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Sample records for serpentine hot springs

  1. Native Healing in Alaska—Report From Serpentine Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Book, Patricia A.; Dixon, Mim; Kirchner, Scott

    1983-01-01

    Traditional Alaskan Native healing practices, specifically sweat bathing and hot springs bathing, have medical connotations in that they involve sociocultural factors important to practicing medicine among Alaskan Native people. At Serpentine Hot Springs in northwest Alaska, relief for arthritis, back pain, hip pain, headaches, skin rashes and other disorders was sought. The “treatment setting” was an informal bathhouse and bunkhouse and Eskimo tribal doctors and patients were assigned tasks related to healing. Continuity with traditional cultural patterns was achieved in several ways: meals tended to be traditional Eskimo fare, the predominant language spoken was Inupiaq and styles of interaction were Inupiat in character. All patients showed improvement. The experience reported herein is instructive for those seeking innovative approaches treating Native American groups. PMID:6666111

  2. An environmental survey of Serpentine Hot Springs: Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and microbiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Hasselbach, Linda; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Skorupa, Dana; McCleskey, R. Blaine; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Serpentine Hot Springs is the most visited site in the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve. The hot springs have traditionally been used by the Native people of the Seward Peninsula for religious, medicinal and spiritual purposes and continue to be used in many of the same ways by Native people today. The hot springs are also popular with non-Native users from Nome and other communities, recreational users and pilots from out of the area, and hunters and hikers.

  3. Hot streak characterization in serpentine exhaust nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Darrell S.

    Modern aircraft of the United States Air Force face increasingly demanding cost, weight, and survivability requirements. Serpentine exhaust nozzles within an embedded engine allow a weapon system to fulfill mission survivability requirements by providing denial of direct line-of-sight into the high-temperature components of the engine. Recently, aircraft have experienced material degradation and failure along the aft deck due to extreme thermal loading. Failure has occurred in specific regions along the aft deck where concentrations of hot gas have come in contact with the surface causing hot streaks. The prevention of these failures will be aided by the accurate prediction of hot streaks. Additionally, hot streak prediction will improve future designs by identifying areas of the nozzle and aft deck surfaces that require thermal management. To this end, the goal of this research is to observe and characterize the underlying flow physics of hot streak phenomena. The goal is accomplished by applying computational fluid dynamics to determine how hot streak phenomena is affected by changes in nozzle geometry. The present research first validates the computational methods using serpentine inlet experimental and computational studies. A design methodology is then established for creating six serpentine exhaust nozzles investigated in this research. A grid independent solution is obtained on a nozzle using several figures of merit and the grid-convergence index method. An investigation into the application of a second-order closure turbulence model is accomplished. Simulations are performed for all serpentine nozzles at two flow conditions. The research introduces a set of characterization and performance parameters based on the temperature distribution and flow conditions at the nozzle throat and exit. Examination of the temperature distribution on the upper and lower nozzle surfaces reveals critical information concerning changes in hot streak phenomena due to changes

  4. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Olalla; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats. PMID:25369743

  5. 6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  6. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

    2006-12-01

    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  7. Sources of antibiotics: Hot springs.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Girish B; Balachandran, Lakshmi

    2016-11-24

    The discovery of antibiotics heralded an era of improved health care. However, the over-prescription and misuse of antibiotics resulted in the development of resistant strains of various pathogens. Since then, there has been an incessant search for discovering novel compounds from bacteria at various locations with extreme conditions. The soil is one of the most explored locations for bioprospecting. In recent times, hypersaline environments and symbiotic associations have been investigated for novel antimicrobial compounds. Among the extreme environments, hot springs are comparatively less explored. Many researchers have reported the presence of microbial life and secretion of antimicrobial compounds by microorganisms in hot springs. A pioneering research in the corresponding author's laboratory resulted in the identification of the antibiotic Fusaricidin B isolated from a hot spring derived eubacteria, Paenibacillus polymyxa, which has been assigned a new application for its anti-tubercular properties. The corresponding author has also reported anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activity of 73 bacterial isolates from hot springs in India.

  8. Metagenomic analysis of carbon cycling and biogenic methane formation in terrestrial serpentinizing fluid springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woycheese, K. M.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Arcilla, C. A.; Ono, S.

    2016-12-01

    The products of serpentinization are proposed to support a hydrogen-driven microbial biosphere in ultrabasic, highly reducing fluids. Shotgun metagenomic analysis of microbial communities collected from terrestrial serpentinizing springs in the Philippines and Turkey suggest that mutualistic relationships may help microbial communities thrive in highly oligotrophic environments. Understanding how these relationships affect production of methane in the deep subsurface is critical to applications such as carbon sequestration and natural gas production. There is conflicting evidence regarding whether methane and C2-C6 alkanes in serpentinizing ecosystems are produced abiogenically or through biotic reactions such as methanogenesis1, 2. While geochemical analysis of methane from serpentinizing ecosystems has previously indicated abiogenic and/or mixed formation3, 4, methanogens have been detected in an increasing number of investigations2. Here, putative metabolisms were identified via assembly and annotation of metagenomic sequence data from the Philippines and Turkey. At both sites, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and homoacetogenesis were identified as the principal autotrophic carbon fixation pathways. Heterotrophic acetogenesis and acetoclastic methanogenesis were also detected in sequence data. Other heterotrophic metabolic pathways identified included sulfate reduction, methanotrophy, and biodegradation of aromatic carbon compounds. Many of these metabolic pathways have been shown to be favorable under conditions typical of serpentinizing habitats5. Metagenomic analysis strongly suggests that at least some of the methane originating from these serpentinizing ecosystems may be biologically derived. Ongoing work will further clarify the mechanisms of methane formation by examining the clumped isotopologue ratios of dissolved methane in serpentinizing fluids. 1. Wang et al. (2015). Science. 348. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa4326 2. Kohl et al. (2016). JGR. Biogeosci

  9. Heavy Metal Resistant, Alkalitolerant Bacteria Isolated From Serpentinizing Springs in the Zambales Ophiolite, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallalar, B.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinization involves hydrologic alteration of ultramafic mantle rocks containing olivine and pyroxene to produce serpentine minerals. The fluids resulting from this reaction are reduced, extremely depleted in dissolved inorganic carbon, and are highly alkaline with pH values typically exceeding 10. Major byproducts of the serpentinizing reaction include iron oxides, hydrogen, methane, and small amounts of organic molecules that provide chemosynthetic energy for subsurface microbial communities. In addition, weathering of serpentine rocks often produces fluids and sediments that have elevated concentrations of various toxic heavy metals such as chromium, nickel, cobalt, copper, and zinc. Thus, microorganisms inhabiting these unique ecological niches must be adapted to a variety of physicochemical extremes. The purpose of this study is to isolate bacteria that are capable of withstanding extremely high concentrations of multiple heavy metals from serpentine fluid-associated sediments. Fluid and sediment samples for microbial culturing were collected from Manleluag Spring National Park located on the island of Luzon, Philippines. The area is part of the Zambales ophiolite range, and hosts several serpentinizing fluid seeps. Fluid emanating from the source pool of the spring, designated Manleluag 2 (ML2), has a pH of 10.83 and temperature of 34.4 °C. Luria-Bertani agar medium was supplemented with varying concentrations of five trace elements - Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, and Zn. Environmental samples were spread on each of these media and colony forming units were subsequently chosen for isolation. In all, over 20 isolates were obtained from media with concentrations ranging from 25 mg/L - 400 mg/L of each metal. Taxonomic identity of each isolate was determined using 16S rRNA gene sequences. The isolates were then tested for tolerance to alkaline conditions by altering LB medium to pH values of 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. The majority of strains exhibit growth at the highest p

  10. Discovery of New Methane-bearing Hyperalkaline Springs in the Serpentinized Dun Mountain Ophiolite, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawson, J. F.; Oze, C.; Etiope, G.; Horton, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    The production of H2 and CH4 following serpentinization is considered a fundamental process for the origin/sustenance of microbial life, with several implications in astrobiology and petroleum geology. In recent years an increasing number of gas seeps or springs, with dominantly abiotic CH4, have been discovered in land-based serpentinized peridotites worldwide. We report the discovery of a new site in the Dun Mountain Ophiolite (DMO), New Zealand. This is the second gas-bearing peridotite discovered so far in NZ, after Poison Bay which was documented in the 1990s. The DMO area is characterized by active and present-day low temperature serpentinization driven by meteoric water, a common process in ophiolites. A localised area of hyperalkaline (pH >11.6) and reduced (-243.4 mV) waters contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved calcium (43.2 ppm) aiding in carbonate precipitation. Directly above these waters flux measurements by closed chamber methods reveal CH4 emission rates exceeding 2800 mg m-2day-1. The δ13C values of CH4 suggest the presence of a dominant abiotic gas component (e.g. -32.7 ‰ VPDB). Additionally, an unusual clear to black gel is released from less alkaline springs elsewhere in the DMO. The origin and nature of this gel-like material is currently unknown.

  11. Diagenetic Changes in Common Hot Spring Microfacies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinman, N. W.; Kendall, T. A.; MacKenzie, L. A.; Cady, S. D.

    2016-05-01

    The friable nature of silica hot spring deposits makes them susceptible to mechanical weathering. Rapid diagenesis must take place for these rocks to persist in the geologic record. The properties of two microfacies at two deposits were compared.

  12. Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

    1991-08-01

    This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

  13. 5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  14. THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  15. DETAIL OF THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 4. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Hale Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. 2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. 1. TEMPERING COILS IN WIND TUNNEL. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEMPERING COILS IN WIND TUNNEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  20. 9. THERMOSTAT IN LADIES MASSAGE ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. THERMOSTAT IN LADIES MASSAGE ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  1. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  2. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  3. 5. HORIZONTAL COOLEDWATER STORAGE TANKS. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HORIZONTAL COOLED-WATER STORAGE TANKS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  4. 7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  5. 1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  6. BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  7. 9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. 2. PADDLE FAN IN PLENUM INTERIOR. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PADDLE FAN IN PLENUM INTERIOR. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  9. 12. ELEVATOR DOORS AND CAB. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ELEVATOR DOORS AND CAB. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  10. 5. DISCONNECTED COMPRESSOR MOTOR. Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DISCONNECTED COMPRESSOR MOTOR. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  11. 11. INTERIOR OF THERMOSTAT. Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF THERMOSTAT. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. 13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  13. 4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  14. 2. INDUSTRIAL IRON (LAUNDRY AREA IN BACKGROUND). Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INDUSTRIAL IRON (LAUNDRY AREA IN BACKGROUND). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  15. 2. SECTIONAL BOILER '#4 IDEAL RED FLASH.' Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SECTIONAL BOILER '#4 IDEAL RED FLASH.' - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 1. INDUSTRIAL IRON (WORKING SIDE). Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INDUSTRIAL IRON (WORKING SIDE). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 2. PLENUM WALL, SHOWING PNEUMATIC TUBES. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PLENUM WALL, SHOWING PNEUMATIC TUBES. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. 8. HUBBARD TUB IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. HUBBARD TUB IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  20. 7. BOILERS (MARINE TYPE). Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BOILERS (MARINE TYPE). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  1. 9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  2. 10. TYPICAL BATH IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TYPICAL BATH IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  3. 6. UNIT VENTILATOR, WOMEN'S COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UNIT VENTILATOR, WOMEN'S COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  4. 3. BLOWER FAN, MOTOR AND DRIVE. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BLOWER FAN, MOTOR AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  5. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  6. Potential autotrophic metabolisms in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, P. L.; Miles, S.; Kohl, L.; Kavanagh, H.; Ziegler, S. E.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as windows into the biogeochemistry of this subsurface exothermic environment rich in H2 and CH4 gases. Biogeochemical carbon transformations in these systems are of interest because serpentinization creates conditions that are amenable to abiotic and biotic reduction of carbon. However, little is known about the metabolic capabilities of the microorganisms that live in this environment. To determine the potential for autotrophic metabolisms, bicarbonate and CO substrate addition microcosm experiments were performed using water and sediment from an ultra-basic reducing spring in the Tablelands, Newfoundland, Canada, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. CO was consistently observed to be utilized in the Live but not the Killed controlled replicates amended with 10% 13C labelled CO and non-labelled (natural C isotope abundance) CO. In the Live CO microcosms with natural C isotope abundance, the residual CO became enriched in 13C (~10 ‰) consistent with a decrease in the fraction of CO remaining. In the Killed CO controlled replicates with natural C isotope abundance the CO showed little 13C enrichment (~1.3 ‰). The data from the Live CO microcosms were well described by a Rayleigh isotopic distillation model, yielding an isotopic enrichment factor for microbial CO uptake of 15.7 ×0.5 ‰ n=2. These data suggest that there was microbial CO utilization in these experiments. The sediment and water from the 13C-labelled and non-labelled, Live and Killed microcosms were extracted for phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to determine changes in community composition between treatments as well as to determine the microbial uptake of CO. The difference in community composition between the Live and Killed microcosms was not readily resolvable based on PLFA distributions. Additionally, the microbial uptake of 13CO had minimal to no affect on the δ13C of the cellular biomarkers, with the

  7. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  8. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  9. Mineral textures in Serpentine-hosted Alkaline Springs from the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampouras, Manolis; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Bach, Wolfgang; Garrido, Carlos J.; Los, Karin; Fussmann, Dario; Monien, Monien

    2017-04-01

    Meteoric water infiltration in ultramafic rocks leads to serpentinization and the formation of subaerial, low temperature, hydrothermal alkaline springs. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the mineral precipitation mechanisms and textural features of mineral precipitates, along as the geochemical and hydrological characterization, of two alkaline spring systems in the Semail ophiolite (Nasif and Khafifah sites, Wadi Tayin massif). The main aim of the study is to provide new insights into mineral and textural variations in active, on-land, alkaline vents of the Oman ophiolite. Discharge of circulating fluids forms small-scale, localized hydrological catchments consisting in unevenly interconnected ponds. Three different types of waters can be distinguished within the pond systems: i) Mg-type; alkaline (7.9 < pH < 9.5), Mg-HCO3-rich waters; ii) Ca-type; hyper-alkaline (pH > 11.6), Ca-OH-rich waters; and iii) Mix-type waters arising from the mixing of Mg-type and Ca-type waters (9.6 < pH < 11.5). Phreeqc geochemical speciation software was used to determine the saturation state and the relationship between the theoretical supersaturation (S) and rate of supersaturation (S˚ ) of solid phases. Simple mixing models using Phreeqc MIX_code revealed good mixing correlation (R2 ≥0.93) between measured and predicted values for K, Na, Cl, Mg and sulphate. Al, Ca, Si, Ba, Sr and TIC showed poorer correlations. Mineral and textural characterization from different types of water and individual ponds were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy coupled to dispersive energy spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS). Aragonite and calcite are the dominant minerals (95 vol.%) of the total mineralogical index in all sites. Mg-type waters host hydrated magnesium carbonates (nesquehonite) and magnesium hydroxycarbonate hydrates (artinite) due to evaporation. Brucite, hydromagnesite and dypingite presence in Mix-type waters

  10. Decadal radon cycles in a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Yan, Rui; Woith, Heiko; Wang, Rongjiang; Wang, Guangcai

    2017-09-21

    A high-fidelity record covering nearly 40 years of water-dissolved radon from the hot spring site of BangLazhang (BLZ), Southwestern China is presented to study multi-year periodicities of radon. Ancillary observational data, i.e., water temperature, spring discharge rate, barometric pressure, combined with regional rainfall, galactic cosmic rays (GCR flux is modulated by solar wind and thus a proxy for solar activity) and regional seismicity from the same period are considered to identify potentially influencing factors controlling the changes in radon. Variations in radon concentration and ancillary observational data are studied using continuous Wavelet Power Spectrum (WPS), Wavelet Coherence (WTC), and Partial Wavelet Coherence (PWC). The results show that the long-period radon concentration is characterized by a quasi-decadal (8-11 years) cycle, matching well with the concurrent periodicity in water temperature, spring discharge rates and GCR. PWCs of radon, discharge rate and water temperature suggest that water temperature variations explain most of the coherent variability of radon and the discharge rate. We tentatively conclude that radon variations are mainly explained by variations in water temperature and spring discharge, which are modified and modulated by earthquakes and quasi-decadal variations of an unidentified process. The influence of solar activity on the decadal periodicity is discussed.

  11. Phototrophy in Mildly Acidic Hot Spring Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial light-driven reduction of carbon in continental hydrothermal ecosystems is restricted to environments at temperatures less than 73 °C. In circumneutral and alkaline systems bacterial phototrophs (cyanobacteria and anoxygenic phototrophs) are suggested to be principally responsible for this activity whereas algal (i.e., eukaryotic) phototrophs are thought to be responsible for this activity in acidic systems. In Yellowstone National Park numerous examples of phototrophic microbial communities exist at high and low pH, while hot springs with intermediate pH (values 3-5) are rare and commonly dilute. It is thought that the transition from algal photosynthesis to bacterial photosynthesis occurs within this pH range. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced bacterial and eukaryal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, analyzed pigments, and performed comprehensive geochemical measurements from 12 hot springs within this pH realm. At all sites, the largest phototrophic population was either comprised of Cyanobacteria or affiliated with the algal order Cyanidiales, which are ubiquitous in acidic springs, yet abundant sequences of both lineages were present in 8 of the 12 sites. Nevertheless, some of these samples exceeded the known temperature limit of the algae (56 °C), suggesting that these populations are dead or inactive. Indeed, one site yielded evidence for a large Cyanidiales population as the only phototrophs present, yet an experiment at the time of sampling failed to demonstrate light-driven carbon fixation, and analysis of extracted pigments showed a large amount of the chlorophyll degradation product pheophorbide a and very little intact chlorophyll, indicating photosynthesis occurred at this site when conditions were different. Our observations illustrate the dynamic nature of these systems that may be transiently conducive to photosynthesis, which may open niches for phototrophs of both domains and likely played a role in the evolution of photosynthesis.

  12. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  13. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial...

  14. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial...

  15. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial...

  16. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial...

  17. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial...

  18. Geothermal resource assessment of Waunita Hot Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    This assessment includes the project report; the geothermal prospect reconnaissance evaluation and recommendations; interpretation of water sample analyses; a hydrogeochemical comparison of the Waunita Hot Springs, Hortense, Castle Rock, and Anderson Hot Springs; geothermal resistivity resource evaluation survey, the geophysical environment; temperature, heat flow maps, and temperature gradient holes; and soil mercury investigations.

  19. Diversity of Crenarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs in Tengchong, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Chen, Jing-Quan; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Zhou, En-Min; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Chuan-Lun L; Li, Wen-Jun

    2010-05-01

    Diversity of Crenarchaeota was investigated in eight terrestrial hot springs (pH 2.8-7.7; temperature 44-96 degrees C) located in Tengchong, China, using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. A total of 826 crenarchaeotal clones were sequenced and a total of 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Most (93%) of the identified OTUs were closely related (89-99%) to those retrieved from hot springs and other thermal environments. Our data showed that temperature may predominate over pH in affecting crenarchaeotal diversity in Tengchong hot springs. Crenarchaeotal diversity in moderate-temperature (59-77 degrees C) hot springs was the highest, indicating that the moderately hot-temperature springs may provide optimal conditions for speciation of Crenarchaeota.

  20. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  1. Siliceous Shrubs in Yellowstone's Hot Springs: Implications for Exobiological Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    Potential relict hot springs have been identified on Mars and, using the Earth as an analog, Martian hot springs are postulated to be an optimal locality for recognizing preserved evidence of extraterrestrial life. Distinctive organic and inorganic biomarkers are necessary to recognize preserved evidence of life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial hot spring accumulations. Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., contain a wealth of information about primitive microbial life and associated biosignatures that may be useful for future exobiological investigations. Numerous siliceous hot springs in Yellowstone contain abundant, centimeter-scale, spinose precipitates of opaline silica (opal-A). Although areally extensive in siliceous hot spring discharge channel facies, these spinose forms have largely escaped attention. These precipitates referred to as shrubs, consist of porous aggregates of spinose opaline silica that superficially resemble miniature woody plants, i.e., the term shrubs. Shrubs in carbonate precipitating systems have received considerable attention, and represent naturally occurring biotically induced precipitates. As such, shrubs have great potential as hot spring environmental indicators and, more importantly, proxies for pre-existing microbial life.

  2. Siliceous Shrubs in Yellowstone's Hot Springs: Implications for Exobiological Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    Potential relict hot springs have been identified on Mars and, using the Earth as an analog, Martian hot springs are postulated to be an optimal locality for recognizing preserved evidence of extraterrestrial life. Distinctive organic and inorganic biomarkers are necessary to recognize preserved evidence of life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial hot spring accumulations. Hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., contain a wealth of information about primitive microbial life and associated biosignatures that may be useful for future exobiological investigations. Numerous siliceous hot springs in Yellowstone contain abundant, centimeter-scale, spinose precipitates of opaline silica (opal-A). Although areally extensive in siliceous hot spring discharge channel facies, these spinose forms have largely escaped attention. These precipitates referred to as shrubs, consist of porous aggregates of spinose opaline silica that superficially resemble miniature woody plants, i.e., the term shrubs. Shrubs in carbonate precipitating systems have received considerable attention, and represent naturally occurring biotically induced precipitates. As such, shrubs have great potential as hot spring environmental indicators and, more importantly, proxies for pre-existing microbial life.

  3. Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-06-01

    The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

  4. Hot springs of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal springs of the central Sierra Nevada issue dilute to slightly saline sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium mixed-anion waters ranging in pH from 6.4 to 9.3. The solubility of chalcedony appears to control the silica concentration in most of the spring waters. Fales Hot Springs may be associated with a higher temperature aquifer, 150 degrees Celsius or more, in which quartz is controlling the silica concentration. Carbon dioxide is the predominant gas escaping from Fales Hot Springs, the unnamed hot spring on the south side of Mono Lake, and the two thermal springs near Bridgeport. Most of the other thermal springs issue small amounts of gas consisting principally of nitrogen. Methane is the major component of the gas escaping from the unnamed spring on Paoha Island in Mono Lake. The deuterium and oxygen isotopic composition of most of the thermal waters are those expected for local meteoric water which has undergone minor water-rock reaction. The only exceptions are the hot spring on Paoha Island in Mono Lake and perhaps the unnamed warm spring (south side of Mono Lake) which issues mixtures of thermal water and saline lake water. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  6. Microbially-influenced Fe-Cycling within high pH serpentinizing springs of the Zambales Ophiolite, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casar, C.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Simon, A.; Cardace, D.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Zambales ophiolite region in the Philippines contains high pH springs associated with serpentinization. At the surface where calcium-saturated ­fluids mix with air, fluid becomes aerobic and diffusion of CO2 occurs. At depth, there are low concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and O2, and high concentrations of CH4 and H2. Redox potential of iron in the fluids is largely dependent on pH. Fe2+ is unstable at a high pH, and spontaneously reacts with atmospheric O2 to form Fe3+, which is then hydrolysed to ferrihydrite. The reaction kinetics may be too rapid for microbes to harness energy for growth, however cells have been documented to act as nucleation sites for ferrihydrite precipitation in natural environments. Precipitates that sink to the subsurface act as substrates for microbes where they may carry out Fe3+ reduction in the presence of H2. Predictions made about Gibbs energy of reaction for iron metabolisms in serpentinizing systems show that Fe3+ reduction in the subsurface is energetically favorable (Fig. 1A) (Cardace, et al., 2013). Spring fluid and rock samples from the Zambales region were collected in September 2013. Time series microcosms including sample rock, spring fluid, and gas simulating the spring surface and subsurface (Fig. 1B) will investigate microbial growth rates and microbial reaction products over one year. Microcosms will undergo cell counts via fluorescence microscopy, SEM, and XRD to examine cell growth rates, microbial action on mineral surfaces, minerals forming around cells, and changes in mineralogy. After one year, microbial community structure and iron metabolizers will be identified via DNA sequencing.­­ Surface microcosms are expected to show abiotic oxidation of Fe2+ and formation of Fe3+ precipitates preferentially around cells acting as nucleation sites (except in abiotic control microcosms). Subsurface microcosms are expected to show biotic reduction of Fe3+ and signs of microbial action on mineral surfaces

  7. Site-based data curation based on hot spring geobiology

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Carole L.; Thomer, Andrea K.; Baker, Karen S.; Wickett, Karen M.; Hendrix, Christie L.; Rodman, Ann; Sigler, Stacey; Fouke, Bruce W.

    2017-01-01

    Site-Based Data Curation (SBDC) is an approach to managing research data that prioritizes sharing and reuse of data collected at scientifically significant sites. The SBDC framework is based on geobiology research at natural hot spring sites in Yellowstone National Park as an exemplar case of high value field data in contemporary, cross-disciplinary earth systems science. Through stakeholder analysis and investigation of data artifacts, we determined that meaningful and valid reuse of digital hot spring data requires systematic documentation of sampling processes and particular contextual information about the site of data collection. We propose a Minimum Information Framework for recording the necessary metadata on sampling locations, with anchor measurements and description of the hot spring vent distinct from the outflow system, and multi-scale field photography to capture vital information about hot spring structures. The SBDC framework can serve as a global model for the collection and description of hot spring systems field data that can be readily adapted for application to the curation of data from other kinds scientifically significant sites. PMID:28253269

  8. Hydrological and geochemical study of Yuseong hot spring in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Park, C.; Cho, Y.; LEE, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Yuseong hot spring is the first modernized hot spring in 1920's that has drawn the most tourists until 2000 before decline of tourists due to the aging of facility. It is located in the mid-west of South Korea. Geologically, it is in Precambrian metamorphic complex intruded by Mesozoic granite and porphyry. Fault zones exist in the E-W and NNW-SSE directions around Yuseong hot spring. Wells lie in the E-W direction indicating the correlation between the fault zones and the hot spring distribution. Water production rate has decreased gradually from 5,200 m3/d in 1993 to 2,500 m3/d in 2011. Water depth varies from 22 m - 57 m depending on pumping. Although enforced pumping has enacted last 50 years, water depth is observed to be stable. Water temperature is measured from the highest 51.8 degree Celsius to the lowest 25 degree Celsius. Yuseong hot spring is primarily the type of Na(Ca)-HCO3 whose pH ranges from low alkaline to alkaline with sufficient silica(≥40 mg/L).

  9. Site-based data curation based on hot spring geobiology.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Carole L; Thomer, Andrea K; Baker, Karen S; Wickett, Karen M; Hendrix, Christie L; Rodman, Ann; Sigler, Stacey; Fouke, Bruce W

    2017-01-01

    Site-Based Data Curation (SBDC) is an approach to managing research data that prioritizes sharing and reuse of data collected at scientifically significant sites. The SBDC framework is based on geobiology research at natural hot spring sites in Yellowstone National Park as an exemplar case of high value field data in contemporary, cross-disciplinary earth systems science. Through stakeholder analysis and investigation of data artifacts, we determined that meaningful and valid reuse of digital hot spring data requires systematic documentation of sampling processes and particular contextual information about the site of data collection. We propose a Minimum Information Framework for recording the necessary metadata on sampling locations, with anchor measurements and description of the hot spring vent distinct from the outflow system, and multi-scale field photography to capture vital information about hot spring structures. The SBDC framework can serve as a global model for the collection and description of hot spring systems field data that can be readily adapted for application to the curation of data from other kinds scientifically significant sites.

  10. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  11. Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Struhsacker, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled power generating system, and an appraisal of the institutional factors influencing development at Big Creek Hot Springs are included.

  12. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  13. Acord 1-26 hot, dry well, Roosevelt Hot Springs hot dry rock prospect, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.; Pettitt, R.; Rowley, J.; Goff, F.; Mathews, M.; Jacobson, J.J.

    1983-08-01

    The Acord 1-26 well is a hot, dry well peripheral to the Roosevelt Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) in southwestern Utah. The bottom-hole temperature in this 3854-m-deep well is 230/sup 0/C, and the thermal gradient is 54/sup 0/C/km. The basal 685 m, comprised of biotite monzonite and quartz schist and gneiss, is a likely hot, dry rock (HDR) prospect. The hole was drilled in a structural low within the Milford Valley graben and is separated from the Roosevelt KGRA to the east by the Opal Mound Fault and other basin faults. An interpretation of seismic data approximates the subsurface structure around the well using the lithology in the Acord 1-26 well. The hole was drilled with a minimum of difficulty, and casing was set to 2411 m. From drilling and geophysical logs, it is deduced that the subsurface blocks of crystalline rock in the vicinity of the Acord 1-26 well are tight, dry, shallow, impermeable, and very hot. A hydraulic fracture test of the crystalline rocks below 3170 m is recommended. Various downhole tools and techniques could be tested in promising HDR regimes within the Acord 1-26 well.

  14. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  15. Clumped isotope disequilibrium during rapid CO2 uptake and carbonate precipitation in subaerial alkaline springs associated with ongoing serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, E. S.; Guo, W.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing serpentinization in tectonically exposed ultramafic bodies is manifested at the surface in alkaline springs (pH >11). Where these high-pH waters come in contact with CO2 at the surface, rapid calcite precipitation forms extensive travertines. We study natural travertine samples from Oman and synthetic witherite (BaCO3) from high-pH experiments to identify disequilibrium signals in δ18O, δ13C and clumped isotopes (measured as Δ47) that characterize rapid uptake of atmospheric CO2 and carbonate precipitation from high pH fluids. Kinetic effects preclude the use of clumped or oxygen isotopes for carbonate thermometry in these environments, but trends in δ18O, δ13C and Δ47 could help identify extinct alkaline systems or distinguish CO2 sources. Oman travertines formed at peridotite-hosted alkaline springs have long been known to exhibit a large range of kinetically depleted δ18O and δ13C values. We find fresh carbonate precipitated at these alkaline springs also exhibit large enrichments in Δ47 that covary with the depletions in δ18O and δ13C, thought to arise during hydroxylation of CO2 in high-pH fluids. Witherite precipitated during rapid CO2 uptake and carbonate precipitation in high pH experiments also exhibits disequilibrium values in δ18O, δ13C and Δ47, with the Δ47 of carbonate precipitates strongly affected by the Δ47 the reactant CO2. δ18O, δ13C and Δ47 trends could serve as a marker for carbonates formed in subaerial alkaline environments and track carbon sources in these systems. For example, the δ18O-δ13C slope in carbonates from Martian meteorites is similar to that observed in carbonates from terrestrial alkaline springs, so if corresponding enrichments in Δ47 could be identified in Martian carbonates, it could suggest that alkaline springs were present on the surface of Mars. Clumped isotope signals could also help distinguish carbon sources: kinetic enrichments in Δ47 would be absent or diminished in high-pH carbonates

  16. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three

  17. Hot Spring Microbial Community Elemental Composition: Hot Spring and Soil Inputs, and the Transition from Biocumulus to Sinter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Prapaipong, P.; Zolotova, N.; Moore, G. M.; Fecteau, K.; Robinson, K.; Boyer, G. M.; Shock, E.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal microbial communities contain some of the most deeply branching members of the tree of life, and hydrothermal environments have been present on the Earth's surface since the condensation of the ocean over four billion years ago. Hydrothermal microbial communities are a potential source for biosignatures across nearly all of Earth's history, and the most likely mode of life (past and/or present) if it had developed on other bodies in the solar system. While there are general patterns of element enrichment for hydrothermal water, the elemental composition of bulk hydrothermal microbial communities (here termed biocumulus, encompassing biomass and non-biomass material) are largely unexplored. In order to elucidate the elemental composition of hot spring biocumulus and explore the sources of those elements, we sampled 87 hot spring biocumulus in 19 hot springs along with dozens of associated soil, rock, sinter, and autochthonous biomass samples and analyzed them for 41 elements, in conjunction with a larger sampling campaign (> 1000 hot spring water samples from 11 hydrothermal areas within Yellowstone National Park). While biocumulus are of obvious biological origin, they have surprising elemental compositions. Organic carbon makes up a minor percentage of the total mass of thermophilic chemotrophic and phototrophic biocumulus. We have found that the majority of hot spring biocumulus is inorganic material, largely silica, with measurable quantities of dozens of other elements, and that the distribution of major elements mimics that of surrounding rock and soil far more closely than the hot spring fluids. Analyses indicate a consistent pattern of elemental composition for biocumulus across varying hydrothermal geochemical compositions, and a systematic loss of biologically-associated elements during diagenetic transformation of biocumulus to siliceous sinter.

  18. Pressure-Temperature Simulation at Brady Hot Springs

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feigl, Kurt (ORCID:0000000220596708)

    2017-07-11

    These files contain the output of a model calculation to simulate the pressure and temperature of fluid at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada, USA. The calculation couples the hydrologic flow (Darcy's Law) with simple thermodynamics. The epoch of validity is 24 March 2015. Coordinates are UTM Easting, Northing, and Elevation in meters. Temperature is specified in degrees Celsius. Pressure is specified in Pascal.

  19. Water resources of Grant and Hot Spring Counties, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halberg, Henry N.; Bryant, Charles T.; Hines, Marion S.

    1968-01-01

    In Grant and Hot Spring Counties the Ouachita, Saline, and Caddo Rivers yield large quantities of soft, good-quality water. Small streams in southeastern Hot Spring County and some of the small streams in the Ouachita Mountains have relatively high base flow; in Grant County small streams yield little water during dry periods. At times, sewage and mine drainage pollute the Ouachiba River from the Garland County line to a point a few miles below Lake Catherine. At low flow, Hurricane Creek water is unfit for most uses. The Sparta Sand, the principal aquifer, yields as much as 8.50 gpm of soft water in Grant County. The Carrizo Sand and Cane River Formation are potentially important aquifers in Grant County and southeastern Hot Spring County. The Wilcox Group yields as much as 300 gpm of fresh water in southeastern Hot Spring County and southwestern Grant County; in the rest of Grant County its water is brackish. The alluvium along .the principal streams and ,the consolidated rocks of the Ouachita Mountains yield small quantities of water that vary in quality from place to place. Some of .the water from the alluvium has high nitrate content and may be a hazard to health.

  20. Biogeochemistry of Hot Spring Biofilms: Major and Trace Element Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Prapaipong, P.; Zolotova, N.; Moore, G.; Shock, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Hot spring biofilms are of obvious biological origin, but of surprising composition. Organic carbon makes up a minor percentage of the total mass of chemotrophic and phototrophic biofilms. We have found that the majority of biofilm mass is inorganic material, largely silica, with measurable quantities of dozens of other elements, and that the distribution of major elements mimics that of surrounding rock and soil far more closely than the hot spring fluids. Comparisons of biofilms with the compositions of their geochemical surroundings help identify trace elements that are anomalously enriched or depleted. These anomalies provide insight into the processes of active or passive elemental accumulation by biofilms, which could be used to understand microbial processes of element uptake or to identify evidence for life in hydrothermal deposits in the rock record. Five separate hydrothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park were incorporated into this study: 'Bison Pool' and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 93.2 to 56.2 C, pH = 7.4 to 8.3), Flatcone Geyser and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 94.3 to 44.3 C, pH = 7.9 to 8.8, Boulder Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 92.1 to 64.9 C, pH = 8.2 to 8.7), Octopus Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 91.4 to 62.8 C, pH = 7.7 to 8.2), and two unnamed locations in the Obsidian Pool area we have dubbed 'Green Cheese' (temp. = 64.5 to 54.9 C, pH = 5.9 to 6.2) and 'Happy Harfer Pool' (temp. = 59.9 to 48.3 C, pH = 5.5 to 6.3). Analysis of water, biofilm, and contextual samples collected from and around these hot springs offer intriguing patterns of elemental behavior, both similar and dissimilar, among the varying systems. Examples of these patterns include elements that behave the same across all hot spring systems (B, C, Ni, Cu, Ge, Sb, and W), elements with behavior that was consistent throughout most (four of five) of the hot spring systems

  1. Assessing the Biological Contribution to Mineralized Cap Formation in the Little Hot Creek Hot Spring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, J. G.; Beeler, S. R.; Mors, R. A.; Kraus, E. A.; 2016, G.; Piazza, O.; Frantz, C. M.; Loyd, S. J.; Berelson, W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Marenco, P. J.; Spear, J. R.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hot spring environments exhibit unique redox/physical gradients that may create favorable conditions for the presence of life and commonly contain mineral precipitates that could provide a geologic archive of such ecosystems on Earth and potentially other planets. However, it is critical to discern biologic from abiotic formation mechanisms if hot spring-associated minerals are to be used as biosignatures. The study of modern hot spring environments where mineral formation can be directly observed is necessary to better interpret the biogenicity of ancient/extraterrestrial examples. Little Hot Creek (LHC), a hot spring located in the Long Valley Caldera, California, contains mineral precipitates composed of a carbonate base covered with amorphous silica and minor carbonate in close association with microbial mats/biofilms. Geological, geochemical, and microbiological techniques were integrated to investigate the role of biology in mineral formation at LHC. Geochemical measurements indicate that the waters of the spring are near equilibrium with respect to carbonate and undersaturated with respect to silica, implying additional processes are necessary to initiate cap formation. Geochemical modeling, integrating elemental and isotopic data from hot spring water and mineral precipitates, indicate that the abiotic processes of degassing and evaporation drive mineral formation at LHC, without microbial involvement. However, petrographic analysis of LHC caps revealed microbial microfabrics within silica mineral phases, despite the fact that microbial metabolism was not required for mineral precipitation. Our results show that microorganisms in hot spring environments can shape mineral precipitates even in the absence of a control on authigenesis, highlighting the need for structural as well as geochemical investigation in similar systems.

  2. Microbial diversity and autotrophic activity in Kamchatka hot springs.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Alexander Yu; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Rusanov, Igor I; Slobodkin, Alexander I; Slobodkina, Galina B; Tarnovetckii, Ivan Yu; Frolov, Evgeny N; Dubin, Arseny V; Perevalova, Anna A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2017-03-01

    Microbial communities of Kamchatka Peninsula terrestrial hot springs were studied using molecular, radioisotopic and cultural approaches. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments performed by means of high-throughput sequencing revealed that aerobic autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium (phylum Aquificae) dominated in a majority of streamers. Another widely distributed and abundant group was that of anaerobic bacteria of the genus Caldimicrobium (phylum Thermodesulfobacteria). Archaea of the genus Vulcanisaeta were abundant in a high-temperature, slightly acidic hot spring, where they were accompanied by numerous Nanoarchaeota, while the domination of uncultured Thermoplasmataceae A10 was characteristic for moderately thermophilic acidic habitats. The highest rates of inorganic carbon assimilation determined by the in situ incubation of samples in the presence of (14)C-labeled bicarbonate were found in oxygen-dependent streamers; in two sediment samples taken from the hottest springs this process, though much weaker, was found to be not dependent on oxygen. The isolation of anaerobic lithoautotrophic prokaryotes from Kamchatka hot springs revealed a wide distribution of the ability for sulfur disproportionation, a new lithoautotrophic process capable to fuel autonomous anaerobic ecosystems.

  3. Carbon Source Preference in Chemosynthetic Hot Spring Communities

    PubMed Central

    Urschel, Matthew R.; Kubo, Michael D.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Peters, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), formate, and acetate mineralization and/or assimilation were determined in 13 high-temperature (>73°C) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, in order to evaluate the relative importance of these substrates in supporting microbial metabolism. While 9 of the hot spring communities exhibited rates of DIC assimilation that were greater than those of formate and acetate assimilation, 2 exhibited rates of formate and/or acetate assimilation that exceeded those of DIC assimilation. Overall rates of DIC, formate, and acetate mineralization and assimilation were positively correlated with spring pH but showed little correlation with temperature. Communities sampled from hot springs with similar geochemistries generally exhibited similar rates of substrate transformation, as well as similar community compositions, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-tagged sequencing. Amendment of microcosms with small (micromolar) amounts of formate suppressed DIC assimilation in short-term (<45-min) incubations, despite the presence of native DIC concentrations that exceeded those of added formate by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. The concentration of added formate required to suppress DIC assimilation was similar to the affinity constant (Km) for formate transformation, as determined by community kinetic assays. These results suggest that dominant chemoautotrophs in high-temperature communities are facultatively autotrophic or mixotrophic, are adapted to fluctuating nutrient availabilities, and are capable of taking advantage of energy-rich organic substrates when they become available. PMID:25819970

  4. Comparative Metagenomics of Eight Geographically Remote Terrestrial Hot Springs.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Peter; Gudbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Rike, Anne Gunn; Lin, Lianbing; Zhang, Qi; Contursi, Patrizia; Moracci, Marco; Kristjansson, Jakob K; Bolduc, Benjamin; Gavrilov, Sergey; Ravin, Nikolai; Mardanov, Andrey; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta; Young, Mark; Krogh, Anders; Peng, Xu

    2015-08-01

    Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 (∘)C and pH between 1.8 and 7. A comparison of the biodiversity and community composition generally showed a decrease in biodiversity with increasing temperature and decreasing pH. Another important factor shaping microbial diversity of the studied sites was the abundance of organic substrates. Several species of the Crenarchaeal order Thermoprotei were detected, whereas no single bacterial species was found in all samples, suggesting a better adaptation of certain archaeal species to different thermophilic environments. Two hot springs show high abundance of Acidithiobacillus, supporting the idea of a true thermophilic Acidithiobacillus species that can thrive in hyperthermophilic environments. Depending on the sample, up to 58 % of sequencing reads could not be assigned to a known phylum, reinforcing the fact that a large number of microorganisms in nature, including those thriving in hot environments remain to be isolated and characterized.

  5. Terrestrial Iron Hot Springs as Analogs for Ancient Martian Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenteau, M. N.; Farmer, J. D.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.

    2010-04-01

    We have been studying a subaerial terrestrial iron hot spring as an potential analog for hydrothermal systems on Mars. In this multidisciplinary study, we have characterized the aqueous geochemistry, mineralogy, and microbial biosignatures at Chocolate Pots hot springs.

  6. 77 FR 68716 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...-0655; Airspace Docket No. 12-AGL-6] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Hot Springs, SD. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Hot Springs Municipal Airport...

  7. 78 FR 14911 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD AGENCY... airspace at Hot Springs, SD. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Hot Springs Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking...

  8. 77 FR 51561 - Notice of Temporary Restriction Order for Skinny Dipper Hot Springs, Boise County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Restriction Order for Skinny Dipper Hot Springs, Boise...: This serves as notice of a sunset-to-sunrise recreational use restriction of Skinny Dipper Hot Springs... Hot Springs, and the public lands in Lot 3, Section 25, T. 9 N., R.3 E., Boise Meridian, Boise...

  9. 3D Model of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    The Neal Hot Springs geothermal system lies in a left-step in a north-striking, west-dipping normal fault system, consisting of the Neal Fault to the south and the Sugarloaf Butte Fault to the north (Edwards, 2013). The Neal Hot Springs 3D geologic model consists of 104 faults and 13 stratigraphic units. The stratigraphy is sub-horizontal to dipping <10 degrees and there is no predominant dip-direction. Geothermal production is exclusively from the Neal Fault south of, and within the step-over, while geothermal injection is into both the Neal Fault to the south of the step-over and faults within the step-over.

  10. EXPLORATION STRATEGY FOR HOT-SPRING PRECIOUS-METAL DEPOSITS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Byron R.; Adams, Samuel S.

    1984-01-01

    The discovery of economic precious-metal deposits related to physical-chemical processes in the near-surface portions of high-temperature hot-spring systems has led to intensive exploration efforts for this deposit type. To increase the probability of success, these exploration programs should (1) be based on the most important visually recognizable or readily measurable deposit-model criteria; (2) be able to identify specific targets within the best search areas; and (3) be able to rank the order of priority among the targets. We propose a process-recognition exploration strategy for hot-spring deposits that has been developed from data from precious-metal occurrences at several localities in the western United States. The exploration model is based on the degree to which recognizable geologic and geochemical criteria are favorable or unfavorable to the occurrence of an economic deposit, either through their presence or absence.

  11. A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits

    PubMed Central

    Channing, Alan; Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Horner, John R; McEneaney, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft tissue degradation, allowing preservation of gross body morphology, which is usually lost under other fossilization regimes. We hypothesize that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. We suggest physico-chemical parameters conducive to similar preservation in other vertebrate specimens, plus distinctive sinter macrofabric markers of hot spring subenvironments where these parameters are met. PMID:16024344

  12. Influence of Locally Derived Recharge on the Water Quality and Temperature of Springs in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Richard W.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2007-01-01

    The hot springs of Hot Springs National Park consist of a mixture of water from two recharge components: a primary hot-water component and a secondary cold-water component. Widespread distribution of fractures enables mixing of the hot- and cold-water components of flow near the discharge area for the springs. Urbanization in the area near the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park has increased the potential for degradation of the quality of surface-water runoff and locally derived ground-water recharge to the hot springs. Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have indicated that water from some cold-water springs and wells in the vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas, showed evidence of contamination and that water from locally derived cold-water recharge might contribute 25 percent of the total flow to the hot springs after storms. Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions at nine hot springs and two cold-water springs in September 2000. Nine hot springs and one cold-water spring were resampled in October 2001 after a storm that resulted in a measurable decrease in water temperature in selected hot springs. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of dissolved chemical constituents (nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, semivolatile compounds, isotopes, and radiochemicals), physical properties, field measurements, and bacteria. Comparison of analyses of samples collected during base-flow conditions from the springs in 2000 and during a storm event in 2001 with the results from earlier studies dating back to the late 1800's indicates that little change in major, minor, and trace constituent chemistry has occurred and that the water continues to be of excellent quality. Water-quality data show distinguishable differences in water chemistry of the springs during base-flow and stormflow conditions, indicating changing input of cold-water recharge relative to hot-water recharge. Silica, total dissolved solids, strontium, barium

  13. Status of hot spring water development in Korea 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cholwoo; Park, Chan-Hee; Cho, Yong-Chan

    2015-04-01

    As of 2014, a number of Oncheon (hot spring) sites in Korea is 447. 207 sites among the total sites are located in the south-east part of Korea, because geothermal gradient in the region is higher than the average geothermal gradient of 25℃/km in Korea. The higher gradient leads to reduced drilling cost. 50% of the Oncheon sites are alkaline and their pH is higher than 8.5. pH for other 43% is between 7.5 and 8.5. As for the ion-type of Oncheon, 55% is are primarily the type of Na-HCO3. 20 % of Oncheon is the type of Na-Cl secondarily. 9% of Oncheon is the type of Na-SO4. While the well drilled deepest is 2,003 m from the surface, the average depth is 747 m. The highest temperature of hot spring is 78℃, while the average temperature is 30℃. The area of Oncheon development was big until year 2000. Since then, the development area has shrunk to less than 20,000m2 to reduce risks for initial investment and stabilize the Oncheon management. Keywords : Hot spring, Geothermal gradient, Temperature

  14. Geothermal vegetable dehydration at Brady`s Hot Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the utilization of the Brady`s Springs geothermal resource for heat generation used in the food dehydration process. This geothermal system is located in the Forty-Mile Desert area of Nevada. Geothermal Food Processors, Inc. of Reno, Nevada started construction of the geothermal vegetable dehydration plant in 1978, and the plant started operations in 1979. The industrial process of vegetable dehydration at the plant is described. In July of 1992, the Brady`s Springs geothermal system began being used for power generation by the Brady`s Hot Springs geothermal power plant, operated by Oxbow Power Services, Inc. As a result, the water levels in the food processing plant wells have dropped below usable levels and the geothermal brine is now being supplied by the Oxbow power plant.

  15. Geothermal Geodatabase for Routt Hot Springs, Routt County, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Routt Hot Springs, Routt County, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA 775.737.7806 rzehner@gdareno.com For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,500,000 South boundary: approximately 4,480,000 West boundary: approximately 330,000 East boundary: approximately 358,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs and wells in the Routt Hot Spring and Steamboat Springs areahave geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 2. Air photo lineaments 3. Groundwater geochemistry 5. Georeferenced geologic map of Routt County 6. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  16. Compound- and position-specific carbon isotopic signatures of abiogenic hydrocarbons from on-land serpentinite-hosted Hakuba Happo hot spring in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Konomi; Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro; Ueno, Yuichiro

    2017-06-01

    It has been proposed that serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal/hot spring systems played a significant role in the origin and early evolution of life on early Earth because abiogenic synthesis of organic compounds may accompany serpentinization. However, production mechanisms for apparently abiogenic hydrocarbons that have been observed in the ongoing serpentinizing systems are still poorly constrained. We report a new geochemical study of hydrocarbons in an on-land serpentinite-hosted hot spring in Hakuba Happo, Japan. We have conducted both compound-specific and position-specific carbon isotopic analyses of the observed C1 to C5 hydrocarbons. A positive linear relationship between the δ13C values and the inverse carbon number is found in C1 to C5 straight-chain alkanes in the Happo sample. This isotopic trend is consistent with a simple polymerization model developed in this study. Our model assumes that, for any particular alkane, all of the subsequently added carbons have the same isotopic composition, and those are depleted in 13C with respect to the first carbon in the growing carbon chain. The fit of this model suggests that Happo alkanes can be produced via polymerization from methane with a constant kinetic isotopic fractionation of -8.9 ± 1.0‰. A similar carbon isotopic relationship among alkanes has been observed in some serpentinite-hosted seafloor hydrothermal systems, indicating that the same process is responsible for the abiological hydrocarbon in general serpentinization fields, not only in the Hakuba Happo hot spring. Moreover, our model is also applicable to other potentially abiogenic natural gases and experimentally synthesized hydrocarbon products. For the first time, the intramolecular 13C composition of propane from a natural sample derived from a serpentinite-hosted system was determined. The intramolecular 13C distribution in propane shows the important potential to identify different polymerization mechanisms that cannot be discriminated

  17. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. M.; Catling, D. C.; Crowley, J. K.; Kargel, J. S.

    2011-04-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO 2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100 °C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25 °C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO 4-SO 4-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-O 2-CH 4-Si-H 2O system up to 100 °C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits. A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355 K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO 4, Na 2SO 4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353 K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO 4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary

  18. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25??C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system up to 100??C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits.A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with

  19. Investigation of mechanics properties of an awl-shaped serpentine microspring for in-plane displacement with low spring constant-to-layout area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Hui-Min; Lin, Meng-Ju; Chen, Rongshun

    2016-07-01

    The design, fabrication, and experimental test of an awl-shaped serpentine microspring (ASSM) for providing in-plane motion and low spring constant-to-layout area are investigated. The ASSM can provide low stiffness for in-plane motion under a restricted layout area. The spring constants of ASSMs for in-plane motion are theoretically analyzed by using Castigliano's theorem, and validated through simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics. These ASSMs are successfully fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The parameter K/A (spring constant-to-layout area) is used as the performance index. Smaller K/A induces larger deformation under the same layout area. It shows that K/A of ASSM is smaller than the classic one with the same dimensions (total length and number of turns). Geometric sizes having effect on K/A are discussed. The spring constants for in-plane and out-of-plane motion are compared and discussed. The taper angle and beam width-to-thickness ratio (w/h) are two key factors. As w/h being >1, the spring constant of in-plane motion (ky) is always larger than that of out-of-plane motion (kz). If w/h is <1, the spring constant kz would be larger than ky if the taper angle are larger than its critical angle φr.

  20. Diverse Thermus species inhabit a single hot spring microbial mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nold, S. C.; Ward, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Through an effort to characterize aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the Octopus Spring cyano-bacterial mat community, we cultivated four Thermus isolates with unique 16S rRNA sequences. Isolates clustered within existing Thermus clades, including those containing Thermus ruber, Thermus aquaticus, and a subgroup closely related to T. aquaticus. One Octopus Spring isolate is nearly identical (99.9% similar) to isolates from Iceland, and two others are closely related to a T. ruber isolated from Russia. Octopus Spring isolates similar to T. aquaticus and T. ruber exhibited optimal growth rates at high (65-70 degrees C) and low (50 degrees C) temperatures, respectively, with the most abundant species best adapted to the temperature of the habitat (50-55 degrees C). Our results display a diversity of Thermus genotypes defined by 16S rRNA within one hot spring microbial community. We suggest that specialization to temperature and perhaps other local environmental features controls the abundance of Thermus populations.

  1. Diverse Thermus species inhabit a single hot spring microbial mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nold, S. C.; Ward, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Through an effort to characterize aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the Octopus Spring cyano-bacterial mat community, we cultivated four Thermus isolates with unique 16S rRNA sequences. Isolates clustered within existing Thermus clades, including those containing Thermus ruber, Thermus aquaticus, and a subgroup closely related to T. aquaticus. One Octopus Spring isolate is nearly identical (99.9% similar) to isolates from Iceland, and two others are closely related to a T. ruber isolated from Russia. Octopus Spring isolates similar to T. aquaticus and T. ruber exhibited optimal growth rates at high (65-70 degrees C) and low (50 degrees C) temperatures, respectively, with the most abundant species best adapted to the temperature of the habitat (50-55 degrees C). Our results display a diversity of Thermus genotypes defined by 16S rRNA within one hot spring microbial community. We suggest that specialization to temperature and perhaps other local environmental features controls the abundance of Thermus populations.

  2. Evidence supporting biologically mediated sulfide oxidation in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. D.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    The sulfide concentration of fluids in hydrothermal ecosystems is one of several factors determining the transition to microbial photosynthesis (Cox et al., 2011, Chem. Geol. 280, 344-351). To investigate the loss of sulfide in Yellowstone hot spring systems, measurements of total dissolved sulfide with respect to time were made in incubation experiments conducted on 0.2-micron filtered (killed controls) vs. unfiltered hot spring water at locations with three different pH:sulfide combinations (pH 2.5 with 50 μM sulfide, 5.2 with 5.6 μM sulfide, and 8.3 with 86 μM sulfide). At the higher pH values, the experiments yielded similar rates of sulfide loss in filtered and unfiltered water of approximately 0.8 (pH 5.2) and 7.6 nmol sulfide L-1s-1 (pH 8.3). At the acidic spring, the unfiltered water lost sulfide at a rate 1.6 times that of the filtered water (8.2 vs. 5 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). These results suggest that the pelagic biomass at the pH 5.2 and 8.3 springs may not affect sulfide loss, whereas in the pH 2.5 spring there appears to be an effect. In addition, the incubation of filamentous biomass with unfiltered water increased the rate of sulfide loss by approximately two-fold at a pH of 2.5 (59 vs. 31 nmol L-1s-1; Cox et al., 2011), five-fold at a pH of 5.2 (3.9 vs. 0.8 nmol sulfide L-1s-1), and barely increased the rate of sulfide loss at a pH of 8.3 (9.1 vs. 8.4 nmol sulfide L-1s-1). Sulfide is predominately present as HS- at a pH of 8.3, which may not be taken up as easily by microorganisms as the H2S (aq) that dominates sulfide speciation at pH 2.5 and 5.2. That the loss of sulfide at acidic pH is due to biotic rather than abiotic factors is further supported by studies with whole mat samples that show greater sulfide consumption than killed controls (D'Imperio et al., 2008, AEM 74, 5802-5808). Taken together, the results of these experiments suggest that the majority of sulfide oxidation occurs in the filamentous biomass of hot spring ecosystems, although

  3. Evaluation of prokaryotic diversity of five hot springs in Eritrea.

    PubMed

    Ghilamicael, Amanuel M; Budambula, Nancy L M; Anami, Sylvester E; Mehari, Tadesse; Boga, Hamadi I

    2017-09-22

    Total community rDNA was used to determine the diversity of bacteria and archaea from water, wet sediment and microbial mats samples of hot springs in the Eastern lowlands of Eritrea. The temperatures of the springs range from 49.5 °C to 100 °C while pH levels varied from 6.97 to 7.54. Akwar and Maiwooi have high carbonate levels. The springs near the seashore, Garbanabra and Gelti, are more saline with higher levels of sodium and chlorides. Elegedi, situated in the Alid volcanic area, has the highest temperature, iron and sulfate concentrations. The five hot springs shared 901 of 4371 OTUs recovered while the three sample types (water, wet sediment and microbial mats) also shared 1429 OTUs. The Chao1 OTU estimate in water sample was significantly higher than the wet sediment and microbial mat samples. As indicated by NMDS, the community samples at genus level showed location specific clustering. Certain genera correlated with temperature, sodium, carbonate, iron, sulfate and ammonium levels in water. The abundant phyla included Proteobacteria (6.2-82.3%), Firmicutes (1.6-63.5%), Deinococcus-Thermus (0.0-19.2%), Planctomycetes (0.0-11.8%), Aquificae (0.0-9.9%), Chlorobi (0.0-22.3%) and Bacteroidetes (2.7-8.4%). There were significant differences in microbial community structure within the five locations and sample types at OTU level. The occurence of Aquificae, Deinococcus-Thermus, some Cyanobacteria and Crenarchaeota were highly dependent on temperature. The Halobacterium, unclassified Thaumarchaeota, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria showed significant correlation with salinity occurring abundantly in Garbanabra and Gelti. Firmicutes and unclassified Rhodocylaceae were higher in the microbial mat samples, while Archaea were prominent in the wet sediment samples.

  4. Geothermal resource assessment of Hot Sulphur Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 10 springs whose waters are used for recreation, steam baths and laundry purposes are located at Hot Sulphur Springs. Estimated heat-flow at Hot Sulphur Springs is approximately 100 mW/m2, which is about normal for western Colorado. Recent work tends to show that surface and reduced heat flow in the mountains of northern Colorado could be high. The thermal waters have an estimated discharge of 50 gpm, a temperature that ranges from 104/sup 0/F (40/sup 0/C) to a high of 111/sup 0/F (44/sup 0/C), and a total dissolved solid content of 1200 mg/l. The waters are a sodium bicarbonate type with a large concentration of sulphate. It is estimated that the most likely reservoir temperature of this system ranges from 167/sup 0/F (75/sup 0/F) to 302/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/C) and that the areal extent of the system could encompass 1.35 sq mi (3.50 sq km) and could contain 0.698 Q's (1015 B.T.U.'s) of heat energy. Soil mercury and electrical resistivity surveys were conducted. The geophysical survey delineated several areas of low resistivity associated with the north trending fault that passes just to the west of the spring area. It appears that this fault is saturated with thermal waters and may be the conduit along which the thermal waters are moving up from depth. The appendices to this report include tables showing water temperatures required for various industrial processes, as well as dissolved minerals, trace elements and radioactivity levels found in the thermal waters. Also presented are a complete description of the factors affecting the electrical resistivity measurements, a description of the electrical resistivity equipment used, and the resistivity field procedures. Electrical resistivity calculations are also included in the appendices.

  5. Investigations of potential microbial methanogenic and carbon monoxide utilization pathways in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization: the Tablelands, NL, CAN

    PubMed Central

    Morrill, Penny L.; Brazelton, William J.; Kohl, Lukas; Rietze, Amanda; Miles, Sarah M.; Kavanagh, Heidi; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Ziegler, Susan E.; Lang, Susan Q.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as portals into the biogeochemistry of a subsurface environment with H2 and CH4 present. Very little, however, is known about the carbon substrate utilization, energy sources, and metabolic pathways of the microorganisms that live in this ultra-basic environment. The potential for microbial methanogenesis with bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and propionate precursors and carbon monoxide (CO) utilization pathways were tested in laboratory experiments by adding substrates to water and sediment from the Tablelands, NL, CAD, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. Microbial methanogenesis was not observed after bicarbonate, formate, acetate, or propionate addition. CO was consumed in the live experiments but not in the killed controls and the residual CO in the live experiments became enriched in 13C. The average isotopic enrichment factor resulting from this microbial utilization of CO was estimated to be 11.2 ± 0.2‰. Phospholipid fatty acid concentrations and δ13C values suggest limited incorporation of carbon from CO into microbial lipids. This indicates that in our experiments, CO was used primarily as an energy source, but not for biomass growth. Environmental DNA sequencing of spring fluids collected at the same time as the addition experiments yielded a large proportion of Hydrogenophaga-related sequences, which is consistent with previous metagenomic data indicating the potential for these taxa to utilize CO. PMID:25431571

  6. [Biomineralization at hot springs and mineral springs, and their significance in relation to the Earth's history].

    PubMed

    Akai, J

    2000-12-01

    Recently, there is strong interest on microbe-mineral interactions. This is related also to recent expanded knowledges on extremely severe environments in which microbes live. Interaction between microbes and minerals contains biomineralization processes. Varieties of biomineralization products are found not only in various geologic materials and processes in the earth's history but also in present surface environments. Some hot springs represent such environments similar to those of unique and extremely severe environments for life. In this short review, the author briefly shows some examples of biomineralizations at some hot springs and mineral springs, Japan. In such environments, iron ore was formed and some varieties of growing stromatolites were found. The varieties of stromatolite are siliceous, calcic and manganese types. Cyanobacteria and the other bacteria are related to form the stromatolite structure. In the Gunma iron ore, sedimentary iron ores were mineralogically described in order to evaluate the role of microorganisms and plants in ore formation. The iron ore is composed of nanocrystalline goethite. Algal fossils are clearly preserved in some ores. Various products of biomineralization are found in the present pH 2-3, Fe2(+)- and SO4(2-)-rich streams. Bacterial precipitation had variations from amorphous Fe-P-(S) precipitates near the outlet of mineral spring, to Fe-P-S precipitates and to Fe-S-(P) precipitates. Mosses and green algae are also collecting Fe precipitates in and around the living and dead cells. The Gunma Iron Ore can be said as Biologically Induced Iron Ore. At Onikobe and Akakura hot springs, growing stromatolites of siliceous and calcareous types, were found, respectively. At Onikobe, The stromatolites grow especially near the geyser. Cyanobacterial filaments in stromatolite were well preserved in the siliceous and calcic stromatolites. The filaments oriented in two directions which form the layered structures were found. At

  7. Environmental consequences of geochemical change in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems provide a natural laboratory for studying the effects of geochemical change over time, and for testing predictions of how geochemical change will affect microbial ecology. Hot springs in hydrothermal areas that express the results of subsurface boiling, phase separation, and differential movement of liquid phase and vapor phase constituents can fluctuate in temperature and composition. Since 1999 we have sampled several fluctuating hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, and those hat experience large geochemical changes provide opportunities to quantify the effects of fluctuations on chemical energy supplies. Annual samples from Obsidian Pool (Mud Volcano Area) showed that pH increased from 6.5 (in 1999) to 6.8 (’00), steadily decreased to 4.2 (’06), and then increased to 5.2 (’09), with temperature ranging from 76.4 to 85.3°C. Simultaneously the chloride concentration increased by 65% (from 18.5 ppm in 1999 to 30.7 ppm in 2009), indicative of increased hydrothermal input, and the sulfate concentration increased by over 300% (from 50.0 ppm in 2000 to 203.8 ppm in 2009), suggesting an increased gas-phase sulfide input and subsequent oxidation. Several energy yielding reactions at a pH of 6.5 no longer yield energy at pH of 4.2. This suggests that microorganisms that use those pathways had a negative selection pressure with the drop in pH. As an example, the chemical affinity for sulfur reduction to pyrite coupled to iron oxidation to goethite changed from 7.1 (pH = 6.5) to -1.3 kcal/mol e- (pH = 4.2), and once again had a positive value at pH = 5.2. This means that microorganisms using this pathway may once again inhabit the hot spring while many others from when the pH was 6.5 still have a negative selection pressure. The pH of another hot spring in the Sylvan Springs Area steadily increased from 3.7 (’04) to 7.6 (’08) while the temp. decreased from 52.9 to 41.9°C, chloride concentration increased by 32% (from 464 to 614 ppm

  8. Hydrosalinity studies of the Virgin River, Dixie Hot Springs, and Littlefield Springs, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Virgin River contributes a substantial amount of dissolved solids (salt) to the Colorado River at Lake Mead in the lower Colorado River Basin. Degradation of Colorado River water by the addition of dissolved solids from the Virgin River affects the suitability of the water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use within the basin. Dixie Hot Springs in Utah are a major localized source of dissolved solids discharging to the Virgin River. The average measured discharge from Dixie Hot Springs during 2009–10 was 11.0 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the average dissolved-solids concentration was 9,220 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average dissolved-solids load—a measurement that describes the mass of salt that is transported per unit of time—from Dixie Hot Springs during this period was 96,200 tons per year (ton/yr). Annual dissolved-solids loads were estimated at 13 monitoring sites in the Virgin River Basin from streamflow data and discrete measurements of dissolved-solids concentrations and (or) specific conductance. Eight of the sites had the data needed to estimate annual dissolved-solids loads for water years (WYs) 1999 through 2010. During 1999–2010, the smallest dissolved-solids loads in the Virgin River were upstream of Dixie Hot Springs (59,900 ton/yr, on average) and the largest loads were downstream of Littlefield Springs (298,200 ton/yr, on average). Annual dissolved-solids loads were smallest during 2002–03, which was a period of below normal precipitation. Annual dissolved-solids loads were largest during 2005—a year that included a winter rain storm that resulted in flooding throughout much of the Virgin River Basin. An average seepage loss of 26.7 ft3/s was calculated from analysis of monthly average streamflow from July 1998 to September 2010 in the Virgin River for the reach that extends from just upstream of the Utah/Arizona State line to just above the Virgin River Gorge Narrows. Seepage losses from three river reaches

  9. Serpentinization and fluids in the forearc mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, B.

    2016-12-01

    In the forearc region, aqueous fluids are released from the subducting slab, and tend to rise vertically unless they meet permeability barriers such as the deformed plate interface or the Moho of the overriding plate. Above the subducting plate, intense reactions between dehydration fluids from the subducting slab and ultramafic rocks result in extensive serpentinization in the forearc mantle wedge. The plate interface is mechanically decoupled, most likely because serpentines are low strength material, isolating the forearc mantle wedge from convection. Geophysical observations are unique probes to the interactions between fluids and rocks in the forearc mantle, and experimental constrains on rock properties are used to infer fluid migration and fluid/rock reactions from geophysical data. Seismic velocities reveal high degree of serpentinization of the forearc mantle in hot subduction zones, and little serpentinization in the coldest subduction zones because the warmer the subduction zone, the higher the amount of water released by dehydration of the hydrothermally altered oceanic lithosphere. Interpretation of seismic data from petrophysical constrain is limited by complex effects due to anisotropy that need to be assessed both in the analysis and interpretation of seismic data. Electrical conductivity of dry peridotites and serpentinites is similar, and high conductivities are found to be diagnostic of increasing fluid content, fluid salinity. Conductivities in the forearc increase with the temperature of the subduction. A notable exception is the forearc mantle of Northern Cascadia, the hottest subduction zone where extensive serpentinization was first demonstrated, that shows only modest electrical conductivity. Detailed electrical conductivity profiles suggest fluid content and chemistry may vary not only with the thermal state of the subduction zone but also with time through variations of fluid salinity. High-Cl fluids produced by serpentinization can mix

  10. The fishes of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Fish communities were sampled from eight sites within Hot Springs National Park. Fish were collected by seining and electrofishing during base-flow periods in July and October 2003. All individuals were identified to species. More than 1,020 individuals were collected, representing 24 species. The number of species collected at the sites ranged from 5 to 19. Central stoneroller, orangebelly darter, and longear sunfish were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. These species are typical of small streams in this area. An expected species list incorrectly listed 35 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 24 of the 51 expected species (47 percent). No species collected in 2003 were federally-listed threatened or endangered species. However, two species collected at Hot Springs National Park may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. The Ouachita madtom is endemic to the Ouachita Mountains and is listed as a species of special concern by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. The grass carp, which is a native of eastern Asia, is present in Ricks Pond; one individual was collected and no other grass carp were observed. The introduction of grass carp into the United States is a controversial issue because of possible (but undocumented) harmful effects on native species and habitats.

  11. Photosynthate Partitioning and Fermentation in Hot Spring Microbial Mat Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nold, S. C.; Ward, D. M.

    1996-01-01

    Patterns of (sup14)CO(inf2) incorporation into molecular components of the thermophilic cyanobacterial mat communities inhabiting hot springs located in Yellowstone National Park and Synechococcus sp. strain C1 were investigated. Exponentially growing Synechococcus sp. strain C1 partitioned the majority of incorporated (sup14)CO(inf2) into protein, low-molecular-weight metabolites, and lipid fractions (45, 22, and 18% of total incorporated carbon, respectively). In contrast, mat cores from various hot springs predominantly accumulated polyglucose during periods of illumination (between 77 and 85% of total incorporated (sup14)CO(inf2)). Although photosynthetically active, mat photoautotrophs do not appear to be rapidly growing, since we also detected only limited synthesis of macromolecules associated with growth (i.e., protein and rRNA). To test the hypothesis that polysaccharide reserves are fermented in situ under the dark anaerobic conditions cyanobacterial mats experience at night, mat cores were prelabeled with (sup14)CO(inf2) under illuminated conditions and then transferred to dark anaerobic conditions. Radiolabel in the polysaccharide fraction decreased by 74.7% after 12 h, of which 58.5% was recovered as radiolabeled acetate, CO(inf2), and propionate. These results indicate tightly coupled carbon fixation and fermentative processes and the potential for significant transfer of carbon from primary producers to heterotrophic members of these cyanobacterial mat communities. PMID:16535472

  12. Biophysical model of prokaryotic diversity in geothermal hot springs.

    PubMed

    Klales, Anna; Duncan, James; Nett, Elizabeth Janus; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies of photosynthetic bacteria living in geothermal hot spring environments have revealed surprisingly complex ecosystems with an unexpected level of genetic diversity. One case of particular interest involves the distribution along hot spring thermal gradients of genetically distinct bacterial strains that differ in their preferred temperatures for reproduction and photosynthesis. In such systems, a single variable, temperature, defines the relevant environmental variation. In spite of this, each region along the thermal gradient exhibits multiple strains of photosynthetic bacteria adapted to several distinct thermal optima, rather than a single thermal strain adapted to the local environmental temperature. Here we analyze microbiology data from several ecological studies to show that the thermal distribution data exhibit several universal features independent of location and specific bacterial strain. These include the distribution of optimal temperatures of different thermal strains and the functional dependence of the net population density on temperature. We present a simple population dynamics model of these systems that is highly constrained by biophysical data and by physical features of the environment. This model can explain in detail the observed thermal population distributions, as well as certain features of population dynamics observed in laboratory studies of the same organisms. © 2012 American Physical Society

  13. Biophysical model of prokaryotic diversity in geothermal hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klales, Anna; Duncan, James; Nett, Elizabeth Janus; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies of photosynthetic bacteria living in geothermal hot spring environments have revealed surprisingly complex ecosystems with an unexpected level of genetic diversity. One case of particular interest involves the distribution along hot spring thermal gradients of genetically distinct bacterial strains that differ in their preferred temperatures for reproduction and photosynthesis. In such systems, a single variable, temperature, defines the relevant environmental variation. In spite of this, each region along the thermal gradient exhibits multiple strains of photosynthetic bacteria adapted to several distinct thermal optima, rather than a single thermal strain adapted to the local environmental temperature. Here we analyze microbiology data from several ecological studies to show that the thermal distribution data exhibit several universal features independent of location and specific bacterial strain. These include the distribution of optimal temperatures of different thermal strains and the functional dependence of the net population density on temperature. We present a simple population dynamics model of these systems that is highly constrained by biophysical data and by physical features of the environment. This model can explain in detail the observed thermal population distributions, as well as certain features of population dynamics observed in laboratory studies of the same organisms.

  14. Martian Hot Springs? Silica deposits in the Nili Patera Caldera.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skok, J. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Murchie, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    The caldera of the Syrtis Major volcanic complex shows evidence of a late-stage, chemically evolved eruption that emplaced a volcanic cone and an evolved dacitic lava flow. This cone and flow contain several light-toned deposits, spectrally defined, with the CRISM instrument, by a broad asymmetrical absorption centered at 2.21 μm that is characteristic of a Si-OH bond. Additional weak 1.4 and 1.9 μm OH- and H2O related absorption features were detected that combined with the 2.21 μm feature confirms the detection of hydrated silica (SiO2 nH2O). The deposits are expressed morphologically as low mounds in stereo HiRISE data that superpose and post-date the volcanic flows. This mineral detection and volcanic context is consistent with several formation mechanisms, notably volcanic outgassing leading to fumarole surface alteration or silica deposition in volcanically driven hot springs. Since current orbital observations do not allow conclusive determination of precise mechanism, we here focus on the hot spring silica depositional hypothesis and investigate what the current observations tell us about such a system. These deposits would occur as post-eruption volcanic heat-driven hydrothermal convection of ground and possibly magmatic waters. Convecting, heated water would dissolve the igneous minerals in the basalt that forms the majority of the caldera mobilizing significant silica. Silica saturated fluids that reach the surface cool and deposit amorphous silica as the silica solubility in the fluids decreases. The large size and mound building nature of individual deposits require a significant and sustained fluid source for deposition. That amorphous silica deposits were detected in several distinct regions illustrates the prevalence of this process in this volcanic complex. The largest deposit is located on the southern flank of the cone and forms a fan-shaped morphology as the material is sourced from a vent and flows downslope. Another small deposit was

  15. By-products of the serpentinization process on the Oman ophiolite : chemical and isotopic composition of carbonate deposits in alkaline springs, and associated secondary phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissmann, O.; Martinez, I.; Deville, E.; Beaumont, V.; Pillot, D.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chaduteau, C.; Agrinier, P.; Guyot, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic compositions (d13C, d18O) of natural carbonates produced by the alteration of basic and ultrabasic rocks on the Oman ophiolite have been measured in order to better understand their formation mechanisms. Fossil carbonates developed on altered peridotitic samples, mostly found in fractures, and contemporary carbonates were studied. The samples bear a large range of d13C. Those collected in veins are magnesian (magnesite, dolomite) and have a carbon signature reflecting mixing of processes and important fractionation (-11‰ to 8‰). Their association with talc and lizardite suggests they are by-products of a serpentinization process, that must have occurred as a carbon-rich fluid was circulating at depth. On the other hand, the carbonates are mostly calcic when formed in alkaline springs, most of which are located in the vicinity of lithological discontinuities such as the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Aragonite forms a few meters below the surface of the ponds in Mg-poor water, and is systematically associated with brucite (Mg(OH)2). This suggests most of the Mg dissolved at depth has reprecipitated during the fluid's ascension through fractures or faults as carbonates and serpentine. Further up, on the surface waters of the ponds (depleted in Mg and D.I.C.), thin calcite films precipitate and reach extremely negative d13C values (-28‰), which could reflect either a biological carbon source, or kinetic fractionation from pumping atmospheric CO2. Their formation represent an efficient and natural process for carbon dioxide mineral sequestration. The d18O signature from all samples confirm the minerals crystallized from a low-temperature fluid. The hyperalkaline conditions (pH between 11 and 12) allowing for these fast precipitation kinetics are generated by the serpentinization process occurring at depth, as indicated by the measured associated H2-rich gas flows (over 50%) seeping out to the surface.

  16. Hot dry rock geothermal potential of Roosevelt Hot Springs area: review of data and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    East, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs area in west-central Utah possesses several features indicating potential for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. The area is characterized by extensional tectonics and a high regional heat flow of greater than 105 mW/m/sup 2/. The presence of silicic volcanic rocks as young as 0.5 to 0.8 Myr and totaling 14 km/sup 3/ in volume indicates underlying magma reservoirs may be the heat source for the thermal anomaly. Several hot dry wells have been drilled on the periphery of the geothermal field. Information obtained on three of these deep wells shows that they have thermal gradients of 55 to 60/sup 0/C/km and bottom in impermeable Tertiary granitic and Precambrian gneissic units. The Tertiary granite is the preferred HDR reservoir rock because Precambrian gneissic rocks possess a well-developed banded foliation, making fracture control over the reservoir more difficult. Based on a fairly conservative estimate of 160 km/sup 2/ for the thermal anomaly present at Roosevelt Hot Springs, the area designated favorable for HDR geothermal exploration may be on the order of seven times or more than the hydrogeothermal area currently under development.

  17. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingyan; Kang, Dedong; Wang, Yingge; Yu, Ying; Fan, Jianglin; Takashi, En

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen) is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C) on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C) control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  18. Serpentine Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on works of art that are serpentine, which means the artist either depicts snakes or use snake-like designs. Explains that the four examples given are to motivate students to search for more examples. Discusses different ways to help students learn about serpentine designs by observing real snakes. (CMK)

  19. Limits of Microbial Photosynthesis in Hot Spring Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. D.; Shock, E. L.

    2003-12-01

    The limits of microbial photosynthesis are determined by many environmental factors including light availability, temperature, pH, flow rate, nutrient abundance, chemical composition and the presence or absence of other microorganisms. In an effort to determine which factors have the greatest influence on the limits of photosynthesis, we conducted a field study in the summer of 2003 at Yellowstone National Park. At more than 75 locations temperature, pH, conductivity, and sulfide measurements were made in the field, and at many of these locations samples were collected for major and trace element measurements and organic analyses. Temperatures ranged from 32 to 93° C, conductivities from 790 to 11500μ S, in situ pH from 1.87 to 8.97, and total sulfide concentrations from 1850μ g L-1 to below detection ( ˜2μ g L-1). These data indicate that the previously established upper temperature limit for photosynthesis of 73° C is reached in many alkaline hot springs, but that upper temperature limits decrease with decreasing pH below ˜7. As an example, we found no strong evidence for photosynthesis above 45° C at pH ˜2. In several locations, photosynthesis appears to be suppressed despite temperatures and pH values that permit photosynthesis elsewhere. Preliminary results indicate that salinity variations are not responsible for suppression of photosynthesis, but that sulfide concentrations may be. Studies of five hot spring outflow channels, together spanning pH values from 2.5 to 8.6, show that photosynthesis appears once sulfide concentrations drop to < 20% of the source values. In one channel where total sulfide varies by only a factor of two over more than 100 m of flow, we found no evidence of photosynthesis despite temperatures ranging from 60 to 35° C and mild pH values of 5.8 to 6.5. These observations lead us to propose that photosynthesis becomes possible after a large decrease in initial sulfide concentration. Although abiotic processes (degassing

  20. Geothermal Geodatabase for Rico Hot Springs Area and Lemon Hot Springs, Dolores and San Miguel Counties, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Rico Hot Springs Area and Lemon Hot Springs, Dolores and San Miguel Counties, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,215,000 South boundary: approximately 4,160,000 West boundary: approximately 216,000 East boundary: approximately 245,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. In addition, the explorationists discovered a very young Climax-style molybdenum porphyry system northeast of Rico, and drilling intersected thermal waters at depth. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Structural data collected by Flint Geothermal 2. Point information 3. Mines and prospects from the USGS MRDS dataset 4. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 5. Air photo lineaments 6. Areas covered by travertine 7. Groundwater geochemistry 8. Land ownership in the Rico area 9. Georeferenced geologic map of the Rico Quadrangle, by Pratt et al. 10. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  1. Phylogenetic Diversity Analysis of Subterranean Hot Springs in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Marteinsson, Viggó Thór; Hauksdóttir, Sigurbjörg; Hobel, Cédric F. V.; Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur Oli; Kristjánsson, Jakob K.

    2001-01-01

    Geothermal energy has been harnessed and used for domestic heating in Iceland. In wells that are typically drilled to a depth of 1,500 to 2,000 m, the temperature of the source water is 50 to 130°C. The bottoms of the boreholes can therefore be regarded as subterranean hot springs and provide a unique opportunity to study the subterranean biosphere. Large volumes of geothermal fluid from five wells and a mixture of geothermal water from 50 geothermal wells (hot tap water) were sampled and concentrated through a 0.2-μm-pore-size filter. Cells were observed in wells RG-39 (91.4°C) and MG-18 (71.8°C) and in hot tap water (76°C), but no cells were detected in wells SN-4, SN-5 (95 to 117°C), and RV-5 (130°C). Archaea and Bacteria were detected by whole-cell fluorescent in situ hybridization. DNAs were extracted from the biomass, and small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) were amplified by PCR using primers specific for the Archaea and Bacteria domains. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed 11 new operational taxonomic units (OTUs) out of 14, 3 of which were affiliated with known surface OTUs. Samples from RG-39 and hot tap water were inoculated into enrichment media and incubated at 65 and 85°C. Growth was observed only in media based on geothermal water. 16S rDNA analysis showed enrichments dominated with Desulfurococcales relatives. Two strains belonging to Desulfurococcus mobilis and to the Thermus/Deinococcus group were isolated from borehole RG-39. The results indicate that subsurface volcanic zones are an environment that provides a rich subsurface for novel thermophiles. PMID:11526029

  2. Differential microbial communities in hot spring mats from Western Thailand.

    PubMed

    Portillo, M C; Sririn, V; Kanoksilapatham, W; Gonzalez, J M

    2009-03-01

    The microbial communities of freshwater hot spring mats from Boekleung (Western Thailand) were studied. Temperatures ranged from over 50 up to 57 degrees C. Green-, red-, and yellow colored mat layers were analyzed. In order to detect the major components of the microbial communities constituting the mat as well as the microorganisms showing significant metabolic activity, samples were analyzed using DNA- and RNA-based molecular techniques, respectively. Microbial community fingerprints, performed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), revealed clear differences among mat layers. Thermophilic phototrophic microorganisms, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi, constituted the major groups in these communities (on average 65 and 51% from DNA and RNA analyses, respectively). Other bacteria detected in the mat were Bacteroidetes, members of the Candidate Division OP10, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Differently colored mat layers showed characteristic bacterial communities and the major components of the metabolically active fraction of these communities have been identified.

  3. Microbiology and geochemistry of Little Hot Creek, a hot spring environment in the Long Valley Caldera.

    PubMed

    Vick, T J; Dodsworth, J A; Costa, K C; Shock, E L; Hedlund, B P

    2010-03-01

    A culture-independent community census was combined with chemical and thermodynamic analyses of three springs located within the Long Valley Caldera, Little Hot Creek (LHC) 1, 3, and 4. All three springs were approximately 80 degrees C, circumneutral, apparently anaerobic and had similar water chemistries. 16S rRNA gene libraries constructed from DNA isolated from spring sediment revealed moderately diverse but highly novel microbial communities. Over half of the phylotypes could not be grouped into known taxonomic classes. Bacterial libraries from LHC1 and LHC3 were predominantly species within the phyla Aquificae and Thermodesulfobacteria, while those from LHC4 were dominated by candidate phyla, including OP1 and OP9. Archaeal libraries from LHC3 contained large numbers of Archaeoglobales and Desulfurococcales, while LHC1 and LHC4 were dominated by Crenarchaeota unaffiliated with known orders. The heterogeneity in microbial populations could not easily be attributed to measurable differences in water chemistry, but may be determined by availability of trace amounts of oxygen to the spring sediments. Thermodynamic modeling predicted the most favorable reactions to be sulfur and nitrate respirations, yielding 40-70 kJ mol(-1) e(-) transferred; however, levels of oxygen at or below our detection limit could result in aerobic respirations yielding up to 100 kJ mol(-1) e(-) transferred. Important electron donors are predicted to be H(2), H(2)S, S(0), Fe(2+) and CH(4), all of which yield similar energies when coupled to a given electron acceptor. The results indicate that springs associated with the Long Valley Caldera contain microbial populations that show some similarities both to springs in Yellowstone and springs in the Great Basin.

  4. Geochemistry and origin of Puschino hot springs, Kamchaka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Puschino hot springs are located in the valley of Kashkan River, Central Kamchatka (N54o2.938', E158o2.712') and are surface manifestations of a long-lived hydrothermal system associated with a Quaternary volcanism, off the modern volcanic front. The total natural discharge of thermal water from numerous vents is not more than 10 l/sec, vent temperatures are < 40˚ C, the total dissolved solids (TDS) < 5 g/L. The waters are near neutral (6springs are characterized by a strong bubbling with CO2 as a main gas component (> 95 vol%). Several wells drilled in 1980th up to 600 m depth found similar waters with temperature ˜ 70˚ C and slightly higher TDS and pH. Bubbling gas is characterized by a very high 3He/4He up to 7.8Ra (Ra is the atmospheric ratio) and CO2/3He ˜ 1011, close to typical values for subduction zones. Water isotopic composition shows a positive correlation with chloride and a trend to magmatic values (up to 10 % of magmatic water). Waters have a low Ca/Sr weight ratio of ˜ 20 and the total REE concentration lower than 2 ppb. Strontium isotope ratio 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7043 ± 0.0001 is close to the ratio in the local volcanic rocks. The geological setting and a high magmatic contribution to thermal waters of Puschino may evidence that the heat and volatile source for the hydrothermal system is associated with the Olenya volcanic massive, which, according to the reconstruction by Leonov (unpublished), is an early Pleistocene (˜2Ma) postcaldera complex above a still hot and degassing intrusive body.

  5. Novel thermostable amine transferases from hot spring metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Ferrandi, Erica Elisa; Previdi, Alessandra; Bassanini, Ivan; Riva, Sergio; Peng, Xu; Monti, Daniela

    2017-03-29

    Hot spring metagenomes, prepared from samples collected at temperatures ranging from 55 to 95 °C, were submitted to an in silico screening aimed at the identification of novel amine transaminases (ATAs), valuable biocatalysts for the preparation of optically pure amines. Three novel (S)-selective ATAs, namely Is3-TA, It6-TA, and B3-TA, were discovered in the metagenome of samples collected from hot springs in Iceland and in Italy, cloned from the corresponding metagenomic DNAs and overexpressed in recombinant form in E. coli. Functional characterization of the novel ATAs demonstrated that they all possess a thermophilic character and are capable of performing amine transfer reactions using a broad range of donor and acceptor substrates, thus suggesting a good potential for practical synthetic applications. In particular, the enzyme B3-TA revealed to be exceptionally thermostable, retaining 85% of activity after 5 days of incubation at 80 °C and more than 40% after 2 weeks under the same condition. These results, which were in agreement with the estimation of an apparent melting temperature around 88 °C, make B3-TA, to the best of our knowledge, the most thermostable natural ATA described to date. This biocatalyst showed also a good tolerance toward different water-miscible and water-immiscible organic solvents. A detailed inspection of the homology-based structural model of B3-TA showed that the overall active site architecture of mesophilic (S)-selective ATAs was mainly conserved in this hyperthermophilic homolog. Additionally, a subfamily of B3-TA-like transaminases, mostly uncharacterized and all from thermophilic microorganisms, was identified and analyzed in terms of phylogenetic relationships and sequence conservation.

  6. Iron Homeostasis in Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, I.; Tringe, S. G.; Franklin, H.; Bryant, D. A.; Klatt, C. G.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been postulated that life may have originated on Earth, and possibly on Mars, in association with hydrothermal activity and high concentrations of ferrous iron. However, it is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to microbes, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, the study of microbial diversity in iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) and the mechanisms of iron homeostasis and suppression of oxidative stress may help elucidate how Precambrian organisms could withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe(2+) and O2. Proteins and clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis found in cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting environments with high and low [Fe] were main target of this analysis. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that the Chocolate Pots (CP) microbial community is heavily dominated by phototrophs from the cyanobacteria (CB), Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla, while the Mushroom Spring (MS) effluent channel harbors a more diverse community in which Chloroflexi are the dominant phototrophs. It is speculated that CB inhabiting IDHS have an increased tolerance to both high concentrations of Fe(2+) and ROS produced in the Fenton reaction. This hypothesis was explored via a comparative analysis of the diversity of proteins and COGs involved in Fe and redox homeostasis in the CP and MS microbiomes.

  7. Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Wagon Wheel Hot Springs, Mineral County, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA 775.737.7806 rzehner@gdareno.com For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,189,000 South boundary: approximately 4,170,000 West boundary: approximately 330,000 East boundary: approximately 351,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs at Wagon Wheel Gap have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 2. Air photo lineaments 3. Groundwater geochemistry 4. Power lines 5. Georeferenced geologic map of Routt County 6. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  8. Magnetotelluric models of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.; Ward, S.H.; Hohmann, G.W.; Sill, W.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs (RHS) thermal area, which includes a hotwater-dominated fracture zone prospect, near the eastern margin of the Basin-Range tectonic province, conceivably possesses a whole family of resistivity structures that includes the following: deep hot brine reservoirs, deep-seated partially molten heat sources in the crust or upper mantle that drive the convective system, near-surface hydrothermal alteration zones, wet sedimentary fill in valleys, and a regional, apparently one-dimensional resistivity profile of the crust and upper mantle. This complex resistivity makeup, particular to RHS but probably similar to that at other geothermal areas in the Great Basin, must be treated as being fully three-dimensional (3-D). In an attempt to understand these structures, broadband (10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ Hz) tensor magnetotelluric (MT) data were obtained including apparent resistivities (rho/sub a/), impedance phases (phi) and vertical magnetic field transfer functions for 93 sites in the vicinity of this resource area.

  9. Lee Hot Springs power project. First topical report management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-18

    The Lee Hot Springs Project ({open_quotes}the Project{close_quotes}) will use binary cycle turbine-generators supplied by geothermal hot water to make electricity. Two clusters of three (3) 1,000 kilowatt ({open_quotes}kw{close_quotes}) projects, each cluster comprising a {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} will use the pumped output of one geothermal well. The plants will tie into Sierra Pacific Power Company`s ({open_quotes}Sierra`s{open_quotes}) transmission system. The Project objectives are designed to demonstrate that geothermal energy is a non-polluting, non-CO{sub 2} emitting form of generation, which if used in larger increments, will significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses. The Project will also demonstrate the use of modular, {open_quotes}non-grid{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}village{close_quotes} units which can be used throughout the world where geothermal energy is present in remote locations and power is not. The Project was conceived as a 20,000 kw Qualifying Facility, divided into two phases, a 5,000 kw phase one followed by a 15,000 kw phase two. The first phase of the Project now consists of two (2) 3,000 kw plants to generate 6,000 kws.

  10. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Castenholz, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

  11. Geologic setting and chemical characteristics of hot springs in central and western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.; Barnes, Ivan; Pattan, William Wallace

    1973-01-01

    The geologic and chemical data are too preliminary to make an estimate of the potential of the hot springs as a geothermal resource. The data suggest, however, that most of the hot springs of central and western Alaska have relatively low subsurface temperatures and limited reservoir capacities in comparison with geothermal areas presently being utilized for electrical power generation.

  12. Field observations and management strategy for hot spring wastewater in Wulai area, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, J Y; Chen, C F; Lei, F R; Hsieh, C D

    2010-01-01

    Hot springs are important centers for recreation and tourism. However, the pollution that may potentially be caused by hot spring wastewater has rarely been discussed. More than half of Taiwan's hot springs are located in areas where the water quality of water bodies is to be protected, and untreated wastewater could pollute the receiving water bodies. In this study, we investigate hot spring wastewater in the Wulai area, one of Taiwan's famous hot spring resorts. Used water from five hot spring hotels was sampled and ten sampling events were carried out to evaluate the changes in the quality of used water in different seasons, at different periods of the week, and from different types of hotels. The concentrations of different pollutants in hot spring wastewater were found to exhibit wide variations, as follows: COD, 10-250 mg/L; SS, N.D.-93 mg/L; NH(3)-N, 0.01-1.93 mg/L; TP, 0.01-0.45 mg/L; and E. coli, 10-27,500 CFU/100 mL. The quality of hot spring wastewater depends on the operation of public pools, because this affects the frequency of supplementary fresh water and the outflow volume. Two management strategies, namely, onsite treatment systems and individually packaged treatment equipment, are considered, and a multi-objective optimization model is used to determine the optimal strategy.

  13. Earliest signs of life on land preserved in ca. 3.5 Ga hot spring deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djokic, Tara; van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Campbell, Kathleen A.; Walter, Malcolm R.; Ward, Colin R.

    2017-05-01

    The ca. 3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is well known for hosting some of Earth's earliest convincing evidence of life (stromatolites, fractionated sulfur/carbon isotopes, microfossils) within a dynamic, low-eruptive volcanic caldera affected by voluminous hydrothermal fluid circulation. However, missing from the caldera model were surface manifestations of the volcanic-hydrothermal system (hot springs, geysers) and their unequivocal link with life. Here we present new discoveries of hot spring deposits including geyserite, sinter terracettes and mineralized remnants of hot spring pools/vents, all of which preserve a suite of microbial biosignatures indicative of the earliest life on land. These include stromatolites, newly observed microbial palisade fabric and gas bubbles preserved in inferred mineralized, exopolymeric substance. These findings extend the known geological record of inhabited terrestrial hot springs on Earth by ~3 billion years and offer an analogue in the search for potential fossil life in ancient Martian hot springs.

  14. Novel division level bacterial diversity in a Yellowstone hot spring.

    PubMed

    Hugenholtz, P; Pitulle, C; Hershberger, K L; Pace, N R

    1998-01-01

    A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic survey was carried out for the bacterial community in Obsidian Pool (OP), a Yellowstone National Park hot spring previously shown to contain remarkable archaeal diversity (S. M. Barns, R. E. Fundyga, M. W. Jeffries, and N. R. Page, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1609-1613, 1994). Small-subunit rRNA genes (rDNA) were amplified directly from OP sediment DNA by PCR with universally conserved or Bacteria-specific rDNA primers and cloned. Unique rDNA types among > 300 clones were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and 122 representative rDNA sequences were determined. These were found to represent 54 distinct bacterial sequence types or clusters (> or = 98% identity) of sequences. A majority (70%) of the sequence types were affiliated with 14 previously recognized bacterial divisions (main phyla; kingdoms); 30% were unaffiliated with recognized bacterial divisions. The unaffiliated sequence types (represented by 38 sequences) nominally comprise 12 novel, division level lineages termed candidate divisions. Several OP sequences were nearly identical to those of cultivated chemolithotrophic thermophiles, including the hydrogen-oxidizing Calderobacterium and the sulfate reducers Thermodesulfovibrio and Thermodesulfobacterium, or belonged to monophyletic assemblages recognized for a particular type of metabolism, such as the hydrogen-oxidizing Aquificales and the sulfate-reducing delta-Proteobacteria. The occurrence of such organisms is consistent with the chemical composition of OP (high in reduced iron and sulfur) and suggests a lithotrophic base for primary productivity in this hot spring, through hydrogen oxidation and sulfate reduction. Unexpectedly, no archaeal sequences were encountered in OP clone libraries made with universal primers. Hybridization analysis of amplified OP DNA with domain-specific probes confirmed that the analyzed community rDNA from OP sediment was predominantly bacterial. These

  15. Novel Division Level Bacterial Diversity in a Yellowstone Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Hugenholtz, Philip; Pitulle, Christian; Hershberger, Karen L.; Pace, Norman R.

    1998-01-01

    A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic survey was carried out for the bacterial community in Obsidian Pool (OP), a Yellowstone National Park hot spring previously shown to contain remarkable archaeal diversity (S. M. Barns, R. E. Fundyga, M. W. Jeffries, and N. R. Page, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1609–1613, 1994). Small-subunit rRNA genes (rDNA) were amplified directly from OP sediment DNA by PCR with universally conserved or Bacteria-specific rDNA primers and cloned. Unique rDNA types among >300 clones were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and 122 representative rDNA sequences were determined. These were found to represent 54 distinct bacterial sequence types or clusters (≥98% identity) of sequences. A majority (70%) of the sequence types were affiliated with 14 previously recognized bacterial divisions (main phyla; kingdoms); 30% were unaffiliated with recognized bacterial divisions. The unaffiliated sequence types (represented by 38 sequences) nominally comprise 12 novel, division level lineages termed candidate divisions. Several OP sequences were nearly identical to those of cultivated chemolithotrophic thermophiles, including the hydrogen-oxidizing Calderobacterium and the sulfate reducers Thermodesulfovibrio and Thermodesulfobacterium, or belonged to monophyletic assemblages recognized for a particular type of metabolism, such as the hydrogen-oxidizing Aquificales and the sulfate-reducing δ-Proteobacteria. The occurrence of such organisms is consistent with the chemical composition of OP (high in reduced iron and sulfur) and suggests a lithotrophic base for primary productivity in this hot spring, through hydrogen oxidation and sulfate reduction. Unexpectedly, no archaeal sequences were encountered in OP clone libraries made with universal primers. Hybridization analysis of amplified OP DNA with domain-specific probes confirmed that the analyzed community rDNA from OP sediment was predominantly bacterial. These results

  16. Impacts of geothermal energy developments on hydrological environment in hot spring areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water-energy nexus such as geothermal energy developments and its impacts on groundwater, river water, and coastal water is one of the key issues for the sustainable society. This is because the demand of both water and energy resources will be increasing in near future, and the tradeoff between both resources and conflict between stakeholders will be arisen. Geothermal power generation, hot springs heat power generation, and steam power generation, are developing in hot spring areas in Ring of Fire countries including Japan, as renewable and sustainable energy. Impacts of the wasted hot water after using hot springs heat and steam power generation on ecosystem in the rivers have been observed in Beppu, Oita prefecture, Japan. The number of the fish species with wasted hot water in the Hirata river is much less than that without wasted hot water in Hiyakawa river although the dominant species of tilapia was found in the Hirata river with wasted hot water. The water temperature in Hirata rive is increased by wasted hot water by 10 degree C. The impacts of the developments of steam power generations on hot spring water and groundwater in downstream are also evaluated in Beppu. The decreases in temperature and volume of the hot spring water and groundwater after the development are concerning. Stakeholder analysis related to hot spa and power generation business and others in Beppu showed common interests in community development among stakeholders and gaps in prerequisite knowledge and recognition of the geothermal resource in terms of economic/non-economic value and utilization as power generation/hot-spring. We screened stakeholders of four categories (hot spring resorts inhabitants, industries, supporters, environmentalists), and set up three communities consisting of 50 persons of the above categories. One remarkable result regarding the pros and cons of geothermal power in general terms was that the supporter count increased greatly while the neutralities count

  17. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  18. Bioprospecting hot spring metagenome: lipase for the production of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Mohit; Sukla, Lala Behari; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2017-02-01

    Screening of metagenomic library from Taptapani Hot Spring (Odisha) yielded a positive lipase clone (pUC-lip479). Sequence analysis showed an ORF (RK-lip479) of 416 amino acid residues which was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Optimum pH and temperature of purified lipase RK-lip479 were 8.0 and 65 °C, respectively, and found to be stable over a pH range of 7.0-9.0 and temperatures 55-75 °C. RK-lip479 could hydrolyse a wide range of 4-nitrophenyl esters (4-nitrophenyoctanoate, 4-nitrophenyldodecanoate, 4-nitrophenylpalmitate, 4-nitrophenylmyristate and 4-nitrophenylstearate), and maximum activity was observed with 4-nitrophenyldodecanoate. RK-lip479 was resistant to many organic solvents, especially isopropanol, DMSO, methanol, DMF, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone, glycerol and ethyl acetate. RK-lip479 also showed activity in the presence of monovalent (Na(+) and K(+)), divalent (Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+) and Ag(2+) ) and trivalent cations (Fe(3+) and Al(3+)). Yield of biodiesel production was in the range of 40-76% using various waste oils with RK-Lip479 under optimized conditions.

  19. Spatial relationship between earthquakes, hot-springs and faults in Odisha, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jena, Ratiranjan

    2016-06-01

    Odisha is famous for Mineral rich Eastern-Ghat mobile belt, hot springs and cultural Heritage. The hot springs are known for centuries and are used by public as a place for worship. Odisha falls under the II and III seismic zones in India. Most of the seismicity in Odisha is due to motion along some active normal faults along the Mahanadi Graben. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the active faults and understand spatial distribution of seismic activity in Odisha. It is also important to understand the Earthquakes and their relation with the Geology of Odisha and understand the neo-tectonic activity. There are 7 major hot springs found along the North Odisha Boundary Fault and Mahanadi Shear Zone. The hot water percolates deep into the Earth through porous and permeable fractured rocks along the fault. Depth of source for most of the hot springs in Odisha must be some few feets to few meters; however most of these observations are not based on scientific geophysical data. Therefore, spatial relationship between thermal springs, earthquakes, and geology of Odisha may provide better understanding of the hot-spring setting. By using the earthquake and fault data, the sense of motion along faults can be easily interpreted. All these information can explain the spatial distribution and inter-relation between hot-springs, faults and earthquakes in Odisha.

  20. Indoor radon levels in selected hot spring hotels in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Gang; Zhang, Boyou; Wang, Xinming; Gong, Jingping; Chan, Daniel; Bernett, John; Lee, S C

    2005-03-01

    Guangdong is one of the provinces that have most hot springs in China, and many hotels have been set up near hot springs, with spring water introduced into the bath inside each hotel room for hot spring bathing to attract tourists. In the present study, we measured radon in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in hot spring waters, in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong by using NR-667A (III) continuous radon detector. Radon concentrations ranged 53.4-292.5 Bq L(-1) in the hot spring water and 17.2-190.9 Bq m(-3) in outdoor air. Soil gas intrusion, indoor hot spring water use and inefficient ventilation all contributed to the elevated indoor radon levels in the hotel rooms. From the variation of radon levels in closed unoccupied hotel rooms, soil gas intrusion was found to be a very important source of indoor radon in hotel rooms with floors in contact with soils. When there was spring water bathing in the bathes, average radon levels were 10.9-813% higher in the hotel rooms and 13.8-489% higher in bathes compared to their corresponding average levels when there was no spring water use. Spring water use in the hotel rooms had radon transfer coefficients from 1.6x10(-4) to 5.0x10(-3). Radon in some hotel rooms maintained in concentrations much higher than guideline levels might thus have potential health risks to the hotel workers, and technical and management measures should be taken to lower their exposure of radon through inhalation.

  1. Free-living ameba contamination in natural hot springs in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lekkla, Amorn; Sutthikornchai, Chantira; Bovornkitti, Somchai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2005-01-01

    Thermo tolerant free-living ameba, Naegleria spp and Acanthamoeba spp contamination in natural hot springs in Thailand were carried out from 13 provinces. The temperature of hot springs water varied from 28 degrees-65 degrees C and pH from 6-8. We found that 38.2 % (26/68) of water samples were positive, Acanthamoeba was 13.2% (9/68) whilst Naegleria was 35.3% (24/68). Contamination by free-living ameba in natural hot springs may pose a significant health risk to people who use such water for recreation activities.

  2. Boiling Water at Hot Creek - The Dangerous and Dynamic Thermal Springs in California's Long Valley Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Venezky, Dina Y.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Oliver, Lynn K.

    2007-01-01

    The beautiful blue pools and impressive boiling fountains along Hot Creek in east-central California have provided enjoyment to generations of visitors, but they have also been the cause of injury or death to some who disregarded warnings and fences. The springs and geysers in the stream bed and along its banks change location, temperature, and flow rates frequently and unpredictably. The hot springs and geysers of Hot Creek are visible signs of dynamic geologic processes in this volcanic region, where underground heat drives thermal spring activity.

  3. Isolation of Halotolerant Thermus spp. from Submarine Hot Springs in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Kristjansson, Jakob K.; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur O.; Alfredsson, Gudni A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermophilic, aerobic bacteria of the genus Thermus were isolated from submarine alkaline hot springs in Iceland. Five submarine hot springs were sampled, and all had viable counts of Thermus spp. of about 103 CFU/ml. All submarine strains grew in the presence of NaCl at 3% or higher, but no strains from terrestrial hot springs would grow at concentrations higher than 1% NaCl. The growth rate of submarine Thermus strains was not stimulated by NaCl and was reduced at NaCl concentrations higher than 1%. The pattern of growth of these isolates on single carbon sources was similar to that of terrestrial isolates. PMID:16347236

  4. Microbial Controls on Hot Spring Travertine Depositional Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, S. E.; Fouke, B. W.; Miller, P. A.; Kandianis, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    In order to accurately identify and interpret the fossilization of bacteria in the geological record, a study of the three-dimensional crystalline architecture of CaCO3 (travertine) was completed at Mammoth Hot Springs (MHS) in Yellowstone National Park. We have identified the Apron and Channel Facies (71-65o C) as a site of active travertine precipitation that is fundamentally controlled by microbial activity. Structural and gross morphological analyses of these aragonite (CaCO3) travertine deposits have been completed in the context of rapid precipitation (< 5 mm/day) in unidirectional advection-dominated turbulent sheet flow. Significant changes in travertine depositional fabric were observed along the 1 to 3 m-long and 1 to 2 cm-deep primary flow path of the Apron and Channel Facies. The high-temperature (71 - 69o C) upstream portion of the Apron Channel Facies, which lies a few meters downstream from the vent source, is composed of filamentous microbial strands. Using our 16S rRNA gene sequence clone libraries from the Apron and Channel Facies, filamentous Aquificales pBB bacteria have been identified as the dominant microbes composing the filamentous strands, of which are separated by thin sheets of extra-cellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) a distance of 1 to 3mm. The EPS exhibits distinctive elliptical to circular voids that may result from water turbulence, gas escape, or other mechanisms. The EPS also acts as a binding agent for the filaments and stabilizes them into patterns that parallel the direction of spring water flow. The extent of aragonite needle precipitation on the exterior of intertwining microbial filaments increases from the downstream end of each filament upwards toward the vent source. Based on these attributes, we have termed this the fettuccini travertine fabric. Travertine deposited in the low-temperature (68 - 65o C) downstream portion of the Apron Channel Facies exhibits a capellini-like morphology arranged in a uniform tightly

  5. Geothermal-resource assessment of the Steamboat-Routt Hot Springs area, Colorado. Resources Series 22

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of the Steamboat Springs region in northwest Colorado was initiated and carried out in 1980 and 1981. The goal of this program was to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of the thermal waters (temperatures in excess of 68/sup 0/F (20/sup 0/C)) in this area at Steamboat Springs and 8 miles (12.8 km) north at Routt Hot Springs. Thermal waters from Heart Spring, the only developed thermal water source in the study area, are used in the municipal swimming pool in Steamboat Springs. The assessment program was a fully integrated program consisting of: dipole-dipole, Audio-magnetotelluric, telluric, self potential and gravity geophysical surveys, soil mercury and soil helium geochemical surveys; shallow temperature measurements; and prepartion of geological maps. The investigation showed that all the thermal springs appear to be fault controlled. Based on the chemical composition of the thermal waters it appears that Heart Spring in Steamboat Springs is hydrologically related to the Routt Hot Springs. This relationship was further confirmed when it was reported that thermal waters were encountered during the construction of the new high school in Strawberry Park on the north side of Steamboat Springs. In addition, residents stated that Strawberry Park appears to be warmer than the surrounding country side. Geological mapping has determined that a major fault extends from the Routt Hot Springs area into Strawberry Park.

  6. Bacterial composition of microbial mats in hot springs in Northern Patagonia: variations with seasons and temperature.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Roy; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Díez, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal shifts in bacterial diversity of microbial mats were analyzed in three hot springs (39-68 °C) of Patagonia, using culture-independent methods. Three major bacterial groups were detected in all springs: Phyla Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Order Thermales. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Green Non-Sulfur Bacteria were also detected in small amounts and only in some samples. Thermophilic filamentous heterocyst-containing Mastigocladus were dominant Cyanobacteria in Porcelana Hot Spring and Geyser, and Calothrix in Cahuelmó, followed by the filamentous non-heterocyst Leptolyngbya and Oscillatoria. Bacteroidetes were detected in a wide temperature range and their relative abundance increased with decreasing temperature in almost all samples. Two Meiothermus populations with different temperature optima were found. Overall, fingerprinting analysis with universal bacterial primers showed high similarities within each hot spring despite differences in temperature. On the other hand, Cahuelmó Hot Spring showed a lower resemblance among samples. Porcelana Hot Spring and Porcelana Geyser were rather similar to each other, possibly due to a common geological substrate given their geographic proximity. This was even more evident with specific cyanobacterial primers. The different geological substrate and the seawater influence in Cahuelmó might have caused the differences in the microbial community structure with the other two hot springs.

  7. Mineralization of Fe/Mn-precipitates From Hot Springs in the Sanbe Volcanic Area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Kimura, H.

    2007-12-01

    Mt. Sanbe is an active volcano located in western Japan. At southwest slope of Mt.Sanbe, hot springs are discharged with flow rate of 2000 liter per minute, which are accomapnied by iron and manganese precipitates. We studied chemical composition of hot spring waters by IC, ICP-AES and AA analysis, and of precipitates by XRF analysis. Water chemistry of the main hot spring (t= 30-39 °C) is Na-Cl type and contains significant iron (= 5.6-7.5 mg/l) and manganese (= 1.1-1.6 mg/l). Around the main spring discharge, both ferrihydrites (contains 67-76% of Fe) and manganese oxides (contains 71-79% of Mn) are precipitated. About 30 to 100m east from the main hot spring, black precipitates mainly consists of manganese oxides (contains 5-83% of Mn) are distributed in the area of 90 m × 45 m. Cold spring waters (t= 12-20 °C) in this area also contains Mn (0.1-0.6 mg/l), but their Fe concentration was under detection limit. Relative chemical comoposition of the cold spring waters are similar to that of the main hot spring, which implies dilution with groundwater. Total bacterial count measured by DAPI staining was 16,000-37,000 cells/ml in these waters. In order to estimate microbial activity, we conducted manganese oxidizing experiments. The oxidation rate was estiamted as 4-5 nM per hour for the experiment in which 5 g of fresh manganese wad was added to 200ml of the 0.20 μm filtered hot spring water. This rapid oxidation rate would suggest that microbial activity plays important role in manganese precipitation from the Sanbe hot/cold spring waters.

  8. Microbial Metabolic Landscapes Derived from Complementary Mineralogical, Aqueous Geochemical, and Gas Data Associated with High pH, Actively Serpentinizing Springs in the Coast Range Ophiolite (CA,USA) and Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites (Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Arcilla, C. A.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    We applied x-ray diffraction and thin section petrography to profile the mineralogy of serpentinites and relict peridotites pertinent to the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbiological Observatory (CROMO, an array of 8 water monitoring wells installed in serpentinizing ultramafic rocks, sited at the UC-Davis McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Lower Lake, CA) and Zambales and Palawan ophiolites in the Philippines. In general, serpentinization in near surface samples was extensive, obscuring many protolith characteristics, but relict olivine grains are apparent. Upwelling serpentinizing formation fluids react to varying degrees with shallow hydrological regimes impacted by meteoric inputs. In the vicinity of CROMO, modest pH (7 to 8.5) waters form spring deposits. In the Philippines ophiolites, high pH (10.8 to 11. 3) waters form extensive travertines near Manleluag Springs and newly faulted sections of the Poon Bato River. Travertine fabric and chemistry indicate episodic spring flow and suggest that ambient water chemistry shifts over time. A multiprobe meter simultaneously measured pH, temperature, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, and dissolved oxygen at selected springs. Filtered water samples from monitoring wells and springs were analyzed for major elements and some ions. Dissolved gases and gas bubbles were captured and transported for analysis of H2, CO, and CH4. Aqueous and gas geochemistry data were transformed into activity data using EQ3: A Computer Program for Geochemical Aqueous Speciation-Solubility Calculations (Wolery, 1992) and the Gibbs Energy values for selected metabolic reactions, given the environmental conditions, were calculated. Metabolisms considered were: methanogenesis, methane oxidation, ferric iron reduction, ferrous iron oxidation, oxidation of S in pyrite, nitrification, denitrification, and N-fixation. At all sites tapping waters sourced in actively serpentinizing systems, regardless of geography, ferrous iron oxidation was the most

  9. CRISPR Spacer Arrays for Detection of Viral Signatures from Acidic Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, J. C.; Bateson, M. M.; Suciu, D.; Young, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet Earth. Using CRISPR spacer sequences, we have developed a microarray-based approach to detecting viral signatures in the acidic hot springs of Yellowstone.

  10. Diversity and Ecological Functions of Crenarchaeota in Terrestrial Hot Springs of Tengchong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Song, Z.; Chen, J.; Jiang, H.; Zhou, E.; Wang, F.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The diversity and potential ecological functions of Crenarchaeota were investigated in eight terrestrial hot springs (pH: 2.8-7.7; temperature: 43.6-96 C) located in Tengchong, China, using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. A total of 826 crenarchaeotal clones were analyzed and a total of 47 Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Most (93%) of the identified OTUs were closely related (89-99%) to those retrieved from hot springs and other thermal environments. Our data showed that temperature may predominate over pH in affecting crenarchaeotal diversity in Tengchong hot springs. Crenarchaeotal diversity in moderate-temperature (59 to 77 C) hot springs was the highest, indicating that the moderate-temperature hot springs are more inclusive for Crenarchaeota. To understand what ecological functions these Crenarchaeota may play in Tengchong hot springs, we isolated the environmental RNA and constructed four cDNA clone libraries of the archaeal accA gene that encodes Acetyl CoA carboxylase. The accA gene represents one of the key enzymes responsible for the CO2 fixation in the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed all the transcribed accA gene sequences can be classified into three large clusters, with the first one being affiliated with marine crenarchaeota, the second one with cultured crenarchaeota, and the third one with Chlorobi (Green sulfur bacteria), which have been proved to employ the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. The long-branch distances of the phylogenetic tree suggest that these sequences represent novel accA-like gene. Our results also showed that sequences of the accA-like gene from the same hot spring belonged to one cluster, which suggests that a single crenarchaeotal group may fix CO2 via 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in the investigated hot springs.

  11. Siliceous algal and bacterial stromatolites in hot spring and geyser effluents of yellowstone national park.

    PubMed

    Walter, M R; Bauld, J; Brock, T D

    1972-10-27

    Growing algal and bacterial stromatolites composed of nearly amorphous silica occur around hot springs and geysers in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Some Precambrian stromatolites may be bacterial rather than algal, which has important implications in atmospheric evolution, since bacterial photo-synthesis does not release oxygen. Conophyton stromatolites were thought to have become extinct at the end of the Precambrian, but are still growing in hot spring effluents.

  12. Mercury in water and biomass of microbial communities in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, S.A.; Behnke, S.; Slack, K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Burr, M.D.; Striegl, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-clean sampling methods and approaches typically used in pristine environments were applied to quantify concentrations of Hg species in water and microbial biomass from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, features that are geologically enriched with Hg. Microbial populations of chemically-diverse hot springs were also characterized using modern methods in molecular biology as the initial step toward ongoing work linking Hg speciation with microbial processes. Molecular methods (amplification of environmental DNA using 16S rDNA primers, cloning, denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) screening of clone libraries, and sequencing of representative clones) were used to examine the dominant members of microbial communities in hot springs. Total Hg (THg), monomethylated Hg (MeHg), pH, temperature, and other parameters influential to Hg speciation and microbial ecology are reported for hot springs water and associated microbial mats. Several hot springs indicate the presence of MeHg in microbial mats with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 ng g-1 (dry weight). Concentrations of THg in mats ranged from 4.9 to 120,000 ng g-1 (dry weight). Combined data from surveys of geothermal water, lakes, and streams show that aqueous THg concentrations range from l to 600 ng L-1. Species and concentrations of THg in mats and water vary significantly between hot springs, as do the microorganisms found at each site. ?? 2006.

  13. Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum in acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ricardo; Fernandes, João; Fernandes, Nuno; Oliveira, Fernanda; Cadete, Manuela

    2007-08-01

    Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum was found in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, in a system composed of two acidic (pH 3.0) springs with temperatures between 56 degrees C at the source and 40 degrees C at the confluence of both springs. Growth and survival assays at 56 degrees C for 60 days were performed, confirming the origin of the strain.

  14. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Chafetz, H. S.; Combie, J.; Graham, C. R.; Kieft, T. L.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Steele, A.; Taunton, A. E.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  15. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Allen, C C; Albert, F G; Chafetz, H S; Combie, J; Graham, C R; Kieft, T L; Kivett, S J; McKay, D S; Steele, A; Taunton, A E; Taylor, M R; Thomas-Keprta, K L; Westall, F

    2000-09-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  16. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Chafetz, H. S.; Combie, J.; Graham, C. R.; Kieft, T. L.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Steele, A.; Taunton, A. E.; Taylor, M. R.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Westall, F.

    2000-01-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  17. Quantification of Dynamic Water-Rock-Microbe Interactions in a Travertine-Depositing Hot Spring, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, L. M.; Sivaguru, M.; Fried, G.; Sanford, R. A.; Fouke, B. W.

    2014-12-01

    Filamentous microbial mats in a travertine-depositing hot spring at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park exert primary controls on the growth rate, mineralogy, and crystal fabric of calcium carbonate minerals (travertine) that precipitate in the spring. Filaments directly affect porosity and permeability of travertine by providing a structural framework consisting of "ropes" of microbial cells around which carbonate minerals precipitate, creating a uniquely biogenetic mineral fabric characterized by horizontal layers of large tubular pores. Nanometer scale microscopy reveals that these mineral fabrics may be directly tied to microbial activities, as aragonite crystals precipitating directly on filaments are smaller and more densely packed than crystals precipitating on extra-polymeric substances (EPS) between filaments. In order to more closely examine the processes which control calcium carbonate crystallization dynamics in this system, a high-resolution transect of water and travertine was sampled for geochemistry, microscopy, and microbial biomass along the primary flow path from upstream to downstream of Narrow Gauge spring at Mammoth Hot Springs. Travertine samples were analyzed for petrography using transmitted light, cathodoluminescence, and laser confocal microscopy to examine crystal morphology and associations with microbial filaments and provide insight on pore network distributions. Additionally, travertine and spring water geochemistry was also analyzed for major and trace ions, δ34S, δ13C, and δ18O, to identify any trends that may relate to crystallization rates, microbial biomass, or crystal habit. Total biomass was determined using dried weight. Water-rock-microbe interactions result in upstream-to-downstream variations in travertine crystal morphology and water chemistry that are directly related to systematic changes in microbial biomass and community respiration. Geochemical modeling lends insight into the biogeochemical reactions

  18. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Huang, Han-Chen

    2017-07-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is one of the most famous tourism destinations in Taiwan. The spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Moreover, the multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by integrating ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and Geographic information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial uncertainty and distributions of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined using GIS and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures. A suitable development strategy for the multipurpose uses of spring water is proposed according to the integration of the land use and spring water temperatures. The study results indicate that the integration of OK, SGS, and GIS is capable of characterizing spring water temperatures and the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water. SGS realizations are more robust than OK estimates for characterizing spring water temperatures compared to observed data. Furthermore, current land use is almost ideal in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region according to the estimated spatial pattern of spring water temperatures.

  19. Metagenomic Study of Iron Homeostasis in Iron Depositing Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, I.; Franklin H.; Tringe, S. G.; Klatt, C. G.; Bryant, D. A.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to cyanobacteria, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, metagenomic study of cyanobacterial community in iron-depositing hot springs may help elucidate how oxygenic prokaryotes can withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe2+ and O2. Method: Anchor proteins from various species of cyanobacteria and some anoxygenic phototrophs were selected on the basis of their hypothetical role in Fe homeostasis and the suppression of oxidative stress and were BLASTed against the metagenomes of iron-depositing Chocolate Pots and freshwater Mushroom hot springs. Results: BLASTing proteins hypothesized to be involved in Fe homeostasis against the microbiomes from the two springs revealed that iron-depositing hot spring has a greater abundance of defensive proteins such as bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp) and DNA-binding Ferritin like protein (Dps) than a fresh-water hot spring. One may speculate that the abundance of Bcp and Dps in an iron-depositing hot spring is connected to the need to suppress oxidative stress in bacteria inhabiting environments with high Fe2+ concnetration. In both springs, Bcp and Dps are concentrated within the cyanobacterial fractions of the microbial community (regardless of abundance). Fe3+ siderophore transport (from the transport system permease protein query) may be less essential to the microbial community of CP because of the high [Fe]. Conclusion: Further research is needed to confirm that these proteins are unique to photoautotrophs such as those living in iron-depositing hot spring.

  20. Effects of Physiochemical Factors on Prokaryotic Biodiversity in Malaysian Circumneutral Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chia S.; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ee, Robson; Hong, Kar-Wai; Urbieta, María S.; Donati, Edgardo R.; Shamsir, Mohd S.; Goh, Kian M.

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia has a great number of hot springs, especially along the flank of the Banjaran Titiwangsa mountain range. Biological studies of the Malaysian hot springs are rare because of the lack of comprehensive information on their microbial communities. In this study, we report a cultivation-independent census to describe microbial communities in six hot springs. The Ulu Slim (US), Sungai Klah (SK), Dusun Tua (DT), Sungai Serai (SS), Semenyih (SE), and Ayer Hangat (AH) hot springs exhibit circumneutral pH with temperatures ranging from 43°C to 90°C. Genomic DNA was extracted from environmental samples and the V3–V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that microbial richness was high in all samples as indicated by the detection of 6,334–26,244 operational taxonomy units. In total, 59, 61, 72, 73, 65, and 52 bacterial phyla were identified in the US, SK, DT, SS, SE, and AH hot springs, respectively. Generally, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities in all hot springs. Archaeal communities mainly consisted of Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and Parvarchaeota. In beta diversity analysis, the hot spring microbial memberships were clustered primarily on the basis of temperature and salinity. Canonical correlation analysis to assess the relationship between the microbial communities and physicochemical variables revealed that diversity patterns were best explained by a combination of physicochemical variables, rather than by individual abiotic variables such as temperature and salinity. PMID:28729863

  1. Possible mechanism of hydrological responses to the historical Nankai earthquakes at old hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, N.; Koizumi, N.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Itaba, S.

    2006-12-01

    The large earthquakes along the Nankai trough, which are referred to as the Nankai, Tonankai and Tokai earthquakes, occurred nine times since 684. The Dogo and Yunomine hot springs, which have histories of more than 1000 years, are located in and around the source region of the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes. Several ancient writings reported that the Dogo and Yunomine hot springs stopped or decreased discharging after four and five of the nine large earthquakes, respectively. At the Dogo hot spring, an 11.2 m decrease of well water level was observed after the 1946 Nankai earthquake (M 8.0). Moreover 1.9 m increase of well water level at the same well was observed 49 hours after the 2001 Geiyo earthquake (M6.7). We estimate volumetric strain changes at the Dogo hot spring associated with the 1946 Nankai and 2001 Geiyo earthquakes using the Okada's program and estimated fault models. As a result, changes of 5.3 - 6.0 x 10-6 extensional strain and 4 x 10^{-8} contractional strain are estimated at the Dogo hot spring associated with the 1946 Nankai and 2001 Geiyo earthquakes, respectively. We found that the observed coseismic changes in groundwater level are proportional to the estimated coseismic strain steps associated with these earthquakes at the Dogo hot spring. In order to estimate strain sensitivity of the groundwater level, we started groundwater level observation at the same well at the Dogo hot spring from June 2003. We estimated that the strain sensitivity of groundwater level is 1.72 mm/nstrain using tidal analysis. This strain sensitivity estimated by the tidal analysis is consistent with the relationship between the observed coseismic changes in groundwater level and the estimated coseismic strain steps associated with the 1946 Nankai and 2001 Geiyo earthquakes at the Dogo hot spring. We think that the reported stops or decreases of self-discharge of the hot water at the Dogo hot spring after the historical Nankai earthquakes were caused by extensional

  2. Characterizing Hot Spring Connectivity Using Aqueous Geochemistry in the River Group Springs, Yellowstone NP, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aunan, M. M.; Lindsey, C.; Price, A. N.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the aqueous geochemical components of 11 springs in the River Group, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. For the springs sampled, we found pHs ranging from a low of ˜4.8 to a high of ˜9.6; TDS (as inferred from electrical conductivity measurements) was roughly correlated to pH, with the lowest pH spring being the most dilute (373 µS) and the highest pH spring having the second highest conductivity (1384 µS). In combination with a shallow ground temperature survey and visual observations of the relative water levels in the springs, the spring chemistries support a conceptual model of fracture-controlled fluid flow in which individual springs demonstrate a surprising level of flowpath isolation. We hypothesize that variations in flowpath permeability lead to steam-heating of low-pH springs, while nearby circumneutral springs are heated by upwelling liquid hydrothermal fluids, high in chlorid and other dissolved components. If our hypothesis is correct, it implies that vaporand liquid-dominated zones of Model III hydrothermal systems can coexist in close proximity, resulting in a complex surface expression of acid-sulfate and chloride-rich circum-neutral springs.

  3. 76 FR 16810 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot Springs County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot...: A 10-acre parcel of public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming is being considered for non... following described public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming has been examined and found suitable for...

  4. Anatomy of siliceous hot springs: examples from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidry, Sean A.; Chafetz, Henry S.

    2003-03-01

    Numerous siliceous hot spring systems in the Norris and Lower Geyser Basins of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, provide insights into spring geometries, depositional facies, and lithofacies associated with modern hot springs. Analyses of active (Cistern Spring, Octopus Spring, Deerbone Spring, and Spindle Geyser) and inactive (Pork Chop Geyser) siliceous hot springs have facilitated the construction of a facies model for siliceous hot spring deposits at Yellowstone. Yellowstone's siliceous springs tend to group into four broad morphological categories: siliceous spires and cones, domal mounds, terraced mounds, and ponds. Siliceous spires/cones are subconical accumulations up to 5-7 m high and about 2 m in diameter, and are common deposits in Yellowstone Lake. Domal mounds are characterized by siliceous precipitates with a broad lens or shield geometry (2-3 m in vertical relief), discharge channels, and an areal accumulation of approximately 150 m 2. In contrast, terraced mounds have a stair-step morphology, a substantial pool (˜8-10 m in diameter), "shrubby" precipitates, and occupy areas of ˜2000 m 2. Siliceous ponds are variable in size, have little outflow, and exhibit low amounts of silica precipitation. Of these morphological varieties, domal mounds and terraced mounds are thought to have the best long-term preservation potential. The four spring morphotypes are composed of up to eight cumulative hot spring depositional facies: (1) vent (>95 °C), (2) proximal vent (<95 °C), (3) pool (˜80-90 °C), (4) pool margin (˜80 °C), (5) pool eddy (<80 °C), (6) discharge channel/flowpath (<80 °C to ambient), (7) debris apron (variable temperatures), and (8) geyser (variable temperatures). This facies model based on numerous springs facilitates our ability to interpret ancient hot spring deposits and to infer depositional conditions. Precipitation of siliceous sinter is the result of abiotic and biotic processes. Abiotic precipitational processes are dominant

  5. Lake Bogoria hot springs (Kenya): geochemical features and geothermal implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioni, R.; Fanelli, G.; Guidi, M.; Kinyariro, J. K.; Marini, L.

    1992-04-01

    Many boiling springs and fumaroles are present along the shores of Lake Bogoria, which is a closed-basin alkaline saline lake typical of African Rifts. Two different geothermal waters, both of Na-HCO 3 type have been recognized. The first, discharged by the boiling springs located along the western shores of the lake, comes from a shallow steam-heated thermal aquifer. Its temperature is close to 100°C, as indicated by chalcedony solubility, while the chloride content of these waters is slightly higher than 200 mg L -1. The second, recognizable in the southernmost boiling springs, is representative of a deeper and hotter geothermal reservoir. The occurrence of mixing and boiling processes complicates the interpretation of geochemical data. Nevertheless, a chloride content of about 660 mg L -1, an equilibrium temperature close to 170°C and a high carbon dioxide partial pressure, at least 10-20 bar, have been estimated for the deep geothermal reservoir.

  6. Preservation Potential of Life in Little Hot Creek, California: Implications for the use of Hot Spring Systems as Astrobiological Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago Ramos, D. P.; Rempfert, K. R.; Nascimento, G. S.; Zhang, F.; Loyd, S. J.; Piazza, O.; Bertran, E.; Stamps, B. W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Spear, J. R.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hot spring deposits have long been considered astrobiological targets; modern springs display diverse and abundant life and rapid mineralization is thought to increase biosignature preservation potential. Volcano-associated, silica-rich, mineral deposits have been identified on Mars, so the study of terrestrial examples is warranted. We studied a hot spring in Long Valley Caldera near Little Hot Creek, California, as part of the 2015 Geobiology Summer Course to characterize biological diversity and the potential for biosignature preservation in the rock record. Subsurface hydrothermal waters interact with the rhyolitic Bishop Tuff and feed Little Hot Creek, which exhibits progressively decreasing temperatures (~82-71°C) and rising pH (6.7-7.6) along a 23 m spatial transect. Creek water and sediment samples were collected along the entire transect, in addition to rim-encrusting carbonate-silica structures located ~6 m downstream from the creek source. 16S rRNA sequencing of both water and sediment samples yielded operational taxonomic units (OTUs) reflecting the potential capability for autotrophic thiosulfate oxidation and reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and sulfur oxidation near the creek source. Despite the obvious presence of life in the creek, the preservation potential of biosignatures in mineral deposits has proven ambiguous in at least three ways: 1. Sulfur isotope fractionation between aqueous sulfate and sulfide (~0.3‰) is consistent with both biotic and abiotic sulfur oxidation; 2. The increasing d13C of DIC down the transect can be solely explained by CO2 degassing; and 3. The d13C of rim-encrusting carbonates likely record a similar degassing signal. However, amorphous silica precipitates do exhibit textural evidence of life, with low inheritance between layers and lack of isopachous layering. Our results suggest that mineral deposits in Little Hot Creek show little potential for biosignature preservation; hence, further consideration of hot springs

  7. Nanoarchaeota, Their Sulfolobales Host, and Nanoarchaeota Virus Distribution across Yellowstone National Park Hot Springs.

    PubMed

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H; Field, Erin K; Bateson, Mary; Rooney, Colleen; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Young, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    Nanoarchaeota are obligate symbionts with reduced genomes first described from marine thermal vent environments. Here, both community metagenomics and single-cell analysis revealed the presence of Nanoarchaeota in high-temperature (∼90°C), acidic (pH ≈ 2.5 to 3.0) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) (United States). Single-cell genome analysis of two cells resulted in two nearly identical genomes, with an estimated full length of 650 kbp. Genome comparison showed that these two cells are more closely related to the recently proposed Nanobsidianus stetteri from a more neutral YNP hot spring than to the marine Nanoarchaeum equitans. Single-cell and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analysis of environmental hot spring samples identified the host of the YNP Nanoarchaeota as a Sulfolobales species known to inhabit the hot springs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nanoarchaeota are widespread in acidic to near neutral hot springs in YNP. An integrated viral sequence was also found within one Nanoarchaeota single-cell genome and further analysis of the purified viral fraction from environmental samples indicates that this is likely a virus replicating within the YNP Nanoarchaeota.

  8. Nanoarchaeota, Their Sulfolobales Host, and Nanoarchaeota Virus Distribution across Yellowstone National Park Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H.; Field, Erin K.; Bateson, Mary; Rooney, Colleen; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2015-01-01

    Nanoarchaeota are obligate symbionts with reduced genomes first described from marine thermal vent environments. Here, both community metagenomics and single-cell analysis revealed the presence of Nanoarchaeota in high-temperature (∼90°C), acidic (pH ≈ 2.5 to 3.0) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) (United States). Single-cell genome analysis of two cells resulted in two nearly identical genomes, with an estimated full length of 650 kbp. Genome comparison showed that these two cells are more closely related to the recently proposed Nanobsidianus stetteri from a more neutral YNP hot spring than to the marine Nanoarchaeum equitans. Single-cell and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analysis of environmental hot spring samples identified the host of the YNP Nanoarchaeota as a Sulfolobales species known to inhabit the hot springs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nanoarchaeota are widespread in acidic to near neutral hot springs in YNP. An integrated viral sequence was also found within one Nanoarchaeota single-cell genome and further analysis of the purified viral fraction from environmental samples indicates that this is likely a virus replicating within the YNP Nanoarchaeota. PMID:26341207

  9. Earliest signs of life on land preserved in ca. 3.5 Ga hot spring deposits

    PubMed Central

    Djokic, Tara; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Campbell, Kathleen A.; Walter, Malcolm R.; Ward, Colin R.

    2017-01-01

    The ca. 3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is well known for hosting some of Earth’s earliest convincing evidence of life (stromatolites, fractionated sulfur/carbon isotopes, microfossils) within a dynamic, low-eruptive volcanic caldera affected by voluminous hydrothermal fluid circulation. However, missing from the caldera model were surface manifestations of the volcanic-hydrothermal system (hot springs, geysers) and their unequivocal link with life. Here we present new discoveries of hot spring deposits including geyserite, sinter terracettes and mineralized remnants of hot spring pools/vents, all of which preserve a suite of microbial biosignatures indicative of the earliest life on land. These include stromatolites, newly observed microbial palisade fabric and gas bubbles preserved in inferred mineralized, exopolymeric substance. These findings extend the known geological record of inhabited terrestrial hot springs on Earth by ∼3 billion years and offer an analogue in the search for potential fossil life in ancient Martian hot springs. PMID:28486437

  10. Investigations on microbial diversity of Jakrem hot spring, Meghalaya, India using cultivation-independent approach

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Amrita Kumari; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; De Mandal, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Jakrem hot water spring is located in the West Khasi Hill District of the state of Meghalaya, and is one of the most popular hot springs of the state. There is a populist belief among the inhabitants and people that the hot spring water has got curative properties against various skin ailments. This is the first report on V3 hyper-variable region of 16S rDNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this less known hot spring from Meghalaya, India. Metagenome comprised of 10, 74,120 raw sequences with a sequence length of 151 bp and 56.35% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is now available at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP056897. A total of 8, 77, 364 pre-processed reads were clustered into 694 OTUs (operational taxonomical units) comprising of 14 bacterial phyla including unknown phylum demonstrating 49 families. Hot spring bacterial community is dominated by Firmicutes (61.60%), Chloroflexi (21.37%), Cyanobacteria (12.96%) and unclassified bacteria (1.2%) respectively. PMID:26484205

  11. Investigations on microbial diversity of Jakrem hot spring, Meghalaya, India using cultivation-independent approach.

    PubMed

    Panda, Amrita Kumari; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; De Mandal, Surajit

    2015-06-01

    Jakrem hot water spring is located in the West Khasi Hill District of the state of Meghalaya, and is one of the most popular hot springs of the state. There is a populist belief among the inhabitants and people that the hot spring water has got curative properties against various skin ailments. This is the first report on V3 hyper-variable region of 16S rDNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this less known hot spring from Meghalaya, India. Metagenome comprised of 10, 74,120 raw sequences with a sequence length of 151 bp and 56.35% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is now available at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP056897. A total of 8, 77, 364 pre-processed reads were clustered into 694 OTUs (operational taxonomical units) comprising of 14 bacterial phyla including unknown phylum demonstrating 49 families. Hot spring bacterial community is dominated by Firmicutes (61.60%), Chloroflexi (21.37%), Cyanobacteria (12.96%) and unclassified bacteria (1.2%) respectively.

  12. Sulfolobus islandicus meta-populations in Yellowstone National Park hot springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Kate M.; Kouris, Angela; England, Whitney; Anderson, Rika; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Whitaker, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic forces shape the structure and evolution of microbial populations. We investigated forces that shape the spatial and temporal population structure of Sulfolobus islandicus by comparing geochemical and molecular analysis from seven hot springs in five regions sampled over 3 years in Yellowstone National Park. Through deep amplicon sequencing, we uncovered 148 unique alleles at two loci whose relative frequency provides clear evidence for independent populations in different hot springs. Although geography controls regional geochemical composition and population differentiation, temporal changes in population were not explained by corresponding variation in geochemistry. The data suggest that the influence of extinction, bottleneck events and/or selective sweeps within a spring and low migration between springs shape these populations. We suggest that hydrologic events such as storm events and surface snowmelt runoff destabilize smaller hot spring environments with smaller populations and result in high variation in the S. islandicus population over time. Therefore, physical abiotic features such as hot spring size and position in the landscape are important factors shaping the stability and diversity of the S. islandicus meta-population within Yellowstone National Park.

  13. Sulfolobus islandicus meta-populations in Yellowstone National Park hot springs.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kate M; Kouris, Angela; England, Whitney; Anderson, Rika E; McCleskey, R Blaine; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2017-06-01

    Abiotic and biotic forces shape the structure and evolution of microbial populations. We investigated forces that shape the spatial and temporal population structure of Sulfolobus islandicus by comparing geochemical and molecular analysis from seven hot springs in five regions sampled over 3 years in Yellowstone National Park. Through deep amplicon sequencing, we uncovered 148 unique alleles at two loci whose relative frequency provides clear evidence for independent populations in different hot springs. Although geography controls regional geochemical composition and population differentiation, temporal changes in population were not explained by corresponding variation in geochemistry. The data suggest that the influence of extinction, bottleneck events and/or selective sweeps within a spring and low migration between springs shape these populations. We suggest that hydrologic events such as storm events and surface snowmelt runoff destabilize smaller hot spring environments with smaller populations and result in high variation in the S. islandicus population over time. Therefore, physical abiotic features such as hot spring size and position in the landscape are important factors shaping the stability and diversity of the S. islandicus meta-population within Yellowstone National Park. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in a Slightly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.

    2015-12-01

    A slightly acidic hot spring named "Female Tower" (T=73.5 °C, pH=6.64) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite, aragonite, and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses revealed that the microbial mats were formed of various coccoid, rod-shaped, and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the intracellular sulfur granules were commonly associated with these microbes. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the majority of the bacteria in the spring were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We speculated that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the intracellular formation of sulfur granules. In the meantime, this reaction increased the pH in the micron-scale microdomains, which fostered the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the microbial mats. The results of this study indicated that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in slightly acidic hot spring environments.

  15. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate and Sulfur in a Faintly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Peng, X.; Qiao, H.

    2014-12-01

    A faintly acidic hot spring named "female Tower" (T=73.5 ℃, pH=6.64 ) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field,Yunnan province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite and sulfur, as reveals by XRD analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis show the microbial mats are formed of various coccoid, rod and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis show that intracellular sulfur granules are commonly associated with these microbes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis shows that the surface of microbes are mainly composed of Ca, C, O and S. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the majority of bacteria in the spring are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We suggest that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the formation of sulfur granules intracellularly and extracellularly. In the meantime, this reaction increases the pH in ambient environments, which fosters the precipitation of calcium carbonate precipitation in the microbial mats. This study suggests that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in faintly acidic hot spring environments.

  16. Geochemistry and geothermometry of non-volcanic hot springs in West Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, Hassan; Nawawi, Mohd; Wagner, Karl; Arifin, Mohd Hariri

    2015-01-01

    Although more than sixty hot springs have been reported in West Malaysia, their geochemistry, geothermometry and utilization as a potential energy source have not been considered yet. This study reports the geochemistry, geothermometry and mineral saturation indices of a number of hot springs in West Malaysia. The potential of these hot springs as a source of geothermal energy as well as their origin and possible mixing with surface cold waters have been discussed. Surface temperatures of the studied hot springs range from 41 to 99 °C and pH values vary between 5.5 and 9. Geochemical data showed that among cations, Si, Na, Ca and K occur in relatively high contents, while Mg and Fe show very low concentrations. On the other hand, HCO3 is present in relatively high concentration compared to other anions (SO4, Cl and F). Data also illustrated that most of the studied hot springs are K-Na-bicarbonate rich waters although they represent different geological provenances in West Malaysia reflecting homogeneity in the geological formations and/or hydrochemical processes governing the characteristics of these waters. This homogeneity also indicates the insignificant effect of local geology on the chemistry of the studied hot springs. Saturation indices calculations of the studied thermal waters indicate that most of the secondary mineral phases such as goethite and hematite are apparently supersaturated while quartz and chalcedony are saturated. Conversely, amorphous silica is slightly under-saturated. These results suggest similar rock-water interactions for both geothermal and non-geothermal waters. The geological settings of the studied hot springs either in or close to granitic masses or along the major fault or shear zones as well as the Na-bicarbonate nature of the waters and low sulfate concentrations suggest their non-volcanic origin. They are also similar in their geological setting and water chemistry to other non-volcanic hot springs in other parts of the world

  17. Moderately Thermophilic Magnetotactic Bacteria from Hot Springs in Nevada▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Christopher T.; Abreu, Fernanda; Schmidt, Marian L.; Lins, Ulysses; Frankel, Richard B.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of a moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium were discovered in Great Boiling Springs, Nevada, ranging from 32 to 63°C. Cells were small, Gram-negative, vibrioid to helicoid in morphology, and biomineralized a chain of bullet-shaped magnetite magnetosomes. Phylogenetically, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the organism belongs to the phylum Nitrospirae. PMID:20382815

  18. Moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacteria from hot springs in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Abreu, Fernanda; Schmidt, Marian L; Lins, Ulysses; Frankel, Richard B; Hedlund, Brian P; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2010-06-01

    Populations of a moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium were discovered in Great Boiling Springs, Nevada, ranging from 32 to 63 degrees C. Cells were small, Gram-negative, vibrioid to helicoid in morphology, and biomineralized a chain of bullet-shaped magnetite magnetosomes. Phylogenetically, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the organism belongs to the phylum Nitrospirae.

  19. Helium isotopes in hot spring gases as magmatic tracers during incipient rifting in Malawi and Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanless, V. D.; Kurz, M. D.; Elsenbeck, J.; Curtice, J.; Shaw, A. M.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present helium isotope ratios from hot spring gases collected in the southern most extent of the East African Rift System to evaluate the role of magmatism in incipient continental rifting. A total of 51 high temperature (30 to 87°C) hot spring localities were sampled Zambia (n=28), Botswana (n=1) and Malawi (n=20), resulting in the most extensive compilation of helium ratios from hot spring gases in these countries. 3He/4He in the gases ranges from0.008 to 2.65 (+/- 0.03) times atmosphere (RA). Neon abundances and isotope ratios were also measured to rule out the role of atmospheric mixing. Of the 51 hot springs, 29 have 3He/4He <0.1 RA, consistent with helium signatures of old continental crust. An additional, 14 samples have helium isotope values between 0.2 and 0.1 RA, which may indicate slightly higher signatures of continental crust or mixing of crust with a deep mantle component. However, 8 hot springs have 3He/4He >0.3, indicating the presence of a magmatic source at depth. There is no simple north-south gradient in helium isotope compositions observed along either Malawi Rift or the Luangwa Rift in Zambia. The highest 3He/4He are observed in two hot springs in northern Malawi ( 3 RA), with the second highest values (1-1.4 RA) occurring in two springs at the southern tip of the Malawi Rift. These hot spring gases require at least 35% and 20% mantle helium, respectively, assuming two component mixing of a continental source (3He/4He of 0.002 Ra) and a depleted upper mantle asthenosphere 3He/4He of 8 RA. Slightly elevated values (0.2-1 RA) are observed in southern Malawi, and in northern Botswana and northeastern Zambia, where there is no surficial expression of rifting. The highest 3He/4He values in northern Malawi correlate well with areas of thinner continental crust, as inferred from gravity and seismic studies. Although the 3He/4He values are lower than hot springs gases in Tanzania, where there are active volcanoes, they indicate a mantle component

  20. Geology and Thermal History of Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.

    1978-01-01

    Mammoth Hot Springs, located about 8 km inside the north entrance to Yellowstone National Park, consists of nearly 100 hot springs scattered over a score of steplike travertine terraces. The travertine deposits range in age from late Pleistocene to the present. Sporadic records of hot-spring activity suggest that most of the current major springs have been intermittently active since at least 1871. Water moving along the Norris-Mammoth fault zone is heated by partly molten magma and enriched in calcium and bicarbonate. Upon reaching Mammoth this thermal water (temperature about 73?C) moves up through the old terrace deposits along preexisting vertical linear planes of weakness. As the water reaches the surface, pressure is released, carbon dioxide escapes as a gas, and bicarbonate in the water is partitioned into more carbon dioxide and carbonate; the carbonate then combines with calcium to precipitate calcium carbonate, forming travertine. The travertine usually precipitates rapidly from solution and is lightweight and porous; however, dense travertine, such as is found in core from the 113-m research drill hole Y-10 located on one of the upper terraces, forms beneath the surface by deposition in the pore spaces of older deposits. The terraces abound with unusual hot-spring deposits such as terracettes, cones, and fissure ridges. Semicircular ledges (ranging in width from about 0.3 m to as much as 2.5 m), called terracettes, formed by deposition of travertine around slowly rising pools. Complex steplike arrangements of terracettes have developed along runoff channels of some hot springs. A few hot springs have deposited cone-shaped mounds, most of which reach heights of 1-2 m before becoming dormant. However, one long-inactive cone named Liberty Cap attained a height of about 14 m. Fissure ridges are linear mounds of travertine deposited from numerous hot-spring vents along a medial fracture zone. The ridges range in height from about 1 to 6 m and in length from a

  1. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  2. Control of Temperature on Microbial Community Structure in Hot Springs of the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Liuqin; Wu, Geng; Zhang, Chuanlun; Song, Zhaoqi; Zhang, Yong; Ren, Huilei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China hosts a number of hot springs that represent a biodiversity hotspot for thermophiles, yet their diversity and relationship to environmental conditions are poorly explored in these habitats. In this study we investigated microbial diversity and community composition in 13 Tibetan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (22.1–75°C) and other geochemical conditions by using the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing approach. Bacteria (108–1011 copy/g; 42 bacterial phyla) in Tibetan hot springs were more abundant and far more diverse than Archaea (107–1010 copy/g; 5 archaeal phyla). The dominant bacterial phyla systematically varied with temperature. Moderate temperatures (75–66°C) favored Aquificae, GAL35, and novel Bacteria, whereas low temperatures (60–22.1°C) selected for Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The relative abundance of Aquificae was correlated positively with temperature, but the abundances of Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Chloroflexi were negatively correlated with temperature. Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were abundant in Tibetan hot springs and their abundances were positively correlated at low temperatures (55–43°C) but negatively correlated at moderate temperatures (75–55°C). These correlation patterns suggest a complex physiological relationship between these two phyla. Most archaeal sequences were related to Crenarchaeota with only a few related to Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Despite the fact that microbial composition in Tibetan hot springs was strongly shaped by temperature, microbial diversity (richness, evenness and Shannon diversity) was not significantly correlated with temperature change. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in Tibetan hot springs and provide a basis for a global comparison. PMID:23667538

  3. Anaerobic transformation of carbon monoxide by microbial communities of Kamchatka hot springs.

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, Tatiana V; Rusanov, Igor I; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Sokolova, Tatyana G

    2011-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the common gaseous compounds found in hot volcanic environments. It is known to serve as the growth substrate for a number of thermophilic prokaryotes, both aerobic and anaerobic. The goal of this work was to study the process of anaerobic transformation of CO by microbial communities inhabiting natural thermal environments: hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka. The anaerobic microbial community of Treshchinny Spring (80°C, pH 6.5) was found to exhibit two peaks of affinity for CO (K (S1) = 54 nM and K (S2) = 1 μM). The actual rate of anaerobic CO transformation by the microbial community of this spring, calculated after obtaining the concentration dependence curve and extrapolated to the natural concentration of CO dissolved in the hot spring water (20 nM), was found to be 120 μmol l(-1) of sediment day(-1). In all the hot springs studied, more than 90% of the carbon of (14)CO upon anaerobic incubation was recovered as (14)CO(2). From 1 to 5% of (14)CO was transformed to volatile fatty acids (VFA). The number of microorganisms capable of anaerobic CO oxidation determined by dilution-to-extinction method reached 10(6) cells ml(-1) of sediment. CO-transforming anaerobic thermophilic microorganisms isolated from the springs under study exhibited hydrogenogenic type of CO oxidation and belonged to the bacterial genera Carboxydocella and Dictyoglomus. These data suggest a significant role of hydrogenogenic carboxydotrophic prokaryotes in anaerobic CO transformation in Uzon Caldera hot springs.

  4. Earthquake-related Changes in Groundwater Levels at the Dogo Hot Spring, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaba, Satoshi; Koizumi, Naoji

    2007-12-01

    The Dogo hot spring, situated in Matsuyama City, Ehime Prefecture, Japan, is one of the oldest and most famous hot springs in Japan. The groundwater level or discharge at the spring decreased four times during the past eight or nine Nankai earthquakes. These are large interplate earthquakes that have occurred repeatedly in the western part of the Nankai Trough at intervals of 100 200 years since A.D. 684. To clarify the mechanism of these earthquake-related changes in the water level at the spring, we analyzed groundwater-level data recorded at the spring immediately after the 1946 Nankai earthquake and over the period from 1985 to 2006. We detected the other nine postseismic increases in groundwater level and no decreases, except for a large decrease of 11.4 m related to the 1946 Nankai earthquake. The increases were probably caused by ground-shaking, while the decrease was caused by a change in coseismic volumetric strain. These results lead to the following explanation of the recorded earthquake-related changes in the groundwater level at the Dogo hot spring. Both coseismic changes in volumetric strain and ground-shaking can lead to postseismic changes in groundwater pressure. The increase in groundwater pressure arising from ground-shaking is generally greater than the change in pressure associated with changes in coseismic volumetric strain; however, at the time of the Nankai earthquakes, the spring experiences a large increase in coseismic volumetric strain, leading to a considerably larger decrease in the groundwater level than the increase associated with ground-shaking. Therefore, the groundwater level at the Dogo hot spring usually increases at times of relatively large earthquakes, although the groundwater level or discharge decreases in the case of the Nankai earthquakes.

  5. Thermotolerant Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from therapeutic hot springs in Northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Solgi, Rahmat; Niyyati, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Taghipour, Niloofar; Tabaei, Seyyed Javad Seyyed; Eftekhar, Mohamad; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to address the distribution of Acanthamoeba genotypes in therapeutic hot springs in Iran. Sixty water and sediment samples were collected from bicarbonate, sulphur, and sodium chloride thermal springs in the northwest. All hot springs examined are used mainly for health purposes in Iran. Acanthamoeba were identified by both morphology and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Genotype identification was based on the sequencing of a highly variable and informative region of Diagnostic Fragment 3 (stem 29-1 of 18S rRNA gene) within Acanthamoeba-specific amplimer (ASA.S1). Twenty percent of hot springs were contaminated with thermotolerant Acanthamoeba belonging to the potentially pathogenic T4 and T3 genotypes. A high number (91.7%) of strains showed growth at 37 °C, and eight isolates showed growth at 42 °C. A single isolate (HSNW2) was detected in waters at 70 °C. The presence of thermotolerant Acanthamoeba highlights a risk factor for susceptible individuals, as Acanthamoeba-related keratitis continues to rise in Iran. Periodic surveillance of thermal waters as well as improved filtration and disinfection is recommended to prevent disease related to pathogenic Acanthamoeba. This is the first comprehensive molecular study of Acanthamoeba genotypes in hot springs in Iran and the first to report the occurrence of the T3 genotype (corresponding to Acanthamoeba griffini) in thermal water sources in this country.

  6. Thermopolis hydrothermal system with an analysis of Hot Springs State Park

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.; King, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thermopolis is the site of Hot Springs State Park, where numerous hot springs produce nearly 3000 gallons per minute (gpm) of 130/sup 0/F (54/sup 0/C) water. The University of Wyoming Geothermal Resource Assessment Group has studied a 1700-square-mile area centered roughly on the State Park. Available literature, bottom-hole temperatures from over 400 oil well logs, 62 oil field drill stem tests, the Wyoming State Engineer's water well files, 60 formation water analyses, thermal logs of 19 holes, and field investigations of geology and hydrology form the basis of this report.

  7. Catalog of known hot springs and thermal place names for Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    Thermal place names were compiled from all 1:50,000 topographic quadrangle maps for the Republic of Honduras as of July 1986, from other published maps, and from several sources of unpublished data. Known hot spring sites include those visited by Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (Honduras) geologists, sites visited by Los Alamos geologists in 1985, and other sites known to R.C. Finch. The number of known hot spring sites in Honduras with temperatures >30/sup 0/C is 125. In addition, 56 thermal sites are suspected on the basis of thermal place names. The total number of geothermal sites, known and suspected, is 181.

  8. [Prokaryotic microbial phylogenetic diversity of "Eryuan Niujie" hot spring in Yunnan province, China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Pan; Gu, Chun; Ren, Fei; Dai, Xin; Dong, Zhiyang

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed the prokaryotic microbial diversity of Eryuan Niujie hot spring, in Yunnan Province, to enrich our knowledge about thermo-stable microbes. We constructed bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries, analyzed the sequences and constructed phylogenetic trees to learn the prokaryotic microbial diversity. The majority of the prokaryotic microbes in this hot spring were bacteria, while beta-Proteobacteria was the most abundant, next were Bacteroidetes and Chlorobi; the abundance and diversity of archaea were both less than that of bacteria, including Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, while Euryarchaeota was the most abundant.

  9. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in acidic to circumneutral hot springs in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Jiang, Hongchen; Briggs, Brandon R; Wang, Shang; Hou, Weiguo; Li, Gaoyuan; Wu, Geng; Solis, Ramonito; Arcilla, Carlo A; Abrajano, Teofilo; Dong, Hailiang

    2013-09-01

    The microbial diversity was investigated in sediments of six acidic to circumneutral hot springs (Temperature: 60-92 °C, pH 3.72-6.58) in the Philippines using an integrated approach that included geochemistry and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Both bacterial and archaeal abundances were lower in high-temperature springs than in moderate-temperature ones. Overall, the archaeal community consisted of sequence reads that exhibited a high similarity (nucleotide identity > 92%) to phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and unclassified Archaea. The bacterial community was composed of sequence reads moderately related (nucleotide identity > 90%) to 17 phyla, with Aquificae and Firmicutes being dominant. These phylogenetic groups were correlated with environmental conditions such as temperature, dissolved sulfate and calcium concentrations in spring water, and sediment properties including total nitrogen, pyrite, and elemental sulfur. Based on the phylogenetic inference, sulfur metabolisms appear to be key physiological functions in these hot springs. Sulfobacillus (within phylum Firmicutes) along with members within Sulfolobales were abundant in two high-temperature springs (> 76 °C), and they were hypothesized to play an important role in regulating the sulfur cycling under high-temperature conditions. The results of this study improve our understanding of microbial diversity and community composition in acidic to circumneutral terrestrial hot springs and their relationships with geochemical conditions. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hot-spring sinter deposits in the Alvord-Pueblo Valley, Harney County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, M.L.; St. John, A.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Silica sinter deposits occur at Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, and Mickey Springs in the Alvord-Pueblo Valley. Although the sinter deposits occur in areas of active hot springs, sinter is not being deposited. Hot springs are localized along faults that have been active since the Pleistocene. The sinter deposits formed after the drying of glacial Lake Alvord, but before and during extensive wind deflation of glacial-lacustrine sediments. At Mickey Springs, sinter rests directly on unaltered, unconsolidated lithic-rich sand. At Borax Lake, sinter overlies unaltered diatomite, but some armoring, presumably by silica, of the 30 m vent has developed. Field relations suggest rapid dumping of silica from solution without alteration of the country rock at the vent. Discharge of thermal fluids and cold groundwater along the same structure may have produced colloidal silica carried in a solution stripped of dissolved silica. Sinter is composed of opal-a, traces of detrital feldspar and quartz, and evaporation-related boracite. The concentration of Sb is similar among the three sinter deposits (20 to 70 ppm); however, As, Cs, and Br are highest at Borax Lake (5 to 560 ppm; 26 to 118 ppm; 5 to 1,040 ppm) while Hg is highest at Mickey Springs (1.0 to 5.2 ppm).

  11. Exploration and assessment of the geothermal resources in the Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaher, Mohamed Abdel; Saibi, Hakim; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Mesbah, Hany; Ehara, Sachio

    2012-02-01

    The tectonic position of Egypt in the northeastern corner of the African continent suggests that it may possess significant geothermal resources, especially along its eastern margin. The most promising areas for geothermal development in the northwest Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift system are located where the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez is characterized by superficial thermal manifestations, including a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures. Magnetotelluric and gravity-reconnaissance surveys were carried out over the geothermal region of Hammam Faraun to determine the subsurface electric resistivity and the densities that are related to rock units. These surveys were conducted along profiles. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) inversion model techniques were applied on the MT data, integrating the 2D inversion of gravity data. The objectives of these surveys were to determine and parameterize the subsurface source of the Hammam Faraun hot spring and to determine the origin of this spring. Based on this data, a conceptual model and numerical simulation were made of the geothermal area of Hammam Faraun. The numerical simulation succeeded in determining the characteristics of the heat sources beneath the Hammam Faraun hot spring and showed that the hot spring originates from a high heat flow and deep ground water circulation in the subsurface reservoir that are controlled by faults. These studies were followed by an assessment of the geothermal potential for electric generation from the Hammam Faraun hot spring. The value of the estimated potential is 28.34 MW, as the reservoir is assumed to be only 500 m thick. This value would be enough for the desalination of water for both human and agricultural consumption.

  12. East Pacific rise: hot springs and geophysical experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Spiess, F.N.; Macdonald, K.C.; Atwater, T.

    1980-03-28

    Hydrothermal vents jetting out water at 380/sup 0/ +- 30/sup 0/C have been discovered on the axis of the East Pacific Rise. The hottest waters issue from mineralized chimneys and are blackened by sulfide precipitates. These hydrothermal springs are the sites of actively forming massive sulfide mineral deposits. Cooler springs are clean to milky and support exotic benthic communities of giant tube worms, clams, and crabs similar to those found at the Galapagos spreading center. Four prototype geophysical experiments were successfully conducted in and near the vent area: seismic refraction measurements with both source (thumper) and receivers on the sea floor, on-bottom gravity measurements, in situ magnetic gradiometer measurements from the submersible Alvin over a sea-floor magnetic reversal boundary, and an active electrical sounding experiment. These high-resolution determinations of crustal properties along the spreading center were made to gain knowledge of the source of new oceanic crust and marine magnetic anomalies, the nature of the axial magma chamber, and the depth of hydrothermal circulation.

  13. Initial characterization of carbon flows through microbial communities in Beowulf spring, an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, H.; Moran, J.; Ehrhardt, C.; Melville, A.; Kranz, A.; Inskeep, W. P.

    2011-12-01

    Beowulf Springs are acidic, sulfidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The relatively rapid sulfur and iron oxide deposition rates in this spring suggests the processes are microbially mediated (since, for instance, abiotic iron oxidation is kinetically slow at this temperature and pH) and previous diversity studies identify microbial communities consistent with the observed metabolic products (namely sulfur and iron oxide). While the energetics of sulfide and iron oxidation are sufficient for supporting microbial activity, a suitable carbon source remains undocumented. The temperatures in Beowulf approach 80 °C, which is above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the spring itself. Observed potential carbon sources in Beowulf include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. With thorough analysis we hope to identify both the major carbon stores in the system and track how they are transferred between microbial components in Beowulf. Initial stable isotope measurements focused on bulk isotope analysis of major carbon pools; both directly in the spring and in surrounding areas that may affect the spring water through runoff or ground water migration. We are analyzing bulk carbon isotopes of different microbial groups in the spring, the dissolved organic and inorganic carbon in the spring, and surrounding soils and potential plant inputs. Isotopic similarity between dissolved organic carbon and soil organic carbon is consistent with a common carbon source (local vegetation) but has not yet been confirmed as such. Correlation between δ13C of microbial biomass and dissolved organic carbon are suggestive

  14. Submarine hot springs and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stanley L.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The popular hypothesis that life originally arose in hydrothermal vents at oceanic ridge crests is examined. It is shown that the high temperatures in the vents would not allow synthesis of organic compounds, but would decompose them, unless the exposure time at vent temperature was short. Even if the essential organic molecules were available in the hot hydrothermal waters, the subsequent steps of polymerization and the conversion of these polymers into the first organisms would not occur as the vent waters were quenched to the colder temperatures of the primitive oceans.

  15. Submarine hot springs and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stanley L.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The popular hypothesis that life originally arose in hydrothermal vents at oceanic ridge crests is examined. It is shown that the high temperatures in the vents would not allow synthesis of organic compounds, but would decompose them, unless the exposure time at vent temperature was short. Even if the essential organic molecules were available in the hot hydrothermal waters, the subsequent steps of polymerization and the conversion of these polymers into the first organisms would not occur as the vent waters were quenched to the colder temperatures of the primitive oceans.

  16. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.).

    PubMed

    Fouke, B W; Farmer, J D; Des Marais, D J; Pratt, L; Sturchio, N C; Burns, P C; Discipulo, M K

    2000-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (< approximately 50 degrees C) depositional facies exhibits delta 13C and delta 18O

  17. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouke, B. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Burns, P. C.; Discipulo, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (< approximately 50 degrees C) depositional facies exhibits delta 13C and delta 18O

  18. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, B.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Des Marais, D.J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Burns, P.C.; Discipulo, M.K.

    2000-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43--72 C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30--62 C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite ice sheets, calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles (fuzzy dumbbells) precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28--54 C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28--30 C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite feather crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO{sub 2} degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}{sup 13}C. Travertine {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ({approximately}50--73 C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<{approximately}50 C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are as

  19. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouke, B. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Burns, P. C.; Discipulo, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (< approximately 50 degrees C) depositional facies exhibits delta 13C and delta 18O

  20. Linking geochemistry to microbial ecology in hot springs: examples from southeastern Asia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Hou, W.; Wang, S.; Huang, Q.; Briggs, B. R.; Huang, L.; Hust, W.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.; Hartnett, H. E.; Dijkstra, P.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of microbial ecology in high temperature environments, important questions remain as to how geochemical conditions shape microbial ecology in hot springs. In the past three years, we have surveyed a large number of hot springs in three regions of southeastern Asia: Tengchong of Yunnan Province, China; Tibet in China; and the Philippines. These springs possess large gradients in pH (2.5-9.4), temperature (22.1-93.6oC), and water and sediment geochemistry. Within each region, these geochemical conditions are important in shaping microbial community structure and diversity. For example, in the Rehai geothermal field of Tengchong, dominant taxa within the dominant bacterial phylum Aquificae and archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota depended on pH (2.5-9.4), temperature (55.1-93.6), Na-Cl-HCO3 water type and silicate rock lithology. In the Ruidian geothermal region, springs with circum-neutral pH (6.71-7.29), moderate temperature (50-82oC), Na-HCO3 water type, and carbonate-dominated lithology, Hydrogenobacter of Aquificae dominated spring water, but the microbial community in sediments was diverse with abundant novel groups. In Tibet springs with low-moderate temperature (22-75oC) and circum-neutral pH (7.2-8.1), temperature appeared to be the most important factor in determining diversity and community structure. In acidic hot springs of the Philippines (Temperature: 60-92°C, pH 3.72-6.58), microbial communities were predominated by those related to sulfur metabolism, which are different from those in acidic springs of Tengchong. When these three regions are considered together, environmental conditions play a major role in controlling microbial community structure, but geographical location appears to be an important factor as well.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Deinococcus sp. Strain RL Isolated from Sediments of a Hot Water Spring

    PubMed Central

    Mahato, Nitish Kumar; Tripathi, Charu; Verma, Helianthous; Singh, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Deinococcus sp. strain RL, a moderately thermophilic bacterium, was isolated from sediments of a hot water spring in Manikaran, India. Here, we report the draft genome (2.79 Mbp) of this strain, which contains 62 contigs and 2,614 coding DNA sequences, with an average G+C content of 69.4%. PMID:25035332

  2. Contribution of hot spring cyanobacteria to the mysterious deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Krienitz, Lothar; Ballot, Andreas; Kotut, Kiplagat; Wiegand, Claudia; Pütz, Stephanie; Metcalf, James S; Codd, Geoffrey A; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2003-03-01

    Cyanobacterial mats at hot springs on the shore of the alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya, were investigated regarding species community and cyanobacterial toxin content. The hepatotoxins microcystin-LR, -RR, -LF and -YR, and the neurotoxin anatoxin-a were present. The mats were dominated by Phormidium terebriformis, Oscillatoria willei, Spirulina subsalsa and Synechococcus bigranulatus. The concentration of microcystins in mat samples, ranged from 221 to 845 microg microcystin-LR equivalents g(-1) DW of mat. Anatoxin-a concentrations ranged from 10 to 18 microg g(-1) DW of mat. A contribution of the cyanobacterial toxins from the hot spring mats to the mass mortalities of Lesser Flamingos is suggested by: (a), the presence of hot spring cyanobacterial cells and cell fragments, and high concentrations of the cyanobacterial hepato- and neurotoxins in flamingo stomach contents and faecal pellets; (b), observations of neurological signs of bird poisoning at the lake. Cyanobacterial toxins in stomach contents, intestine and fecal pellets were 0.196 microg g(-1) fresh weight (FW) for the microcystins and 4.34 microg g(-1) FW for anatoxin-a. Intoxication with cyanobacterial toxins could occur by uptake of detached cyanobacterial cells from the mats, as the flamingos need to drink fresh or brackish water, and to wash their feathers daily, which they do in the vicinity of the hot springs, where salinity is lower than in the main body of water of the lake.

  3. Cyanobacterial construction of hot spring siliceous stromatolites in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Berelson, William M; Corsetti, Frank A; Treants, Merika; Spear, John R

    2012-05-01

    Living stromatolites growing in a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park are composed of silica-encrusted cyanobacterial mats. Two cyanobacterial mat types grow on the stromatolite surfaces and are preserved as two distinct lithofacies. One mat is present when the stromatolites are submerged or at the water-atmosphere interface and the other when stromatolites protrude from the hot spring. The lithofacies created by the encrustation of submerged mats constitutes the bulk of the stromatolites, is comprised of silica-encrusted filaments, and is distinctly laminated. To better understand the cyanobacterial membership and community structure differences between the mats, we collected mat samples from each type. Molecular methods revealed that submerged mat cyanobacteria were predominantly one novel phylotype while the exposed mats were predominantly heterocystous phylotypes (Chlorogloeopsis HTF and Fischerella). The cyanobacterium dominating the submerged mat type does not belong in any of the subphylum groups of cyanobacteria recognized by the Ribosomal Database Project and has also been found in association with travertine stromatolites in a Southwest Japan hot spring. Cyanobacterial membership profiles indicate that the heterocystous phylotypes are 'rare biosphere' members of the submerged mats. The heterocystous phylotypes likely emerge when the water level of the hot spring drops. Environmental pressures tied to water level such as sulfide exposure and possibly oxygen tension may inhibit the heterocystous types in submerged mats. These living stromatolites are finely laminated and therefore, in texture, may better represent similarly laminated ancient forms compared with more coarsely laminated living marine examples.

  4. Significant role of climatic trends on hydrothermal activity Coso Hot Springs, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lofgren, B.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The hydrothermal features of Coso Hot Springs have attracted visitors for 130 yr and scientific investigators for two decades. In 1978, anticipating effects of major geothermal developments nearby, the Naval Weapons Center (NWC) initiated a comprehensive monitoring program at a dozen hydrothermal sites in the Coso Hot Springs area. Nine years of monitoring preceded power production in the nearby Coso geothermal field in July 1987. During this period, steam was rising from numerous vents and gently boiling mud pots. Local rainfall caused increased boiling activity in several mud pots, with some overflowing during wet periods. Then in August 1988, a year after geothermal power production began major changes in hot spring activity commenced. Small mud pots and steamers started to grow and coalesce. In March 1989, mud-pot activity became more violent. Many buried wells failed causing surface activity in other areas to diminish. During ensuing months, large mud cones developed and much of the steam and boiling water occurred in a few major pots. Because the abrupt changes in hydrothermal activity followed so closely after nearby geothermal production began, the obvious cause has been attributed to geothermal developments. Studies of NWC baseline monitoring data indicate, however, that no effects of geothermal developments have been felt in the hot springs area. Rainfall and barometric effects account for most of the fluctuations in records of the past decade. Early accounts and field evidence suggest similar changes have occurred in the past.

  5. Genome Sequence of a Novel Archaeal Rudivirus Recovered from a Mexican Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xu; Garrett, Roger A.; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    We report the consensus genome sequence of a novel GC-rich rudivirus, designated SMR1 (Sulfolobales Mexican rudivirus 1), assembled from a high-throughput sequenced environmental sample from a hot spring in Los Azufres National Park in western Mexico. PMID:23405288

  6. Cyanobacterial diversity in the hot spring, pelagic and benthic habitats of a tropical soda lake.

    PubMed

    Dadheech, Pawan K; Glöckner, Gernot; Casper, Peter; Kotut, Kiplagat; Mazzoni, Camila Junqueira; Mbedi, Susan; Krienitz, Lothar

    2013-08-01

    Hot springs and saline-alkaline lakes of East Africa are extreme habitats regarding temperature, or salinity and pH, respectively. This study examines whether divergent habitats of Lake Bogoria, Kenya, impacts cyanobacterial community structure. Samples from the hot springs, pelagic zone and sediment were analysed by light microscopy, multilocus 454-amplicons sequencing and metagenomics to compare the cyanobacterial diversity. Most of the phylogenetic lineages of Cyanobacteria occurred exclusively in the Bogoria hot springs suggesting a high degree of endemism. The prevalent phylotypes were mainly members of the Oscillatoriales (Leptolyngbya, Spirulina, Oscillatoria-like and Planktothricoides). The Chroococcales were represented by different clades of Synechococcus but not a single phylotype clustered with any of the lineages described earlier from different continents. In contrast, we found that the pelagic zone and the sediments were inhabited by only a few taxa, dominated by Arthrospira and Anabaenopsis. Arthrospira, the main food base of Lesser Flamingo, was detected in all three habitats by amplicons pyrosequencing, indicating its resilience and key role as a primary producer. Despite the close connection between the three habitats studied, the cyanobacterial communities in the hot springs and lake differed considerably, suggesting that they are unable to adapt to the extreme conditions of the neighbouring habitat.

  7. Cellulose as extracellular polysaccharide of hot spring sulfur-turf bacterial mat.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazutoshi; Maki, Yonosuke

    2003-12-01

    The carbohydrate fraction of a hot spring sulfur-turf bacterial mat was shown to contain cellulose by the examination of neutral sugar composition, methylation analysis, and the identification of free oligosacchrides obtained from an acetolyzate of the desulfurized sulfur-turf mat. This suggested that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria composing the sulfur-turf were producers of cellulose.

  8. Draft genome of a novel chlorobi member assembled by tetranucleotide binning of a hot spring metagenome.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Blake W; Corsetti, Frank A; Spear, John R; Stevenson, Bradley S

    2014-09-11

    The genome of a member of the phylum Chlorobi was assembled from a shotgun metagenomic sequence of a hot spring in Mammoth Lakes, CA. This organism appears to be a novel, aerobic, photosynthetic Chlorobi member, expanding the knowledge of this underrepresented phylum.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Sulfolobales Archaeon AZ1, Obtained through Metagenomic Analysis of a Mexican Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    The Sulfolobales archaea have been found inhabiting acidic hot springs all over the world. Here, we report the 1.798-Mbp draft genome sequence of the thermoacidophilic Sulfolobales archaeon AZ1, reconstructed from the metagenome of a Mexican hot spring. Sequence-based comparisons revealed that the Sulfolobales archaeon AZ1 represents a novel candidate genus. PMID:24604657

  10. [Isolation of Legionella species from hot springs used for foot-soaking].

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2012-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the presence of Legionella species in hot-spring baths for feet, which have been rapidly increasing in number in Japan in recent years. The investigations were conducted between March 2009 and November 2011, and hot springs throughout the country were sampled. Legionella isolates were confirmed on the basis of the method described in the "Manual for the countermeasure to legionellosis, 3rd Edition." In this method, the samples were concentrated and smeared on GVPCalpha agar medium after acid treatment and cultured for 7 days at 36 degrees C. Gram-negative rods that required L-cysteine were determined to be Legionella species. After the first identification using Duopath Legionella (Merck Ltd. Japan), isolates were identified on the basis of agglutination reaction of an immune serum or genetic examination. Legionella was isolated from 56 of the 196 samples (28.6%) and was confirmed to widely inhabit hot-spring baths from Hokkaido to Kyushu. The isolation rates were the highest (40.9%) in facilities installed around railway stations, including those on platforms. The average microbial density of Legionella species per 100 ml of hot spring water was 1.0 x 10(1) CFU, with a maximum value of 1.0 x 10(4) CFU, although the microbial density in most of the samples (34 samples; 60.7%) was less than 10(2) CFU. Legionella pneumophila was the dominant strain, and 16 strains (23.9%) of serogroup 1 were isolated. In addition, 7 strains (10.4%) of Legionella londiniensis and 4 strains (6.0%) of Legionella rubrilucens were isolated. Legionella species inhabit approximately 30% of all hot springs for foot-soaking in the country. Although the number of viable organisms is small, the dominant presence of Legionella pneumophila, a major pathogen responsible for legionnaire's disease, raises the possibility of legionnaire's disease in users of these hot springs. Therefore, each institute should understand the present distribution of Legionella species in these

  11. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-04-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring’s outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59-0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring’s pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs.

  12. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring’s outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59–0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring’s pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs. PMID:27126380

  13. Dental fluorosis associated with drinking water from hot springs in Choma district in southern province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Shitumbanuma, V; Tembo, F; Tembo, J M; Chilala, S; Van Ranst, E

    2007-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the high incidence of mottled teeth among residents of an area with hot springs in the Choma District of the Southern Province of Zambia. A survey involving 128 pupils was conducted at a Basic School to collect data on pupil's backgrounds and their main sources of drinking water between birth and age 7. A dental specialist examined the pupils' teeth and samples of drinking water were collected from locations where the majority of the pupils lived. It was analysed for fluorides and other drinking water quality parameters. Results of the survey showed a highly significant (P < 0.001) association between pupils' main sources of drinking water between birth and age 7 and the incidence of discoloured teeth. All (100%) pupils who drank water from hot springs before age 7 had moderate to severe fluorosis, while the majority (96.7%) of the pupils who drank water from other sources had no dental fluorosis. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 5.95 to 10.09 mg/l in water from hot springs, and from 0.03 to 0.6 mg/l in water from other sources. Fluoride levels in water from hot spring water samples exceeded the 1.5 mg/l WHO guideline value for drinking water, while those in water from other sources were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than this. We conclude that the high prevalence of mottled teeth among residents of the study area is a case of endemic dental fluorosis associated with drinking water from hot springs containing high concentrations of fluoride.

  14. Archaeal and bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids in hot springs of yellowstone national park.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T J; Hopmans, Ellen C; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Ward, David M; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2007-10-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are core membrane lipids originally thought to be produced mainly by (hyper)thermophilic archaea. Environmental screening of low-temperature environments showed, however, the abundant presence of structurally diverse GDGTs from both bacterial and archaeal sources. In this study, we examined the occurrences and distribution of GDGTs in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park with high temperatures (47 to 83 degrees C) and mostly neutral to alkaline pHs. GDGTs with 0 to 4 cyclopentane moieties were dominant in all samples and are likely derived from both (hyper)thermophilic Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. GDGTs with 4 to 8 cyclopentane moieties, likely derived from the crenarchaeotal order Sulfolobales and the euryarchaeotal order Thermoplasmatales, are usually present in much lower abundance, consistent with the relatively high pH values of the hot springs. The relative abundances of cyclopentane-containing GDGTs did not correlate with in situ temperature and pH, suggesting that other environmental and possibly genetic factors play a role as well. Crenarchaeol, a biomarker thought to be specific for nonthermophilic group I Crenarchaeota, was also found in most hot springs, though in relatively low concentrations, i.e., <5% of total GDGTs. Its abundance did not correlate with temperature, as has been reported previously. Instead, the cooccurrence of relatively abundant nonisoprenoid GDGTs thought to be derived from soil bacteria suggests a predominantly allochthonous source for crenarchaeol in these hot spring environments. Finally, the distribution of bacterial branched GDGTs suggests that they may be derived from the geothermally heated soils surrounding the hot springs.

  15. Changes in Quinone Profiles of Hot Spring Microbial Mats with a Thermal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Hiraishi, Akira; Umezawa, Taichi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kenji; Maki, Yonosuke

    1999-01-01

    The respiratory and photosynthetic quinones of microbial mats which occurred in Japanese sulfide-containing neutral-pH hot springs at different temperatures were analyzed by spectrochromatography and mass spectrometry. All of the microbial mats that developed at high temperatures (temperatures above 68°C) were so-called sulfur-turf bacterial mats and produced methionaquinones (MTKs) as the major quinones. A 78°C hot spring sediment had a similar quinone profile. Chloroflexus-mixed mats occurred at temperatures of 61 to 65°C and contained menaquinone 10 (MK-10) as the major component together with significant amounts of either MTKs or plastoquinone 9 (PQ-9). The sunlight-exposed biomats growing at temperatures of 45 to 56°C were all cyanobacterial mats, in which the photosynthetic quinones (PQ-9 and phylloquinone) predominated and MK-10 was the next most abundant component in most cases. Ubiquinones (UQs) were not found or were detected in only small amounts in the biomats growing at temperatures of 50°C and above, whereas the majority of the quinones of a purple photosynthetic mat growing at 34°C were UQs. A numerical analysis of the quinone profiles was performed by using the following three parameters: dissimilarity index (D), microbial divergence index (MDq), and bioenergetic divergence index (BDq). A D matrix tree analysis showed that the hot spring mats consisting of the sulfur-turf bacteria, Chloroflexus spp., cyanobacteria, and purple phototrophic bacteria formed distinct clusters. Analyses of MDq and BDq values indicated that the microbial diversity of hot spring mats decreased as the temperature of the environment increased. The changes in quinone profiles and physiological types of microbial mats in hot springs with thermal gradients are discussed from evolutionary viewpoints. PMID:9872780

  16. Diversity and Distribution of Thermophilic Bacteria in Hot Springs of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Salam, Nimaichand; Kim, Byung-Yong; Singh, Dharmesh; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-19

    Chilas and Hunza areas, located in the Main Mantle Thrust and Main Karakoram Thrust of the Himalayas, host a range of geochemically diverse hot springs. This Himalayan geothermal region encompassed hot springs ranging in temperature from 60 to 95 °C, in pH from 6.2 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from bicarbonates (Tato Field), sulfates (Tatta Pani) to mixed type (Murtazaabad). Microbial community structures in these geothermal springs remained largely unexplored to date. In this study, we report a comprehensive, culture-independent survey of microbial communities in nine samples from these geothermal fields by employing a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique. The bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominant in all samples from Tato Field, Tatta Pani, and Murtazaabad. The community structures however depended on temperature, pH, and physicochemical parameters of the geothermal sites. The Murtazaabad hot springs with relatively higher temperature (90-95 °C) favored the growth of phylum Thermotogae, whereas the Tatta Pani thermal spring site TP-H3-b (60 °C) favored the phylum Proteobacteria. At sites with low silica and high temperature, OTUs belonging to phylum Chloroflexi were dominant. Deep water areas of the Murtazaabad hot springs favored the sulfur-reducing bacteria. About 40% of the total OTUs obtained from these samples were unclassified or uncharacterized, suggesting the presence of many undiscovered and unexplored microbiota. This study has provided novel insights into the nature of ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities, which in turn will help in determining future study courses in these sites.

  17. Habitual hot-spring bathing by a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio; Eishi, Tokida

    2007-12-01

    Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging group in Jigokudani valley, Nagano prefecture, are known to bathe in a hot spring. We used scan sampling in a study aimed at elucidating the causal factors and possible social transmission of this behavior. From 1980-2003, 31% of a total 114 females in the group habitually bathed in the hot spring. The habit was more widespread in dominant matrilines than in subordinate matrilines. Infants whose mothers bathed were more likely to bathe than infants of mothers who did not bathe. The number of monkeys bathing was clearly influenced by ambient air temperature. More monkeys bathed in the hot spring in winter than in summer. The results support the thermoregulation hypothesis of hot-spring bathing. Bathing behavior varies among age and sex categories of monkeys, with adult females and juveniles bathing more often than adult males and subadults. We compared hot-spring bathing with other thermoregulatory behaviors in various primate populations.

  18. Submarine hot springs and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Miller, S L; Bada, J L

    1988-08-18

    The discovery of hydrothermal vents at oceanic ridge crests and the appreciation of their importance in the element balance of the oceans is one of the main recent advances in marine geochemistry. It is likely that vents were present in the oceans of the primitive Earth because the process of hydrothermal circulation probably began early in the Earth's history. Here we examine the popular hypothesis that life arose in these vents. This proposal, however, is based on a number of misunderstandings concerning the organic chemistry involved. An example is the suggestion that organic compounds were destroyed on the surface of the early Earth by the impact of asteroids and comets, but at the same time assuming that organic syntheses can occur in hydrothermal vents. The high temperatures in the vents would not allow synthesis of organic compounds, but would decompose them, unless the exposure time at vent temperatures was short. Even if the essential organic molecules were available in the hot hydrothermal waters, the subsequent steps of polymerization and the conversion of these polymers into the first organisms would not occur as the vent waters were quenched to the colder temperatures of the primitive oceans.

  19. Global occurrence of archaeal amoA genes in terrestrial hot springs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanlun L; Ye, Qi; Huang, Zhiyong; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Jinquan; Song, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Weidong; Bagwell, Christopher; Inskeep, William P; Ross, Christian; Gao, Lei; Wiegel, Juergen; Romanek, Christopher S; Shock, Everett L; Hedlund, Brian P

    2008-10-01

    Despite the ubiquity of ammonium in geothermal environments and the thermodynamic favorability of aerobic ammonia oxidation, thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms belonging to the crenarchaeota kingdom have only recently been described. In this study, we analyzed microbial mats and surface sediments from 21 hot spring samples (pH 3.4 to 9.0; temperature, 41 to 86 degrees C) from the United States, China, and Russia and obtained 846 putative archaeal ammonia monooxygenase large-subunit (amoA) gene and transcript sequences, representing a total of 41 amoA operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 2% identity. The amoA gene sequences were highly diverse, yet they clustered within two major clades of archaeal amoA sequences known from water columns, sediments, and soils: clusters A and B. Eighty-four percent (711/846) of the sequences belonged to cluster A, which is typically found in water columns and sediments, whereas 16% (135/846) belonged to cluster B, which is typically found in soils and sediments. Although a few amoA OTUs were present in several geothermal regions, most were specific to a single region. In addition, cluster A amoA genes formed geographic groups, while cluster B sequences did not group geographically. With the exception of only one hot spring, principal-component analysis and UPGMA (unweighted-pair group method using average linkages) based on the UniFrac metric derived from cluster A grouped the springs by location, regardless of temperature or bulk water pH, suggesting that geography may play a role in structuring communities of putative ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). The amoA genes were distinct from those of low-temperature environments; in particular, pair-wise comparisons between hot spring amoA genes and those from sympatric soils showed less than 85% sequence identity, underscoring the distinctness of hot spring archaeal communities from those of the surrounding soil system. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that amoA genes were

  20. SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES AND GEOTHERMOMETRY OF HOT SPRING WATERS FROM THE CALABOZOS CALDERA, CENTRAL CHILE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.; Grunder, A.L.; Hildreth, Wes

    1983-01-01

    Hot springs discharging from the active hydrothermal system associated with the Calabozos caldera, Chile, have measured orifice temperatures as high as 98. 5 degree C and calculated geothermometer temperatures as high as 250 degree C. Three types of spring waters can be identified from the chemical analyses: a Na-Cl type, a Na-HCO//3 type and a Na-mixed anion type. Chloride-enthalpy relations indicate that the hydrothermal reservoir water may attain temperatures near 342 degree C and that most spring waters are mixed with cold meteoric water. Despite the proximity of Mesozoic marine gypsum deposits, the Cl/Br weight ratio of the Calabozos spring waters does not appear to indicate that these waters have a significant 'marine' signature. Refs.

  1. Utah State Prison Space Heating with Geothermal Heat - Resource Assessment Report Crystal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    Reported herein is a summary of work conducted under the Resource Assessment Program-Task 2, for the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project at Crystal Hot Springs, Draper, Utah. Assessment of the geothermal resource in and around the Utah State Prison property began in october of 1979 with an aeromagnetic and gravity survey. These tasks were designed to provide detailed subsurface structural information in the vicinity of the thermal springs so that an informed decision as to the locations of test and production holes could be made. The geophysical reconnaissance program provided the structural details needed to focus the test drilling program on the most promising production targets available to the State Prison. The subsequent drilling and well testing program was conducted to provide information to aid fin the siting and design of a production well and preliminary design activities. As part of the resource assessment portion of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Project, a program for periodic geophysical monitoring of the Crystal Hot Springs resource was developed. The program was designed to enable determination of baseline thermal, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics in the vicinity of Crystal Hot Springs prior to production and to provide a history of these characteristics during resource development.

  2. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  3. Abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Feng-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that archaea carrying the accA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of the acetyl CoA carboxylase, autotrophically fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in low-temperature environments (e.g., soils, oceans). However, little new information has come to light regarding the occurrence of archaeal accA genes in high-temperature ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China, using DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that archaeal accA genes were present and expressed in the investigated Yunnan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (66-96 °C) and pH (4.3-9.0). The majority of the amplified archaeal accA gene sequences were affiliated with the ThAOA/HWCG III [thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)/hot water crenarchaeotic group III]. The archaeal accA gene abundance was very close to that of AOA amoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. These data suggest that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  4. Changes in CaCO3 Mineralogy Resulting from Alterations in Hot Spring Microbial Community Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescogni, H. R.; Fouke, B. W.; Wilson, S. R.; Miller, P. A.; Kandianis, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of CaCO3 mineral deposits (travertine) have been completed on samples collected from an in situ kinetic experiment (ISKA) at Mammoth Hot Springs (MHS), Yellowstone National Park. Results indicate that the dominant mineral phase on the experimental substrate changes from aragonite to calcite when the biotic components of the system are treated via filtration and ultra-violet (UV) irradiation. This shift in CaCO3 mineralogy may provide a new class of biomarkers to identify biogenic carbonates in the geologic record. The ISKA, in which water was siphoned directly from the primary flow path of the hot springs at MHS, was used to: (1) filter (sterile 0.2 micron) spring water to reduce microbial biomass concentrations by 80%; (2) irradiate spring water with UV, inhibiting microbial metabolic and replication activity; and (3) supply unaltered spring water to serve as a natural control. XRD analysis on the CaCO3 precipitates of these experiments shows that the natural control samples are predominantly aragonite (93%), the filtration samples are predominantly calcite (95%), and the UV-irradiation samples are a mixture of both aragonite (70%) and calcite (30%), suggesting that presence of biomass favors the stability of the aragonite phase and that microbial activity selects for this less thermodynamically stable for of CaCO3. Petrographic analysis has revealed that the carbonate precipitate on the Na2CO3 experimental substrates consists of an initial layering of calcite crystals followed by nucleation and growth of the aragonite. These combined results strongly suggest that microbial biomass, through nucleation and crystallization kinetics, controls the mineralogy in advection-dominated flow regimes of terrestrial hot springs. Results from a controlled experiment using a laboratory bench-top ISKA are being collected to determine shifts in CaCO3 mineralogy under specific suites of physical, chemical and biological

  5. Microbial mercury methylation in the Ngawha hot springs and the abandoned Puhipuhi mine, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gionfriddo, C. M.; Ogorek, J. M.; Thompson, C. D.; Power, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Stott, M. B.; Moreau, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Hot springs and fumaroles release significant quantities of aqueous and gaseous mercury into the environment. Yet few studies have focused on the biogeochemical cycling of mercury in geothermal settings. In this study, we investigated the abundance, speciation, and partitioning of mercury in geothermal waters and sediments in the Ngawha geothermal field and Puhipuhi region of New Zealand. The Ngawha geothermal field contains over 20 hot springs with variable chemistry (pH 2.9 - 7.1, ORP 15.7 to 249.1 mV, 22-40.5°C), from which approximately 530 kg of mercury is released annually from deep geological sources, most of which remains in the local surficial waters and sediments. Puhipuhi is the site of an historic mercury mining operation located about 22 miles southeast of Ngawha. The mercury-bearing geological deposits at Ngawha and Puhipuhi were formed over the same period and are connected to the young basalt flows of the region. Puhipuhi no longer hosts active hot springs, but is transected by a stream that varies in chemistry (pH 5.1-7.2, ORP -3.8-115.3 mV, ~22°C). Total- and methylmercury concentrations were measured using ICP-MS and CVAFS. Preliminary analyses of dissolved total- and methylmercury levels across the hot springs ranged from 5-10,000 ng/L and 0.6-23.5 ng/L, respectively, indicating a wide range of environmental conditions exist and may support a diverse array of microbial communities. Due to their high mercury content, geothermal settings may hold clues about the evolution of microbial mercury resistance (detoxification response to environmental Hg), as the ancestral mer operon evolved in thermophilic bacteria such as Thermus thermophilus and Methylacidophilum infernorum. Thus, the Ngawha hot springs provide an opportunity to investigate the evolution of microbial responses to mercury. Adjacent sites often display radically different chemical traits, with implications for changes in microbial community structure and genetic responses to mercury

  6. Evaluation of the production potential of the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal resource, north central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, C.K.; Owen, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an artesian flow test of a 1000 foot deep well (USP/TH-1) are reported. The testing program was designed to provide necessary data for estimating the long-term production potential of the geothermal resource. Based on results of a 72 hour flow test, it was concluded that the state-owned portion of the Crystal Hot Springs resource is potentially capable of supplying sufficient energy to provide space and hot water heating for the minimum security portion of the Utah State Prison. However, development of the resource will have to be carefully managed to prevent premature depletion of the reservoir.

  7. Distribution of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff-Roberts, A. L.; Kuenen, J. G.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes were developed to complement specific regions of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria, which inhabit hot spring microbial mats. The probes were used to investigate the natural distribution of SSU rRNAs from these species in mats of Yellowstone hot springs of different temperatures and pHs as well as changes in SSU rRNA distribution resulting from 1-week in situ shifts in temperature, pH, and light intensity. Synechococcus lividus Y-7c-s SSU rRNA was detected only in the mat of a slightly acid spring, from which it may have been initially isolated, or when samples from a more alkaline spring were incubated in the more acid spring. Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl SSU rRNA was detected only in a high-temperature mat sample from the alkaline Octopus Spring or when lower-temperature samples from this mat were incubated at the high-temperature site. SSU rRNAs of uncultivated species were more widely distributed. Temperature distributions and responses to in situ temperature shifts suggested that some of the uncultivated cyanobacteria might be adapted to high-, moderate-, and low-temperature ranges whereas an uncultivated Chloroflexus-like bacterium appears to have broad temperature tolerance. SSU rRNAs of all uncultivated species inhabiting a 48 to 51 degrees C Octopus Spring mat site were most abundant in the upper 1 mm and were not detected below a 2.5-to 3.5-mm depth, a finding consistent with their possible phototrophic nature. However, the effects of light intensity reduction on these SSU rRNAs were variable, indicating the difficulty of demonstrating a phototrophic phenotype in light reduction experiments.

  8. Distribution of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff-Roberts, A. L.; Kuenen, J. G.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes were developed to complement specific regions of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria, which inhabit hot spring microbial mats. The probes were used to investigate the natural distribution of SSU rRNAs from these species in mats of Yellowstone hot springs of different temperatures and pHs as well as changes in SSU rRNA distribution resulting from 1-week in situ shifts in temperature, pH, and light intensity. Synechococcus lividus Y-7c-s SSU rRNA was detected only in the mat of a slightly acid spring, from which it may have been initially isolated, or when samples from a more alkaline spring were incubated in the more acid spring. Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl SSU rRNA was detected only in a high-temperature mat sample from the alkaline Octopus Spring or when lower-temperature samples from this mat were incubated at the high-temperature site. SSU rRNAs of uncultivated species were more widely distributed. Temperature distributions and responses to in situ temperature shifts suggested that some of the uncultivated cyanobacteria might be adapted to high-, moderate-, and low-temperature ranges whereas an uncultivated Chloroflexus-like bacterium appears to have broad temperature tolerance. SSU rRNAs of all uncultivated species inhabiting a 48 to 51 degrees C Octopus Spring mat site were most abundant in the upper 1 mm and were not detected below a 2.5-to 3.5-mm depth, a finding consistent with their possible phototrophic nature. However, the effects of light intensity reduction on these SSU rRNAs were variable, indicating the difficulty of demonstrating a phototrophic phenotype in light reduction experiments.

  9. Distribution of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff-Roberts, A L; Kuenen, J G; Ward, D M

    1994-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes were developed to complement specific regions of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria, which inhabit hot spring microbial mats. The probes were used to investigate the natural distribution of SSU rRNAs from these species in mats of Yellowstone hot springs of different temperatures and pHs as well as changes in SSU rRNA distribution resulting from 1-week in situ shifts in temperature, pH, and light intensity. Synechococcus lividus Y-7c-s SSU rRNA was detected only in the mat of a slightly acid spring, from which it may have been initially isolated, or when samples from a more alkaline spring were incubated in the more acid spring. Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl SSU rRNA was detected only in a high-temperature mat sample from the alkaline Octopus Spring or when lower-temperature samples from this mat were incubated at the high-temperature site. SSU rRNAs of uncultivated species were more widely distributed. Temperature distributions and responses to in situ temperature shifts suggested that some of the uncultivated cyanobacteria might be adapted to high-, moderate-, and low-temperature ranges whereas an uncultivated Chloroflexus-like bacterium appears to have broad temperature tolerance. SSU rRNAs of all uncultivated species inhabiting a 48 to 51 degrees C Octopus Spring mat site were most abundant in the upper 1 mm and were not detected below a 2.5-to 3.5-mm depth, a finding consistent with their possible phototrophic nature. However, the effects of light intensity reduction on these SSU rRNAs were variable, indicating the difficulty of demonstrating a phototrophic phenotype in light reduction experiments. Images PMID:11536630

  10. Thermopolis hydrothermal system, with an analysis of Hot Springs State Park. Preliminary report No. 20

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.; King, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thermopolis is the site of Hot Springs State Park, where numerous hot springs produce nearly 3000 gallons per minute (gpm) of 130/sup 0/F (54/sup 0/C) water. The University of Wyoming Geothermal Resource Assessment Group has studied a 1700-square-mile area centered roughly on the State Park. Available literature, bottom-hole temperatures from over 400 oil well logs, 62 oil field drill stem tests, the Wyoming State Engineer's water well files, 60 formation water analyses, thermal logs of 19 holes, and field investigations of geology and hydrology form the basis of this report. Analysis of thermal data reveals that temperatures of up to 161/sup 0/F (72/sup 0/C) occur along the crest of the Thermopolis Anticline within 500 feet of the surface. The hydrology and heat flow of these geothermal anomalies was studied.

  11. Distribution of Crenarchaeota representatives in terrestrial hot springs of Russia and Iceland.

    PubMed

    Perevalova, Anna A; Kolganova, Tatiana V; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Schleper, Christa; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Lebedinsky, Alexander V

    2008-12-01

    Culture-independent (PCR with Crenarchaeota-specific primers and subsequent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and culture-dependent approaches were used to study the diversity of Crenarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs of the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Lake Baikal region (Russia) and of Iceland. Among the phylotypes detected there were relatives of both cultured (mainly hyperthermophilic) and uncultured Crenarchaeota. It was found that there is a large and diverse group of uncultured Crenarchaeota that inhabit terrestrial hot springs with moderate temperatures (55 to 70 degrees C). Two of the lineages of this group were given phenotypic characterization, one as a result of cultivation in an enrichment culture and another one after isolation of a pure culture, "Fervidococcus fontis," which proved to be a moderately thermophilic, neutrophilic (optimum pH of 6.0 to 7.5), anaerobic organotroph.

  12. Silica deposits on Mars with features resembling hot spring biosignatures at El Tatio in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, Steven W.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2016-11-01

    The Mars rover Spirit encountered outcrops and regolith composed of opaline silica (amorphous SiO2.nH2O) in an ancient volcanic hydrothermal setting in Gusev crater. An origin via either fumarole-related acid-sulfate leaching or precipitation from hot spring fluids was suggested previously. However, the potential significance of the characteristic nodular and mm-scale digitate opaline silica structures was not recognized. Here we report remarkably similar features within active hot spring/geyser discharge channels at El Tatio in northern Chile, where halite-encrusted silica yields infrared spectra that are the best match yet to spectra from Spirit. Furthermore, we show that the nodular and digitate silica structures at El Tatio that most closely resemble those on Mars include complex sedimentary structures produced by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. Although fully abiotic processes are not ruled out for the Martian silica structures, they satisfy an a priori definition of potential biosignatures.

  13. Growth in Acanthamoeba sp. and antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella micdadei isolated from hot spring water samples.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ogihara, Kikumi; Okuno, Rumi; Oonaka, Kenji; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2009-12-01

    As part of an epidemiological study on legionellosis, we attempted to isolate Legionella spp. from hot spring water samples, and were able to isolate Legionella micdadei from 3 (5.5%) of 55 samples. All of these isolates were able to grow within Acanthamoeba sp., suggesting that the isolates will be pathogens. We also confirmed that the K-2 strain from hot spring water grew in guinea pig monocytes. Sensitivity tests using 10 drugs showed that the isolates were most sensitive to imipenem, with the MIC90 of 0.032 microg/ml, were least sensitive to minocycline, with the MIC90 of 4 microg/ml, and were not sensitive to low amounts of other drugs.

  14. [Comment on “Submarine hot springs: Origin of life?”] Hydrothermal vents revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Sarah

    It was gratifying to read Peter Bell's synopsis of our paper [Corliss et al., 1981] in the March 23 issue of Eos (Submarine hot springs: Origin of life?) however, in the last sentence, he wrote, ‘They note that microorganisms found in recent expeditions to the submarine hot springs of the East Pacific Rise would be evidence that the processes are still occurring.’In our final paragraph we actually said that while “events leading to the formation of complex organic compounds and “protocell” structures may still be occurring in present-day oceanic hydrothermal systems … the complex communities of bacteria in modern oceanic environments would outcompete and consume abiotically synthesized protocells…” Modern-day vent microbiota will probably mask or destroy any evidence for abiotic synthesis in the hydrothermal vents.

  15. Surveillance of Vittaforma corneae in hot springs by a small-volume procedure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jung-Sheng; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Tung-Yi; Huang, Yu-Li; Shaio, Men-Fang; Ji, Dar-Der

    2017-07-01

    Vittaforma corneae is an obligate intracellular fungus and can cause human ocular microsporidiosis. Although accumulating reports of V. corneae causing keratoconjunctivitis in both healthy and immunocompromised persons have been published, little is known about the organism's occurrence in aquatic environments. Limitations in detection sensitivity have meant a large sampling volume is required to detect the pathogen up to now, which is problematic. A recent study in Taiwan has shown that some individuals suffering from microsporidial keratitis (MK) were infected after exposure to the pathogen at a hot spring. As a consequence of this, a survey and analysis of environmental V. corneae present in hot springs became an urgent need. In this study, sixty water samples from six hot spring recreation areas around Taiwan were analyzed. One liter of water from each sample site was filtered to harvest the fungi. The positive samples were detected using a modified nested PCR approach followed by sequencing using specific SSU rRNA gene primer pairs for V. corneae. In total fifteen V. corneae-like isolates were identified (25.0% of sites). Among them, six isolates, which were collected from recreational areas B, C and D, were highly similar to known V. corneae keratitis strains from Taiwan and other countries. Furthermore, five isolates, which were collected from recreation areas A, C, E and F, were very similar to Vittaforma-like diarrhea strains isolated in Portugal. Cold spring water tubs and public foot bath pools had the highest detection rate (50%), suggesting that hot springs might be contaminated via untreated water sources. Comparing the detection rate across different regions of Taiwan, Taitung, which is in the east of the island, gave the highest positive rate (37.5%). Statistical analysis showed that outdoor/soil exposure and a high heterotrophic plate count (HPC) were risk factors for the occurrence of V. corneae. Our findings provide empirical evidence

  16. Serpentine metal gasket

    DOEpatents

    Rothgeb, Timothy Moore [Norfolk, VA; Reece, Charles Edwin [Yorktown, VA

    2009-06-02

    A metallic seal or gasket for use in the joining of cryogenic fluid conduits, the seal or gasket having a generally planar and serpentine periphery defining a central aperture. According to a preferred embodiment, the periphery has at least two opposing elongated serpentine sides and two opposing arcuate ends joining the opposing elongated serpentine sides and is of a hexagonal cross-section.

  17. Ecological differentiation in planktonic and sediment-associated chemotrophic microbial populations in Yellowstone hot springs.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Feyhl-Buska, Jayme; Robinson, Kirtland J; Fecteau, Kristopher M; Xu, Huifang; Shock, Everett L; Boyd, Eric S

    2016-09-01

    Chemosynthetic sediment and planktonic community composition and sizes, aqueous geochemistry and sediment mineralogy were determined in 15 non-photosynthetic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). These data were used to evaluate the hypothesis that differences in the availability of dissolved or mineral substrates in the bulk fluids or sediments within springs coincides with ecologically differentiated microbial communities and their populations. Planktonic and sediment-associated communities exhibited differing ecological characteristics including community sizes, evenness and richness. pH and temperature influenced microbial community composition among springs, but within-spring partitioning of taxa into sediment or planktonic communities was widespread, statistically supported (P < 0.05) and could be best explained by the inferred metabolic strategies of the partitioned taxa. Microaerophilic genera of the Aquificales predominated in many of the planktonic communities. In contrast, taxa capable of mineral-based metabolism such as S(o) oxidation/reduction or Fe-oxide reduction predominated in sediment communities. These results indicate that ecological differentiation within thermal spring habitats is common across a range of spring geochemistry and is influenced by the availability of dissolved nutrients and minerals that can be used in metabolism. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Morphological and phylogenetic diversity of thermophilic cyanobacteria in Algerian hot springs.

    PubMed

    Amarouche-Yala, Samia; Benouadah, Ali; El Ouahab Bentabet, Abd; López-García, Purificación

    2014-11-01

    Geothermal springs in Algeria have been known since the Roman Empire. They mainly locate in Eastern Algeria and are inhabited by thermophilic organisms, which include cyanobacteria forming mats and concretions. In this work, we have investigated the cyanobacterial diversity of these springs. Cyanobacteria were collected from water, concretions and mats in nine hot springs with water temperatures ranging from 39 to 93 °C. Samples were collected for isolation in culture, microscopic morphological examination, and molecular diversity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nineteen different cyanobacterial morphotypes were identified, the most abundant of which were three species of Leptolyngbya, accompanied by members of the genera Gloeocapsa, Gloeocapsopsis, Stigonema, Fischerella, Synechocystis, Microcoleus, Cyanobacterium, Chroococcus and Geitlerinema. Molecular diversity analyses were in good general agreement with classical identification and allowed the detection of additional species in three springs with temperatures higher than 50 °C. They corresponded to a Synechococcus clade and to relatives of the intracellularly calcifying Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora. The hottest springs were dominated by members of Leptolyngbya, Synechococcus-like cyanobacteria and Gloeomargarita, whereas Oscillatoriales other than Leptolyngbya, Chroococcales and Stigonematales dominated lower temperature springs. The isolation of some of these strains sets the ground for future studies on the biology of thermophilic cyanobacteria.

  19. The cyanobacterium Mastigocladus fulfills the nitrogen demand of a terrestrial hot spring microbial mat

    PubMed Central

    Estrella Alcamán, María; Fernandez, Camila; Delgado, Antonio; Bergman, Birgitta; Díez, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria from Subsection V (Stigonematales) are important components of microbial mats in non-acidic terrestrial hot springs. Despite their diazotrophic nature (N2 fixers), their impact on the nitrogen cycle in such extreme ecosystems remains unknown. Here, we surveyed the identity and activity of diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the neutral hot spring of Porcelana (Northern Patagonia, Chile) during 2009 and 2011–2013. We used 16S rRNA and the nifH gene to analyze the distribution and diversity of diazotrophic cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate the dominance of the heterocystous genus Mastigocladus (Stigonematales) along the entire temperature gradient of the hot spring (69–38 °C). In situ nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction), nitrogen fixation rates (cellular uptake of 15N2) and nifH transcription levels in the microbial mats showed that nitrogen fixation and nifH mRNA expression were light-dependent. Nitrogen fixation activities were detected at temperatures ranging from 58 °C to 46 °C, with maximum daily rates of 600 nmol C2H4 cm−2 per day and 94.1 nmol N cm−2 per day. These activity patterns strongly suggest a heterocystous cyanobacterial origin and reveal a correlation between nitrogenase activity and nifH gene expression during diurnal cycles in thermal microbial mats. N and C fixation in the mats contributed ~3 g N m−2 per year and 27 g C m−2 per year, suggesting that these vital demands are fully met by the diazotrophic and photoautotrophic capacities of the cyanobacteria in the Porcelana hot spring. PMID:26230049

  20. Recovery Act Validation of Innovative Exploration Techniques Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Holdmann, Gwen

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  1. Pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival in Fuyang city, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhou, Bo; Tao, Ren Qin; Chen, Xu Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese people in Fuyang city, a northwest city of Anhui Province, are accustomed to burning incense at home for blessing during the Spring Festival. Their children, especially toddlers, like playing around the burning incense and are at risk of burning by hot incense ashes. The purpose of this study was to describe the unique cause and clinical characteristics of pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival. Twelve consecutive children admitted to our Burn Center and Fuyang People's Hospital during 2014 Spring Festival, with burn injuries caused by hot incense ashes which were epidemiologically studied retrospectively. Data on age, gender, size, depth and site of burn, incidence by day, number of operation, hospital stay, and causes of burns were collected. All patients came from Fuyang city. Of the 12 patients, the average age was 2.17 years, with a range of 1-6. The boy-to-girl ratio was 2: 1. The mean total burn surface area (TBSA) was 5.83%, and 91.67% of the children sustained full-thickness burn. Hands were the most common parts of the body to be injured. Dry necrosis developed in 14 fingers of 3 patients. January 31, 2014, the first day of the Chinese New Year, was the time of highest incidence. Six patients (50%) required surgical intervention while the number of operations including escharectomy, excision, skin grafting, or amputation of necrotic fingers, per patient was 2. A total of 14 fingers were amputated of the necrotic parts. All children survived and mean length of hospital stay of the patients was 20 days. Hot incense ashes cause serious injuries to children in Fuyang city during the Spring Festival. Preventive programs should be directed towards high risk groups to reduce the incidence of this burn.

  2. Hot spring, Geothermal energy and Self-sufficient community in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. S.; Wang, S. C.; Chang, C. C.

    2016-12-01

    The tectonics of Taiwan is very dynamic. The area produces more than 30,000 earthquakes/year; the mountains uplift 4-5 cm/year; the rainfall culminates 3,000 mm/year; and the ocean creates 5-10 typhoons/year. In recent years, the MT surveys in the Central Range of Taiwan have indicated the high geothermal gradient. This is also related with a large number of hot springs along the north, middle, and south cross-highways. However, during the typhoon season, these mountain areas are easily attacked by the heavy rainfall, and usually the electricity supply is cut off by the land slide. Once the electricity is off, the water supply is also gone and the living in the region become very difficult. This type of situation is repeatedly occurred in the mountain areas where the aborigine live and the loss of life and properties are enormous. In order to improve this situation, we propose to apply the hot spring for the power generation. Since this energy is abundant locally, therefore, the aborigine communities will be able to supply their need for the electricity and water as well. No matter how the typhoon affect the mountain area, they still able to live as happy as the normal days. We call it HGS (Hot spring, Geothermal energy, and Self-sufficient community). The geothermal is a clean, renewable, and no pollution energy. Each aborigine community only need about 0.5 - 2 MV of electricity.

  3. Horizontal sliding of kilometre-scale hot spring area during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Jun’Ichiro; Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Kamata, Ryuichi

    2017-02-01

    We report horizontal sliding of the kilometre-scale geologic block under the Aso hot springs (Uchinomaki area) caused by vibrations from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw 7.0). Direct borehole observations demonstrate the sliding along the horizontal geological formation at ~50 m depth, which is where the shallowest hydrothermal reservoir developed. Owing to >1 m northwest movement of the geologic block, as shown by differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR), extensional open fissures were generated at the southeastern edge of the horizontal sliding block, and compressional deformation and spontaneous fluid emission from wells were observed at the northwestern edge of the block. The temporal and spatial variation of the hot spring supply during the earthquake can be explained by the horizontal sliding and borehole failures. Because there was no strain accumulation around the hot spring area prior to the earthquake and gravitational instability could be ignored, the horizontal sliding along the low-frictional formation was likely caused by seismic forces from the remote earthquake. The insights derived from our field-scale observations may assist further research into geologic block sliding in horizontal geological formations.

  4. Biogeography of bacterial communities in hot springs: a focus on the actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Angel; Tuffin, Marla; Cowan, Don A

    2012-07-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in soil, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although various studies have focused on the microbial ecology of this phylum, data are scant on the ecology of actinobacteria endemic to hot springs. Here, we have investigated the molecular diversity of eubacteria, with specific focus on the actinobacteria in hot springs in Zambia, China, New Zealand and Kenya. Temperature and pH values at sampling sites ranged between 44.5 and 86.5 °C and 5-10, respectively. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis of 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns showed that samples could be separated by geographical location. Multivariate analysis showed that actinobacterial community composition was best predicted by changes in pH and temperature, whereas temperature alone was the most important variable explaining differences in bacterial community structure. Using 16S rRNA gene libraries, 28 major actinobacterial OTUs were found. Both molecular techniques indicated that many of the actinobacterial phylotypes were unique and exclusive to the respective sample. Collectively, these results support the view that both actinobacterial diversity and endemism are high in hot spring ecosystems.

  5. Three-dimensional Q -1 model of the Coso Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Chi-Yuh; Ward, Ronald W.

    1980-05-01

    Observations of teleseismic P waves above geothermal systems exhibit travel time delays and anomalously high seismic attenuation, which is extremely useful in estimating the thermal regime and the potential of the system. A regional telemetered network of sixteen stations was operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coso Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) for such studies from September 1975 to October 1976. Subsequently, they deployed a portable Centipede array of 26 three-component stations near the center of the anomaly. The seismograms of 44 events recorded by the telemetered array and nine events by the Centipede array were analyzed using the reduced spectral ratio technique to determine the differential attenuation factor δt* for the events recorded with the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The δt* variation observed across the Coso Hot Springs KGRA were small (<0.2 s). A three-dimensional generalized linear inversion of the δt* observations was performed using a three-layer model. A shallow zone of high attenuation exists within the upper 5 km in a region bounded by Coso Hot Springs, Devils Kitchen, and Sugarloaf Mountain probably corresponding to a shallow vapor liquid mixture or `lossy' near surface lithology. No zones of significantly high attenuation occur between 5- and 12- km depth. Between the depth of 12-20 km a thick zone of high attenuation (Q <50) exists, offset toward the east from the surface anomaly.

  6. Horizontal sliding of kilometre-scale hot spring area during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Jun’ichiro; Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Kamata, Ryuichi

    2017-01-01

    We report horizontal sliding of the kilometre-scale geologic block under the Aso hot springs (Uchinomaki area) caused by vibrations from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw 7.0). Direct borehole observations demonstrate the sliding along the horizontal geological formation at ~50 m depth, which is where the shallowest hydrothermal reservoir developed. Owing to >1 m northwest movement of the geologic block, as shown by differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR), extensional open fissures were generated at the southeastern edge of the horizontal sliding block, and compressional deformation and spontaneous fluid emission from wells were observed at the northwestern edge of the block. The temporal and spatial variation of the hot spring supply during the earthquake can be explained by the horizontal sliding and borehole failures. Because there was no strain accumulation around the hot spring area prior to the earthquake and gravitational instability could be ignored, the horizontal sliding along the low-frictional formation was likely caused by seismic forces from the remote earthquake. The insights derived from our field-scale observations may assist further research into geologic block sliding in horizontal geological formations. PMID:28218298

  7. Characterizing Novel Thermophilic Amylase Producing Bacteria From Taptapani Hot Spring, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Satpathy, Soumya; Rout, Prangya Ranjan; Bandyopadhyay, Bidyut; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amylases play a vital role in biotechnological studies and rank an important position in the world enzyme market (25% to 33%). Bioprocess method of amylase production is more effective than the other sources, since the technique is easy, cost effective, fast, and the enzymes of required properties can be procured. Objectives: The current study aimed to report the characteristics of novel amylase producing bacterial strains isolated from Taptapani hot spring, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains were isolated by dilution plating method from the water samples collected from Taptapani Hot Spring, Odisha and screened for amylase production through starch hydrolysis. The bacterial isolates were identified morphologically, biochemically, and finally by 16S rDNA profiling. Results: Based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and the molecular characterization, the isolates SS1, SS2, and SS3 were identified as Bacillus barbaricus, Aeromonas veroni, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of enzymes from SS1, SS2, and SS3 strains were 19 kDa, 56 kDa and 49 kDa, respectively. Conclusions: The current report isolates, characterizes, and demonstrates the novel heat-adapted amylase-producing bacteria SS1, SS2 and SS3 from Taptapani hot spring, indicating its potentiality and stability under acidic conditions. PMID:25741425

  8. Case studies on developing local industry by using hot spring water and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira; Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the new ways to develop local industries by using hot spring water, geothermal water and geothermal energy from the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant in Iwate Prefecture, which is the first geothermal power plant established in Japan. The new dyeing technique, called {open_quotes}Geothermal Dyeing{close_quotes} was invented in which hydrogen sulfide in the water exhibited decoloration effect. By this technique we succeeded to make beautiful color patterns on fabrics. We also invented the new way to make the light wight wood, called {open_quotes}Geo-thermal Wood{close_quotes} by using hot spring water or geothermal water. Since polysaccharides in the wood material were hydrolyzed and taken out during the treatment in the hot spring water, the wood that became lighter is weight and more porous state. On the bases of these results, we have produced {open_quotes}Wooded Soap{close_quotes} on a commercial scale which is the soap, synthesized in the pore of the treated wood in round slice. {open_quotes}Collapsible Wood Cabin{close_quotes} was also produced for enjoyable outdoor life by using the modified properties of Geothermal Wood.

  9. Horizontal sliding of kilometre-scale hot spring area during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Jun'ichiro; Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Kamata, Ryuichi

    2017-02-20

    We report horizontal sliding of the kilometre-scale geologic block under the Aso hot springs (Uchinomaki area) caused by vibrations from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw 7.0). Direct borehole observations demonstrate the sliding along the horizontal geological formation at ~50 m depth, which is where the shallowest hydrothermal reservoir developed. Owing to >1 m northwest movement of the geologic block, as shown by differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR), extensional open fissures were generated at the southeastern edge of the horizontal sliding block, and compressional deformation and spontaneous fluid emission from wells were observed at the northwestern edge of the block. The temporal and spatial variation of the hot spring supply during the earthquake can be explained by the horizontal sliding and borehole failures. Because there was no strain accumulation around the hot spring area prior to the earthquake and gravitational instability could be ignored, the horizontal sliding along the low-frictional formation was likely caused by seismic forces from the remote earthquake. The insights derived from our field-scale observations may assist further research into geologic block sliding in horizontal geological formations.

  10. Evaluation of the permeability properties of the Xiaojiang Fault Zone using hot springs and water wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zheming; Wang, Guangcai

    2017-06-01

    The permeability of a fault zone plays an important role in controlling fluid movement and seismic activity. However, the permeability properties of fault zone, particularly large-scale fault zones, are not well understood. In this study, we employed 193 hot springs and 18 groundwater monitoring wells located around the Xiaojiang Fault Zone to study the permeability properties of the fault zone. A geostatistical analysis of hot spring temperature and a tidal analysis of groundwater level were used to infer the permeability of the fault zone. Our study showed that the permeability properties inferred from hot spring temperatures are consistent with those determined from the groundwater level tidal responses. The high-permeability areas appeared in discrete, spatially restricted areas, whereas the low-permeability areas were clustered. Earthquakes were more likely to occur in the areas that showed hydrothermal activity, and earthquakes occurred more frequently in areas with relatively low temperature and permeability. These findings could be of significance in understanding fluid flow and seismic activity in the fault zone.

  11. Skeletal crystals of calcite and trona from hot-spring deposits in Kenya and New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Renaut, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal crystals are hollow crystals that develop because their outer walls grow before their cores. The presence of skeletal crystals of calcite (three types--trigonal prisms, hexagonal prisms, and plates) and trona in hot (> 90 C) spring deposits in New Zealand (Waikite Springs and Ohaaki Pool) and Kenya (Lorusio hot springs) shows that they can form in natural sedimentary regimes. Analysis of samples from these deposits shows that this crystal morphology develops under disequilibrium conditions that are unrelated to a specific environmental or diagenetic setting. Skeletal crystals transform into solid crystals when subsequent precipitation fills their hollow cores. In some cases, this may involve precipitation of crystalline material that has a sieve-like texture. In other examples, the skeletal crystal provides a framework upon which other materials can be precipitated. Walls in the skeletal trigonal calcite prisms from Waikite Springs are formed of subcrystals that mimic the shape of the parent crystal. Similarly, plate-like skeletal crystals from Lorusio are formed of densely packed subcrystals that are < 0.5 {micro}m long. Conversely, the walls of the skeletal hexagonal calcite crystals from Ohaaki Pool and the skeletal trona crystals from Lorusio are not formed of subcrystals. Recognition of skeletal crystals is important because they represent growth that follows the reverse pattern of normal growth. Failure to recognize that crystal growth followed the skeletal motif may lead to false interpretations concerning the growth of a crystal.

  12. Formation of gas discharging from Taketomi submarine hot spring off Ishigaki Island in the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, Tomohiro; Iwata, Daigo; Tsunogai, Urumu; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Hamasaki, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Taketomi submarine hot spring lies off Ishigaki Island in the southern Ryukyu Islands and vents hot spring waters at temperatures up to 50 °C from the seafloor at a depth of 20 m. We investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of gases discharging from Taketomi hot spring. The gases were composed mainly of methane, with secondary nitrogen at higher than atmospheric concentration. Carbon and hydrogen isotope data suggest that the methane in the discharging gases was derived mainly from thermal decomposition of organic matter. Helium isotopes were enriched in 3He relative to the atmosphere, suggesting a supply of mantle-derived helium to the discharging gases. The mantle-derived gases transfer the deep-originated thermal energy to the hot spring and thermogenesis of organic matter. The hydrocarbons in the venting gas could be sourced from sedimentary rocks of the Yaeyama or Shimajiri Groups, or Yaeyama metamorphic rocks, and added to the ascending gases as they pass through those source rocks on their way to the surface. Because the Pleistocene rocks of the Ryukyu Group beneath the hot spring have been altered by the spring activity, the Taketomi hot spring began venting after the Pleistocene.

  13. Hot spring deposits on a cliff face: A case study from Jifei, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2014-04-01

    A cliff face in the Jifei karst area, southwest China, is covered by a spectacular succession of precipitates that formed from the hot spring water that once flowed down its surface. This layered succession is formed of aragonite layers that are formed largely of “fountain dendrites”, calcite layers that are formed mostly of “cone dendrites”, and microlaminated layers that contain numerous microbes and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Many of the aragonite crystals are hollow due to preferential dissolution of their cores. The calcite cone dendrites are commonly covered with biofilms, reticulate Si-Mg coatings, and other precipitates. The microbial layers include dodecahedral calcite crystals and accessory minerals that include opal-A, amorphous Si-Mg coatings, trona, barite, potassium sulfate crystals, mirabillite, and gaylussite. Interpretation of the δ18O(calcite) and δ18O(aragonite) indicates precipitation from water with a temperature of 54 to 66 °C. The active hot spring at the top of the cliff presently ejects water at a temperature of 65 °C. Layers, 1 mm to 6 cm thick, record temporal changes in the fluids from which the precipitates formed. This succession is not, however, formed of recurring cycles that can be linked to diurnal or seasonal changes in the local climate. Indeed, it appears that the climatic contrast between the wet season and the dry season had little impact on precipitation from the spring waters that flowed down the cliff face. Integration of currently available evidence suggests that the primary driving force was aperiodic changes in the CO2 content of the spring waters because that seems to be the prime control on the saturation levels that underpinned precipitation of the calcite and aragonite as well as the dissolution of the aragonite. Such variations in the CO2 content of the spring water were probably due to changes that took place in the subterranean plumbing system of the spring.

  14. Coexisting serpentine and quartz from carbonate-bearing serpentinized peridotite in the Samail Ophiolite, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, Elisabeth; Kelemen, Peter; Eiler, John

    2012-11-01

    Tectonically exposed mantle peridotite in the Oman Ophiolite is variably serpentinized and carbonated. Networks of young carbonate veins are prevalent in highly serpentinized peridotite, particularly near low-temperature alkaline springs emanating from the peridotite. An unusual feature in some samples is the coexistence of serpentine and quartz, which is not commonly observed in serpentinites. This assemblage is unstable with respect to serpentine + talc or talc + quartz under most conditions. Serpentine in the carbonated serpentinites in this study is more iron rich than in most serpentinites reported in previous studies, and samples with co-existing quartz contain the most iron-rich serpentines. Calculations of thermodynamic equilibria in the MgO-SiO2-H2O-CO2 system suggest that serpentine + quartz may be a stable assemblage at low temperatures (e.g., <~15-50 °C) and is stabilized to higher temperatures by preferential cation substitutions in serpentine over talc. Based on these calculations, serpentine + quartz assemblages could result from serpentinization at near-surface temperatures. Clumped isotope thermometry of carbonate veins yields temperatures within error of the observed temperatures in Oman groundwater for all samples analyzed, while the δ18O of water calculated to be in equilibrium with carbonate precipitated at those temperatures is within error of the observed isotopic composition of Oman groundwater for the majority of samples analyzed. As groundwater geochemistry suggests that carbonate precipitation and serpentinization occur concomitantly, this indicates that both hydration and carbonation of peridotite are able to produce extensive alteration at the relatively low temperatures of the near-surface weathering environment.

  15. Investigation on actuation and thermo-mechanical behaviour of Shape Memory Alloy spring using hot water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouhan, Priya; Nath, Tameshwer; Lad, B. K.; Palani, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, hot water is used as an actuation media for Shape memory alloy and its impact on the morphology of structure of Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy (SMA), is presented. With hot water actuation as the temperature reaches 70-80°C, spring gets fully compressed for the first few cycles followed by a displacement loss in actuation. This actuation loss is then studied with different characterization methods such as Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). With SEM results, it can be inferred that the energy source is not deteriorating the structure. Results observed from TGA shows high oxygen content at lower temperature limits with hot water actuation which suggest the need of conducting experiments in inert atmosphere. As a possible mechanism, a new actuation medium is introduced and various results can be seen in the paper discussed below.

  16. Jurassic hot spring deposits of the Deseado Massif (Patagonia, Argentina): Characteristics and controls on regional distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2011-06-01

    The Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province, Argentinean Patagonia, hosts numerous Middle to Late Jurassic age geothermal and epithermal features represented by siliceous and calcareous chemical precipitates from hot springs (sinters and travertines, respectively), hydrothermal breccias, quartz veins, and widespread hydrothermal silicification. They indicate pauses in explosive volcanic activity, marking the final stages in the evolution of an extensive Jurassic (ca. 178-151 Ma) volcanic complex set in a diffuse extensional back-arc setting heralding the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Published paleo-hot spring sites for the Deseado Massif, plus additional sites identified during our recent field studies, reveal a total of 23 locations, five of which were studied in detail to determine their geologic and facies associations. They show structural, lithologic, textural and biotic similarities with Miocene to Recent hot spring systems from the Taupo and Coromandel volcanic zones, New Zealand, as well as with modern examples from Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A. These comparisons aid in the definition of facies assemblages for Deseado Massif deposits - proximal, middle apron and distal siliceous sinter and travertine terraces and mounds, with preservation of many types of stromatolitic fabrics - that likely were controlled by formation temperature, pH, hydrodynamics and fluid compositions. Locally the mapped hot spring deposits largely occur in association with reworked volcaniclastic lacustrine and/or fluvial sediments, silicic to intermediate lava domes, and hydrothermal mineralization, all of which are related to local and regional structural lineaments. Moreover, the numerous geothermal and significant epithermal (those with published minable resources) deposits of the Deseado Massif geological province mostly occur in four regional NNW and WNW hydrothermal-structural belts (Northwestern, Northern, Central, and Southern), defined here by alignment of five or more hot

  17. Controls on the Forms and Abundances of Geochemical Energy in Hot Spring Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E. L.

    2002-12-01

    The rich metabolic diversity of high-temperature microorganisms is the product of an expansive genetic diversity played against a wealth of geochemical energy sources. The abundance of each form of geochemical energy in a hot spring habitat can be determined by quantifying states of thermodynamic disequilibrium of oxidation/reduction reactions, accomplished by combining analytical data with standard state calculations. The results permit comparative imaging of the biogeochemical energy states in terms of physical and compositional variables. Evaluating and ranking energy sources is one of several goals of our recent field work at Yellowstone National Park. Field measurements of temperature, pH, and aqueous concentrations of oxygen, total sulfide, nitrate, nitrite, total ammonia, and ferrous iron, together with lab analyses of aqueous sulfate, mole fractions of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and nitrogen in gas samples, and mineralogy of iron- and sulfur-bearing phases in hot spring sediments permit tests of hundreds of potential energy-yielding reactions. Complementary major ion analyses permit conversion of concentrations to thermodynamic activities. By selecting sample sites from several hot spring regions, we can study systems that vary in pH from <2 to >9 and in temperature from <20 to >90°C. Activities of reactants and products of overall microbial metabolism also vary enormously in these systems and are generally not correlated with temperature. Likewise, the abundances of energy from individual reactions are unconstrained by temperature. No trends are found between the energy availability of O2-consuming reactions and the amount of dissolved O2 in hot spring fluids. In contrast, activities of other reactants and products of metabolic reactions reveal striking trends with energy availability. In the case of sulfide oxidation, for example, the potential yield of energy varies from 82 to 97 kj per mole of electrons transferred, and exhibits

  18. Ground Penetrating Radar Successful In Imaging Hot Spring Deposits: A New Geothermal Exploration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynne, B.; Dougherty, A.

    2010-12-01

    Discharging alkali chloride hot springs are surface expressions of a deeper geothermal reservoir. As the discharging hot spring fluid cools, silica carried in solution precipitates and entombs all components (e.g., microbes) within a hot spring channel. This silica accumulates to form rocks referred to as siliceous sinters. Geothermal reservoirs and sinter deposits remain long after hot spring discharge ceases. Therefore ancient sinters provide a direct link with a deeper potentially exploitable geothermal resource in areas where there are no present-day actively discharging hot springs. High, mid and low-temperature microbes create distinctive environmentally-significant textures resulting in a heterogeneous sinter. The recognition of preserved active sinter textures enables mapping of former high temperature vent to low temperature distal-apron flow pathways. Sinter dates enable tracking of fluid flow to the surface, providing a regional context of fluid movement. Sinters undergo diagenesis that involves a five step opal-A to quartz silica phase modification that is accompanied by a density increase and porosity decrease. However, even quartzose sinters retain porosity values of 5-20 %. Textural variation is preserved over time, with a range in density and porosity values, which in addition to the low conductive/highly resistive silica material make GPR a suitable tool for imaging buried sinters. Previously, geologists have been constrained to only examining sinters in locations where they are partially exposed. Our preliminary results from both New Zealand and the United States of America show Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was successful in extending this sinter research into the shallow subsurface by: (1) imaging through opal-A to quartzose sinter deposits; (2) mapping high to low temperature environments such as vents and distal-apron terracettes; (3) locating the true spatial extent of partially buried sinters; (4) imaging completely buried sinters. The

  19. Microbial metabolism and the geochemistry of bioactive gases in Kamchatka and Lassen hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, B.; Robb, F. T.; Colman, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic metabolisms include several pathways that involve dissolved gases as carbon sources, energy sources, and/or waste products. In hot springs, dissolved gas concentrations are often compared with concentrations predicted based upon equilibration with free phase gases bubbling up in the same springs. This comparison guides the inference of metabolic modes in the subsurface, spring vents, and outflow channels. Supersaturation is invoked as a signal of a biogenic source for the gas, while undersaturation is interpreted to indicate microbial consumption. However, these conventional interpretations of disequilibria between dissolved and free phase gases can be misleading. They ignore the decoupling of water and free phase gas transport in terrestrial hot springs and the effects on gas solubility of thermal and pressure gradients that exist as fluids travel from depth to vent. We have surveyed two significant geothermal regions: Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP), California, USA (July, 2009), and Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia (August, 2010) in past years. We collected and analyzed both free phase and dissolved gas composition from a number of hot springs in each region. We used Henry's Law to calculate apparent saturation state of the dissolved gases with respect to the free phases gases bubbling up in the springs. We then constructed a 1-D gas exchange-transport model to examine the thermodynamic drivers and potential kinetic hindrances to gas exchange and equilibration in water and gases ascending continental hot spring systems. Specifically, this model takes into account: (1) the vertical gradient in temperature and pressure, (2) interaction between the bioactive gases via water gas shift reaction, and (3) fluid transport from subsurface to vent. We have modeled several end-member transport-exchange scenarios: (1) gas and spring water co-ascend in a closed system, with instantaneous equilibration between free phase and dissolved

  20. High Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Intracellular Growth Ability of Legionella in Hot Spring Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haijian; Wang, Huanxin; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Mingqiang; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Shao, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    Background Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, and hot springs are a major source of outbreaks of this disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey hot spring environments for the presence of Legionella. Methods Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at three hot spring recreational areas in Beijing, China in 2011. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based typing (SBT) were used to describe the genetic polymorphism of isolates. The intracellular growth ability of the isolates was determined by interacting with J774 cells and plating the dilutions onto BCYE agar plates. Results Overall, 51.9% of spring water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 1 CFU/liter to 2,218 CFU/liter. The positive rates of Legionella were significantly associated with a free chlorine concentration of ≥0.2 mg/L, urea concentration of ≥0.05 mg/L, total microbial counts of ≥400 CFU/ml and total coliform of ≥3 MPN/L (p<0.01). The Legionella concentrations were significantly associated with sample temperature, pH, total microbial counts and total coliform (p<0.01). Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (98.9%), and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 3 (25.3%), 6 (23.4%), 5 (19.2%), 1 (18.5%), 2 (10.2%), 8 (0.4%), 10 (0.8%), 9 (1.9%) and 12 (0.4%). Two hundred and twenty-eight isolates were analyzed by PFGE and 62 different patterns were obtained. Fifty-seven L. pneumophila isolates were selected for SBT analysis and divided into 35 different sequence types with 5 main clonal groups. All the 57 isolates had high intracellular growth ability. Conclusions Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of Legionella in springs in Beijing, China, and the SBT and intracellular growth assay results suggested that the Legionella isolates of hot spring environments were pathogenic. Improved control and

  1. Tracing Hot-Spring Facies and thier Geothermally Silicified Microbial Textures into the Geologic Record: Relevance for Mars Biosignature Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, K. A.; Guido, D. M.; Farmer, J. D.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Ruff, S. W.; Westall, F.

    2016-05-01

    Siliceous hot-spring deposits (sinters) in terrestrial volcanic terrains preserve robust microbial textures, owing to early mineralization, in the geologic record as far back as 3.48 billion years ago. Some resemble features at Columbia Hills.

  2. The Role of Sulfur Oxidation in Carbonate Precipitation and Dissolution Within Sulfidic Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, S. E.; Kapitulčinová, D.; Kotrc, B.; Langerhuus, A. T.; Berelson, W.; Dawson, S.; Corsetti, F.; Hanselmann, K.; Johnson, H.; Spear, J.; Stevenson, B. S.; de La Torre, J.; 2008, G.

    2008-12-01

    Geothermal waters that have interacted with subsurface limestones often precipitate aragonite and calcite (travertine) upon cooling and degassing of CO2, forming terraced travertine deposits like those at Mammoth Hot Springs (MHS) in Yellowstone National Park. It has been shown that surfaces of filamentous microbial "Aquificales-dominated streamer communities" comprising the Apron and Channel Facies in these systems can act as nucleation sites for carbonate precipitation leading to the fine-scale tubular micro-structures consistently observed in travertine terraces, modern and ancient. The expected carbonate precipitates were found on streamer communities on the proximal Slope facies, however, ESEM imaging and EDX analysis revealed sulfur crystals, rather than carbonate precipitates, in association with Aquificales-dominated communities collected near the mouth of Narrow Gauge (pH 6.43, T 73.5°C), a sulfidic bicarbonate spring within the MHS system. Thermodynamic analysis of geochemical spring water datasets (data from Angel Terrace Spring applied to the Narrow Gauge site) demonstrates that lowering of the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of spring waters can be achieved by sulfur oxidation. Although the first step of oxidation from H2S to S° cannot account for the lack of aragonite on the streamer biofilms, oxidation of even small amounts of S° to S2O32- and further to SO42- markedly decreases ANC. This microbially mediated reaction may lead to a shift in the local pH and a shift in the ion activity product (IAP) for Ca2+ x CO32- to below the solubility product (Ksp) of CaCO3. Our calculations suggest that this reaction, sulfur oxidation with oxygen to sulfate, can liberate sufficient protons to drive aragonite to undersaturation, if the initial sulfur concentration is 5 mM, and the [Ca] and [CO3] concentrations are initially 0.01 M and 1-10 uM, respectively. The potential importance of sulfur oxidation in hot springs, the molecular signatures of this process

  3. The impact of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Shoji, J.; Mishima, T.; Honda, H.; Fujii, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Beppu is a region with many hot springs in Japan. Some of environmental studies of the rivers in this region (e.g. Kawano et al., 1998, Ohsawa et al., 2008) show that hot spring drainage flows into a river and then flow into the coastal are, and it strongly affects the river water quality. On the other hands, several kinds of tropical fish lives in those rivers (Hiramatu et al., 1995). We can easily have watched those fish there. Although the relationship between hot spring drainage and the fish community had not been investigated in the past in this area, it is easily assumed that thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage strongly affect the ecosystem. However, the impact of the hot spring drainage on the ecosystem in river and coastal area is not clear. We investigated the river water quality and physical property of six rivers in this region. Additionally, we investigated the fish community near the estuary at two rivers which are strongly affected by the hot spring drainage and not the influence of the hot spring at all. We tried an evaluation about the influence of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary.The results of chemical and physical data in these rivers are as follows. The size of influence of hot spring drainage on river is different every river. In this region, Hirata River is most strongly affected by the hot spring drainage. The water temperature of Hirata River maintains 25 degrees Celsius or more through the year and the concentrations of dissolved component is very high. On the other hand, the water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved component of Hiya Rive is low. These data are similar to data of the upper side of Hirata River. The results of investigating the fish community indicate that Oreochromis niloticus and Rhinogobius giurinus is the dominant species at Hirata River and Hiya River respectively. In addition, there is more the number of

  4. Lake Bogoria, Kenya: Hot and warm springs, geysers and Holocene stromatolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    I carried out the first regional geological survey of the central Gregory Rift Valley in Kenya in 1958-60, and review here the numerous subsequent specialised studies focused on the unique endoreic Lake Bogoria (formerly Hannington), studies which embraced the sedimentology of the Holocene sediments around the lake shores, the hot-spring and geyser activities and the coring of the sediments beneath the lake. I focus on the occurrences of stromatolites in a hydrothermal environment, both in two closely spaced late Holocene (~ 4500 yr BP) generations at the lake margin, associated with algae and cyanobacteria, which represent a final more humid climatic phase after the several interglacial more humid phases (also represented by stromatolite occurrences in other rift valley lakes); and also at present being formed, at the edge of the now highly saline lake, in the very hot springs in association with thermophilic bacteria and with silica. I briefly mention the older occurrences in Lake Magadi to the south, which are quite different; and form three generations; and also present-day occurrences of stromatolites in a flood-plain environment, unlike the present-day environment at Lake Bogoria. Other stromatolite occurrences are mentioned, around Lake Turkana and the former lake in the Suguta River valley to the north. I suggest that the hot waterfall at Kapedo, at the head of the Suguta River, and the central island of Ol Kokwe (with hot springs, amidst the fresh water Lake Baringo) could well be investigated for stromatolite occurrences. Lake Bogoria, an empty wilderness occupied only by flamingos when I mapped it, is now more accessible and provides a unique open-air laboratory for such researches, but like all the Rift Valley lakes, is unique, sui generis. Results of detailed investigations of the type reviewed here, can only be applied to other occurrences of stromatolites elsewhere in the rift system or beyond the rift system with reservation.

  5. Hydrocarbon occurrences near Kyle Hot Springs, Buena Vista Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ehni, W.J.; McCarthy, H.; Neumann, W.H.

    1995-06-01

    Buena Vista Valley is a small Tertiary Basin located in Northwestern Nevada. Oil was discovered in a mineral exploration hole drilled by Independence Mining Company Inc. (IMC) during October, 1993 near Kyle Hot Springs in Buena Vista Valley. The hole flowed unchecked for four and a half days, producing an estimated 500 barrels of oil with large volumes of hot water, before it was plugged and abandoned. In August of 1994 a continuous core hole was drilled by Barton/Evans to further evaluate the oil occurrences in the IMC hole. Two oil zones were found in the Barton/Evans hole, both of which have similar characteristics to the oil produced in the IMC hole. Pristane and phytane ratios (pr/ph) for oil samples from both holes are low (<0.1) which suggests that the source rock for this oil is from non marine lacustrine Tertiary sediments. There are no detectable hydrocarbons in the gas emanating from Kyle Hot Springs which indicates that the current day geothermal system is not in direct contact with any oil accumulations. Organic rich Triassic marine rocks which outcrop west of Buena Vista Valley, are over mature which supports the hypothesis that unexposed organic rich Tertiary rocks occurring in the deeper portions of the basin acted as the source for the oil occurrences in the IMC hole and in the Barton/Evans hole. In 1974, Standard Oil drilled an 11,000 foot well south of Buena Vista Valley in the Carson Sink and encountered organic rich Tertiary sediments at about 3500`. If this organic rich unit extends north into Buena Vista Valley, local geothermal anomalies might play an important role in the generation of oil. Earlier researches have reported that such anomalies do exist with temperature gradients approaching 100 C per kilometer west of Kyle Hot Springs in an area where gravity data suggest a relatively thick interval of Tertiary rocks have accumulated.

  6. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

    PubMed Central

    Schubotz, Florence; Hays, Lindsay E.; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R.; Gillespie, Aimee; Shock, Everett L.; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Streamer biofilm communities (SBC) are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75–88°C) SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae and Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and “Bison Pool,” using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and glucose) to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus, and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10–30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C-bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at “Bison Pool” and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20, and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at “Bison Pool” and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C-uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C-acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being sustained

  7. A controlled source audiomagnetotelluric investigation of the Ennis Hot Springs Geothermal Area, Ennis, Montana: Final report: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Emilsson, G.R.

    1988-06-01

    A controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey (CSAMT) at the Ennis Hot Springs geothermal area revealed a low resistivity anomaly (3 ohm-m to 10 ohm-m) in the vicinity of the hot springs. The hot springs issue from the base of a gravel terrace on the west side of the Madison Valley. Low apparent resistivities extend to the west under the gravel terrace as well as to the north in an elongated ''plume''. To the southwest the apparent resistivity increases rapidly due to an uplift in the valley basement. One-dimensional inverse modeling in the center of the valley indicates a buried conductive layer probably due to a thick layer of clay-bearing sediments since a nearby test well does not show elevated temperatures. Near the hot springs, one-dimensional inverse modeling did not prove useful, partly because of the two and three-dimensional nature of the structure. Two-dimensional forward modeling near the hot springs provides a more quantitative delineation of the low resistivity zone and of the faulted basement uplifts to the west and south. Details of the structure beneath the conductive zone near the hot springs are difficult to resolve and most of the model control in this region is provided by well logs and seismic data. A technique for correcting data collected in the region close to the transmitter where the plane wave assumption is not valid has derived and has been applied to the low frequency data. 29 refs., 35 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Water geochemistry and hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer at Roosevelt Hot Springs, southern Utah: A hot dry rock prospect

    SciTech Connect

    Vuataz, F.D.; Goff, F.

    1987-12-01

    On the western edge of the geothermal field, three deep holes have been drilled that are very hot but mostly dry. Two of them (Phillips 9-1 and Acord 1-26 wells) have been studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) resources evaluation program. A review of data and recommendations have been formulated to evaluate the HDR geothermal potential at Roosevelt. The present report is directed toward the study of the shallow aquifer of the Milford Valley to determine if the local groundwater would be suitable for use as make-up water in an HDR system. This investigation is the result of a cooperative agreement between Los Alamos and Phillips Petroleum Co., formerly the main operator of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Unit. The presence of these hot dry wells and the similar setting of the Roosevelt area to the prototype HDR site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, make Roosevelt a very good candidate site for creation of another HDR geothermal system. This investigation has two main objectives: to assess the water geochemistry of the valley aquifer, to determine possible problems in future make-up water use, such as scaling or corrosion in the wells and surface piping, and to assess the hydrogeology of the shallow groundwaters above the HDR zone, to characterize the physical properties of the aquifer. These two objectives are linked by the fact that the valley aquifer is naturally contaminated by geothermal fluids leaking out of the hydrothermal reservoir. In an arid region where good-quality fresh water is needed for public water supply and irrigation, nonpotable waters would be ideal for an industrial use such as injection into an HDR energy extraction system. 50 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Using MEMS sensor arrays to measure temperature at small spatial scales in hot spring environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiler, J.; Schliep, K.; Hartnett, H. E.; Shock, E.; Yu, H.

    2011-12-01

    In situ measurement of temperature across the transition zones between chemosynthetic and photosynthetic microbial communities, or between different photosynthetic microbial communities in hot springs, can be ambiguous using current robust bulk measurement techniques due to the small spatial scale at of the transitions. Outflow channels are often narrow and shallow as they transport water away from the source, creating additional constraints on the size of the instrument and measurement technique used. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is well-suited to take measurements of temperature within hot spring environments or other chemical parameters such as conductivity or pH. With recent advances in materials and fabrication techniques, devices can be fabricated to be chemically and thermally tolerant to the conditions present in the hot springs. The small size of the sensing elements (micron scale) provides the high spatial resolution necessary to interrogate the sharp transition zones between chemotrophic and photosynthetic communities. Owing to the small size of each sensor and the ability to batch-fabricate many sensors at once, an array of sensors can be made to measure a particular parameter simultaneously at short spatial intervals. Arrays of MEMS sensors were fabricated to measure temperature changes at intervals of ~1 cm. Our sensors consist of thermistors fabricated from a bi-layer of titanium and platinum. When heated, the electrical resistance of the thermistors will increase, and through calibration the resistance value is paired to a temperature value. The sensors and wires are covered with an inert biocompatible water-resistant polymer, Parylene-C, that protects them from chemical attack in the hot spring water. Using the arrays, a two-dimensional map of depth and distance was created at the Geothermal Explosion site in Tengchong, China, by placing the array vertically into a channel at spatial intervals of ~2 cm. Vertical measurements

  10. Global Distribution of Crenarchaeol in Terrestrial Hot Springs: Temperature Control or Biogeography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. L.; Pearson, A.; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, E.; Inskeep, B.; Geesey, G.

    2006-12-01

    Crenarchaeol is a glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipid and is present in numerous hot springs in Nevada and California (Pearson et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2006). The distribution of crenarchaeol is mainly controlled by temperature in these non-acidic geothermal environments. To seek the global distribution of crenarchaeol in terrestrial hot springs we have performed HPLC-MS analysis on a number of samples from Yellowstone, Kamchatka-Russia, Tengchong-China, and Thailand. These samples had temperatures of 50- 100°C and pH 3.0-7.0. GDGTs also were determined on several crenarchaeotal isolates from Yellowstone and Kamchatka, which had growth temperatures of 60-85°C and growth pH of 3.0-6.5. Crenarchaeol was absent from all samples collected from Yellowstone, Kamchatka-Russia, and Tengchong-China; nor was crenarchaeol found in any of the pure cultures. In contrast, the Thailand spring contained abundant crenarchaeol (72%). The absence of crenarchaeol in some of the Kamchatka samples is surprising because these samples had similar temperature and pH to the Thailand sample. The GDGT profiles were also notably different between environmental samples and pure cultures isolated from these same (or similar) environments. Our results suggest that environmental crenarchaeol may be formed by specialized groups of Crenarchaeota that are influenced by local water chemistry in addition to temperature. It is also possible that biogeography plays an important role in determining archaeal species and lipid distributions.

  11. A natural view of microbial biodiversity within hot spring cyanobacterial mat communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. M.; Ferris, M. J.; Nold, S. C.; Bateson, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats.

  12. A Natural View of Microbial Biodiversity within Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Mat Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ward, David M.; Ferris, Michael J.; Nold, Stephen C.; Bateson, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats. PMID:9841675

  13. Hot Spring Monitoring at Lassen Volcanic National Park, California 1983-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, Michael L.

    1986-01-21

    Data collected on several occasions between 1983 and 1985 as part of a hydrologic monitoring program by the U.S. Geological Survey permit preliminary estimation of the natural variability in the discharge characteristics of hydrothermal features in Lassen Volcanic National Park and the Lassen KGRA in northern California. The total rate of discharge of high-chloride hot springs along Mill Creek and Canyon Creek in the Lassen KGRA has averaged 20.9 {+-} 1.7 L/s, based on seven measurements of the flux of chloride in these streams. Measured chloride flux does not appear to increase with streamflow during the spring-summer snowmelt period, as observed at Yellowstone and Long Valley Caldera. The corresponding fluxes of arsenic in Mill Creek and Canyon Creek decrease within distances of about 2 km downstream from the hot springs by approximately 30%, most likely due to chemical absorption on streambed sediments. Within Lassen Volcanic National Park, measurements of sulfate flux in streams draining steam-heated thermal features at Sulphur Works and Bumpass Hell have averaged 7.5 {+-} 1.0 and 4.0 {+-} 1.5 g/s, respectively. Calculated rates of steam upflow containing, dissolved H{sub 2}S to supply these sulfate fluxes are 1.8 kg/s at Sulphur Works and 1.0 kg/s at Bumpass Hell.

  14. The Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Iron Redox Metabolism in Hot Spring Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Clair, B. E.; Shock, E.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidation of ferrous iron and the reduction of ferric minerals are widespread sources of metabolic energy for microorganisms in hot spring ecosystems. How these energy sources are used can be determined by combining thermodynamic calculations with kinetic experiments. By measuring concentrations of ferrous iron, total iron, pH, dissolved hydrogen and oxygen, as well as temperature and many other parameters in hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, we can calculate chemical affinities of iron redox reactions, which reveal the maximum amount of energy an organism can derive from the catalysis of a given reaction. Iron redox reactions typically involve protons, and energy yields are greatly affected by pH. The heterotrophic reduction of ferric minerals typically consumes a large stoichiometric number of protons compared to the other components. For example, the reduction of hematite (Fe2O3), to ferrous ions with glucose requires 48 moles of protons per mole of glucose oxidized. Calculations indicate this proton requirement increases the energy yield with decreasing pH. The opposite trend is observed for iron oxidation reactions. The autotrophic oxidation of ferrous iron to hematite releases four protons per mole of hematite formed. As a consequence, the energy yield from this reaction decreases with decreasing pH. How effectively energy sources are tapped depends on the efficiencies of microbial metabolism compared with the rates of abiotic mechanisms for the same redox reactions. Experiments were performed across the pH spectrum on isolated sediments incubated in situ and assayed for biological oxidation and reduction by monitoring changing concentrations of Fe2+. In hot springs with pH values <2, particularly those with large gas flows, abiological reduction is rapid. Biological reduction, nevertheless, occasionally proceeded faster than the abiological rate. The quick abiological reduction rate, combined with the high solubility of ferrous iron, leads to

  15. Quantifying Rates of Complete Microbial Iron Redox Cycling in Acidic Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Clair, B.; Pottenger, J. W.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    Large accumulations of iron oxide commonly occur in shallow outflows of acidic hot springs, and culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopy by others indicate that this iron oxide (often ferrihydrite) is largely biogenic in Yellowstone National Park. The hot springs that support iron mats have several consistent geochemical features including combinations of pH, temperature, sulfide, dissolved oxygen, depth and ferrous iron concentration appropriate to support iron oxidation. These springs nearly always have a point source leading to a large shallow outflow apron. Microbial zones often, but not always, include a small clear zone near the source, followed by a sulfide oxidation zone, iron mat, and finally photosynthesis. The yellow sulfide oxidation zone is separated from the red iron mat by a sharp transition resulting from increasing dissolved oxygen from atmospheric contact and microbial depletion of sulfide. The iron mat is typically the largest microbial zone in the feature by area. Further down the outflow, iron oxidation appears to be outcompeted by phototrophs as the temperature cools. Occasionally there is overlap in these zones, but one metabolism always appears dominant. Our experiments at diverse hot springs indicate that microbial reduction is less geochemically restricted than oxidation, requiring only organic carbon, ferric minerals and an anoxic environment. With iron oxidizers fixing carbon and producing layers of ferric minerals that become rapidly anoxic with depth, iron reduction is invariably proximal to where biogenic iron oxides are forming. To characterize the interplay of oxidation and reduction rates that permit oxide accumulation, we conducted rate experiments at geochemically diverse Yellowstone hot springs featuring visible iron oxides in thermal areas throughout the park. These experiments were performed during two summer field seasons to determine in situ and maximum rates of iron oxidation and reduction by measuring changing

  16. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two hot spring microbial mats from a geothermal region in Romania.

    PubMed

    Coman, Cristian; Drugă, Bogdan; Hegedus, Adriana; Sicora, Cosmin; Dragoş, Nicolae

    2013-05-01

    The diversity of archaea and bacteria was investigated in two slightly alkaline, mesophilic hot springs from the Western Plain of Romania. Phylogenetic analysis showed a low diversity of Archaea, only three Euryarchaeota taxa being detected: Methanomethylovorans thermophila, Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis and Methanococcus aeolicus. Twelve major bacterial groups were identified, both springs being dominated by Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. While at the phylum/class-level the microbial mats share a similar biodiversity; at the species level the geothermal springs investigated seem to be colonized by specific consortia. The dominant taxa were filamentous heterocyst-containing Fischerella, at 45 °C and non-heterocyst Leptolyngbya and Geitlerinema, at 55 °C. Other bacterial taxa (Thauera sp., Methyloversatilis universalis, Pannonibacter phragmitetus, Polymorphum gilvum, Metallibacterium sp. and Spartobacteria) were observed for the first time in association with a geothermal habitat. Based on their bacterial diversity the two mats were clustered together with other similar habitats from Europe and part of Asia, most likely the water temperature playing a major role in the formation of specific microbial communities that colonize the investigated thermal springs.

  17. Fate of Immediate Methane Precursors in Low-Sulfate, Hot-Spring Algal-Bacterial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Sandbeck, Kenneth A.; Ward, David M.

    1981-01-01

    The fates of acetate and carbon dioxide were examined in several experiments designed to indicate their relative contributions to methane production at various temperatures in two low-sulfate, hot-spring algal-bacterial mats. [2-14C]acetate was predominantly incorporated into cell material, although some 14CH4 and 14CO2 was produced. Acetate incorporation was reduced by dark incubation in short-term experiments and severely depressed by a 2-day preincubation in darkness. Autoradiograms showed that acetate was incorporated by long filaments resembling phototrophic microorganisms of the mat communities. [3H]acetate was not converted to C3H4 in samples from Octopus Spring collected at the optimum temperature for methanogenesis. NaH14CO3 was readily converted to 14CH4 at temperatures at which methanogenesis was active in both mats. Comparisons of the specific activities of methane and carbon dioxide suggested that of the methane produced, 80 ± 6% in Octopus Spring and 71 ± 21% in Wiegert Channel were derived from carbon dioxide. Addition of acetate to 1 mM did not reduce the relative importance of carbon dioxide as a methane precursor in samples from Octopus Spring. Experiments with pure cultures of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum suggested that the measured ratio of specific activities might underestimate the true contribution of carbon dioxide in methanogenesis. Images PMID:16345736

  18. Fate of immediate methane precursors in low-sulfate, hot-spring algal-bacterial mats.

    PubMed

    Sandbeck, K A; Ward, D M

    1981-03-01

    The fates of acetate and carbon dioxide were examined in several experiments designed to indicate their relative contributions to methane production at various temperatures in two low-sulfate, hot-spring algal-bacterial mats. [2-C]acetate was predominantly incorporated into cell material, although some CH(4) and CO(2) was produced. Acetate incorporation was reduced by dark incubation in short-term experiments and severely depressed by a 2-day preincubation in darkness. Autoradiograms showed that acetate was incorporated by long filaments resembling phototrophic microorganisms of the mat communities. [H]acetate was not converted to CH(4) in samples from Octopus Spring collected at the optimum temperature for methanogenesis. NaHCO(3) was readily converted to CH(4) at temperatures at which methanogenesis was active in both mats. Comparisons of the specific activities of methane and carbon dioxide suggested that of the methane produced, 80 +/- 6% in Octopus Spring and 71 +/- 21% in Wiegert Channel were derived from carbon dioxide. Addition of acetate to 1 mM did not reduce the relative importance of carbon dioxide as a methane precursor in samples from Octopus Spring. Experiments with pure cultures of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum suggested that the measured ratio of specific activities might underestimate the true contribution of carbon dioxide in methanogenesis.

  19. Summary of basic hydrologic data collected at Coso Hot Springs, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    More than 200 wells and springs were visited within a 20-mile radius of Coso Hot Springs, Calif. Hydrologic and geothermal data were collected for each well or spring site. The data includes depth, chemical quality, temperature and specific conductance of water, quantity of flow, well construction, and well logs. These data show that the normal temperature gradient in the ground is about 1.1 degrees Celsius (2 degrees Fahrenheit) per 100 feet. The temperature gradient in the thermal areas is as high as 24.4 degrees Celsius (44 degrees Fahrenheit) per 100 feet. The highest temperature measured for all the wells and springs was 142.2 degrees Celsius (288 degrees Fahrenheit). The chemical quality of water in the study area is generally good except in areas where water evaporates from land surface at Owens Valley playa or where steam escapes into the atmosphere from land surface. Computerized hydrologic and geothermal data are being stored for future use at the U.S. Geological Survey office, Laguna Niguel, Calif. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Noncrystallographic calcite dendrites from hot-spring deposits at Lake Bogoria, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Renaut, R.W.

    1995-01-02

    Complex calcite crystals are an integral component of precipitates that form around the orifices of the Loburu and Mawe Moto hot springs on the shores of Lake bogoria, Kenya. Two types of large (up to 4 cm long) noncrystallographic dendrites are important components of these deposits. Feather dendrites are characterized by multiple levels of branching with individual branches developed through crystal splitting and spherulitic growth. Scandulitic (from Latin meaning shingle) dendrites are formed of stacked calcite crystals and are generally more compact than feather dendrites. These developed through the incremental stacking of rectangular-shaped calcite crystals that initially grew as skeletal crystals. Feather and scandulitic dendrites precipitated from the same waters in the same springs. The difference in morphology is therefore related to microenvironments in which they grew. Feather dendrites grew in any direction in pools of free-standing water provided that they were in constant contact with the solute. Conversely, scandulitic dendrites grew on rims of dams where water flowed over the surface in concert with the pulses of spring water. Thus, each calcite crystal in these dendrites represents one episode of crystal growth. The orientation of the component crystals in scandulitic dendrites is controlled by the topography of the dam or surface, not crystallographic criteria. The noncrystallographic dendrites formed from spring waters with initial temperatures of 90--99 C. Surficial water cooling, loss of CO{sub 2}, and presence of other elements that can interfere with crystal growth contributed to the formation of these unusual crystals.

  1. Hot springs on Mars: origins and paleoenvironmental significance of small Martian valleys

    SciTech Connect

    Brakenridge, G.R.; Newsom, H.E.; Baker, V.R.

    1985-01-01

    At least five classes of small valley networks can be distinguished on Viking imagery of Mars. The different valley types may have had different origins. Many subparallel slope ravines, v-shaped branching valleys, and flat-floored branching valleys are related to impact structures and may have originated through the action of hot springs located along the permeable fringes of slowly-cooling impact melts. These valleys grew by a combination of headward sapping and down-valley water and ice fluid flow. Cessation of formation of these valley types at the terminus of the heavy bombardment period (about 3.8 billion years ago) implies a temporal association between valley formation and cratering. The probable widespread operation of impact-related hydrothermal spring systems early in Mars history indicates that it is not necessary to infer atmospheric changes to explain valley formation.

  2. Estimation of microbial cover distributions at Mammoth Hot Springs using a multiple clone library resampling method.

    PubMed

    Martín, Héctor García; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2006-07-01

    We propose the use of cover as a quick, low-resolution proxy for the abundance of microbial species, which reduces polymerase chain reaction bias. We showcase this concept in a computation that uses clone library information from travertine-forming hot springs in Yellowstone National Park to provide estimates of relative covers at different locations within the spring system. Samples were used from two media: the water column and the travertine substrate. The cover distribution is found to approximate a power law for samples within the water column. Significant commonality of species with the highest cover is observed in the water column for all locations, but not for species present in the substrate at different locations or between media at the same location.

  3. In situ production of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in a great basin hot spring (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Wang, Jinxiang; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Williams, Amanda J.; Zhu, Chun; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Zheng, Fengfeng; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are predominantly found in soils and peat bogs. In this study, we analyzed core (C)-bGDGTs after hydrolysis of polar fractions using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry and analyzed intact P-bGDGTs using total lipid extract (TLE) without hydrolysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple stage mass spectrometry. Our results show multiple lines of evidence for the production of bGDGTs in sediments and cellulolytic enrichments in a hot spring (62–86°C) in the Great Basin (USA). First, in situ cellulolytic enrichment led to an increase in the relative abundance of hydrolysis-derived P-bGDGTs over their C-bGDGT counterparts. Second, the hydrolysis-derived P- and C-bGDGT profiles in the hot spring were different from those of the surrounding soil samples; in particular, a monoglycosidic bGDGT Ib containing 13,16-dimethyloctacosane and one cyclopentane moiety was detected in the TLE but it was undetectable in surrounding soil samples even after sample enrichments. Third, previously published 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis from the same lignocellulose samples demonstrated the enrichment of thermophiles, rather than mesophiles, and total bGDGT abundance in cellulolytic enrichments correlated with the relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags from thermophilic bacteria in the phyla Bacteroidetes, Dictyoglomi, EM3, and OP9 (“Atribacteria”). These observations conclusively demonstrate the production of bGDGTs in this hot spring; however, the identity of organisms that produce bGDGTs in the geothermal environment remains unclear. PMID:23847605

  4. Coordinating environmental genomics and geochemistry reveals metabolic transitions in a hot spring ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Swingley, Wesley D; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Shock, Everett L; Alsop, Eric B; Falenski, Heinz D; Havig, Jeff R; Raymond, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycles and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem via coordinated analysis of the "Bison Pool" (BP) Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ~75 geochemical parameters. 2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of environmental sequence data were produced from biofilms at five sites along the outflow of BP, an alkaline hot spring in Sentinel Meadow (Lower Geyser Basin) of Yellowstone National Park. This channel acts as a >22 m gradient of decreasing temperature, increasing dissolved oxygen, and changing availability of biologically important chemical species, such as those containing nitrogen and sulfur. Microbial life at BP transitions from a 92 °C chemotrophic streamer biofilm community in the BP source pool to a 56 °C phototrophic mat community. We improved automated annotation of the BP environmental genomes using BLAST-based Markov clustering. We have also assigned environmental genome sequences to individual microbial community members by complementing traditional homology-based assignment with nucleotide word-usage algorithms, allowing more than 70% of all reads to be assigned to source organisms. This assignment yields high genome coverage in dominant community members, facilitating reconstruction of nearly complete metabolic profiles and in-depth analysis of the relation between geochemical and metabolic changes along the outflow. We show that changes in environmental conditions and energy availability are associated with dramatic shifts in microbial communities and metabolic function. We have also identified an organism constituting a novel phylum in a metabolic "transition" community, located physically between the chemotroph- and phototroph-dominated sites. The complementary analysis of biogeochemical and environmental genomic data from BP has allowed us to build ecosystem-based conceptual models for this hot spring, reconstructing

  5. Profiling of microbial community of Odisha hot spring based on metagenomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Archana; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2016-03-01

    Deulajhari hot spring has diverse temperature and pH range varying from 43 °C to 65 °C and 7.83 to 8.10 respectively. Dense foliage around Deulajhari hot spring contributes to the high total organic carbon content (TOC). In our experiment we took sediment samples from the two Deulajhari hot springs (S1 and S2) out of the cluster having temperature of 43 °C and 55 °C and pH of 7.83 and 7.14 respectively. Sediment samples were analysed using 16S rRNA of V3-V4 region by amplicon metagenome sequencing. Over 34 phyla were detected in cluster S1 and 32 phyla in cluster S2 at the existing physiochemical parameters temperature 43 °C, pH 7.83, electroconductivity 0.019 dSm(- 1), and total organic carbon (TOC) 3.80% for S1 and temperature 55 °C, pH 7.14, electroconductivity 0.019 dSm(- 1), and total organic carbon (TOC) 0.97% for S2. Existence of a vast number of unresolved sequences 179 out of 292 in S1 and 186 out of 314 in S2 at the genus level emphasizes the significance of our study. Metagenome sequence information for the both clusters S1 and S2 of Deulajhari is available at NCBI, SRA database with accession number SRX1459732 and SRX1459733 respectively. Direct link to the deposited data: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/SRX1459732 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/SRX1459733.

  6. Coordinating Environmental Genomics and Geochemistry Reveals Metabolic Transitions in a Hot Spring Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Swingley, Wesley D.; Meyer-Dombard, D’Arcy R.; Shock, Everett L.; Alsop, Eric B.; Falenski, Heinz D.; Havig, Jeff R.; Raymond, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycles and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem via coordinated analysis of the “Bison Pool” (BP) Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ∼75 geochemical parameters. 2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of environmental sequence data were produced from biofilms at five sites along the outflow of BP, an alkaline hot spring in Sentinel Meadow (Lower Geyser Basin) of Yellowstone National Park. This channel acts as a >22 m gradient of decreasing temperature, increasing dissolved oxygen, and changing availability of biologically important chemical species, such as those containing nitrogen and sulfur. Microbial life at BP transitions from a 92°C chemotrophic streamer biofilm community in the BP source pool to a 56°C phototrophic mat community. We improved automated annotation of the BP environmental genomes using BLAST-based Markov clustering. We have also assigned environmental genome sequences to individual microbial community members by complementing traditional homology-based assignment with nucleotide word-usage algorithms, allowing more than 70% of all reads to be assigned to source organisms. This assignment yields high genome coverage in dominant community members, facilitating reconstruction of nearly complete metabolic profiles and in-depth analysis of the relation between geochemical and metabolic changes along the outflow. We show that changes in environmental conditions and energy availability are associated with dramatic shifts in microbial communities and metabolic function. We have also identified an organism constituting a novel phylum in a metabolic “transition” community, located physically between the chemotroph- and phototroph-dominated sites. The complementary analysis of biogeochemical and environmental genomic data from BP has allowed us to build ecosystem-based conceptual models for this hot spring

  7. Seismic baseline and induction studies: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Zandt, G.; McPherson, L.; Schaff, S.; Olsen, S.

    1982-05-01

    Local seismic networks were established at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal area, utah and at Raft River geothermal area, Idaho to monitor the background seismicity prior to initiation of geothermal power production. The Raft River study area is currently seismically quiet down to the level of approximately magnitude one. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area has low-level seismic activity for M/sub L/ greater than about two; however, microearthquake (M/sub L/ less than or equal to 2) swarms appear to be relatively common. One swarm occurred adjacent to the Roosevelt geothermal area during the summer of 1981. From June 27 to August 28, 1044 microearthquakes (M/sub L/ less than or equal to 1.5) were recorded from which 686 earthquakes were located and analysed. The main cluster of microearthquakes was located about 2 km east of the production field at a depth of about 5 km. A few small events were located in the production field at shallow depths (< 2 km). Three of the four largest earthquakes in the swarm (M/sub L/ 1.5-2.0) were located 4 to 5 km further east along a n-NW trend beneath the flank of the adjacent Mineral Mountains. Focal mechanism solutions indicate primarily normal faulting due to the regional E-W extension which characterizes this portion of the eastern Basin and Range province. Hence, the Mineral Mountain swarm appears to be a natural release of tectonic stress in this area. Nevertheless, the occurrence of natural earthquake swarms indicates a potential for induced seismicity at Roosevelt Hot Springs after major production operations are initiated.

  8. Carbon Isotope Signatures of Microbial Mats in the Jackson Mountain Hot Spring, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, G. L.; Li, Y.; Jones, M.; Paddock, L.; Romanek, C. S.; Zhang, C. L.; Wiegel, J.

    2004-12-01

    The long-term goal of this study is to determine the diversity, ecological function, and CO2 fixation pathways of novel microorganisms in Nevada hot springs. A survey of 16 hot springs in Nevada in May 2004 showed large variations in pH (5.5-9.4) and temperature (36-96°C), which may have significant impact on microbial diversity and primary production by autotrophs. In this study, we select the Jackson Mountain hot spring for a detailed carbon-isotope study along a temperature-and-pH gradient during the formation of travertine (carbonate) deposits. Field measurements indicated that temperature decreased from 68.8-72.3 °C at the vents to 44 °C at the end of slope; the corresponding pH increased from 7.3-7.4 at the vents to 8.3 at the base of slope. Isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic carbon increased slightly from -3.77 per mil at the vent to -3.2 per mil down gradient. Mat materials were collected along the temperature-and-pH gradient for analyses of bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). We expect that temperature will be a major control on the distribution of PLFA in the changing microbial communities because microbial lipid compositions are sensitive to temperature variation. Isotopic fractionations between lipid biomarkers and total biomass are expected to provide insight about the dominant CO2 fixation pathways in different microbial communities growing in different temperature environments.

  9. Diversity of thermophiles in a Malaysian hot spring determined using 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chia Sing; Chan, Kok-Gan; Tay, Yea-Ling; Chua, Yi-Heng; Goh, Kian Mau

    2015-01-01

    The Sungai Klah (SK) hot spring is the second hottest geothermal spring in Malaysia. This hot spring is a shallow, 150-m-long, fast-flowing stream, with temperatures varying from 50 to 110°C and a pH range of 7.0-9.0. Hidden within a wooded area, the SK hot spring is continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). In this study, a sample taken from the middle of the stream was analyzed at the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region by amplicon metagenome sequencing. Over 35 phyla were detected by analyzing the 16S rRNA data. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented approximately 57% of the microbiome. Approximately 70% of the detected thermophiles were strict anaerobes; however, Hydrogenobacter spp., obligate chemolithotrophic thermophiles, represented one of the major taxa. Several thermophilic photosynthetic microorganisms and acidothermophiles were also detected. Most of the phyla identified by 16S rRNA were also found using the shotgun metagenome approaches. The carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism within the SK hot spring community were evaluated by shotgun metagenome sequencing, and the data revealed diversity in terms of metabolic activity and dynamics. This hot spring has a rich diversified phylogenetic community partly due to its natural environment (plant litter, high TOC, and a shallow stream) and geochemical parameters (broad temperature and pH range). It is speculated that symbiotic relationships occur between the members of the community.

  10. Studying Prokaryotic Communities in Iron Depositing Hot Springs (IDHS): Implication for Early Mars Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisova, S. A.; Tringe, S. G.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Allen, C. c.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, David S.; Brown, I. I.

    2010-01-01

    We speculate that both external and intracellular iron precipitate in iron-tolerant CB might be involved in oxidative stress suppression shown by [9]. Significant differences are apparent between a set of proteins involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis and oxidative stress protection in iron-tolerant and fresh-water and marine CB. Correspondingly, these properties may help to make iron-tolerant CB as dominant organisms in IDHS and probably on early Earth and Mars. Further comparative analyses of hot springs metagenomes and the genomes of iron-tolerant microbes versus fresh-water/marine ones may point out to different habitable zones on early Mars.

  11. Environmental assessment of the proposed nonelectric application of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an environmental analysis performed in evaluating various proposed geothermal demonstration projects at Desert Hot Springs. These are categorized in two ways: (1) indirect, or (2) direct uses. Among the former are greenhouses, industrial complexes, and car washes. The latter include aquaculture, a cascaded agribusiness system, and a mobile home park. Major categories of environmental impact covered are: (1) site, (2) construction of projects, and (3) the use of the geothermal source. Attention is also given to the disposal of the geothermal fluid after use. Finally, it is concluded that there are no major problems forseen for each project, and future objectives are discussed.

  12. Pseudomonas yangmingensis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic denitrifying species isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Wong, Biing-Teo; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-01-01

    This study isolated and identified a facultative, alkaliphilic, denitrifying Pseudomonas strain designed as CRS1 from a hot spring, Yang-Ming Mountain, Taiwan. The biochemical characterization, phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relationship of strain CRS1 were studied. On the basis of the 16S rRNA sequence similarity, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, the strain CRS1 represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas yangmingensis sp. nov., is proposed. The strain CRS1 is a facultative autotrophic bacterium that has capability of mixotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Near-infrared detection of ammonium minerals at Ivanhoe Hot Springs, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected over the fossil hot spring deposit at Ivanhoe, Nevada in order to determine the surface distribution of NH4-bearing minerals. Laboratory studies show that NH4-bearing minerals have characteristic absorption features in the near-infrared (NIR). Ammonium-bearing feldspars and alunites were observed at the surface of Ivanhoe using a hand-held radiometer. However, first look analysis of the AIS images showed that the line was about 500 m east of its intended mark, and the vegetation cover was sufficiently dense to inhibit preliminary attempts at making relative reflectance images for detection of ammonium minerals.

  14. Environmental assessment of the proposed nonelectric application of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an environmental analysis performed in evaluating various proposed geothermal demonstration projects at Desert Hot Springs. These are categorized in two ways: (1) indirect, or (2) direct uses. Among the former are greenhouses, industrial complexes, and car washes. The latter include aquaculture, a cascaded agribusiness system, and a mobile home park. Major categories of environmental impact covered are: (1) site, (2) construction of projects, and (3) the use of the geothermal source. Attention is also given to the disposal of the geothermal fluid after use. Finally, it is concluded that there are no major problems forseen for each project, and future objectives are discussed.

  15. Functional genes and thermophilic microorganisms responsible for arsenite oxidation from the shallow sediment of an untraversed hot spring outlet.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Mu, Yao; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Wu, Weiwei; Yuan, Jie; Liu, Yichen; Guoji, E; Luo, Feng; Chen, Xiaoming; Li, Hao; Wang, Jianing

    2017-03-01

    Hot Springs have unique geochemical features. Microorganisms-mediated arsenite oxidation is one of the major biogeochemical processes occurred in some hot springs. This study aimed to understand the diversities of genes and microorganisms involved in arsenite oxidation from the outlet of an untraversed hot spring located at an altitude of 4226 m. Microcosm assay indicated that the microbial community from the hot spring was able to efficiently oxidize As(III) using glucose, lactic acid, yeast extract or sodium bicarbonate as the sole carbon source. The microbial community contained 7 phyla of microorganisms, of which Proteobacteria and Firmicutes are largely dominant; this composition is unique and differs significantly from those of other described hot springs. Twenty one novel arsenite oxidase genes were identified from the samples, which are affiliated with the arsenite oxidase families of α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria or Archaea; this highlights the high diversity of the arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms from the hot spring. A cultivable arsenite-oxidizer Chelatococcu sp. GHS311 was also isolated from the sample using enrichment technique. It can completely convert 75.0 mg/L As(III) into As(V) in 18 days at 45 °C. The arsenite oxidase of GHS311 shares the maximal sequence identity (84.7%) to that of Hydrogenophaga sp. CL3, a non-thermotolerant bacterium. At the temperature lower than 30 °C or higher than 65 °C, the growth of this strain was completely inhibited. These data help us to better understand the diversity and functional features of the thermophilic arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms from hot springs.

  16. Investigation of the microbial community in the Odisha hot spring cluster based on the cultivation independent approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, Archana; Subudhi, Enketeswara; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Gaur, Mahendra

    2016-03-01

    Deulajhari hot spring is located in the Angul district of Odisha. The significance of this hot spring is the presence of the hot spring cluster adjacent to the cold spring which attracts the attention of microbiologists to understand the role of physio-chemical factors of these springs on bacterial community structure. Next-generation sequencing technology helps us to depict the pioneering microflora of any ecological niche based on metagenomic approach. Our study represents the first Illumina based metagenomic study of Deulajhari hot spring DH1, and DH2 of the cluster with temperature 65 °C to 55 °C respectively establishing a difference of 10 °C. Comprehensive study of microbiota of these two hot springs was done using the metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA of V3-V4 region extracting metagenomic DNA from the two hot spring sediments. Sequencing community DNA reported about 28 phyla in spring DH1 of which the majority were Chloroflexi (22.98%), Proteobacteria (15.51%), Acidobacteria (14.51%), Chlorobi (9.52%), Nitrospirae (8.54%), and Armatimonadetes (7.07%), at the existing physiochemical conditions like; temperature 65 °C, pH 8.06, electro conductivity 0.020 dSm(- 1), and total organic carbon (TOC) 3.76%. About 40 phyla were detected in cluster DH2 at the existing physiochemical parameters like temperature 55 °C, pH 8.10, electro conductivity 0.019 dSm(- 1), and total organic carbon (TOC) 0.58% predominated with Chloroflexi (41.98%), Proteobacteria (10.74%), Nitrospirae (10.01%), Chlorobi (8.73%), Acidobacteria (6.73%) and Planctomycetes (3.73%). Approximately 68 class, 107 order, 171 genus and 184 species were reported in cluster DH1 but 102 class, 180 order, 375 genus and 411 species in cluster DH2. The comparative metagenomics study of the Deulajhari hot spring clusters DH1, and DH2 depicts the differential profile of the microbiota. Metagenome sequences of these two hot spring clusters are deposited to the SRA database and are available in

  17. Long-term radon variations at a hot spring in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rui; Woith, Heiko; Wang, Rongjiang; Wang, Guangcai

    2017-04-01

    Radon concentration is monitored continuously in mainland China by China Earthquake Administration (CEA) for the purpose of earthquake prediction. An almost gap-free radon record of nearly 40 years (from April 1976 to December 2015) of monitoring of water-dissolved radon at the hot spring site of BangLazhang (BLZ), Southwestern China is analysed. The length of the time series allows the investigation of long-term periodicities of radon. Ancillary observation data, i.e. water temperature, spring discharge rate, barometric pressure, combined with regional rainfall, galactic cosmic ray (as a proxy for solar activity) and regional seismicity are complemented for the same period to identify potentially influencing factors controlling the changes of radon. The long-term variations in radon concentration and ancillary observation data are studied by using the continuous Wavelet Power Spectrum (WPS), Wavelet Coherence (WTC), and Partial Wavelet Coherence (PWC) methods. The results of WPSs and WTCs show that the long-periodic radon concentration is characterized by a significant decadal cycle, matching well with the concurrent periodicity in water temperature, spring discharge rate, and galactic cosmic ray. The analysis of PWCs among radon, discharge rate, water temperature, and galactic cosmic ray reveals that the 11-year solar cycle might influence radon, water temperature, and spring discharge, though a direct physical link between the solar activity and the monitored parameters seems unlikely. Moreover, PWCs of radon, discharge rate and water temperature suggests that water temperature variations explain most of the coherent variability of radon and the discharge rate. Possible mechanisms are discussed. We tentatively propose that the multi-year periodic variations in radon concentration are mainly explained by variations of water temperature and/or spring discharge, which are modified and inter-modulated by earthquakes and decadal variations of unknown origin.

  18. Arsenic rich Himalayan hot spring metagenomics reveal genetically novel predator-prey genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Naseer; Lambert, Carey; Sharma, Anukriti; Gupta, Vipin; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Sockett, R Elizabeth; Gilbert, Jack A; Lal, Rup

    2015-12-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are small Deltaproteobacteria that invade, kill and assimilate their prey. Metagenomic assembly analysis of the microbial mats of an arsenic rich, hot spring was performed to describe the genotypes of the predator Bdellovibrio and the ecogenetically adapted taxa Enterobacter. The microbial mats were enriched with Bdellovibrio (1.3%) and several Gram-negative bacteria including Bordetella (16%), Enterobacter (6.8%), Burkholderia (4.8%), Acinetobacter (2.3%) and Yersinia (1%). A high-quality (47 contigs, 25X coverage; 3.5 Mbp) draft genome of Bdellovibrio (strain ArHS; Arsenic Hot Spring) was reassembled, which lacked the marker gene Bd0108 associated with the usual method of prey interaction and invasion for this genus, while maintaining genes coding for the hydrolytic enzymes necessary for prey assimilation. By filtering microbial mat samples (< 0.45 μm) to enrich for small predatory cell sizes, we observed Bdellovibrio-like cells attached side-on to E. coli through electron microscopy. Furthermore, a draft pan-genome of the dominant potential host taxon, Enterobacter cloacae ArHS (4.8 Mb), along with three of its viral genotypes (n = 3; 42 kb, 49 kb and 50 kb), was assembled. These data were further used to analyse the population level evolutionary dynamics (taxonomical and functional) of reconstructed genotypes. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Viral assemblage composition in Yellowstone acidic hot springs assessed by network analysis.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Wirth, Jennifer F; Mazurie, Aurélien; Young, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    Understanding of viral assemblage structure in natural environments remains a daunting task. Total viral assemblage sequencing (for example, viral metagenomics) provides a tractable approach. However, even with the availability of next-generation sequencing technology it is usually only possible to obtain a fragmented view of viral assemblages in natural ecosystems. In this study, we applied a network-based approach in combination with viral metagenomics to investigate viral assemblage structure in the high temperature, acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Our results show that this approach can identify distinct viral groups and provide insights into the viral assemblage structure. We identified 110 viral groups in the hot springs environment, with each viral group likely representing a viral family at the sub-family taxonomic level. Most of these viral groups are previously unknown DNA viruses likely infecting archaeal hosts. Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of combining viral assemblage sequencing approaches with network analysis to gain insights into viral assemblage structure in natural ecosystems.

  20. Diversity of putative archaeal RNA viruses in metagenomic datasets of a yellowstone acidic hot spring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongming; Yu, Yongxin; Liu, Taigang; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Two genomic fragments (5,662 and 1,269 nt in size, GenBank accession no. JQ756122 and JQ756123, respectively) of novel, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect archaea were first discovered in an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park (Bolduc et al., 2012). To investigate the diversity of these newly identified putative archaeal RNA viruses, global metagenomic datasets were searched for sequences that were significantly similar to those of the viruses. A total of 3,757 associated reads were retrieved solely from the Yellowstone datasets and were used to assemble the genomes of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. Nine contigs with lengths ranging from 417 to 5,866 nt were obtained, 4 of which were longer than 2,200 nt; one contig was 204 nt longer than JQ756122, representing the longest genomic sequence of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. These contigs revealed more than 50% sequence similarity to JQ756122 or JQ756123 and may be partial or nearly complete genomes of novel genogroups or genotypes of the putative archaeal RNA viruses. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the archaeal RNA viruses are genetically diverse, with at least 3 related viral lineages in the Yellowstone acidic hot spring environment.

  1. Remarkable archaeal diversity detected in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring environment

    SciTech Connect

    Barns, S.M.; Fundyga, R.E.; Jeffries, M.W.; Pace, N.R.

    1994-03-01

    Of the three primary phylogenetic domains - Archaea (archaebacteria), Bacteria (eubacteria), and Eucarya (eukaryotes) - Archaea is the least understood in terms of its diversity, physiologies, and ecological panorama. Although many species of Crenarchaeota have been isolated, they constitute a relatively tight-knit cluster of lineages in phylogenetic analyses of rRNA sequences. It seemed possible that this limited diversity is merely apparent and reflects only a failure to culture organisms, not their absence. The authors reported here phylogenetic characterization of many archaeal small subunit rRNA gene sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification of mixed population DNA extracted directly from sediment of a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. This approach obviates the need for cultivation to identify organisms. The analyses document the existence not only of species belonging to well-characterized crenarchaeal genera or families but also of crenarchaeal species for which no close relatives have so far been found. The large number of distinct archaeal sequence types retrieved from this single hot spring was unexpected and demonstrates that Crenarchaeota is a much more diverse group than was previously suspected. The results have impact on concepts of the phylogenetic organization of Archaea.

  2. Neotropical Andes hot springs harbor diverse and distinct planktonic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Serrano, Luisa; López, Gina; Bohorquez, Laura C; Bustos, José R; Rubiano, Carolina; Osorio-Forero, César; Junca, Howard; Baena, Sandra; Zambrano, María M

    2014-07-01

    Microbial explorations of hot springs have led to remarkable discoveries and improved our understanding of life under extreme conditions. The Andean Mountains harbor diverse habitats, including an extensive chain of geothermal heated water sources. In this study, we describe and compare the planktonic microbial communities present in five high-mountain hot springs with distinct geochemical characteristics, at varying altitudes and geographical locations in the Colombian Andes. The diversity and structure of the microbial communities were assessed by pyrosequencing the V5 - V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The planktonic communities varied in terms of diversity indexes and were dominated by the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Aquificae, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, and Thermotogae, with site-specific bacterial taxa also observed in some cases. Statistical analyses showed that these microbial communities were distinct from one another and that they clustered in a manner consistent with physicochemical parameters of the environment sampled. Multivariate analysis suggested that pH and sulfate were among the main variables influencing population structure and diversity. The results show that despite their geographical proximity and some shared geochemical characteristics, there were few shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and that community structure was influenced mainly by environmental factors that have resulted in different microbial populations. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Silica deposits on Mars with features resembling hot spring biosignatures at El Tatio in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Steven W.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars rover Spirit encountered outcrops and regolith composed of opaline silica (amorphous SiO2·nH2O) in an ancient volcanic hydrothermal setting in Gusev crater. An origin via either fumarole-related acid-sulfate leaching or precipitation from hot spring fluids was suggested previously. However, the potential significance of the characteristic nodular and mm-scale digitate opaline silica structures was not recognized. Here we report remarkably similar features within active hot spring/geyser discharge channels at El Tatio in northern Chile, where halite-encrusted silica yields infrared spectra that are the best match yet to spectra from Spirit. Furthermore, we show that the nodular and digitate silica structures at El Tatio that most closely resemble those on Mars include complex sedimentary structures produced by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. Although fully abiotic processes are not ruled out for the Martian silica structures, they satisfy an a priori definition of potential biosignatures. PMID:27853166

  4. Evolution of thermotolerance in hot spring cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

    2000-01-01

    The extension of ecological tolerance limits may be an important mechanism by which microorganisms adapt to novel environments, but it may come at the evolutionary cost of reduced performance under ancestral conditions. We combined a comparative physiological approach with phylogenetic analyses to study the evolution of thermotolerance in hot spring cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus. Among the 20 laboratory clones of Synechococcus isolated from collections made along an Oregon hot spring thermal gradient, four different 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified. Phylogenies constructed by using the sequence data indicated that the clones were polyphyletic but that three of the four sequence groups formed a clade. Differences in thermotolerance were observed for clones with different 16S rRNA gene sequences, and comparison of these physiological differences within a phylogenetic framework provided evidence that more thermotolerant lineages of Synechococcus evolved from less thermotolerant ancestors. The extension of the thermal limit in these bacteria was correlated with a reduction in the breadth of the temperature range for growth, which provides evidence that enhanced thermotolerance has come at the evolutionary cost of increased thermal specialization. This study illustrates the utility of using phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate how evolutionary processes have shaped historical patterns of ecological diversification in microorganisms.

  5. A Culture-Independent Survey of the Bacterial Community in a Radon Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitori, Roberto P.; Trott, Cherida; Saul, David J.; Bergquist, Peter L.; Walter, Malcolm R.

    2002-08-01

    Paralana is an active, radon-containing hot spring situated in a region of South Australia's Flinders Ranges with a long history of hydrothermal activity. Our aim was to determine the bacterial composition of Paralana using a culture-independent, 16S rRNA-based technique. The presence of a diverse bacterial community was strongly suggested by the large number (~180) of different ribotypes obtained upon analysis of nine hot spring samples. DNA sequencing of Paralana 16S rRNA genes corroborated this observation, identifying representatives of seven confirmed and two candidate divisions of the domain Bacteria. These included Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria (both β and δ subdivisions), the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group, Low G+C Gram-positives, Nitrospira, green non-sulfur bacteria, green sulfur bacteria, OP8, and OP12. No known ionizing radiation-resistant Bacteria were identified. Only one Paralana 16S rRNA sequence type (recombinant B5D) was homologous to a sequence previously identified from a radioactive environment.

  6. Silica deposits on Mars with features resembling hot spring biosignatures at El Tatio in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Steven W; Farmer, Jack D

    2016-11-17

    The Mars rover Spirit encountered outcrops and regolith composed of opaline silica (amorphous SiO2·nH2O) in an ancient volcanic hydrothermal setting in Gusev crater. An origin via either fumarole-related acid-sulfate leaching or precipitation from hot spring fluids was suggested previously. However, the potential significance of the characteristic nodular and mm-scale digitate opaline silica structures was not recognized. Here we report remarkably similar features within active hot spring/geyser discharge channels at El Tatio in northern Chile, where halite-encrusted silica yields infrared spectra that are the best match yet to spectra from Spirit. Furthermore, we show that the nodular and digitate silica structures at El Tatio that most closely resemble those on Mars include complex sedimentary structures produced by a combination of biotic and abiotic processes. Although fully abiotic processes are not ruled out for the Martian silica structures, they satisfy an a priori definition of potential biosignatures.

  7. Geothermal resources in the Banbury Hot Springs area, Twin Falls County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, R.E.; Young, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal water (30.0 to 72.0 degrees Celsius) is produced from 26 wells and 2 springs in the vicinity of Banbury Hot Springs near Buhl, Idaho. Thermal water is used for space heating of private residences, catfish and tropical fish production, greenhouse operation, swimming pools, and therapeutic baths. In 1979, 10 ,300 acre-feet of thermal water was utilized; heat discharged convectively from the geothermal system was about 1.09 x 10 to the 7th power calories per second. Decline in artesian head and discharge apparent in recorder charts from two wells may represent seasonal fluctuations or may reflect aquifer response to development of the resource. Thermal waters sampled are sodium bicarbonate in character and slightly alkaline. Mixing of a hot (72 degrees Celsius) water with local, cooler ground water can be shown from various relations between stable isotopes, chloride, and enthalpy. On the basis of concentration of trituim , age of the waters sampled is at least 100 years an perhaps more than 1,000 years. One water (33 degress Celsius) may be as young as 29 years. On the basis of silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water geothermometers, best estimate of the maximum reservoir temperature for the thermal waters is between about 70 and 100 degrees Celsius. (USGS)

  8. Geothermal resources in the Banbury Hot Springs area, Twin Falls County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, R.E.; Young, Harold William

    1982-01-01

    Thermal water 30.0 degrees to 72.0 degrees Celsius is produced from 26 wells and 2 springs in the vicinity of Banbury Hot Springs near Buhl, Idaho. Thermal water is used for residence heating, catfish and tropical fish production, greenhouse operation, swimming pools, and therapeutic baths. In 1979, 10,300 acre-feet of thermal water was utilized; heat discharged convectively from the geothermal system was about 1.1 x 107 calories per second. Decline in artesian head and discharge apparent in recorder charts from two wells may represent seasonal fluctuations or may reflect reservoir response to development of the resource. The thermal waters sampled are sodium carbonate or bicarbonate in character and slightly alkaline. Mixing of hot (72 degrees Celsius) water with local cooler ground water can be shown from various relations among stable isotopes, chloride, and enthalpy. On the basis of concentration of tritium, the age of most of the water sampled is at least 100 years and perhaps more than 1,000 years. Some water (33 degrees Celsius) may be as young as 29 years. On the basis of silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water geothermometers, the best estimate of the maximum reservoir temperature for the thermal water is between 70 degrees and 100 degrees Celsius.

  9. Viral assemblage composition in Yellowstone acidic hot springs assessed by network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Wirth, Jennifer F; Mazurie, Aurélien; Young, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of viral assemblage structure in natural environments remains a daunting task. Total viral assemblage sequencing (for example, viral metagenomics) provides a tractable approach. However, even with the availability of next-generation sequencing technology it is usually only possible to obtain a fragmented view of viral assemblages in natural ecosystems. In this study, we applied a network-based approach in combination with viral metagenomics to investigate viral assemblage structure in the high temperature, acidic hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Our results show that this approach can identify distinct viral groups and provide insights into the viral assemblage structure. We identified 110 viral groups in the hot springs environment, with each viral group likely representing a viral family at the sub-family taxonomic level. Most of these viral groups are previously unknown DNA viruses likely infecting archaeal hosts. Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of combining viral assemblage sequencing approaches with network analysis to gain insights into viral assemblage structure in natural ecosystems. PMID:26125684

  10. Diversity of Cultured Thermophilic Anaerobes in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Lu, Y.; Dong, X.; Liu, X.; Wei, Y.; Ji, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic anaerobes including Archaea and Bacteria refer to those growing optimally at temperatures above 50°C and do not use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for growth. Study on thermophilic anaerobes will help to understand how life thrives under extreme conditions. Meanwhile thermophilic anaerobes are of importance in potential application and development of thermophilic biotechnology. We have surveyed culturable thermophilic anaerobes in hot springs (pH6.5-7.5; 70 - 94°C) in Rehai of Tengchong, Bangnazhang of Longlin, Eryuan of Dali,Yunnan, China. 50 strains in total were cultured from the hot springs water using Hungate anaerobic technique, and 30 strains were selected based on phenotypic diversity for analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 strains belonged to the members of five genera: Caldanaerobacter, Calaramator, Thermoanaerobacter, Dictyoglomus and Fervidobacterium, which formed five branches on the phylogenetic tree. Besides, 2 strains of methanogenic archaea were obtained. The majority of the isolates were the known species, however, seven strains were identified as novel species affiliated to the five genera based on the lower 16S rDNA sequence similarities (less than 93 - 97%) with the described species. This work would provide the future study on their diversity, distribution among different regions and the potential application of thermophilic enzyme. Supported by State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(SKLMR-080605)and the Foundation of State Natural Science (30660009, 30960022, 31081220175).

  11. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pak Yuen; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2007-10-01

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes well. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs.

  12. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Pak Yuen; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2007-10-01

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes well. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs.

  13. Geochemical Modeling of Hot Spring Chemistries with Applications to Martian Silica Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. M.; Catling, D. C.; Crowley, J. K.; Kargel, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Many studies recently have implicated hydrothermal systems as drivers for Martian geochemistries across a wide range of Martian sites. One of the leading empirical supports for hydrothermal systems are the massive silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases > 90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. In this presentation, we will (1) show the extension of a FREZCHEM-like model (called CHEMCHAU) to 100°C for hydrothermal simulations, and (2) apply the model to hot spring environments, especially where massive silica deposits can precipitate. For the new CHEMCHAU model, Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system were developed that mostly covered the temperature range of 0-100°C and the pressure range of 1-1000 bars. Simulation of an acid sulfate case (low pH) from Yellowstone hot springs led to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica, which is similar to some Martian mineral assemblages. Formation of silica at elevated temperatures (82°C) and high pH (8.45) led to precipitation of anhydrous salts (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that are clear indicators of high temperature environments. Secondary minerals associated with massive silica deposits are likely indicators of precipitation environments.

  14. Biodiversity of thermophilic prokaryotes with hydrolytic activities in hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka (Russia).

    PubMed

    Kublanov, Ilya V; Perevalova, Anna A; Slobodkina, Galina B; Lebedinsky, Aleksander V; Bidzhieva, Salima K; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Kaliberda, Elena N; Rumsh, Lev D; Haertlé, Thomas; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2009-01-01

    Samples of water from the hot springs of Uzon Caldera with temperatures from 68 to 87 degrees C and pHs of 4.1 to 7.0, supplemented with proteinaceous (albumin, casein, or alpha- or beta-keratin) or carbohydrate (cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, chitin, or agarose) biological polymers, were filled with thermal water and incubated at the same sites, with the contents of the tubes freely accessible to the hydrothermal fluid. As a result, several enrichment cultures growing in situ on different polymeric substrates were obtained. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained after PCR with Bacteria-specific primers showed that the bacterial communities developing on carbohydrates included the genera Caldicellulosiruptor and Dictyoglomus and that those developing on proteins contained members of the Thermotogales order. DGGE analysis performed after PCR with Archaea- and Crenarchaeota-specific primers showed that archaea related to uncultured environmental clones, particularly those of the Crenarchaeota phylum, were present in both carbohydrate- and protein-degrading communities. Five isolates obtained from in situ enrichments or corresponding natural samples of water and sediments represented the bacterial genera Dictyoglomus and Caldanaerobacter as well as new archaea of the Crenarchaeota phylum. Thus, in situ enrichment and consequent isolation showed the diversity of thermophilic prokaryotes competing for biopolymers in microbial communities of terrestrial hot springs.

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of Hot Springs in Central India Reveals Hydrocarbon Degrading Thermophiles and Pathways Essential for Survival in Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rituja; Dhakan, Darshan B.; Mittal, Parul; Waiker, Prashant; Chowdhury, Anirban; Ghatak, Arundhuti; Sharma, Vineet K.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme ecosystems such as hot springs are of great interest as a source of novel extremophilic species, enzymes, metabolic functions for survival and biotechnological products. India harbors hundreds of hot springs, the majority of which are not yet explored and require comprehensive studies to unravel their unknown and untapped phylogenetic and functional diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a large-scale metagenomic analysis of three major hot springs located in central India namely, Badi Anhoni, Chhoti Anhoni, and Tattapani at two geographically distinct regions (Anhoni and Tattapani), to uncover the resident microbial community and their metabolic traits. Samples were collected from seven distinct sites of the three hot spring locations with temperature ranging from 43.5 to 98°C. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3 hypervariable region and shotgun metagenome sequencing uncovered a unique taxonomic and metabolic diversity of the resident thermophilic microbial community in these hot springs. Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be abundant in the Anhoni hot springs (43.5–55°C), dominated by Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acidovorax sp., suggesting the presence of chemoorganotrophic thermophilic community with the ability to utilize complex hydrocarbons as a source of energy. A high abundance of genes belonging to methane metabolism pathway was observed at Chhoti Anhoni hot spring, where methane is reported to constitute >80% of all the emitted gases, which was marked by the high abundance of Methylococcus capsulatus. The Tattapani hot spring, with a high-temperature range (61.5–98°C), displayed a lower microbial diversity and was primarily dominated by a nitrate-reducing archaeal species Pyrobaculum aerophilum. A higher abundance of cell metabolism pathways essential for the microbial survival in extreme conditions was observed at Tattapani. Taken together

  16. Environmental inputs that can influence carbon isotopic compositions of hot spring biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donatelli, J. L.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    The carbon isotopic compositions of hydrothermal biofilms are influenced by microbial carbon cycling, and can be correlated with the presence or absence of specific genes in environmental genomic analyses (Havig et al., 2011, JGR). Additional isotopic data on potential environmental sources of carbon will enable further tests of the specific pathways of carbon assimilation and cycling throughout hydrothermal ecosystems. Hot springs at Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are often located in open meadows or forested areas with varying amounts of vegetation and exposed soil surrounding the pools. These pools are open systems which have the potential to accumulate allochthonous materials via physical and biogenic processes. These inputs may affect the δ13C signatures of the hot spring waters and the biofilms associated with them. In the YNP hot springs we have studied since 2003, biofilms range in δ13C from -1.2 to -30.7%. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in coexisting fluids ranges from 4.3 to -3.9%. The heaviest biofilms typically show minimal isotopic fractionation from the DIC in coexisting fluids. DIC values are strongly influenced by inputs from magma degassing, water-rock reactions in the hydrothermal system, and the atmosphere. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values for the coexisting fluids range from -16.5 to -26.8%, which are within the range of biofilm δ13C values. DOC values will also be affected by diverse processes as precipitation infiltrates, reacts, and eventually returns to the surface as hydrothermal fluids, but may also be influenced by biologically derived inputs from the local environments where hot springs occur. In an effort to characterize the environmental context of hot springs, we have collected isotopic data on lodgepole pine needles, grasses, soils, insects and bison feces. Of these, the δ13C data for bison feces (-27.7 to -29.6%) are lighter than any of the DOC data. Pine needles (-26.3 to -29.1%) and soils (-24.8 to -27.1%) overlap with

  17. Spatial distribution of radioisotopes in the coast of Suez Gulf, southwestern Sinai and the impact of hot springs.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Kh A; Seddeek, M K; Elnimr, T; Sharshar, T; Badran, H M

    2011-06-01

    This work describes the concentrations of radioisotopes in soil, sediment, wild plants and groundwater in southwestern Sinai. The study area extends from Suez to Abu Rudies along the eastern part of the Suez Gulf. It included two hot springs: Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun. No dependence of ¹³⁷Cs concentrations on any of the measured sand characteristics was found, including calcium carbonate. The enrichment of ²²⁶Ra in Hammam Faraoun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The ²²⁶Ra concentration in hot springs of Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun were 68 and 2377 Bq kg⁻¹ for sediments, 3.5 and 54.0 Bq kg⁻¹ for wild plants and 205 and 1945 mBq l⁻¹ for the groundwater, respectively. In addition, ²²⁶Ra activity concentration in local sand in the area of Hammam Faraoun was ∼14 times that of Ayun Musa. On the other hand, the ²³²Th concentrations were comparable in the two hot springs, while ¹³⁷Cs concentrations were relatively higher in Ayun Musa. The characteristics and radioelements studies support possible suggestions that the waters in the two hot springs have different contributions of sea and groundwaters crossing different geological layers where the water-rock interaction takes place.

  18. Microbial community analysis of a coastal hot spring in Kagoshima, Japan, using molecular- and culture-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Minako; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Kurosawa, Norio

    2013-08-01

    Ibusuki hot spring is located on the coastline of Kagoshima Bay, Japan. The hot spring water is characterized by high salinity, high temperature, and neutral pH. The hot spring is covered by the sea during high tide, which leads to severe fluctuations in several environmental variables. A combination of molecular- and culture-based techniques was used to determine the bacterial and archaeal diversity of the hot spring. A total of 48 thermophilic bacterial strains were isolated from two sites (Site 1: 55.6°C; Site 2: 83.1°C) and they were categorized into six groups based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Two groups (including 32 isolates) demonstrated low sequence similarity with published species, suggesting that they might represent novel taxa. The 148 clones from the Site 1 bacterial library included 76 operational taxonomy units (OTUs; 97% threshold), while 132 clones from the Site 2 bacterial library included 31 OTUs. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were frequently detected in both clone libraries. The clones were related to thermophilic, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria. Approximately half of the sequences in bacterial clone libraries shared <92% sequence similarity with their closest sequences in a public database, suggesting that the Ibusuki hot spring may harbor a unique and novel bacterial community. By contrast, 77 clones from the Site 2 archaeal library contained only three OTUs, most of which were affiliated with Thaumarchaeota.

  19. Biogeochemical characteristics of Kuan-Tzu-Ling, Chung-Lun and Bao-Lai hot springs in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Nath, Bibhash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Jiann-Hong; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Hot springs are the important natural sources of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust. Kuan-Tzu-Ling (KTL), Chung-Lun (CL) and Bao-Lai (BL) are well-known hot springs in southern Taiwan. Fluid and mud (sediments) samples were collected from the eruption points of three hot springs for detailed biogeochemical characterization. The fluid sample displays relatively high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO(2) (-), and SO(4) (2-), suggesting a possible marine origin. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn were significantly higher in the mud sediments compared with fluids, whereas high concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Se, Sr and Rb were observed in the fluids. This suggests that electronegative elements were released during sediment-water interactions. High As concentration in the fluids was observed to be associated with low redox (Eh) conditions. The FTIR spectra of the humic acid fractions of the sediments showed the presence of possible functional groups of secondary amines, ureas, urethanesm (amide), and silicon. The sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium 99% similar to Desulfovibrio psychrotolerans (GU329907) were rich in the CL hot spring while mesophilic, proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium that 99% similar to Clostridium sulfidigenes (GU329908) were rich in the BL hot spring.

  20. Structural insights of microbial community of Deulajhari (India) hot spring using 16s-rRNA based metagenomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Archana; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2016-03-01

    Insights about the distribution of the microbial community prove to be the major goal of understanding microbial ecology which remains to be fully deciphered. Hot springs being hub for the thermophilic microbiota attract the attention of the microbiologists. Deulajhari hot spring cluster is located in the Angul district of Odisha. Covered within a wooded area, Deulajhari hot spring is also fed by the plant litter resulting in a relatively high amount of total organic content (TOC). For the first time, Illumina sequencing based biodiversity analysis of microbial composition is studied through amplicon metagenome sequencing of 16s rRNA targeting V3-V4 region using metagenomic DNA from the hot spring sediment. Over 28 phyla were detected through the amplicon metagenome sequencing of which the most dominating phyla at the existing physiochemical parameters like; temperature 69 °C, pH 8.09, electroconductivity 0.025 dSm(- 1) and total organic carbon 0.356%, were Proteobacteria (88.12%), Bacteriodetes (10.76%), Firmicutes (0.35%), Spirochetes (0.18%) and chloroflexi (0.11%). Approximately 713 species were observed at the above physiochemical parameters. The analysis of the metagenome provides the quantitative insights into microbial populations based on the sequence data in Deulajhari hot spring. Metagenome sequence is deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession no. SRX1459736.

  1. In situ ecophysiology of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, hot-spring filamentous 'streamer' community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beam, J.; Jay, Z.; Tringe, S. G.; Glavina del Rio, T.; Rusch, D.; Schmid, M.; Wagner, M.; Inskeep, W.

    2014-12-01

    The candidate phylum Aigarchaeota contains thermophilic archaea from terrestrial, subsurface, and marine geothermal ecosystems. The phylogeny and metabolic potential of Aigarchaeota has been deduced from several recent single-cell amplified genomes; however, an accurate description of their metabolism, potential ecological interactions, and role in biogeochemical cycling is lacking. Here we report possible ecological interactions and the in situ metabolism of an uncultivated lineage of Aigarchaeota from an oxic, terrestrial hot-spring filamentous 'streamer' community (Octopus Spring, pH = 8; T = 78 - 84 °C, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was combined with detailed genomic and transcriptomic reconstruction to elucidate the ecophysiological role of Aigarchaeota in these streamer communities. This novel population of Aigarchaeota are filamentous (~500 nm diameter by ~10-30 μm length), which is consistent with the morphology predicted by the presence and transcription of a single actin-encoding gene. Aigarchaeota filaments are intricately associated with other community members, which include both thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that this aigarchaeon is an aerobic, chemoorganotroph. A single heme copper oxidase complex was identified in de novo genome assemblies, and was highly transcribed in environmental samples. Potential electron donors include acetate, fatty acids, sugars, peptides, and aromatic compounds. Transcripts related to genes specific to each of these potential electron donors were identified, indicating that this population of Aigarchaeota likely utilizes a broad range of reduced carbon substrates. Potential electron donors for this population may include extracellular polymeric substances produced by other microorganisms in close proximity. Flagellum genes were also highly transcribed, which suggests a potential mechanism for motility and/or cell-cell attachment

  2. Lipid Biomarkers and Stable Isotope Signatures of Microbial Mats in Hot Springs of Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanek, C. S.; Mills, G. L.; Jones, M. E.; Paddock, L.; Li, Y.; Zhang, C. L.; Wiegel, J.

    2004-12-01

    Various hot springs of the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, were analyzed for their chemical and stable isotope composition to better understand the relationship(s) between thermophilic microorganisms and the environments in which they live. The springs had water temperatures ranging from 40-90\\deg C and pH ranging from 5.6-5.9. Gases that emanated from the springs were composed predominantly of CO2 (20 to 90%), with lesser amounts of CH4, (< 20%), H2, NH3 and SO2. Because the springs were acidic, they contained little dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC: millimol L-1) and sulfide (< 200 ppb), yet in some cases where microbial activity was relatively high, these constituents reached the millimol L-1 and ppm range, respectively. Total biomass displayed a relatively large range of carbon isotope compositions that ranged from -5.7 to -22.4 per mil, which may reflect the large range of carbon sources, varied CO2 fixation pathways, or other unknown mechanisms. Microbial mats were freeze-dried and extracted for lipid biomarker analysis. The lipids were separated into hydrocarbon, sterol, ether lipid, free fatty acid, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) fractions. Among these fractions, PLFA indicated the community structure and abundance for Bacteria while the ether lipid fraction provided analogous information for Archaea. Results of PLFA showed 16:0 as the most abundant fatty acid (33-44%), which is universal in all living organisms. Other significant biomarkers included 18:1ω (19 to 24%), 18:2ω (5 to 13%), 16:1ω (3 to 12%), and 18:0 (2 to 7%). These biomarkers are characteristic of cyanobacteria, green-sulfur bacteria, and green non-sulfur bacteria, respectively, which are common autotrophic organisms in terrestrial hot springs. On the other hand, biomarkers of heterotrophic bacteria, such as iso- and anteiso-15:0 were low (2-8%), indicating that the bacterial carbon cycle was dominated by autotrophic organisms. Analogous archaeal constituents were present in significant

  3. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  4. Geochemistry of fluids from submarine hot springs at Punta de Mita, Nayarit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Y. A.; Inguaggiato, S.; Marin, M.; Yurova, L. M.

    2002-06-01

    Thermal springs with a maximum measured temperature of 89°C discharge hot water and gas from a depth of 11 m, 400 m offshore of Punta Pantoque, located in the northern part of Bahı´a de Banderas, near Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. The composition of all water samples collected from the sea bottom is close to that of sea water. Nevertheless, it was possible to estimate the thermal endmember composition by extrapolating the sulfate concentration to zero. This endmember is similar in chemical composition both to waters of the Rio Purificacion and La Tuna thermal springs, located to the South along the Pacific coast of the Jalisco Block, and to pore waters from the deep-sea drilling cores from some accretionary complexes. Gas composition as well as isotopic composition of He and carbon from CO 2, CH 4 and C 2H 6 suggests an essentially thermo-biogenic origin for the gas and the presence of a high proportion of radiogenic, crustal helium. Isotopic composition of He in the Punta de Mita gas (0.4 Ra) is the lowest ever measured in Mexican hydrothermal gases. These findings do not support the idea that there exists a direct connection between the Punta de Mita springs and the last volcanic events which occurred in this area at ˜3 Ma. Rather, this hydrothermal activity is related to deep active faulting and the existence of a deep regional aquifer or local aquifers of connate waters underlying the granites of the Jalisco Block.

  5. Geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt hot springs thermal area, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, W. T.; Ballantyne, J. M.; Bryant, N. L.; Dedolph, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Hot spring deposits in the Roosevelt thermal area consist of opaline sinter and sintercemented alluvium. Alluvium, plutonic rocks, and amphibolite-facies gneiss have been altered by acidsulfate water to alunite and opal at the surface, and alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite to a depth of 70 m. Marcasite, pyrite, chlorite, and calcite occur below the water table at about 30 m. The thermal water is dilute (ionic strength 0.1-0.2) sodium-chloride brine. The spring water now contains 10 times as much Ca, 100 times as much Mg, and up to 2.5 times as much SO 4 as the deep water. Although the present day spring temperature is 25°C, the temperature was 85°C in 1950. A model for development of the observed alteration is supported by observation and irreversible mass transfer calculations. Hydrothermal fluid convectively rises along major fractures. Water cools by conduction and steam separation, and the pH rises due to carbon dioxide escape. At the surface, hydrogen and sulfate ions are produced by oxidation of H 2S. The low pH water percolates downward and reacts with feldspar in the rocks to produce alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite as hydrogen ion is consumed.

  6. Hydrogen-isotopic variability in fatty acids from Yellowstone National Park hot spring microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, Magdalena R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Spear, John R.

    2011-09-01

    We report the abundances and hydrogen-isotopic compositions (D/H ratios) of fatty acids extracted from hot-spring microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park. The terrestrial hydrothermal environment provides a useful system for studying D/H fractionations because the numerous microbial communities in and around the springs are visually distinct, separable, and less complex than those in many other aquatic environments. D/H fractionations between lipids and water ranged from -374‰ to +41‰ and showed systematic variations between different types of microbial communities. Lipids produced by chemoautotrophic hyperthermophilic bacteria, such as icosenoic acid (20:1), generally exhibited the largest and most variable fractionations from water (-374‰ to -165‰). This was in contrast to lipids characteristic of heterotrophs, such as branched, odd chain-length fatty acids, which had the smallest fractionations (-163‰ to +41‰). Mats dominated by photoautotrophs exhibited intermediate fractionations similar in magnitude to those expressed by higher plants. These data support the hypothesis that variations in lipid D/H are strongly influenced by central metabolic pathways. Shifts in the isotopic compositions of individual fatty acids across known ecological boundaries show that the isotopic signature of specific metabolisms can be recognized in modern environmental samples, and potentially recorded in ancient ones. Considering all sampled springs, the total range in D/H ratios is similar to that observed in marine sediments, suggesting that the trends observed here are not exclusive to the hydrothermal environment.

  7. Geothermal heating from Pinkerton Hot Springs at Colorado Timberline Academy, Durango, Colorado. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.C.; Allen, R.W.; Beldock, J.

    1981-11-08

    The efforts to establish a greater pool of knowledge in the field of low temperature heat transfer for the application of geothermal spring waters to space heating are described. A comprehensive set of heat loss experiments involving passive radiant heating panels is conducted and the results presented in an easily interpretable form. Among the conclusions are the facts that heating a 65 to 70 F/sup 0/ space with 90 to 100 F/sup 0/ liquids is a practical aim. The results are compared with the much lower rates published in the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers SYSTEMS, 1976. A heat exchange chamber consisting of a 1000 gallon three compartment, insulated and buried tank is constructed and a control and pumping building erected over the tank. The tank is intended to handle the flow of geothermal waters from Pinkerton Hot Springs at 50 GPM prior to the wasting of the spring water at a disposal location. Approximately 375,000 Btu per hour should be available for heating assuming a 15 F/sup 0/ drop in water temperature. A combination of the panel heat loss experiments, construction of the heat exchange devices and ongoing collection of heat loss numbers adds to the knowledge available to engineers in sizing low temperature heat systems, useful in both solar and geothermal applications where source temperature may be often below 110 F/sup 0/.

  8. Origin of platy calcite crystals in hot-spring deposits in the Kenya Rift Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Renault, R.W.

    1998-09-01

    Platy calcite crystals, which have their c axis parallel to their shortest length axis, are common components of travertine deposits found around some hot springs in the Kenya Rift Valley. They are composite crystals formed of numerous paper-thin subcrystals. Individual plates allowed to grow without obstruction develop a hexagonal motif. The Kenyan crystals typically form in hot (>75 C) waters that have a low Ca content (<10 mg/l), a high CO{sub 2} content, and a high rate of CO{sub 2} degassing. At Chemurkeu, aggregates of numerous small platy crystals collectively form lattice crystals that superficially resemble ray crystals. The walls of the lattice crystals are formed of large platy crystals that have their long and intermediate length axes aligned parallel to the plane of the long axis of the lattice crystal. Internally, the lattice crystals are formed of small platy calcite crystals arranged in a boxlike pattern that creates the appearance of a lattice when viewed in thin section. Lattice crystals are highly porous, with each pore being enclosed by platy crystals. At Lorusio, travertines are mainly formed of pseudodentrites that are constructed by numerous small platy crystals attached to a main stem which is a large platy crystal that commonly curves along its long axis. The pseudodentrites are the main construction blocks in ledges and lilypads that form in the vent pool and spring outflow channels, where the water is too hot for microbes other than hyperthermophiles. The platy calcite crystals in the Kenyan travertines are morphologically similar to platy calcite crystals that form as scale in pipes in the geothermal fields of New Zealand and hydrothermal angel wing calcite from the La Fe mine in Mexico. Comparison of the Kenyan and New Zealand crystals indicates that platy calcite crystals form from waters with a low Ca{sup 2+} content and a high CO{sub 3}/Ca ratio due to rapid rates of CO{sub 2} degassing.

  9. Some investigations of the deposition of travertine from Hot Springs-I. The isotopic chemistry of a travertine-depositing spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.

    1970-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of the travertine and of the hot spring solutions were studied at Main Springs and New Highland Terrace in the Mammoth Hot Springs area of Yellowstone Park. The springs issue at 74??C and a pH of 6.65 and the carbon isotopic composition of the travertine depositing at the orifice is +2%.??C13 (PDB). As the water travels out from the orifice, it cools and loses CO2. The travertine depositing at lower temperature is enriched in C13, reaching values of +4.8%. and the solution has a pH of 8.2 at 27??C. The ??C13 of the carbon species in solution is about -2.3%. at 74?? and about +4.3 at 27??C. Therefore, the difference in ??C13 between the solid and solution is approximately 4%. at 74?? and decreases to zero at about 20??C. These differences are shown to be due to kinetic (non-equilibrium) factors. The ??O18 contents of the travertine and water show that in most samples the carbonate oxygen is in equilibrium with the water O18 at the temperatures of deposition. This is especially true for travertine depositing slowly and at temperatures above about 50??C. Calculations based on pH and alkalinity titrations of the hot spring waters in situ show that at the spring orifice the water is very high in free CO2, which is quickly lost in transit. The springs are supersaturated with respect to both aragonite and calcite during most of their travel in the open air. The carbon isotopic composition of the travertine is similar to that in the marine carbonates that are adjacent to the springs and that are the probable source of the calcium carbonate. The travertine from inactive prehistoric springs near Mammoth has similar ??C13 and O18 to that from the active springs. Soda Butte, an inactive center 25 miles east of Mammoth, contains heavier carbon and oxygen than the springs near Mammoth. ?? 1970.

  10. Bacteria and Archaea diversity within the hot springs of Lake Magadi and Little Magadi in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kambura, Anne Kelly; Mwirichia, Romano Kachiuru; Kasili, Remmy Wekesa; Karanja, Edward Nderitu; Makonde, Huxley Mae; Boga, Hamadi Iddi

    2016-07-07

    Lake Magadi and little Magadi are hypersaline, alkaline lakes situated in the southern part of Kenyan Rift Valley. Solutes are supplied mainly by a series of alkaline hot springs with temperatures as high as 86 °C. Previous culture-dependent and culture-independent studies have revealed diverse groups of microorganisms thriving under these conditions. Previous culture independent studies were based on the analysis of 16S rDNA but were done on less saline lakes. For the first time, this study combined illumina sequencing and analysis of amplicons of both total community rDNA and 16S rRNA cDNA to determine the diversity and community structure of bacteria and archaea within 3 hot springs of L. Magadi and little Magadi. Water, wet sediments and microbial mats were collected from springs in the main lake at a temperature of 45.1 °C and from Little Magadi "Nasikie eng'ida" (temperature of 81 °C and 83.6 °C). Total community DNA and RNA were extracted from samples using phenol-chloroform and Trizol RNA extraction protocols respectively. The 16S rRNA gene variable region (V4 - V7) of the extracted DNA and RNA were amplified and library construction performed following Illumina sequencing protocol. Sequences were analyzed done using QIIME while calculation of Bray-Curtis dissimilarities between datasets, hierarchical clustering, Non Metric Dimensional Scaling (NMDS) redundancy analysis (RDA) and diversity indices were carried out using the R programming language and the Vegan package. Three thousand four hundred twenty-six and one thousand nine hundred thirteen OTUs were recovered from 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA cDNA respectively. Uncultured diversity accounted for 89.35 % 16S rDNA and 87.61 % 16S rRNA cDNA reads. The most abundant phyla in both the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA cDNA datasets included: Proteobacteria (8.33-50 %), Firmicutes 3.52-28.92 %, Bacteroidetes (3.45-26.44 %), Actinobacteria (0.98-28.57 %) and Euryarchaeota (3.55-34.48 %) in all samples. NMDS

  11. Disturbance, A Mechanism for Increased Microbial Diversity in a Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Mixing Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howells, A. E.; Oiler, J.; Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    The parameters influencing species diversity in natural ecosystems are difficult to assess due to the long and experimentally prohibitive timescales needed to develop causative relationships among measurements. Ecological diversity-disturbance models suggest that disturbance is a mechanism for increased species diversity, allowing for coexistence of species at an intermediate level of disturbance. Observing this mechanism often requires long timescales, such as the succession of a forest after a fire. In this study we evaluated the effect of mixing of two end member hydrothermal fluids on the diversity and structure of a microbial community where disturbance occurs on small temporal and spatial scales. Outflow channels from two hot springs of differing geochemical composition in Yellowstone National Park, one pH 3.3 and 36 °C and the other pH 7.6 and 61 °C flow together to create a mixing zone on the order of a few meters. Geochemical measurements were made at both in-coming streams and at a site of complete mixing downstream of the mixing zone, at pH 6.5 and 46 °C. Compositions were estimated across the mixing zone at 1 cm intervals using microsensor temperature and conductivity measurements and a mixing model. Qualitatively, there are four distinct ecotones existing over ranges in temperature and pH across the mixing zone. Community analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of these ecotones show a peak in diversity at maximal mixing. Principle component analysis of community 16S rRNA genes reflects coexistence of species with communities at maximal mixing plotting intermediate to communities at distal ends of the mixing zone. These spatial biological and geochemical observations suggest that the mixing zone is a dynamic ecosystem where geochemistry and biological diversity are governed by changes in the flow rate and geochemical composition of the two hot spring sources. In ecology, understanding how environmental disruption increases species diversity is a foundation

  12. Microbial Metabolic Diversity Study of the Kuantzuling Mud Hot Spring in the Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, P.; Lin, L.

    2009-12-01

    Organic carbon, sulfate, methane, and hydrogen are available for microorganisms to carry on diverse metabolisms in the Kuantzuling mud hot spring, southwestern Taiwan. On the basis of bioenergetic evaluations and environmental DNA analyses, previous studies have inferred diverse metabolic capabilities, including methanogenesis, sulfate reduction, fermentation, aerobic heterotrophy and methanotrophy. However, active metabolisms have never been confirmed by cultivation-based analysis. Due to the temperature fluctuation of the Kuantzuling mud spring, this study performed a set of enrichment experiments at temperatures ranging from 25oC to 80oC to understand the activity and interaction among microorganisms at various temperatures. Pure stains were also isolated along with their physiological tests to reveal their possible roles in this terrestrial hot spring ecosystem. According to the geochemical and molecular data, nine types of media were designed to enrich different kinds of metabolisms in the slurry. Positive enrichments were obtained in all types of media, but not at all investigated temperatures. Methanogens using acetate, methanol, and hydrogen and carbon dioxide, sulfate reducers, thiosulfate reducers, fermenters, aerobic heterotrophs could be enriched at temperatures higher than 50oC and even 80oC. Methanogen using methylamine and aerobic methanotroph can only be enriched at temperatures lower than 50 oC. This result is generally consistent with previous energetic evaluation and molecular analysis. It also inferred that microbial assemblages possessing diverse metabolisms were either competitive or collaborative to each other for degradation of organic carbon or carbon cycling. Two strains were isolated from aerobic heterotrophic media. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of one strain exhibited a very close affiliation (at a similarity of 99%) with Meiothermus ruber strain SPS242 and that of the other showed an affiliation to that of Rhodobacter vinaykumarii JA123

  13. Comparative study of the silica and cation geothermometry of the Malawi hot springs: Potential alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulanya, Zuze; Morales-Simfors, Nury; Sivertun, Åke

    2010-06-01

    Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world and one of the most densely populated in south-eastern Africa. Its major power source is hydro-electricity. During the past few years, the power generation capacity has been reduced, which has impacted negatively on the socio-economic development of the country. The country holds an enormous potential to generate geothermal energy due to the country's position within the Great African Rift valley. This could contribute to economic growth, poverty reduction and technological development in Malawi. The paper presents findings of research on comparisons between silica (quartz and chalcedony) and cation geothermometers (Na-K, Na-K-Ca and K-Mg) of hot springs in the Malawi Rift, in order to deduce the temperature at depth of selected hot springs. The saturation indices of most springs have a bearing on the geology of the areas where these hot springs are found. The Na-K geothermometers are, in general, higher than the Na-K-Ca geothermometer and the K-Mg geothermometer shows temperatures that are too low to be considered. The difference in the results between the different geothermometers may indicate shallow conditions of mixing with groundwater. Results also indicate that some hot springs have sufficient heat-generating capabilities and warrant further exploration work to assess their suitability for energy generation.

  14. Arsenic(III) fuels anoxygenic photosynthesis in hot spring biofilms from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulp, T.R.; Hoeft, S.E.; Asao, M.; Madigan, M.T.; Hollibaugh, J.T.; Fisher, J.C.; Stolz, J.F.; Culbertson, C.W.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis indicates that microbial arsenic metabolism is ancient and probably extends back to the primordial Earth. In microbial biofilms growing on the rock surfaces of anoxic brine pools fed by hot springs containing arsenite and sulfide at high concentrations, we discovered light-dependent oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] occurring under anoxic conditions. The communities were composed primarily of Ectothiorhodospira-like purple bacteria or Oscillatoria-like cyanobacteria. A pure culture of a photosynthetic bacterium grew as a photoautotroph when As(III) was used as the sole photosynthetic electron donor. The strain contained genes encoding a putative As(V) reductase but no detectable homologs of the As(III) oxidase genes of aerobic chemolithotrophs, suggesting a reverse functionality for the reductase. Production of As(V) by anoxygenic photosynthesis probably opened niches for primordial Earth's first As(V)-respiring prokaryotes.

  15. Flood elevations for the Soleduck River at Sol Duc Hot Springs, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Elevations and inundation areas of a 100-year flood of the Soleduck River, Washington, were determined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the area in the vicinity of the Sol Duc Hot Springs resort, a public facility in the Olympic National Park that under Federal law must be located beyond or protected from damage by a 100-year flood. Results show that most flooding could be eliminated by raising parts of an existing dike. In general, little flood damage is expected, except at the southern end of an undeveloped airstrip that could become inundated and hazardous due to flow from a tributary. The airstrip is above the 100-year flood of the Soleduck River.

  16. Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Agata, Kunio; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Furuhata, Katsunori

    2016-03-01

    Strain L-47(T) of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1477 bp) of this strain (accession number AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L-47(T) were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q-12 (71.1%). It had a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L-47(T) (JCM 30970(T)  = KCTC 42799(T)).

  17. Geothermal environmental assessment baseline study: vegetation and soils of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.W.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1981-07-01

    Identification and elemental concentrations of indigenous soil and plant systems found on the Roosevelt Hot Spring KGRA are described. Twenty-three different soils and five separate plant communities are geographically mapped and identified. One hundred forty-seven plant species were identified. Forbs, shrubs, and grasses are represented by 58, 53, and 36 species respectively. Three sites, each measuring 25 hectares, were selected for long-term vegetative assessment. At these locations a permanent enclosure measuring 24.4 meters x 24.4 meters was constructed to assess long-term effects of livestock grazing. Biomass, plant species, percentage composition, ground cover and livestock carrying capacities were determined at each site. Surface soils and Artemisia tridentata leaf tissue were collected for elemental analysis.

  18. Aquaculture facility potential at Boulder Hot Springs, Boulder, Montana. GTA Report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.

    1981-11-01

    The potential of using geothermal water to develop a commercial aquaculture facility to raise channel catfish at Boulder Hot Springs, Montana is examined. Maximum catfish growth occurs in water with a temperature from 80/sup 0/F to 85/sup 0/F. This temperature can be maintaned when the 175/sup 0/F geothermal water is mixed with the available 55/sup 0/F water. The only economically viable culture considered was the raceway culture. The 4000 gpm supply of 55/sup 0/F water could supply 7 to 8 raceways with a total production of 269,000 to 307,000 pounds of catfish per year. This operation, discounting the purchase of land, would cost about $150,000 (1980).

  19. [Biodiversity and activity of the microbial community in the Kotelnikovsky Hot Springs (Lake Baikal)].

    PubMed

    Bel'kova, N L; Parfenova, V V; Suslova, T S; An, T S; Tadzaki, K

    2005-01-01

    Complex microbiological and chemical analyses of water and bacterial mats were performed in the Kotelnikovsky Hot Springs (Lake Baikal). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that short rods about 1.2-2 microm in diameter predominated in the natural microbial community. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with chemical analysis revealed a characteristic P peak in the bacteria-like mineral particles, which suggests their biogenic origin. Most strains of the thermophilic microorganisms were gram-positive spore-forming rods and can be assigned to the genus Bacillus. Assays for potential enzyme activity demonstrated that most of the strains tested were active at high temperature. The data obtained suggest high activity of the bacterial community in situ and its particular role in the functioning of the hydrothermal ecosystem.

  20. Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Faulder, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir.

  1. Hydrogeochemistry Characterization of Hot Springs Located in The Andes of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinicio Carrera-Villacrés, David; Hidalgo-Hidalgo, Alexander; Guevara-García, Paulina; Vivero-Balarezo, María; Delgado-Rodríguez, Vicente

    2016-10-01

    The formation of several sources of hot springs in the Andes from Ecuador is the result of an intense volcanic activity due to the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate under the South American continental plate. The aim of this study was to describe the hydrogeochemistry water geothermal origin, its chemical classification and relationship with the complex geology of Ecuador, using different hydro chemical diagrams (Stiff, Piper and Schoeller-Berkaloff). Geothermal waters can be divided into two groups. The first group, associated with an extinct volcanic activity produced in the Cenozoic, represents the Na+-Cl- type. The second group is associated with a young Quaternary volcanic activity and its types of water are Mg2+-HCO3-, Na+-HCO3-, Na+-SO42-, Mg2+-SO42-.

  2. Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Faulder, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Arsenic(III) fuels anoxygenic photosynthesis in hot spring biofilms from Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Kulp, T R; Hoeft, S E; Asao, M; Madigan, M T; Hollibaugh, J T; Fisher, J C; Stolz, J F; Culbertson, C W; Miller, L G; Oremland, R S

    2008-08-15

    Phylogenetic analysis indicates that microbial arsenic metabolism is ancient and probably extends back to the primordial Earth. In microbial biofilms growing on the rock surfaces of anoxic brine pools fed by hot springs containing arsenite and sulfide at high concentrations, we discovered light-dependent oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] occurring under anoxic conditions. The communities were composed primarily of Ectothiorhodospira-like purple bacteria or Oscillatoria-like cyanobacteria. A pure culture of a photosynthetic bacterium grew as a photoautotroph when As(III) was used as the sole photosynthetic electron donor. The strain contained genes encoding a putative As(V) reductase but no detectable homologs of the As(III) oxidase genes of aerobic chemolithotrophs, suggesting a reverse functionality for the reductase. Production of As(V) by anoxygenic photosynthesis probably opened niches for primordial Earth's first As(V)-respiring prokaryotes.

  4. Population structure and physiological changes within a hot spring microbial mat community following disturbance.

    PubMed

    Ferris, M J; Nold, S C; Revsbech, N P; Ward, D M

    1997-04-01

    The influence of disturbance on a hot spring cyanobacterial mat community was investigated by physically removing the top 3.0 mm, which included the entire cyanobacterial layer. Changes in 16S rRNA-defined populations were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene segments. Some previously absent cyanobacterial populations colonized the disturbed areas, while some populations which were present before the disturbance remained absent for up to 40 days. Changes in physiological activity were measured by oxygen microelectrode analyses and by 14CO2 incorporation into cyanobacterial molecular components. These investigations indicated substantial differences between the disturbed and undisturbed mats, including an unexplained light-induced oxygen consumption in the freshly exposed mat, increased carbon partitioning by phototrophs into growth-related macromolecules, bimodal vertical photosynthesis profiles, and delayed recovery of respiration relative to photosynthesis.

  5. Structural Controls of Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Field, Malhuer County, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, J. H.; Faulds, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed mapping (1:24,000) of the Neal Hot Springs area (90 km2) in eastern Oregon is part of a larger study of geothermal systems in the Basin and Range, which focuses on the structural controls of geothermal activity. The study area lies within the intersection of two regional grabens, the middle-late Miocene, N-striking, Oregon-Idaho graben and younger late Miocene to Holocene, NW-striking, western Snake River Plain graben. The geothermal field is marked by Neal Hot Springs, which effuse from opaline sinter mounds just north of Bully Creek. Wells producing geothermal fluids, with temperatures at 138°C, intersect a major, W-dipping, NNW-striking, high-angle normal fault at depths of 850-915 m. Displacement along this structure dies southward, with likely horse-tailing, which commonly produces high fracture density and a zone of high permeability conducive for channeling hydrothermal fluids. Mapping reveals that the geothermal resource lies within a local, left step-over. 'Hard-linkage' between strands of the left-stepping normal fault, revealed through a study of well chips and well logs, occurs through two concealed structures. Both are W-striking faults, with one that runs parallel to Cottonwood Creek and one 0.5 km N of the creek. Injection wells intersect these two transverse structures within the step-over. Stepping and displacement continue to the NW of the known geothermal field, along W-dipping, N-striking faults that cut lower to middle Miocene Hog Creek Formation, consisting of silicic and mafic volcanic rocks. These N-striking faults were likely initiated during initial Oregon-Idaho graben subsidence (15.3-15.1 Ma), with continued development through late Miocene. Bully Creek Formation deposits, middle to upper Miocene lacustrine and pyroclastic rocks, concomitantly filled the sub half-grabens, and they dip gently to moderately eastward. Younger, western Snake River Plain deposits, upper Miocene to Pliocene fluvial, lacustrine, and pyroclastic rocks

  6. Origin of methane in serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems: The CH4-H2-H2O hydrogen isotope systematics of the Hakuba Happo hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Konomi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshizaki, Motoko; Nakamura, Hitomi; Kurokawa, Ken; Nishiyama, Eri; Yoshino, Koji; Hongoh, Yuichi; Kawachi, Kenichi; Omori, Soichi; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    Serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems have attracted considerable attention as sites of abiotic organic synthesis and as habitats for the earliest microbial communities. Here, we report a systematic isotopic study of a new serpentinite-hosted system: the Hakuba Happo hot spring in the Shiroumadake area, Japan (36 °42‧N, 137 °48‧E). We collected water directly from the hot spring from two drilling wells more than 500 m deep; all water samples were strongly alkaline (pH > 10) and rich in H2 (201-664 μmol/L) and CH4 (124-201 μmol/L). Despite the relatively low temperatures (50-60 °C), thermodynamic calculations suggest that the H2 was likely derived from serpentinization reactions. Hydrogen isotope compositions for Happo #1 (Happo #3) were found to be as follows: δD-H2 = - 700 ‰ (- 710 ‰), δD-CH4 = - 210 ‰ (- 300 ‰), and δD-H2 O = - 85 ‰ (- 84 ‰). The carbon isotope compositions of methane from Happo #1 and #3 were found to be δ13C = - 34.5 ‰ and - 33.9 ‰, respectively. The CH4-H2-H2O hydrogen isotope systematics indicate that at least two different mechanisms were responsible for methane formation. Happo #1 has a similar hydrogen isotope compositions to other serpentinite-hosted systems reported previously. The elevated δD-CH4 (with respect to the equilibrium relationship) suggests that the hydrogen of the Happo #1 methane was not sourced from molecular hydrogen but was derived directly from water. This implies that the methane may not have been produced via the Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis but possibly by the hydration of olivine. Conversely, the depleted δD-CH4 (with respect to the equilibrium relationship) in Happo #3 suggests the incorporation of biological methane. Based on a comparison of the hydrogen isotope systematics of our results with those of other serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems, we suggest that abiotic CH4 production directly from H2O (without mediation by H2) may be more common in serpentinite

  7. Microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction potential in Chocolate Pots hot spring, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Fortney, N W; He, S; Converse, B J; Beard, B L; Johnson, C M; Boyd, E S; Roden, E E

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) is a unique, circumneutral pH, iron-rich, geothermal feature in Yellowstone National Park. Prior research at CP has focused on photosynthetically driven Fe(II) oxidation as a model for mineralization of microbial mats and deposition of Archean banded iron formations. However, geochemical and stable Fe isotopic data have suggested that dissimilatory microbial iron reduction (DIR) may be active within CP deposits. In this study, the potential for microbial reduction of native CP Fe(III) oxides was investigated, using a combination of cultivation dependent and independent approaches, to assess the potential involvement of DIR in Fe redox cycling and associated stable Fe isotope fractionation in the CP hot springs. Endogenous microbial communities were able to reduce native CP Fe(III) oxides, as documented by most probable number enumerations and enrichment culture studies. Enrichment cultures demonstrated sustained DIR driven by oxidation of acetate, lactate, and H2 . Inhibitor studies and molecular analyses indicate that sulfate reduction did not contribute to observed rates of DIR in the enrichment cultures through abiotic reaction pathways. Enrichment cultures produced isotopically light Fe(II) during DIR relative to the bulk solid-phase Fe(III) oxides. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from enrichment cultures showed dominant sequences closely affiliated with Geobacter metallireducens, a mesophilic Fe(III) oxide reducer. Shotgun metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures confirmed the presence of a dominant G. metallireducens-like population and other less dominant populations from the phylum Ignavibacteriae, which appear to be capable of DIR. Gene (protein) searches revealed the presence of heat-shock proteins that may be involved in increased thermotolerance in the organisms present in the enrichments as well as porin-cytochrome complexes previously shown to be involved in extracellular electron transport. This analysis offers

  8. Genome Analysis of a New Rhodothermaceae Strain Isolated from a Hot Spring.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kian Mau; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Soon Wee; Liew, Kok Jun; Chan, Chia Sing; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ee, Robson; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated RA, was isolated from water sample of a hot spring on Langkawi Island of Malaysia using marine agar. Strain RA is an aerophilic and thermophilic microorganism that grows optimally at 50-60°C and is capable of growing in marine broth containing 1-10% (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that this strain is most closely related (<90% sequence identity) to Rhodothermaceae, which currently comprises of six genera: Rhodothermus (two species), Salinibacter (three species), Salisaeta (one species), Rubricoccus (one species), Rubrivirga (one species), and Longimonas (one species). Notably, analysis of average nucleotide identity (ANI) values indicated that strain RA may represent the first member of a novel genus of Rhodothermaceae. The draft genome of strain RA is 4,616,094 bp with 3630 protein-coding gene sequences. Its GC content is 68.3%, which is higher than that of most other genomes of Rhodothermaceae. Strain RA has genes for sulfate permease and arylsulfatase to withstand the high sulfur and sulfate contents of the hot spring. Putative genes encoding proteins involved in adaptation to osmotic stress were identified which encode proteins namely Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, a sodium/solute symporter, a sodium/glutamate symporter, trehalose synthase, malto-oligosyltrehalose synthase, choline-sulfatase, potassium uptake proteins (TrkA and TrkH), osmotically inducible protein C, and the K(+) channel histidine kinase KdpD. Furthermore, genome description of strain RA and comparative genome studies in relation to other related genera provide an overview of the uniqueness of this bacterium.

  9. Genome Analysis of a New Rhodothermaceae Strain Isolated from a Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kian Mau; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Soon Wee; Liew, Kok Jun; Chan, Chia Sing; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ee, Robson; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated RA, was isolated from water sample of a hot spring on Langkawi Island of Malaysia using marine agar. Strain RA is an aerophilic and thermophilic microorganism that grows optimally at 50–60°C and is capable of growing in marine broth containing 1–10% (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that this strain is most closely related (<90% sequence identity) to Rhodothermaceae, which currently comprises of six genera: Rhodothermus (two species), Salinibacter (three species), Salisaeta (one species), Rubricoccus (one species), Rubrivirga (one species), and Longimonas (one species). Notably, analysis of average nucleotide identity (ANI) values indicated that strain RA may represent the first member of a novel genus of Rhodothermaceae. The draft genome of strain RA is 4,616,094 bp with 3630 protein-coding gene sequences. Its GC content is 68.3%, which is higher than that of most other genomes of Rhodothermaceae. Strain RA has genes for sulfate permease and arylsulfatase to withstand the high sulfur and sulfate contents of the hot spring. Putative genes encoding proteins involved in adaptation to osmotic stress were identified which encode proteins namely Na+/H+ antiporters, a sodium/solute symporter, a sodium/glutamate symporter, trehalose synthase, malto-oligosyltrehalose synthase, choline-sulfatase, potassium uptake proteins (TrkA and TrkH), osmotically inducible protein C, and the K+ channel histidine kinase KdpD. Furthermore, genome description of strain RA and comparative genome studies in relation to other related genera provide an overview of the uniqueness of this bacterium. PMID:27471502

  10. Nitrification of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in a high- temperature hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun; Peng, Xiaotong; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation of ammonia by microbes has been shown to occur in diverse natural environments. However, the link of in situ nitrification activity to taxonomic identities of ammonia oxidizers in high-temperature environments remains poorly understood. Here, we studied in situ ammonia oxidation rates and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in surface and bottom sediments at 77 °C in the Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The in situ ammonia oxidation rates measured by the 15N-NO3- pool dilution technique in the surface and bottom sediments were 4.80 and 5.30 nmol N g-1 h-1, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the archaeal 16S rRNA genes and amoA genes were present in the range of 0.128 to 1.96 × 108 and 2.75 to 9.80 × 105 gene copies g-1 sediment, respectively, while bacterial amoA was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed high sequence similarity to thermophilic Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, which represented the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTU) in both surface and bottom sediments. The archaeal predominance was further supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) visualization. The cell-specific rate of ammonia oxidation was estimated to range from 0.410 to 0.790 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, higher than those in the two US Great Basin hot springs. These results suggest the importance of archaeal rather than bacterial ammonia oxidation in driving the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  11. Geochemistry of hot springs and fumarolic gases from the Banda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorter, R. P. E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Sriwana, T.; Van Bergen, M. J.; Erfan, R. D.; Suharyono, K.; Wirakusumah, A. D.; Vroon, P. Z.

    Geothermometry carried out on hot springs occurring on the volcanic non-active Islands of Ambon and Haruku indicates minimum subsurface temperatures of 180°C; for Alor Island we obtained a temperature of 170°C. The hydrothermal systems of these islands are likely crack and fault dominated. Hot springs on the islands with active volcanism indicate subsurface temperatures of 180 to 250°C. The chemical and isotopic compositions of fumarolic gases from the active volcanoes Banda Api in the Banda Archipelago, Serawerna on Teon, Wurlali on Damar and Ili Lewotolo on Lomblen are reported here for the first time. The measured fumarolic gas temperatures ranged from 98°C to 170°C for Banda Api, Laworkawra, Legatala, Serawerna, Wurlali and Sirung volcanoes and reached 490°C for Ili Lewotolo volcano. The main gas components are H 2O, CO 2 and SO 2; CO 2 predominates over (SO 22 + H 2S). The calculated gas equilibrium temperature for Wurlali is 700°C and for Ili Lewotolo more than 1000°C. Stable carbon isotope data for Wurlali ( δ13C = -3.3 % 0) and for Ili Lewotolo ( δ13C = -2.9 % 0) volcanoes are similar to those for other Indonesian volcanoes. The bulk sulfur is relatively rich in the heavy isotope. The 3He/ 4He (R/R A) ratios vary between 1.0 and 3.6, which is low for subduction related volcanoes. A contribution from continental crust or sediment-derived radiogenic 4He is suggested.

  12. Microbial Controls on the Size, Shape and Porosity of Hot Spring CaCO3 Mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P. A.; Fouke, B. W.; Dwyer, S. E.; Sivaguru, M.; Kandianis, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting vent drainage systems at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park, exert strong controls on the size, shape and porosity of CaCO3 (travertine) mineral deposits at a nanometer to micron scale. Our controlled in situ kinetic experiment (ISKA) has shown that: (1) the natural steady state aragonite precipitation rate is more than twice that when microbial biomass is depleted by 80% via 0.2 um filtration; and (2) ultraviolet (UV) irradiation only slightly reduces the mean aragonite precipitation rate, while keeping all other experimental parameters held constant. An integrated petrographic (plane-light and cathodoluminscence [CL]) and high-resolution inverted fluorescence microscopy (200 nm resolution petrography) were completed on travertine samples collected from the ISKA experiment. Results indicate that, under all experimental conditions, an initial layer of dogtooth to blocky calcite cement (less than 30um) was followed by aragonite needle cement growth (10-50um). The untreated natural control experiment produced an initial layer of small calcite crystals interspersed with densely packed clusters of aragonite needles, which significantly reduced the porosity in this first layer of authigenic crystal growth. The ensuing aragonite needle clusters in the natural control were also present, but in lower concentrations, in the UV- irradiated experiments. The filtration experiment produced the largest calcite crystals with few to no aragonite needles. However, the aragonite needles were on average 40 µm long and are not arranged in dense clusters, producing a higher porosity layer composed of lower crystal densities. Early calcite crystals in both the filtration and UV-irradiation samples exhibit bright orange concentric crystal zonations under CL that were absent in the natural control. Aragonite needles in all samples exhibit no CL. Further, no clear petrographic evidence of diagenesis or mineralogical inversion were observed in

  13. Light stable isotope study of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrs D.T.; Bowman, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon has been determined for regional cold springs, thermal fluids, and rocks and minerals from the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area. The geothermal system has developed within plutonic granitic rocks and amphibolite facies gneiss, relying upon fracture-controlled permeability for the migration of the thermal fluids. Probably originating as meteoric waters in the upper elevations of the Mineral Mountains, the thermal waters sampled in the production wells display an oxygen isotopic shift of at least +1.2. Depletions of delta /sup 18/O in wole rock, K-feldspar, and biotite have a positive correlation with alteration intensity. W/R mass ratios, calculated from the isotopic shifts of rock and water, range up to 3.0 in a producing horizon of one well, although the K-feldspar has experienced only 30% exchange with the thermal waters. While veinlet quartz has equilibrated with the thermal waters, the /sup 18/O values of K-mica clay, an alteration product of plagioclase, mimic the isotopic composition of K-feldspar and whole rock. This suggests that locally small W/R ratios enable plagioclase to influence its alteration products by isotopic exchange.

  14. Complex polar lipids of a hot spring cyanobacterial mat and its cultivated inhabitants.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, D M; Panke, S; Kloppel, K D; Christ, R; Fredrickson, H

    1994-01-01

    The complex polar lipids of the hot spring cyanobacterial mat in the 50 to 55 degrees C region of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and of thermophilic bacteria cultivated from this or similar habitats, were compared in an attempt to understand the microbial sources of the major lipid biomarkers in this community. Intact complex lipids were analyzed directly by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and combined TLC-FAB-MS. FAB-MS and TLC gave qualitatively similar results, suggesting that the mat contains major lipids most like those of the cyanobacterial isolate we studied, Synechococcus sp. strain Y-7c-s. These include monoglycosyl, diglycosyl, and sulfoquinosovyl diglycerides (MG, DG, and SQ, respectively) and phosphatidyl glycerol (PG). Though Chloroflexus aurantiacus also contains MG, DG, and PG, the fatty acid chain lengths of mat MGs, DGs, and PGs resemble more those of cyanobacterial than green nonsulfur bacterial lipids. FAB-MS spectra of the lipids of nonphototrophic bacterial isolates were distinctively different from those of the mat and phototrophic isolates. The lipids of these nonphototrophic isolates were not detected in the mat, but most could be detected when added to mat samples. The mat also contains major glycolipids and aminophospholipids of unknown structure and origin. FAB-MS and TLC did not always give quantitatively similar results. In particular, PG and SQ may give disproportionately high FAB-MS responses. Images PMID:11536647

  15. Microelectrode studies of interstitial water chemistry and photosynthetic activity in a hot spring microbial mat

    SciTech Connect

    Revsbech, N.P.; Ward, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    Microelectrodes were used to measure oxygen, pH, and oxygenic photosynthetic activity in a hot spring microbial mat (Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park), where the cyanobacterium Synechoccus lividus and the filamentous bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus are the only known phototrophs. The data showed very high biological activities in the topmost layers of the microbial mat, resulting in extreme values for oxygen and pH. At a 1-mm depth at a 55 C site, oxygen and pH reached 900 micro M and 9.4, respectively, just after solar noon, whereas anoxic conditions with pH of 7.2 were measured before sunrise. Although diurnal changes between these extremes occurred over hours during a diurnal cycle microbial activity was great enough to give the same response in 1 to 2 mm after artificial shading. Oxygenic photosynthesis was confined to a 0.5- to 1.1-mm layer at sites with temperatures at or above about 50 C, with maximum activities in the 55 to 60 C region. The data suggest that S. lividus is the dominant primary producer of the mat. 30 references, 5 figures.

  16. Archaeal Community Structures in the Solfataric Acidic Hot Springs with Different Temperatures and Elemental Compositions

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Archaeal 16S rRNA gene compositions and environmental factors of four distinct solfataric acidic hot springs in Kirishima, Japan were compared. The four ponds were selected by differences of temperature and total dissolved elemental concentration as follows: (1) Pond-A: 93°C and 1679 mg L−1, (2) Pond-B: 66°C and 2248 mg L−1, (3) Pond-C: 88°C and 198 mg L−1, and (4) Pond-D: 67°C and 340 mg L−1. In total, 431 clones of 16S rRNA gene were classified into 26 phylotypes. In Pond-B, the archaeal diversity was the highest among the four, and the members of the order Sulfolobales were dominant. The Pond-D also showed relatively high diversity, and the most frequent group was uncultured thermoacidic spring clone group. In contrast to Pond-B and Pond-D, much less diverse archaeal clones were detected in Pond-A and Pond-C showing higher temperatures. However, dominant groups in these ponds were also different from each other. The members of the order Sulfolobales shared 89% of total clones in Pond-A, and the uncultured crenarchaeal groups shared 99% of total Pond-C clones. Therefore, species compositions and biodiversity were clearly different among the ponds showing different temperatures and dissolved elemental concentrations. PMID:23710131

  17. Microearthquake survey in the hot spring area in Parbati Valley (Himachal Pradesh, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, H. M.; Chatterjee, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    A number of hot springs occur in the Parbati Valley in Himachal Pradesh in India. Temperatures range from 21 to 96°C, the boiling point of water at that altitude. Geological conditions, temperature variations and chemical composition of spring water in the Parbati Valley hydrogeological unit indicate that the deep thermal fluids are of meteoric origin. The maximum temperature acquired by water during its circulation is estimated to come close to 200°C. In order to assess the possibility of extracting geothermal energy, a seismic survey was arranged to locate the hypocentres of microearthquakes associated with the thermal source. A total of eight microearthquake units was set up at an interstation spacing of about 10 km and two months recording were obtained. During this period an average of 2-3 events per day was recorded with S—P interval less than 5 seconds. The data have been analysed with the help of Hypo 71, a Fortran IV computer program designed to determine the hypocentral parameters of earthquakes from seismic data. The results indicate faulting but there is no apparent spatial relationship to surface manifestations of geothermal energy.

  18. Complex polar lipids of a hot spring cyanobacterial mat and its cultivated inhabitants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. M.; Panke, S.; Kloppel, K. D.; Christ, R.; Fredrickson, H.

    1994-01-01

    The complex polar lipids of the hot spring cyanobacterial mat in the 50 to 55 degrees C region of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and of thermophilic bacteria cultivated from this or similar habitats, were compared in an attempt to understand the microbial sources of the major lipid biomarkers in this community. Intact complex lipids were analyzed directly by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS), two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and combined TLC-FAB-MS. FAB-MS and TLC gave qualitatively similar results, suggesting that the mat contains major lipids most like those of the cyanobacterial isolate we studied, Synechococcus sp. strain Y-7c-s. These include monoglycosyl, diglycosyl, and sulfoquinosovyl diglycerides (MG, DG, and SQ, respectively) and phosphatidyl glycerol (PG). Though Chloroflexus aurantiacus also contains MG, DG, and PG, the fatty acid chain lengths of mat MGs, DGs, and PGs resemble more those of cyanobacterial than green nonsulfur bacterial lipids. FAB-MS spectra of the lipids of nonphototrophic bacterial isolates were distinctively different from those of the mat and phototrophic isolates. The lipids of these nonphototrophic isolates were not detected in the mat, but most could be detected when added to mat samples. The mat also contains major glycolipids and aminophospholipids of unknown structure and origin. FAB-MS and TLC did not always give quantitatively similar results. In particular, PG and SQ may give disproportionately high FAB-MS responses.

  19. Diversity of thermophiles in a Malaysian hot spring determined using 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chia Sing; Chan, Kok-Gan; Tay, Yea-Ling; Chua, Yi-Heng; Goh, Kian Mau

    2015-01-01

    The Sungai Klah (SK) hot spring is the second hottest geothermal spring in Malaysia. This hot spring is a shallow, 150-m-long, fast-flowing stream, with temperatures varying from 50 to 110°C and a pH range of 7.0–9.0. Hidden within a wooded area, the SK hot spring is continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). In this study, a sample taken from the middle of the stream was analyzed at the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region by amplicon metagenome sequencing. Over 35 phyla were detected by analyzing the 16S rRNA data. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented approximately 57% of the microbiome. Approximately 70% of the detected thermophiles were strict anaerobes; however, Hydrogenobacter spp., obligate chemolithotrophic thermophiles, represented one of the major taxa. Several thermophilic photosynthetic microorganisms and acidothermophiles were also detected. Most of the phyla identified by 16S rRNA were also found using the shotgun metagenome approaches. The carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism within the SK hot spring community were evaluated by shotgun metagenome sequencing, and the data revealed diversity in terms of metabolic activity and dynamics. This hot spring has a rich diversified phylogenetic community partly due to its natural environment (plant litter, high TOC, and a shallow stream) and geochemical parameters (broad temperature and pH range). It is speculated that symbiotic relationships occur between the members of the community. PMID:25798135

  20. [Analysis of bacterial composition of the pink mat from spectacles hot spring in Tengchong by culture-independent approach].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Hua; Li, Qin-Yuan; Liu, Yang; Peng, Qian

    2004-12-01

    The bacterial composition of the pink mat was studied by culture-independent approach. 23 complete 16S rDNA sequences were obtained. According to the sequences alignment and analysis of comparability, the bacteria of the pink mat was consisted of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacter, Deinococcus-thermus, Aquificals. And compared with bacterial composition of the mats from Octopus spring in Yellowstone Park and Haegindi and Fluidir spring, Olkelduhals, Grensdalur spring in Iceland, the pink mat in spectacles spring had highest bacterial diversity among them because it perhaps included lots of bacteria at lower temperature. And the result indicated the same community lived in the same niche and Aquficales was dominant group among bacterial composition of the mat in higher temperature and near-neutral hot spring.

  1. Biodiversity within hot spring microbial mat communities: molecular monitoring of enrichment cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. M.; Santegoeds, C. M.; Nold, S. C.; Ramsing, N. B.; Ferris, M. J.; Bateson, M. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have begun to examine the basis for incongruence between hot spring microbial mat populations detected by cultivation or by 16S rRNA methods. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to monitor enrichments and isolates plated therefrom. At near extincting inoculum dilutions we observed Chloroflexus-like and cyanobacterial populations whose 16S rRNA sequences have been detected in the 'New Pit' Spring Chloroflexus mat and the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat. Cyanobacterial populations enriched from 44 to 54 degrees C and 56 to 63 degrees C samples at near habitat temperatures were similar to those previously detected in mat samples of comparable temperatures. However, a lower temperature enrichment from the higher temperature sample selected for the populations found in the lower temperature sample. Three Thermus populations detected by both DGGE and isolation exemplify even more how enrichment may bias our view of community structure. The most abundant population was adapted to the habitat temperature (50 degrees C), while populations adapted to 65 degrees C and 70 degrees C were 10(2)- and 10(4)-fold less abundant, respectively. However, enrichment at 70 degrees C favored the least abundant strain. Inoculum dilution and incubation at the habitat temperature favored the more numerically relevant populations. We enriched many other aerobic chemoorganotrophic populations at various inoculum dilutions and substrate concentrations, most of whose 16S rRNA sequences have not been detected in mats. A common feature of numerically relevant cyanobacterial, Chloroflexus-like and aerobic chemorganotrophic populations, is that they grow poorly and resist cultivation on solidified medium, suggesting plating bias, and that the medium composition and incubation conditions may not reflect the natural microenvironments these populations inhabit.

  2. SMA spring-based artificial muscle actuated by hot and cool water using faucet-like valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Son, Young Su

    2017-04-01

    An artificial muscle for a human arm-like manipulator with high strain and high power density are under development, and an SMA(Shape memory alloy) spring is a good actuator for this application. In this study, an artificial muscle composed of a silicon tube and a bundle of SMA(Shape memory alloy) springs is evaluated. A bundle of SMA springs consists of five SMA springs which are fabricated by using SMA wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and hot and cool water actuates it by heating and cooling SMA springs. A faucet-like valve was also developed to mix hot water and cool water and control the water temperature. The mass of silicon tube and a bundle of SMA springs is only 3.3 g and 2.25 g, respectively, and the total mass of artificial muscle is 5.55 g. It showed good actuating performance for a load with a mass of 2.3 kg and the power density was more than 800 W/kg for continuous valve switching with a cycle of 0.6 s. The faucet-like valve can switch a water output from hot water to cold water within 0.3s, and the artificial muscle is actuated well in response to the valve position and speed. It is also presented that the temperature of the mixed water can be controlled depending on the valve position, and the displacement of the artificial muscle can be controlled well by the mixed water. Based on these results, SMA spring-based artificial muscle actuated by hot and cool water could be applicable to the human arm-like robot manipulators.

  3. Airborne CO2 and H2S Measurements at Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, K. A.; Doukas, M. P.; Werner, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    Gas emission-rate measurements at thermal areas located in remote regions with difficult ground access and little topographic relief pose a special challenge to those attempting to assess volcanic hazards in those areas. Several attempts have been made to measure gas emission rates from geyser basins, thermal areas and discrete large fumaroles at Yellowstone National Park through the use of fixed-wing aircraft with an on-board measurement system similar to that employed elsewhere at large stratovolcanoes. Despite minimum flight elevation restrictions and relatively flat terrain that often make access to the lowest margins of the plume difficult in these areas, we have successfully measured plumes of CO2 and H2S at several such areas and features at Yellowstone. We report here the results of a series of airborne measurements on 7 Jun 2006 at Hot Spring Basin (HSB), a remote vapor-dominated hydrothermal system just outside the northeast margin of Yellowstone caldera containing multiple gas vents. Using a LI-COR infrared spectrometer and Interscan electrochemical detector system, we detected a 3-km-wide plume approximately 2 km downwind from HSB. Several airborne traverses through a vertical slice of the plume allowed us to construct a cross-section of the plume and yielded emission rates of 170 metric tonnes per day (t/d) for CO2 and 2 t/d for H2S, similar to rates measured at Mt. Baker, WA (USA) in September 2000. However, an August 2006 ground-based study of emissions from HSB yielded higher emission rates for both CO2 and H2S (Werner et al., this session), suggesting that not all of the diffuse emissions are reflected in the airborne measurement. Although a complete inventory of plume emission rates from the majority of degassing sources in Yellowstone National Park is not yet complete, HSB appears to be a smaller gas emitter than some of the other sources in the Park (e.g., Norris Geyser Basin, Brimstone Basin, Mud Volcano, Grand Prismatic Spring and Mammoth Hot

  4. Antihistaminase activity of serpentine

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, K. S.; Aiman, Ranita; Rajapurkar, M. V.

    1961-01-01

    Serpentine, an alkaloid of Rauwolfia serpentina, specifically potentiates histamine responses of guinea-pig ileum, uterus, and tracheal chain. It also inhibits histaminase in vitro. Its antihistaminase activity is equivalent to that of aminoguanidine. PMID:13745213

  5. Active Serpentinization and the Potential for a Diverse Subsurface Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canovas, P. A.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    The ubiquitous nature of serpentinization and the unique fluids it generates have major consequences for habitat generation, abiotic organic synthesis, and biosynthesis. The production of hydrogen from the anaerobic hydrolysis of ultramafic minerals sets the redox state of serpentinizing fluids to be thermodynamically favorable for these processes. Consequently, a host of specialized microbial populations and metabolisms can be sustained. Active low-temperature serpentinizing systems, such as the Samail ophiolite in Oman, offer an ideal opportunity to investigate biogeochemical processes during the alteration of ultramafic minerals. At the Samail ophiolite in particular, serpentinization may provide the potential for an active subsurface microbial community shielded from potentially unfavorable surface conditions. Support for this assertion comes from geochemical data including Mg, Ca, CH4 (aq), and H2 (aq) abundances indicating that methane is a product of serpentinization. To further investigate viable metabolic strategies, affinity calculations were performed on both the surface waters and the hyperalkaline springs, which may be considered as messengers of processes occurring in the subsurface. Almost all sites yield positive affinities (i.e., are thermodynamically favorable) for a diverse suite of serpentinization metabolisms including methanogenesis, anammox, and carbon monoxide, nitrate, and sulfate reduction with hydrogen, as well as anaerobic methanotrophy coupled to nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate reduction. Reaction path modeling was performed to ascertain the extent to which serpentinization and mixing of surface waters with hyperalkaline spring waters in the subsurface can generate suitable habitats. The serpentinization model simulates the reaction of pristine Oman harzburgite with surface water to quantify the redox state and generation of hyperalkaline spring water. Preliminary results show that water-rock ratios as high as 100 could effectively reduce

  6. Difference in the action mechanism of radon inhalation and radon hot spring water drinking in suppression of hyperuricemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-06-01

    Although radon therapy is indicated for hyperuricemia, the underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we herein examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m(3) for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks. Mice were then administrated PO at a dose of 500 mg/kg. The results obtained showed that serum uric acid levels were significantly increased by the administration of PO. Radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking significantly inhibited elevations in serum uric acid levels through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity in the liver. Radon inhalation activated anti-oxidative functions in the liver and kidney. These results suggest that radon inhalation inhibits PO-induced hyperuricemia by activating anti-oxidative functions, while hot spring water drinking may suppress PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels through the pharmacological effects of the chemical compositions dissolved in it.

  7. Difference in the action mechanism of radon inhalation and radon hot spring water drinking in suppression of hyperuricemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-01-01

    Although radon therapy is indicated for hyperuricemia, the underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we herein examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on potassium oxonate (PO)–induced hyperuricemia in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks. Mice were then administrated PO at a dose of 500 mg/kg. The results obtained showed that serum uric acid levels were significantly increased by the administration of PO. Radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking significantly inhibited elevations in serum uric acid levels through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity in the liver. Radon inhalation activated anti-oxidative functions in the liver and kidney. These results suggest that radon inhalation inhibits PO-induced hyperuricemia by activating anti-oxidative functions, while hot spring water drinking may suppress PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels through the pharmacological effects of the chemical compositions dissolved in it. PMID:27021217

  8. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  9. Complete metagenome sequencing based bacterial diversity and functional insights from basaltic hot spring of Unkeshwar, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Mehetre, Gajanan T.; Paranjpe, Aditi S.; Dastager, Syed G.; Dharne, Mahesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Unkeshwar hot springs are located at geographical South East Deccan Continental basalt of India. Here, we report the microbial community analysis of this hot spring using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing approach. The analysis revealed a total of 848,096 reads with 212.87 Mbps with 50.87% G + C content. Metagenomic sequences were deposited in SRA database with accession number (SUB1242219). Community analysis revealed 99.98% sequences belonging to bacteria and 0.01% to archaea and 0.01% to Viruses. The data obtained revealed 41 phyla including bacteria and Archaea and including 719 different species. In taxonomic analysis, the dominant phyla were found as, Actinobacteria (56%), Verrucomicrobia (24%), Bacteriodes (13%), Deinococcus-Thermus (3%) and firmicutes (2%) and Viruses (2%). Furthermore, functional annotation using pathway information revealed dynamic potential of hot spring community in terms of metabolism, environmental information processing, cellular processes and other important aspects. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of each contig sequence by assigning KEGG Orthology (KO) numbers revealed contig sequences that were assigned to metabolism, organismal system, Environmental Information Processing, cellular processes and human diseases with some unclassified sequences. The Unkeshwar hot springs offer rich phylogenetic diversity and metabolic potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:26981391

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Thermus sp. Isolate 2.9, Obtained from a Hot Water Spring Located in Salta, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Marcelo F.; Ortiz, Elio M.; Benintende, Graciela B.; Amadio, Ariel F.; Zandomeni, Rubén O.

    2015-01-01

    Thermus sp. isolate 2.9 was obtained from a hot water spring in Salta, Argentina. Here, we report the draft genome sequence (2,485,434 bp) of this isolate, which consists of 11 scaffolds of >10 kbp and 2,719 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25593256

  11. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of 3He/ 4He in hot spring gas released from Unzen volcanic area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notsu, K.; Nakai, S.; Igarashi, G.; Ishibashi, J.; Mori, T.; Suzuki, M.; Wakita, H.

    2001-11-01

    Following the first phreatic explosion on 17 November 1990, hot spring gases were collected periodically over the next 10 years for 3He/ 4He isotopic ratio and chemical analyses from three hot springs (Obanma, Unzen and Shimabara) located around Unzen volcano, Japan. The 3He/ 4He ratios, although showing some scatter at each site, show an increase from west to east (Obamahot spring increased slightly after November 1990, reaching a maximum value in July 1992, and decreasing later. This suggests that magmatic helium with relatively high 3He/ 4He ratios took about one year to travel 5 km from beneath Fugendake volcanic cone to Shimabara hot spring site, because the magma effusion rate (and magma degassing rate) reached a maximum in June 1991.

  12. Genome Sequence of the Red Pigment-Forming Meiothermus taiwanensis Strain RP Isolated from Paniphala Hot Spring, India

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Trinetra; Bose, Sucharita; Sen, Urmimala; Roy, Chayan; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Meiothermus taiwanensis strain RP (MCC 2966), isolated from the Paniphala hot spring of India, which contains genes encoding for enzymes of the methyl erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis and carotenoid backbone synthesis. PMID:27365353

  13. Imaging Near-Surface Controls on Hot Spring Expression Using Shallow Seismic Refraction in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A. N.; Lindsey, C.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used shallow seismic refraction to image near-surface materials in the vicinity of a small group of hot springs, located in the Morning Mist Springs area of Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Seismic velocities in the area surveyed range from a low of 0.3 km/s to a high of approximately 2.5 km/s. The survey results indicate an irregular surface topography overlain by silty sediments. The observed seismic velocities are consistent with a subsurface model in which sorted sands and gravels, probably outwash materials from the Pinedale glaciation, are overlain by silts and fine sands deposited in the flat-lying areas of the Morning Springs area. These findings are supported by published geologic maps of the area and well logs from a nearby borehole. The near-surface materials appear to be saturated with discharging hydrothermal fluids of varying temperature, and interbedded with semi-lithified geothermal deposits (sinter). We hypothesize that the relatively low-conductivity deposits of fines at the surface may serve to confine a shallow, relatively low-temperature (sub-boiling) hydrothermal aquifer, and that the distribution of sinter in the shallow subsurface plays an important role in determining the geometry of hydrothermal discharge (hot springs) at the land surface. Few studies of the shallow controls on hot spring expression exist for the Yellowstone caldera, and the present study therefore offers a unique glimpse into near-subsurface fluid flow controls.

  14. Methanogenesis and Methanotrophy in Serpentinizing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E.; Poret-Peterson, A.; Canovas, P. A.; Robinson, K.; Marsala, P.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentinization leads to habitat generation, most obviously through the production of hydrogen and methane. These compounds, on the other hand, can be made by microbes and their production may be facilitated by conditions generated through serpentinization. The Samail ophiolite in northern Oman, hosts a number of hyperalkaline springs (pH>10) with fluids enriched in methane and hydrogen and severely depleted in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), relative to neighboring surface waters. Reaction path modeling of mixing between surface water and serpentinizing fluids, using data from our recent field work in Oman, shows that methanogenesis is promoted when small inputs of surface water (up to 20% of the total mixture) contribute DIC, and that methanotrophy is promoted by higher mixing ratios of surface water to serpentinizing fluids owing to the increasing abundance of dissolved oxygen. Whether methane and hydrogen originate from abiotic serpentinization, microbial metabolism, or a combination of biotic and abiotic processes in these springs remains an open question, which can be addressed in part through analysis of genes for methane and hydrogen metabolism. We amplified genes for methanogenesis (methyl coenzyme M reductase; mcrA), hydrogen metabolism (hydrogenase; hydA), and aerobic methane oxidation (particulate methane monooxygenase; pmoA) from hyperalkaline spring sediments. The genes we retrieved are most similar to sequences already obtained from deep subsurface (mcrA) or alkaline (hydA and pmoA) environments. Biological methanogenesis in hyperalkaline spring sediments is likely mediated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens based on the affiliation of the mcrA genes, and consistent with our reaction path modeling. Hydrogenase genes were most closely related to sequences from cultured organisms belonging to the orders Clostridiales and Bacteroidales and the class Deltaproteobacteria. Aerobic methane oxidation is likely mediated by alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs

  15. Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in western Sichuan province related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of δ D and δ(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak.

  16. Microbial diversity of acidic hot spring (kawah hujan B) in geothermal field of kamojang area, west java-indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria.

  17. Microbial Diversity of Acidic Hot Spring (Kawah Hujan B) in Geothermal Field of Kamojang Area, West Java-Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria. PMID:19440252

  18. Protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Norie; Sakoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2017-05-12

    Radon therapy using radon (222Rn) gas is classified into two types of treatment: inhalation of radon gas and drinking water containing radon. Although short- or long-term intake of spa water is effective in increasing gastric mucosal blood flow, and spa water therapy is useful for treating chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer, the underlying mechanisms for and precise effects of radon protection against mucosal injury are unclear. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice. Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 h or were provided with hot spring water for 2 weeks. The activity density of 222Rn ranged from 663 Bq/l (start point of supplying) to 100 Bq/l (end point of supplying). Mice were then orally administered ethanol at three concentrations. The ulcer index (UI), an indicator of mucosal injury, increased in response to the administration of ethanol; however, treatment with either radon inhalation or hot spring water inhibited the elevation in the UI due to ethanol. Although no significant differences in antioxidative enzymes were observed between the radon-treated groups and the non-treated control groups, lipid peroxide levels were significantly lower in the stomachs of mice pre-treated with radon or hot spring water. These results suggest that hot spring water drinking and radon inhalation inhibit ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  19. Acclimation of killifish to thermal extremes of hot spring: Transcription of gonadal and liver heat shock genes.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Arash; Leder, Erica H

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the hypothesis that killifish acclimate to thermal extremes through regulation of genes involved in stress and metabolism. We examined the liver and gonadal transcription of heat shock proteins (hsp70, hsp90a, hsp90b), glucokinase (gck), and high mobility group b1 (hmgb1) protein in wild killifish species from hot springs and rivers using quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, we exposed a river killifish species to a long-term thermal regime of hot spring (37-40°C) and examined the liver transcription of the heat shock genes. Our results showed that hot spring killifish showed a significant, strong upregulation of liver hsp90a. Moreover, the testicular transcript levels of hsp90a, hsp90b, and hsp70 were higher in hot spring killifish than the river ones. The results of the common garden experiments showed that the transcripts of hsp70, hsp90b, and hmgb1 were mildly induced (> twofold) at the time when temperature reached to 37-40°C, while the transcripts of hsp90a were strongly induced (17-fold increase). The level of hsp90a was dramatically more upregulated when fish were maintained in thermal extreme (42-fold change higher than in ambient temperature). Moreover, a significant downregulation of gck transcripts was observed at the time when temperature was raised to 37-40°C (80-fold decrease) and during exposure to long-term thermal extreme (56-fold decrease). It can be concluded that the regulation of heat shock genes particularly hsp90a might be a key factor of the acclimation of fish to high temperature environments like hot springs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Greater temporal changes of sediment microbial community than its waterborne counterpart in Tengchong hot springs, Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shang; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Briggs, Brandon R.; Huang, Liuqin

    2014-01-01

    Temporal variation in geochemistry can cause changes in microbial community structure and diversity. Here we studied temporal changes of microbial communities in Tengchong hot springs of Yunnan Province, China in response to geochemical variations by using microbial and geochemical data collected in January, June and August of 2011. Greater temporal variations were observed in individual taxa than at the whole community structure level. Water and sediment communities exhibited different temporal variation patterns. Water communities were largely stable across three sampling times and dominated by similar microbial lineages: Hydrogenobaculum in moderate-temperature acidic springs, Sulfolobus in high-temperature acidic springs, and Hydrogenobacter in high-temperature circumneutral to alkaline springs. Sediment communities were more diverse and responsive to changing physicochemical conditions. Most of the sediment communities in January and June were similar to those in waters. However, the August sediment community was more diverse and contained more anaerobic heterotrophs than the January and June: Desulfurella and Acidicaldus in moderate-temperature acidic springs, Ignisphaera and Desulfurococcus in high-temperature acidic springs, the candidate division OP1 and Fervidobacterium in alkaline springs, and Thermus and GAL35 in neutral springs. Temporal variations in physicochemical parameters including temperature, pH, and dissolved organic carbon may have triggered the observed microbial community shifts. PMID:25524763

  1. Multielement geochemistry of solid materials in geothermal systems and its applications. Part 1. Hot-water system at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bamford, R.W.; Christensen, O.D.; Capuano, R.M.

    1980-02-01

    Geochemical studies of the geothermal system at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, have led to development of chemical criteria for recognition of major features of the system and to a three-dimensional model for chemical zoning in the system. Based on this improved level of understanding several new or modified geochemical exploration and assessment techniques have been defined and are probably broadly applicable to evaluation of hot-water geothermal systems. The main purpose of this work was the development or adaptation of solids geochemical exploration techniques for use in the geothermal environment. (MHR)

  2. Parallel geochemical and metagenomic datasets reveal biogeochemical cycling in a hot spring ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Swingley, W.; Raymond, J.; Shock, E.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental sequence data (2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of "metagenome" sequence) were produced from biofilms at five sites in the outflow of "Bison Pool" (BP), an alkaline hot spring in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The outflow of BP is characterized by decreasing temperature, increasing pH, increasing dissolved oxygen, decreasing total sulfide, and changing availability of biological nutrients. Microbial life along a 22 m gradient at BP transitions from a 92°C chemotrophic streamer biofilm community in the source pool to a 56°C phototrophic mat community. Coordinated analysis of the BP Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ~75 parameters has revealed biogeochemical cycling and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem (1). In the BP outflow, genes diagnostic for sulfide oxidation, attributed to Aquificales in the chemosynthetic zone and Deinococcus-Thermus at the photosynthetic fringe, decrease in total number downstream. Geochemical data indicate that biological sulfide oxidation, an energy-yielding process in BP, occurs over this same range. While the genetic capacity for sulfate reduction in Thermoproteales at high temperature was found, inorganic sulfate reduction is only minimally energy-yielding at BP suggesting limited activity of these genes. Presence of apr, sat, and dsr genes in the photosynthetic mats may indicate sulfate reduction in micro-niches at depth within the biofilms, perhaps in response to increased availability of organic solutes. Carbon fixation tactics shift downstream in BP as well, as evidenced by the presence of genes associated with specific pathways and carbon isotope ratios. Capacity for the rTCA cycle, attributed to Aquificales and Thermoproteales, and the acetyl co-A pathway are found throughout BP, but are most prevalent in highest temperature sites. At lower temperature sites, fewer total carbon fixation genes were observed

  3. The effects on human health and hydrogeochemical characteristics of the Kirkgeçit and Ozancik Hot Springs, Canakkale, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Rustem

    2003-06-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the Kirkgeçit and Ozancik hot springs. The study areas are located northeast and southwest of the town of Can, Canakkale. During the investigation, geological maps of the hot springs and its surroundings were prepared, and hot waters and rock samples were collected from the study sites. The Paleogene-Neogene aged andesite, trachyandesite, andesitic tuff, silicified tuff and tuffites form the basement rocks in the Ozancik hot spring area. In the Kirkgeçit hot spring area, there are Lower Triassic aged mica and quartz schists at the basement rocks. The unit is covered by limestones and marbles of the same age. They are overlain by Quaternary alluvial deposits. A chemical analysis of the Kirkgeçit hot water indicates that it is rich in SO(4)2- (1200.2 mgL-1), Cl- (121.7 mgL-1), HCO3- (32.5 mg L-1), Na+ (494 mg L-1), K+ (30.2 mg L-1), Ca2+ (102 mg L-1), Mg2+ (15.2 mg L-1), and SiO2 (65.22 mg L-1). Chemical analysis of the Ozancik hot water indicates that it is rich in SO(4)2- (575 mg L-1), Cl- (193.2 mg L-1), HCO3- (98.5 mg L-1), Na+ (315 mg L-1), K+ (7.248 mg L-1), Ca2+ (103 mg L-1), Mg2+ (0.274 mg L-1), and SiO2 (43.20 mg L-1). The distribution of ions in the hot waters on the Schoeller diagram has an arrangement of r(Na(+) + K+) > rCa2+ > rMg2+ and r(SO(4)2-) > rCl- > r(HCO3-). In addition, the inclusion of Fe2+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+ in the hot water samples indicates potential natural inorganic contamination. The water analysis carried out following the ICPMS-200 technique was evaluated according to the World Health Organisation and Turkish Standards. The use and the effects of the hot water on human health are also discussed in the paper.

  4. Hot spring siliceous stromatolites from Yellowstone National Park: assessing growth rate and laminae formation.

    PubMed

    Berelson, W M; Corsetti, F A; Pepe-Ranney, C; Hammond, D E; Beaumont, W; Spear, J R

    2011-09-01

    Stromatolites are commonly interpreted as evidence of ancient microbial life, yet stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood. We apply radiometric tracer and dating techniques, molecular analyses and growth experiments to investigate siliceous stromatolite morphogenesis in Obsidian Pool Prime (OPP), a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. We examine rates of stromatolite growth and the environmental and/or biologic conditions that affect lamination formation and preservation, both difficult features to constrain in ancient examples. The "main body" of the stromatolite is composed of finely laminated, porous, light-dark couplets of erect (surface normal) and reclining (surface parallel) silicified filamentous bacteria, interrupted by a less-distinct, well-cemented "drape" lamination. Results from dating studies indicate a growth rate of 1-5 cm year(-1) ; however, growth is punctuated. (14)C as a tracer demonstrates that stromatolite cyanobacterial communities fix CO(2) derived from two sources, vent water (radiocarbon dead) and the atmosphere (modern (14)C). The drape facies contained a greater proportion of atmospheric CO(2) and more robust silica cementation (vs. the main body facies), which we interpret as formation when spring level was lower. Systematic changes in lamination style are likely related to environmental forcing and larger scale features (tectonic, climatic). Although the OPP stromatolites are composed of silica and most ancient forms are carbonate, their fine lamination texture requires early lithification. Without early lithification, whether silica or carbonate, it is unlikely that a finely laminated structure representing an ancient microbial mat would be preserved. In OPP, lithification on the nearly diurnal time scale is likely related to temperature control on silica solubility. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Geochemistry and microbial ecology in alkaline hot springs of Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Amend, Jan P

    2014-07-01

    The availability of microbiological and geochemical data from island-based and high-arsenic hydrothermal systems is limited. Here, the microbial diversity in island-based hot springs on Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea) was investigated using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Waramung and Kapkai are alkaline springs high in sulfide and arsenic, related hydrologically to previously described hydrothermal vents in nearby Tutum Bay. Enrichments were carried out at 24 conditions with varying temperature (45, 80 °C), pH (6.5, 8.5), terminal electron acceptors (O2, SO4 (2-), S(0), NO3 (-)), and electron donors (organic carbon, H2, As(III)). Growth was observed in 20 of 72 tubes, with media targeting heterotrophic metabolisms the most successful. 16S ribosomal RNA gene surveys of environmental samples revealed representatives in 15 bacterial phyla and 8 archaeal orders. While the Kapkai 4 bacterial clone library is primarily made up of Thermodesulfobacteria (74%), no bacterial taxon represents a majority in the Kapkai 3 and Waramung samples (40% Proteobacteria and 39% Aquificae, respectively). Deinococcus/Thermus and Thermotogae are observed in all samples. The Thermococcales dominate the archaeal clone libraries (65-85%). Thermoproteales, Desulfurococcales, and uncultured Eury- and Crenarchaeota make up the remaining archaeal taxonomic diversity. The culturing and phylogenetic results are consistent with the geochemistry of the alkaline, saline, and sulfide-rich fluids. When compared to other alkaline, island-based, high-arsenic, or shallow-sea hydrothermal communities, the Ambitle Island archaeal communities are unique in geochemical conditions, and in taxonomic diversity, richness, and evenness.

  6. Metatranscriptomic analyses of chlorophototrophs of a hot-spring microbial mat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Klatt, Christian G; Wood, Jason M; Rusch, Douglas B; Ludwig, Marcus; Wittekindt, Nicola; Tomsho, Lynn P; Schuster, Stephan C; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    The phototrophic microbial mat community of Mushroom Spring, an alkaline siliceous hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, was studied by metatranscriptomic methods. RNA was extracted from mat specimens collected at four timepoints during light-to-dark and dark-to-light transitions in one diel cycle, and these RNA samples were analyzed by both pyrosequencing and SOLiD technologies. Pyrosequencing was used to assess the community composition, which showed that ∼84% of the rRNA was derived from members of four kingdoms Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Chlorobi and Acidobacteria. Transcription of photosynthesis-related genes conclusively demonstrated the phototrophic nature of two newly discovered populations; these organisms, which were discovered through metagenomics, are currently uncultured and previously undescribed members of Chloroflexi and Chlorobi. Data sets produced by SOLiD sequencing of complementary DNA provided >100-fold greater sequence coverage. The much greater sequencing depth allowed transcripts to be detected from ∼15 000 genes and could be used to demonstrate statistically significant differential transcription of thousands of genes. Temporal differences for in situ transcription patterns of photosynthesis-related genes suggested that the six types of chlorophototrophs in the mats may use different strategies for maximizing their solar-energy capture, usage and growth. On the basis of both temporal pattern and transcript abundance, intra-guild gene expression differences were also detected for two populations of the oxygenic photosynthesis guild. This study showed that, when community-relevant genomes and metagenomes are available, SOLiD sequencing technology can be used for metatranscriptomic analyses, and the results suggested that this method can potentially reveal new insights into the ecophysiology of this model microbial community. PMID:21697962

  7. Production and early preservation of lipid biomarkers in iron hot springs.

    PubMed

    Parenteau, Mary N; Jahnke, Linda L; Farmer, Jack D; Cady, Sherry L

    2014-06-01

    The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51-54°C, pH 5.5-6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8-5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community composition of the microbial mats, link source organisms to geologically significant biomarkers, and investigate how iron mineralization degrades the lipid signature of the community. The phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid profiles of the highest-temperature mats indicate that they are dominated by cyanobacteria and green nonsulfur filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs). Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the cyanobacteria include midchain branched mono- and dimethylalkanes and, most notably, 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the FAPs (Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp.) include wax esters and a long-chain tri-unsaturated alkene. Surprisingly, the lipid biomarkers resisted the earliest stages of microbial degradation and diagenesis to survive in the iron oxides beneath the mats. Understanding the potential of particular sedimentary environments to capture and preserve fossil biosignatures is of vital importance in the selection of the best landing sites for future astrobiological missions to Mars. This study explores the nature of organic degradation processes in moderately thermal Fe(II)-rich groundwater springs--environmental conditions that have been previously identified as highly relevant for Mars exploration.

  8. Metatranscriptomic analyses of chlorophototrophs of a hot-spring microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Klatt, Christian G; Wood, Jason M; Rusch, Douglas B; Ludwig, Marcus; Wittekindt, Nicola; Tomsho, Lynn P; Schuster, Stephan C; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

    2011-08-01

    The phototrophic microbial mat community of Mushroom Spring, an alkaline siliceous hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, was studied by metatranscriptomic methods. RNA was extracted from mat specimens collected at four timepoints during light-to-dark and dark-to-light transitions in one diel cycle, and these RNA samples were analyzed by both pyrosequencing and SOLiD technologies. Pyrosequencing was used to assess the community composition, which showed that ~84% of the rRNA was derived from members of four kingdoms Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Chlorobi and Acidobacteria. Transcription of photosynthesis-related genes conclusively demonstrated the phototrophic nature of two newly discovered populations; these organisms, which were discovered through metagenomics, are currently uncultured and previously undescribed members of Chloroflexi and Chlorobi. Data sets produced by SOLiD sequencing of complementary DNA provided >100-fold greater sequence coverage. The much greater sequencing depth allowed transcripts to be detected from ~15,000 genes and could be used to demonstrate statistically significant differential transcription of thousands of genes. Temporal differences for in situ transcription patterns of photosynthesis-related genes suggested that the six types of chlorophototrophs in the mats may use different strategies for maximizing their solar-energy capture, usage and growth. On the basis of both temporal pattern and transcript abundance, intra-guild gene expression differences were also detected for two populations of the oxygenic photosynthesis guild. This study showed that, when community-relevant genomes and metagenomes are available, SOLiD sequencing technology can be used for metatranscriptomic analyses, and the results suggested that this method can potentially reveal new insights into the ecophysiology of this model microbial community.

  9. Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to

  10. Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51–54°C, pH 5.5–6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8–5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community composition of the microbial mats, link source organisms to geologically significant biomarkers, and investigate how iron mineralization degrades the lipid signature of the community. The phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid profiles of the highest-temperature mats indicate that they are dominated by cyanobacteria and green nonsulfur filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs). Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the cyanobacteria include midchain branched mono- and dimethylalkanes and, most notably, 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the FAPs (Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp.) include wax esters and a long-chain tri-unsaturated alkene. Surprisingly, the lipid biomarkers resisted the earliest stages of microbial degradation and diagenesis to survive in the iron oxides beneath the mats. Understanding the potential of particular sedimentary environments to capture and preserve fossil biosignatures is of vital importance in the selection of the best landing sites for future astrobiological missions to Mars. This study explores the nature of organic degradation processes in moderately thermal Fe(II)-rich groundwater springs—environmental conditions that have been previously identified as highly relevant for Mars exploration. Key Words: Lipid biomarkers—Photosynthesis—Iron—Hot springs—Mars. Astrobiology 14, 502–521. PMID:24886100

  11. Silicon isotope fractionation during silica precipitation from hot-spring waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilert, Sonja; Vroon, Pieter; Keller, Nicole; Gudbrnadsson, Snorri; Stefánsson, Andri; van Bergen, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Hot-spring systems in the Geysir geothermal area, Iceland, have been studied to explore silicon isotope fractionation in a natural setting where sinter deposits are actively formed over a temperature interval between 20° and 100° C. The SiO2(aq)concentrations in spring and stream waters range between 290 and 560ppm and stay relatively constant along downstream trajectories, irrespective of significant cooling gradients. The waters are predominantly oversaturated in amorphous silica at the temperatures measured in the field. Correlations between the saturation indices, temperature and amounts of evaporative water loss suggest that cooling and evaporation are the main causes of subaqueous silica precipitation. The δ30Si values of dissolved silica in spring water and outflowing streams average around +1o probably due to the small quantities of instantaneously precipitating silica relative to the dissolved amount. Siliceous sinters, in contrast, range between -0.1o to -4.0o consistent with a preferred incorporation of the light silicon isotope and with values for precipitated silica becoming more negative with downstream decreasing temperatures. Larger fractionation magnitudes are inversely correlated with the precipitation rate, which itself is dependent on temperature, saturation state and the extent of a system. The resulting magnitudes of solid-fluid isotopic fractionation generally decline from -3.5o at 10° C to -2.0o at 90° C. These values confirm a similar relationship between fractionation magnitude and temperature that we found in laboratory-controlled silica-precipitation experiments. However, a relatively constant offset of ca. -2.9o between field and experimental fractionation values indicates that temperature alone cannot be responsible for the observed shifts. We infer that precipitation kinetics are a prominent control of silicon isotope fractionation in aqueous environments, whereby the influence of the extent of the system on the precipitation

  12. Iron isotope characteristics of Hot Springs at Chocolate Pots, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingling; Brucker, Rebecca Poulson; Beard, Brian L; Roden, Eric E; Johnson, Clark M

    2013-11-01

    Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park is a hydrothermal system that contains high aqueous ferrous iron [∼0.1 mM Fe(II)] at circumneutral pH conditions. This site provides an ideal field environment in which to test our understanding of Fe isotope fractionations derived from laboratory experiments. The Fe(III) oxides, mainly produced through Fe(II) oxidation by oxygen in the atmosphere, have high ⁵⁶Fe/⁵⁴Fe ratios compared with the aqueous Fe(II). However, the degree of fractionation is less than that expected in a closed system at isotopic equilibrium. We suggest two explanations for the observed Fe isotope compositions. One is that light Fe isotopes partition into a sorbed component and precipitate out on the Fe(III) oxide surfaces in the presence of silica. The other explanation is internal regeneration of isotopically heavy Fe(II) via dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction farther down the flow path as well as deeper within the mat materials. These findings provide evidence that silica plays an important role in governing Fe isotope fractionation factors between reduced and oxidized Fe. Under conditions of low ambient oxygen, such as may be found on early Earth or Mars, significantly larger Fe isotope variations are predicted, reflecting the more likely attainment of Fe isotope equilibrium associated with slower oxidation rates under low-O₂ conditions.

  13. Discovery and characterizaton of a novel lipase with transesterification activity from hot spring metagenomic library.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Li, Furong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Yaxin; Dong, Zhiyang; Bai, Linhan

    2017-03-01

    A new gene encoding a lipase (designated as Lip-1) was identified from a metagenomic bacterial artificial chromosome(BAC) library prepared from a concentrated water sample collected from a hot spring field in Niujie, Eryuan of Yunnan province in China. The open reading frame of this gene encoded 622 amino acid residues. It was cloned, fused with the oleosin gene and over expressed in Escherichia coli to prepare immobilized lipase artificial oil body AOB-sole-lip-1. The monomeric Sole-lip-1 fusion protein presented a molecular mass of 102.4 kDa. Enzyme assays using olive oil and methanol as the substrates in petroleum ether confirmed its transesterification activity. Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 8,11-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, 8-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester, and Octadecanoic acid methyl ester were detected. It showed favorable transesterification activity with optimal temperature 45 °C. Besides, the maximal biodiesel yield was obtained when the petroleum ether system as the organic solvent and the substrate methanol in 350 mmol/L (at a molar ratio of methanol of 10.5:1) and the water content was 1%. In light of these advantages, this lipase presents a promising resource for biodiesel production.

  14. Analysis of temperature-time data from 3 m drillholes at Crystal Hot Springs, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.; Chapman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for determining the background geothermal gradient values through the analysis of temperature measurements at multiple depths to 3 m and recorded over a time span of several days is presented. The analysis is based on the amplitude decay and phase shift of temperature waves with depth. Diurnal and other high frequency temperature variations are used to compute thermal diffusivities which in turn are used to model and remove the effect of the annual temperature wave. The analysis considers both a homogeneous half space and a two layer medium consisting of an overburden of finite thickness overlying a semi-infinite substratum. The method was tested in three holes in the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal field. Temperatures in each hole were recorded once a minute over a period of three days with a probe containing thermistors at eight different depths. Five of the thermistors were positioned at shallow depths (less than or equal to 0.5 m) to monitor diurnal and other high frequency waves and three at greater depths (greater than or equal to 1 m) to measure lower frequency variations. Since measurements were recorded at only three sites, the accuracy and reliability of the method is not fully evaluated. Potential problems to the method resulting from inaccurate model parameters and convective heat transport are investigated.

  15. Thermophilic bacteria in Moroccan hot springs, salt marshes and desert soils

    PubMed Central

    Aanniz, Tarik; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Melloul, Marouane; Swings, Jean; Elfahime, Elmostafa; Ibijbijen, Jamal; Ismaili, Mohamed; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was investigated in four hot springs, three salt marshes and 12 desert sites in Morocco. Two hundred and forty (240) thermophilic bacteria were recovered, identified and characterized. All isolates were Gram positive, rod-shaped, spore forming and halotolerant. Based on BOXA1R-PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the recovered isolates were dominated by the genus Bacillus (97.5%) represented by B. licheniformis (119), B. aerius (44), B. sonorensis (33), B. subtilis (subsp. spizizenii (2) and subsp. inaquosurum (6)), B. amyloliquefaciens (subsp. amyloliquefaciens (4) and subsp. plantarum (4)), B. tequilensis (3), B. pumilus (3) and Bacillus sp. (19). Only six isolates (2.5%) belonged to the genus Aeribacillus represented by A. pallidus (4) and Aeribacillus sp. (2). In this study, B. aerius and B. tequilensis are described for the first time as thermophilic bacteria. Moreover, 71.25%, 50.41% and 5.41% of total strains exhibited high amylolytic, proteolytic or cellulolytic activity respectively. PMID:26273259

  16. Thermophilic bacteria in Moroccan hot springs, salt marshes and desert soils.

    PubMed

    Aanniz, Tarik; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Melloul, Marouane; Swings, Jean; Elfahime, Elmostafa; Ibijbijen, Jamal; Ismaili, Mohamed; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was investigated in four hot springs, three salt marshes and 12 desert sites in Morocco. Two hundred and forty (240) thermophilic bacteria were recovered, identified and characterized. All isolates were Gram positive, rod-shaped, spore forming and halotolerant. Based on BOXA1R-PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the recovered isolates were dominated by the genus Bacillus (97.5%) represented by B. licheniformis (119), B. aerius (44), B. sonorensis (33), B. subtilis (subsp. spizizenii (2) and subsp. inaquosurum (6)), B. amyloliquefaciens (subsp. amyloliquefaciens (4) and subsp. plantarum (4)), B. tequilensis (3), B. pumilus (3) and Bacillus sp. (19). Only six isolates (2.5%) belonged to the genus Aeribacillus represented by A. pallidus (4) and Aeribacillus sp. (2). In this study, B. aerius and B. tequilensis are described for the first time as thermophilic bacteria. Moreover, 71.25%, 50.41% and 5.41% of total strains exhibited high amylolytic, proteolytic or cellulolytic activity respectively.

  17. Seasonal patterns in microbial communities inhabiting the hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Brandon R; Brodie, Eoin L; Tom, Lauren M; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wang, Shang; Hou, Weiguo; Wu, Geng; Huang, Liuquin; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2014-06-01

    Studies focusing on seasonal dynamics of microbial communities in terrestrial and marine environments are common; however, little is known about seasonal dynamics in high-temperature environments. Thus, our objective was to document the seasonal dynamics of both the physicochemical conditions and the microbial communities inhabiting hot springs in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The PhyloChip microarray detected 4882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within 79 bacterial phylum-level groups and 113 OTUs within 20 archaeal phylum-level groups, which are additional 54 bacterial phyla and 11 archaeal phyla to those that were previously described using pyrosequencing. Monsoon samples (June 2011) showed increased concentrations of potassium, total organic carbon, ammonium, calcium, sodium and total nitrogen, and decreased ferrous iron relative to the dry season (January 2011). At the same time, the highly ordered microbial communities present in January gave way to poorly ordered communities in June, characterized by higher richness of Bacteria, including microbes related to mesophiles. These seasonal changes in geochemistry and community structure are likely due to high rainfall influx during the monsoon season and indicate that seasonal dynamics occurs in high-temperature environments experiencing significant changes in seasonal recharge. Thus, geothermal environments are not isolated from the surrounding environment and seasonality affects microbial ecology. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Isolation and characterization of lipid-degrading Bacillus thermoleovorans IHI-91 from an icelandic hot spring.

    PubMed

    Markossian, S; Becker, P; Märkl, H; Antranikian, G

    2000-12-01

    An efficient lipid-degrading thermophilic aerobic bacterium was isolated from an icelandic hot spring and classified as Bacillus thermoleovorans IHI-91. The aerobic bacterium grows optimally at 65 degrees C and pH 6.0 and secretes a high level of lipase (300 Ul(-1)). The newly isolated strain utilizes several lipids such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, lanolin, olive oil, sunflower seed oil, soya oil, and fish oil as sole carbon and energy source without an additional supply of growth factors. The degradation of about 93% of triolein, which is present in olive oil, was observed after only 7h of fermentation at a maximal growth rate of 1.0 h(-1). During growth at optimal conditions on yeast extract, the doubling time was only 15 min. Based on 16S rDNA studies, DNA-DNA hybridization and morphological and physiological properties, the isolate IHI-91 was identified as Bacillus thermoleovorans IHI-91 sp. nov. Because of its production of high concentrations of thermoactive lipases and esterases and the capability of degrading a wide range of lipids at high temperatures, the isolated strain is an ideal candidate for application in various biotechnological processes such as wastewater treatment.

  19. Novel thermophilic and thermostable lipolytic enzymes from a Thailand hot spring metagenomic library.

    PubMed

    Tirawongsaroj, Pacawadee; Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Harnpicharnchai, Piyanun; Thongaram, Taksawan; Champreda, Verawat; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Pootanakit, Kusol; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2008-01-01

    Functional screening for lipolytic enzymes from a metagenomic library (origin: Jae Sawn hot spring, Thailand) resulted in isolation of a novel patatin-like phospholipase (PLP) and an esterase (Est1). PLP contained four conserved domains similar to other patatin-like proteins with lipid acyl hydrolase activity. Likewise, sequence alignment analysis revealed that Est1 can be classified as a family V bacterial lipolytic enzyme. Both PLP and Est1 were expressed heterologously as soluble proteins in E. coli and exhibited more than 50% of their maximal activities at alkaline pH, of 7-9 and 8-10, respectively. In addition, both enzymes retained more than 50% of maximal activity in the temperature range of 50-75 degrees C, with optimal activity at 70 degrees C and were stable at 70 degrees C for at least 120 min. Both PLP and Est1 exhibited high V(max) toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate. The enzymes had activity toward both short-chain (C(4) and C(5)) and long chain (C(14) and C(16)) fatty acid esters. The isolated enzymes, are therefore, different from other known patatin-like phospholipases and esterases, which usually show no activity for substrates longer than C(10). We suggest that PLP and EstA enzymes are novel and have a; b potential use in industrial applications.

  20. Characterization and identification of Geobacillus spp. isolated from Soldhar hot spring site of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Avinash; Pandey, Anita; Shouche, Yogesh S; Kumar, Bhavesh; Kulkarni, Girish

    2009-04-01

    13 morphologically distinct strains of thermophilic bacteria isolated from a hot spring site in Garhwal region of Indian Himalaya have been characterized and identified using phenotypic and genotypic characters. All the strains developed circular to irregular colonies between 2-3 mm on Tryptone Yeast extract (TY) agar plates at 65 degrees C following 24-36 h incubation. In TY broth, facultative bacterial growth was observed within 12-16 h of incubation at 65 degrees C. The bacterial strains could tolerate a temperature range between 40-45 degrees C to 85-90 degrees C (optimum 65-70 degrees C) and pH between 4-11 (optimum 6-8). The cell morphology varied from short to long rods arranged in single, diplobacilli (in V or L shape) or short or long spiral chains with coiling. The bacterial strains varied in respect of their biochemical tests conducted for various enzymes, fermentation of sugars, tolerance to antibiotics and salt. Based on the 16S rRNA analysis, 11 strains showed maximum similarity with Geobacillus stereothermophilus, one strain with G. kaustophilus and one with Geobacillus sp. ((c) 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  1. Tepidimonas taiwanensis sp. nov., a novel alkaline-protease-producing bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-Lai; Chou, Yi-Ju; Chen, Wen-Ming; Arun, Bhagwath; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2006-02-01

    The bacterial strain designated I1-1(T) was isolated from a hot spring located in the Pingtung area, southern Taiwan. Cells of this organism were Gram reaction negative rods, motile by a single polar flagellum. Optimum conditions for growth were 55 degrees C and pH 7. Strain I1-1(T) grew well in lower nutrient media such as 5-10% Luria-Bertani broth, and its extracellular products expressed alkaline protease activity. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that strain I1-1(T) is a member of beta-Proteobacteria. On the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, DNA-DNA similarity data, whole-cell protein analysis, physiological and biochemical characteristics, as well as fatty acid compositions, the organism belonged to the genus Tepidimonas and represented a novel species within this genus. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain I1-1(T) were 16:0 (about 41%), 18:1 omega7c (about 13%), and summed feature 3 [16:1 omega7c or 15:0 iso 2OH or both (about 26%)]. Its DNA base ratio was 68.1 mol%. We propose to classify strain I1-1(T) (=BCRC 17406(T)=LMG 22826(T)) as Tepidimonas taiwanensis sp. nov.

  2. Characterization of true-branching cyanobacteria from geothermal sites and hot springs of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Karin; Scholz, Ingeborg; Serrano, Aurelio; Morales, Saylen; Uribe-Lorio, Lorena; Mora, Marielos; Sittenfeld, Ana; Weckesser, Jürgen; Hess, Wolfgang R

    2008-02-01

    Costa Rica is at the centre of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot. Little is known about cyanobacteria from this region so far. Here, four isolates of the order Stigonematales (section V) were characterized in a polyphasic approach. All strains were isolated from geothermal sites and hot springs of Costa Rica. However, one of them, identified as Westiellopsis sp. Ar73, did not grow at more than 40 degrees C. Based on its identical 16S rRNA to several previously isolated Westiellopsis sp. and Fischerella muscicola strains, a ubiquitous distribution throughout tropical and subtropical regions can be implied. In contrast, the isolates MV9, MV11 and RV14 grew well up to 50-55 degrees C. Based on morphologic, ultrastructural, molecular and physiologic data, MV9, MV11 and RV14 were identified to belong to the genus Fischerella. Two distinct intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) types, with or without tRNA genes, were detected for all Stigonematales analysed here, indicating ITS polymorphism as a characteristic feature of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In phylogenetic trees, these Fischerella spp. formed a new and distinct clade within the wider lineage of thermophilic Fischerella (Mastigocladus cf. laminosus), which might represent a geographic lineage. Thus, geographic isolation may be an underestimated aspect of microbial evolution. The strains presented here are suitable as new models to study this group of cyanobacteria.

  3. New findings: a very high natural radiation area in Afra hot springs, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali; Abdelsalam, Manal; Abu-Haija, Osama; Joudeh, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone was investigated for the first time in Afra hot springs of Jordan. The radiation levels were measured using a portable Geiger-Muller counter and an Na(Tl) detector. The measured absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 10 to 1800 nGy h(-1), suggesting that the concentration of natural radioactive materials is very high compared with their normal abundance in crustal rocks. A single high-radiation zone was also found in a nearby area where a gamma radiation dose rate of 4.0 mGy h(-1) was measured. On the basis of this measurement, the area was marked as a high-radiation zone. This region is far from tourist areas and not easily reached. No intervention measures are needed to protect people because the spa area is not well inhabited, having only daily visitors (average frequency of 10 days per year per individual). The dose received by workers in the spa area should be considered and the worker should be monitored by personal radiation dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters.

  4. Characterization of aluminum resistant Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jia Chun; Goh, Kian Mau; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Chong, Chun Shiong

    2015-04-01

    The Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4, previously isolated from a hot spring, was screened for its heavy metals resistance (Al(3+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+)) and the strain was found to be most resistant to aluminum. Significant growth of the strain was observed when it was grown in medium containing aluminum (200 mg L(-1)-800 mg L(-1)) with relative growth rates ranging between 77% and 100%. A gene encoding the aluminum resistance protein (accession number: WP_021095658.1) was found in genome of strain SK 3-4, which revealed high sequence identity (>95%) to its homologues from Anoxybacillus species. Sequence comparisons with two functionally characterized aluminum resistance proteins, namely G2alt and ALU1-P, showed 97% and 81% of sequence identity, respectively. Four putative metal binding sites were detected in SK 3-4 aluminum resistance protein and G2alt at same amino acid residue positions of 186, 195, 198, and 201. Strain SK 3-4 was found to be able to remove aluminum from aqueous solution. This study demonstrated that Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 could be applied in the treatment of aluminum contaminated wastewater. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Thermogladius calderae gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote from a Kamchatka hot spring.

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, Tatiana V; Kublanov, Ilya V; Toshchakov, Stepan V; Osburn, Magdalena R; Novikov, Andrei A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Perevalova, Anna A

    2016-01-21

    An obligately anaerobic, hyperthermophilic, organoheterotrophic archaeon, strain 1633T, was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring of the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia). Cells were regular cocci, 0.5-0.9 μm in diameter, with one flagellum. The temperature range for growth was 80-95°C, with an optimum at 84°C. Strain 1633T grew on yeast extract, beef extract, peptone, cellulose and cellobiose. No growth was detected on other sugars or carbohydrates, organic acids, or under autotrophic conditions. The only detected growth products were CO2, acetate, and H2. Growth rate was stimulated by elemental sulfur, which was reduced to hydrogen sulfide. In silico calculated G+C content of strain 1633T genomic DNA was 55.64 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the strain 1633T together with the non-validly published "Thermogladius shockii" strain WB1 in a separate genus-level cluster within the Desulfurococcaceae family. ANI results revealed 75.72% identity between 1633T and WB1. Based on these results we propose a novel genus and species, for which the name Thermogladius calderae gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain 1633T=DSM 22663T=VKM B-2946T) is proposed.

  6. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2014-01-30

    In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3g/l; contact time 72h; microbial concentration, 3ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis sp. nov., a thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium isolated from Coso Hot Springs, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Simbahan, Jessica; Drijber, Rhae; Blum, Paul

    2004-09-01

    A thermo-acidophilic Gram-positive bacterium, strain CsHg2T, which grows aerobically at 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 2.0-6.0 (optimum 4.0), was isolated from a geothermal pool located in Coso Hot Springs in the Mojave Desert, California, USA. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this bacterium was most closely related to the type strains of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (97.8 % identity) and Alicyclobacillus sendaiensis (96.9 %), three Japanese strains denoted as UZ-1, KHA-31 and MIH 332 (96.1-96.5 %) and Alicyclobacillus genomic species FR-6 (96.3 %). Phenotypic characteristics including temperature and pH optima, G+C composition, acid production from a variety of carbon sources and sensitivity to different metal salts distinguished CsHg2T from A. acidocaldarius, A. sendaiensis and FR-6. The cell lipid membrane was composed mainly of omega-cyclohexyl fatty acid, consistent with membranes from other Alicyclobacillus species. Very low DNA-DNA hybridization values between CsHg2T and the type strains of Alicyclobacillus indicate that CsHg2T represents a distinct species. On the basis of these results, the name Alicyclobacillus vulcanalis sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain is CsHg2T (ATCC BAA-915T = DSM 16176T).

  8. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Batman.

    PubMed

    Gul-Guven, Reyhan; Guven, Kemal; Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2008-12-01

    A new thermophilic spore-forming strain KG8(T) was isolated from the mud of Taslidere hot spring in Batman. Strain KG8(T) was aerobe, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, motile, occurring in pairs or filamentous. Growth was observed from 35-65 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). It was capable of utilizing starch, growth was observed until 3% NaCl (w/v) and it was positive for nitrate reduction. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KG8(T) was shown to be related most closely to Anoxybacillus species. Chemotaxonomic data (major isoprenoid quinone-menaquinone-7; major fatty acid-iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0) supported the affiliation of strain KG8(T) to the genus Anoxybacillus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain KG8(T). Based on these results we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis, to be named Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis subsp. asaccharedens subsp. nov. with the type strain KG8(T) (DSM 18475(T)=CIP 109280(T)).

  9. Comprehensive study of LASL Well C/T-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah, and applications to geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, W.E.; Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    Utah State Geothermal Well 9-1 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Beaver County, Utah, has been donated by Phillips Petroleum Company for calibration and testing of well-logging equipment in the hot, corrosive, geothermal environment. It is the second Calibration/Test Well (C/T-2) in the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. A study of cuttings and well logs from Well C/T-2 was completed. This synthesis and data presentation contains most of the subsurface geologic information needed to effect the total evaluation of geophysical logs acquired in this geothermal calibration/test well, C/T-2.

  10. Cultivable diversity of thermophilic arsenite/ferrous-oxidizing microorganisms in hot springs of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, G.; Lin, Y.; Chang, Y.; Wang, P.; Lin, L.

    2009-12-01

    which are AH3, AH2S3 and ACC3 from almost all sampling sites. Positive heterotrophic enrichments at 80oC were also obtained from almost all sampling sites. Coccus was the dominant morphotype in this enrichment. One 16S rDNA sequence affiliated with Sulfolobus tokodaii was detected from MT enrichments at 80oC. Alicyclobacillus, Geobacillus, Thermus and Meiothermus related strains were purified from 50oC and 70oC heterotrophic enrichments for samples from LH05 SYK, MT and KTL. Physiological tests indicated that these Alicyclobacillus-related strains are firstly reported to be capable of relying solely on arsenite as the energy source. Hydrogenobaculum-related strains were isolated from AH2S3. Both H2 and S were required for growth. Their 16S rRNA sequences resembled Hydrogenobaculum acidophilum H55 obtained from the Yellowstone National Park of USA. The results expand the current view about the diversity of arsenite-resistant microbes in high temperature environments. More molecular and microscopic works are undergoing to characterize interactions between mineral and microbe in enrichments and natural settings and to place better constraints on the biological effect for Fe/As cycling in hot spring.

  11. Probability-based classifications for spatially characterizing the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs in the Tatun Volcanic Region, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Accurately classifying the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs is crucial for environmental resources use and management. This study spatially characterized classifications of the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs in the Tatun Volcanic Region of Northern Taiwan by using indicator kriging (IK). The water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs were first assigned to high, moderate, and low categories according to the two thresholds of the proposed spring classification criteria. IK was then used to model the occurrence probabilities of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs and probabilistically determine their categories. Finally, nine combinations were acquired from the probability-based classifications for the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs. Moreover, various combinations of spring water features were examined according to seven subzones of spring use in the study region. The research results reveal that probability-based classifications using IK provide practicable insights related to propagating the uncertainty of classifications according to the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs. The springs in the Beitou (BT), Xingyi Road (XYR), Zhongshanlou (ZSL), and Lengshuikeng (LSK) subzones are suitable for supplying tourism hotels with a sufficient quantity of spring water because they have high or moderate discharge rates. Furthermore, natural hot springs in riverbeds and valleys should be developed in the Dingbeitou (DBT), ZSL, Xiayoukeng (XYK), and Macao (MC) subzones because of low discharge rates and low or moderate water temperatures.

  12. Chemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas compositions of the hot springs of the Owyhee Uplands, Malheur County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Young, H.W.; Evans, William C.; Nielson, Dennis L.

    1994-01-01

    Hot springs along the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon between Three Forks and Lake Owyhee could be part of a north flowing regional system or a series of small separate geothermal systems Heat for the waters could be from a very young (Holocene) volcanic activity (basalt flows) of the Owyhee Uplands or the regional heat flow. The springs discharge warm to hot, dilute, slightly alkaline, sodium bicarbonate water. Chemically they are similar to the dilute thermal water at Bruneau Grand View and Twin Falls, Idaho. Maximum aquifer temperatures in the Owyhee Uplands, estimated from chemical geothermometry, are about 100°C. Dissolved helium concentrations, carbon 14 activity, and chemical and isotope data are examined fro systematic trends which would indicate a geothermal system of regional extent.

  13. Carbon-Isotope Fractionations of Autotrophic Bacteria: Relevance to Primary Production and Microbial Evolution in Hot Springs and Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. L.; Romanek, C. S.; Mills, G.

    2004-12-01

    Terrestrial hot springs and marine hydrothermal vents are often dominated by autotrophic microorganisms. Species of the Bacteria Domain in these environments are known to use different pathways for CO2 fixation. These may include the Calvin cycle, the Acetyl CoA pathway, the reverse TCA cycle, and the 3-HP pathway. Each cycle or pathway may be characterized by distinct patterns of carbon isotope fractionation. This presentation will summarize isotope fractionation patterns associated with known autotrophic bacteria and to use these patterns for interpreting natural isotopic variations. Examples will include hot springs from the Yellowstone National Park and Nevada desert, USA and Kamchatka, Russia, and hydrothermal vents from the East Pacific Rise. An attempt will be made to discuss isotopic variations within a particular pathway in the context of species evolution through horizontal gene transfer.

  14. Geochemical and hydrologic considerations and the use of enthalpy-chloride diagrams in the prediction of underground conditions in hot-spring systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal water ascending in a hot-spring system may cool by conduction of heat to the surrounding rock, by boiling, by mixing with cooler water, or by a combination of these processes. Complete or partial chemical reequilibration may occur as a result of this cooling. In spite of these complexities, in many places chemical compositions of hot-spring waters may be used to estimate underground conditions. A plot of enthalpy versus chloride is particularly useful for determining underground temperatures, salinities, and boiling and mixing relations. The utility of this approach is illustrated using hot-spring composition data from Cerro Prieto, Mexico, Orakeikorako, New Zealand, and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. ?? 1979.

  15. Flow rates in the East Pacific rise (21/sup 0/N) hot springs, and numerical investigations of two regimes of hydrothermal circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Converse, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Flow rates of 0.7 to 2.4 m/s were measured in the hot springs on the East Pacific Rise (21/sup 0/N). We estimate that the Southwest, National Geographic, and the OBS vents collectively discharge 2 x 10/sup 8/ watts and 150 kg H/sub 2/O/S. The lifetimes of hot springs can not exceed 40,000 years because of the limited heat supply. Mechanical or chemical clogging of the flow routes may shorten these lifetime significantly. We predict that less than 3% of the sulfide particles debouched by the hot springs settle near the vents.

  16. Demonstration of a High Power, Wideband 220 GHz Serpentine Waveguide Amplifier Fabricated by UV-LIGA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Abstract—We present the hot test results of a 220 GHz, serpentine waveguide vacuum electron amplifier showcasing a novel embedded monofilament...band (220 GHz), and 670 GHz to date. II. AMPLIFIER DESIGN The serpentine waveguide (SWG) amplifier is designed to operate from a single, round...circuit. III. CIRCUIT FABRICATION & TESTING To create reliable, high vertical aspect ratio serpentine features as required, a UV-LIGA technique was

  17. In Situ Hydrogen Dynamics in a Hot Spring Microbial Mat during a Diel Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Trampe, Erik; Lichtenberg, Mads; Ward, David M.; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbes can produce molecular hydrogen (H2) via fermentation, dinitrogen fixation, or direct photolysis, yet the H2 dynamics in cyanobacterial communities has only been explored in a few natural systems and mostly in the laboratory. In this study, we investigated the diel in situ H2 dynamics in a hot spring microbial mat, where various ecotypes of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp.) are the only oxygenic phototrophs. In the evening, H2 accumulated rapidly after the onset of darkness, reaching peak values of up to 30 μmol H2 liter−1 at about 1-mm depth below the mat surface, slowly decreasing to about 11 μmol H2 liter−1 just before sunrise. Another pulse of H2 production, reaching a peak concentration of 46 μmol H2 liter−1, was found in the early morning under dim light conditions too low to induce accumulation of O2 in the mat. The light stimulation of H2 accumulation indicated that nitrogenase activity was an important source of H2 during the morning. This is in accordance with earlier findings of a distinct early morning peak in N2 fixation and expression of Synechococcus nitrogenase genes in mat samples from the same location. Fermentation might have contributed to the formation of H2 during the night, where accumulation of other fermentation products lowered the pH in the mat to less than pH 6 compared to a spring source pH of 8.3. IMPORTANCE Hydrogen is a key intermediate in anaerobic metabolism, and with the development of a sulfide-insensitive microsensor for H2, it is now possible to study the microdistribution of H2 in stratified microbial communities such as the photosynthetic microbial mat investigated here. The ability to measure H2 profiles within the mat compared to previous measurements of H2 emission gives much more detailed information about the sources and sinks of H2 in such communities, and it was demonstrated that the high rates of H2 formation in the early morning when the mat was exposed to low light intensities

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulosimicrobium sp. Strain MM, Isolated from Arsenic-Rich Microbial Mats of a Himalayan Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anukriti; Hira, Princy; Shakarad, Mallikarjun

    2014-01-01

    Microbial mats situated at the Manikaran hot springs (>95°C) are characterized by their high arsenic content (140 ppb), qualifying as a stressed niche. Here, we report the annotated draft genome (3.85 Mb) of Cellulosimicrobium sp. strain MM, isolated from these microbial mats, consisting of 3,718 coding sequences, with an average % G+C of 74.4%. PMID:25301656

  19. Using Phospholipids and Stable Carbon Isotopes to Assess Microbial Community Structures and Carbon Cycle Pathways in Kamchatka Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Romanek, C. S.; Burgess, E. A.; Wiegel, J.; Mills, G.; Zhang, C. L.

    2006-12-01

    Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable carbon isotopes were used to assess the microbial community structures in Kamchatka hot springs. Eighteen mats or surface sediments were collected from hot springs having temperatures of 31 to 91°C and pHs of 4.9 to 8.5. These samples were clearly separated into three groups according to the bacterial PLFA: 1) those dominated by terminally branched odd-numbered fatty acids, 2) those dominated by C18:1 and 3) those dominated by C20:1. With support from other minor PLFA components, group 2 may be used as biomarkers for Chloroflexales or other phototrophic bacteria and group 3 for Aquificales, respectively. Among the sampled hot springs, the Arkashin pool represents the simplest microbial structure with members of Aquificales being the dominant primary producers. On the other hand, the Zavarzin pool may represent the most heterogeneous pool that may include members of Chloroflexales and Aquificales as primary producers. Bacterial 16S rDNA clone libraries confirmed the presence of these microbial groups in the two pools. Results of stable carbon isotope fractionation between CO2 source, bulk biomass and total PLFA showed that primary producers in the Arkashin pool primarily used the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle (e.g., members of Aquificales); whereas the Zavarzin pool may be a mixture of the 3-hydroxypropionate (3-HP) pathway (e.g. members of Chloroflexales) and the rTCA cycle. Bacterial contribution using the Calvin cycle was not significant and may be less important in Kamchatka hot springs.

  20. Metagenomic and biochemical characterizations of sulfur oxidation metabolism in uncultured large sausage-shaped bacterium in hot spring microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Tamazawa, Satoshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Hanada, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    So-called "sulfur-turf" microbial mats in sulfide containing hot springs (55-70°C, pH 7.3-8.3) in Japan were dominated by a large sausage-shaped bacterium (LSSB) that is closely related to the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium. Several previous reports proposed that the LSSB would be involved in sulfide oxidation in hot spring. However, the LSSB has not been isolated yet, thus there has been no clear evidence showing whether it possesses any genes and enzymes responsible for sulfide oxidation. To verify this, we investigated sulfide oxidation potential in the LSSB using a metagenomic approach and subsequent biochemical analysis. Genome fragments of the LSSB (a total of 3.7 Mb sequence including overlapping fragments) were obtained from the metagenomic fosmid library constructed from genomic DNA of the sulfur-turf mats. The sequence annotation clearly revealed that the LSSB possesses sulfur oxidation-related genes coding sulfide dehydrogenase (SD), sulfide-quinone reductase and sulfite dehydrogenase. The gene encoding SD, the key enzyme for sulfide oxidation, was successfully cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme clearly showed SD activity with optimum temperature and pH of 60°C and 8.0, respectively, which were consistent with the environmental conditions in the hot spring where the sulfur-turf thrives. Furthermore, the affinity of SD to sulfide was relatively high, which also reflected the environment where the sulfide could be continuously supplied. This is the first report showing that the LSSB harbors sulfide oxidizing metabolism adapted to the hot spring environment and can be involved in sulfide oxidation in the sulfur-turf microbial mats.

  1. Metagenomic and Biochemical Characterizations of Sulfur Oxidation Metabolism in Uncultured Large Sausage-Shaped Bacterium in Hot Spring Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Hanada, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    So-called “sulfur-turf” microbial mats in sulfide containing hot springs (55–70°C, pH 7.3–8.3) in Japan were dominated by a large sausage-shaped bacterium (LSSB) that is closely related to the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium. Several previous reports proposed that the LSSB would be involved in sulfide oxidation in hot spring. However, the LSSB has not been isolated yet, thus there has been no clear evidence showing whether it possesses any genes and enzymes responsible for sulfide oxidation. To verify this, we investigated sulfide oxidation potential in the LSSB using a metagenomic approach and subsequent biochemical analysis. Genome fragments of the LSSB (a total of 3.7 Mb sequence including overlapping fragments) were obtained from the metagenomic fosmid library constructed from genomic DNA of the sulfur-turf mats. The sequence annotation clearly revealed that the LSSB possesses sulfur oxidation-related genes coding sulfide dehydrogenase (SD), sulfide-quinone reductase and sulfite dehydrogenase. The gene encoding SD, the key enzyme for sulfide oxidation, was successfully cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme clearly showed SD activity with optimum temperature and pH of 60°C and 8.0, respectively, which were consistent with the environmental conditions in the hot spring where the sulfur-turf thrives. Furthermore, the affinity of SD to sulfide was relatively high, which also reflected the environment where the sulfide could be continuously supplied. This is the first report showing that the LSSB harbors sulfide oxidizing metabolism adapted to the hot spring environment and can be involved in sulfide oxidation in the sulfur-turf microbial mats. PMID:23185438

  2. Characterization of culturable bacteria isolated from hot springs for plant growth promoting traits and effect on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedling.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kinjal Samir; Naik, Jinal Hardik; Chaudhari, Sejal; Amaresan, Natarajan

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate the functional diversity of hot spring bacteria, 123 bacteria were isolated and screened for evaluating their multifunctional plant growth promoting (PGP) properties. The antagonistic activity against different phytopathogens showed the presence of a high amount of biocontrol bacteria in the hot springs. During screening for PGP properties, 61.0% isolates showed production of indole acetic acid and 23.6% showed inorganic phosphate solubilization qualitatively. For production of extracellular enzymes, it was found that 61.0% isolates produced lipase, 56.9% produced protease, and 43.9% produced cellulase. In extreme properties, half of the isolates showed tolerance to 5% NaCl (w/v) and 48.8% isolates survived heat shock at 70°C. The identification of 12 multipotential bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the bacteria belonged to Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus and Bacillus spp. Bacterization of tomato seeds showed that the hot spring bacteria promoted shoot height, fresh shoot weight, root length, and fresh root weight of tomato seedlings, with values ranging from 3.12% to 74.37%, 33.33% to 350.0%, 16.06% to 130.41%, and 36.36% to 318.18%, respectively, over the control. This research shows that multifunctional bacteria could be isolated from the hot springs. The outcome of this research may have a potential effect on crop production methodologies used in saline and arid environments. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Pattern of shallow ground water flow at Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Colorado, using geoelectrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, K.; Revil, A.; Jardani, A.; Henderson, F.; Batzle, M.; Haas, A.

    2010-12-01

    In geothermal fields, open faults and fractures often act as high permeability pathways bringing hydrothermal fluids to the surface from deep reservoirs. The Mount Princeton area, in south-central Colorado, is an area that has an active geothermal system related to faulting and is therefore a suitable natural laboratory to test geophysical methods. The Sawatch range-front normal fault bordering the half-graben of the Upper Arkansas valley is characterized by a right-lateral offset at Mount Princeton Hot springs. This offset is associated with the Chalk Cliffs of hydrothermally altered quartz monzonite. Because fault identification in this area is complicated by quaternary deposits (including glacial and fluvial deposits), we use DC electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential mapping to identify preferential fluid flow pathways. The geophysical data (over 5600 resistivity and 2700 self-potential measurements) provide evidence of the existence of a dextral strike slip fault zone (Fault B) responsible for the offset of the Sawatch fault. A segment of this dextral strike slip fault (termed U1) is acting as the dominant vertical flow path bringing thermal waters to a shallow unconfined aquifer. Upwelling of the thermal waters is also observed at two zones (U2 and U3) of an open fracture called Fault A. This fault is located at the tip of the Sawatch fault and is likely associated with an extensional strain regime in this area. Self-potential measurements are used to estimate the flux of upwelling thermal water. The upflow estimate (4 ± 1 × 10 3 m 3/day for the open segment of the Fault B and 2 ± 1 × 10 3 m 3/day for Fault A) from the geophysical data is remarkably consistent with the downstream Mt. Princeton hot water production (4.3-4.9) × 10 3 m 3/day at approximately 60-86 °C). A temperature map indicates that a third upwelling zone termed U4 may exist at the southern tip of the Sawatch fault.

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis and Antimicrobial Profiles of Cultured Emerging Opportunistic Pathogens (Phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) Identified in Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Jocelyn Leonie; Mavumengwana, Vuyo

    2017-01-01

    Hot spring water may harbour emerging waterborne opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans. We have investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of culturable emerging and opportunistic bacterial pathogens, in water and sediment of hot springs located in Limpopo, South Africa. Aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The presence of Legionella spp. was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were tested for resistance to ten antibiotics representing six different classes: β-lactam (carbenicillin), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline, amphenicols (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone), sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) and quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin). Gram-positive Kocuria sp. and Arthrobacter sp. and gram-negative Cupriavidus sp., Ralstonia sp., Cronobacter sp., Tepidimonas sp., Hafnia sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were isolated, all recognised as emerging food-borne pathogens. Legionella spp. was not detected throughout the study. Isolates of Kocuria, Arthrobacter and Hafnia and an unknown species of the class Gammaproteobacteria were resistant to two antibiotics in different combinations of carbenicillin, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. Cronobacter sp. was sensitive to all ten antibiotics. This study suggests that hot springs are potential reservoirs for emerging opportunistic pathogens, including multiple antibiotic resistant strains, and highlights the presence of unknown populations of emerging and potential waterborne opportunistic pathogens in the environment. PMID:28914802

  5. Three-dimensional Q/sup -1/ model of the Coso Hot Springs known geothermal resource area

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.; Ward, R.W.

    1980-05-10

    Observations of teleseismic P waves above geothermal systems exhibit travel time delays and anomalously high seismic attenuation, which is extremely useful in estimating the thermal regime and the potential of the system. A regional telemetered network of sixteen stations was operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coso Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) for such studies from September 1975 to October 1976. Subsequently, they deployed a portable Centipede array of 26 three-component stations near the center of anomaly. The seismograms of 44 events recorded by the telemetered array and nine events by the Centipede array were analyzed using the reduced spectral ratio technique to determine the differential attenuation factordeltat* for the events recorded with the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The deltat* variation observed across the Coso Hot Springs KGRA were small (<0.2 s). A three-dimensional generalized linear inversion of the deltat* observations was performed using a three-layer model. A shallow zone of high attenuation exists within the upper 5 km in a region bounded by Coso Hot Springs, Devils Kitchen, and Sugarloaf Mountain probably corresponding to a shallow vapor liquid mixture or 'lossy' near surface lithology. No zones of significantly high attenuation occur between 5- and 12-km depth. Between the depth of 12--20 km a thick zone of high attenuation (Q<50) exists, offset toward the east from the surface anomaly.

  6. An outbreak of pneumonia and meningitis caused by a previously undescribed gram-negative bacterium in a hot spring spa.

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, B.; de Mahenge, A.; Grimont, F.; Richard, C.; Peloux, Y.; de Mahenge, C.; Fleurette, J.; Grimont, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    An outbreak of infection caused by a previously undescribed Gram-negative bacterium affected people attending a hot (37 degrees C) spring spa in France in 1987. Thirty-five case of pneumonia and two cases of meningitis occurred. None of these patients died. Attack rates were significantly higher for patients above 70 years old and for male patients. An epidemiological comparison of the 26 hospitalized cases with 52 matched controls suggests that spa treatment early on the first day (OR = 4.8) and attendance at the vapour baths (OR = 10.7) were significant risk factors for acquiring the infection. Person-to-person spread was not thought to have occurred. The same bacterium was isolated from the hot spring water. All strains studied shows a single rRNA gene restriction pattern. Epidemiological data indicated that the thermal water was the source of infection. This outbreak stresses the need for increased surveillance of infections in people attending hot spring spas. PMID:1936159

  7. Physico-chemical evolution of groundwater in tectonically active areas. Application to the Leana hot spring (Murcia Region, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M.; Hornero, J.; Trujillo, C.

    2017-03-01

    Seismic events can affect the physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater. These anomalies are of a pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic nature and correspond to pulse variations, sudden increases and decreases without return to initial values and upward or downward changes in trend. Continuous and in situ conductivity and temperature monitoring and periodic water sampling at a hot spring associated with neotectonic activity are of great interest for establishing predictive methods. This method is limited to the seismic activity affecting the fracturing system with which the hot spring is associated. The Region of Murcia and surroundings (southeast Spain) was selected as the study area for exploring the nature of these influences on groundwater. A hot spring in the Leana spa (Murcia) was equipped and monitored during the period 2006-2008, allowing for the in situ determination of conductivity and temperature as well as of major and minor constituents at the laboratory. Due to its proximity and related with fault network, we suggest that 86 % of earthquakes located between 0 and 10 km may affect in situ parameters of groundwater, and 75 % may affect laboratory determinations. This percentage drops in more distant zones. Of all earthquakes that seem to influence groundwater, 55 % of the in situ parameter anomalies and 53 % of laboratory were of a pre-seismic nature.

  8. Physico-chemical evolution of groundwater in tectonically active areas. Application to the Leana hot spring (Murcia Region, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M.; Hornero, J.; Trujillo, C.

    2016-09-01

    Seismic events can affect the physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater. These anomalies are of a pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic nature and correspond to pulse variations, sudden increases and decreases without return to initial values and upward or downward changes in trend. Continuous and in situ conductivity and temperature monitoring and periodic water sampling at a hot spring associated with neotectonic activity are of great interest for establishing predictive methods. This method is limited to the seismic activity affecting the fracturing system with which the hot spring is associated. The Region of Murcia and surroundings (southeast Spain) was selected as the study area for exploring the nature of these influences on groundwater. A hot spring in the Leana spa (Murcia) was equipped and monitored during the period 2006-2008, allowing for the in situ determination of conductivity and temperature as well as of major and minor constituents at the laboratory. Due to its proximity and related with fault network, we suggest that 86 % of earthquakes located between 0 and 10 km may affect in situ parameters of groundwater, and 75 % may affect laboratory determinations. This percentage drops in more distant zones. Of all earthquakes that seem to influence groundwater, 55 % of the in situ parameter anomalies and 53 % of laboratory were of a pre-seismic nature.

  9. Hot and Saline Spring Behaviour in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and the North-East German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, M.; Kissling, W.

    2012-04-01

    Hot springs occur in geothermal regions worldwide, and often have important economic or cultural values which can be threatened by geothermal developments. In this paper we describe models of hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, and of saline springs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). In New Zealand, the operation of the Wairakei geothermal power station in the 1950's and early 1960's lead to the collapse of the thermal area known as 'Geyser Valley', and more recently, the spring and Geyser activity in Rotorua was threatened by the widespread and uncontrolled drawoff of geothermal water for domestic use. Similarly, in the NEGB, discharge of saline springs poses serious challenges for groundwater management for agricultural and domestic use, having additional implications for future geothermal energy projects. Despite their obviously very different nature the springs in NEGB and TVZ do have some common characteristics: they both feed fluid to the surface from deeper (geothermal) aquifers through embedded hydrogeological heterogeneities (e.g. fracture systems, erosional gaps and unconformities in the internal stratigraphic sequence), and data shows that they both exhibit irregular flowrates, temperatures and chemistries. Currently used models of hot/saline springs do not show these types of behaviour and offer no understanding of the mechanisms of variability in either setting, or indeed the nature of the connections to deeper aquifers. In this paper we present early results from a study aimed at identifying the most important physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of these systems. We use the simulation code NaCl-Tough2 (Kissling, 2005a,b) to accurately represent the thermodynamics of fluids in both systems. Though relatively simplistic in terms of the modelled geometry these models provide new important insights into the variability of the observed flow dynamics as well as in their causative processes at depths. The results obtained

  10. Small Scale Biodiversity of an Alkaline Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, K.; Oiler, J.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    To date, many phylogenetic diversity studies have been conducted in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) [1-7] focusing on the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and "metagenomic" datasets. However, few reports focus on diversity at small scales. Here, we report on a small scale biodiversity study of sediment and biofilm communities within a confined area of a YNP hot spring, compare and contrast these communities to other sediment and biofilm communities from previous studies [1-7], and with other sediment and biofilm communities in the same system. Sediment and biofilm samples were collected, using a 30 x 50 cm sampling grid divided in 5 x 5 cm squares, which was placed in the outflow channel of "Bat Pool", an alkaline (pH 7.9) hot spring in YNP. Accompanying geochemical data included a full range of spectrophotometry measurements along with major ions, trace elements, and DIC/DOC. In addition, in situ temperature and conductivity arrays were placed within the grid location. The temperature array closest to the source varied between 83-88°C, while the temperature array 40 cm downstream varied between ~83.5-86.5°C. The two conductivity arrays yielded measurements of 5632 μS and 5710 μS showing little variation within the sampling area. Within the grid space, DO ranged from 0.5-1.33 mg/L, with relatively similar, but slightly lower values down the outflow channel. Sulfide values within the grid ranged from 1020-1671 μg/L, while sulfide values outside of the grid region fluctuated, but generally followed the trend of decreasing from source down the outflow. Despite the relative heterogeneity of chemical and physical parameters in the grid space, there was biological diversity in sediments and biofilms at the 5 cm scale. Small scale biodiversity was analyzed by selecting a representative number of samples from within the grid. DNA was extracted and variable regions V3 and V6 (Archaea and Bacteria, respectively) were sequenced with 454 pyrosequencing. The datasets

  11. Effects of geochemical changes on microbial community structure in a hot spring ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Hamilton, T. L.; Boyd, E. S.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial community structure analysis is often conducted as a snap-shot of an ecosystem, and can be linked to the geochemistry of its environment at that time. What is less known is how a microbial community may change over time as a result of shifts in geochemical parameters. Hot springs are the surficial expression of subsurface boiling, phase separation, and differential movement of liquid-phase and vapor-phase constituents, which means that hot springs can fluctuate in temperature and composition over short periods of time, providing ideal natural laboratories for testing how microbial community structure changes as a result of geochemical environmental drivers. Geochemical samples from Obsidian Pool (Mud Volcano Area, Yellowstone National Park) collected annually from 2000 to 2010 document variations in the amount of vapor phase and liquid phase input into the system over that time. Chloride concentration increased by 104% (from 14.5 ppm in 2000 to 34.0 ppm in 2010), indicative of increased hydrothermal input, and the sulfate concentration increased by 586% (from 37.3 ppm to 256.2 ppm), suggesting an increased gas-phase sulfide input and subsequent oxidation. These changes were far from monotonic. Chloride and SO4-2 concentrations increased from 1999 to 2004, dropped from 2004 to 2006/2007, and then increased again through 2010. The overall increase in sulfate from sulfide oxidation resulted in a decrease in the pH from 6.8 in 1999 to 4.2 in 2006, with an increase to 5.2 in 2009, and then a drop back down to 4.3 in 2010. Over this time span, temperatures ranged from 76.4 to 85.3°C, with no clearly-evident trend. Microbial community 16S rRNA genes were amplified from total DNA extracted from samples collected from Obsidian Pool in 2000, 2001, 2005, 2009, and 2010, coinciding with geochemical samples. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes show that bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy numbers decreased from 4.9E6 in

  12. Microbial community structures of novel Icelandic hot spring systems revealed by PhyloChip G3 analysis.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Jordan E; Vaishampayan, Parag; Probst, Alexander J; Tom, Lauren M; Marteinsson, Viggó Thór; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2014-03-01

    Microbial community profiles of recently formed hot spring systems ranging in temperatures from 57°C to 100°C and pH values from 2 to 4 in Hveragerði (Iceland) were analyzed with PhyloChip G3 technology. In total, 1173 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) spanning 576 subfamilies and 38 archaeal OTUs covering 32 subfamilies were observed. As expected, the hyperthermophilic (∼100°C) spring system exhibited both low microbial biomass and diversity when compared to thermophilic (∼ 60°C) springs. Ordination analysis revealed distinct bacterial and archaeal diversity in geographically distinct hot springs. Slight variations in temperature (from 57°C to 64°C) within the interconnected pools led to a marked fluctuation in microbial abundance and diversity. Correlation and PERMANOVA tests provided evidence that temperature was the key environmental factor responsible for microbial community dynamics, while pH, H2S, and SO2 influenced the abundance of specific microbial groups. When archaeal community composition was analyzed, the majority of detected OTUs correlated negatively with temperature, and few correlated positively with pH.

  13. Microbial Distributions Across pH, Temperature, and Temporal Conditions in Hot Springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Providence, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, B. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Tom, L. M.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Huang, Q.; Wang, S.; Hou, W.; Wu, G.; Peacock, J. P.; Huang, L.; Zhi, X.; Li, W.; Dodsworth, J. A.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial geothermal springs contain a rich microbial diversity that has gained attention because of their potential analogue to early Earth habitats and biotechnological applications. Despite this attention, the distribution of thermophiles and the mechanisms that underlie those distributions have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms in hot springs in Tengchong, China, and to compare microbial composition across temperature, pH, and temporal gradients. The PhyloChip microarray detected 79 bacterial and 20 archaeal phyla. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to link the detected taxa to their distributions across temperature and pH conditions. The distributions of phyla (e.g. Aquificae, Crenarchaeota) identified by this analysis were consistent with previous culture-dependent and independent methods and provides new knowledge on the distributions of phyla that do not contain cultured representatives (e.g. candidate phyla OP11, GoM161, etc.). For example, low pH (<4.5) and cooler temperature (<70o C) favored Hydrogenobaculum, Sulfolobales, candidate phyla GoM161, and SD; whereas, Hydrogenobacter, Thermoproteales, candidate phyla OP11, and WS3 were mostly detected in springs with neutral-alkaline pH and higher temperatures (>85o C). Furthermore, temporal changes in the community composition were detected, with the rainy season containing higher diversity but lower relative abundance of archaea. These results expand our understanding of the distributions of hot spring microorganisms seasonally, and across environmental gradients such as temperature and pH.

  14. Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron Hot Springs

    SciTech Connect

    Parenteau, Mary N.; Jahnke, Linda L.; Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-06-01

    The bicarbonate-buffered anoxic vent waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park are 51–54°C, pH 5.5–6.0, and are very high in dissolved Fe(II) at 5.8–5.9 mg/L. The aqueous Fe(II) is oxidized by a combination of biotic and abiotic mechanisms and precipitated as primary siliceous nanophase iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite). Four distinct prokaryotic photosynthetic microbial mat types grow on top of these iron deposits. Lipids were used to characterize the community composition of the microbial mats, link source organisms to geologically significant biomarkers, and investigate how iron mineralization degrades the lipid signature of the community. The phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid profiles of the highest-temperature mats indicate that they are dominated by cyanobacteria and green nonsulfur filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs). Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the cyanobacteria include midchain branched mono- and dimethylalkanes and, most notably, 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyol. Diagnostic lipid biomarkers of the FAPs (Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp.) include wax esters and a long-chain tri-unsaturated alkene. Surprisingly, the lipid biomarkers resisted the earliest stages of microbial degradation and diagenesis to survive in the iron oxides beneath the mats. Understanding the potential of particular sedimentary environments to capture and preserve fossil biosignatures is of vital importance in the selection of the best landing sites for future astrobiological missions to Mars. Finally, this study explores the nature of organic degradation processes in moderately thermal Fe(II)-rich groundwater springs—environmental conditions that have been previously identified as highly relevant for Mars exploration.

  15. A moderately thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Lebedeva, Elena V; Spieck, Eva; Stoecker, Kilian; Richter, Andreas; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2008-02-12

    The recent discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) dramatically changed our perception of the diversity and evolutionary history of microbes involved in nitrification. In this study, a moderately thermophilic (46 degrees C) ammonia-oxidizing enrichment culture, which had been seeded with biomass from a hot spring, was screened for ammonia oxidizers. Although gene sequences for crenarchaeotal 16S rRNA and two subunits of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA and amoB) were detected via PCR, no hints for known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were obtained. Comparative sequence analyses of these gene fragments demonstrated the presence of a single operational taxonomic unit and thus enabled the assignment of the amoA and amoB sequences to the respective 16S rRNA phylotype, which belongs to the widely distributed group I.1b (soil group) of the Crenarchaeota. Catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)-FISH combined with microautoradiography (MAR) demonstrated metabolic activity of this archaeon in the presence of ammonium. This finding was corroborated by the detection of amoA gene transcripts in the enrichment. CARD-FISH/MAR showed that the moderately thermophilic AOA is highly active at 0.14 and 0.79 mM ammonium and is partially inhibited by a concentration of 3.08 mM. The enriched AOA, which is provisionally classified as "Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis," is the first described thermophilic ammonia oxidizer and the first member of the crenarchaeotal group I.1b for which ammonium oxidation has been verified on a cellular level. Its preference for thermophilic conditions reinvigorates the debate on the thermophilic ancestry of AOA.

  16. Alicyclobacillus tengchongensis sp. nov., a thermo-acidophilic bacterium isolated from hot spring soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Goo; Lee, Jae-Chan; Park, Dong-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2014-10-01

    A thermo-acidophilic bacterium, designated strain ACK006(T), was isolated from the soil of a hot spring at Tengchong in China. Cells were Gram-staining-positive, motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, spore-forming rods. The isolate grew aerobically at 30-50°C (optimum at 45°C), pH 2.0-6.0 (optimum pH 3.2) and 0-5.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1% NaCl). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain ACK006(T) belongs to the genus Alicyclobacillus with the sequence similarity of 92.3, 92.4, 92.5, and 92.8% to Alicyclobacillus cycloheptanicus SCH(T), Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans TC-34(T), Alicyclobacillus contaminans 3-A191(T) and Alicyclobacillus disulfidooxidans SD-11(T), respectively. Similarity to other species of the genus Alicyclobacillus was 90.3-92.8% and similarity to species of the genus Tumebacillus was 85.9-87.8%. The genomic DNA G+C content was 53.7 mol%. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids were ω-cycloheptane C18:0, iso-C17:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was the A1γ type; containing meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. On the basis of polyphasic analysis from this study, strain ACK006(T) represents a novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus for which the name Alicyclobacillus tengchongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ACK006(T) (=KCTC 33022(T) =DSM 25924(T)).

  17. Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov., isolated from a hot water spring of Tatta Pani, Kotli, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Osman, Ghenijan; Khan, Inam Ullah; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-staining positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase positive and oxidase negative bacterium, designated NCCP-1331(T), was isolated from a hot water spring soil collected from Tatta Pani, Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The isolate grew at a temperature range of 18-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0) and with 0-6 % NaCl (optimum 2 % NaCl (w/v)). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NCCP-1331(T) belonged to the genus Streptomyces and is closely related to Streptomyces brevispora BK160(T) with 97.9 % nucleotide similarity, followed by Streptomyces drosdowiczii NRRL B-24297(T) with 97.8 % nucleotide similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain NCCP-1331(T) with S. brevispora KACC 21093(T) and S. drosdowiczii CBMAI 0498(T) were 42.7 and 34.7 %, respectively. LL-DAP was detected as diagnostic amino acid along with alanine, glycine, leucine and glutamic acid. The isolate contained MK-9(H8) as the predominant menaquinone. Major polar lipids detected in NCCP-1331(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified phospholipids. Major fatty acids were iso-C16: 0, summed feature 8 (18:1 ω7c/18:1 ω6c), anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. The genomic DNA G + C content was 69.8 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis, it is concluded that strain NCCP-1331(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NCCP-1331(T) (=KCTC 39537(T) = CPCC 204147(T)).

  18. The origin of life in geothermal hot springs: Darwin's warm little pond revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deamer, D.

    2016-12-01

    The origin of life in geothermal hot springs: Darwin's warm little pond revisited David Deamer and Bruce Damer, Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz CA 95064 We are exploring ways in which mononucleotides can undergo polymerization and encapsulation in the presence of an organizing matrix (1, 2, 3). When mixtures of amphiphilic lipids and mononucleotides are exposed to cycles of dehydration and rehydration, the lipids concentrate and organize the monomers within multilamellar liquid-crystalline matrices that self-assemble in the dry state. The chemical potential driving the polymerization reaction is supplied by the anhydrous conditions in which water becomes a leaving group, with heat providing activation energy. Upon rehydration, the polymeric products are encapsulated in trillions of microscopic compartments. Each compartment is unique in its composition and contents, and can be considered to be an experiment in a natural version of combinatorial chemistry that would be ubiquitous in the prebiotic environment. There are specific thermodynamic and kinetic considerations required for this process to work which are related to cycles of evaporation and rehydration, ionic composition, salt concentration, pH and temperature. These conditions are present in hydrothermal fields associated with volcanic activity on today's Earth and can be compared with the range of possible conditions on Enceladus to estimate the probability that life can emerge on an icy world with a subsurface salty liquid ocean. 1. De Guzman V, Shenasa H, Vercoutere W, Deamer D (2014) Generation of oligonucleotides under hydrothermal conditions by non-enzymatic polymerization. J Mol Evol 78:251-262 2. Deamer D. 2012. Liquid crystalline nanostructures: organizing matrices for non-enzymatic nucleic acid polymerization. Chem Soc Rev. 41:5375-9. 3. Damer B, Deamer D. 2015. Coupled phases and combinatorial selection in fluctuating hydrothermal pools: a scenario to

  19. Brevibacillus gelatini sp.nov., isolated from hot spring in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Inan, Kadriye; Ozer, Aysegul; Guler, Halil Ibrahim; Belduz, Ali Osman; Canakci, Sabriye

    2015-11-18

    Two Gram-positive, moderately thermophilic, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, motile bacteria were isolated from Camkoy hot spring in the provinces of Aydın, Turkey and were characterized in order to determine their phylogenetic positions. These strains were designated as PDF4T and PDF10. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the two strains belonged to the genus Brevibacillus; strain PDF4T showed highest sequence similarity to strain PDF10 (99.5 %), Brevibacillus brevis DSM 30T (98.9 %), Brevibacillus parabrevis DSM 8376T (98.6 %), Brevibacillus formosus DSM 9885T (98.5 %), Brevibacillus agri DSM 6348T (98.4 %), Brevibacillus nitrificans DSM 26674T (98.2 %), Brevibacillus limnophilus DSM 6472T(98.1 %), Brevibacillus choshinensis DSM 8552T (98.1 %), Brevibacillus reuszeri DSM 9887T (97.9 %). The predominant fatty acids of strain PDF4T wase anteiso-C15:0 (60.0 %) and iso-C15:0 (22.3 %). The polar lipids of strain PDF4T consisted of dihosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phospatigylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine; an unknown phospholipid, two unknown lipid, an unknown aminophospholipid, and two unknown aminolipid. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Strain PDF4T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in their cell walls. The DNA G+C content of PDF4T was 51.7 mol %. DNA-DNA hybridization showed less than 60 % relatedness between strain PDF4T and type strains of the most closely related species given above. Thus, our results support the placement of strain PDF4T within a separate and previously unrecognized species. Based on these data, the two strains are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Brevibacillus, for which the name Brevibacillus gelatini sp.nov is proposed. The type strain is PDF4T (=NCCB 100559T=DSM 100115T).

  20. Tibeticola sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from hot spring.

    PubMed

    Khan, Inam Ullah; Hussain, Firasat; Tian, Ye; Habib, Neeli; Xian, Wen-Dong; Jiang, Zhao; Amin, Arshia; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Zhou, En-Min; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-06

    Two closely related thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 73013T and YIM 73008 were isolated from a sediment sample collected from a hot spring in Tibet, western Tibet province, China. Taxonomic positions of the two isolates were investigated using a polyphasic approach. The novel isolates were Gram-staining negative, aerobic, short rod shaped and motile by means of a polar flagellum. They were oxidase and catalase positive and were able to grow at 30-55 °C (optimum, 37-45 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and with NaCl tolerance up to 1 % (w/v). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains YIM 73013T and YIM 73008 formed a distinct lineage with respect to closely related genera in the family Comamonadaceae and shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequences similarities with Acidovorax caeni R-24608T (96.3 % and 96.4 %, respectively). The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) and the major cellular fatty acids observed were C17:1ω6c, C16:0 and Summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 73013T and YIM 73008 were 68.7 mol% and 68.3 mol%, respectively. Based on the morphological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results, the two isolates merit representation of a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Tibeticola sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 73013T (=DSM 101684T =KCTC 42873T).

  1. High-efficiency hydrogen production by an anaerobic, thermophilic enrichment culture from an Icelandic hot spring.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Perttu E P; Lay, Chyi-How; Puhakka, Jaakko A; Lin, Ping-Jei; Wu, Shu-Yii; Orlygsson, Jóhann; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2008-11-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production from glucose by a thermophilic culture (33HL), enriched from an Icelandic hot spring sediment sample, was studied in two continuous-flow, completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR1, CSTR2) and in one semi-continuous, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) at 58 degrees C. The 33HL produced H2 yield (HY) of up to 3.2 mol-H2/mol-glucose along with acetate in batch assay. In the CSTR1 with 33HL inoculum, H2 production was unstable. In the ASBR, maintained with 33HL, the H2 production enhanced after the addition of 6 mg/L of FeSO4 x H2O resulting in HY up to 2.51 mol-H2/mol-glucose (H2 production rate (HPR) of 7.85 mmol/h/L). The H2 production increase was associated with an increase in butyrate production. In the CSTR2, with ASBR inoculum and FeSO4 supplementation, stable, high-rate H2 production was obtained with HPR up to 45.8 mmol/h/L (1.1 L/h/L) and HY of 1.54 mol-H2/mol-glucose. The 33HL batch enrichment was dominated by bacterial strains closely affiliated with Thermobrachium celere (99.8-100%). T. celere affiliated strains, however, did not thrive in the three open system bioreactors. Instead, Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense (98.5-99.6%) affiliated strains, producing H2 along with butyrate and acetate, dominated the reactor cultures. This culture had higher H2 production efficiency (HY and specific HPR) than reported for mesophilic mixed cultures. Further, the thermophilic culture readily formed granules in CSTR and ASBR systems. In summary, the thermophilic culture as characterized by high H2 production efficiency and ready granulation is considered very promising for H2 fermentation from carbohydrates.

  2. Thermoactinomyces khenchelensis sp. nov., a filamentous bacterium isolated from soil sediment of a terrestrial hot spring.

    PubMed

    Mokrane, Salim; Bouras, Noureddine; Meklat, Atika; Lahoum, Abdelhadi; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Verheecke, Carol; Mathieu, Florence; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2016-02-01

    A novel thermophilic filamentous bacterium, designated strain T36(T), was isolated from soil sediment sample from a hot spring source collected in Khenchela province, Algeria. Strain T36(T) was identified as a member of the genus Thermoactinomyces by a polyphasic approach. Strain T36(T) was observed to form white aerial mycelium and non-coloured to pale yellow substrate mycelium, both producing endospores, sessile or borne by short sporophores. The optimum growth temperature and pH were found to be 37-55 °C and 7.0-9.0, respectively and the optimum NaCl concentration for growth was found to be 0-7 % (w/v). The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan was identified as meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone of strain T36(T) was identified as MK-7 (H0). The major fatty acids were found to be iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0. The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphoglycolipid. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain T36(T) are consistent with those shared by members of the genus Thermoactinomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the sequence similarities between strain T36(T) and Thermoactinomyces species with validly published names were less than 98 %. Based on the combined genotypic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that strain T36(T) should be classified as representative of a novel species, for which the name Thermoactinomyces khenchelensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T36(T) (=DSM 45951(T) = CECT 8579(T)).

  3. Coupled arsenotrophy in a hot spring photosynthetic biofilm at Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Shelley E; Kulp, Thomas R; Han, Sukkyun; Lanoil, Brian; Oremland, Ronald S

    2010-07-01

    Red-pigmented biofilms grow on rock and cobble surfaces present in anoxic hot springs located on Paoha Island in Mono Lake. The bacterial community was dominated ( approximately 85% of 16S rRNA gene clones) by sequences from the photosynthetic Ectothiorhodospira genus. Scraped biofilm materials incubated under anoxic conditions rapidly oxidized As(III) to As(V) in the light via anoxygenic photosynthesis but could also readily reduce As(V) to As(III) in the dark at comparable rates. Back-labeling experiments with (73)As(V) demonstrated that reduction to (73)As(III) also occurred in the light, thereby illustrating the cooccurrence of these two anaerobic processes as an example of closely coupled arsenotrophy. Oxic biofilms also oxidized As(III) to As(V). Biofilms incubated with [(14)C]acetate oxidized the radiolabel to (14)CO(2) in the light but not the dark, indicating a capacity for photoheterotrophy but not chemoheterotrophy. Anoxic, dark-incubated samples demonstrated As(V) reduction linked to additions of hydrogen or sulfide but not acetate. Chemoautotrophy linked to As(V) as measured by dark fixation of [(14)C]bicarbonate into cell material was stimulated by either H(2) or HS(-). Functional genes for the arsenate respiratory reductase (arrA) and arsenic resistance (arsB) were detected in sequenced amplicons of extracted DNA, with about half of the arrA sequences closely related ( approximately 98% translated amino acid identity) to those from the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae. Surprisingly, no authentic PCR products for arsenite oxidase (aoxB) were obtained, despite observing aerobic arsenite oxidation activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate close linkages of these arsenic redox processes occurring within these biofilms.

  4. Planosporangium thailandense sp. nov., isolated from soil from a Thai hot spring.

    PubMed

    Thawai, Chitti; Thamsathit, Wasinee; Kudo, Takuji

    2013-03-01

    A novel filamentous bacterial strain, HSS8-18(T), was isolated from soil from a hot-spring pond in Krabi province, Thailand. The isolate produced single globose bodies and short, finger-like sporangia directly from the substrate mycelium. The cell wall of the isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glycine, arabinose and xylose. The characteristic phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylethanolamine and hydroxyl phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H2), MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H4) and the predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that isolate HSS8-18(T) belonged to the genus Planosporangium and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Planosporangium flavigriseum YIM 46034(T) (98.3 %) and P. mesophilum YIM 48875(T) (98.0 %). However, DNA-DNA hybridization results and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that strain HSS8-18(T) could be readily distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Based on phenotypic and genotypic properties, isolate HSS8-18(T) is judged to represent a novel species of the genus Planosporangium, for which the name Planosporangium thailandense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain HSS8-18(T) ( = BCC 41917(T)  = JCM 17129(T)).

  5. A Metastable Equilibrium Model for the Relative Abundances of Microbial Phyla in a Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies link the compositions of microbial communities to their environments, but the energetics of organism-specific biomass synthesis as a function of geochemical variables have rarely been assessed. We describe a thermodynamic model that integrates geochemical and metagenomic data for biofilms sampled at five sites along a thermal and chemical gradient in the outflow channel of the hot spring known as “Bison Pool” in Yellowstone National Park. The relative abundances of major phyla in individual communities sampled along the outflow channel are modeled by computing metastable equilibrium among model proteins with amino acid compositions derived from metagenomic sequences. Geochemical conditions are represented by temperature and activities of basis species, including pH and oxidation-reduction potential quantified as the activity of dissolved hydrogen. By adjusting the activity of hydrogen, the model can be tuned to closely approximate the relative abundances of the phyla observed in the community profiles generated from BLAST assignments. The findings reveal an inverse relationship between the energy demand to form the proteins at equal thermodynamic activities and the abundance of phyla in the community. The distance from metastable equilibrium of the communities, assessed using an equation derived from energetic considerations that is also consistent with the information-theoretic entropy change, decreases along the outflow channel. Specific divergences from metastable equilibrium, such as an underprediction of the relative abundances of phototrophic organisms at lower temperatures, can be explained by considering additional sources of energy and/or differences in growth efficiency. Although the metabolisms used by many members of these communities are driven by chemical disequilibria, the results support the possibility that higher-level patterns of chemotrophic microbial ecosystems are shaped by metastable equilibrium states that depend on both the

  6. Factors Influencing Survival of Legionella pneumophila Serotype 1 in Hot Spring Water and Tap Water

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Akira; Kato, Naoyuki; Yamada, Koji; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2003-01-01

    The factors involved in the survival of Legionella pneumophila in the microcosms of both hot spring water and tap water were studied by examining cultivability and metabolic activity. L. pneumophila could survive by maintaining metabolic activity but was noncultivable in all microcosms at 42°C, except for one microcosm with a pH of <2.0. Lower temperatures supported survival without loss of cultivability. The cultivability declined with increasing temperature, although metabolic activity was observed at temperatures of up to 45°C. The optimal range of pH for survival was between 6.0 and 8. The metabolic activity could be maintained for long periods even in microcosms with high concentrations of salt. The cultivability of organisms in the post-exponential phase in a tap water microcosm with a low inoculum size was more rapidly reduced than that of organisms in the exponential phase. In contrast, the loss of cultivability in microcosms of a high inoculum size was significant in the exponential phase. Random(ly) amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of microcosms where cultivability was lost but metabolic activity was retained showed no change compared to cells grown freshly, although an effect on the amplified DNA band pattern by production of stress proteins was expected. Resuscitation by the addition of Acanthamoeba castellanii to the microcosm in which cultivability was completely lost but metabolic activity was maintained was observed only in part of the cell population. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila cell populations can potentially survive as free organisms for long periods by maintaining metabolic activity but temporarily losing cultivability under strict environments and requiring resuscitation by ingestion by amoebas. PMID:12732519

  7. Caloramator boliviensis sp. nov., a thermophilic, ethanol-producing bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Carla; Pozzo, Tania; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Alvarez, Maria Teresa; Mattiasson, Bo

    2012-07-01

    A novel moderately thermophilic, anaerobic, ethanol-producing bacterial strain, 45B(T), was isolated from a mixed sediment water sample collected from a hot spring at Potosi, Bolivia. The cells were straight to slightly curved rods approximately 2.5 µm long and 0.5 µm wide. The strain was Gram-stain-variable, spore-forming and monotrichously flagellated. Growth of the strain was observed at 45-65 °C and pH 5.5-8.0, with optima of 60 °C and pH 6.5. The substrates utilized by strain 45B(T) were xylose, cellobiose, glucose, arabinose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, fructose, galactose, mannose, glycerol, xylan, carboxymethylcellulose and yeast extract. The main fermentation product from xylose and cellobiose was ethanol (0.70 and 0.45 g ethanol per gram of consumed sugar, respectively). Acetate, lactate, propionate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen were also produced in minor quantities. 1,3-Propanediol was produced when glycerol-containing medium was supplemented with yeast extract. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), C(16:0), iso-C(16:0), C(15:1), iso-C(14:0), C(13:0) and C(14:0). The polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an aminoglycolipid and 15 other unidentified lipids were predominant. The DNA G+C content of strain 45B(T) was 32.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity revealed that strain 45B(T) is located within the Gram-type positive Bacillus-Clostridium branch of the phylogenetic tree. On the basis of morphological and physiological properties and phylogenetic analysis, strain 45B(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Caloramator boliviensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 45B(T) (=DSM 22065(T)=CCUG 57396(T)).

  8. Caldicoprobacter guelmensis sp. nov., a thermophilic, anaerobic, xylanolytic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Bouanane-Darenfed, Amel; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Hacene, Hocine; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-06-01

    A hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacterium, designated D2C22(T), was isolated from the hydrothermal hot spring of Guelma in north-east Algeria. The isolate was a Gram-stain-positive, non-sporulating, non-motile rod, appearing singly or in pairs (0.3-0.4 × 8.0-9.0 µm). Strain D2C22(T) grew anaerobically at 45-85 °C (optimum 65 °C), at pH 5-9 (optimum pH 6.8) and with 0-20 g NaCl l(-1). Strain D2C22(T) used glucose, galactose, lactose, fructose, ribose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, cellobiose, mannose, melibiose, sucrose, xylan and pyruvate (only in the presence of yeast extract or biotrypticase) as electron donors. The end products from glucose fermentation were acetate, lactate, CO2 and H2. Nitrate, nitrite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfate and sulfite were not used as electron acceptors. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0. The DNA G+C content was 41.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain D2C22(T) was most closely related to Caldicoprobacter oshimai JW/HY-331(T), Caldicoprobacter algeriensis TH7C1(T) and Acetomicrobium faecale DSM 20678(T) (95.5, 95.5 and 95.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain D2C22(T) is proposed to be a representative of a novel species of the genus Caldicoprobacter within the order Clostridiales, for which the name Caldicoprobacter guelmensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D2C22(T) (=DSM 24605(T)=JCM 17646(T)).

  9. Cecembia rubra sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring sediment.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yan-Yan; Ming, Hong; Dong, Lei; Yin, Yi-Rui; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, En-Min; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-staining negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YIM 78110(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Hehua hot spring in Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. The taxonomic status of strain YIM 78110(T) was confirmed by a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain YIM 78110(T) belongs to the genus Cecembia, displaying 96.8% and 94.7% sequence similarity with the two most closely related type strains, Cecembia calidifontis RQ-33(T) and Cecembia lonarensis LW9T, respectively. The low value of DNA-DNA hybridization (52.3 ± 2.3%) between strain YIM 78110(T) and its closest neighbour, Cecembia calidifontis RQ-33(T), indicated that this new isolate represented a different genomic species in the genus Cecembia. The temperature for growth ranged from 30 to 50 °C. The pH for growth ranged from pH 4.0 to 10.0, with NaCl tolerance of 0.5-6.0% (w/v). The predominant menaquinone of strain YIM 78110(T) was MK-7 and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 47.1 mol%. On the basis of physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, it is proposed that strain YIM 78110(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cecembia, for which the name Cecembia rubra sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 78110(T) ( = CCTCC AB2013287(T) = DSM 28057(T)).

  10. Slip and Dilation Tendency Anlysis of Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Slip and Dilation Tendency in focus areas Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998

  11. Geologic setting of the Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt: Implications for geothermal resource capacity and sustainable energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, Amanda M.

    The Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt (CAHSB) is a vast stretch of low-temperature hydrothermal systems that has the potential to be a geothermal energy resource for remote communities in Alaska. Little exploration has occurred in the CAHSB and the resource is poorly understood. A geothermal power plant was installed in 2006 at Chena Hot Springs (CHS), one of the 30-plus hot springs in the CAHSB. This, in addition to the multiple direct use projects at CHS, could serve as a model for geothermal development elsewhere in the CAHSB. This dissertation evaluates the geologic setting of the CAHSB and explores the implications for resource capacity and sustainable energy production. The local geology and geochemical characteristics of CHS are characterized, with a focus on identifying ultimate heat source responsible for the hot springs. A radiogenic heat source model is proposed and tested for the entire CAHSB, wherein the anomalously radioactive plutons that are associated with nearly every hot spring are providing the source of heat driving the geothermal activity. This model appears to be feasible mechanism for the observed heat transfer. This implies that CAHSB "reservoir" fluids are probably low-temperature. It also suggests that individual hydrothermal systems are small-scale and localized features, unlike the types of hydrothermal systems that are conventionally exploited for energy (i.e., those that derive their heat from magmatic or deep crustal sources, which have higher reservoir temperatures and larger spatial extent). In this context, the individual capacity of several CAHSB resources close to communities is assessed, and a preliminary evaluation of the sustainability of the power production scheme at CHS is given. As another approach to the question of sustainability, this dissertation explores the ways in which external benefits of geothermal energy can influence the economics of a project. In sum, producing geothermal energy from CAHSB resources is

  12. Effect of stone Spa bathing and hot-spring bathing on pulse wave velocity in healthy, late middle-aged females.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Ikuharu; Izumi, Yurina; Inoue, Miyabi; Okada, Kanako; Sakaguchi, Kaho; Miyai, Natsuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of stone spa bathing (Ganban-yoku) and hot-spring bathing on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in healthy, late middle-aged females. The subjects were 13 females (mean age, 47.3 years). The skin and tympanic temperatures, blood pressure, and baPWV were measured before and after stone spa bathing and hot-spring bathing. For the stone spa bathing, the subjects lay down three times for approximately 10 min each time over warm stone beds. Although body weight showed no change after the hot-spring bathing, it significantly increased after the stone spa bathing. The increase was significantly related to the amount of water intake. The skin and tympanic temperatures increased to a smaller degree after the stone spa bathing than after the hot-spring bathing. The diastolic blood pressure decreased to a smaller degree after the stone spa bathing. BaPWV showed no significant change after bathing both in the stone spa and in the hot-spring. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the factors significantly related to the change in baPWV after the stone spa bathing were the changes in skin and tympanic temperatures and habit of smoking, and that after the hot-spring bathing was the change in skin temperature. The results suggest that, compared with the hot-spring bathing, stone spa bathing causes less strain on the body. The stone spa bathing and hot-spring bathing showed no marked effect on baPWV. However, there is a possibility that the stone spa bathing may be used as a load for investigating arterial stiffness.

  13. Microbial and Metabolic Diversity of the Alkaline Hot Springs of Paoha Island: A Late Archean and Proterozoic Ocean Analogue Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, I. S.; Demirel, C.; Hyde, A.; Motamedi, S.; Frantz, C. M.; Stamps, B. W.; Nunn, H. S.; Oremland, R. S.; Rosen, M.; Miller, L. G.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Paoha Island formed 450 years ago within Mono Lake, California, as a result of magmatic activity in the underlying Long Valley Caldera. Previous studies of Paoha Island hot springs focused on the presence of novel organisms adapted to high levels of arsenic (114-138 µM). However, the microbial community structure, relationship with Mono Lake, and preservation potential of these communities remains largely unexplored. Here, we present water chemistry, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences, and metagenomic data for spring water and biofilms sampled on a recently exposed mudflat along the shoreline of Paoha Island. Spring waters were hypoxic, alkaline, and saline, had variable temperature (39-70 °C near spring sources) and high concentrations of arsenic, sulfide and reduced organic compounds. Thermodynamic modeling based on spring water chemistry indicated that sulfide and methane oxidation were the most energetically favorable respiratory metabolisms. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed distinct communities in different biofilms: red biofilms were dominated by arsenite-oxidizing phototrophs within the Ectothiorhodospiraceae, while OTUs most closely related to the cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira were present in green biofilms, as well as a large proportion of sequences assigned to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Metagenomic analysis identified genes related to arsenic resistance, arsenic oxidation/reduction, sulfur oxidation and photosynthesis. Eukaryotic rRNA gene sequencing analyses revealed few detectable taxa in spring biofilms and waters compared to Mono Lake; springs receiving splash from the lake were dominated by the alga Picocystis. The co-occurrence of hypoxia, high pH, and close proximity of anoxygenic and oxygenic phototrophic mats makes this site a potential Archean/Proterozoic analogue environment, but suggests that similar environments if preserved in the rock record, may not preserve evidence for community dynamics or the existence of photosynthetic metabolisms.

  14. The nature of serpentine endemism.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Brian L

    2014-02-01

    Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology.

  15. Temperature Adaptations in the Terminal Processes of Anaerobic Decomposition of Yellowstone National Park and Icelandic Hot Spring Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Sandbeck, Kenneth A.; Ward, David M.

    1982-01-01

    The optimum temperatures for methanogenesis in microbial mats of four neutral to alkaline, low-sulfate hot springs in Yellowstone National Park were between 50 and 60°C, which was 13 to 23°C lower than the upper temperature for mat development. Significant methanogenesis at 65°C was only observed in one of the springs. Methane production in samples collected at a 51 or 62°C site in Octopus Spring was increased by incubation at higher temperatures and was maximal at 70°C. Strains of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum were isolated from 50, 55, 60, and 65°C sites in Octopus Spring at the temperatures of the collection sites. The optimum temperature for growth and methanogenesis of each isolate was 65°C. Similar results were found for the potential rate of sulfate reduction in an Icelandic hot spring microbial mat in which sulfate reduction dominated methane production as a terminal process in anaerobic decomposition. The potential rate of sulfate reduction along the thermal gradient of the mat was greatest at 50°C, but incubation at 60°C of the samples obtained at 50°C increased the rate. Adaptation to different mat temperatures, common among various microorganisms and processes in the mats, did not appear to occur in the processes and microorganisms which terminate the anaerobic food chain. Other factors must explain why the maximal rates of these processes are restricted to moderate temperatures of the mat ecosystem. PMID:16346109

  16. Identification And Survival Of Bacteriohopanepolyol In A Hot Spring Microbial Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janke, Linda L.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The polar lipids of a hot spring microbial mat located in Yellowstone National Park were examined for the presence of bacteriohopanepolvols (BHP). BHP are a group of molecules consisting of a hopanoid (peotacyclic triterpene) linked via a n-alkyl polyhydroxylated chain to a variety of polar end groups. BHP have been isolated in varying amounts from phylogenetically diverse eubacterial groups including cyanobacteria, methanotrophs and the Rhodospirillaceae. The hopanoids are excellent biomarkers and have been detected in sedimentary rocks as old as 1.7 bya. In order to interpret the ancient organic record, it is important to understand the abundance, source and fate of such biomarker compounds in microbial mats. A 40 sq cm mat section was taken from a 52 to 55 C site in the effluent channel of Octopus Spring and was sampled vertically over approximately 16 mm. The first 5-6 mm was sectioned into a top green layer (310 mg dry weight) and several subjacent, deep orange layers (240 and 250 mg, respectively). The lower 10 mm of the mat was sectioned into two gelatinous orange layers containing a siliceous gritty material (260 and 440 mg) which increased with depth, and a bottom layer composed almost exclusively of siliceous sinter (4.1 g). The progressive decrease in total organic carbon from 45% in the top green layer to only 4% in the bottom layer reflects the observed increase in siliceous deposition. GC-MS analysis of the phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acids yielded predominantly saturated normal chain acids, n-15 to n-18, and iso-branched acids, i-15 to i-17. Small amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (16:1, two positional isomers of 18:1, and two cyclopropyl acids, C(sub 17) and C(sub 19)) were present mainly in the top layer. Esterified fatty acid which is a good index for intact cellular membrane, i.e. viable organisms, was highest in the top two layers (203 and 231 micro g/mg total lipid, respectively) and gradually decreased to 66 micro g/mg total lipid in

  17. Identification And Survival Of Bacteriohopanepolyol In A Hot Spring Microbial Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janke, Linda L.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The polar lipids of a hot spring microbial mat located in Yellowstone National Park were examined for the presence of bacteriohopanepolvols (BHP). BHP are a group of molecules consisting of a hopanoid (peotacyclic triterpene) linked via a n-alkyl polyhydroxylated chain to a variety of polar end groups. BHP have been isolated in varying amounts from phylogenetically diverse eubacterial groups including cyanobacteria, methanotrophs and the Rhodospirillaceae. The hopanoids are excellent biomarkers and have been detected in sedimentary rocks as old as 1.7 bya. In order to interpret the ancient organic record, it is important to understand the abundance, source and fate of such biomarker compounds in microbial mats. A 40 sq cm mat section was taken from a 52 to 55 C site in the effluent channel of Octopus Spring and was sampled vertically over approximately 16 mm. The first 5-6 mm was sectioned into a top green layer (310 mg dry weight) and several subjacent, deep orange layers (240 and 250 mg, respectively). The lower 10 mm of the mat was sectioned into two gelatinous orange layers containing a siliceous gritty material (260 and 440 mg) which increased with depth, and a bottom layer composed almost exclusively of siliceous sinter (4.1 g). The progressive decrease in total organic carbon from 45% in the top green layer to only 4% in the bottom layer reflects the observed increase in siliceous deposition. GC-MS analysis of the phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acids yielded predominantly saturated normal chain acids, n-15 to n-18, and iso-branched acids, i-15 to i-17. Small amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (16:1, two positional isomers of 18:1, and two cyclopropyl acids, C(sub 17) and C(sub 19)) were present mainly in the top layer. Esterified fatty acid which is a good index for intact cellular membrane, i.e. viable organisms, was highest in the top two layers (203 and 231 micro g/mg total lipid, respectively) and gradually decreased to 66 micro g/mg total lipid in

  18. "Cold" and "hot" thermal anomalies/events during spring and autumn in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Szwed, Małgorzata; Choryński, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Regular air temperatures' changes, as an effect of succession of the seasons, are a part of people's everyday life. When winters and summers are not characterised by extreme thermal conditions, people are well prepared and there are no losses for agriculture and economy or human health consequences observed. A similar situation takes place in case of typical springs and autumns, where normally no too low or too high air temperatures occur. The situation becomes totally different when the air temperature significantly exceeds frames of typical temperature for particular months or seasons. Appearance of winter conditions during months in which they are not expected may lead to losses in different branches of the economy e.g. transport or agriculture. Heat in non-summer months potentially brings less damages for the economy, but it might be a great threat for human health, especially for those with cardiological diseases, and it may result in thermal discomfort. If these conditions last for sufficient period of time, they may cause disorders in plant vegetation cycles. One element of the discussion held on the global warming which has been observed since the half of the twentieth century, is the question of how this effects the occurrence of climatic anomalies. Does it result in an decrease of "cold" thermal anomalies and in an increase of frequency of "hot" anomalies? Or does it increase the occurrence of both types of these events? In this research there will be performed an analysis of the occurrence of conditions typical for winter months, outside the climatic winter (December, January, February) at ten locations in the area of Poland. During the months directly close to this period (November and March) the threshold for winter conditions will be maximum temperature below 0 oC which means occurrence of frost all day long. For other non-summer months the threshold will be mean daily temperature below 0 oC meaning low temperatures during the day, not only morning

  19. Microbial Fe(III) Oxide Reduction in Chocolate Pots Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortney, N. W.; Roden, E. E.; Boyd, E. S.; Converse, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Previous work on dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) has focused on high temperature, low pH environments where soluble Fe(III) is utilized as an electron acceptor for respiration. Much less attention has been paid to DIR in lower temperature, circumneutral pH environments, where solid phase Fe(III) oxides are the dominant forms of Fe(III). This study explored the potential for DIR in the warm (ca. 40-50°C), circumneutral pH Chocolate Pots hot springs (CP) in YNP. Most probable number (MPN) enumerations and enrichment culture studies confirmed the presence of endogenous microbial communities that reduced native CP Fe(III) oxides. Enrichment cultures demonstrated sustained DIR coupled to acetate and lactate oxidation through repeated transfers over ca. 450 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the dominant organisms in the enrichments were closely affiliated with the well known Fe(III) reducer Geobacter metallireducens. Additional taxa included relatives of sulfate reducing bacterial genera Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfovibrio; however, amendment of enrichments with molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, suggested that sulfate reduction was not a primary metabolic pathway involved in DIR in the cultures. A metagenomic analysis of enrichment cultures is underway in anticipation of identifying genes involved in DIR in the less well-characterized dominant organisms. Current studies are aimed at interrogating the in situ microbial community at CP. Core samples were collected along the flow path (Fig. 1) and subdivided into 1 cm depth intervals for geochemical and microbiological analysis. The presence of significant quantities of Fe(II) in the solids indicated that DIR is active in situ. A parallel study investigated in vitro microbial DIR in sediments collected from three of the coring sites. DNA was extracted from samples from both studies for 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing in order to obtain a

  20. Fictibacillus halophilus sp. nov., from a microbial mat of a hot spring atop the Himalayan Range.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anukriti; Kohli, Puneet; Singh, Yogendra; Schumann, Peter; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-positive staining, motile, endospore forming and moderately halophilic bacterium, designated as strain AS8T, was isolated from a microbial mat deposited at thermal discharges of Manikaran hot spring (with surface water temperature ~95 °C) located in Himachal Pradesh, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence based phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain AS8T belonged to the genus Fictibacillus with the highest sequence similarity to Fictibacillus nanhaiensis DSM 23009T (99.9 %) and Fictibacillus phosphorivorans Ca7T (99.9 %), followed by Fictibacillus barbaricus V2-BIII-A2T (99.1 %) and Fictibacillus arsenicus Con a/3T (97.4 %). The polar lipids fraction consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the type A1γ based on directly cross-linked meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content of strain AS8T was found to be 46.9 mol%. The quinone system of strain AS8T consisted of MK-7 predominantly, and the polyamine pattern primarily contained spermidine and spermine. The major cellular fatty acids in strain AS8T were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0. The strain showed DNA-DNA relatedness of 52.7 % with F. nanhaiensis DSM 23009T, 50.7 % with F. phosphorivorans Ca7T, 34.8 % with F. barbaricus V2-BIII-A2T and 38.0 % with F. arsenicus Con a/3T. In spite of the high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the DNA-DNA hybridization and gyr B gene sequencing results (≤87 %) supported by physiological and biochemical tests demonstrated that strain AS8T is a representative of a novel species, for which the name Fictibacillus halophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AS8T (=MCC 2765T=DSM 100124T=KCTC 33758T).