseases in backyard or small producers. More representative studies at country level should be carried out to detect the pathogensthat circulate and, with this knowledge, to implement prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Stockmanship Competence and Its Relation to Productivity and Economic Profitability: The Context of Backyard Goat Production in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Alcedo, M. J.; Ito, K.; Maeda, K.

    2015-01-01

    A stockperson has a significant influence on the productivity and welfare of his animals depending on his stockmanship competence. In this study, stockmanship competence (SC) is defined as the capacity of the stockperson to ensure the welfare of his animals by providing his animals’ needs. The study was conducted to evaluate the SC of backyard goat raisers and examine its relationship to goat productivity and economic profitability. There were 101 respondents for this study who have all undertaken farmer livestock school on integrated goat management (FLS-IGM). Interview was conducted in Region I, Philippines on September 3 to 30, 2012 and March 4 to 17, 2013. Data on SC, goat productivity and farmer’s income were gathered. Questions regarding SC were formulated based on the Philippine Recommendations for Goat Production and from other scientific literature. Housing, feeding, breeding and health and husbandry management were the indicators used in computing stockmanship competence index score (SCIS). Pearson correlation using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was carried out to analyse the relationship between SCIS, productivity and income. Based from the results of the study, a majority of the respondents raised native and upgraded goats. The computed mean SCIS before and after undergoing FLS-IGM were 38.52% and 75.81% respectively, a percentage difference of 65.23%. Both index scores resulted in significant differences in productivity and income. The median mature weight and mortality rate of goats before FLS-IGM was 14 kg and 30% respectively. After FLS-IGM, median mature weight was 19 kg and mortality rate decreased from 30% to 11.11%. Likewise, fewer goat diseases were observed by farmers who were able to undergo FLS-IGM. With regard to income, there was a 127.34% difference on the median net income derived by farmers. Result implies that improved SC could lead not only to increased productivity and income of backyard goat raisers but also to

  11. Evaluation of the risk of classical swine fever (CSF) spread from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs by using the spatial stochastic disease spread model Be-FAST: the example of Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Angel Manuel; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF) from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs. Specifically, we used a spatial stochastic spread model, called Be-FAST, to evaluate the potential spread of CSF virus (CSFV) in Bulgaria, which holds a large number of backyards (96% of the total number of pig farms) and is one of the very few countries for which backyard pigs and farm counts are available. The model revealed that, despite backyard pigs being very likely to become infected, infections from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs were rare. In general, the magnitude and duration of the CSF simulated epidemics were small, with a median [95% PI] number of infected farms per epidemic of 1 [1,4] and a median [95% PI] duration of the epidemic of 44 [17,101] days. CSFV transmission occurs primarily (81.16%) due to indirect contacts (i.e. vehicles, people and local spread) whereas detection of infected premises was mainly (69%) associated with the observation of clinical signs on farm rather than with implementation of tracing or zoning. Methods and results of this study may support the implementation of risk-based strategies more cost-effectively to prevent, control and, ultimately, eradicate CSF from Bulgaria. The model may also be easily adapted to other countries in which the backyard system is predominant. It can also be used to simulate other similar diseases such as African swine fever.

  12. A survey of stellar X-ray flares from the XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue: HIPPARCOS-Tycho cool stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, J. P.; Rosen, S.; Fyfe, D.; Schröder, A. C.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The X-ray emission from flares on cool (i.e. spectral-type F-M) stars is indicative of very energetic, transient phenomena, associated with energy release via magnetic reconnection. Aims: We present a uniform, large-scale survey of X-ray flare emission. The XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue and its associated data products provide an excellent basis for a comprehensive and sensitive survey of stellar flares - both from targeted active stars and from those observed serendipitously in the half-degree diameter field-of-view of each observation. Methods: The 2XMM Catalogue and the associated time-series ("light-curve") data products have been used as the basis for a survey of X-ray flares from cool stars in the Hipparcos-Tycho-2 catalogue. In addition, we have generated and analysed spectrally-resolved (i.e. hardness-ratio), X-ray light-curves. Where available, we have compared XMM OM UV/optical data with the X-ray light-curves. Results: Our sample contains ~130 flares with well-observed profiles; they originate from ~70 stars. The flares range in duration from ~103 to ~104 s, have peak X-ray fluxes from ~10-13 to ~10-11erg cm-2 s-1, peak X-ray luminosities from ~1029 to ~1032erg s-1, and X-ray energy output from ~1032 to ~1035 erg. Most of the ~30 serendipitously-observed stars have little previously reported information. The hardness-ratio plots clearly illustrate the spectral (and hence inferred temperature) variations characteristic of many flares, and provide an easily accessible overview of the data. We present flare frequency distributions from both target and serendipitous observations. The latter provide an unbiased (with respect to stellar activity) study of flare energetics; in addition, they allow us to predict numbers of stellar flares that may be detected in future X-ray wide-field surveys. The serendipitous sample demonstrates the need for care when calculating flaring rates, especially when normalising the number of flares to a total

  13. Prevalence of parasites and associated risk factors in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and free-range backyard chickens of Sistan region, east of Iran.

    PubMed

    Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Khedri, Javad; Adinehbeigi, Keivan; Nabavi, Reza; Rahmani, Khatereh

    2012-10-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from December 2010 to November 2011 to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of internal and external parasites in Sistan region, east of Iran. Of the total of 59 (27 males and 32 females) free-range backyard chickens and 46 (26 males and 20 females) domestic pigeons inspected, 55 (93.22 %) and 39 (84.78 %) were infected respectively. Ten species of free-range backyard chickens parasites were collected from alimentary canals, body, head and neck, comprising of 3 species of nematodes, 4 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia galli (16.94 %), Heterakis gallinarum (23.72 %), Subulura brumpti (67.79 %), Raillietina tetragona (35.59 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (27.11 %), Raillietina cesticillus (15.25 %), Choanotaenia infundibulum (40.67 %), Argas persicus (16.94 %), Menopen gallinae (55.93 %) and Menacanthus stramineus (33.89 %). The domestic pigeons were infected with seven species of parasites including 2 species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia colombae (15.21 %), Hadjelia truncata (17.39 %), Raillietina tetragona (26.08 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (28.26 %), Argas reflexus (13.04 %), Menopen gallinae (32.60 %), Columbicola Columba (41.30 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasites among free-range backyard chicken and domestic pigeon species in Sistan region.

  14. Hard X-Ray-selected AGNs in Low-mass Galaxies from the NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-T. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Reines, A. E.; Lansbury, G.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M. J.; Lanz, L.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Ricci, C.; Trump, J. R.

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample of 10 low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the 40-month Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) serendipitous survey. The sample is selected to have robust NuSTAR detections at 3{--}24 {keV}, to be at z< 0.3, and to have optical r-band magnitudes at least 0.5 mag fainter than an {L}\\star galaxy at its redshift. The median values of absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and 2–10 X-ray luminosity of our sample are < {M}r> =-20.03, < {M}\\star > =4.6× {10}9 {M}ȯ , and < {L}2-10{keV}> =3.1× {10}42 erg s‑1, respectively. Five objects have detectable broad Hα emission in their optical spectra, indicating black hole masses of (1.1{--}10.4)× {10}6 {M}ȯ . We find that {30}-10+17 % of the galaxies in our sample do not show AGN-like optical narrow emission lines, and one of the 10 galaxies in our sample, J115851+4243.2, shows evidence for heavy X-ray absorption. This result implies that a non-negligible fraction of low-mass galaxies might harbor accreting massive black holes that are missed by optical spectroscopic surveys and < 10 {keV} X-ray surveys. The mid-IR colors of our sample also indicate that these optically normal low-mass AGNs cannot be efficiently identified with typical AGN selection criteria based on Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer colors. While the hard (> 10 keV) X-ray-selected low-mass AGN sample size is still limited, our results show that sensitive NuSTAR observations are capable of probing faint hard X-ray emission originating from the nuclei of low-mass galaxies out to moderate redshift (z< 0.3), thus providing a critical step in understanding AGN demographics in low-mass galaxies.

  15. The Chandra Multi-Wavelength Project (ChaMP): A Serendipitous X-Ray Survey Using Chandra Archival Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 2000 opened a new era in X-ray astronomy. Its unprecedented, < 1" spatial resolution and low background is providing views of the X-ray sky 10-100 times fainter than previously possible. We have begun to carry out a serendipitous survey of the X-ray sky using Chandra archival data to flux limits covering the range between those reached by current satellites and those of the small area Chandra deep surveys. We estimate the survey will cover about 8 sq.deg. per year to X-ray fluxes (2-10 keV) in the range 10(exp -13) - 6(exp -16) erg cm2/s and include about 3000 sources per year, roughly two thirds of which are expected to be active galactic nuclei (AGN). Optical imaging of the ChaMP fields is underway at NOAO and SAO telescopes using g',r',z' colors with which we will be able to classify the X-ray sources into object types and, in some cases, estimate their redshifts. We are also planning to obtain optical spectroscopy of a well-defined subset to allow confirmation of classification and redshift determination. All X-ray and optical results and supporting optical data will be place in the ChaMP archive within a year of the completion of our data analysis. Over the five years of Chandra operations, ChaMP will provide both a major resource for Chandra observers and a key research tool for the study of the cosmic X-ray background and the individual source populations which comprise it. ChaMP promises profoundly new science return on a number of key questions at the current frontier of many areas of astronomy including solving the spectral paradox by resolving the CXRB, locating and studying high redshift clusters and so constraining cosmological parameters, defining the true, possibly absorbed, population of quasars and studying coronal emission from late-type stars as their cores become fully convective. The current status and initial results from the ChaMP will be presented.

  16. The serendipitous radio and X-ray characterization of NVSS J224220+234652 with JVLA and Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turriziani, Sara

    In the recent years, astronomers started to benefit of rapidly growing amounts of data in all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, from long-wavelength radio waves to the highest energy gamma-rays. The importance of data mining discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics is emerging, especially with the increasingly larger number of wavelengths in which current wide-field instrumentation enables searches of large areas of sky. Here we report the radio and X-ray characterization of NVSS J224220+234652, a radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei serendipitously detected by Swift and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) in the field of GRB071021. The source was first discovered in the radio band at 1.4 GHz by the Very Large Array (VLA) and reported in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey in 1998, but it lacked of a complete radio characterization and classification till the upgrated JVLA detected it in Summer 2011 during a campaign to study the host galaxy of GRB071021. Moreover, Swift data from that GRB monitoring allowed for the first detection of NVSS J224220+234652 in the X-ray band. The radio JVLA observation at ˜ 5 GHz and in the largest array configuration (A) in 2011 allowed us to study the radio spectrum of the source and to image a double-lobe structure nearly around the X-ray position. Moreover, we built a Spectral Energy Distribution taking advantage also of the data available in the optical by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR10) and in the Infrared by the WISE AllSky Survey. Finally, we were able to classify the source as a radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei. Therefore, we think that NVSS J224220+234652 is a good ``test'' case to show how mining field data from individual pointed observations, already present in the archives, possibly allows astronomers to gather precious information for a previously unclassified/unknown source without the need of obtaining new dedicated telescope time.

  17. GOMOS serendipitous data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussen, D.; Gomos Team

    The GOMOS experiment on board ENVISAT has been measuring more than 200 000 star occultations through the Earth's limb since March 2002. With 4 spectrometers, the wavelength coverage of 245 nm to 942 nm allows to monitor ozone, H2O, NO2, NO3, BrO, OClO, air, aerosols, O2 and the temperature profiles. During the commissioning phase, GOMOS turned out to be a successful remote sounder of the Earth's atmosphere between 10 and 120 km. On the other hand, an intensive statistical processing of a large data set (about 5000 occultations) has produced high quality transmittance spectra. A preliminary investigation allowed the discovery of extremely interesting spectral signatures in the GOMOS spectra. Keeping in mind that all possible instrument artefacts should be carefully checked, we nevertheless obtained the following results that may become unexpected GOMOS data products in a near future: the excited oxygen "green line" (O(1S)->O(3P)) at 557.7 nm has been clearly identified and will be inverted the D2 sodium absorption at 589.1 nm is easily recognized in the mesosphere. The inversion of the slant path optical thickness (about 0.0025) has produced the first GOMOS Na vertical profile, in close agreement with the local climatological lidar data of Fort Collins a few possible emission or absorption lines are under investigation and need more statistical tests. However a spectral signature at 280 nm and h=˜ 103 km might probably be attributed to a mesospheric Mg+ layer a group of not yet identified stratospheric emission lines between 390 and 400 nm has been detected. Interestingly, the same lines seem to have also been observed by the SALOMON balloon borne experiment operated in night time conditions.

  18. A Serendipitous Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the conceptualization and creation of "Looking and Learning," a collaborative project that provided an opportunity for her and her curriculum students to become familiar with some wonderful artists and artworks. With the Looking and Learning project, the author and her students emphasized creating curriculum…

  19. Henri Becquerel: serendipitous brilliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaritondo, Giorgio

    2008-06-01

    Serendipity has always been an attendant to great science. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the cosmic background radiation after first mistaking it for the effect of pigeon droppings on their microwave antenna. US spy satellites detected gamma-ray bursts when surveying the sky for evidence of secret Soviet nuclear tests during the Cold War. Satyendra Bose arrived at Bose-Einstein statistics only after discovering that a mathematical error explained the experimental data concerning the photoelectric effect. In the words of science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov, "The most exciting phrase in science is not 'Eureka!', but rather, 'That's funny...'.

  20. The Serendipitous Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study asking faculty in the first-year writing program and instruction librarians about their research process focusing on results specifically related to serendipity. Steps to prepare for serendipity are highlighted as well as a model for incorporating serendipity into a first-year writing…

  1. The Serendipitous Doodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    Serendipity is the gift of finding valuable or agreeable things not sought for and a doodle is an aimless, unconscious, automatic drawing. Here they are combined in order to create imaginative designs. Briefly discusses five principles of design. (Author/RK)

  2. A Serendipitous Scientist.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2017-07-17

    Growing up in a middle-class Jewish home in the Bronx, I had only one professional goal: to become a physician. However, as with most of my Vietnam-era MD colleagues, I found my residency training interrupted by the Doctor Draft in 1968. Some of us who were academically inclined fulfilled this obligation by serving in the US Public Health Service as commissioned officers stationed at the National Institutes of Health. This experience would eventually change the entire trajectory of my career. Here I describe how, over a period of years, I transitioned from the life of a physician to that of a physician scientist; my 50 years of work on cellular receptors; and some miscellaneous thoughts on subjects as varied as Nobel prizes, scientific lineages, mentoring, publishing, and funding. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 58 is January 6, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  3. First detection and characterization of Salmonella spp. in poultry and swine raised in backyard production systems in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Alegria-Moran, R; Rivera, D; Toledo, V; Moreno-Switt, A I; Hamilton-West, C

    2017-09-20

    Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile. Faecal samples were taken from swine, poultry, geese, ducks, turkeys and peacocks, as well as environmental faecal samples. Confirmation of Salmonella spp. was performed using invA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Identification of serovars was carried out using a molecular serotyping approach, where serogroups were confirmed by a multiplex PCR of Salmonella serogroup genes for five Salmonella O antigens (i.e., D, B, C1, C2-C3, and E1), along with two PCR amplifications, followed by sequencing of fliC and fljB genes. A total of 25 samples (1·4% of total samples) from 15 BPS (4·6 % of total sampled BPS) were found positive for Salmonella. Positive samples were found in poultry (chickens and ducks), swine and environmental sources. Molecular prediction of serovars on Salmonella isolated showed 52·0% of S. Typhimurium, 16·0% of S. Infantis, 16·0% S. Enteritidis, 8·0% S. Hadar, 4·0% S. Tennessee and 4·0% S. Kentucky. Poor biosecurity measures were found on sampled BPS, where a high percentage of mixed confinement systems (72·8%); and almost half of the sampled BPS with improper management of infected mortalities (e.g. selling the carcasses of infected animals for consumption). Number of birds other than chickens (P = 0·014; OR = 1·04; IC (95%) = 1·01-1·07), mixed productive objective (P = 0·030; OR = 5·35; IC (95%) = 1·24-27·59) and mixed animal replacement origin (P = 0017; OR = 5·19; IC (95%) = 1·35-20·47) were detected as

  4. Backyard poultry raising in Bangladesh: a valued resource for the villagers and a setting for zoonotic transmission of avian influenza. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Nahar, N; Rimi, N A; Azad, S; Islam, M S; Gurley, E S; Luby, S P

    2012-01-01

    Backyard poultry raising is common in rural communities and a valued resource that provides food and income for subsistence farmers. Close contact with infected backyard poultry has been associated with H5N1 human cases in different countries. The emergence of this virus within Bangladesh means that backyard poultry raisers are at risk of avian influenza infections. The aim of this study was to understand why people raise backyard poultry and to characterize people's regular interaction with their poultry. In 2008, a qualitative study was conducted in two villages from two districts of Bangladesh. In a social mapping exercise the villagers drew all the households in their village: 115 households in the village in Netrokona and 85 households in the village in Rajshahi District. Selected were 40 households (20 households from each of the two villages) for data collection through in-depth interviews (n=40) and household mapping (n=40), and observation sessions (n=16). In both villages, 92% of households raised backyard poultry. The majority of the owners was female and used the money earned from poultry raising to purchase cooking ingredients, clothing, and agricultural seeds, and pay for children's education expenses. The households consumed poultry meat and eggs. In the village in Netrokona, 80% (85/106) of households kept poultry inside the bedroom. In the village in Rajshahi, 87% (68/78) of households had separate cage/night sheds. During feeding the poultry and cleaning the poultry raising areas, villagers came into contact with poultry and poultry feces. Poultry scavenged for food on the floor, bed, in the food pot and around the place where food was cooked. Poultry drank from and bathed in the same body of water that villagers used for bathing and washing utensils and clothes. Although raising poultry provides essential support to the families' livelihoods, it exposes them to the risk of avian influenza through close contact with their poultry. Simple warnings

  5. Detection and isolation of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 from a small backyard swine herd in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Weller, Christina B; Cadmus, Kyran J; Ehrhart, E J; Powers, Barbara E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2013-11-01

    Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 A(H1N1)pdm09 was first confirmed in pigs in the United States in October 2009. In November 2010, lungs and intestines from 2 York piglets from a small, privately owned herd were submitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The submitting veterinarian reported rapid weight loss and signs of pneumonia in the piglets. Gross lesions included caudoventral pneumonia in both piglets, and histologic lesions in the lungs showed characteristics consistent with influenza virus and bacterial infection. Ribonucleic acid extracted from fresh lung homogenates from both piglets was positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 by a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Virus was isolated from lung homogenates from both piglets in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, as well as in 10-day-old specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis showed 98% homology with 2009 H1N1 human isolates from across the United States and 98% homology against two 2009 and 2010 swine isolates from Nebraska and Minnesota. The current report documents the possible transmission of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] from a human being to a small, privately owned backyard swine herd. The owner was employed as a pharmacist, making occupational exposure to the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 a possibility.

  6. "Not in (or under) my backyard": Geographic proximity and public acceptance of carbon capture and storage facilities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel M; Carley, Sanya R; Warren, David C; Rupp, John A; Graham, John D

    2014-03-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an innovative technical approach to mitigate the problem of climate change by capturing carbon dioxide emissions and injecting them underground for permanent geological storage. CCS has been perceived both positively, as an innovative approach to facilitate a more environmentally benign use of fossil fuels while also generating local economic benefits, and negatively, as a technology that prolongs the use of carbon-intensive energy sources and burdens local communities with prohibitive costs and ecological and human health risks. This article extends existing research on the "not in my backyard" (NIMBY) phenomenon in a direction that explores the public acceptance of CCS. We utilize survey data collected from 1,001 residents of the coal-intensive U.S. state of Indiana. Over 80% of respondents express support for the general use of CCS technology. However, 20% of these initial supporters exhibit a NIMBY-like reaction and switch to opposition as a CCS facility is proposed close to their communities. Respondents' worldviews, their beliefs about the local economic benefits that CCS will generate, and their concerns about its safety have the greatest impact on increasing or decreasing the acceptance of nearby facilities. These results lend valuable insights into the perceived risks associated with CCS technology and the possibilities for its public acceptance at both a national and local scale. They may be extended further to provide initial insights into likely public reactions to other technologies that share a similar underground dimension, such as hydraulic fracturing.

  7. Not all cases of nyctalopia are benign: Unusual and serendipitous presentation of Arnold–Chiari Type 1 malformation at a Pediatric Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Kailash Chandra; Kirtane, Abhijeet Prakash

    2016-01-01

    The Arnold–Chiari Type 1 malformation (CM1) is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by ectopia or caudal herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the cervical spine, resulting in crowding at the craniocervical junction. It seldom presents in childhood with symptoms and a normal neurological examination. More typically, CM1 presents in young adult women with neurological symptoms including a headache, cervical pain, cranial nerve palsies, neurosensory deficit, and ataxia. Ocular manifestations associated with Chiari I include third and sixth cranial nerve paresis and convergence/divergence abnormalities. Papilledema is a rare manifestation of Chiari I with a clinical presentation often similar to that of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. To underscore this noteworthy complication, the authors report a case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with nyctalopia and suboccipital headaches, but was diagnosed serendipitously as a case of papilledema due to Chiari I malformation. PMID:27857798

  8. Not all cases of nyctalopia are benign: Unusual and serendipitous presentation of Arnold-Chiari Type 1 malformation at a Pediatric Tertiary Care Center.

    PubMed

    Patra, Kailash Chandra; Kirtane, Abhijeet Prakash

    2016-01-01

    The Arnold-Chiari Type 1 malformation (CM1) is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by ectopia or caudal herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the cervical spine, resulting in crowding at the craniocervical junction. It seldom presents in childhood with symptoms and a normal neurological examination. More typically, CM1 presents in young adult women with neurological symptoms including a headache, cervical pain, cranial nerve palsies, neurosensory deficit, and ataxia. Ocular manifestations associated with Chiari I include third and sixth cranial nerve paresis and convergence/divergence abnormalities. Papilledema is a rare manifestation of Chiari I with a clinical presentation often similar to that of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. To underscore this noteworthy complication, the authors report a case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with nyctalopia and suboccipital headaches, but was diagnosed serendipitously as a case of papilledema due to Chiari I malformation.

  9. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Community Observer Program including the Science Enhancement Option Box (SEO Box) - 12 TB On-board Flash Memory for Serendipitous Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schingler, Robert; Villasenor, J. N.; Ricker, G. R.; Latham, D. W.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ennico, K. A.; Lewis, B. S.; Bakos, G.; Brown, T. M.; Burgasser, A. J.; Charbonneau, D.; Clampin, M.; Deming, L. D.; Doty, J. P.; Dunham, E. W.; Elliot, J. L.; Holman, M. J.; Ida, S.; Jenkins, J. M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Kawai, N.; Laughlin, G. P.; Lissauer, J. J.; Martel, F.; Sasselov, D. D.; Seager, S.; Torres, G.; Udry, S.; Winn, J. N.; Worden, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will perform an all-sky survey in a low-inclination, low-Earth orbit. TESS's 144 GB of raw data collected each orbit will be stacked, cleaned, cut, compressed and downloaded. The Community Observer Program is a Science Enhancement Option (SEO) that takes advantage of the low-radiation environment, technology advances in flash memory, and the vast amount of astronomical data collected by TESS. The Community Observer Program requires the addition of a 12 TB "SEO Box” inside the TESS Bus. The hardware can be built using low-cost Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components and fits within TESS's margins while accommodating GSFC gold rules. The SEO Box collects and stores a duplicate of the TESS camera data at a "raw” stage ( 4.3 GB/orbit, after stacking and cleaning) and makes them available for on-board processing. The sheer amount of onboard storage provided by the SEO Box allows the stacking and storing of several months of data, allowing the investigator to probe deeper in time prior to a given event. Additionally, with computation power and data in standard formats, investigators can utilize data-mining techniques to investigate serendipitous phenomenon, including pulsating stars, eclipsing binaries, supernovae or other transient phenomena. The Community Observer Program enables ad-hoc teams of citizen scientists to propose, test, refine and rank algorithms for on-board analysis to support serendipitous science. Combining "best practices” of online collaboration, with careful moderation and community management, enables this `crowd sourced’ participatory exploration with a minimal risk and impact on the core TESS Team. This system provides a powerful and independent tool opening a wide range of opportunity for science enhancement and secondary science. Support for this work has been provided by NASA, the Kavli Foundation, Google, and the Smithsonian Institution.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue 2XMMi-DR3 (XMM-SSC, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xmm-Newton Survey Science Centre, Consortium

    2010-05-01

    The 2XMMi-DR3 catalogue is the fifth publicly released XMM X-ray source catalogue produced by the XMM Survey Science Centre (SSC) consortium on behalf of ESA. It follows the 1XMM (Cat. IX/37, released in April 2003), 2XMMp (July 2006), 2XMM (Cat. IX/39, August 2007) and 2XMMi (Cat. IX/40, August 2008) catalogues: 2XMMp was a preliminary version of 2XMM. 2XMMi and 2XMMi-DR3 are incremental versions of the 2XMM catalogue. In summary, the versions are: -------------------------------------------- Name DR# Designation Year Cat. -------------------------------------------- 2XMMp 0 2XMMp-DR0 2006 2XMM 1 2XMM-DR1 2007 IX/39 2XMMi 2 2XMMi-DR2 2008 IX/40 2XMMi-DR3 3 2XMMi-DR3 2010 IX/41 -------------------------------------------- The production and content of the 2XMM catalogue is described in detail in "The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey. V. The second XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue", M.G. Watson et al., 2009A&A...493..339W; there are no significant differences in the processing between the 2XMM, 2XMMi and 2XMMi-DR3 observations The "slim" version of the catalogue (file "xmm2r3s.dat") contains one row per unique source, while the the main catalogue has one row per detection. This slim version includes 38 columns, essentially those containing information about the unique sources, while the full catalogue (file "xmm2r3.fit") describes the 353191 detections with 299 columns. The slim version also contains a column with links to the LEDAS summary pages. In the case of sources with multiple detections the summary page of the best detection is selected (i.e., the detection with the largest exposure time, summed over all cameras), and the summary page gives cross-links to the other detections. (2 data files).

  11. Surveillance for avian influenza and Newcastle disease in backyard poultry flocks in Côte d'Ivoire, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Kouakou, A V; Kouamé, C K; Kouassi, A L; Koffi, Y M; Godji, P; Nana, P; Tarnagda, Z; Akoua-Koffi, C

    2012-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, active surveys were conducted on backyard poultry (chickens, guinea fowls and ducks) in four areas of Côte d'Ivoire, including two areas where avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks occurred in 2006. Each bird underwent clinical examination. In total, 5,578 sera, 4,580 tracheal swabs and 5,120 cloacal swabs were collected, plus tissues from 35 sick chickens. Using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, 277 and 36 serum samples were positive for H5 and H7, respectively; all were negative for H9. All samples were negative by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results confirm the circulation of H5 and H7 influenza subtypes in backyard poultry in Côte d'Ivoire. Given that the seropositive birds were healthy, the circulating subtypes may be low pathogenicity avian influenza strains. Half (2,680) of the sera collected from chickens were tested by HI for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibody: 531 were positive. The seroprevalence of 19.8% confirms the endemic status of NDV, but may underestimate its true prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire.

  12. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Bolotin, Vitaliy; Muzyka, Denys; Goraichuk, Iryna V; Solodiankin, Olexii; Gerilovych, Anton; Stegniy, Borys; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V; Silko, Nikita Y; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-12-01

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site ("113RQKR↓F117"), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values ranging from 1.61 to 1.96. These isolates are most closely related to viruses circulating in Eastern Europe, followed by viruses isolated in Asia during the same period of time. Interestingly, the majority of the viruses were isolated from backyard poultry, suggesting the possibility of a "domestic" or "urban" cycle of maintenance. The molecular characterization of the nucleotide sequence of the complete fusion protein gene of the studied viruses suggests continued circulation of virulent NDV of sub-genotype VIId in Eastern Europe, with occasional introductions from Asia. Furthermore, the high level of genetic similarity among those isolates suggests that the NDV isolates of sub-genotype VIId from Bulgaria and Ukraine may have been part of a broader epizootic process in Eastern Europe rather than separate introductions from Asia or Africa. The continuous monitoring of backyard poultry flocks for the presence of circulating virulent NDV strains will allow early identification of Newcastle disease outbreaks.

  13. Serendipitous Discovery of a Massive cD Galaxy at z = 1.096: Implications for the Early Formation and Late Evolution of cD Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F. S.; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Barro, Guillermo; Yesuf, Hassen; Faber, S. M.; Giavalisco, M.; Cassata, P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Pentericci, L.; Castellano, M.; Cheung, Edmond; Mao, Shude; Xia, X. Y.; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Kocevski, Dale; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-06-01

    We have made a serendipitous discovery of a massive (~5 × 1011 M ⊙) cD galaxy at z = 1.096 in a candidate-rich cluster in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) area of GOODS-South. This brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) is the most distant cD galaxy confirmed to date. Ultra-deep HST/WFC3 images reveal an extended envelope starting from ~10 kpc and reaching ~70 kpc in radius along the semimajor axis. The spectral energy distributions indicate that both its inner component and outer envelope are composed of an old, passively evolving (specific star formation rate <10-4 Gyr-1) stellar population. The cD galaxy lies on the same mass-size relation as the bulk of quiescent galaxies at similar redshifts. The cD galaxy has a higher stellar mass surface density ({\\sim} M_*/R_{50}^2) but a similar velocity dispersion ({\\sim} \\sqrt{M_*/R_{50}}) to those of more massive, nearby cDs. If the cD galaxy is one of the progenitors of today's more massive cDs, its size (R 50) and stellar mass have had to increase on average by factors of 3.4 ± 1.1 and 3.3 ± 1.3 over the past ~8 Gyr, respectively. Such increases in size and stellar mass without being accompanied by significant increases in velocity dispersion are consistent with evolutionary scenarios driven by both major and minor dissipationless (dry) mergers. If such cD envelopes originate from dry mergers, our discovery of even one example proves that some BCGs entered the dry merger phase at epochs earlier than z = 1. Our data match theoretical models which predict that the continuance of dry mergers at z < 1 can result in structures similar to those of massive cD galaxies seen today. Moreover, our discovery is a surprise given that the extreme depth of the HUDF is essential to reveal such an extended cD envelope at z > 1 and, yet, the HUDF covers only a minuscule region of sky (~3.1 × 10-8). Adding that cDs are rare, our serendipitous discovery hints that such cDs may be more common than expected, perhaps even ubiquitous

  14. SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF A MASSIVE cD GALAXY AT z = 1.096: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EARLY FORMATION AND LATE EVOLUTION OF cD GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F. S.; Guo Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Barro, Guillermo; Yesuf, Hassen; Faber, S. M.; Cheung, Edmond; Cassata, P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Pentericci, L.; Castellano, M.; Mao, Shude; Xia, X. Y.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Kocevski, Dale; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; and others

    2013-06-01

    We have made a serendipitous discovery of a massive ({approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }) cD galaxy at z = 1.096 in a candidate-rich cluster in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) area of GOODS-South. This brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) is the most distant cD galaxy confirmed to date. Ultra-deep HST/WFC3 images reveal an extended envelope starting from {approx}10 kpc and reaching {approx}70 kpc in radius along the semimajor axis. The spectral energy distributions indicate that both its inner component and outer envelope are composed of an old, passively evolving (specific star formation rate <10{sup -4} Gyr{sup -1}) stellar population. The cD galaxy lies on the same mass-size relation as the bulk of quiescent galaxies at similar redshifts. The cD galaxy has a higher stellar mass surface density ({approx}M{sub *}/R{sub 50}{sup 2}) but a similar velocity dispersion ({approx}{radical}(M{sub *}/R{sub 50})) to those of more massive, nearby cDs. If the cD galaxy is one of the progenitors of today's more massive cDs, its size (R{sub 50}) and stellar mass have had to increase on average by factors of 3.4 {+-} 1.1 and 3.3 {+-} 1.3 over the past {approx}8 Gyr, respectively. Such increases in size and stellar mass without being accompanied by significant increases in velocity dispersion are consistent with evolutionary scenarios driven by both major and minor dissipationless (dry) mergers. If such cD envelopes originate from dry mergers, our discovery of even one example proves that some BCGs entered the dry merger phase at epochs earlier than z = 1. Our data match theoretical models which predict that the continuance of dry mergers at z < 1 can result in structures similar to those of massive cD galaxies seen today. Moreover, our discovery is a surprise given that the extreme depth of the HUDF is essential to reveal such an extended cD envelope at z > 1 and, yet, the HUDF covers only a minuscule region of sky ({approx}3.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8

  15. Hybrid Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-08

    hybrid electric vehicles typically contain potentially hazardous levels of electrical voltage or current. It is important to protect the operators...60740. ITOP 2-2-607(1)41 is used for tracked vehicles. 13 TOP 2-1-003 08 December 2008 Hybrid electric vehicles often employ much more

  16. Probing Saturation in Stellar Coronae and Chromospheres: Spectral Classification and Analysis of Serendipitously Detected X-ray Sources and Their Optical Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgang, Angie; Covey, K.; Green, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP) has constructed a database of 6800 X-ray sources serendipitously detected by Chandra imaging and matched to optical counterparts with high confidence. We present new optical spectral classifications for 147 X-ray bright (fX 10-14 - 10-12 ergs s-1) ChaMP sources based primarily on observations with the FAST Spectrograph on the Tillinghast 60" Telescope at Mt. Hopkins. 45 of these sources are identified as M stars with Hα emission and are combined with existing stellar spectra in the ChaMP database, creating a final sample size of 121 emitting M stars which we use to analyze the correlation between LHα/Lbol and LX/Lbol. Analysis by Covey et al. (2008) of 40 M stars in a similar sample found evidence for a turnover in the LHα/Lbol vs. LX/Lbol relationship near LX/ Lbol 3 x 10-4. Our expanded sample nearly triples the size of the sample analyzed by Covey et al. (2008) and shows no evidence of a turnover in the LHα/Lbol vs. LX/Lbol relationship. However, our analysis does corroborate the existence of a plateau at LHα/Lbol 10-3 and suggests a sample bias towards flaring stars. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  17. The Low-Mass X-Ray Binary X1832-330 in the Globular Cluster NGC 6652: A Serendipitous ASCA Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Koji; Smale, Alan P.

    1999-01-01

    The Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) X1832-330 in NGC 6652 is one of about 10 bright X-ray sources to have been discovered in Globular Clusters. We report on a serendipitous ASCA observation of this Globular Cluster LMXB, during which a Type I burst was detected and the persistent, non-burst emission of the source was at its brightest level recorded to date. No orbital modulation was detected, which argues against a high inclination for the X1832-330 system. The spectrum of the persistent emission can be fit with a power law plus a partial covering absorber, although other models are not ruled out. Our time-resolved spectral analysis through the burst shows, for the first time, clear evidence for spectral cooling from kT = 2.4 +/- 0.6 keV to kT = 1.0 +/- 0.1 keV during the decay. The measured peak flux during the burst is approximately 10% of the Eddington luminosity for a 1.4 Solar Mass neutron star. These are characteristic of a Type I burst, in the context of the relatively low quiescent luminosity of X1832-330.

  18. Serendipitous Detection of X-Ray Emission from the Hot Born-again Central Star of the Planetary Nebula K 1-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montez, Rodolfo, Jr.; Kastner, Joel H.

    2013-03-01

    We report the serendipitous detection of point-like X-ray emission from the hot, PG1159-type central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) K 1-16 by the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-Ray Observatories. The CSPN lies superimposed on a galaxy cluster that includes an X-ray-bright quasar, but we have successfully isolated the CSPN X-ray emission from the strong diffuse background contributed by the quasar and intracluster gas. We have modeled the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray data, taking advantage of the contrasting detection efficiencies of the two observatories to better constrain the low-energy spectral response of Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. We find that the CSPN X-ray spectrum is well characterized by the combination of a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere with T sstarf ~ 135 kK and a carbon-rich, optically thin thermal plasma with T X ~ 1 MK. These results for X-ray emission from the K 1-16 CSPN, combined with those obtained for other PG1159-type objects, lend support to the "born-again" scenario for Wolf-Rayet and PG1159 CSPNe, wherein a late helium shell flash dredges up carbon-rich intershell material and ejects this material into the circumstellar environment.

  19. SERENDIPITOUS DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE HOT BORN-AGAIN CENTRAL STAR OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA K 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Montez, Rodolfo Jr.; Kastner, Joel H. E-mail: jhk@cis.rit.edu

    2013-03-20

    We report the serendipitous detection of point-like X-ray emission from the hot, PG1159-type central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) K 1-16 by the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-Ray Observatories. The CSPN lies superimposed on a galaxy cluster that includes an X-ray-bright quasar, but we have successfully isolated the CSPN X-ray emission from the strong diffuse background contributed by the quasar and intracluster gas. We have modeled the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray data, taking advantage of the contrasting detection efficiencies of the two observatories to better constrain the low-energy spectral response of Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. We find that the CSPN X-ray spectrum is well characterized by the combination of a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere with T{sub *} {approx} 135 kK and a carbon-rich, optically thin thermal plasma with T{sub X} {approx} 1 MK. These results for X-ray emission from the K 1-16 CSPN, combined with those obtained for other PG1159-type objects, lend support to the 'born-again' scenario for Wolf-Rayet and PG1159 CSPNe, wherein a late helium shell flash dredges up carbon-rich intershell material and ejects this material into the circumstellar environment.

  20. Welcoming Wind Turbines and the PIMBY ("Please in My Backyard") Phenomenon: The Culture of the Machine in the Rural American Midwest.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Joshua T; Hirsh, Richard F

    This article argues that the welcoming of wind turbines in midwestern farming communities, the so-called PIMBY ("Please in My Backyard") phenomenon, constitutes only the most recent expression of a historical process of farmers forming an ultramodern identity, one that still goes largely unappreciated by relatively backward city residents. We conclude that farmers undertook a two-step process to develop a modern identity that incorporated rural values. In the first step, beginning early in the twentieth century, agrarians employed a discourse of rural capitalistic modernity to combat urban yokel stereotypes within the context of a broader rural-urban conflict. This rural capitalistic modernity strengthened during the cold war until it transformed, in the second step, into the current ultramodern discourse. Wind turbines, in addition to providing economic benefits, function ontologically to maintain an identity of rural citizens as savvy producers and users of technology, and to deflect stereotypes imposed by their urban cousins.

  1. Social network analysis for assessment of avian influenza spread and trading patterns of backyard chickens in Nakhon Pathom, Suphan Buri and Ratchaburi, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Poolkhet, C; Chairatanayuth, P; Thongratsakul, S; Yatbantoong, N; Kasemsuwan, S; Damchoey, D; Rukkwamsuk, T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the social networks of the backyard chicken in Ratchaburi, Suphan Buri and Nakhon Pathom Provinces. In this study, we designed the nodes as groups of persons or places involved in activities relating to backyard chickens. The ties are all activities related to the nodes. The study applied a partial network approach to assess the spreading pattern of avian influenza. From 557 questionnaires collected from the nodes, the researchers found that the degree (the numbers of ties that a node has) and closeness (the distance from one node to the others) centralities of Nakhon Pathom were significantly higher than those of the others (P<0.001). The results show that compared with the remaining areas, this area is more quickly connected to many links. If the avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 was released into the network, the disease would spread throughout this province more rapidly than in Ratchaburi and Suphan Buri. The betweenness centrality in each of these provinces showed no differences (P>0.05). In this study, the nodes that play an important role in all networks are farmers who raise consumable chicken, farmers who raise both consumable chicken and fighting cocks, farmers' households that connect with dominant nodes, and the owners and observers of fighting cocks at arenas and training fields. In this study, we did not find cut points or blocks in the network. Moreover, we detected a random network in all provinces. Thus, connectivity between the nodes covers long or short distances, with less predictable behaviour. Finally, this study suggests that activities between the important nodes must receive special attention for disease control during future disease outbreaks.

  2. Growing Backyard Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  3. The Backyard Naturalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts, Craig

    Many wildlife enthusiasts are aware of the need for planting certain flowers, shrubs, and trees to attract animals. Some arrange their yards to provide for food, water, cover, and areas for animals to bear and raise their young. These include city dwellers who create mini-refuges in tiny urban plots and suburbanites who design elaborate…

  4. The Backyard Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentz, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Research on Arizona State University's intensive English program indicates that the majority of students learned about it through family, relatives, or friends in the local community, not through its extensive overseas recruiting techniques or electronic technology. Local recruiting strategies include local English media features and advertising,…

  5. Danger in the Backyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummond, A. H., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Describes plant tissues that naturally contain substances poisonous to human beings if taken in large amounts. Some of these toxic materials are found in vegetables and fruits, as well as plants we normally don't eat such as yew. Also notes that plants recently sprayed with pesticides are harmful. (BR)

  6. The Backyard Naturalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts, Craig

    Many wildlife enthusiasts are aware of the need for planting certain flowers, shrubs, and trees to attract animals. Some arrange their yards to provide for food, water, cover, and areas for animals to bear and raise their young. These include city dwellers who create mini-refuges in tiny urban plots and suburbanites who design elaborate…

  7. Danger in the Backyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummond, A. H., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Describes plant tissues that naturally contain substances poisonous to human beings if taken in large amounts. Some of these toxic materials are found in vegetables and fruits, as well as plants we normally don't eat such as yew. Also notes that plants recently sprayed with pesticides are harmful. (BR)

  8. Stellarator hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.

    1984-08-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.

  9. The serendipitous observation of a gravitationally lensed galaxy at z = 0.9057 from the Blanco Cosmology Survey: the Elliot Arc

    DOE PAGES

    Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lin, H.; Drabek, E. R.; ...

    2011-11-03

    We report on the serendipitous discovery in the Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) imaging data of a z = 0.9057 galaxy that is being strongly lensed by a massive galaxy cluster at a redshift of z = 0.3838. The lens (BCS J2352-5452) was discovered while examining i- and z-band images being acquired in October 2006 during a BCS observing run. Follow-up spectroscopic observations with the GMOS instrument on the Gemini South 8m telescope confirmed the lensing nature of this system. Using weak plus strong lensing, velocity dispersion, cluster richness N200, and fitting to an NFW cluster mass density profile, we havemore » made three independent estimates of the mass M200 which are all very consistent with each other. The combination of the results from the three methods gives M200 = (5.1 x 1.3) x 1014 circle_dot, which is fully consistent with the individual measurements. The final NFW concentration c200 from the combined fit is c200 = 5.4-1.1+1.4. We have compared our measurements of M200 and c200 with predictions for (a) clusters from λCDM simulations, (b) lensing selected clusters from simulations, and (c) a real sample of cluster lenses. We find that we are most compatible with the predictions for λCDM simulations for lensing clusters, and we see no evidence based on this one system for an increased concentration compared to λCDM. Finally, using the flux measured from the [OII]3727 line we have determined the star formation rate (SFR) of the source galaxy and find it to be rather modest given the assumed lens magnification.« less

  10. The serendipitous observation of a gravitationally lensed galaxy at z = 0.9057 from the Blanco Cosmology Survey: the Elliot Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lin, H.; Drabek, E. R.; Allam, S. S.; Tucker, D. L.; Armstrong, R.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Bertin, E.; Brodwin, M.; Desai, S.; Frieman, J. A.; Hansen, S. M.; High, F. W.; Mohr, J. J.; Lin, Y. -T.; Ngeow, C. -C.; Rest, A.; Smith, R. C.; Song, J.; Zenteno, A.

    2011-11-03

    We report on the serendipitous discovery in the Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) imaging data of a z = 0.9057 galaxy that is being strongly lensed by a massive galaxy cluster at a redshift of z = 0.3838. The lens (BCS J2352-5452) was discovered while examining i- and z-band images being acquired in October 2006 during a BCS observing run. Follow-up spectroscopic observations with the GMOS instrument on the Gemini South 8m telescope confirmed the lensing nature of this system. Using weak plus strong lensing, velocity dispersion, cluster richness N200, and fitting to an NFW cluster mass density profile, we have made three independent estimates of the mass M200 which are all very consistent with each other. The combination of the results from the three methods gives M200 = (5.1 x 1.3) x 1014 circle_dot, which is fully consistent with the individual measurements. The final NFW concentration c200 from the combined fit is c200 = 5.4-1.1+1.4. We have compared our measurements of M200 and c200 with predictions for (a) clusters from λCDM simulations, (b) lensing selected clusters from simulations, and (c) a real sample of cluster lenses. We find that we are most compatible with the predictions for λCDM simulations for lensing clusters, and we see no evidence based on this one system for an increased concentration compared to λCDM. Finally, using the flux measured from the [OII]3727 line we have determined the star formation rate (SFR) of the source galaxy and find it to be rather modest given the assumed lens magnification.

  11. The "serendipitous brain": Low expectancy and timing uncertainty of conscious events improve awareness of unconscious ones (evidence from the Attentional Blink).

    PubMed

    Lasaponara, Stefano; Dragone, Alessio; Lecce, Francesca; Di Russo, Francesco; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2015-10-01

    To anticipate upcoming sensory events, the brain picks-up and exploits statistical regularities in the sensory environment. However, it is untested whether cumulated predictive knowledge about consciously seen stimuli improves the access to awareness of stimuli that usually go unseen. To explore this issue, we exploited the Attentional Blink (AB) effect, where conscious processing of a first visual target (T1) hinders detection of early following targets (T2). We report that timing uncertainty and low expectancy about the occurrence of consciously seen T2s presented outside the AB period, improve detection of early and otherwise often unseen T2s presented inside the AB. Recording of high-resolution Event Related Potentials (ERPs) and the study of their intracranial sources showed that the brain achieves this improvement by initially amplifying and extending the pre-conscious storage of T2s' traces signalled by the N2 wave originating in the extra-striate cortex. This enhancement in the N2 wave is followed by specific changes in the latency and amplitude of later components in the P3 wave (P3a and P3b), signalling access of the sensory trace to the network of parietal and frontal areas modulating conscious processing. These findings show that the interaction between conscious and unconscious processing changes adaptively as a function of the probabilistic properties of the sensory environment and that the combination of an active attentional state with loose probabilistic and temporal expectancies on forthcoming conscious events favors the emergence to awareness of otherwise unnoticed visual events. This likely provides an insight on the attentional conditions that predispose an active observer to unexpected "serendipitous" findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE SERENDIPITOUS OBSERVATION OF A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED GALAXY AT z = 0.9057 FROM THE BLANCO COSMOLOGY SURVEY: THE ELLIOT ARC

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lin, H.; Drabek, E. R.; Allam, S. S.; Tucker, D. L.; Frieman, J. A.; Armstrong, R.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Bertin, E.; Brodwin, M.; Desai, S.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Hansen, S. M.; High, F. W.; Mohr, J. J.; Zenteno, A.; Lin, Y.-T.; Rest, A.; Smith, R. C.; Song, J.

    2011-11-20

    We report on the serendipitous discovery in the Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) imaging data of a z = 0.9057 galaxy that is being strongly lensed by a massive galaxy cluster at a redshift of z = 0.3838. The lens (BCS J2352-5452) was discovered while examining i- and z-band images being acquired in 2006 October during a BCS observing run. Follow-up spectroscopic observations with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument on the Gemini-South 8 m telescope confirmed the lensing nature of this system. Using weak-plus-strong lensing, velocity dispersion, cluster richness N{sub 200}, and fitting to a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) cluster mass density profile, we have made three independent estimates of the mass M{sub 200} which are all very consistent with each other. The combination of the results from the three methods gives M{sub 200} = (5.1 {+-} 1.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }, which is fully consistent with the individual measurements. The final NFW concentration c{sub 200} from the combined fit is c{sub 200} = 5.4{sup +1.4}{sub -1.1}. We have compared our measurements of M{sub 200} and c{sub 200} with predictions for (1) clusters from {Lambda}CDM simulations, (2) lensing-selected clusters from simulations, and (3) a real sample of cluster lenses. We find that we are most compatible with the predictions for {Lambda}CDM simulations for lensing clusters, and we see no evidence based on this one system for an increased concentration compared to {Lambda}CDM. Finally, using the flux measured from the [O II]3727 line we have determined the star formation rate of the source galaxy and find it to be rather modest given the assumed lens magnification.

  13. The 8 O'Clock Arc: A Serendipitous Discovery of a Strongly Lensed Lyman Break Galaxy in the SDSS DR4 Imaging Data

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Lin, Huan; Diehl, H.Thomas; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2006-11-01

    We report on the serendipitous discovery of the brightest Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) currently known, a galaxy at z = 2.73 that is being strongly lensed by the z = 0.38 Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) SDSS J002240.91+143110.4. The arc of this gravitational lens system, which we have dubbed the ''8 o'clock arc'' due to its time of discovery, was initially identified in the imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 (SDSS DR4); followup observations on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory confirmed the lensing nature of this system and led to the identification of the arc's spectrum as that of an LBG. The arc has a spectrum and a redshift remarkably similar to those of the previous record-holder for brightest LBG (MS 1512-cB58, a.k.a ''cB58''), but, with an estimated total magnitude of (g,r,i) = (20.0,19.2,19.0) and surface brightness of ({mu}{sub g}, {mu}{sub r}, {mu}{sub i}) = (23.3, 22.5, 22.3) mag arcsec{sup -2}, the 8 o'clock arc is thrice as bright. The 8 o'clock arc, which consists of three lensed images of the LBG, is 162{sup o}(9.6'') long and has a length-to-width ratio of 6:1. A fourth image of the LBG--a counter-image--can also be identified in the ARC 3.5m g-band images. A simple lens model for the system assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid potential yields an Einstein radius of {theta}{sub Ein} = 2.91'' {+-} 0.14'', a total mass for the lensing LRG (within the 10.6 {+-} 0.5 h{sup -1} kpc enclosed by the lensed images) of 1.04 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}, and a magnification factor for the LBG of 12.3{sub -3.6}{sup +15}. The LBG itself is intrinsically quite luminous ({approx} 6 x L{sub *}) and shows indications of massive recent star formation, perhaps as high as 160 h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1}.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue 3XMM-DR4 (XMM-SSC, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xmm-Newton Survey Science Centre, Consortium

    2013-10-01

    The 3XMM-DR4 catalogue is the third generation catalog of serendipitous X-ray sources from the European Space Agency's (ESA) XMM-Newton observatory, and has been created by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC) on behalf of ESA. The catalog has 2474 more observations and about 178,000 (50%) more detections than the preceding 2XMMi-DR3 catalog, which was made public in April 2010. The history of the versions can be summarized as: ---------------------------------------------------- Name DR# Designation Year Cat. #Sources ---------------------------------------------------- 2XMMp 0 2XMMp-DR0 2006 2XMM 1 2XMM-DR1 2007 IX/39 191870 2XMMi 2 2XMMi-DR2 2008 IX/40 221012 2XMMi-DR3 3 2XMMi-DR3 2010 IX/41 262902 3XMM-DR4 4 3XMM 2013 IX/44 372728 ---------------------------------------------------- The production and content of the 3XMM catalogue is described in the the 3XMM-DR4 User Guide at http://xmmssc-www.star.le.ac.uk/Catalogue/3XMM-DR4/UserGuide_xmmcat.html The "slim" version of the catalogue (file "xmm3r4s.dat") contains one row per unique source, while the the main catalogue has one row per detection. This slim version includes 44 columns, essentially those containing information about the unique sources, while the full catalogue (file "xmm3r4.fit") describes all detections with 318 columns. The slim version also contains a column with links to the LEDAS summary pages. In the case of sources with multiple detections the summary page of the best detection is selected (i.e., the detection with the largest exposure time, summed over all cameras), and the summary page gives cross-links to the other detections. A separate file "summary.dat" contains the key details about the observations used in the construction of the 3XMM-DR4 catalogue. (3 data files).

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue 3XMM-DR5 (XMM-SSC, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, S. R.; Webb, N. A.; Watson, M. G.; Ballet, J.; Barret, D.; Braito, V.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Coriat, M.; Della Ceca, R.; Denkinson, G.; Esquej, P.; Farrell, S. A.; Freyberg, M.; Grise, F.; Guillout, P.; Heil, L.; Law-Green, D.; Lamer, G.; Lin, D.; Martino, R.; Michel, L.; Motch, C.; Nebot Gomez-Moran, A.; Page, C. G.; Page, K.; Page, M.; Pakull, M. W.; Pye, J.; Read, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Sakano, M.; Saxton, R.; Schwope, A.; Scott, A. E.; Sturm, R.; Traulsen, I.; Yershov, V.; Zolotukhin, I.

    2016-02-01

    The 3XMM-DR5 catalogue is the third generation catalog of serendipitous X-ray sources from the European Space Agency's (ESA) XMM-Newton observatory, and has been created by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC) on behalf of ESA. The catalog has 354 more observations and 34701 more detections than the preceding 3XMM-DR4 catalog, which was made public in July 2013. The history of the versions can be summarized as: ---------------------------------------------------- Name DR# Designation Year Cat. #Sources ---------------------------------------------------- 2XMMp 0 2XMMp-DR0 2006 2XMM 1 2XMM-DR1 2007 IX/39 191870 2XMMi 2 2XMMi-DR2 2008 IX/40 221012 2XMMi-DR3 3 2XMMi-DR3 2010 IX/41 262902 3XMM-DR4 4 3XMM 2013 IX/44 372728 3XMM-DR5 5 3XMM 2016 IX/46 396910 ---------------------------------------------------- The production and content of the 3XMM catalogue is described in the the 3XMM-DR4 User Guide at http://xmmssc.irap.omp.eu/Catalogue/3XMM-DR5/3XMM-DR5CatalogueUser_Guide.html The "slim" version of the catalogue (file "xmm3r5s.dat") contains one row per unique source, while the the main catalogue has one row per detection. This slim version includes 44 columns, essentially those containing information about the unique sources, while the full catalogue (file "xmm3r5.fit") describes all detections with 323 columns. The slim version also contains a column with links to the summary pages in the IRAP catalogue archive. In the case of sources with multiple detections the summary page of the best detection is selected (i.e., the detection with the largest exposure time, summed over all cameras), and the summary page gives cross-links to the other detections. A separate file "summary.dat" contains the key details about the observations used in the construction of the 3XMM-DR5 catalogue. (3 data files).

  16. The NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey: The 40-month Catalog and the Properties of the Distant High-energy X-Ray Source Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Stern, D.; Aird, J.; Alexander, D. M.; Fuentes, C.; Harrison, F. A.; Treister, E.; Bauer, F. E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Baloković, M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Ajello, M.; Annuar, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Christensen, F. E.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Forster, K.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Jiang, B.; Jun, H. D.; Koss, M.; Marchesi, S.; Melo, A. D.; Mullaney, J. R.; Noirot, G.; Schulze, S.; Walton, D. J.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W. W.

    2017-02-01

    We present the first full catalog and science results for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) serendipitous survey. The catalog incorporates data taken during the first 40 months of NuSTAR operation, which provide ≈20 Ms of effective exposure time over 331 fields, with an areal coverage of 13 deg2, and 497 sources detected in total over the 3-24 keV energy range. There are 276 sources with spectroscopic redshifts and classifications, largely resulting from our extensive campaign of ground-based spectroscopic follow-up. We characterize the overall sample in terms of the X-ray, optical, and infrared source properties. The sample is primarily composed of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected over a large range in redshift from z = 0.002 to 3.4 (median of < z> =0.56), but also includes 16 spectroscopically confirmed Galactic sources. There is a large range in X-ray flux, from {log}({f}3-24{keV}/{erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2)≈ -14 to -11, and in rest-frame 10-40 keV luminosity, from {log}({L}10-40{keV}/{erg} {{{s}}}-1)≈ 39 to 46, with a median of 44.1. Approximately 79% of the NuSTAR sources have lower-energy (<10 keV) X-ray counterparts from XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift XRT. The mid-infrared (MIR) analysis, using WISE all-sky survey data, shows that MIR AGN color selections miss a large fraction of the NuSTAR-selected AGN population, from ≈15% at the highest luminosities ({L}{{X}}> {10}44 erg s-1) to ≈80% at the lowest luminosities ({L}{{X}}< {10}43 erg s-1). Our optical spectroscopic analysis finds that the observed fraction of optically obscured AGNs (i.e., the type 2 fraction) is {F}{Type2}={53}-15+14 % , for a well-defined subset of the 8-24 keV selected sample. This is higher, albeit at a low significance level, than the type 2 fraction measured for redshift- and luminosity-matched AGNs selected by <10 keV X-ray missions.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue 3XMM-DR5 (XMM-SSC, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, S. R.; Webb, N. A.; Watson; M. G.; Ballet, J.; Barret, D.; Braito, V.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Coriat, M.; Della Ceca, R.; Denkinson, G.; Esquej, P.; Farrell, S. A.; Freyberg, M.; Grise, F.; Guillout, P.; Heil, L.; Law-Green, D.; Lamer, G.; Lin, D.; Martino, R.; Michel, L.; Motch, C.; Nebot Gomez-Moran, A.; Page, C. G.; Page, K.; Page, M.; Pakull, M. W.; Pye, J.; Read, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Sakano, M.; Saxton, R.; Schwope, A.; Scott, A. E.; Sturm, R.; Traulsen, I.; Yershov, V.; Zolotukhin, I.

    2016-02-01

    The 3XMM-DR5 catalogue is the third generation catalog of serendipitous X-ray sources from the European Space Agency's (ESA) XMM-Newton observatory, and has been created by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC) on behalf of ESA. The catalog has 354 more observations and 34701 more detections than the preceding 3XMM-DR4 catalog, which was made public in July 2013. The history of the versions can be summarized as: ---------------------------------------------------- Name DR# Designation Year Cat. #Sources ---------------------------------------------------- 2XMMp 0 2XMMp-DR0 2006 2XMM 1 2XMM-DR1 2007 IX/39 191870 2XMMi 2 2XMMi-DR2 2008 IX/40 221012 2XMMi-DR3 3 2XMMi-DR3 2010 IX/41 262902 3XMM-DR4 4 3XMM 2013 IX/44 372728 3XMM-DR5 5 3XMM 2016 IX/46 396910 ---------------------------------------------------- The production and content of the 3XMM catalogue is described in the the 3XMM-DR4 User Guide at http://xmmssc.irap.omp.eu/Catalogue/3XMM-DR5/3XMM-DR5CatalogueUser_Guide.html The "slim" version of the catalogue (file "xmm3r5s.dat") contains one row per unique source, while the the main catalogue has one row per detection. This slim version includes 44 columns, essentially those containing information about the unique sources, while the full catalogue (file "xmm3r5.fit") describes all detections with 323 columns. The slim version also contains a column with links to the summary pages in the IRAP catalogue archive. In the case of sources with multiple detections the summary page of the best detection is selected (i.e., the detection with the largest exposure time, summed over all cameras), and the summary page gives cross-links to the other detections. A separate file "summary.dat" contains the key details about the observations used in the construction of the 3XMM-DR5 catalogue. (3 data files).

  18. Phylogenetic study-based hemagglutinin (HA) gene of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) detected from backyard chickens in Iran, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri, Syed Ali; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Maghsoudloo, Hossein; Tehrani, Farshad; Khaltabadifarahani, Reza; Abdollahi, Hamed; Fallah, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been diversified into multiple phylogenetic clades over the past decade and are highly genetically variable. In June 2015, one outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in backyard chickens was reported in the Nogardan village of the Mazandaran Province. Tracheal tissues were taken from the dead domestic chickens (n = 10) and processed for RT-PCR. The positive samples (n = 10) were characterized as HPAI H5N1 by sequencing analysis for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the samples revealed that the viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c, and cluster with the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from different avian species in Bulgaria, Romania, and Nigeria in 2015. They were not closely related to other H5N1 isolates detected in previous years in Iran. Our study provides new insights into the evolution and genesis of H5N1 influenza in Iran and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Iran.

  19. Trichurid nematodes in ring-necked pheasants from backyard flocks of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: frequency and pathology.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Roberto Magalhães; Tortelly, Rogério; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2004-11-01

    The present investigation is related to the frequency of infection and to the gross and microscopic lesions associated to the presence of trichurid worms in 50 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) from backyard flocks in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the investigated birds, the overall infection rate was of 74%, with the presence of Eucoleus perforans with 72% of prevalence and 21.2 of mean intensity, in the esophageal and crop mucosa and rarely in the junction of the proventriculus and esophagus, E. annulatus with 2% and 3 in the crop mucosa, Capillaria phasianina, with 12% and 4.3 in the cecum and small intestine and Baruscapillaria obsignata, for the first time referred in this host, with 2% and 1 in the small intestine. Clinical signs were absent. The gross lesions observed in the crop and esophagus of 14 (38.9%) pheasants parasitized with E. perforans were thickening, small nodules, congestion, and petechial haemorrhages in the mucosa. These birds presented a mean infection of 37.5 and a range of infection of 10-82. The microscopic lesions revealed chronic esophagitis with diffuse inflammatory process in the lamina propria characterized mostly by a mononuclear cell infiltrate and also with the presence of granulocytes. In the case of the parasitism of pheasants with C. phasianina, the gross lesions were absent; microscopic lesions were characterized by chronic typhlitis with mononuclear infiltrate. Gross and microscopic lesions were absent in the pheasants parasitized with E. annulatus and B. obsignata.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue 3XMM-DR6 (XMM-SSC, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, S. R.; Webb, N. A.; Watson, M. G.; Ballet, J.; Barret, D.; Braito, V.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Coriat, M.; Della Ceca, R.; Denkinson, G.; Esquej, P.; Farrell, S. A.; Freyberg, M.; Grise, F.; Guillout, P.; Heil, L.; Law-Green, D.; Lamer, G.; Lin, D.; Martino, R.; Michel, L.; Motch, C.; Nebot Gomez-Moran, A.; Page, C. G.; Page, K.; Page, M.; Pakull, M. W.; Pye, J.; Read, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Sakano, M.; Saxton, R.; Schwope, A.; Scott, A. E.; Sturm, R.; Traulsen, I.; Yershov, V.; Zolotukhin, I.

    2016-09-01

    The 3XMM-DR6 catalogue contains source detections drawn from 9160 XMM-Newton EPIC observations, covering an energy interval from 0.2keV to 12keV. These observations were made between 2000 February 3 and 2015 June 4 and all datasets were publicly available by 2016 January 31, but not all public observations are included in this catalogue (see below for more information). Should you use the catalogue for your research and publish the results, please use the acknowledgement below and cite the paper describing 3XMM (Rosen, Webb, Watson et al., 2016A&A...590A...1R). This research has made use of data obtained from the 3XMM XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue compiled by the 10 institutes of the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre selected by ESA. The following table gives an overview of the statistics of the catalogue in comparison with the 3XMM-DR4 catalogue. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3XMM-DR6 3XMM-DR5 Increment ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Number of observations 9160 7781 1379 Number of 'clean' observations (i.e., observation class < 3) 5947 4735 1212 Observing interval 03-Feb-00 03-Feb-00 2.5yr 04-Jun-15 20-Dec-13 Sky coverage, taking overlaps into account ( >=1ks exposure) 982sq.deg 877sq.deg 105sq.deg Number of detections 678680 565962 112718 Number of 'clean' detections (i.e., summary flag < 3) 552991 456904 96087 Number of unique sources 468440 396910 71530 Number of 'cleanest' (summary flag = 0, not in high-background fields) extended detections 11066 9082 1984 Number of detections with spectra 149968 133032 16936 Number of detections with timeseries 149968 133025 16943 Number of detections where probability of timeseries being constant is <1x10-5 5238 4668 570 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- The production and content of the 3XMM catalogue is described in the the 3XMM-DR6 User Guide at http

  1. Hybrid Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  2. Water metagenomic analysis reveals low bacterial diversity and the presence of antimicrobial residues and resistance genes in a river containing wastewater from backyard aquacultures in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tatsuya; Tuyet Hoa, Tran Thi; Harada, Kazuo; Warisaya, Minae; Asayama, Megumi; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Lee, Joon Won; Phu, Tran Minh; Ueda, Shuhei; Sumimura, Yoshinori; Hirata, Kazumasa; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2017-03-01

    The environmental pathways for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance have recently received increased attention. Aquatic environments act as reservoirs or sources of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, antimicrobial residues, and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). Therefore, it is imperative to identify the role of polluted water in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial residues, ARGs, and microbiota in the freshwater systems of the Mekong Delta. We selected 12 freshwater sites from aquacultures and rivers in Can Tho, Vietnam and analyzed them for 45 antimicrobial residues and 8 ARGs by LC/MS/MS and real-time PCR, respectively. A 16S rDNA-based metagenomic analysis was conducted to characterize the water microbiota. Residues of sulfamethoxazole (10/12) and sulfadimidine (7/12) were widely detected, together with the sulfa-resistance genes sul1 (11/12) and sul2 (9/12). Additionally, sulfamethoxazole residues and the β-lactamase-resistance gene blaCTX-M-1 were detected in eight freshwater systems (8/12), suggesting that these freshwater systems may have been polluted by human activity. The metagenomic analysis showed that all the tested freshwater systems contained the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, representing 64% of the total microbiota. Moreover, the Cai Rang River site (Ri-E), which is located at the merge point of wastewaters from backyard-based aquacultures, contained the genera Polynucleobacter, Variovorax, and Limnohabitans, representing more than 78.4% of the total microbiota. Bacterial diversity analysis showed that the Ri-E exhibited the lowest diversity compared with other regions. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the differences among water microbiotas in backyard-based aquacultures could be explained by the farmers' aquaculture techniques. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a collapse of bacterial diversity at the merge point of wastewaters

  3. Hybrid Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, David J.; Sridharan, Srikesh; Weinstock, Irvin

    2005-10-15

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generation systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hour ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.

  4. Household-level risk factors for Newcastle disease seropositivity and incidence of Newcastle disease virus exposure in backyard chicken flocks in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Chaka, Hassen; Goutard, Flavie; Roger, Francois; Bisschop, Shahn P R; Thompson, Peter N

    2013-05-01

    A cross-sectional study with repeated sampling was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity and for incidence of ND virus (NDV) exposure in household flocks of backyard chickens in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected from 260 randomly selected households in 52 villages in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha and Ada'a woredas (districts) using a structured questionnaire, and serum samples from chickens were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sampling took place during September 2009 and the same households were again sampled in May 2010. Household-level seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were estimated in various ways using serological results from the two samplings, flock dynamics, and farmers' reports of ND in their flocks. The risk factors were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. Household-level seroprevalence at the two sampling times was 17.4% and 27.4%, respectively, and the estimated incidence of household-level NDV exposure during the intervening period ranged between 19.7% and 25.5%. At the first sampling, reduced frequency of cleaning of poultry waste was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (OR=4.78; 95% CI: 1.42, 16.11; P=0.01) while hatching at home vs. other sources (buying in replacement birds, receiving as gift or buying fertile eggs) was associated with lower odds of seropositivity, both at the first sampling (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P=0.02) and the second sampling (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; P<0.001). The risk of NDV exposure was shown to be higher with larger flock size at the beginning of the observation period (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 1.25, 10.39; P=0.02). Using an open water source (pond or river) for poultry compared to closed sources (tap or borehole) was associated with increased risk of NDV exposure (OR=3.14; 95% CI: 1.12, 8.8; P=0.03). The use of a grain supplement (OR=0.14; 95% CI

  5. Serological monitoring of backyard chickens in Central Macedonia-Greece can detect low transmission of West Nile virus in the absence of human neuroinvasive disease cases.

    PubMed

    Chaintoutis, Serafeim C; Gewehr, Sandra; Mourelatos, Spiros; Dovas, Chrysostomos I

    2016-11-01

    During 2010-13, West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics occurred in Greece with high numbers of human cases. In parallel, WNV serological surveillance utilizing domestic birds was applied mainly in Central Macedonia, as well as in other areas of the country, and allowed efficient detection of WNV activity during this period. The objective of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity of chicken-based WNV surveillance in periods of low-level virus transmission (2014-15) in a well-studied area, i.e. the epicenter of the 2010 WNV epidemic (Central Macedonia), which is considered endemic since then. WNV activity was monitored via determination of antiviral immune responses in juvenile backyard chickens. The birds were sampled twice per transmission period. WNV-specific antibodies were detected by ELISA in 2.8% out of 255 chickens sampled early in the 2014 transmission period (95% CI: 1-6%). Continued virus transmission was detected at the end of the period, as 4.2% out of 240 sampled chickens seroconverted to WNV (95% CI: 2-8%). Although 14 human neuroinvasive cases occurred in Greece during 2014, no such cases were reported in the study area. During the 2015 early warning period, antibodies against WNV were not detected in sampled chickens (n=250, 95% CI: 0-2%). However, humoral immune responses were detected in 6 out of 240 chicken sampled at the end of the transmission period (2.5%; 95% CI: 1-6%), indicating continued WNV activity. No human cases were reported in Greece during 2015. All samples were negative with real-time RT-PCR. Serological surveillance of chickens resulted in identification of areas with low WNV activity levels during 2014-15, and provided indications of its overwintering in Central Macedonia. The findings suggest that surveillance based on serological testing of domestic birds is sensitive and able to detect low-level of WNV enzootic transmission, in the absence of human cases.

  6. Using the VegeSafe community science program to measure, evaluate risk and advise on soil-metal contamination in Sydney backyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. P.; Rouillon, M.; Harvey, P.; Kristensen, L. J.; Steven, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of metal contamination in Sydney residential garden soils was evaluated using data collated from a 3-year university community science program called VegeSafe. Despite knowledge of industrial and urban contamination amongst scientists, the general public remains under informed about the potential risks of exposure from legacy contaminants in their home environments. The Australian community was offered free soil metal screening allowing access to soil samples for research purposes. Participants followed specific soil sampling instructions and posted samples to the University for analysis with a field portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometer. Over the 3-year period >5000 soil samples were collected and analysed from >1000 households across Australia, primarly from vegetable gardens. As anticipated, the primary soil metal of concern was lead: mean concentrations were 413 mg/kg (front garden), 707 mg/kg (drip line), 226 mg/kg (back yard) and 301 mg/kg (vegetable garden). The Australian soil lead guideline of 300 mg/kg for residential yards was exceeded at 40% of domestic properties. Soil lead concentrations >1000 mg/kg were identified in 15% of Sydney backyards. The incidence of highest soil lead contamination was greatest in the inner city area with concentrations declining towards background values of 20-30 mg/kg at 30-40 km distance from the city. Community engagement with VegeSafe participants has resulted in useful outcomes: dissemination of knowledge related to contamination legacies and health risks, owners building raised beds containing clean soil, and, in numerous cases owners replacing their contaminated soil. This study demonstrates the potential for similar community science programs for expediting mass sample collection of soils and dusts for analysis of traditional and emerging contaminants within the home environment.

  7. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Wael A; Ahmed, Ahmed I; Ibrahim, Awad A; Ahmed, Mohamed S

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6%) and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%), 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05%) and 5 could not be typed (23.8%). Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%), and 3 were type D (14.3%). The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  8. Prevalence and impact of gastrointestinal helminths on body weight gain in backyard chickens in subtropical and humid zone of Jammu, India.

    PubMed

    Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Godara, R; Khajuria, J K; Borkataki, S; Sodhi, S S

    2012-04-01

    Necropsy of gastrointestinal tract of 125 free-range chickens from a subtropical and humid zone of northwestern India revealed four nematode spp. (Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and Cheilospirura hamulosa) and four cestode spp. (Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona and Amoebotaenia cuneata) The overall prevalence of the helminth parasites was 72.0%. Amongst various helminth species encountered in the region, A. galli emerged out as the most prevalent, followed by H. gallinarum, R. cesticillus and R. echinobothrida. The impact of helminthic infections on body weight gain in growing chickens was investigated. One hundred growing chickens, aged 40 days were randomly assigned to two groups (treated and untreated controls) of 50 birds each. The birds in treated group were given fenbendazole at 7.5 mg per kg body weight in drinking water, while the birds in other group served as untreated controls. At the end of the 90 days of the field trial, the mean body weight gain of untreated controls was 1232.2 ± 7.28 g (13.7 g/day) compared with 1617.6 ± 5.43 g (18.0 g/day) in the treated group. It was associated with a significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean worm burden (32.92 ± 6.12) in untreated controls than the treated group (2.46 ± 1.14). The prevalences of helminthic species and their impact on body weight gain in growing backyard chickens have been discussed.

  9. Hybridized tetraquarks

    DOE PAGES

    Esposito, Angelo; Pilloni, Alessadro; Polosa, A. D.

    2016-05-12

    In this study, we propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the B0s π± channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, togethermore » with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.« less

  10. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  11. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Peacock, W James

    2015-09-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture.

  12. Boat-Based Education for Boston Area Public Schools: Encouraging Marine Science and Technology Literacy and Awareness of the Coastal "Backyard"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, E. M.; Reynolds, R. M.; Wright, A. K.; Deschenes, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    Half the global population lives within 60 km of the ocean, profoundly influencing environmental quality and services to local communities. Adoption of marine science curricula creates opportunities for educators and scientists to engage and entrain K-12 students as ocean stewards. In particular, boat-based science activities facilitate hands-on inquiry. These activities reinforce key science concepts while creating a tangible connection to our shared coastal "backyard." A collaboration between Zephyr Education Foundation, the New England Aquarium, the University of Massachusetts Boston and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has taken >500 Boston, MA area students from 26 public schools on boat-based education trips in Boston Harbor. Marine science and technology professionals and educators facilitate participatory activities using modern marine technology aboard a research vessel. Trips are funded at no cost to participants by a grant from the Richard Lounsbery Foundation; cost-free outings are essential for participation from underserved public school districts. Participants perceived three important outcomes of their outings: the trips 1) enhanced in-class curricular learning and improved marine science literacy 2) increased personal connections to local marine environments, and 3) increased interest in careers in marine science, including engineering and technical positions. Despite living in close proximity to water, this was the first boat outing for many students; boat-based education trips enhanced student awareness of local environments in a way that curricular study had not. Boston trip results are being evaluated, but 3000 evaluations from similar trips in Woods Hole, MA indicate that 98% of participants gained a better understanding and appreciation of the work conducted by marine scientists, engineers, and other professionals, and 82% said their experience made them more interested in becoming involved in science at school and/or as a job. In summary

  13. Invasion of the hybrids.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, M J

    2012-10-01

    Human activity and climate change are increasingly driving species, which were once separate together, leading to the potential for gene flow. Hybridization between diverged species brings together two genomes which have evolved to meet different adaptive requirements. The unique combination of these traits in a hybrid may be beneficial or maladaptive, but either way it results in increased phenotypic variation. A percentage of hybrid individuals may, therefore, find themselves able to exploit environmental niches which their progenitors cannot, leading to invasive hybrid swarms becoming established in new habitats. Previous research into hybrids, most famously that of Loren Rieseberg and co-workers (Rieseberg et al. 1999, 2003) in sunflowers, demonstrated that hybridization can give rise to transgressive segregation of adaptive traits, wherein the combination of favourable alleles from both parents in hybrids can enable them to outperform either. However, the question still remains as to how much of the competitive ability of hybrids is a direct result of admixture and how much is the result of selection after the fact. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, (Czypionka et al. 2012) describe their study of transcriptional changes resulting from hybridization in a fish hybrid termed invasive sculpins (Cottus). Using gene expression microarray assays, they compare gene expression in both wild and lab-reared invasive hybrids to the progenitor species and experimentally produced F(2) hybrids. They demonstrate that whilst hybridization alone does result in higher variance in gene expression (some of which is transgressive), many of the transgressive changes distinguishing the invasives appear to have come about subsequent to the initial natural hybridization event. They speculate that initial success of the hybrids in their new habitat is facilitated by hybridization, but that optimization of the invasive phenotype and removal of maladaptive traits rapidly reduces the

  14. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  15. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  16. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  17. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  18. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  19. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  20. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  1. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  2. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, R.S.; Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Konrad, C.H.; Sauve, G.L.; Shahinpoor, M.; Susoeff, A.R.

    1993-03-02

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasma blowby.

  3. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  4. Hybrid rocket instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, B.; Frederick, R. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides a brief review of theoretical and experimental studies concerned with hybrid rocket instability. The instabilities discussed include atomization and mixing instabilities, chuffing instabilities, pressure coupled combustion instabilities, and vortex shedding. It is emphasized that the future use of hybrid motor systems as viable design alternatives will depend on a better understanding of hybrid instability.

  5. Backyard Astronomy: Observing Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandou, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity involving the observation of moon phases that can provide a one-on-one learning experience and stimulate interaction between a child and an adult family member. This activity can also be initiated by teachers and outcomes can be integrated into the classroom science curriculum. (JRH)

  6. The Wildlife in Your Backyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDruff, Larry

    1979-01-01

    Urban environments often provide wildlife habitat. In addition to such open areas as parks and cemeteries, and such natural areas as may exist along rivers and streams, manmade structures may approximate habitat sought by some species and may attract wildlife. Actions to attract wildlife in the urban setting are suggested. (RE)

  7. Invite Wildlife to Your Backyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jack Ward; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A step-by-step plan to create a wildlife habitat around one's home is depicted. Three stages, covering 30 to 40 years from initial planting, will provide food, water, cover, and reproductive areas for a large variety of plant and animal life. (BL)

  8. The Wildlife in Your Backyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDruff, Larry

    1979-01-01

    Urban environments often provide wildlife habitat. In addition to such open areas as parks and cemeteries, and such natural areas as may exist along rivers and streams, manmade structures may approximate habitat sought by some species and may attract wildlife. Actions to attract wildlife in the urban setting are suggested. (RE)

  9. Starting in Your Own Backyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Kilkhampton Junior and Infants School is a rural primary school of 83 children aged 4-11 years, situated on the Atlantic Highway (A39) just inside Cornwall and close to the coast, beaches and walks. In this article, the author describes the school's work beyond the classroom as part of the National Trust Guardianship Scheme.

  10. Starting in Your Own Backyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Kilkhampton Junior and Infants School is a rural primary school of 83 children aged 4-11 years, situated on the Atlantic Highway (A39) just inside Cornwall and close to the coast, beaches and walks. In this article, the author describes the school's work beyond the classroom as part of the National Trust Guardianship Scheme.

  11. Brown Dwarfs in our Backyard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-07

    The third closest star system to the sun, called WISE J104915.57-531906, center of large image, which was taken by NASA WISE. It appeared to be a single object, but a sharper image from Gemini Observatory, revealed that it was binary star system.

  12. Attracting Birds to Your Backyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods for drawing birds to outdoor education areas, including the use of wild and native vegetation. Lists specific garden plants suitable for attracting birds in each season. Includes a guide to commercial bird seed and instructions for building homemade birdfeeders and nestboxes. (LZ)

  13. Backyard Astronomy: Observing Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandou, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity involving the observation of moon phases that can provide a one-on-one learning experience and stimulate interaction between a child and an adult family member. This activity can also be initiated by teachers and outcomes can be integrated into the classroom science curriculum. (JRH)

  14. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  15. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOEpatents

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  16. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-03

    Some examples include:  Allison Hybrid EP System™ - Transit buses two-mode parallel hybrid with continuously variable transmission (CVT)  Azure... Transit Buses , Proceeding of the Vehicular Technology Conference, Vol. 5, pp 3310-3315, October 2003. [3] E. Rosenthal, U.S. Military Orders Less...applications such as delivery trucks and transit busses. One of the biggest justifications for hybrids is their fuel efficiency. However, the U.S

  17. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  18. Probing the jet base of the blazar PKS 1830-211 from the chromatic variability of its lensed images. Serendipitous ALMA observations of a strong gamma-ray flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí-Vidal, I.; Muller, S.; Combes, F.; Aalto, S.; Beelen, A.; Darling, J.; Guélin, M.; Henkel, C.; Horellou, C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Martín, S.; Menten, K. M.; V-Trung, Dinh; Zwaan, M.

    2013-10-01

    The launching mechanism of the jets of active galactic nuclei is poorly constrained observationally, owing to the large distances to these objects and the very small scales (sub-parsec) involved. To better constrain theoretical models, it is especially important to get information from the region close to the physical base of the jet, where the plasma acceleration takes place. In this paper, we report multi-epoch and multifrequency continuum observations of the z = 2.5 blazar PKS 1830-211 with ALMA, serendipitously coincident with a strong γ-ray flare reported by Fermi-LAT. The blazar is lensed by a foreground z = 0.89 galaxy, with two bright images of the compact core separated by 1''. Our ALMA observations individually resolve these two images (although not any of their substructures), and we study the change in their relative flux ratio with time (four epochs spread over nearly three times the time delay between the two lensed images) and frequency (between 350 and 1050 GHz, rest frame of the blazar), during the γ-ray flare. In particular, we detect a remarkable frequency-dependent behavior of the flux ratio, which implies the presence of a chromatic structure in the blazar (i.e., a core-shift effect). We rule out the possibility of micro- and milli-lensing effects and propose instead a simple model of plasmon ejection in the blazar's jet to explain the time and frequency variability of the flux ratio. We suggest that PKS 1830-211 is likely to be one of the best sources to probe the activity at the base of a blazar's jet at submillimeter wavelengths, thanks to the peculiar geometry of the system. The implications of the core shift in absorption studies of the foreground z = 0.89 galaxy (e.g., constraints on the cosmological variations of fundamental constants) are discussed. Table 1 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  20. Novel β-carboline-quinazolinone hybrids disrupt Leishmania donovani redox homeostasis and show promising antileishmanial activity.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Dandugudumula; Garg, Swati; Ayana, R; Keerthana, A K; Sharma, Vijeta; Saini, C P; Sen, Subhabrata; Pati, Soumya; Singh, Shailja

    2017-04-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani. Paucity exists in the discovery of novel chemotherapeutics against Leishmaniasis. In this study, we synthesized a natural product inspired Diversity Oriented Synthesis library of L. donovani Trypanothione reductase (LdTR) inhibitor β-carboline-quinazolinone hybrids, which are different in stereochemical architecture and diverse in the bioactive chemical space. It is noteworthy that chirality affects drug-to-protein binding affinity since proteins in any living system are present only in one of the chiral forms. Upon evaluation of the hybrids, one of the chiral forms i.e. Compound 1 showed profound cytotoxic effect in micromolar range as compared to its other chiral form i.e. Compound 2. In-silico docking studies confirmed high binding efficiency of Compound 1 with the catalytic pocket of LdTR. Treatment of L. donovani parasites with Compound 1 inhibits LdTR activity, induces imbalance in redox homeostasis by enhancing ROS, disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential, modifies actin polymerization and alters the surface topology and architecture. All these cellular modifications eventually led to apoptosis-like death of promastigotes. Furthermore, we synthesized the analogues of Compound 1 and found that these compounds show profound antileishmanial activity in the nanomolar range both in promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The enhanced inhibitory potential of these compounds was further supported by in-silico analysis of protein-ligand interactions which revealed high binding efficiency towards the catalytic pocket of LdTR. Taken together, this study reports the serendipitous discovery of β-carboline-quinazolinone hybrids with enhanced antileishmanial activity along with the in-depth structure-activity relationships and mechanism of action of these analogues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The New Information Hybrid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Karen B.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the creation and existence of "hybrid" organizations, i.e., nonprofit companies sponsored by the government to provide extensive research and development services. Possibilities for hybrids are brought about by government intervention in the information marketplace to produce social benefits. (SW)

  2. Epigenetic Changes in Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Ian K; Gonzalez-Bayon, Rebeca; Wang, Li; Zhu, Anyu; Liu, Pei-Chuan; Groszmann, Michael; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2015-08-01

    Genome-wide approaches to the study of hybrid vigor have identified epigenetic changes in the hybrid nucleus in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). DNA methylation associated with 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs exhibits transallelic effects in hybrids of Arabidopsis and other species. Some of the transmethylation changes are inherited and some affect gene expression. Hybrids have larger leaves than those of the parents and have increases in cell size and number. The increased leaf size results in a greater photosynthetic capacity, which may support the increased vegetative and reproductive yields of the F1 hybrids. Genes and metabolic pathways that have altered expression relative to the parents include loci involved in responses to hormones and to biotic and abiotic stress. Whereas epigenetically induced changes in gene expression may contribute to hybrid vigor, the link between the transcriptional changes and the hybrid phenotype is not confirmed. Recurrent selection of high yielding F1 lines from the F2/F3 of a number of crops has fixed heterosis yields in pure breeding lines. These hybrid-like lines may have valuable applications in crop systems. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Hybrid rocket performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid rocket is a system consisting of a solid fuel grain and a gaseous or liquid oxidizer. Figure 1 shows three popular hybrid propulsion cycles that are under current consideration. NASA MSFC has teamed with industry to test two hybrid propulsion systems that will allow scaling to motors of potential interest for Titan and Atlas systems, as well as encompassing the range of interest for SEI lunar ascent stages and National Launch System Cargo Transfer Vehicle (NLS CTV) and NLS deorbit systems. Hybrid systems also offer advantages as moderate-cost, environmentally acceptable propulsion system. The objective of this work was to recommend a performance prediction methodology for hybrid rocket motors. The scope included completion of: a literature review, a general methodology, and a simplified performance model.

  4. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  5. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbers $N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$ and $\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $J^{P}=1^{+}$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.

  6. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  7. Pathobiology of clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza virus infections in minor gallinaceous poultry supports early backyard flock introductions in Western U.S., 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Lee, Dong-Hun; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Spackman, Erica; Balzli, Charles; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E

    2017-08-09

    In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. Initial cases affected mainly wild birds and mixed backyard poultry species, while later outbreaks affected mostly commercial chickens and turkeys. The pathogenesis, transmission, and intra-host evolutionary dynamics of initial Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses in the U.S. were investigated in minor gallinaceous poultry species (i.e. species for which the U.S. commercial industries are small): Japanese quail, Bobwhite quail, Pearl guinea fowl, Chukar partridges, and Ring-necked pheasants. Low mean bird infectious doses (<2 to 3.7 log10) support direct introduction and infection of these species as observed in mixed backyard poultry during the early outbreaks. Pathobiological features and systemic virus replication in all species tested were consistent with HPAI virus infection. Sustained virus shedding with transmission to contact-exposed birds, alongside long incubation periods, could enable unrecognized dissemination and adaptation to other gallinaceous such as chickens and turkeys. Genome sequencing of excreted viruses revealed numerous low-frequency polymorphisms and 20 consensus-level substitutions in all genes and species but especially in Japanese quail and Pearl guinea fowl and in internal proteins PB1 and PB2. This genomic flexibility after only one passage indicates that influenza viruses can continue to evolve in Galliformes, increasing their opportunity to adapt to other species. Our findings suggest that these gallinaceous poultry are permissive for infection and sustainable transmissibility with 2014 initial wild bird-adapted clade 2.3.4.4 virus, with potential acquisition of mutations leading to host range adaptation.IMPORTANCE The outbreak of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus that occurred in the U.S. in 2014-2015 represents the worst livestock disease

  8. The hybrid BCI.

    PubMed

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Allison, Brendan Z; Brunner, Clemens; Bauernfeind, Gunther; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Scherer, Reinhold; Zander, Thorsten O; Mueller-Putz, Gernot; Neuper, Christa; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has two engines to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is composed of two BCIs, or at least one BCI and another system. A hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfill the following four criteria: (i) the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii) there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii) real time processing; and (iv) the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces hybrid BCIs that have already been published or are in development. We also introduce concepts for future work. We describe BCIs that classify two EEG patterns: one is the event-related (de)synchronisation (ERD, ERS) of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Hybrid BCIs can either process their inputs simultaneously, or operate two systems sequentially, where the first system can act as a "brain switch". For example, we describe a hybrid BCI that simultaneously combines ERD and SSVEP BCIs. We also describe a sequential hybrid BCI, in which subjects could use a brain switch to control an SSVEP-based hand orthosis. Subjects who used this hybrid BCI exhibited about half the false positives encountered while using the SSVEP BCI alone. A brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and a different type of input. This additional input can be an electrophysiological signal such as the heart rate, or a signal from an external device such as an eye tracking system.

  9. Hybrid vigour in dogs?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Arnott, Elizabeth R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2.5% to -6.0% for components of a standardised applied-stimulus behavioural test, and the second being at least +12.4% for chance of graduating as a guide dog. The third study provides a minimum estimate of negative actual hybrid vigour: crossbreds between Labrador retrievers and poodles had a higher prevalence of multifocal retinal dysplasia than the average prevalence in their purebred parent breeds. The lack of estimates of actual hybrid vigour can be overcome by including the exact nature of the cross (e.g. F1, F2 or backcross) and their purebred parental breeds in the specification of mixed-bred dogs. Even if only F1 crossbreds can be categorised, this change would enable researchers to conduct substantial investigations to determine whether hybrid vigour has any utility for dog breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybrid Bloch brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E. M.; Losano, L.

    2017-02-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  11. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  12. Hybrid Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel I.; Harding, Rosalind M.; Falush, Daniel; Crook, Derrick W.; Peto, Tim; Maiden, Martin C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent emergence of the human-pathogenic Vibrio vulnificus in Israel was investigated by using multilocus genotype data and modern molecular evolutionary analysis tools. We show that this pathogen is a hybrid organism that evolved by the hybridization of the genomes from 2 distinct and independent populations. These findings provide clear evidence of how hybridization between 2 existing and nonpathogenic forms has apparently led to the emergence of an epidemic infectious disease caused by this pathogenic variant. This novel observation shows yet another way in which epidemic organisms arise. PMID:15705319

  13. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  14. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  15. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    PubMed

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  16. The BMW-Chandra Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Mignani, R. P.; Moretti, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    We present the BMW-Chandra Source Catalogue drawn from all Chandra ACIS-I pointed observations with an exposure time in excess of 10 ks public as of March 2003 (136 observations). Using the wavelet detection algorithm developed by \\citep{Lazzatiea99} and \\citep{Campanaea99}, which can characterize point-like as well as extended sources, we identified 21325 sources which were visually inspected and verified. Among them, 16758 are not associated with the targets of the pointings and are considered certain; they have a 0.5-10 keV absorption corrected flux distribution median of ˜ 7 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. The catalogue consists of source positions, count rates, extensions and relative errors in three energy bands (total, 0.5-7 keV; soft, 0.5-2 keV; and hard band, 2-7 keV), as well as the additional information drawn from the headers of the original files. We also extracted source counts in four additional energy bands, (0.5-1.0 keV, 1.0-2.0 keV, 2.0-4.0 keV and 4.0-7.0 keV). We compute the sky coverage in the soft and hard bands. The complete catalogue provides a sky coverage in the soft band (0.5-2 keV, S/N =3) of ˜ 8 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1, and ˜ 2 deg2 at a limiting flux of ˜ 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1. http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~xanadu/BMC/bmc_home.html

  17. Hybrid geared traction transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasvytis, A. L.; White, G.

    1983-01-01

    The basic configuration of geared traction drives, geometric and structural factors to be considered in their construction, and current work on hybrid helicopter transmissions rated at 500 and 3000 hp are discussed.

  18. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  19. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  20. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  1. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  2. Plum and plum hybrids.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirteen plum and plum hybrid cultivars are briefly described for the Fruit and Nut Register 46. This register is made to keep the plum industry and researchers up to date on the latest cultivars released....

  3. Plum and plum hybrids.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty-six plum and plum hybrid cultivars are briefly described for the Fruit and Nut Register 45. This register is made to keep the plum industry and researchers up to date on the latest cultivars released....

  4. Hybrid thermocouple development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvey, L. P.; Krebs, T. R.; Lee, E.

    1971-01-01

    The design and development of a hybrid thermocouple, having a segmented SiGe-PbTe n-leg encapsulated within a hollow cylindrical p-SiGe leg, is described. Hybrid couple efficiency is calculated to be 10% to 15% better than that of a all-SiGe couple. A preliminary design of a planar RTG, employing hybrid couples and a water heat pipe radiator, is described as an example of a possible system application. Hybrid couples, fabricated initially, were characterized by higher than predicted resistance and, in some cases, bond separations. Couples made later in the program, using improved fabrication techniques, exhibited normal resistances, both as-fabricated and after 700 hours of testing. Two flat-plate sections of the reference design thermoelectric converter were fabricated and delivered to NASA Lewis for testing and evaluation.

  5. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-16

    zero. There is no mechanism in FMI 2.0 to skip microstep zero. The Ptolemy II Continuous director [18], which implements hybrid system simulation, also...step if Ptolemy II is the host simulator. But even if the future hybrid cosimulation standard does provide a mechanism to advance from communi- cation...Modelica Association, 2009. 24 [18] C. Ptolemaeus, editor. System Design, Modeling, and Simulation using Ptolemy II. Ptolemy.org, Berkeley, CA, 2014

  6. Systems for hybrid cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  7. Human hybrid hybridoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  8. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  9. Hybrid Breakdown in Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Stelkens, Rike Bahati; Schmid, Corinne; Seehausen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Studies from a wide diversity of taxa have shown a negative relationship between genetic compatibility and the divergence time of hybridizing genomes. Theory predicts the main breakdown of fitness to happen after the F1 hybrid generation, when heterosis subsides and recessive allelic (Dobzhansky-Muller) incompatibilities are increasingly unmasked. We measured the fitness of F2 hybrids of African haplochromine cichlid fish bred from species pairs spanning several thousand to several million years divergence time. F2 hybrids consistently showed the lowest viability compared to F1 hybrids and non-hybrid crosses (crosses within the grandparental species), in agreement with hybrid breakdown. Especially the short- and long-term survival (2 weeks to 6 months) of F2 hybrids was significantly reduced. Overall, F2 hybrids showed a fitness reduction of 21% compared to F1 hybrids, and a reduction of 43% compared to the grandparental, non-hybrid crosses. We further observed a decrease of F2 hybrid viability with the genetic distance between grandparental lineages, suggesting an important role for negative epistatic interactions in cichlid fish postzygotic isolation. The estimated time window for successful production of F2 hybrids resulting from our data is consistent with the estimated divergence time between the multiple ancestral lineages that presumably hybridized in three major adaptive radiations of African cichlids. PMID:25996870

  10. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbersmore » $$N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$$ and $$\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $$J^{P}=1^{+}$$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.« less

  11. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  12. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  13. Clone clustering by hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Milosavijevic, A.; Zeremski, M.; Paunesku, T.

    1995-05-01

    DNA sequencing by hybridization (SBH) Format 1 technique is based on experiments in which thousands of short oligomers are consecutively hybridized with dense arrays of clones. In this paper the authors present the description of a method for obtaining hybridization signatures for individual clones that guarantees reproducibility despite a wide range of variations in experimental circumstances, a sensitive method for signature comparison at prespecified significance levels, and a clustering algorithm that correctly identifies clusters of significantly similar signatures. The methods and the algorithm have been verified experimentally on a control set of 422 signatures that originate from 9 distinct clones of known sequence. Experiments indicate that only 30 to 50 oligomer probes suffice for correct clustering. This information about the identity of clones can be used to guide both genomic and cDNA sequencing by SBH or by standard gel-based methods. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  15. Hybridization schemes for clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    The concept of an optimum hybridization scheme for cluster compounds is developed with particular reference to electron counting. The prediction of electron counts for clusters and the interpretation of the bonding is shown to depend critically upon the presumed hybridization pattern of the cluster vertex atoms. This fact has not been properly appreciated in previous work, particularly in applications of Stone's tensor surface harmonic (TSH) theory, but is found to be a useful tool when dealt with directly. A quantitative definition is suggested for the optimum cluster hybridization pattern based directly upon the ease of interpretation of the molecular orbitals, and results are given for a range of species. The relationship of this scheme to the detailed cluster geometry is described using Löwdin's partitioned perturbation theory, and the success and range of application of TSH theory are discussed.

  16. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  17. A qualitative study of attitudes and values surrounding stillbirth and neonatal mortality among grandmothers, mothers, and unmarried girls in rural Amhara and Oromiya regions, Ethiopia: unheard souls in the backyard.

    PubMed

    Sisay, Mitike Molla; Yirgu, Robel; Gobezayehu, Abebe Gebremariam; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, neonatal mortality and stillbirth are high and underreported. This study explored values related to neonatal mortality and stillbirth and the visibility of these deaths in rural Ethiopia among 3 generations of women. We conducted a qualitative study in 6 rural districts of the Oromiya and Amhara regional states during May 2012. We included 30 focus groups representing grandmothers, married women (mothers), and unmarried girls in randomly selected kebeles (villages). Until the 40th day of life, neonates are considered to be strangers to the community (not human). Their deaths are not talked about; they are buried in the house or in the backyard. Mothers are forbidden to mourn their loss lest they offend God and bring on future neonatal losses. Women who repeatedly lose their neonates may be blamed, mistreated, and dishonored through divorce. Neonatal death and stillbirth are attributed to supernatural powers, although some women and girls associate these deaths with poverty and lack of education. The desire for increased visibility of neonatal death is mixed. Unlike the grandmothers and unmarried girls, most of the married women want death to be visible to draw the attention of policy makers. Women prefer home birth and consider themselves lucky to be able to give birth at home. At present, there is no national vital registration system. Neonatal death and stillbirth are hidden and the magnitude is likely underrepresented. The delayed recognition of personhood, attribution of death to supernatural causes, social repercussions for women who experience a pregnancy loss, preference for home birth, and lack of a vital registration system all contribute to the invisibility of perinatal deaths. Increasing the visibility of (and counting) these deaths may require multifaceted behavior-change interventions. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  19. Hybrid Vehicle Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-17

    Driving Sequence," Federal Register, 35(219): 17288-313 (10 November 1970). 7. "Electric Cars : Where Batteries Stand," Automotive Industry, 185(13): 81-83...Storage Systems, November 1979. 11. Hiroyuko, Imai. "Optimal Acceleration Performance and Storage Battery Voltage of an Electric Automobile Viewed from...ARE:,/35X, 16HNOMINAL VOLTAGE=, F4.0 C,/35X13HBATTERY MASS=,F5.0) C C ENTER HYBRID VARIABLES. FIRST CARD- 1 IF HYBRID,0 IF NOT. NEXT CAR C )IF IHYB=1

  20. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  1. Hybrid Electric Chemical Propulsion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    hybrid H2/02 cases. If nePe = 1 kW then the hybrid thruster uses 15.4 kg/day of propellant , which represents a 28% savings in propellant flow rate over...chosen amount of Ow or F - oxidizer to the propellant flow of a conventional H2 electrothermal thruster. A general method is given for selecting the...per Unit Mass of Propellant for H2/02 .. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . ........... 12 2. Specific Impulse vs. Electrical Energy Deposited per Unit Mass

  2. Hybridized polymer matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, B. A.; Visser, T.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions of combined fire and impact, graphite fibers are released to the atmosphere by graphite fiber composites. The retention of graphite fibers in these situations is investigated. Hybrid combinations of graphite tape and cloth, glass cloth, and resin additives are studied with resin systems. Polyimide resins form the most resistant composites and resins based on simple novolac epoxies the least resistant of those tested. Great improvement in the containment of the fibers is obtained in using graphite/glass hybrids, and nearly complete prevention of individual fiber release is made possible by the use of resin additives.

  3. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  4. Automatic hybrid electric lumina van

    SciTech Connect

    Ellers, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    A parallel/Series split-drive hybrid system driving a seven passenger Lumina van is described. The series type hybrid uses a heat-engine driven generator to charge the batteries and/or supply power to the electric drive motor. Volvo is now showing the Volvo ECC (Environmental Concept Car) which is one of the best examples of the series hybrid concept.

  5. Hybrid Chirped Pulse Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Barty, C P J

    2002-05-07

    We present a novel chirped pulse amplification method which combines optical parametric amplification and laser amplification. We have demonstrated this hybrid CPA concept with a combination of beta-barium borate and Ti:sapphire. High-efficiency, multi-terawatt compatible amplification is achieved without gain narrowing and without electro-optic modulators using a simple commercial pump laser.

  6. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-25

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  7. Rethinking Resources and Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Seiler, Gale; Salter, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores Alfred Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men" by examining how he uses two key concepts--hybridity and resources--to propose an approach to science education that counters enduring deficit notions associated with this population. Our response to…

  8. The Hybrid Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Davis IV, Warren L; Dunlavy, Danny; Nebergall, Christopher; Wylie, Brian N; Ingram, Joey Burton; Letter, Matthew; Fabian, Nathan D; Choudhury, Roni; Baumes, Jeff

    2016-09-11

    The Hybrid Toolkit facilitates moving research algorithms into a production environment by creating useful abstractions that separate analytics developers from the intricacies of the production data formats, data flows, and result representations. The toolkit also assists developers with activities such as creating analysis feature vectors, converting between data structures, and creating data pipelines.

  9. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  10. Hybrid Imaging in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Maseeh uz; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Zaman, Unaiza; Shahid, Wajeeha; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    In oncology various imaging modalities play a crucial role in diagnosis, staging, restaging, treatment monitoring and follow up of various cancers. Stand-alone morphological imaging like computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide a high magnitude of anatomical details about the tumor but are relatively dumb about tumor physiology. Stand-alone functional imaging like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) are rich in functional information but provide little insight into tumor morphology. Introduction of first hybrid modality PET/CT is the one of the most successful stories of current century which has revolutionized patient care in oncology due to its high diagnostic accuracy. Spurred on by this success, more hybrid imaging modalities like SPECT/CT and PET/MR were introduced. It is the time to explore the potential applications of the existing hybrid modalities, developing and implementing standardized imaging protocols and train users in nuclear medicine and radiology. In this review we discuss three existing hybrid modalities with emphasis on their technical aspects and clinical applications in oncology.

  11. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  12. Rethinking Resources and Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Seiler, Gale; Salter, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores Alfred Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men" by examining how he uses two key concepts--hybridity and resources--to propose an approach to science education that counters enduring deficit notions associated with this population. Our response to…

  13. Organics go hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; Petrozza, Annamaria; Caironi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    From displays to solar cells, the field of organic optoelectronics has come a long way over the past 50 years, but the realization of an electrically pumped organic laser remains elusive. The answer may lie with hybrid organic-inorganic materials called perovskites.

  14. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extent to which graphite fibers are released from resin matrix composites that are exposed to fire and impact conditions was determined. Laboratory simulations of those conditions that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation were evaluated. The effectiveness of various hybridizing concepts in preventing this release of graphite fibers were also evaluated. The baseline (i.e., unhybridized) laminates examined were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy, graphite/polyimide, and graphite/phenolic materials. Hybridizing concepts investigated included resin fillers, laminate coatings, resin blending, and mechanical interlocking of the graphite reinforcement. The baseline and hybridized laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, were also compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that several hybrid concepts eliminated this fiber release. Isothermal and humidity aging did not appear to alter the fiber release tendencies.

  15. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  16. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  17. Hybrid Solar GHP Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuzturk, Cy; Chiasson, Andrew; Shonder, John

    2012-12-11

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primary benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems is

  18. Fitness consequences of hybridization between ecotypes of Avena barbata: hybrid breakdown, hybrid vigor, and transgressive segregation.

    PubMed

    Johansen-Morris, A D; Latta, R G

    2006-08-01

    Hybridization is an important factor in the evolution of plants; however, many of the studies that have examined hybrid fitness have been concerned with the study of early generation hybrids. We examined the early- and late-generation fitness consequences of hybridization between two ecotypes of the selfing annual Avena barbata in a greenhouse environment as well as in two natural environments. Fitness of early generation (F2) hybrids reflects both the action of dominance effects (hybrid vigor) and recombination (hybrid breakdown) and was not significantly different from that of the midparent in any environment. Fitness of later generation (F6) recombinant inbred lines (RILS) derived from the cross reflect both the loss of early generation heterozygosity as well as disruption of any coadapted gene complexes present in the parents. In all environments, F6 RILs were on average significantly less fit than the (equally homozygous) midparent, indicating hybrid breakdown through the disruption of epistatic interactions. However, the inbred F6 were also less fit than the heterozygous F2, indicating that hybrid vigor also occurs in A. barbata, and counteracts hybrid breakdown in early generation hybrids. Also, although the F6 generation mean is lower than the midparent mean, there are individual genotypes within the F6 generation that are capable of outperforming the parental ecotypes in the greenhouse. Fewer hybrid genotypes are capable of outperforming the parental ecotypes in the field. Overall, these experiments demonstrate how a single hybridization event can result in a number of outcomes including hybrid vigor, hybrid breakdown, and transgressive segregation, which interact to determine long-term hybrid fitness.

  19. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  20. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, S.E.

    1998-03-03

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays. 11 figs.

  1. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays.

  2. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, A.

    1981-01-01

    Design approaches and materials are described from which are fabricated pyrostatic graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) laminates that show improved retention of graphite particulates when subjected to burning. Sixteen hybridized plus two standard Gr/Ep laminates were designed, fabricated, and tested in an effort to eliminate the release of carbon (graphite) fiber particles from burned/burning, mechanically disturbed samples. The term pyrostatic is defined as meaning mechanically intact in the presence of fire. Graphite particulate retentive laminates were constructed whose constituent materials, cost of fabrication, and physical and mechanical properties were not significantly different from existing Gr/Ep composites. All but one laminate (a Celion graphite/bis-maleimide polyimide) were based on an off-the-shelf Gr/Ep, the AS-1/3501-5A system. Of the 16 candidates studied, four thin (10-ply) and four thick (50-ply) hybridized composites are recommended.

  3. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.

    1996-07-01

    Superconductors, especially high T{sub c} ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO.

  4. Hybrid plasma modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Pointon, Timothy David

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2007 and FY2008 for the LDRD project ''Hybrid Plasma Modeling''. The goal of this project was to develop hybrid methods to model plasmas across the non-continuum-to-continuum collisionality spectrum. The primary methodology to span these regimes was to couple a kinetic method (e.g., Particle-In-Cell) in the non-continuum regions to a continuum PDE-based method (e.g., finite differences) in continuum regions. The interface between the two would be adjusted dynamically ased on statistical sampling of the kinetic results. Although originally a three-year project, it became clear during the second year (FY2008) that there were not sufficient resources to complete the project and it was terminated mid-year.

  5. Phoxonic Hybrid Superlattice.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George

    2015-06-17

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.

  6. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Hairetdinov, A.H.; Zukov, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  7. Rationalizing Hybrid Earthquake Probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J.; Reasenberg, P.; Beeler, N.; Cocco, M.; Belardinelli, M.

    2003-12-01

    An approach to including stress transfer and frictional effects in estimates of the probability of failure of a single fault affected by a nearby earthquake has been suggested in Stein et al. (1997). This `hybrid' approach combines conditional probabilities, which depend on the time elapsed since the last earthquake on the affected fault, with Poissonian probabilities that account for friction and depend only on the time since the perturbing earthquake. The latter are based on the seismicity rate change model developed by Dieterich (1994) to explain the temporal behavior of aftershock sequences in terms of rate-state frictional processes. The model assumes an infinite population of nucleation sites that are near failure at the time of the perturbing earthquake. In the hybrid approach, assuming the Dieterich model can lead to significant transient increases in failure probability. We explore some of the implications of applying the Dieterich model to a single fault and its impact on the hybrid probabilities. We present two interpretations that we believe can rationalize the use of the hybrid approach. In the first, a statistical distribution representing uncertainties in elapsed and/or mean recurrence time on the fault serves as a proxy for Dieterich's population of nucleation sites. In the second, we imagine a population of nucleation patches distributed over the fault with a distribution of maturities. In both cases we find that the probability depends on the time since the last earthquake. In particular, the size of the transient probability increase may only be significant for faults already close to failure. Neglecting the maturity of a fault may lead to overestimated rate and probability increases.

  8. Hybrid knowledge systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanian, V. S.

    1994-01-01

    An architecture called hybrid knowledge system (HKS) is described that can be used to interoperate between a specification of the control laws describing a physical system, a collection of databases, knowledge bases and/or other data structures reflecting information about the world in which the physical system controlled resides, observations (e.g. sensor information) from the external world, and actions that must be taken in response to external observations.

  9. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  10. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  11. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  12. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chumanov, George

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  13. Hybrid plume plasma rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A technique for producing thrust by generating a hybrid plume plasma exhaust is disclosed. A plasma flow is generated and introduced into a nozzle which features one or more inlets positioned to direct a flow of neutral gas about the interior of the nozzle. When such a neutral gas flow is combined with the plasma flow within the nozzle, a hybrid plume is constructed including a flow of hot plasma along the center of the nozzle surrounded by a generally annular flow of neutral gas, with an annular transition region between the pure plasma and the neutral gas. The temperature of the outer gas layer is below that of the pure plasma and generally separates the pure plasma from the interior surfaces of the nozzle. The neutral gas flow both insulates the nozzle wall from the high temperatures of the plasma flow and adds to the mass flow rate of the hybrid exhaust. The rate of flow of neutral gas into the interior of the nozzle may be selectively adjusted to control the thrust and specific impulse of the device.

  14. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, G. E.; Holzman, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Future launch systems of the United States will require improvements in booster safety, reliability, and cost. In order to increase payload capabilities, performance improvements are also desirable. The hybrid rocket motor (HRM) offers the potential for improvements in all of these areas. The designs are presented for two sizes of hybrid boosters, a large 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter booster duplicating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) vacuum thrust-time profile and smaller 2.44 m (96 in.), one-quater thrust level booster. The large booster would be used in tandem, while eight small boosters would be used to achieve the same total thrust. These preliminary designs were generated as part of the NASA Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program. This program is the first phase of an eventual three-phaes program culminating in the demonstration of a large subscale engine. The initial trade and sizing studies resulted in preferred motor diameters, operating pressures, nozzle geometry, and fuel grain systems for both the large and small boosters. The data were then used for specific performance predictions in terms of payload and the definition and selection of the requirements for the major components: the oxidizer feed system, nozzle, and thrust vector system. All of the parametric studies were performed using realistic fuel regression models based upon specific experimental data.

  15. Hybrid BioMicromotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Lukas; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2017-09-01

    Micromotors are devices that operate at the microscale and convert energy to motion. Many micromotors are microswimmers, i.e., devices that can move freely in a liquid at a low Reynolds number, where viscous drag dominates over inertia. Hybrid biomicromotors are microswimmers that consist of both biological and artificial components, i.e., one or several living microorganisms combined with one or many synthetic attachments. Initially, living microbes were used as motor units to transport synthetic cargo at the microscale, but this simple allocation has been altered and extended gradually, especially considering hybrid biomicromotors for biomedical in vivo applications, i.e., for non-invasive microscale operations in the body. This review focuses on these applications, where other properties of the microbial component, for example, the capability of chemotaxis, biosensing, and cell-cell interactions, have been exploited in order to realize tasks like localized diagnosis, drug delivery, or assisted fertilization in vivo. In the biohybrid approach, biological and artificially imposed functionalities act jointly through a microrobotic device that can be controlled or supervised externally. We review the development and state-of-the-art of such systems and discuss the mastery of current and future challenges in order to evolve hybrid biomicromotors from apt swimmers to adapted in vivo operators.

  16. Hybrid-SPRITE MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2013-10-01

    In a FID based frequency encoding MRI experiment the central part of k-space is not generally accessible due to the probe dead time. This portion of k-space is however crucial for image reconstruction. SPRITE (Single Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement), SPI with a linearly ramped phase encode gradient, has been employed to image short relaxation time systems for many years with great success. It is a robust imaging method in significant measure because it provides acquisition of high quality k-space origin data. We propose a new sampling scheme, termed hybrid-SPRITE, combining phase and frequency encoding to ensure high quality images with reduced acquisition times, reduced gradient duty cycle and increased sensitivity. In hybrid-SPRITE, numerous time domain points are collected to assist image reconstruction. An Inverse Non-uniform Discrete Fourier Transform (INDFT) is employed in 1D applications. A pseudo-polar grid is exploited in 2D hybrid-SPRITE for rapid and accurate image reconstruction.

  17. Printed hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  18. Hybrid2: The hybrid power system simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E I; Green, H J; van Dijk, V A.P.; Manwell, J F

    1996-07-01

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids (including wind turbines, PV, diesel generators, AC/DC energy storage) as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, NREL and U. Mass. researchers developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed.

  19. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van; Manwell, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey. VII. The third XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, S. R.; Webb, N. A.; Watson, M. G.; Ballet, J.; Barret, D.; Braito, V.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Coriat, M.; Della Ceca, R.; Denkinson, G.; Esquej, P.; Farrell, S. A.; Freyberg, M.; Grisé, F.; Guillout, P.; Heil, L.; Koliopanos, F.; Law-Green, D.; Lamer, G.; Lin, D.; Martino, R.; Michel, L.; Motch, C.; Nebot Gomez-Moran, A.; Page, C. G.; Page, K.; Page, M.; Pakull, M. W.; Pye, J.; Read, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Sakano, M.; Saxton, R.; Schwope, A.; Scott, A. E.; Sturm, R.; Traulsen, I.; Yershov, V.; Zolotukhin, I.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Thanks to the large collecting area (3 ×~1500 cm2 at 1.5 keV) and wide field of view (30' across in full field mode) of the X-ray cameras on board the European Space Agency X-ray observatory XMM-Newton, each individual pointing can result in the detection of up to several hundred X-ray sources, most of which are newly discovered objects. Since XMM-Newton has now been in orbit for more than 15 yr, hundreds of thousands of sources have been detected. Aims: Recently, many improvements in the XMM-Newton data reduction algorithms have been made. These include enhanced source characterisation and reduced spurious source detections, refined astrometric precision of sources, greater net sensitivity for source detection, and the extraction of spectra and time series for fainter sources, both with better signal-to-noise. Thanks to these enhancements, the quality of the catalogue products has been much improved over earlier catalogues. Furthermore, almost 50% more observations are in the public domain compared to 2XMMi-DR3, allowing the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre to produce a much larger and better quality X-ray source catalogue. Methods: The XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre has developed a pipeline to reduce the XMM-Newton data automatically. Using the latest version of this pipeline, along with better calibration, a new version of the catalogue has been produced, using XMM-Newton X-ray observations made public on or before 2013 December 31. Manual screening of all of the X-ray detections ensures the highest data quality. This catalogue is known as 3XMM. Results: In the latest release of the 3XMM catalogue, 3XMM-DR5, there are 565 962 X-ray detections comprising 396 910 unique X-ray sources. Spectra and lightcurves are provided for the 133 000 brightest sources. For all detections, the positions on the sky, a measure of the quality of the detection, and an evaluation of the X-ray variability is provided, along with the fluxes and count rates in 7 X-ray energy bands, the total 0.2-12 keV band counts, and four hardness ratios. With the aim of identifying the detections, a cross correlation with 228 catalogues of sources detected in all wavebands is also provided for each X-ray detection. Conclusions: 3XMM-DR5 is the largest X-ray source catalogue ever produced. Thanks to the large array of data products associated with each detection and each source, it is an excellent resource for finding new and extreme objects. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.The catalogue is available at http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR?-meta.foot&-source=IX/46

  1. Solar thermal electric hybridization issues

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T A; Bohn, M S; Price, H W

    1994-10-01

    Solar thermal electric systems have an advantage over many other renewable energy technologies because the former use heat as an intermediate energy carrier. This is an advantage as it allows for a relatively simple method of hybridization by using heat from fossil-fuel. Hybridization of solar thermal electric systems is a topic that has recently generated significant interest and controversy and has led to many diverse opinions. This paper discusses many of the issues associated with hybridization of solar thermal electric systems such as what role hybridization should play; how it should be implemented; what are the efficiency, environmental, and cost implications; what solar fraction is appropriate; how hybrid systems compete with solar-only systems; and how hybridization can impact commercialization efforts for solar thermal electric systems.

  2. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  3. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  4. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  5. Variations of hybrid damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Margaretha J.; Inman, Daniel J.; Saunders, William R.

    1998-06-01

    Damping is important to structures and can be achieved through the addition of viscoelastic materials (VEM). The damping of the VEM is enhanced if a constraining layer is attached to the VEM. If this constraining layer is active, the treatment is called active constrained layer damping (ACLD). In the last few years, ACLD has proven to be superior in vibration control to active or passive damping. The active element makes ACLD more effective than passive constrained layer damping. It also provides a fail-safe in case of breakdown of the active element that is not present for purely active control. It is shown that the control effort needed to damp vibration using ACLD can be significantly higher than purely active control. In order to combine the inherent damping of passive control with the effectiveness of the active element, this paper will explore different variations of active, passive and hybrid damping. Some of the variations include: passive constrained layer damping (PCLD) separate from active element but on the same side of beam, PCLD separate from active on the opposite side of the beam, and active element underneath PCLD. The discretized system equations will be obtained using assumed modes method and Lagrange's equation. The damping will be modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method. The optimal placement and size of the active, passive, ACLD and hybrid treatments will be found using different schemes. The issue of overshoot and settling time of the output and control force using LQR will be addressed, as well as the control effort, passive and active vibration suppression, and LQR cost function. It will be shown that the hybrid treatments are capable of greater vibration control for lower control effort for different optimization schemes. 31

  6. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Clark, Darin P; Badea, Cristian T

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  7. Hybrid Terrain Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey

    2006-01-01

    A prototype hybrid terrain database is being developed in conjunction with other databases and with hardware and software that constitute subsystems of aerospace cockpit display systems (known in the art as synthetic vision systems) that generate images to increase pilots' situation awareness and eliminate poor visibility as a cause of aviation accidents. The basic idea is to provide a clear view of the world around an aircraft by displaying computer-generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information.

  8. Hybrid optofluidic biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Joshua W.

    Optofluidics, born of the desire to create a system containing microfluidic environments with integrated optical elements, has seen dramatic increases in popularity over the last 10 years. In particular, the application of this technology towards chip based molecular sensors has undergone significant development. The most sensitive of these biosensors interface liquid- and solid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). These sensor chips are created using conventional silicon microfabrication. As such, ARROW technology has previously been unable to utilize state-of-the-art microfluidic developments because the technology used--soft polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micromolded chips--is unamenable to the silicon microfabrication workflows implemented in the creation of ARROW detection chips. The original goal of this thesis was to employ hybrid integration, or the connection of independently designed and fabricated optofluidic and microfluidic chips, to create enhanced biosensors with the capability of processing and detecting biological samples on a single hybrid system. After successful demonstration of this paradigm, this work expanded into a new direction--direct integration of sensing and detection technologies on a new platform with dynamic, multi-dimensional photonic re-configurability. This thesis reports a number of firsts, including: • 1,000 fold optical transmission enhancement of ARROW optofluidic detection chips through thermal annealing, • Detection of single nucleic acids on a silicon-based ARROW chip, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and passive PDMS microfluidic chips, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and actively controllable PDMS microfluidic chips with integrated microvalves, • On-chip concentration and detection of clinical Ebola nucleic acids, • Multimode interference (MMI) waveguide based wavelength division multiplexing for detection of single influenza virions,

  9. Robust hybrid mass damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, C.; Chesné, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the design of a hybrid mass damper (HMD) is proposed for the reduction of the resonant vibration amplitude of a multiple degree-of-freedom structure. HMD includes both passive and active elements. Combining these elements the system is fail-safe and its performances are comparable to usual purely active systems. The control law is a revisited direct velocity feedback. Two zeros are added to the controller to interact with the poles of the plant. The developed control law presents the particularity to be simple and hyperstable. The proposed HMD is compared to other classical control approaches for similar purpose in term of vibration attenuation, power consumption and stroke.

  10. Hybrid receiver study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M. S.; Mcadam, P. L.; Saunders, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a 4 month study to design a hybrid analog/digital receiver for outer planet mission probe communication links. The scope of this study includes functional design of the receiver; comparisons between analog and digital processing; hardware tradeoffs for key components including frequency generators, A/D converters, and digital processors; development and simulation of the processing algorithms for acquisition, tracking, and demodulation; and detailed design of the receiver in order to determine its size, weight, power, reliability, and radiation hardness. In addition, an evaluation was made of the receiver's capabilities to perform accurate measurement of signal strength and frequency for radio science missions.

  11. Competitive hybridization models.

    PubMed

    Cherepinsky, Vera; Hashmi, Ghazala; Mishra, Bud

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technology, in its simplest form, allows one to gather abundance data for target DNA molecules, associated with genomes or gene-expressions, and relies on hybridizing the target to many short probe oligonucleotides arrayed on a surface. While for such multiplexed reactions conditions are optimized to make the most of each individual probe-target interaction, subsequent analysis of these experiments is based on the implicit assumption that a given experiment yields the same result regardless of whether it was conducted in isolation or in parallel with many others. It has been discussed in the literature that this assumption is frequently false, and its validity depends on the types of probes and their interactions with each other. We present a detailed physical model of hybridization as a means of understanding probe interactions in a multiplexed reaction. Ultimately, the model can be derived from a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) describing kinetic mass action with conservation-of-mass equations completing the system. We examine pairwise probe interactions in detail and present a model of "competition" between the probes for the target--especially, when the target is effectively in short supply. These effects are shown to be predictable from the affinity constants for each of the four probe sequences involved, namely, the match and mismatch sequences for both probes. These affinity constants are calculated from the thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy of hybridization, which are in turn computed according to the nearest neighbor (NN) model for each probe and target sequence. Simulations based on the competitive hybridization model explain the observed variability in the signal of a given probe when measured in parallel with different groupings of other probes or individually. The results of the simulations can be used for experiment design and pooling strategies, based on which probes have been shown to have a strong effect

  12. Competitive hybridization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepinsky, Vera; Hashmi, Ghazala; Mishra, Bud

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technology, in its simplest form, allows one to gather abundance data for target DNA molecules, associated with genomes or gene-expressions, and relies on hybridizing the target to many short probe oligonucleotides arrayed on a surface. While for such multiplexed reactions conditions are optimized to make the most of each individual probe-target interaction, subsequent analysis of these experiments is based on the implicit assumption that a given experiment yields the same result regardless of whether it was conducted in isolation or in parallel with many others. It has been discussed in the literature that this assumption is frequently false, and its validity depends on the types of probes and their interactions with each other. We present a detailed physical model of hybridization as a means of understanding probe interactions in a multiplexed reaction. Ultimately, the model can be derived from a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) describing kinetic mass action with conservation-of-mass equations completing the system. We examine pairwise probe interactions in detail and present a model of “competition” between the probes for the target—especially, when the target is effectively in short supply. These effects are shown to be predictable from the affinity constants for each of the four probe sequences involved, namely, the match and mismatch sequences for both probes. These affinity constants are calculated from the thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy of hybridization, which are in turn computed according to the nearest neighbor (NN) model for each probe and target sequence. Simulations based on the competitive hybridization model explain the observed variability in the signal of a given probe when measured in parallel with different groupings of other probes or individually. The results of the simulations can be used for experiment design and pooling strategies, based on which probes have been shown to have a strong

  13. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  14. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  15. Ionic electroactive hybrid transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, Barbar J.; Bennett, Matthew D.; Leo, Donald J.

    2005-05-01

    Ionic electroactive actuators have received considerable attention in the past ten years. Ionic electroactive polymers, sometimes referred to as artificial muscles, have the ability to generate large bending strain and moderate stress at low applied voltages. Typical types of ionic electroactive polymer transducers include ionic polymers, conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Preliminary research combining multiple types of materials proved to enhance certain transduction properties such as speed of response, maximum strain, or quasi-static actuation. Recently it was demonstrated that ionomer-ionic liquid transducers can operate in air for long periods of time (>250,000 cycles) and showed potential to reduce or eliminate the back-relaxation issue associated with ionomeric polymers. In addition, ionic liquids have higher electrical stability window than those operated with water as the solvent thereby increasing the maximum strain that the actuator can produce. In this work, a new technique developed for plating metal particulates on the surface of ionomeric materials is applied to the development of hybrid transducers that incorporate carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers as electrode materials. The new plating technique, named the direct assembly process, consists of mixing a conducting powder with an ionomer solution. This technique has demonstrated improved response time and strain output as compared to previous methods. Furthermore, the direct assembly process is less costly to implement than traditional impregnation-reduction methods due to less dependence on reducing agents, it requires less time, and is easier to implement than other processes. Electrodes applied using this new technique of mixing RuO2 (surface area 45~65m2/g) particles and Nafion dispersion provided 5x the displacement and 10x the force compared to a transducer made with conventional methods. Furthermore, the study illustrated that the response speed of the transducer is optimized

  16. Large hybrid membrane mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Erika; Ruiz Schneider, Elfego; Ferreira, Alejandra

    2003-01-01

    The trend to minimize the thickness in optical mirrors has led to several practical limits in their fabrication and operation. The design of a flexible membrane mirror segment, which overcomes most of these limitations and can be conformed to giant segmented primary mirrors, is presented. The segment consists of a lightweight multi-layer hybrid structure, which will permit precise active control of the reflecting surface by means of a continuous elastic medium interface with embedded pneumatic actuators. Conceptual designs, finite element analysis model simulations and experimental results are included.

  17. Hybrid power semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  18. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  19. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  20. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  1. Suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two RNA populations that differ from the effects of a single independent variable, such as a drug treatment or a specific genetic defect, can establish differences in the abundance of specific transcripts that vary in a population dependent manner. There are different methods for identifying differentially expressed genes. These methods include microarray, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Herein, the protocol describes an easy and cost-effective alternative that does not require prior knowledge of the transcriptomes under examination. It is specifically relevant when low levels of RNA starting material are available. This protocol describes the use of Switching Mechanism At RNA Termini Polymerase Chain Reaction (SMART-PCR) to amplify cDNA from small amounts of RNA. The amplified cDNA populations under comparison are then subjected to Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-PCR). SSH-PCR is a technique that couples subtractive hybridization with suppression PCR to selectively amplify fragments of differentially expressed genes. The resulting products are cDNA populations enriched for significantly overrepresented transcripts in either of the two input RNAs. These cDNA populations can then be cloned to generate subtracted cDNA library. Microarrays made with clones from the subtracted forward and reverse cDNA libraries are then screened for differentially expressed genes using targets generated from tester and driver total RNAs.

  2. Hybrid internet access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Vivek; Baras, John S.; Dillon, Douglas; Falk, Aaron; Suphasindhu, Narin

    1995-01-01

    Access to the Internet is either too slow (dial-up SLIP) or too expensive (switched 56 kbps, frame relay) for the home user or small enterprise. The Center for Satellite and Hybrid Communication Networks and Hughes Network Systems have collaborated using systems integration principles to develop a prototype of a low-cost hybrid (dial-up and satellite) newtork terminal which can deliver data from the Internet to the user at rates up to 160 kbps. An asymmetric TCP/IP connection is used breaking the network link into two physical channels: a terrestrial dial-up for carrying data from the terminal into the Internet and a receive-only satellite link carrying IP packets from the Internet to the user. With a goal of supporting bandwidth hungry Internet applications such as Mosaic, Gopher, and FTP, this system has been designed to support any Intel 80386/486 PC, any commercial TCP/IP package, any unmodified host on the Internet, and any of the routers, etc., within the Internet. The design exploits the following three observations: 1) satellites are able to offer high bandwidth connections to a large geographical area, 2) a receive-only VSAT is cheap to manufacture and easier to install than one which can also transmit, and 3) most computer users, especially those in a home environment, will want to consume much more information than they generate. IP encapsulation, or tunneling, issued to manipulate the TCP/IP protocols to route packets asymmetrically.

  3. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes

    PubMed Central

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation. PMID:21825128

  4. Hybrid microdosing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Richter, Stefan; Mehner, Jan; Schubert, Steffen; Doetzel, Wolfram; Gessner, Thomas

    1998-09-01

    Based on an article in print this paper presents a hybrid assembled bi-directional micro dosing system for a water flow range of -40 (mu) l/min to 80 (mu) l/min. The system consists of a silicon micropump/valve chip (9 mm X 9 mm) and a silicon flow sensor (6 mm X 12 mm). The valve/pump can be driven by either a piezoelectric disk or an electrostatic actuator. Both, piezoelectric and electrostatic actuation for the pump/valve, the technology of each component and the hybrid assembling of the whole system are described. Results of transient numerical simulation of the pump and the mass flow sensor are presented and compared with experimental results. Descriptions of two different operational modes of the micro dosing system are given. The new pulse-width modulated control method for the actuator makes controlling the system easier. It allows an open-loop control of the pump rates without changing the driving frequency. All reported micropumps were driven by a square-wave signal which causes a relatively high noise level. In contrast to this, sawtooth and sinusoidal signals generate a smooth and quiet operation because of the small drag force on the fluid ports. Results of different driving methods are presented and compared.

  5. New smooth hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarides, George; Vamvasakis, Achilleas

    2007-10-15

    We consider the extension of the supersymmetric Pati-Salam model which solves the b-quark mass problem of supersymmetric grand unified models with exact Yukawa unification and universal boundary conditions and leads to the so-called new shifted hybrid inflationary scenario. We show that this model can also lead to a new version of smooth hybrid inflation based only on renormalizable interactions provided that a particular parameter of its superpotential is somewhat small. The potential possesses valleys of minima with classical inclination, which can be used as inflationary paths. The model is consistent with the fitting of the three-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data by the standard power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In particular, the spectral index turns out to be adequately small so that it is compatible with the data. Moreover, the Pati-Salam gauge group is broken to the standard model gauge group during inflation and, thus, no monopoles are formed at the end of inflation. Supergravity corrections based on a nonminimal Kaehler potential with a convenient choice of a sign keep the spectral index comfortably within the allowed range without generating maxima and minima of the potential on the inflationary path. So, unnatural restrictions on the initial conditions for inflation can be avoided.

  6. Hybrid flexure hinges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Rongzhou; Zhang, Xianmin; Long, Xuejun; Fatikow, Sergej

    2013-08-01

    This paper designs and analyzes the hybrid flexure hinge composed of half a hyperbolic flexure hinge and half a corner-filleted flexure hinge. As it is transversely asymmetric, it has different performance when the fixed and free ends switch. Considering the diversion of rotation center from midpoint, closed-form equations are formulated to characterize both the active rotation and all other in-plane parasitic motion by the Castigliano's second theorem. The maximum stress is evaluated as well. These equations are verified by the finite element analysis and experimentation. The compliance precision ratios are proposed to indicate flexure hinges' ability of preserving the rotation center when they have the same displacement at the free end. The hybrid flexure hinges are compared with five kinds of common notch flexure hinges (circular, corner-filleted, elliptical, hyperbolic, and parabolic flexure hinges) quantitatively based on compliance, precision, compliance precision ratios, and the maximum stress. Conclusions are drawn regarding the performance of these six kinds of flexure hinges.

  7. Viterbi/algebraic hybrid decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. W.; Ingels, F. M.; Mo, C.

    1980-01-01

    Decoder computer program is hybrid between optimal Viterbi and optimal algebraic decoders. Tests have shown that hybrid decoder outperforms any strictly Viterbi or strictly algebraic decoder and effectively handles compound channels. Algorithm developed uses syndrome-detecting logic to direct two decoders to assume decoding load alternately, depending on real-time channel characteristics.

  8. A new hybrid Christmas tree

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1965-01-01

    A hybrid pine developed in the course of forest-tree improvement research. by the U. S. Forest Service has caught the interest of Christmas tree growers. It is a hybrid between two races of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) produced at the Institute of Forest Genetics at Placerville, California, and has some desirable attributes for use as a Christmas...

  9. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  10. [Behaviors of maricultured hybrid sturgeon].

    PubMed

    Wu, Changwen; Jiang, Chengguo; Chen, Guoye

    2006-02-01

    The study on the behaviors of hybrid sturgeon under mariculture conditions showed that hybrid sturgeon had a stronger endurance to the exposure in air, with 100% and 74.1% of livability after 1 h and 3 h exposure, respectively. The feeding habit of hybrid sturgeon could be domesticated, i.e., all kinds of vegetal proteinic food could be used as feedstuff. Hybrid sturgeon also had a strong hunger resistance. An obvious ingestion rhythm was observed, with two peaks in the morning and evening when breeding in cement pool, and during slack tide and tidal stand when breeding in deep water cage. At the two peaks, the ingestion exceeded 50% of that in the whole day. The hybrid sturgeon in cement pool had the habit of hiding during the day and coming out at night, while that in deep water cage stayed at the base in riptide and swam in slack tide. Hybrid sturgeon had a weaker resistance to riptide and wave than American red snapper, but a stronger resistance than yellow croaker. Hybrid sturgeon could quickly adapt the surroundings, and be a good species to mariculture in deep water cage. The appropriate size of hybrid sturgeon bred in deep water cage should be about 400 g.

  11. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  12. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  13. Hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals.

    PubMed

    Longin, Carl Friedrich Horst; Mühleisen, Jonathan; Maurer, Hans Peter; Zhang, Hongliang; Gowda, Manje; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2012-10-01

    Hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals has a long history of attempts with moderate success. There is a vast amount of literature investigating the potential problems and solutions, but until now, market share of hybrids is still a niche compared to line varieties. Our aim was to summarize the status quo of hybrid breeding efforts for the autogamous cereals wheat, rice, barley, and triticale. Furthermore, the research needs for a successful hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals are intensively discussed. To our opinion, the basic requirements for a successful hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals are fulfilled. Nevertheless, optimization of the existing hybridization systems is urgently required and should be coupled with the development of clear male and female pool concepts. We present a quantitative genetic framework as a first step to compare selection gain of hybrid versus line breeding. The lack of precise empirical estimates of relevant quantitative genetic parameters, however, is currently the major bottleneck for a robust evaluation of the potential of hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals.

  14. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  15. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Nathan K.; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genome-wide sequence data, and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history. PMID:26826668

  17. Hybrid Power Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    An engineering discipline denoted as hybrid power management (HPM) has emerged from continuing efforts to increase energy efficiency and reliability of hybrid power systems. HPM is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy-consuming devices in optimal configurations for both terrestrial and outer-space applications. The basic concepts of HPM are potentially applicable at power levels ranging from nanowatts to megawatts. Potential applications include terrestrial power-generation, terrestrial transportation, biotechnology, and outer-space power systems. Instances of this discipline at prior stages of development were reported (though not explicitly labeled as HPM) in three prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle"(LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW-17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; and "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 24, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37. As the titles of the cited articles indicate, the use of ultracapacitors as energy-storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller. Power-control circuits for ultracapacitors can be simpler than those for batteries, for two reasons: (1) Because of the absence of chemical reactions, charge and discharge currents can be greater than those in batteries, limited only by the electrical

  18. Supersymmetric Hybrid Inflation Redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Mansoor Ur; Shafi, Qaisar; Wickman, Joshua R.

    2010-02-01

    We discuss the important role played during inflation by one of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms in the inflationary potential of supersymmetric hybrid inflation models. With minimal Kahler potential, the inclusion of this term allows the prediction for the scalar spectral index to agree with the value ns = 0.963^+0.014 -0.015 found by WMAP5. In the absence of this soft term, and by taking into account only radiative and supergravity corrections, it is well known that ns >= 0.985. This same soft term has previously been shown to play a key role in resolving the MSSM μ problem. The tensor to scalar ratio r is quite small in these models, taking on values r <= 10-5 in the WMAP5 2σ range of ns. )

  19. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  20. Advanced Photonic Hybrid Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    polymer  diluted to 1% in ethanol was mixed with 4 mL of gold  nanoparticles  (0,25 mM in Au0 for gold bipyramids and  0,5mM for gold spheres, purified...with the silicon  polymer  shell.         Table 1: summary of the prepared sol‐gel composite materials and the used  nanoparticles  (LSPR, sizes... nanoparticles (spherical and bipyramidal) in sol-gel hybrid silica, which could be used as optical limiters (transmitting at low levels but blocking high

  1. Hybridized polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving the fire resistance of graphite epoxy composite laminates were investigated with the objective of reducing the volume of loose graphite fibers disseminated into the airstream as the result of a high intensity aircraft fuel fire. Improvements were sought by modifying the standard graphite epoxy systems without significantly negating their structural effectiveness. The modifications consisted primarily of an addition of a third constituent material such as glass fibers, glass flakes, carbon black in a glassy resin. These additions were designed to encourage coalescense of the graphite fibers and thereby reduce their aerodynamic float characteristics. A total of 38 fire tests were conducted on thin (1.0 mm) and thick (6.0 mm) hybrid panels.

  2. Hybrid powertrain system

    SciTech Connect

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  3. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  4. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply.

  5. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  6. Photochromic mesoporous hybrid coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raboin, L.; Matheron, M.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Spirooxazine (SO) photochromic molecules were trapped in sol-gel matrices. In order to increase the colourability and improve mechanical properties of sol-gel photochromic films, we present an original strategy in which SO photochromic molecules were dispersed in mesoporous organized films using the impregnation technique. Well-ordered organosilicate mesoporous coatings with the 3D-hexagonal symmetry were prepared by the sol-gel technique. These robust mesoporous films, which contain high amounts of hydrophobic methyl groups at the pore surface, offer optimized environments for photochromic dyes dispersed by impregnation technique. After impregnation by a spirooxazine solution, the photochromic response is only slightly slower when compared with mesostructured or soft sol-gel matrices, showing that mesoporous organized hybrid matrix are good host for photochromic dyes. Moreover, the molecular loading in films is easily adjustable in a large range using multi-impregnation procedure and increasing the film thickness leading to coatings for optical switching devices.

  7. Hybrid vehicle control

    DOEpatents

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  8. Hybrid optofluidic integration

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Joshua W.; Cai, Hong; Zempoaltecatl, Lynnell; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D.; Leake, Kaelyn; Hawkins, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    Complete integration of microfluidic and optical functions in a single lab-on-chip device is one goal of optofluidics. Here, we demonstrate the hybrid integration of a PDMS-based fluid handling layer with a silicon-based optical detection layer in a single optofluidic system. The optical layer consists of a liquid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) chip that is capable of single particle detection and interfacing with optical fiber. Integrated devices are reconfigurable and able to sustain high pressures despite the small dimensions of the liquid-core waveguide channels. We show the combination of salient sample preparation capabilities—particle mixing, distribution, and filtering—with single particle fluorescence detection. Specifically, we demonstrate fluorescent labelling of λ-DNA, followed by flow-based single-molecule detection on a single device. This points the way towards amplification-free detection of nucleic acids with low-complexity biological sample preparation on a chip. PMID:23969694

  9. Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIlraith, Sheila; Biswas, Gautam; Clancy, Dan; Gupta, Vineet

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-going Project to investigate techniques to diagnose complex dynamical systems that are modeled as hybrid systems. In particular, we examine continuous systems with embedded supervisory controllers that experience abrupt, partial or full failure of component devices. We cast the diagnosis problem as a model selection problem. To reduce the space of potential models under consideration, we exploit techniques from qualitative reasoning to conjecture an initial set of qualitative candidate diagnoses, which induce a smaller set of models. We refine these diagnoses using parameter estimation and model fitting techniques. As a motivating case study, we have examined the problem of diagnosing NASA's Sprint AERCam, a small spherical robotic camera unit with 12 thrusters that enable both linear and rotational motion.

  10. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  11. Hybrid drive arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Oetting, H.; Heidemeyer, P.

    1985-02-19

    The invention concerns a hybrid drive arrangement for vehicles, with an engine drive and with a flywheel storage drive, which includes a storage flywheel supported concentrically relative to the crankshaft for storing kinetic energy during such operations as braking operations of the vehicle. Both drives can be connected with the driving wheels of the vehicle by means of a common, preferably continuously variable, transmission. In order to obtain a faster response of the engine drive on suddenly occurring power demands and in order to achieve a more favorable design of the storage flywheel, there is to be provided in accordance with the invention, in addition to a storage flywheel, an engine flywheel associated with the reciprocating-piston internal combustion engine, which compensates for torque irregularities of the engine. The engine flywheel can be connected with a crankshaft by means of a first clutch and with the storage flywheel by means of at least one further clutch.

  12. Hybrid powertrain controller

    DOEpatents

    Jankovic, Miroslava; Powell, Barry Kay

    2000-12-26

    A hybrid powertrain for a vehicle comprising a diesel engine and an electric motor in a parallel arrangement with a multiple ratio transmission located on the torque output side of the diesel engine, final drive gearing connecting drivably the output shaft of transmission to traction wheels of the vehicle, and an electric motor drivably coupled to the final drive gearing. A powertrain controller schedules fuel delivered to the diesel engine and effects a split of the total power available, a portion of the power being delivered by the diesel and the balance of the power being delivered by the motor. A shifting schedule for the multiple ratio transmission makes it possible for establishing a proportional relationship between accelerator pedal movement and torque desired at the wheels. The control strategy for the powertrain maintains drivability of the vehicle that resembles drivability of a conventional spark ignition vehicle engine powertrain while achieving improved fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions.

  13. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  14. Bug City: House and Backyard Insects [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  15. Citizen Science in Your Own Backyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James; Guyton, John; Williams, Michael

    2012-01-01

    When does a scientific mentality begin, and why? Vertebrate paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope (1840-1897), known for Cope's Rule--that organisms of a species tend to get larger over time--recorded observations of "Ichthyosaurus," an extinct marine reptile, at the tender age of 6. He was obviously an inquisitive child. What about students of…

  16. Achieving Self-Reliance: Backyard Energy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Stephen

    Appropriate technology (the process most appropriate for local cultural, economic, and social conditions) is geared toward projects which: are small in scale, decentralized, and energy efficient; use local materials, labor, and ingenuity; are not capital-intensive; and maximize the use of renewable energy resources. Descriptions of such projects…

  17. Bug City: House and Backyard Insects [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  18. Backyard Gardens: Homegrown Hope for the Hungry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foegen, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    In times of world crisis, home gardens can become a precious resource. Discussed are: corporate and government gardens; gardens of necessity; threats to the food supply; and a new kind of soil bank. Resource organizations are listed. (NW)

  19. Human trafficking: crime in our own backyard.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Melissa S

    2014-04-01

    Imagine for a moment being in a small, cold, dark, and dirty room. You haven't seen your family in months and you're not sure if you ever will again. When the drugs that you've given begin to wear off, you feel hunger pangs because you haven't eaten anything in more hours than you can count. You hear a door opening and are filled with paralyzing fear and dread. You are never quite sure who or what will greet you on the other side of that door. You may have to endure a brutal beating, you may be forced to take drugs, or you may be raped.

  20. The World Is Our Big Backyard!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenze, Gloria T.; Fryer, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability is a contemporary term that calls attention to climate change and dwindling natural resources. Concerned about the urgency of sustainability and the long-range impact that non-sustainable efforts could have on the environment, and convinced that sustainable concepts could be taught to young children, the authors introduced an…

  1. Achieving Self-Reliance: Backyard Energy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Stephen

    Appropriate technology (the process most appropriate for local cultural, economic, and social conditions) is geared toward projects which: are small in scale, decentralized, and energy efficient; use local materials, labor, and ingenuity; are not capital-intensive; and maximize the use of renewable energy resources. Descriptions of such projects…

  2. Citizen Science in Your Own Backyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James; Guyton, John; Williams, Michael

    2012-01-01

    When does a scientific mentality begin, and why? Vertebrate paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope (1840-1897), known for Cope's Rule--that organisms of a species tend to get larger over time--recorded observations of "Ichthyosaurus," an extinct marine reptile, at the tender age of 6. He was obviously an inquisitive child. What about students of…

  3. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    PubMed Central

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F. sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F. sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F. japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  4. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Fresco, Jacques R.; Johnson, Marion D.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  5. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D. ); Omidi, N. )

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  6. Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

  7. West Philly Hybrid X Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-06

    NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun sits in the West Philly X Prize hybrid sports car as Sowande Gay, a student member of the West Philly Hybrid Team at West Philadelphia High School, explains the modifications made to the car, in Philadelphia, Monday, June 7, 2010. The prize-winning West Philly Hybrid X Team has drawn international recognition as the only high school among 22 finalists in the Progressive Insurance Automotive X Prize (PIAXP) competition to develop cars that achieve over 100 MPG. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  9. Constitutive heterochromatin in chromosomes of duck hybrids and goose hybrids.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, E; Smalec, E

    2017-01-01

    Constitutive heterochromatin is a highly condensed fraction of chromatin in chromosomes. It is characterized by a high degree of polymorphism. Heterochromatin is located in the centromeric, telomeric, and interstitial parts of chromosomes. We used the CBG ( C: banding using B: arium hydroxide by G: iemsa) staining technique to identify heterochromatin in chromosomes. Analysis of karyotypes of F1 hybrids resulting from intergeneric hybridization of ducks (A. platyrhynchos × C. moschata) and interspecific crosses of geese (A. anser × A. cygnoides) were used to compare the karyotypes of 2 species of duck and 2 species of geese, as well as to compare the hybrids with the parent species. The localization of C-bands and their size were determined. In the duck hybrid, greater amounts of heterochromatin were noted in the homologous chromosomes from the duck A. platyrhynchos than in the chromosomes from the duck C. moschata. In the goose hybrid more heterochromatin was observed in the homologous chromosomes from the goose A. cygnoides than in the chromosomes from the goose A. anser. Comparison of chromosomes from the duck hybrid with chromosomes of the ducks A. platyrhynchos and C. moschata revealed nearly twice as much constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of the hybrid. When chromosomes from the goose hybrid were compared with those of the geese A. anser and A. cygnoides, differences in the average content of heterochromatin were observed on only a few chromosomes. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Hybridization and management of oak populations

    Treesearch

    Oliver Gailing

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization can result in the transfer of adaptations among species and may contribute to speciation processes. On the other hand, hybridization can also result in a loss of species diversity due to asymmetric gene flow between species (genetic swamping) and in low hybrid fitness. An understanding of the outcomes of interspecific hybridization is crucial for the...

  11. Advanced Hybrid Computer Systems. Software Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This software technology final report evaluates advances made in Advanced Hybrid Computer System software technology . The report describes what...automatic patching software is available as well as which analog/hybrid programming languages would be most feasible for the Advanced Hybrid Computer...compiler software . The problem of how software would interface with the hybrid system is also presented.

  12. Hybrid Optimization Software Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Lei, Zhou; Munjiza, Antonio

    2014-05-28

    The hybrid optimization software suite (HOSS) is a general purpose fully 2D/3D parallel combined finite discrete element (FDEM) code that can be used to simulate problems involving fracture and fragmentation processes, large deformation and large rotations, discrete particle systems, solid-fluid interaction in hydro fracture problems, etc. HOSS uses a hybrid approach that combines finite-element and discrete-element methods with a novel computational fluid dynamics solver. The finite-element method is often used to analyze a material or object and how it responds to stress. The discrete-element method analyzes stresses and displacements in a volume containing a large number of particles, such as grains of sand. Fluid dynamics analyzes the fluid flow inside, around, or through solid domains. With these processes combined, HOSS represents a paradigm shift when it comes to generating accurate simulations of material deformations and failure. HOSS can perform the following: Resolves problems that consist of millions of deforming fracturing, and interacting solid particles; Requires no coupling—it naturally integrates with all regimes of fluid flow; Resolves all regimes of fluid flow, such as Stokes, low/high Reynolds, subsonic/transonic/supersonic/hypersonic, compressible/incompressible, viscid/inviscid, Newtonian/Non-Newtonian and turbulent/laminar flow; Combines all flow regimes in the same solver; Numerically stable for all flow regimes; Naturally combines different flow regimes in the same problem; Possesses material library for fluid behavior; Naturally matches fluid solver to solid solver; Includes non-inertial Eulerian formulation for fluids; Uses highly efficient parallel computing based on the Virtual Parallel Machine, thus enabling easy porting between different parallel architectures, including possible future architectures; Designed specifically for multi-physics problems in research and industry in virtual experimentation format, thereby complementing

  13. Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Valle, Gerard D.; Edeen, Gregg; DeLaFuente, Horacio M.; Schneider, William C.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pandya, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a prototype of a large pressure vessel under development for eventual use as a habitable module for long spaceflight (e.g., for transporting humans to Mars). The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid central structural core. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. On Earth, pressure vessels like this could be used, for example, as portable habitats that could be set up quickly in remote locations, portable hyperbaric chambers for treatment of decompression sickness, or flotation devices for offshore platforms. In addition, some aspects of the design of the fabric straps could be adapted to such other items as lifting straps, parachute straps, and automotive safety belts. Figure 2 depicts selected aspects of the design of a vessel of this type with a toroidal configuration. The bladder serves as an impermeable layer to keep air within the pressure vessel and, for this purpose, is sealed to the central structural core. The web includes longitudinal and circumferential straps. To help maintain the proper shape upon inflation after storage, longitudinal and circumferential straps are indexed together at several of their intersections. Because the web is not required to provide a pressure seal and the bladder is not required to sustain structural loads, the bladder and the web can be optimized for their respective functions. Thus, the bladder can be sealed directly to the rigid core without having to include the web in the seal substructure, and the web can be designed for strength. The ends of the longitudinal straps are attached to the ends of the rigid structural core by means of clevises. Each clevis pin is surrounded by a roller, around which a longitudinal strap is wrapped to form a lap seam with itself. The roller is of a large diameter chosen to reduce bending of the fibers in

  14. How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?

    PubMed

    Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed.

  15. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    SciTech Connect

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  16. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  17. Damage of hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haery, Haleh A.; Kim, Ho Sung

    2013-08-01

    Hybrid laminates consisting of woven glass fabric/epoxy composite plies and woven carbon fabric/epoxy composite plies are studied for fatigue damage and residual strength. A theoretical framework based on the systems approach is proposed as a guide to deal with the complexity involving uncertainties and a large number of variables in the hybrid composite system. A relative damage sensitivity factor expression was developed for quantitative comparisons between non-hybrid and hybrid composites. Hypotheses derived from the theoretical framework were tested and verified. The first hypothesis was that the difference between two different sets of properties produces shear stress in interface between carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CRP) and glass fibre reinforced plastics (GRP), and eventually become a source for CRP/GRP interfacial delamination or longitudinal cracking. The second hypothesis was that inter-fibre bundle delamination occurs more severely to CRP sub-system than GRP sub-system.

  18. Hybrid Platforms, Tools, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Kathryn E.; Bruenjes, Linda S.; Smith, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses common tools and resources for building a hybrid course in a higher education setting and provides recommendations for best practices in Learning Management Systems and Open Educational Resources.

  19. Accelerated hybrid-circuit production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, J. E.; Dassele, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Modified die-bonding machine speeds up hybrid-circuit production. Utilizing two pedestals, one for die tray and another for substrate tray, increased production and decreased error-margin are possible.

  20. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  1. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  2. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  3. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  4. Hybrid Electro-Optic Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    This report describes the design of a hybrid electro - optic processor to perform adaptive interference cancellation in radar systems. The processor is...modulator is reported. Included is this report is a discussion of the design, partial fabrication in the laboratory, and partial testing of the hybrid electro ... optic processor. A follow on effort is planned to complete the construction and testing of the processor. The work described in this report is the

  5. Fabricating a hybrid imaging device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadsworth, Mark (Inventor); Atlas, Gene (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A hybrid detector or imager includes two substrates fabricated under incompatible processes. An array of detectors, such as charged-coupled devices, are formed on the first substrate using a CCD fabrication process, such as a buried channel or peristaltic process. One or more charge-converting amplifiers are formed on a second substrate using a CMOS fabrication process. The two substrates are then bonded together to form a hybrid detector.

  6. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB`s) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS`s) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS`s, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, the authors present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  7. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-04-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  8. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  9. Hybrid manifold embedding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yan; Chan, Keith C C; Hua, Kien A

    2014-12-01

    In this brief, we present a novel supervised manifold learning framework dubbed hybrid manifold embedding (HyME). Unlike most of the existing supervised manifold learning algorithms that give linear explicit mapping functions, the HyME aims to provide a more general nonlinear explicit mapping function by performing a two-layer learning procedure. In the first layer, a new clustering strategy called geodesic clustering is proposed to divide the original data set into several subsets with minimum nonlinearity. In the second layer, a supervised dimensionality reduction scheme called locally conjugate discriminant projection is performed on each subset for maximizing the discriminant information and minimizing the dimension redundancy simultaneously in the reduced low-dimensional space. By integrating these two layers in a unified mapping function, a supervised manifold embedding framework is established to describe both global and local manifold structure as well as to preserve the discriminative ability in the learned subspace. Experiments on various data sets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Hybrid power source

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  11. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  12. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  13. Metallographic in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Powell, Richard D; Pettay, James D; Powell, William C; Roche, Patrick C; Grogan, Thomas M; Hainfeld, James F; Tubbs, Raymond R

    2007-08-01

    Metallographic methods, in which a target is visualized using a probe or antibody that deposits metal selectively at its binding site, offers many advantages for bright-field in situ hybridization (ISH) detection as well as for other labeling and detection methods. Autometallographically enhanced gold labeling procedures have demonstrated higher sensitivity than conventional enzyme chromogens. Enzyme metallography, a novel procedure in which an enzymatic probe is used to deposit metal directly from solution, has been used to develop bright-field ISH methods for HER2 gene determination in breast cancer and other biopsy specimens. It provides the highest level of sensitivity and resolution, both for visualizing endogenous gene copies in nonamplified tissues and for resolving multiple gene copies to allow copy enumeration in amplified tissues without the need for oil immersion or fluorescence optics. An automated enzyme metallography procedure, silver ISH, has been developed for use in slide-staining instruments. Metallographic staining also provides excellent results for immunohistochemistry and may be combined with other staining procedures for the simultaneous detection of more than one gene or combinations of genes and proteins.

  14. Hybrid Fiber Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Stephen W; Simpson, John T; Gillies, George

    2010-01-01

    Instruments and devices based on optical fiber were originally simple and passive. That has changed. A variety of devices uses optical fiber for sensing, communications and various optoelectronic functions. This paper discusses the creation of a hybrid optical fiber that incorporates not just the light transmission function but other types of materials and new multiple fiber arrangements. Recent experiences with a fiber draw tower reveal new possibilities for achieving multifunctional devices able to perform diverse instrumentation sensing applications. This is achievable even with feature sizes, when desired, on the nanoscale. For instance, fiber comprised of one or more light guides and one or more electrically conducting wires is feasible. This combination of optical fiber and metal wire may be termed a wiber . The wiber could determine temperature and proximity to surfaces, detect radio-frequency radiation, and provide electrical power. At the same time, a wiber would have the capability to simultaneously transmit light where the light is utilized to sense temperature and proximity and give illumination. There are many possible uses--depending on design and configuration--cutting across many technologies and programs.

  15. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  16. Hybrid cluster identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Herrero, J.

    2004-10-01

    I present a hybrid method for the labelling of clusters in two-dimensional lattices, which combines the recursive approach with iterative scanning to reduce the stack size required by the pure recursive technique, while keeping its benefits: single pass and straightforward cluster characterization and percolation detection parallel to the labelling. While the capacity to hold the entire lattice in memory is usually regarded as the major constraint for the applicability of the recursive technique, the required stack size is the real limiting factor. Resorting to recursion only for the transverse direction greatly reduces the recursion depth and therefore the required stack. It also enhances the overall performance of the recursive technique, as is shown by results on a set of uniform random binary lattices and on a set of samples of the Ising model. I also show how this technique may replace the recursive technique in Wolff's cluster algorithm, decreasing the risk of stack overflow and increasing its speed, and the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm in the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm, allowing effortless characterization during generation of the samples and increasing its speed.

  17. Survey of lower hybrid experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Porkolab, M.

    1983-05-01

    Recent developments in lower hybrid experiments are discussed. While a decade ago there were many small scale experiments which verified the fundamental aspects of wave propagation near and above the lower hybrid frequency, more recently the greatest interest has been in using lower hybrid waves to heat the plasma, and to drive currents in toroidal devices. While in the mid 70's lower hybrid heating experiments in tokamaks were carried out at the 100 to 200 kW level, in recent experiments powers up to 1 MW have been injected in the Alcator C tokamak at MIT. Also, while the earlier lower hybrid experiments concentrated on the ion heating regime (..omega.. approx. = ..omega../sub LH/), in the more recent experiments the electron heating regime (..omega.. greater than or equal to 2..omega../sub LH/) and the current drive regime (..omega.. > 2..omega../sub LH/) has been explored to a greater extent. The reason for this is that bulk ion heating near the mode conversion layer appears to be less reproducible and more difficult to achieve than electron heating (and concommitant collisional bulk ion heating). While the reason for this is not well understood, it is likely that as the wave frequency gets closer to the lower hybrid frequency the shorter wavelength waves may be more effectively absorbed and/or scattered near the plasma surface by nonlinear effects (parametric instabilities, low frequency fluctuations, etc.). Toroidal effects may further enhance such mechanisms.

  18. Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Amit

    Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of the chosen filler and matrix and also facilitating the design of materials with specific properties matched to end use. However, the studies for hybrid foams have been very limited because of problems related to fiber dispersion in matrix, non uniform mixing due to presence of more than one filler and partially cured foams. An effective approach to synthesize hybrid phenolic foam has been proposed and investigated here. Hybrid composite phenolic foams were reinforced with chopped glass and aramid fibers in varied proportions. On assessing mechanical properties in compression and shear several interesting facts surfaced but overall hybrid phenolic foams exhibited a more graceful failure, greater resistance to cracking and were significantly stiffer and stronger than foams with only glass and aramid fibers. The optimum fiber ratio for the reinforced hybrid phenolic foam system was found to be 1:1 ratio of glass to aramid fibers. Also, the properties of hybrid foam were found to deviate from rule of mixture (ROM) and thus the existing theories of fiber reinforcement fell short in explaining their complex behavior. In an attempt to describe and predict mechanical behavior of hybrid foams a statistical design tool using analysis of variance technique was employed. The utilization of a statistical model for predicting foam properties was found to be an appropriate tool that affords a global perspective of the influence of process variables such as fiber weight fraction, fiber length etc. on foam properties (elastic modulus and strength). Similar approach could be extended to study other fiber composite foam systems such as polyurethane, epoxy etc. and doing so will reduce the number of experimental iterations needed to optimize foam properties and identify critical process variables. Diffusivity, accelerated aging and flammability

  19. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  20. Hybridization in a warmer world

    PubMed Central

    Chunco, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is profoundly affecting the evolutionary trajectory of individual species and ecological communities, in part through the creation of novel species assemblages. How climate change will influence competitive interactions has been an active area of research. Far less attention, however, has been given to altered reproductive interactions. Yet, reproductive interactions between formerly isolated species are inevitable as populations shift geographically and temporally as a result of climate change, potentially resulting in introgression, speciation, or even extinction. The susceptibility of hybridization rates to anthropogenic disturbance was first recognized in the 1930s. To date, work on anthropogenically mediated hybridization has focused primarily on either physical habitat disturbance or species invasion. Here, I review recent literature on hybridization to identify how ecological responses to climate change will increase the likelihood of hybridization via the dissolution of species barriers maintained by habitat, time, or behavior. Using this literature, I identify several cases where novel hybrid zones have recently formed, likely as a result of changing climate. Future research should focus on identifying areas and taxonomic groups where reproductive species interactions are most likely to be influenced by climate change. Furthermore, a better understanding of the evolutionary consequences of climate-mediated secondary contact is urgently needed. Paradoxically, hybridization is both a major conservation concern and an important source of novel genetic and phenotypic variation. Hybridization may therefore both contribute to increasing rates of extinction and stimulate the creation of novel phenotypes that will speed adaptation to novel climates. Predicting which result will occur following secondary contact will be an important contribution to conservation for many species. PMID:24963394

  1. Hybrid metrology implementation: server approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Carmen; Timoney, Padraig; Vaid, Alok; Elia, Alex; Kang, Charles; Bozdog, Cornel; Yellai, Naren; Grubner, Eyal; Ikegami, Toru; Ikeno, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid metrology (HM) is the practice of combining measurements from multiple toolset types in order to enable or improve metrology for advanced structures. HM is implemented in two phases: Phase-1 includes readiness of the infrastructure to transfer processed data from the first toolset to the second. Phase-2 infrastructure allows simultaneous transfer and optimization of raw data between toolsets such as spectra, images, traces - co-optimization. We discuss the extension of Phase-1 to include direct high-bandwidth communication between toolsets using a hybrid server, enabling seamless fab deployment and further laying the groundwork for Phase-2 high volume manufacturing (HVM) implementation. An example of the communication protocol shows the information that can be used by the hybrid server, differentiating its capabilities from that of a host-based approach. We demonstrate qualification and production implementation of the hybrid server approach using CD-SEM and OCD toolsets for complex 20nm and 14nm applications. Finally we discuss the roadmap for Phase-2 HM implementation through use of the hybrid server.

  2. Somatic hybridization in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Constabel, F

    1976-11-01

    Somatic hybridization in higher plants has come into focus since methods have been established for protoplast fusion and uptake of foreign DNA and organelles by protoplasts. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was an effective agent for inducing fusion. Treatment of protoplasts with PEG resulted in 5 to 30% heterospecific fusion products. Protoplasts of different species, genera and even families were compatible when fused. A number of protoplast combinations (soybean + corn, soybean + pea, soybean + tobacco, carrot + barley, etc.) provided fusion products which underwent cell division and callus formation. Fusion products initially were heterokaryocytes. In dividing heterokaryocytes, random distribution of mitotic nuclei was observed to be accompanied by multiple wall formation and to result in chimeral callus. Juxtaposition of mitotic nuclei suggested nuclear fusion and hybrid formation. Fusion of heterospecific interphase nuclei was demonstrated in soybean + pea and carrot + barley heterokaryons. Provided parental protoplasts carry suitable markers, the fusion products can be recognized. For the isolation and cloning of hybrid cells, fusion experiments must be supplemented with a selective system. Complementation of two non-allelic genes that prevent or inhibit growth under special culture conditions appears as the principle on which to base the selection of somatic hybrids. As protoplasts of some species have been induced to regenerate entire plants, the development of hybrid plants from protoplast fusion products is feasible and has already been demonstrated for tobacco.

  3. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  4. Effectiveness-implementation Hybrid Designs

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Geoffrey M.; Bauer, Mark; Mittman, Brian; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Stetler, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study proposes methods for blending design components of clinical effectiveness and implementation research. Such blending can provide benefits over pursuing these lines of research independently; for example, more rapid translational gains, more effective implementation strategies, and more useful information for decision makers. This study proposes a “hybrid effectiveness-implementation” typology, describes a rationale for their use, outlines the design decisions that must be faced, and provides several real-world examples. Results An effectiveness-implementation hybrid design is one that takes a dual focus a priori in assessing clinical effectiveness and implementation. We propose 3 hybrid types: (1) testing effects of a clinical intervention on relevant outcomes while observing and gathering information on implementation; (2) dual testing of clinical and implementation interventions/strategies; and (3) testing of an implementation strategy while observing and gathering information on the clinical intervention’s impact on relevant outcomes. Conclusions The hybrid typology proposed herein must be considered a construct still in evolution. Although traditional clinical effectiveness and implementation trials are likely to remain the most common approach to moving a clinical intervention through from efficacy research to public health impact, judicious use of the proposed hybrid designs could speed the translation of research findings into routine practice. PMID:22310560

  5. Testing hybridization hypotheses and evaluating the evolutionary potential of hybrids in mangrove plant species.

    PubMed

    Lo, E Y Y

    2010-10-01

    Natural hybridization is of marked importance from global to local biological diversity. In mangroves, species ranges overlap extensively with one another and species share a long overlap of flowering time. Although hybridization has been suggested, patterns of hybridization and the evolutionary potential of hybrids are not yet fully understood. This study provides molecular evidence for the parental origins and status of hybrids in the dominant mangrove genus Rhizophora based on comparisons of chloroplast and nuclear phylogenies and estimations of genetic relatedness and structure from inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that almost all species can act as maternal parents to hybrids and that hybridization can be bidirectional. Bayesian analyses indicate that hybrids are simple F(1) s, and no trace of backcrossing was detected within populations. Hybridization, for the most part, occurs almost only locally and dispersal of hybrid individuals is limited beyond the hybrid sites.

  6. DNA-based hybrid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  8. Hybrid Stars and Coronal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

    2004-01-01

    This program addresses the evolution of stellar coronas by comparing a solar-like corona in the supergiant Dra (G2 Ib-IIa) to the corona in the allegedly more evolved state of a hybrid star, TrA (K2 11-111). Because the hybrid star has a massive wind, it appears likely that the corona will be cooler and less dense as the magnetic loop structures are no longer closed. By analogy with solar coronal holes, when the topology of the magnetic field is configured with open magnetic structures, both the coronal temperature and density are lower than in atmospheres dominated by closed loops. The hybrid stars assume a pivotal role in the definition of coronal evolution, atmospheric heating processes and mechanisms to drive winds of cool stars.

  9. An Open Hybrid Plasma Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmström, M.; Nilsson, H.

    2012-09-01

    We present a hybrid plasma solver (particle ions, fluid mass-less electrons). The software is built on the public available FLASH software, developed at the University of Chicago [1], that provide adaptive grids and is fully parallelized. FLASH is a general parallel solver for compressible flow problems. It is written in Fortran 90, well structured into modules, has good support, and is open source. The parallelization is done using a block-structured adaptive cartesian grid with the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) library as the underlying communication layer. The hybrid solver in FLASH uses cell centered finite differences [2] and conserves energy well [3]. Recently we have added to the hybrid solver the capability of handling vacuum regions, non-uniform resistivity, external fields, and hyperresistivity. We also present an application of the solver to the interaction between the Moon and the solar wind [4], as illustrated in Fig. 1.

  10. John Butcher and hybrid methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdiyeva, Galina; Imanova, Mehriban; Ibrahimov, Vagif

    2017-07-01

    As is known there are the mainly two classes of the numerical methods for solving ODE, which is commonly called a one and multistep methods. Each of these methods has certain advantages and disadvantages. It is obvious that the method which has better properties of these methods should be constructed at the junction of them. In the middle of the XX century, Butcher and Gear has constructed at the junction of the methods of Runge-Kutta and Adams, which is called hybrid method. Here considers the construction of certain generalizations of hybrid methods, with the high order of accuracy and to explore their application to solving the Ordinary Differential, Volterra Integral and Integro-Differential equations. Also have constructed some specific hybrid methods with the degree p ≤ 10.

  11. Intercalated hybrid graphite fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is directed to a highly conductive lightweight hybrid material and methods of producing the same. The hybrid composite is obtained by weaving strands of a high strength carbon or graphite fiber into a fabric-like structure, depositing a layer of carbon onto the structure, heat treating the structure to graphitize the carbon layer, and intercalating the graphitic carbon layer structure. A laminate composite material useful for protection against lightning strikes comprises at least one layer of the hybrid material over at least one layer of high strength carbon or graphite fibers. The composite material of the present invention is compatible with matrix compounds, has a coefficient of thermal expansion which is the same as underlying fiber layers, and is resistant to galvanic corrosion in addition to being highly conductive. These materials are useful in the aerospace industry, in particular as lightning strike protection for airplanes.

  12. Homoploid hybrid speciation in animals.

    PubMed

    Mavárez, Jesús; Linares, Mauricio

    2008-10-01

    Among animals, evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS, i.e. the creation of a hybrid lineage without a change in chromosome number) was limited until recently to the virgin chub, Gila seminuda, and some controversial data in support of hybrid status for the red wolf, Canis rufus. This scarcity of evidence, together with pessimistic attitudes among zoologists about the evolutionary importance of hybridisation, prompted the view that HHS is extremely rare among animals, especially as compared with plants. However, in recent years, the literature on animal HHS has expanded to include several new putative examples in butterflies, ants, flies and fishes. We argue that this evidence suggests that HHS is far more common than previously thought and use it to provide insights into some of the genetic and ecological aspects associated with this type of speciation among animals.

  13. Hybrid SGP4 orbit propagator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Juan, Juan Félix; Pérez, Iván; San-Martín, Montserrat; Vergara, Eliseo P.

    2017-08-01

    Two-Line Elements (TLEs) continue to be the sole public source of orbiter observations. The accuracy of TLE propagations through the Simplified General Perturbations-4 (SGP4) software decreases dramatically as the propagation horizon increases, and thus the period of validity of TLEs is very limited. As a result, TLEs are gradually becoming insufficient for the growing demands of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). We propose a technique, based on the hybrid propagation methodology, aimed at extending TLE validity with minimal changes to the current TLE-SGP4 system in a non-intrusive way. It requires that the institution in possession of the osculating elements distributes hybrid TLEs, HTLEs, which encapsulate the standard TLE and the model of its propagation error. The validity extension can be accomplished when the end user processes HTLEs through the hybrid SGP4 propagator, HSGP4, which comprises the standard SGP4 and an error corrector.

  14. Plaque-based competitive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Villányi, Zoltán; Gyurján, István; Stéger, Viktor; Orosz, László

    2008-01-01

    The authors have developed a simple, cost-saving experimental design, plaque-based competitive hybridization (PBCH), for genome-wide identification of genes differentially expressed in different tissues. PBCH offers advantages in comparison with other methods used in comparative genomics by combining the principles of differential hybridization with the subtractive hybridization. PBCH is particularly advantageous when libraries with few differences are to be analyzed. The authors demonstrate the use of PBCH by identifying 3 genes, up-regulated in the developing velvet antler of red deer (Cervus elaphus): ApoD, C011A2, and S100a1. The fidelity and sensitivity of PBCH is also shown: 1 specific clone among a library sample of 15,000 can be recognized. Possibilities for further utilizations are discussed.

  15. Genomic Networks of Hybrid Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Leslie M.; White, Michael A.; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci (“Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities”). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven ‘hotspots,’ seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL—but not cis eQTL—were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a ‘fertile’ subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  16. Hybrid Avalanche Photodiode Array Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Hiroaki

    A hybrid avalanche photodiode (APD) array is a vacuum tube containing a photocathode and an array of avalanche photodiodes. It is a hybrid device that combines a traditional phototube technology and an advanced semiconductor technology. A photon produces a photoelectron with quantum efficiency at the photocathode. Unlike a phototube with dynodes, multiplication of the photoelectron is provided by a bombardment of the accelerated photoelectron into the avalanche photodiode resulting in a number of electron-hole pairs and a subsequent avalanche multiplication of the secondary electrons at the pn junction of the reverse-biased diode. The resulting total gain ranging from 104 to 105 is large enough to retain a single-photon sensitivity by using low-noise amplifiers. Segmentation of the pn junction of the diode provides the position information of an incident photoelectron and enables imaging of an incident photon. We report the recent progress on R&D of a single-pixel large format hybrid APD and a multipixel hybrid APD array. A hybrid avalanche photodiode (APD) array is a vacuum tube containing a photocathode and an array of avalanche photodiodes. It is a hybrid device that combines a traditional phototube technology and an advanced semiconductor technology. A photon produces a photoelectron with quantum efficiency at the photocathode. Unlike a phototube with dynodes, multiplication of the photoelectron is provided by a bombardment of the accelerated photoelectron into the avalanche photodiode resulting in a number of electron-hole pairs and a subsequent avalanche multiplication of the secondary electrons at the pn junction of the reverse-biased diode. The resulting total gain ranging from 104 to 105 is large enough to retain a single-photon sensitivity by using low-noise amplifiers. Segmentation of the pn junction of the diode provides the position information of an incident photoelectron and enables imaging of an incident photon. We report the recent progress on R

  17. Hybrid silicon focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pommerrenig, D.; Enders, D.; Trousil, L.; Capps, R.; Irwin, E.; Tollestrup, E.; Dereniak, E.

    1983-01-01

    Applications were demonstrated for hybrid silicon infrared CCD arrays in both ground and space based astronomical instrumentation. The primary goal was to provide a point of departure for both instrument designs and further development of the device. The test device is an indium doped silicon (Si:In) version of the 32 x 32 Rockwell 30331 surface channel hybrid silicon IRCCD. The device structure and a typical instrument interface are shown. The motivation for further study is presented along with a discussion in detail of some of the issues.

  18. Optical Hybrid Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira

    Historically, two complementary approaches to optical quantum information processing have been pursued: qubits and continuous-variables, each exploiting either particle or wave nature of light. However, both approaches have pros and cons. In recent years, there has been a significant progress in combining both approaches with a view to realizing hybrid protocols that overcome the current limitations. In this chapter, we first review the development of the two approaches with a special focus on quantum teleportation and its applications. We then introduce our recent research progress in realizing quantum teleportation by a hybrid scheme, and mention its future applications to universal and fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

  19. Helping HAN for hybrid rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Dowler, Warren

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyl amine nitrate (HAN) is a powerful oxidizer for hybrid rocket flight motors. Miscible with water up to 95% by mass, it also has high density and has been extensively characterized for materials compatibility, safety, transportation, storage and handling. Before any serious attempt to use the proposed oxidizer in hybrids, though, the usual performance figures must first be obtained. The simplest are time-independent, equilibrium rocket performance numbers that include chamber temperature, temperature at the nozzle throat, and key species in the exhaust. These numbers must be followed by several other important performance evaluation, including burning rates, pressure dependence, susceptibility to instabilities and temperature sensitivity.

  20. Witnessing entanglement in hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Massimo; Rossi, Matteo; Macchiavello, Chiara; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2014-08-01

    We extend the definition of entanglement witnesses based on spin structure factors to the case of scatterers with quantum mechanical motion. We show that this allows for hybrid entanglement detection and specialize the witness for a chain of trapped ions. Within this framework, we also show how the collective vibronic state of the chain can act as an undesired quantum environment affecting the spin-spin-entanglement detection. Furthermore, we investigate several specific cases where these witness operators allow us to detect hybrid entanglement.

  1. Hybrid combustion with metallized fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Jianwen; Wygle, Brian S.; Bates, Ronald W.; Jones, Michael D.; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1993-01-01

    A chemical method of adding certain catalysts to improve the degradation process of a solid fuel is discussed. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis used to study the fundamental degradation behavior of a typical hybrid fuel (HTPB) shows that high surface temperatures increase the degradation rate. Fuels were tested in a laboratory-scale experimental hybrid rocket and their behavior was compared to a baseline behavior of HTPB fuel regression rates. It was found that a small amount of metal powder added to the fuel can significantly increase the regression rates.

  2. PSEUDOVECTOR MESONS, HYBRIDS AND GLUEBALLS

    SciTech Connect

    L. BURAKOVSKY; P. PAGE

    2000-06-01

    The authors consider glueball-(hybrid) meson mixing for the low-lying four pseudovector states. The h{sub 1}{prime}(1380) decays dominantly to K*K with some presence in {rho}{pi} and {omega}{eta}. The newly observed h{sub 1}(1600) has a D- to S-wave width ratio to {omega}{eta} which makes its interpretation as a conventional meson unlikely. They predict the decay pattern of the isopartner conventional or hybrid meson b{sub 1}(1650). A notably narrow s{bar s} partner h{sub 1}{prime}(1810) is predicted.

  3. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  4. Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Redding, David; Lowman, Andrew; Cohen, David; Ohara, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts the planned Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope (AHMT), which is intended to demonstrate a new approach to the design and construction of wide-aperture spaceborne telescopes for astronomy and Earth science. This technology is also appropriate for Earth-based telescopes. The new approach can be broadly summarized as using advanced lightweight mirrors that can be manufactured rapidly at relatively low cost. More specifically, it is planned to use precise replicated metallic nanolaminate mirrors to obtain the required high-quality optical finishes. Lightweight, dimensionally stable silicon carbide (SiC) structures will support the nanolaminate mirrors in the required surface figures. To enable diffraction- limited telescope performance, errors in surface figures will be corrected by use of mirror-shape-control actuators that will be energized, as needed, by a wave-front-sensing and control system. The concepts of nanolaminate materials and mirrors made from nanolaminate materials were discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Nanolaminates constitute a relatively new class of materials that can approach theoretical limits of stiffness and strength. Nanolaminate mirrors are synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition of metallic alloys and/or compounds on optically precise master surfaces to obtain optical-quality reflector surfaces backed by thin shell structures. As an integral part of the deposition process, a layer of gold that will constitute the reflective surface layer is deposited first, eliminating the need for a subsequent and separate reflective-coating process. The crystallographic textures of the nanolaminate will be controlled to optimize the performance of the mirror. The entire deposition process for making a nanolaminate mirror takes less than 100 hours, regardless of the mirror diameter. Each nanolaminate mirror will be bonded to its lightweight SiC supporting structure. The lightweight nanolaminate mirrors and Si

  5. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  6. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  7. Fundamentals of Hybrid Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Kathryn E.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides definitions and distinguishing characteristics of the various terms used in the context of hybrid education. The author also offers an overview of the recent literature on hybrid teaching and learning.

  8. Hybrid power management system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  9. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes.

    PubMed

    Liu, ShaoJun

    2010-04-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (male), and RCC (2n=100) (female) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (male) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (female) x CC (male), bisexual fertile F(3)-F(18) allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (female) x BSB (male), different ploidy fishes were

  10. Current State of Military Hybrid Vehicle Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-31

    include:  Allison Hybrid EP System™ - Transit buses two-mode parallel hybrid with continuously variable transmission (CVT)  Azure Balance Hybrid...Heavy-Duty Transit Buses , Proceeding of the Vehicular Technology Conference, Vol. 5, pp 3310-3315, October 2003. [3] E. Rosenthal, U.S. Military...cars and commercial applications such as delivery trucks and transit busses. One of the biggest justifications for hybrids is their fuel efficiency

  11. Demonstration of Heavy Diesel Hybrid Fleet Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    levels, brake wear, ease-of-use, maintainability, and drivability. Heavy Duty Vehicle , Hybrid Electric , Hybrid Hydraulic, Utility Truck, Refuse Truck...heavy hybrid electric vehicle technologies feature a supplemental power system that substantially improves efficiency. Similar to light duty hybrids... electrical energy via a generator, as shown in Figure 2-1. The vehicle stores that energy in on-board batteries for driving the wheels at another time

  12. Hybrid Warfare: Implications for CAF Force Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    also McCulloh and Johnson who demonstrate throughout their study that context is critical . Indeed, their summary statement for “hybrid warfare theory ...Muhr, eds., Hybrid and Cyber War as Consequences of the Asymmetry, Frankfurt : Peter Lang, 2011, p.95. Interestingly, the CFD Hybrid Warfare Concept...the highest political and military levels. The study of hybrid-type case studies yields the critical lesson that: “leadership is essential to victory

  13. Energy Storage for Hybrid Miiltary Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-11

    Energy Storage for Hybrid Military Vehicles Ghassan Y. Khalil Abstract The benefits of hybrid electric vehicles have been recognized by the US Army...and safe energy storage in future All Electric Combat Vehicles (AECV). Keywords: battery, HEV, energy storage, battery management Introduction The...potential benefits of hybrid electric vehicles for military applications have been recognized by the US Army as well as other military services. Hybrid

  14. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-30

    microcontroller board is used to control a laser scanner. A MATLAB program collects data at each pixel and constructs both amplitude and range images...development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar- radar designed to improve detection performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Lidar - Radar 16...hardware implementation and underwater channel characteristics. Tecfinical Approach A significant challenge in hybrid lidar- radar is optical

  15. Hybrid Doctoral Program: Innovative Practices and Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…

  16. Hybridization...application to pine populations

    Treesearch

    M. Thompson Conkle

    1970-01-01

    Can hybridization between species and races produce superior forest trees?" In the 1920's and 1930's, some lumbermen and scientists alike were asking this question. They were impressed by the work of Luther Burbank, whose improvements in vegetables and .flowers were being achieved by hybridization. And some of his hybrids far surpassed varieties...

  17. Hybrid Computation at Louisiana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corripio, Armando B.

    Hybrid computation facilities have been in operation at Louisiana State University since the spring of 1969. In part, they consist of an Electronics Associates, Inc. (EAI) Model 680 analog computer, an EAI Model 693 interface, and a Xerox Data Systems (XDS) Sigma 5 digital computer. The hybrid laboratory is used in a course on hybrid computation…

  18. 75 FR 64123 - Hybrid Retirement Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG36 Hybrid Retirement Plans AGENCY: Internal Revenue... providing guidance relating to certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) that apply to hybrid... regulations affect sponsors, administrators, participants, and beneficiaries of hybrid defined benefit...

  19. Using Hybrid Modeling to Develop Innovative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Brenda; Avans, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a hybrid activities model that physical educators can use with students in grades four and above to create virtually a limitless array of novel games. A brief introduction to the basic theory is followed by descriptions of some hybrid games. Hybrid games are typically the result of merging two traditional sports or other…

  20. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…