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Sample records for serum biomarker profiling

  1. Biomarker discovery for ovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) by proteomic serum profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Taylor, D; Begg, D J; Whittington, R J

    2011-07-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting ruminants and other species. It is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In this study, surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI TOF-MS) was used as a platform to identify candidate biomarkers from sheep serum. Multivariate biomarker models which aimed to differentiate sheep with paratuberculosis and vaccinated-exposed sheep from unexposed animals were proposed based on classification and regression tree (CART) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithms from two array types. The accuracy of classification of sheep into unexposed or exposed groups ranged from 75 to 100% among models. SELDI was used to monitor protein profile changes over time during an experimental infection trial by examining sera collected at 4-, 8- and 13-months post infection. Although three different SELDI instruments were used, nine consistent proteomic features were observed associated with exposure to MAP. Two of the putative serum biomarkers were purified from serum using chromatographic methods and were identified as transthyretin and alpha haemoglobin by tandem mass spectrometry. They belong to highly abundant, acute phase reactants in the serum proteome and have also been discovered as serum biomarkers in human inflammatory conditions and cancer. Their relationship to the pathogenesis of Johne's disease remains to be elucidated.

  2. Identification of haptoglobin peptide as a novel serum biomarker for lung squamous cell carcinoma by serum proteome and peptidome profiling.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tetsuya; Seike, Masahiro; Kuribayashi, Hidehiko; Soeno, Chie; Ishii, Takeo; Kida, Kozui; Gemma, Akihiko

    2016-03-01

    To date, a number of potential biomarkers for lung squamous cell cancer (SCC) have been identified; however, sensitive biomarkers are currently lacking to detect early stage SCC due to low sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, we compared the 7 serum proteomic profiles of 11 SCC patients, 7 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 7 healthy smokers as controls to identify potential serum biomarkers associated with SCC and COPD. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass-spectrometric analysis (MS) using an affinity column revealed two candidate proteins, haptoglobin (HP) and apolipoprotein 4, as biomarkers of SCC, and α-1-antichymotrypsin as a marker of COPD. The iTRAQ technique was also used to identify SCC-specific peptides. HP protein expression was significantly higher in SCC patients than in COPD patients. Furthermore, two HP protein peptides showed significantly higher serum levels in SCC patients than in COPD patients. We established novel polyclonal antibodies for the two HP peptides and subsequently a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of these specific peptides in patient and control sera. The sensitivity of detection by ELISA of one HP peptide (HP216) was 70% of SCC patients, 40% of COPDs patients and 13% of healthy controls. We also measured CYFRA, a cytokeratin fragment clinically used as an SCC tumor marker, in all the 28 cases and found CYFRA was detected in only seven SCC cases. However, when the measurement of HP216 was combined with that of CYFRA, 100% (10 of 10 patients) of SCC cases were detected. Our proteomic profiling demonstrates that the SCC-specific HP peptide HP216 may potentially be used as a diagnostic biomarker for SCC.

  3. Serum Circulating microRNA Profiling for Identification of Potential Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Pescador, Nuria; Pérez-Barba, Milagros; Ibarra, José María; Corbatón, Arturo; Martínez-Larrad, María Teresa; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes, including complex metabolic processes, such as energy and lipid metabolism, which have been studied in the context of diabetes and obesity. Some particular microRNAs have recently been demonstrated to abundantly and stably exist in serum and to be potentially disease-specific. The aim of this profiling study was to characterize the expression of miRNA in serum samples of obese, nonobese diabetic and obese diabetic individuals to determine whether miRNA expression was deregulated in these serum samples and to identify whether any observed deregulation was specific to either obesity or diabetes or obesity with diabetes. Patients and Methods Thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes, 20 obese patients, 16 obese patients with type 2 diabetes and 20 healthy controls were selected for this study. MiRNA PCR panels were employed to screen serum levels of 739 miRNAs in pooled samples from these four groups. We compared the levels of circulating miRNAs between serum pools of each group. Individual validation of the twelve microRNAs selected as promising biomarkers was carried out using RT-qPCR. Results Three serum microRNAs, miR-138, miR-15b and miR-376a, were found to have potential as predictive biomarkers in obesity. Use of miR-138 or miR-376a provides a powerful predictive tool for distinguishing obese patients from normal healthy controls, diabetic patients, and obese diabetic patients. In addition, the combination of miR-503 and miR-138 can distinguish diabetic from obese diabetic patients. Conclusion This study is the first to show a panel of serum miRNAs for obesity, and compare them with miRNAs identified in serum for diabetes and obesity with diabetes. Our results support the use of some miRNAs extracted from serum samples as potential predictive tools for obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24204780

  4. Amino Acid Profiles of Serum and Urine in Search for Prostate Cancer Biomarkers: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczynska, Agnieszka; Sawicki, Wojciech; Pałka, Jerzy A.; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2017-01-01

    There is a great interest in searching for diagnostic biomarkers in prostate cancer patients. The aim of the pilot study was to evaluate free amino acid profiles in their serum and urine. The presented paper shows the first comprehensive analysis of a wide panel of amino acids in two different physiological fluids obtained from the same groups of prostate cancer patients (n = 49) and healthy men (n = 40). The potential of free amino acids, both proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic, as prostate cancer biomarkers and their utility in classification of study participants have been assessed. Several metabolites, which deserve special attention in the further metabolomic investigations on searching for prostate cancer markers, were indicated. Moreover, free amino acid profiles enabled to classify samples to one of the studied groups with high sensitivity and specificity. The presented research provides a strong evidence that ethanolamine, arginine and branched-chain amino acids metabolic pathways can be a valuable source of markers for prostate cancer. The altered concentrations of the above-mentioned metabolites suggest their role in pathogenesis of prostate cancer and they should be further evaluated as clinically useful markers of prostate cancer. PMID:28138303

  5. LC-MS-based serum metabolic profiling for genitourinary cancer classification and cancer type-specific biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Huang, Zhenzhen; Gao, Yao; Chen, Yongjing; Hang, Wei; Xing, Jinchun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2012-08-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) and kidney cancer (KC) are the first two commonly occurring genitourinary cancers in China. In this study, a comprehensive LC-MS-based method, which utilizes both reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) separations, has been carried out in conjunction with multivariate data analysis to discriminate the global serum profiles of BC, KC, and noncancer controls. An independent test set consisting of different patients has been used to objectively evaluate the predictive ability of the analysis platform. Excellent sensitivity and specificity have been achieved in detection of KC and BC. The results suggest that serum metabolic profiling could be used for different types of genitourinary cancer diagnosis. Furthermore, cancer type-specific biomarkers were found through a critical selection criterion. As a result, eicosatrienol, azaprostanoic acid, docosatrienol, retinol, and 14'-apo-beta-carotenal  were found as specific biomarkers for BC; and PE(P-16:0e/0:0), glycerophosphorylcholine, ganglioside GM3 (d18:1/22:1), C17 sphinganine, and SM(d18:0/16:1(9Z)) were found as specific biomarkers for KC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used for the preliminary evaluation of the biomarkers. These biomarkers have great potential to be used in the clinical diagnosis after further rigorous assessment.

  6. Multiple Serum Cytokine Profiling to Identify Combinational Diagnostic Biomarkers in Attacks of Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Migita, Kiyoshi; Sato, Shuntaro; Umeda, Masataka; Nonaka, Fumiaki; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Ueki, Yukitaka; Masumoto, Junya; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Yachie, Akihiro; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The precise cytokine networks in the serum of individuals with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) that are associated with its pathogenesis have been unknown. Here, we attempted to identify specific biomarkers to diagnose or assess disease activity in FMF patients. We measured serum levels of 45 cytokines in 75 FMF patients and 40 age-matched controls by multisuspension cytokine array. FMF in “attack” or “remission” was classified by Japan College of Rheumatology-certified rheumatologists according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. Cytokines were ranked by their importance by a multivariate classification algorithm. We performed a logistic regression analysis to determine specific biomarkers for discriminating FMF patients in attack. To identify specific molecular networks, we performed a cluster analysis of each cytokine. Twenty-nine of the 45 cytokines were available for further analyses. Eight cytokines’ serum levels were significantly elevated in the FMF attack versus healthy control group. Nine cytokines were increased in FMF attack compared to FMF remission. Multivariate classification algorithms followed by a logistic regression analysis revealed that the combined measurement of IL-6, IL-18, and IL-17 distinguished FMF patients in attack from the controls with the highest accuracy (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 95.5%). Among the FMF patients, the combined measurement of IL-6, G-CSF, IL-10, and IL-12p40 discriminated febrile attack periods from remission periods with the highest accuracy (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 87.9%, and accuracy 84.0%). Our data identified combinational diagnostic biomarkers in FMF patients based on the measurement of multiple cytokines. These findings help to improve the diagnostic performance of FMF in daily practice and extend our understanding of the activation of the inflammasome leading to enhanced cytokine networks. PMID:27100444

  7. Serum protein N-glycans profiling for the discovery of potential biomarkers for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuiying; Schmilovitz-Weiss, Hemda; Liu, Xue-en; Pappo, Orit; Halpern, Marisa; Sulkes, Jaqueline; Braun, Marius; Cohen, Maya; Barak, Nir; Tur-Kaspa, Ran; Vanhooren, Valerie; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Libert, Claude; Contreras, Roland; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2009-02-01

    The hepatic histology in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can vary from isolated hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis can progress to cirrhosis and liver-related death. The aim was to evaluate the use of blood serum N-glycan fingerprinting as a tool for differential diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis from steatosis. A group of 47 patients with NAFLD was diagnosed by clinical laboratory analysis and ultrasonography, and was studied histologically using the Brunt's scoring system. The control group included 13 healthy individuals. N-glycan profiles of serum proteins were determined by DNA sequencer-based carbohydrate analytical profiling. We have found that the concentrations of two glycans (NGA2F and NA2) and their logarithm ratio of NGA2F versus NA2 (named GlycoNashTest) were associated with the degree of NASH-related fibrosis, but had no correlation with the grade of inflammation nor steatosis severity. When used to screen NAFLD patients, GlycoNashTest could identify advanced NASH-related fibrosis (F3-F4) with the diagnosis sensitivity of 89.5% and specificity of 71.4%. The serum N-glycan profile is a promising noninvasive method for detecting NASH or NASH-related fibrosis in NAFLD patients, which could be a valuable supplement to other markers currently used in diagnosis of NASH.

  8. Parallel Metabolomic Profiling of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum for Identifying Biomarkers of Injury Severity after Acute Human Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yiman; Streijger, Femke; Wang, Yining; Lin, Guohui; Christie, Sean; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Parent, Stefan; Bailey, Christopher S.; Paquette, Scott; Boyd, Michael C.; Ailon, Tamir; Street, John; Fisher, Charles G.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Kwon, Brian K.; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Suffering an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in catastrophic physical and emotional loss. Efforts to translate novel therapies in acute clinical trials are impeded by the SCI community’s singular dependence upon functional outcome measures. Therefore, a compelling rationale exists to establish neurochemical biomarkers for the objective classification of injury severity. In this study, CSF and serum samples were obtained at 3 time points (~24, 48, and 72 hours post-injury) from 30 acute SCI patients (10 AIS A, 12 AIS B, and 8 AIS C). A differential chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (CIL LC-MS) with a universal metabolome standard (UMS) was applied to the metabolomic profiling of these samples. This method provided enhanced detection of the amine- and phenol-containing submetabolome. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed dysregulations in arginine-proline metabolism following SCI. Six CSF metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers of baseline injury severity, and good classification performance (AUC > 0.869) was achieved by using combinations of these metabolites in pair-wise comparisons of AIS A, B and C patients. Using the UMS strategy, the current data set can be expanded to a larger cohort for biomarker validation, as well as discovering biomarkers for predicting neurologic outcome. PMID:27966539

  9. Differential expression profiling of serum proteins and metabolites for biomarker discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sushmita Mimi; Anderle, Markus; Lin, Hua; Becker, Christopher H.

    2004-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proteomics and metabolomics platform is presented for quantitative differential expression analysis. Proteome profiles obtained from 1.5 [mu]L of human serum show ~5000 de-isotoped and quantifiable molecular ions. Approximately 1500 metabolites are observed from 100 [mu]L of serum. Quantification is based on reproducible sample preparation and linear signal intensity as a function of concentration. The platform is validated using human serum, but is generally applicable to all biological fluids and tissues. The median coefficient of variation (CV) for ~5000 proteomic and ~1500 metabolomic molecular ions is approximately 25%. For the case of C-reactive protein, results agree with quantification by immunoassay. The independent contributions of two sources of variance, namely sample preparation and LC-MS analysis, are respectively quantified as 20.4 and 15.1% for the proteome, and 19.5 and 13.5% for the metabolome, for median CV values. Furthermore, biological diversity for ~20 healthy individuals is estimated by measuring the variance of ~6500 proteomic and metabolomic molecular ions in sera for each sample; the median CV is 22.3% for the proteome and 16.7% for the metabolome. Finally, quantitative differential expression profiling is applied to a clinical study comparing healthy individuals and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

  10. Discovery of Biomarkers for Tasmanian Devil Cancer (DFTD) by Metabolic Profiling of Serum.

    PubMed

    Karu, Naama; Wilson, Richard; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Woods, Gregory M; Hilder, Emily F; Shellie, Robert A

    2016-10-07

    Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is a transmissible cancer threatening Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) with extinction. There is no preclinical test available for DFTD, and thus our aim was to find biomarkers for DFTD by metabolic fingerprinting. Seventy serum samples from wild Tasmanian devils (35 controls, 35 with tumors) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Features were selected by multivariate models (PLS/DA, random forests) comparing age-matched training set (n = 20 × 2) and further complying with fold-change threshold (≥1.4) and Mann-Whitney U-tests with correction for multiple hypotheses (false discovery rate (FDR) q < 0.05). An array of overlapping peptide segments of the N-terminal end of fibrinogen were the strongest positive DFTD markers. These peptides recorded fold-change up to 90, FDR-corrected p value below 0.01, and area under ROC curve of at least 0.80 and also correlated with tumor size (Spearman R > 0.45, p < 0.01). Additional potential markers included amino acid and lipid metabolites, while cortisol and urea were the most significant health predictors (AUC ≥ 0.90). PLS/DA resulted in AUC = 0.997 for the training set and overall sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 97%. A support vector machine model utilizing only the major peptide marker and seven other metabolites led to overall 94% sensitivity and specificity. The novel findings in this first DFTD metabolomics study shed light on metabolic changes in Tasmanian devils affected by DFTD and provide a valuable step toward the development of prognostic biomarkers.

  11. Serum protein profiling reveals baseline and pharmacodynamic biomarker signatures associated with clinical outcome in mCRC patients treated with chemotherapy ± cediranib

    PubMed Central

    Pommier, A J C; Shaw, R; Spencer, S K M; Morgan, S R; Hoff, P M; Robertson, J D; Barry, S T; Jürgensmeier, J M

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated soluble serum proteins as biomarkers to subset patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy±cediranib, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling inhibitor (VEGFi). Exploring biomarkers at pre- and on-treatment may identify patient subgroups showing clinical benefit on cediranib combination. Methods: Two hundred and seven serum proteins were analysed in 588 mCRC patients at pre- and on-treatment with chemotherapy (FOLFOX/CAPOX)±cediranib 20 mg. Patients were enrolled in the phase III trial HORIZON II. We correlated baseline biomarker signatures and pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers with PFS and OS. Results: We identified a baseline signature (BS) of 47 biomarkers that included VEGFA, VEGFD, VEGFR2, VEGFR3 and TIE-2, which defined two distinct subgroups of patients. Patients treated with chemotherapy plus cediranib who had ‘high' BS had shorter PFS (HR=1.82, P=0.003) than patients with ‘low' BS. This BS did not correlate with PFS of the patients treated with chemotherapy plus placebo. In addition, we identified a profile of 16 PD proteins on treatment associated with PFS (HR=0.58, P<0.001) and OS (HR=0.52, P<0.001) in patients treated with chemotherapy plus cediranib. This PD profile did not correlate with PFS and OS in patients treated with chemotherapy plus placebo. Conclusions: Serum proteins may represent relevant biomarkers to predict the outcome of patients treated with VEGFi-based therapies. We report a BS and PD biomarkers that may identify mCRC patients showing increased benefit of combining cediranib with chemotherapy. These exploratory findings need to be validated in future prospective studies. PMID:25121956

  12. Clinical implications of serum N-glycan profiling as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in germ-cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Narita, Takuma; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Yoneyama, Tohru; Narita, Shintaro; Yamashita, Shinichi; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Sakurai, Toshihiko; Kawamura, Sadafumi; Tochigi, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Tobisawa, Yuki; Yamamoto, Hayato; Koie, Takuya; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Habuchi, Tomonori; Arai, Yoichi; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-03-20

    Serum biomarker monitoring is essential for management of germ-cell tumors (GCT). However, not all GCT are positive for conventional tumor markers. We examined whether serum N-glycan-based biomarkers can be applied for detection and prognosis in patients with GCT. We performed a comprehensive N-glycan structural analysis of sera from 54 untreated GCT patients and 103 age-adjusted healthy volunteers using glycoblotting methods and mass spectrometry. Candidate N-glycans were selected from those with the highest association; cutoff concentration values were established, and an N-glycan score was created based on the number of positive N-glycans present. The validity of this score for diagnosis and prognosis was analyzed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. We identified five candidate N-glycans significantly associated with GCT patients. The accuracy of the N-glycan score for GCT was significant with an area-under-the-curve (AUC) value of 0.87. Diagnostically, the N-glycan score detected 10 of 12 (83%) patients with negative conventional tumor markers. Prognostically, the N-glycan score comprised four candidate N-glycans. The predictive value of the prognostic N-glycan score was significant, with an AUC value of 0.89. A high value prognostic N-glycan score was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Finally, to identify a potential carrier protein, immunoglobulin (Ig) fractions of sera were subjected to N-glycan analysis and compared to whole sera. Candidate N-glycans in Ig-fractions were significantly decreased; therefore, the carrier protein for candidate N-glycans is likely not an immunoglobulin. In summary, our newly developed N-glycan score seems to be a practical diagnostic and prognostic method for GCT.

  13. Serum fatty acid profiles and potential biomarkers of ankylosing spondylitis determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Han, Su; Dong, Daming; Wang, Yansong; Liu, Qingpeng; Xie, Wei; Li, Mi; Yao, Meng

    2015-04-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. Early and accurate detection is essential for effective disease treatment. Recently, research has focused on genomics and proteomics. However, the associated metabolic variations, especially fatty acid profiles, have been poorly discussed. In this study, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach and multivariate statistical analysis were used to investigate the metabolic profiles of serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and esterified fatty acids (EFAs) in AS patients. The results showed that significant differences in most of the FFA (C12:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:3, C20:4, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6) and EFA (C12:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:4 and C22:6) concentrations were found between the AS patients and healthy controls (p < 0.05). Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were performed to classify the AS patients and controls. Additionally, FFAs C20:4, C12:0, C18:3 and EFAs C22:6, C12:0 were confirmed as potential biomarkers to identify AS patients and healthy controls. The present study highlights that differences in the serum FFA and EFA profiles of AS patients reflect the metabolic disorder. Moreover, FFA and EFA biomarkers appear to have clinical applications for the screening and diagnosis of AS.

  14. Assessment of Serum Biomarkers in Rats After Exposure to Pesticides of Different Chemical Classes

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon...

  15. Serum profiling identifies novel muscle miRNA and cardiomyopathy-related miRNA biomarkers in Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dogs and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Jeanson-Leh, Laurence; Lameth, Julie; Krimi, Soraya; Buisset, Julien; Amor, Fatima; Le Guiner, Caroline; Barthélémy, Inès; Servais, Laurent; Blot, Stéphane; Voit, Thomas; Israeli, David

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked neuromuscular disease that affects 1 boy in 3500 to 5000 boys. The golden retriever muscular dystrophy dog is the best clinically relevant DMD animal model. Here, we used a high-thoughput miRNA sequencing screening for identification of candidate serum miRNA biomarkers in golden retriever muscular dystrophy dogs. We confirmed the dysregulation of the previously described muscle miRNAs, miR-1, miR-133, miR-206, and miR-378, and identified a new candidate muscle miRNA, miR-95. We identified two other classes of dysregulated serum miRNAs in muscular dystrophy: miRNAs belonging to the largest known miRNA cluster that resides in the imprinting DLK1-DIO3 genomic region and miRNAs associated with cardiac disease, including miR-208a, miR-208b, and miR-499. No simple correlation was identified between serum levels of cardiac miRNAs and cardiac functional parameters in golden retriever muscular dystrophy dogs. Finally, we confirmed a dysregulation of miR-95, miR-208a, miR-208b, miR-499, and miR-539 in a small cohort of DMD patients. Given the interspecies conservation of miRNAs and preliminary data in DMD patients, these newly identified dysregulated miRNAs are strong candidate biomarkers for DMD patients.

  16. Serum MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of AMD

    PubMed Central

    Szemraj, Maciej; Bielecka-Kowalska, Anna; Oszajca, Katarzyna; Krajewska, Marta; Goś, Roman; Jurowski, Piotr; Kowalski, Michał; Szemraj, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum have emerged as novel candidate biomarkers for many diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify a serum microRNA (miRNA) expression profile specific for dry and wet forms of AMD. Material/Methods Serum miRNA expression was first screened using TaqMan® Human MicroRNA Array A (Applied Biosystems). An extensive, self-validated, individual, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) study was then performed on a cohort of 300 AMD patients (150 wet form and 150 dry form) and 200 controls. The Mann-Whitney U test and nonparametric Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results miRNA expression analysis revealed increased expression of miR661 and miR3121 in serum of patients with dry AMD and miR4258, miR889, and Let7 in patients with wet form. Expression of analyzed miRNA was not observed or remained at low level in controls. Conclusions Differences in miRNA serum profile exist between patients with wet and dry form of AMD, which indicates miRNAs as potential biomarkers of AMD. Further studies should be performed to confirm its significance in clinical practice. PMID:26366973

  17. SERUM BIOMARKERS OF AGING IN THE BROWN NORWAY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Serum biomarkers to identify susceptibility to disease in aged humans are well researched. On the other hand, our understanding of biomarkers in animal models of aging is limited. Hence, we applied a commercially available panel of 58 serum analytes to screen for possible biomark...

  18. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  19. Serum pharmacodynamic biomarkers for chronic corticosteroid treatment of children

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Conklin, Laurie S.; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Brown, Kristy J.; Morgenroth, Lauren P.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Heier, Christopher R.; Damsker, Jesse M.; van den Anker, John N.; Henricson, Erik; Clemens, Paula R.; Mah, Jean K.; McDonald, Craig; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are extensively used in pediatrics, yet the burden of side effects is significant. Availability of a simple, fast, and reliable biochemical read out of steroidal drug pharmacodynamics could enable a rapid and objective assessment of safety and efficacy of corticosteroids and aid development of corticosteroid replacement drugs. To identify potential corticosteroid responsive biomarkers we performed proteome profiling of serum samples from DMD and IBD patients with and without corticosteroid treatment using SOMAscan aptamer panel testing 1,129 proteins in <0.1 cc of sera. Ten pro-inflammatory proteins were elevated in untreated patients and suppressed by corticosteroids (MMP12, IL22RA2, CCL22, IGFBP2, FCER2, LY9, ITGa1/b1, LTa1/b2, ANGPT2 and FGG). These are candidate biomarkers for anti-inflammatory efficacy of corticosteroids. Known safety concerns were validated, including elevated non-fasting insulin (insulin resistance), and elevated angiotensinogen (salt retention). These were extended by new candidates for metabolism disturbances (leptin, afamin), stunting of growth (growth hormone binding protein), and connective tissue remodeling (MMP3). Significant suppression of multiple adrenal steroid hormones was also seen in treated children (reductions of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol and testosterone). A panel of new pharmacodynamic biomarkers for corticosteroids in children was defined. Future studies will need to bridge specific biomarkers to mechanism of drug action, and specific clinical outcomes. PMID:27530235

  20. Serum pharmacodynamic biomarkers for chronic corticosteroid treatment of children.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Yetrib; Conklin, Laurie S; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Brown, Kristy J; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Heier, Christopher R; Damsker, Jesse M; van den Anker, John N; Henricson, Erik; Clemens, Paula R; Mah, Jean K; McDonald, Craig; Hoffman, Eric P

    2016-08-17

    Corticosteroids are extensively used in pediatrics, yet the burden of side effects is significant. Availability of a simple, fast, and reliable biochemical read out of steroidal drug pharmacodynamics could enable a rapid and objective assessment of safety and efficacy of corticosteroids and aid development of corticosteroid replacement drugs. To identify potential corticosteroid responsive biomarkers we performed proteome profiling of serum samples from DMD and IBD patients with and without corticosteroid treatment using SOMAscan aptamer panel testing 1,129 proteins in <0.1 cc of sera. Ten pro-inflammatory proteins were elevated in untreated patients and suppressed by corticosteroids (MMP12, IL22RA2, CCL22, IGFBP2, FCER2, LY9, ITGa1/b1, LTa1/b2, ANGPT2 and FGG). These are candidate biomarkers for anti-inflammatory efficacy of corticosteroids. Known safety concerns were validated, including elevated non-fasting insulin (insulin resistance), and elevated angiotensinogen (salt retention). These were extended by new candidates for metabolism disturbances (leptin, afamin), stunting of growth (growth hormone binding protein), and connective tissue remodeling (MMP3). Significant suppression of multiple adrenal steroid hormones was also seen in treated children (reductions of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol and testosterone). A panel of new pharmacodynamic biomarkers for corticosteroids in children was defined. Future studies will need to bridge specific biomarkers to mechanism of drug action, and specific clinical outcomes.

  1. Serum and tissue biomarkers in aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelouzou, Alkistis; Tsourelis, Loukas; Kaklamanis, Loukas; Degiannis, Dimitrios; Kogerakis, Nektarios; Cokkinos, Dennis V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is seen in a large proportion of individuals over 60 years. It is an active process, influenced by lipid accumulation, mechanical stress, inflammation, and abnormal extracellular matrix turnover. Various biomarkers (BMs) are studied, as regards mechanisms, diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: In the calcified valves calcium deposition, elastin fragmentation and disorganization of cellular matrix were assessed, together with expression of OPN, OPG, osteocalcin (OCN) and RL2. We prospectively studied the following serum BMs in 60 patients with CAVS and compared them to 20 healthy controls, free from any cardiac disease: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), which regulate collagen turnover, inflammatory factors, i.e. tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa), interleukin 2 (IL2), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) which regulates fibrosis, fetuin-A (fet-A), osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), sclerostin (SOST), and relaxin-2 (RL2) which positively or negatively regulate calcification. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) which regulates migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages was also studied as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) an oxidative marker. Results: Extent of tissue valve calcification (Alizarin Red stain) was negatively correlated with tissue elastin, and RL2, and positively correlated with tissue OCN and serum TIMP1 and MCP-1 and negatively with MMP9. Tissue OCN was positively correlated with OPN and negatively with the elastin. Tissue OPN was negatively correlated with elastin and OPG. Tissue OPN OPG and RL2 were not correlated with serum levels In the serum we found in patients statistically lower TIMP1, fet-A and RL2 levels, while all other BMs were higher compared to the healthy group. Positive correlations between SOST and IL2, OPG and MDA but negative with TNFa and OPN were found; also MMP9 was negatively correlated with TNFa and MCP-1

  2. Changes in serum protein profiles of chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in serum protein profiles were analyzed to identify biomarkers associated with a poultry leg problem named tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) that can cause lameness. We used a bead-based affinity matrix containing a combinatorial library of hexapeptides (ProteoMinerTM) to deplete high abundan...

  3. Identification of serum protein biomarkers for utrophin based DMD therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guiraud, Simon; Edwards, Benjamin; Squire, Sarah E.; Babbs, Arran; Shah, Nandini; Berg, Adam; Chen, Huijia; Davies, Kay E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite promising therapeutic avenues, there is currently no effective treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a lethal monogenic disorder caused by the loss of the large cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. A highly promising approach to therapy, applicable to all DMD patients irrespective to their genetic defect, is to modulate utrophin, a functional paralogue of dystrophin, able to compensate for the primary defects of DMD restoring sarcolemmal stability. One of the major difficulties in assessing the effectiveness of therapeutic strategies is to define appropriate outcome measures. In the present study, we utilised an aptamer based proteomics approach to profile 1,310 proteins in plasma of wild-type, mdx and Fiona (mdx overexpressing utrophin) mice. Comparison of the C57 and mdx sera revealed 83 proteins with statistically significant >2 fold changes in dystrophic serum abundance. A large majority of previously described biomarkers (ANP32B, THBS4, CAMK2A/B/D, CYCS, CAPNI) were normalised towards wild-type levels in Fiona animals. This work also identified potential mdx markers specific to increased utrophin (DUS3, TPI1) and highlights novel mdx biomarkers (GITR, MYBPC1, HSP60, SIRT2, SMAD3, CNTN1). We define a panel of putative protein mdx biomarkers to evaluate utrophin based strategies which may help to accelerate their translation to the clinic. PMID:28252048

  4. Novel Serum Inflammatory Biomarkers for Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas R. Brown, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Oxford Biomedical...Biomarkers for Early Detection of Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0711 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas R. Brown, Ph.D. 5d... cancer however, their study as a source of cancer biomarkers is still at a relatively early stage. Identifying these biomarkers in serum presents a

  5. Intact-Protein Analysis System for Discovery of Serum-Based Disease Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Hanash, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Profiling of serum and plasma proteins has substantial relevance to the discovery of circulating disease biomarkers. However, the extreme complexity and vast dynamic range of protein abundance in serum and plasma present a formidable challenge for protein analysis. Thus, integration of multiple technologies is required to achieve high-resolution and high-sensitivity proteomic analysis of serum or plasma. In this chapter, we describe an orthogonal multidimensional intact-protein analysis system (IPAS) (Wang et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 4:618–625, 2005) coupled with protein tagging (Faca et al., J Proteome Res 5:2009–2018, 2006) to profile the serum and plasma proteomes quantitatively, which we have applied in our biomarker discovery studies (Katayama et al., Genome Med 1:47, 2009; Faca et al., PLoS Med 5:e123, 2008; Zhang et al. Genome Biol 9:R93, 2008). PMID:21468941

  6. Intact-protein analysis system for discovery of serum-based disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Hanash, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Profiling of serum and plasma proteins has substantial relevance to the discovery of circulating disease biomarkers. However, the extreme complexity and vast dynamic range of protein abundance in serum and plasma present a formidable challenge for protein analysis. Thus, integration of multiple technologies is required to achieve high-resolution and high-sensitivity proteomic analysis of serum or plasma. In this chapter, we describe an orthogonal multidimensional intact-protein analysis system (IPAS) (Wang et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 4:618-625, 2005) coupled with protein tagging (Faca et al., J Proteome Res 5:2009-2018, 2006) to profile the serum and plasma proteomes quantitatively, which we have applied in our biomarker discovery studies (Katayama et al., Genome Med 1:47, 2009; Faca et al., PLoS Med 5:e123, 2008; Zhang et al. Genome Biol 9:R93, 2008).

  7. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-07-14

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P < 0.05), whereas 10 partly overlapping markers differed significantly between rMDD cases and controls. Antidepressant medication use and comorbid anxiety status did not substantially impact on these findings. Sixteen of the cMDD-related markers had been assayed in the pooled validation cohorts, of which seven were associated with MDD. The analytes prominently associated with cMDD related to diverse cell communication and signal transduction processes (pancreatic polypeptide, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, ENRAGE, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tenascin-C), immune response (growth-regulated alpha protein) and protein metabolism (von Willebrand factor). Several proteins were implicated in depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  8. Serum proteomic profiling reveals fragments of MYOM3 as potential biomarkers for monitoring the outcome of therapeutic interventions in muscular dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Rouillon, Jérémy; Poupiot, Jérôme; Zocevic, Aleksandar; Amor, Fatima; Léger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Wong, Brenda; Pinilla, Robin; Cosette, Jérémie; Coenen-Stass, Anna M.L.; Mcclorey, Graham; Roberts, Thomas C.; Wood, Matthew J.A.; Servais, Laurent; Udd, Bjarne; Voit, Thomas; Richard, Isabelle; Svinartchouk, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Therapy-responsive biomarkers are an important and unmet need in the muscular dystrophy field where new treatments are currently in clinical trials. By using a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry approach and western blot validation, we found that two fragments of the myofibrillar structural protein myomesin-3 (MYOM3) are abnormally present in sera of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD2D) and their respective animal models. Levels of MYOM3 fragments were assayed in therapeutic model systems: (1) restoration of dystrophin expression by antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon-skipping in mdx mice and (2) stable restoration of α-sarcoglycan expression in KO-SGCA mice by systemic injection of a viral vector. Following administration of the therapeutic agents MYOM3 was restored toward wild-type levels. In the LGMD model, where different doses of vector were used, MYOM3 restoration was dose-dependent. MYOM3 fragments showed lower inter-individual variability compared with the commonly used creatine kinase assay, and correlated better with the restoration of the dystrophin-associated protein complex and muscle force. These data suggest that the MYOM3 fragments hold promise for minimally invasive assessment of experimental therapies for DMD and other neuromuscular disorders. PMID:26060189

  9. Serum proteomic profiling reveals fragments of MYOM3 as potential biomarkers for monitoring the outcome of therapeutic interventions in muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Jérémy; Poupiot, Jérôme; Zocevic, Aleksandar; Amor, Fatima; Léger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Wong, Brenda; Pinilla, Robin; Cosette, Jérémie; Coenen-Stass, Anna M L; Mcclorey, Graham; Roberts, Thomas C; Wood, Matthew J A; Servais, Laurent; Udd, Bjarne; Voit, Thomas; Richard, Isabelle; Svinartchouk, Fedor

    2015-09-01

    Therapy-responsive biomarkers are an important and unmet need in the muscular dystrophy field where new treatments are currently in clinical trials. By using a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry approach and western blot validation, we found that two fragments of the myofibrillar structural protein myomesin-3 (MYOM3) are abnormally present in sera of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD2D) and their respective animal models. Levels of MYOM3 fragments were assayed in therapeutic model systems: (1) restoration of dystrophin expression by antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon-skipping in mdx mice and (2) stable restoration of α-sarcoglycan expression in KO-SGCA mice by systemic injection of a viral vector. Following administration of the therapeutic agents MYOM3 was restored toward wild-type levels. In the LGMD model, where different doses of vector were used, MYOM3 restoration was dose-dependent. MYOM3 fragments showed lower inter-individual variability compared with the commonly used creatine kinase assay, and correlated better with the restoration of the dystrophin-associated protein complex and muscle force. These data suggest that the MYOM3 fragments hold promise for minimally invasive assessment of experimental therapies for DMD and other neuromuscular disorders.

  10. Serum snoRNAs as biomarkers for joint ageing and post traumatic osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Steinbusch, Mandy M. F.; Fang, Yongxiang; Milner, Peter I.; Clegg, Peter D.; Young, David A.; Welting, Tim J. M.; Peffers, Mandy J.

    2017-01-01

    The development of effective treatments for the age-related disease osteoarthritis and the ability to predict disease progression has been hampered by the lack of biomarkers able to demonstrate the course of the disease. Profiling the expression patterns of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in joint ageing and OA may provide diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This study determined expression patterns of snoRNAs in joint ageing and OA and examined them as potential biomarkers. Using SnoRNASeq and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) we demonstrate snoRNA expression levels in murine ageing and OA joints and serum for the first time. SnoRNASeq identified differential expression (DE) of 6 snoRNAs in young versus old joints and 5 snoRNAs in old sham versus old experimental osteoarthritic joints. In serum we found differential presence of 27 snoRNAs in young versus old serum and 18 snoRNAs in old sham versus old experimental osteoarthritic serum. Confirmatory qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated good correlation with SnoRNASeq findings. Profiling the expression patterns of snoRNAs is the initial step in determining their functional significance in ageing and osteoarthritis, and provides potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Our results establish snoRNAs as novel markers of musculoskeletal ageing and osteoarthritis. PMID:28252005

  11. Identification of novel serum peptide biomarkers for high-altitude adaptation: a comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Li, Wenhua; Liu, Siyuan; Yuan, Dongya; Guo, Yijiao; Jia, Cheng; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to identify serum biomarkers for screening individuals who could adapt to high-altitude hypoxia at sea level. HHA (high-altitude hypoxia acclimated; n = 48) and HHI (high-altitude hypoxia illness; n = 48) groups were distinguished at high altitude, routine blood tests were performed for both groups at high altitude and at sea level. Serum biomarkers were identified by comparing serum peptidome profiling between HHI and HHA groups collected at sea level. Routine blood tests revealed the concentration of hemoglobin and red blood cells were significantly higher in HHI than in HHA at high altitude. Serum peptidome profiling showed that ten significantly differentially expressed peaks between HHA and HHI at sea level. Three potential serum peptide peaks (m/z values: 1061.91, 1088.33, 4057.63) were further sequence identified as regions of the inter-α trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 fragment (ITIH4 347–356), regions of the inter-α trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1 fragment (ITIH1 205–214), and isoform 1 of fibrinogen α chain precursor (FGA 588–624). Expression of their full proteins was also tested by ELISA in HHA and HHI samples collected at sea level. Our study provided a novel approach for identifying potential biomarkers for screening people at sea level who can adapt to high altitudes.

  12. Tissue- and Serum-Associated Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ranjit; Lahiri, Nivedita

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the world, is offering a challenge to human beings, with the current modes of treatment being a palliative approach. Lack of proper curative or preventive treatment methods encouraged extensive research around the world with an aim to detect a vaccine or therapeutic target biomolecule that could lead to development of a drug or vaccine against HCC. Biomarkers or biological disease markers have emerged as a potential tool as drug/vaccine targets, as they can accurately diagnose, predict, and even prevent the diseases. Biomarker expression in tissue, serum, plasma, or urine can detect tumor in very early stages of its development and monitor the cancer progression and also the effect of therapeutic interventions. Biomarker discoveries are driven by advanced techniques, such as proteomics, transcriptomics, whole genome sequencing, micro- and micro-RNA arrays, and translational clinics. In this review, an overview of the potential of tissue- and serum-associated HCC biomarkers as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets for drug development is presented. In addition, we highlight recently developed micro-RNA, long noncoding RNA biomarkers, and single-nucleotide changes, which may be used independently or as complementary biomarkers. These active investigations going on around the world aimed at conquering HCC might show a bright light in the near future. PMID:27398029

  13. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented. PMID:26580612

  14. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-11-16

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented.

  15. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  16. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes.

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L; Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K; Hedge, Joan M; Wood, Charles E; McMahen, Rebecca L; Strynar, Mark J; Herr, David W

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long-Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways.

  17. Serum biomarkers predictive of depressive episodes in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, M G; Cooper, J D; Chan, M K; Bot, M; Penninx, B W J H; Bahn, S

    2016-02-01

    Panic disorder with or without comorbid agoraphobia (PD/PDA) has been linked to an increased risk to develop subsequent depressive episodes, yet the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders remains poorly understood. We aimed to identify a biomarker panel predictive for the development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder and/or dysthymia) within a 2-year-follow-up period. Blood serum concentrations of 165 analytes were evaluated in 120 PD/PDA patients without depressive disorder baseline diagnosis (6-month-recency) in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). We assessed the predictive performance of serum biomarkers, clinical, and self-report variables using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC) and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). False-discovery-rate corrected logistic regression model selection of serum analytes and covariates identified an optimal predictive panel comprised of tetranectin and creatine kinase MB along with patient gender and scores from the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) rating scale. Combined, an AUC of 0.87 was reached for identifying the PD/PDA patients who developed a depressive disorder within 2 years (n = 44). The addition of biomarkers represented a significant (p = 0.010) improvement over using gender and IDS alone as predictors (AUC = 0.78). For the first time, we report on a combination of biological serum markers, clinical variables and self-report inventories that can detect PD/PDA patients at increased risk of developing subsequent depressive disorders with good predictive performance in a naturalistic cohort design. After an independent validation our proposed biomarkers could prove useful in the detection of at-risk PD/PDA patients, allowing for early therapeutic interventions and improving clinical outcome.

  18. Immunodetection of Serum Albumin Adducts as Biomarkers for Organophosphorus Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sigeng; Zhang, Jun; Lumley, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in organophosphate (OP) research has been the identification and utilization of reliable biomarkers for the rapid, sensitive, and efficient detection of OP exposure. Although Tyr 411 OP adducts to human serum albumin (HSA) have been suggested to be one of the most robust biomarkers in the detection of OP exposure, the analysis of HSA-OP adduct detection has been limited to techniques using mass spectrometry. Herein, we describe the procurement of two monoclonal antibodies (mAb-HSA-GD and mAb-HSA-VX) that recognized the HSA Tyr 411 adduct of soman (GD) or S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), respectively, but did not recognize nonphosphonylated HSA. We showed that mAb-HSA-GD was able to detect the HSA Tyr 411 OP adduct at a low level (i.e., human blood plasma treated with 180 nM GD) that could not be detected by mass spectrometry. mAb-HSA-GD and mAb-HSA-VX showed an extremely low-level detection of GD adducted to HSA (on the order of picograms). mAb-HSA-GD could also detect serum albumin OP adducts in blood plasma samples from different animals administered GD, including rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys. The ability of the two antibodies to selectively recognize nerve agents adducted to serum albumin suggests that these antibodies could be used to identify biomarkers of OP exposure and provide a new biologic approach to detect OP exposure in animals. PMID:23192655

  19. The Choice of Euthanasia Method Affects Metabolic Serum Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Paula, Pierozan; Fredrik, Jernerén; Yusuf, Ransome; Oskar, Karlsson

    2017-02-28

    The impact of euthanasia methods on endocrine and metabolic parameters in rodent tissues and biological fluids is highly relevant for the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. However, few studies concerning this issue are found in the literature. We compared the effects of three euthanasia methods currently used in animal experimentation (i.e. decapitation, CO2 inhalation, and pentobarbital injection) on the serum levels of corticosterone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and a range of free fatty acids in rats. The corticosterone and insulin levels were not significantly affected by the euthanasia protocol used. However, euthanasia by an overdose of pentobarbital (120 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) increased the serum levels of glucose, and decreased cholesterol, stearic and arachidonic acids levels compared with euthanasia by CO2 inhalation and decapitation. CO2 inhalation appears to increase the serum levels of triglycerides, while euthanasia by decapitation induced no individual discrepant biomarker level. We conclude that choice of the euthanasia methods are critical for the reliability of serum biomarkers and indicate the importance of selecting adequate euthanasia methods for metabolic analysis in rodents. Decapitation without anaesthesia may be the most adequate method of euthanasia when taking both animal welfare and data quality in consideration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Virginia C.; McMahen, Rebecca L.; Strynar, Mark J.; Herr, David W.

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  1. Target biomarker profile for the clinical management of paracetamol overdose.

    PubMed

    Vliegenthart, A D Bastiaan; Antoine, Daniel J; Dear, James W

    2015-09-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose is one of the most common causes of acute liver injury in the Western world. To improve patient care and reduce pressure on already stretched health care providers new biomarkers are needed that identify or exclude liver injury soon after an overdose of paracetamol is ingested. This review highlights the current state of paracetamol poisoning management and how novel biomarkers could improve patient care and save healthcare providers money. Based on the widely used concept of defining a target product profile, a target biomarker profile is proposed that identifies desirable and acceptable key properties for a biomarker in development to enable the improved treatment of this patient population. The current biomarker candidates, with improved hepatic specificity and based on the fundamental mechanistic basis of paracetamol-induced liver injury, are reviewed and their performance compared with our target profile.

  2. Serum Biomarkers Identification by Mass Spectrometry in High-Mortality Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tessitore, Alessandra; Gaggiano, Agata; Cicciarelli, Germana; Verzella, Daniela; Capece, Daria; Fischietti, Mariafausta; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Alesse, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    Cancer affects millions of people worldwide. Tumor mortality is substantially due to diagnosis at stages that are too late for therapies to be effective. Advances in screening methods have improved the early diagnosis, prognosis, and survival for some cancers. Several validated biomarkers are currently used to diagnose and monitor the progression of cancer, but none of them shows adequate specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value for population screening. So, there is an urgent need to isolate novel sensitive, specific biomarkers to detect the disease early and improve prognosis, especially in high-mortality tumors. Proteomic techniques are powerful tools to help in diagnosis and monitoring of treatment and progression of the disease. During the last decade, mass spectrometry has assumed a key role in most of the proteomic analyses that are focused on identifying cancer biomarkers in human serum, making it possible to identify and characterize at the molecular level many proteins or peptides differentially expressed. In this paper we summarize the results of mass spectrometry serum profiling and biomarker identification in high mortality tumors, such as ovarian, liver, lung, and pancreatic cancer. PMID:23401773

  3. A Novel Panel of Serum Biomarkers for MPM Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Foddis, R.; Landi, S.; Melaiu, O.; De Santi, C.; Giusti, L.; Donadio, E.; Ciregia, F.; Mazzoni, M. R.; Lucacchini, A.; Bovenzi, M.; Comar, M.; Pantani, E.; Pistelli, A.; Cristaudo, A.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos is the main cause of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a highly aggressive cancer of the pleura. Since the only tools for early detection are based on radiological tests, some authors focused on serum markers (i.e., mesothelin). The aim of this study was the evaluation of new serum biomarkers to be used individually or in combination, in order to improve the outcome of patients whose disease would be diagnosed at an earlier stage. Serum and plasma were available from 43 subjects previously exposed to asbestos and 27 MPM patients, all being epithelioid type. All the new markers found differentially expressed in MPM and healthy subjects, by proteomic and genomic approaches, have been validated in the serum by the use of specific ELISA. The combined approach, using tools of genomics and proteomics, is found to be highly innovative for this type of disease and led to the identification of new serum markers in the diagnosis of MPM. These results, if confirmed in a larger series, may have a strong impact in this area, because early detection of this cancer in people at high risk could significantly improve the course of the disease and the clinical approach to an individualized therapy. PMID:28348450

  4. Colorectal cancer detection using targeted serum metabolic profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiangjiang; Djukovic, Danijel; Deng, Lingli; Gu, Haiwei; Himmati, Farhan; Chiorean, E Gabriela; Raftery, Daniel

    2014-09-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers in the world. Despite an expanding knowledge of its molecular pathogenesis during the past two decades, robust biomarkers to enable screening, surveillance, and therapy monitoring of CRC are still lacking. In this study, we present a targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling approach for identifying biomarker candidates that could enable highly sensitive and specific CRC detection using human serum samples. In this targeted approach, 158 metabolites from 25 metabolic pathways of potential significance were monitored in 234 serum samples from three groups of patients (66 CRC patients, 76 polyp patients, and 92 healthy controls). Partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were established, which proved to be powerful for distinguishing CRC patients from both healthy controls and polyp patients. Receiver operating characteristic curves generated based on these PLS-DA models showed high sensitivities (0.96 and 0.89, respectively, for differentiating CRC patients from healthy controls or polyp patients), good specificities (0.80 and 0.88), and excellent areas under the curve (0.93 and 0.95). Monte Carlo cross validation was also applied, demonstrating the robust diagnostic power of this metabolic profiling approach.

  5. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING TO IDENTIFY BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    SOT 2005 SESSION ABSTRACT

    GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING TO IDENTIFY BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    David J. Dix. National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  6. Sex-specific serum biomarker patterns in adults with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, E; Guest, P C; Rahmoune, H; Wang, L; Levin, Y; Ingudomnukul, E; Ruta, L; Kent, L; Spain, M; Baron-Cohen, S; Bahn, S

    2011-12-01

    Autism spectrum conditions have been hypothesized to be an exaggeration of normal male low-empathizing and high-systemizing behaviors. We tested this hypothesis at the molecular level by performing comprehensive multi-analyte profiling of blood serum from adult subjects with Asperger's syndrome (AS) compared with controls. This led to identification of distinct sex-specific biomarker fingerprints for male and female subjects. Males with AS showed altered levels of 24 biomarkers including increased levels of cytokines and other inflammatory molecules. Multivariate statistical classification of males using this panel of 24 biomarkers revealed a marked separation between AS and controls with a sensitivity of 0.86 and specificity of 0.88. Testing this same panel in females did not result in a separation between the AS and control groups. In contrast, AS females showed altered levels of 17 biomarkers including growth factors and hormones such as androgens, growth hormone and insulin-related molecules. Classification of females using this biomarker panel resulted in a separation between AS and controls with sensitivities and specificities of 0.96 and 0.83, respectively, and testing this same panel in the male group did not result in a separation between the AS and control groups. The finding of elevated testosterone in AS females confirmed predictions from the 'extreme male brain' and androgen theories of autism spectrum conditions. We conclude that to understand the etiology and development of autism spectrum conditions, stratification by sex is essential.

  7. Serum Leptin Is a Biomarker of Malnutrition in Decompensated Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Rachakonda, Vikrant; Borhani, Amir A.; Dunn, Michael A.; Andrzejewski, Margaret; Martin, Kelly; Behari, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Malnutrition is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. There is no consensus as to the optimal approach for identifying malnutrition in end-stage liver disease. The aim of this study was to measure biochemical, serologic, hormonal, radiographic, and anthropometric features in a cohort of hospitalized cirrhotic patients to characterize biomarkers for identification of malnutrition. Design In this prospective observational cohort study, 52 hospitalized cirrhotic patients were classified as malnourished (42.3%) or nourished (57.7%) based on mid-arm muscle circumference < 23 cm and dominant handgrip strength < 30 kg. Anthropometric measurements were obtained. Appetite was assessed using the Simplified Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) score. Fasting levels of serum adipokines, cytokines, and hormones were determined using Luminex assays. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine features independently associated with malnutrition. Results Subjects with and without malnutrition differed in several key features of metabolic phenotype including wet and dry BMI, skeletal muscle index, visceral fat index and HOMA-IR. Serum leptin levels were lower and INR was higher in malnourished subjects. Serum leptin was significantly correlated with HOMA-IR, wet and dry BMI, mid-arm muscle circumference, skeletal muscle index, and visceral fat index. Logistic regression analysis revealed that INR and log-transformed leptin were independently associated with malnutrition. Conclusions Low serum leptin and elevated INR are associated with malnutrition in hospitalized patients with end-stage liver disease. PMID:27583675

  8. A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Matthew J; Kraemer, William J; Love, Dawn M; Avery, Neva G; Gómez, Ana L; Scheett, Timothy P; Volek, Jeff S

    2002-07-01

    Very low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets are popular yet little is known regarding the effects on serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examined the effects of a 6-wk ketogenic diet on fasting and postprandial serum biomarkers in 20 normal-weight, normolipidemic men. Twelve men switched from their habitual diet (17% protein, 47% carbohydrate and 32% fat) to a ketogenic diet (30% protein, 8% carbohydrate and 61% fat) and eight control subjects consumed their habitual diet for 6 wk. Fasting blood lipids, insulin, LDL particle size, oxidized LDL and postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) and insulin responses to a fat-rich meal were determined before and after treatment. There were significant decreases in fasting serum TAG (-33%), postprandial lipemia after a fat-rich meal (-29%), and fasting serum insulin concentrations (-34%) after men consumed the ketogenic diet. Fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL were unaffected and HDL cholesterol tended to increase with the ketogenic diet (+11.5%; P = 0.066). In subjects with a predominance of small LDL particles pattern B, there were significant increases in mean and peak LDL particle diameter and the percentage of LDL-1 after the ketogenic diet. There were no significant changes in blood lipids in the control group. To our knowledge this is the first study to document the effects of a ketogenic diet on fasting and postprandial CVD biomarkers independent of weight loss. The results suggest that a short-term ketogenic diet does not have a deleterious effect on CVD risk profile and may improve the lipid disorders characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  9. Ultrasensitive rapid detection of human serum antibody biomarkers by biomarker-capturing viral nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yicun; Ju, Zhigang; Cao, Binrui; Gao, Xiang; Zhu, Ye; Qiu, Penghe; Xu, Hong; Pan, Pengtao; Bao, Huizheng; Wang, Li; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection causes high mortality rates within cancer patients. Due to the low sensitivity of the current diagnosis systems, a new sensitive detection method is needed for its diagnosis. Toward this end, here we exploited the capability of genetically displaying two functional peptides, one responsible for recognizing the biomarker for the infection (antisecreted aspartyl proteinase 2 IgG antibody) in the sera of cancer patients and another for binding magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), on a single filamentous fd phage, a human-safe bacteria-specific virus. The resultant phage is first decorated with MNPs and then captures the biomarker from the sera. The phage-bound biomarker is then magnetically enriched and biochemically detected. This method greatly increases the sensitivity and specificity of the biomarker detection. The average detection time for each serum sample is only about 6 h, much shorter than the clinically used gold standard method, which takes about 1 week. The detection limit of our nanobiotechnological method is approximately 1.1 pg/mL, about 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the traditional antigen-based method, opening up a new avenue to virus-based disease diagnosis.

  10. Plasma Biomarker Discovery Using 3D Protein Profiling Coupled with Label-Free Quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Lynn A.; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Speicher, David W.

    2011-01-01

    In-depth quantitative profiling of human plasma samples for biomarker discovery remains quite challenging. One promising alternative to chemical derivatization with stable isotope labels for quantitative comparisons is direct, label-free, quantitative comparison of raw LC–MS data. But, in order to achieve high-sensitivity detection of low-abundance proteins, plasma proteins must be extensively pre-fractionated, and results from LC–MS runs of all fractions must be integrated efficiently in order to avoid misidentification of variations in fractionation from sample to sample as “apparent” biomarkers. This protocol describes a powerful 3D protein profiling method for comprehensive analysis of human serum or plasma proteomes, which combines abundant protein depletion and high-sensitivity GeLC–MS/MS with label-free quantitation of candidate biomarkers. PMID:21468938

  11. Serum Amyloid A as a Biomarker for Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sproull, Mary; Kramp, Tamalee; Tandle, Anita; Shankavaram, Uma; Camphausen, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for minimally invasive biomarkers that can accurately and quickly quantify radiation exposure. Radiation-responsive proteins have applications in clinical medicine and for mass population screenings after a nuclear or radiological incident where the level of radiation exposure and exposure pattern complicate medical triage for first responders. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) as a biomarker for radiation exposure using plasma from irradiated mice. Ten-week-old female C57BL6 mice received a 1–8 Gy single whole-body or partial-body dose from a Pantak X-ray source at a dose rate of 2.28 Gy/min. Plasma was collected by mandibular or cardiac puncture at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h or 1–3 weeks postirradiation. SAA levels were determined using a commercially available ELISA assay. Data was pooled to generate SAA μg/ml threshold values correlating plasma SAA levels with radiation dose. SAA levels were statistically significant over control at all exposures between 2 and 8 Gy at 24 h postirradiation but not at 6, 48 and 72 h or 1–3 weeks postirradiation. SAA levels at 1 Gy were not significantly elevated over control at all time points. Total-body-irradiated (TBI) SAA levels at 24 h were used to generate a dose prediction model that successfully differentiated TBI mice into dose received cohorts of control/1 Gy and ≥2 Gy groups with a high degree of accuracy in a blind study. Dose prediction of partial-body exposures based on the TBI model correlated increasing predictive accuracy with percentage of body exposure to radiation. Our findings indicate that plasma SAA levels might be a useful biomarker for radiation exposure in a variety of total- and partial-body irradiation settings. PMID:26114330

  12. Identification of A Panel of Serum microRNAs as Biomarkers for Early Detection of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shaogang; Xue, Jian; Wu, Chuanyong; Wang, Lin; Wu, Jing; Xu, Shujun; Liang, Xiaohui; Lou, Jiatao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Since currently no sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection of lung adenocarcinoma (AD) exist and the majority of AD patients are diagnosed at late stages of disease, the development of effective screening tests for early-stage lung AD is urgently needed. Serum microRNAs (miRNAs) have been documented as novel noninvasive biomarkers in tumor diagnosis; thus, we studied the profile of serum miRNA in AD patients in order to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs as potential biomarkers for early detection of AD. Patients and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 180 AD patients and 180 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Serum miRNA profiling was performed by low-density array (LDA) using RNA extracted from blood samples of 20 patients and 20 controls. To validate the selected miRNAs, a stem-loop based RT-qPCR assay was used and serum samples from 160 patients and 160 controls were examined. Results: Profiling data showed 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in the serum samples from AD patients compared with the controls. Among them, 6 selected miRNAs in AD patients, including miR-103, miR-146a, miR-151, miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-223, were validated by RT-qPCR. In particular, the top three, miR-146a, miR-222, and miR-223, were confirmed to be significantly expressed in stage I/II AD patients compared with healthy controls. Conclusion: A panel of miRNAs with miR-146a, miR-222 and miR-223 could be used as potential noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of AD. PMID:28123597

  13. Biomarker identification and pathway analysis of preeclampsia based on serum metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; He, Ping; Tan, Yong; Xu, Dongying

    2017-02-07

    Preeclampsia presents serious risk of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers for the detection of preeclampsia are critical for risk assessment and targeted intervention. The goal of this study is to screen potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of preeclampsia and to illuminate the pathogenesis of preeclampsia development based on the differential expression network. Two groups of subjects, including healthy pregnant women, subjects with preeclampsia, were recruited for this study. The metabolic profiles of all of the subjects' serum were obtained by liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Correlation between metabolites was analyzed by bioinformatics technique. Results showed that the PC(14:0/00), proline betaine and proline were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for preeclampsia diagnosis and prognosis. Perturbation of corresponding biological pathways, such as iNOS signaling, nitric oxide signaling in the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial dysfunction were responsible for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study indicated that the metabolic profiling had a good clinical significance in the diagnosis of preeclampsia as well as in the study of its pathogenesis.

  14. Mass spectrum analysis of serum biomarker proteins from patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Na; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yaqin; Shi, Jieping; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Bin; Yu, Qiong

    2014-05-01

    Diagnosis of schizophrenia does not have a clear objective test at present, so we aimed to identify the potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of schizophrenia by comparison of serum protein profiling between first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. The combination of a magnetic bead separation system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) was used to analyze the serum protein spectra of 286 first-episode patients with schizophrenia, 41 chronic disease patients and 304 healthy controls. FlexAnlysis 3.0 and ClinProTools(TM) 2.1 software was used to establish a diagnostic model for schizophrenia. The results demonstrated that 10 fragmented peptides demonstrated an optimal discriminatory performance. Among these fragmented peptides, the peptide with m/z 1206.58 was identified as a fragment of fibrinopeptide A. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for m/z 1206.58 showed that the area under the curve was 0.981 for schizophrenia vs healthy controls, and 0.999 for schizophrenia vs other chronic disease controls. From our result, we consider that the analysis of serum protein spectrum using the magnetic bead separation system and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS is an objective diagnostic tool. We conclude that fibrinopeptide A has the potential to be a biomarker for diagnosis of schizophrenia. This protein may also help to elucidate schizophrenia disease pathogenesis.

  15. Serum Glycoproteome Profiles for Distinguishing Intestinal Fibrosis from Inflammation in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stidham, Ryan W.; Wu, Jing; Shi, Jiaqi; Lubman, David M.; Higgins, Peter D. R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reliable identification and quantitation of intestinal fibrosis in the setting of co-existing inflammation due to Crohn’s disease (CD) is difficult. We aimed to identify serum biomarkers which distinguish inflammatory from fibrostenotic phenotypes of CD using serum glycoproteome profiles. Methods Subjects with fibrostenotic and inflammation-predominant CD phenotypes (n = 20 per group) underwent comparison by quantitative serum glycoproteome profiles as part of a single tertiary care center cohort study. Following lectin elution, glycoproteins underwent liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Identified candidate biomarkers of fibrosis were also measured by serum ELISA, a widely available technique. Results Five (5) glycoproteins demonstrated a ≥20% relative abundance change in ≥80% of subjects, including cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA). COMP (431.7±112.7 vs. 348.7±90.5 ng/mL, p = 0.012) and HGFA (152.7±66.5 vs. 107.1±38.7 ng/mL, p = 0.031) serum levels were elevated in the fibrostenotic vs. inflammatory CD groups using ELISA. Within the fibrostenotic group, intra-individual changes of candidate biomarkers revealed HGFA levels significantly declined following the resection of all diseased intestine (152.7±66.5 vs. 107.1±38.7 ng/mL, p = 0.015); COMP levels were unchanged. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of COMP in the submucosa and muscularis of resected fibrostenotic tissue. Conclusions In this biomarker discovery study, several serum glycoproteins, specifically COMP and HGFA, differ between between predominately inflammatory and fibrostenotic CD phenotypes. The development of blood-based biomarkers of fibrosis would provide an important complement to existing prognostic tools in IBD, aiding decisions on therapeutic intensity and mechanism selection, surgery, and the monitoring of future anti-fibrotic therapies for CD. PMID:28114331

  16. An approach to remove albumin for the proteomic analysis of low abundance biomarkers in human serum.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nuzhat; Barker, Gillian; Oliva, Karen; Garfin, David; Talmadge, Kenneth; Georgiou, Harry; Quinn, Michael; Rice, Greg

    2003-10-01

    Proteomic technologies are being used to discover and identify disease-associated biomarkers. The application of these technologies in the search for potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in the serum of patients has been limited by the presence of highly abundant albumin and immunoglobulins that constitute approximately 60-97% of the total serum proteins. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether treatment of human serum with Affi-Gel Blue alone or in combination with Protein A (Aurum serum protein mini kit, Bio-Rad) before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis removed high abundance proteins to allow the visualization of low abundant proteins. Serum samples were treated with either Affi-Gel Blue or Aurum kit and then subjected to 2-DE using 11 cm, pH 4-7 isoelectric focussing strips for the first dimension and 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for second dimension. Protein spots were visualized using a fluorescent protein dye (SYPRO Ruby, Bio-Rad). Comparison between treatment methods showed significant removal of albumin by both Affi-Gel Blue and Aurum kit and considerable differences in the protein profile of the gels after each treatment. Direct comparison between treatments revealed twenty-eight protein spots unique to Affi-Gel Blue while only two spots were unique after Aurum kit treatment. Unique spots in Affi-Gel Blue and Aurum kit treated serum were not visualized in untreated serum. Sixteen hours of Affi-Gel Blue treatment resulted in enhanced visualization of fifty-three protein spots by two-fold, thirty-one by five-fold, twelve by ten-fold and six by twenty-fold. In parallel after Aurum kit treatment two-, five-, ten- and twenty-fold enhancements of thirty, thirteen, eight and five protein spots, respectively, were observed. The pattern of increased visualization of protein spots with both treatment methods was similar. In conclusion, treatment of serum samples with Affi-Gel Blue or Aurum kit before

  17. Serological proteome analysis of dogs with breast cancer unveils common serum biomarkers with human counterparts.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Rahbarghazi, Reza

    2014-03-01

    Canine mammary tumor is being touted as a model for investigating the human breast cancer. Breast cancer of the both species has similar biological behavior, histopathologic characteristics, and metastatic pattern. In this study, we used the serological proteome analysis to detect autoantigens that elicit a humoral response in dogs with mammary tumor in order to identify serum biomarkers with potential usefulness as diagnostic markers and to better understand molecular mechanisms underlying canine breast cancer development. Protein extract from a cell line was subject to 2DE followed by Western blotting using sera from 15 dogs with mammary tumor and sera from 15 healthy control dogs. Immunoreactive autoantigens were subsequently identified by the MALDI-TOF MS. Four autoantigens, including manganese-superoxide dismutase, triose phosphate isomerase, alpha-enolase, and phosphoglycerate mutase1, with significantly higher immunoreactivity in the tumor samples than in the normal samples were identified as biomarker candidates. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting revealed higher expression of these biomarkers in the malignant tumors than in the normal or benign tumors. The autoantigens found in this study have been reported to elicit autoantibody response in the human breast cancer, indicating the similarity of breast cancer proteome profile in dogs with that in human beings.

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of serum microRNAs as biomarkers in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Regev, Keren; Paul, Anu; Healy, Brian; von Glenn, Felipe; Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Gholipour, Taha; Mazzola, Maria Antonietta; Raheja, Radhika; Nejad, Parham; Glanz, Bonnie I.; Kivisakk, Pia; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) linked to disease stage and disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Sera from 296 participants including patients with MS, other neurologic diseases (Alzheimer disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), and inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis and asthma) and healthy controls (HCs) were tested. miRNA profiles were determined using LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based quantitative PCR. Patients with MS were categorized according to disease stage and disability. In the discovery phase, 652 miRNAs were measured in sera from 26 patients with MS and 20 HCs. Following this, significant miRNAs (p < 0.05) from the discovery set were validated using quantitative PCR in 58 patients with MS, 30 HCs, and in 74 samples from other disease controls (Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis). Results: We validated 7 miRNAs that differentiate patients with MS from HCs (p < 0.05 in both the discovery and validation phase); miR-320a upregulation was the most significantly changing serum miRNA in patients with MS. We also identified 2 miRNAs linked to disease progression, with miR-27a-3p being the most significant. Ten miRNAs correlated with the Expanded Disability Status Scale of which miR.199a.5p had the strongest correlation with disability. Of the 15 unique miRNAs we identified in the different group comparisons, 12 have previously been reported to be associated with MS but not in serum. Conclusions: Our findings identify circulating serum miRNAs as potential biomarkers to diagnose and monitor disease status in MS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that circulating serum miRNAs can be used as biomarker for MS. PMID:27606352

  19. Quantification of nerve agent biomarkers in human serum and urine.

    PubMed

    Røen, Bent Tore; Sellevåg, Stig Rune; Lundanes, Elsa

    2014-12-02

    A novel method for rapid and sensitive quantification of the nerve agent metabolites ethyl, isopropyl, isobutyl, cyclohexyl, and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid has been established by combining salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and online solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The procedure allows confirmation of nerve agent exposure within 30 min from receiving a sample, with very low detection limits for the biomarkers of 0.04-0.12 ng/mL. Sample preparation by SALLE was performed in less than 10 min, with a common procedure for both serum and urine. Analyte recoveries of 70-100% were obtained using tetrahydrofuran as extraction solvent and Na2SO4 to achieve phase separation. After SALLE, selective analyte retention was obtained on a ZrO2 column by Lewis acid-base and hydrophilic interactions with acetonitrile/1% CH3COOH (82/18) as the loading mobile phase. The phosphonic acids were backflush-desorbed onto a polymeric zwitterionic column at pH 9.8 and separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. The method was linear (R(2) ≥ 0.995) from the limits of quantification to 50 ng/mL, and the within- and between-assay repeatability at 20 ng/mL were below 5% and 10% relative standard deviation, respectively.

  20. Identification of Biomarkers of Impaired Sensory Profiles among Autistic Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Ansary, Afaf; Hassan, Wail M.; Qasem, Hanan; Das, Undurti N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that displays significant heterogeneity. Comparison of subgroups within autism, and analyses of selected biomarkers as measure of the variation of the severity of autistic features such as cognitive dysfunction, social interaction impairment, and sensory abnormalities might help in understanding the pathophysiology of autism. Methods and Participants In this study, two sets of biomarkers were selected. The first included 7, while the second included 6 biomarkers. For set 1, data were collected from 35 autistic and 38 healthy control participants, while for set 2, data were collected from 29 out of the same 35 autistic and 16 additional healthy subjects. These markers were subjected to a principal components analysis using either covariance or correlation matrices. Moreover, libraries composed of participants categorized into units were constructed. The biomarkers used include, PE (phosphatidyl ethanolamine), PS (phosphatidyl serine), PC (phosphatidyl choline), MAP2K1 (Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1), IL-10 (interleukin-10), IL-12, NFκB (nuclear factor-κappa B); PGE2 (prostaglandin E2), PGE2-EP2, mPGES-1 (microsomal prostaglandin synthase E-1), cPLA2 (cytosolic phospholipase A2), 8-isoprostane, and COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2). Results While none of the studied markers correlated with CARS and SRS as measure of cognitive and social impairments, six markers significantly correlated with sensory profiles of autistic patients. Multiple regression analysis identifies a combination of PGES, mPGES-1, and PE as best predictors of the degree of sensory profile impairment. Library identification resulted in 100% correct assignments of both autistic and control participants based on either set 1 or 2 biomarkers together with a satisfactory rate of assignments in case of sensory profile impairment using different sets of biomarkers. Conclusion The two selected sets of biomarkers were effective to

  1. Comparative protein profiling of serum and plasma using an antibody suspension bead array approach.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Jochen M; Igel, Ulrika; Kato, Bernet S; Nicholson, George; Karpe, Fredrik; Uhlén, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter

    2010-02-01

    In the pursuit towards a systematic analysis of human diseases, array-based approaches within antibody proteomics offer high-throughput strategies to discover protein biomarkers in serum and plasma. To investigate the influence of sample preparation on such discovery attempts, we report on a systematic effort to compare serum and plasma protein profiles determined with an antibody suspension bead array. The intensity levels were used to define protein profiles and no significant differences between serum and plasma were observed for 79% of the 174 antibodies (targeting 156 proteins). By excluding 36 antibodies giving rise to differential intensity levels, cluster analysis revealed donor-specific rather than preparation-dependent grouping. With a cohort from a clinically relevant medical condition, the metabolic syndrome, the influence of the sample type on a multiplexed biomarker discovery approach was further investigated. Independent comparisons of protein profiles in serum and plasma revealed an antibody targeting ADAMTSL-4, a protein that would qualify to be studied further in association with the condition. In general, the preparation type had an impact on the results of the applied antibody suspension bead array, and while the technical variability was equal, plasma offered a greater biological variability and allowed to give rise to more discoveries than serum.

  2. Do the serum oxidative stress biomarkers provide a reasonable index of the general oxidative stress status?

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Sandro; García, Sonia; Maldonado, Mariam; Machado, Alberto; Ayala, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    The oxidant status of an individual is assessed by determining a group of markers in noninvasive samples. One limitation when measuring these biomarkers is that they do not give information about tissue localization of oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to establish whether the serum oxidative stress biomarkers are indicative of oxidative stress in tissues of an individual. To accomplish this, we determined a few generic markers of oxidation in serum and tissues of six groups of rats treated experimentally, to modulate their oxidative stress status. The correlation between serum and tissue levels was calculated for each marker. Also, for each tissue, the correlation between the values of these oxidative stress biomarkers was analysed. Our results show that only lipid peroxides in serum could be useful to predict the oxidative stress in tissues. No correlation was found between any of the oxidative stress markers in serum.

  3. DOES LOWER SUBJECTIVE SOCIAL STATUS YIELD RISKIER BIOMARKER PROFILES?

    PubMed

    Gersten, Omer; Timiras, Paola S; Boyce, W Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Both objective and, more recently, subjective measures of low social status have been linked to poor health outcomes. It is unclear, however, through which precise physiological mechanisms such standing may influence health, although it has been proposed that those of lower status may have biomarker profiles that are more dysregulated (and hence pose a greater risk for poorer health). The main objective of this study was to investigate whether lower subjective social standing is associated with riskier neuroendocrine biomarker profiles. Data were from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS), a nationally representative survey of Taiwanese men and women (ages 54-91) conducted in Taiwan in 2000. Five neuroendocrine markers (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine) were analysed both separately and collectively in an index termed neuroendocrine allostatic load (NAL) in relation to status - both self-reported and as measured through objective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators. For the biomarker DHEAS, some connection was found between its levels and the measures of status, but for the other markers and the NAL index almost no connection was found. The overall negative finding of this paper would be further supported with more and different measures of neuroendocrine system function and a reordering of the subjective social status questions in the survey such that the one probing about status in the community (that has no prompt) was asked before the one probing about status in all of Taiwan (which has a SES prompt).

  4. Identification of Pathway-Specific Serum Biomarkers of Response to Glucocorticoid and Infliximab Treatment in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heier, Christopher R; Fiorillo, Alyson A; Chaisson, Ellen; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hathout, Yetrib; Damsker, Jesse M; Hoffman, Eric P; Conklin, Laurie S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Serum biomarkers may serve to predict early response to therapy, identify relapse, and facilitate drug development in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Biomarkers are particularly important in children, in whom achieving early remission and minimizing procedures are especially beneficial. Methods: We profiled protein and micro RNA (miRNA) in serum from patients pre- and post-therapy, to identify molecular markers of pharmacodynamic effect. Serum was obtained from children with IBD before and after treatment with either corticosteroids (prednisone; n=12) or anti-tumor necrosis factor-α biologic (infliximab; n=7). Over 1,100 serum proteins were assayed using aptamer-based SOMAscan proteomics, and 22 miRNAs analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. Concordance of longitudinal changes between the groups was used to identify markers responsive to treatment. Bioinformatic analysis was used to build insight into mechanisms of changes in response to treatment. Results: We identified 18 proteins and three miRNAs responsive to both prednisone and infliximab. Eight markers that decreased are associated with inflammation and have gene promoters regulated by nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Several that increased are associated with resolving inflammation and tissue damage. We also identified six markers that appear to be steroid-specific, three of which have glucocorticoid receptor binding elements in their promoter region. Conclusions: Serum markers regulated by the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB are potential candidates for pharmacodynamic biomarkers that, if correlated with later outcomes like endoscopic or histologic healing, could be used to monitor treatment, optimize dosing, and enhance drug development. The pharmacodynamic biomarkers identified here hold potential to improve both clinical care and drug development. Further studies are warranted to investigate these markers as early predictors of response, or possibly surrogate outcomes. PMID:27628422

  5. Serum proteomic analysis reveals potential serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis caused by trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peiwu; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wenxu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Wei; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Linqing; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Li; Li, Xuan; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent with widespread occupational exposure and also a major environmental contaminant. Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become one major hazard in China. In this study, sera from 3 healthy controls and 3 OMLDT patients at different disease stages were used for a screening study by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Eight proteins including transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), haptoglobin, clusterin, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-III and apolipoprotein C-II were found to be significantly altered among the healthy, acute-stage, healing-stage and healed-stage groups. Specifically, the altered expression of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin were further validated by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Our data not only suggested that TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin could serve as potential serum biomarkers of OMLDT, but also indicated that measurement of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin or their combination could help aid in the diagnosis, monitoring the progression and therapy of the disease.

  6. Metabolomics evidences plasma and serum biomarkers differentiating two heavy pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Bovo, S; Mazzoni, G; Galimberti, G; Calò, D G; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Schiavo, G; Manisi, A; Trevisi, P; Bosi, P; Dall'Olio, S; Pagotto, U; Fontanesi, L

    2016-10-01

    In pigs, many production traits are known to vary among breeds or lines. These traits can be considered end phenotypes or external traits as they are the final results of complex biological interactions and processes whose fine biological mechanisms are still largely unknown. This study was designed to compare plasma and serum metabolomic profiles between animals of two heavy pig breeds (12 Italian Large White and 12 Italian Duroc), testing indirectly the hypothesis that different genetic backgrounds might be the determining factors of differences observed on the level of metabolites in the analyzed biofluids between breeds. We used a targeted metabolomic approach based on mass spectrometric detection of about 180 metabolites and applied a statistical validation pipeline to identify differences in the metabolomic profiles of the two heavy pig breeds. Blood samples were collected after jugulation at the slaughterhouse and prepared for metabolomics analysis that was carried out using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit, covering five different biochemical classes: glycerophospholipids, amino acids, biogenic amines, hexoses and acylcarnitines. A statistical pipeline that included the selection of the most relevant metabolites differentiating the two breeds by sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA) was coupled with a stability test and significance test determined with leave one out and permutation procedures. sPLS-DA plots clearly separated the pigs of the two investigated breeds. A few metabolites (a total of five metabolites considering the two biofluids) involved in key metabolic pathways largely contributed to these differences between breeds. In particular, a higher level of the sphingomyelins SM (OH) C14:1 (both in plasma and serum), SM (OH) C16:1 (in serum) and SM C16:0 (in serum) were observed in Italian Duroc than in Italian Large White pigs and the inverse was for the biogenic amine kynurenine (in plasma). The level of another biogenic

  7. Identification of serum proteomic biomarkers for early porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant swine diseases worldwide. Despite its relevance, serum biomarkers associated with early-onset viral infection, when clinical signs are not detectable and the disease is characterized by a weak anti-viral response and persistent infection, have not yet been identified. Surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) is a reproducible, accurate, and simple method for the identification of biomarker proteins related to disease in serum. This work describes the SELDI-TOF MS analyses of sera of 60 PRRSV-positive and 60 PRRSV-negative, as measured by PCR, asymptomatic Large White piglets at weaning. Sera with comparable and low content of hemoglobin (< 4.52 μg/mL) were fractionated in 6 different fractions by anion-exchange chromatography and protein profiles in the mass range 1–200 kDa were obtained with the CM10, IMAC30, and H50 surfaces. Results A total of 200 significant peaks (p < 0.05) were identified in the initial discovery phase of the study and 47 of them were confirmed in the validation phase. The majority of peaks (42) were up-regulated in PRRSV-positive piglets, while 5 were down-regulated. A panel of 14 discriminatory peaks identified in fraction 1 (pH = 9), on the surface CM10, and acquired at low focus mass provided a serum protein profile diagnostic pattern that enabled to discriminate between PRRSV-positive and -negative piglets with a sensitivity and specificity of 77% and 73%, respectively. Conclusions SELDI-TOF MS profiling of sera from PRRSV-positive and PRRSV-negative asymptomatic piglets provided a proteomic signature with large scale diagnostic potential for early identification of PRRSV infection in weaning piglets. Furthermore, SELDI-TOF protein markers represent a refined phenotype of PRRSV infection that might be useful for whole genome association studies. PMID:22873815

  8. Metallomic Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal fluid and Serum in patients with Parkinson’s disease in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Jaya; Ahmed, Shiek S. S. J.; Ng, Hon Keung Tony; Naiya, Tufan; Ghosh, Epsita; Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Lakshmi, Jaya; Guha, Gautam; Rao, Vadlamudi Raghavendra

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with the absence of markers for diagnosis. Several studies on PD reported the elements imbalance in biofluids as biomarkers. However, their results remained inconclusive. This study integrates metallomics, multivariate and artificial neural network (ANN) to understand element variations in CSF and serum of PD patients from the largest cohort of Indian population to solve the inconsistent results of previous studies. Also, this study is aimed to (1) ascertain a common element signature between CSF and serum. (2) Assess cross sectional element variation with clinical symptoms. (3) Develop ANN models for rapid diagnosis. A metallomic profile of 110 CSF and 530 serum samples showed significant variations in 10 elements of CSF and six in serum of patients compared to controls. Consistent variations in elements pattern were noticed for Calcium, Magnesium and Iron in both the fluids of PD, which provides feasible diagnosis from serum. Furthermore, implementing multivariate analyses showed clear classification between normal and PD in both the fluids. Also, ANN provides 99% accuracy in detection of disease from CSF and serum. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that elements profile in biofluids of PD will be useful in development of diagnostic markers for PD. PMID:27752066

  9. Analysis of gene expression profile identifies potential biomarkers for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Luran; Liu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Zhuobo; Du, Yaojun; Zhao, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify potential biomarkers for atherosclerosis via analysis of gene expression profiles. The microarray dataset no. GSE20129 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 118 samples from the peripheral blood of female patients was used, including 47 atherosclerotic and 71 non-atherosclerotic patients. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the atherosclerosis samples were identified using the Limma package. Gene ontology term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses for DEGs were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery tool. The recursive feature elimination (RFE) algorithm was applied for feature selection via iterative classification, and support vector machine classifier was used for the validation of prediction accuracy. A total of 430 DEGs in the atherosclerosis samples were identified, including 149 up- and 281 downregulated genes. Subsequently, the RFE algorithm was used to identify 11 biomarkers, whose receiver operating characteristic curves had an area under curve of 0.92, indicating that the identified 11 biomarkers were representative. The present study indicated that APH1B, JAM3, FBLN2, CSAD and PSTPIP2 may have important roles in the progression of atherosclerosis in females and may be potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis as well as treatment targets for this disease. PMID:27573188

  10. Serum thiols as a biomarker of disease activity in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Pritesh; de Souza, Giselle Katiane Bonfim Bacelar; de Lima, Domingos Savio Nunes; Passos, Luiz Fernando Souza; Boechat, Antonio Luiz; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2015-01-01

    Lupus Nephritis (LN) develops in more than half of the Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) patients. However, lack of reliable, specific biomarkers for LN hampers clinical management of patients and impedes development of new therapeutics. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with SLE is predictive of renal pathology. Serum biochemical and oxidative stress markers were measured in patients with inactive lupus, active lupus with and without nephritis and compared to healthy control group. To assess the predictive performance of biomarkers, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and cut-offs were used to identify SLE patients with nephritis. We observed an increased oxidative stress response in all SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Among the several biomarkers tested, serum thiols had a significant inverse association with SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Interestingly, thiols were able too aptly differentiate between SLE patients with and without renal pathology, and serum thiol levels were not affected by immunosuppressive drug therapy. The decreased thiols in SLE correlated significantly with serum creatinine and serum C3 levels. Further retrospective evaluation using serum creatinine or C3 levels in combination with thiol's cutoff values from ROC analysis, we could positively predict chronicity of renal pathology in SLE patients. In summary, serum thiols emerge as an inexpensive and reliable indicator of LN, which may not only help in early identification of renal pathology but also aid in the therapeutic management of the disease, in developing countries with resource poor settings.

  11. Evaluation of TKTL1 as a biomarker in serum of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Thurn, Kristina; Juengel, Eva; Oppermann, Elsie; Nelson, Karen; Thomas, Christian; Bartsch, Georg; Oremek, Gerhard M.; Haferkamp, Axel; Rubenwolf, Peter; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Monocyte associated transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) as a cancer biomarker has become popular with alternative practitioners, but plays no role in conventional medicine. This investigation evaluates the potential of serum TKTL1 as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Material and methods Patients (n = 66) undergoing curative radical prostatectomy (RPE) for biopsy-pro-ven PCa were included in the study. Controls (n = 10) were healthy, age-matched, male volunteers. 10 ml of peripheral blood was drawn from patients several days before surgery and from controls. Serum TKTL1 was measured using the ELISA method. Results The median age at tumor diagnosis was 66 years and median serum PSA was 8.0 ng/ml. Nearly 96% of PCas submitted to surgery were clinically significant. Compared to healthy controls, serum TKTL1 was significantly lower in PCa patients (p = 0.0001, effect size indicator r = Z/sqr(n) = 0.4179). No correlation was apparent between serum TKTL1 and serum PSA, Gleason sum, tumor stage or further clinical and pathologic parameters. Conclusions Reduced serum TKTL1 in PCa patients stands in opposition to TKTL1 epitope detection in monocytes (EDIM) based studies, whereby increased TKTL1 in monocytes of tumor patients has been reported. Since serum TKTL1 does not correlate with clinical parameters in the current investigation, further research is needed to clarify whether serum TKTL1 has potential as a biomarker for PCa. PMID:27729989

  12. Human serum metabolic profiles are age dependent

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhonghao; Zhai, Guangju; Singmann, Paula; He, Ying; Xu, Tao; Prehn, Cornelia; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Lattka, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Soranzo, Nicole; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Mittelstraß, Kirstin; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Peters, Annette; Suhre, Karsten; Li, Yixue; Adamski, Jerzy; Spector, Tim D; Illig, Thomas; Wang-Sattler, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of aging is of utmost importance. This can now be addressed by the novel and powerful approach of metabolomics. However, to date, only a few metabolic studies based on large samples are available. Here, we provide novel and specific information on age-related metabolite concentration changes in human homeostasis. We report results from two population-based studies: the KORA F4 study from Germany as a discovery cohort, with 1038 female and 1124 male participants (32–81 years), and the TwinsUK study as replication, with 724 female participants. Targeted metabolomics of fasting serum samples quantified 131 metabolites by FIA-MS/MS. Among these, 71/34 metabolites were significantly associated with age in women/men (BMI adjusted). We further identified a set of 13 independent metabolites in women (with P values ranging from 4.6 × 10−04 to 7.8 × 10−42, αcorr = 0.004). Eleven of these 13 metabolites were replicated in the TwinsUK study, including seven metabolite concentrations that increased with age (C0, C10:1, C12:1, C18:1, SM C16:1, SM C18:1, and PC aa C28:1), while histidine decreased. These results indicate that metabolic profiles are age dependent and might reflect different aging processes, such as incomplete mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. The use of metabolomics will increase our understanding of aging networks and may lead to discoveries that help enhance healthy aging. PMID:22834969

  13. Serum Bone Biomarkers and Oral/Systemic Bone Loss in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Payne, J.B.; Stoner, J.A.; Lee, H.-M.; Nummikoski, P.V.; Reinhardt, R.A.; Golub, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline (SDD) significantly reduced serum bone-resorption biomarkers in subgroups of post-menopausal women. We hypothesize that changes in serum bone biomarkers are associated not only with systemic bone mineral density (BMD) changes, but also with alveolar bone changes over time. One hundred twenty-eight eligible post-menopausal women with periodontitis and systemic osteopenia were randomly assigned to receive SDD or placebo tablets twice daily for two years, adjunctive to periodontal maintenance. Sera were analyzed for bone biomarkers. As expected, two-year changes in a serum bone biomarker were significantly associated with systemic BMD loss at the lumbar spine (osteocalcin, bone-turnover biomarker, p = 0.0002) and femoral neck (osteocalcin p = 0.0025). Two-year changes in serum osteocalcin and serum pyridinoline-crosslink fragment of type I collagen (ICTP; bone-resorption biomarker) were also significantly associated with alveolar bone density loss (p < 0.0001) and alveolar bone height loss (p = 0.0008), respectively. Thus, we have shown that serum bone biomarkers are associated with not only systemic BMD loss, but with alveolar bone loss as well. Clinical Trial Registration Information: Protocol registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00066027. Abbreviations: bone mineral density (BMD), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), computer-assisted densitometric image analysis (CADIA), confidence interval (CI), deoxypyridinoline-containing degradation fragment of the C-terminal telopeptide region of type I collagen (CTX), coefficient of variation (CV), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), pyridinoline-crosslink-containing degradation fragment of the C-terminal telopeptide region of type I collagen (ICTP), and subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline (SDD). PMID:21422479

  14. Robust substrate profiling method reveals striking differences in specificities of serum and lung fluid proteases.

    PubMed

    Watson, Douglas S; Jambunathan, Kalyani; Askew, David S; Kodukula, Krishna; Galande, Amit K

    2011-08-01

    Proteases are candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets for many diseases. Sensitive and robust techniques are needed to quantify proteolytic activities within the complex biological milieu. We hypothesized that a combinatorial protease substrate library could be used effectively to identify similarities and differences between serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), two body fluids that are clinically important for developing targeted therapies and diagnostics. We used a concise library of fluorogenic probes to map the protease substrate specificities of serum and BALF from guinea pigs. Differences in the proteolytic fingerprints of the two fluids were striking: serum proteases cleaved substrates containing cationic residues and proline, whereas BALF proteases cleaved substrates containing aliphatic and aromatic residues. Notably, cleavage of proline-containing substrates dominated all other protease activities in both human and guinea pig serum. This substrate profiling approach provides a foundation for quantitative comparisons of protease specificities between complex biological samples.

  15. Serum Collagen Type II Cleavage Epitope and Serum Hyaluronic Acid as Biomarkers for Treatment Monitoring of Dogs with Hip Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, José M.; Rubio, Mónica; Spinella, Giuseppe; Cuervo, Belén; Sopena, Joaquín; Cugat, Ramón; Garcia-Balletbó, Montserrat; Dominguez, Juan M.; Granados, Maria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José J.; Carrillo, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serum type II collagen cleavage epitope and serum hyaluronic acid as biomarkers for treatment monitoring in osteoarthritic dogs. For this purpose, a treatment model based on mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue combined with plasma rich in growth factors was used. This clinical study included 10 dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Both analytes were measured in serum at baseline, just before applying the treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. These results were compared with those obtained from force plate analysis using the same animals during the same study period. Levels of type II collagen cleavage epitope decreased and those of hyaluronic acid increased with clinical improvement objectively verified via force plate analysis, suggesting these two biomarkers could be effective as indicators of clinical development of joint disease in dogs. PMID:26886592

  16. Serum Collagen Type II Cleavage Epitope and Serum Hyaluronic Acid as Biomarkers for Treatment Monitoring of Dogs with Hip Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vilar, José M; Rubio, Mónica; Spinella, Giuseppe; Cuervo, Belén; Sopena, Joaquín; Cugat, Ramón; Garcia-Balletbó, Montserrat; Dominguez, Juan M; Granados, Maria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José J; Carrillo, José M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serum type II collagen cleavage epitope and serum hyaluronic acid as biomarkers for treatment monitoring in osteoarthritic dogs. For this purpose, a treatment model based on mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue combined with plasma rich in growth factors was used. This clinical study included 10 dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Both analytes were measured in serum at baseline, just before applying the treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. These results were compared with those obtained from force plate analysis using the same animals during the same study period. Levels of type II collagen cleavage epitope decreased and those of hyaluronic acid increased with clinical improvement objectively verified via force plate analysis, suggesting these two biomarkers could be effective as indicators of clinical development of joint disease in dogs.

  17. Identification of novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by aptamer-based serum proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Coenen-Stass, Anna M. L.; McClorey, Graham; Manzano, Raquel; Betts, Corinne A.; Blain, Alison; Saleh, Amer F.; Gait, Michael J.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Roberts, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently an urgent need for biomarkers that can be used to monitor the efficacy of experimental therapies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in clinical trials. Identification of novel protein biomarkers has been limited due to the massive complexity of the serum proteome and the presence of a small number of very highly abundant proteins. Here we have utilised an aptamer-based proteomics approach to profile 1,129 proteins in the serum of wild-type and mdx (dystrophin deficient) mice. The serum levels of 96 proteins were found to be significantly altered (P < 0.001, q < 0.01) in mdx mice. Additionally, systemic treatment with a peptide-antisense oligonucleotide conjugate designed to induce Dmd exon skipping and recover dystrophin protein expression caused many of the differentially abundant serum proteins to be restored towards wild-type levels. Results for five leading candidate protein biomarkers (Pgam1, Tnni3, Camk2b, Cycs and Adamts5) were validated by ELISA in the mouse samples. Furthermore, ADAMTS5 was found to be significantly elevated in human DMD patient serum. This study has identified multiple novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in the serum of the mdx mouse with potential utility in DMD patients. PMID:26594036

  18. Identification of novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by aptamer-based serum proteomics.

    PubMed

    Coenen-Stass, Anna M L; McClorey, Graham; Manzano, Raquel; Betts, Corinne A; Blain, Alison; Saleh, Amer F; Gait, Michael J; Lochmüller, Hanns; Wood, Matthew J A; Roberts, Thomas C

    2015-11-23

    There is currently an urgent need for biomarkers that can be used to monitor the efficacy of experimental therapies for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in clinical trials. Identification of novel protein biomarkers has been limited due to the massive complexity of the serum proteome and the presence of a small number of very highly abundant proteins. Here we have utilised an aptamer-based proteomics approach to profile 1,129 proteins in the serum of wild-type and mdx (dystrophin deficient) mice. The serum levels of 96 proteins were found to be significantly altered (P < 0.001, q < 0.01) in mdx mice. Additionally, systemic treatment with a peptide-antisense oligonucleotide conjugate designed to induce Dmd exon skipping and recover dystrophin protein expression caused many of the differentially abundant serum proteins to be restored towards wild-type levels. Results for five leading candidate protein biomarkers (Pgam1, Tnni3, Camk2b, Cycs and Adamts5) were validated by ELISA in the mouse samples. Furthermore, ADAMTS5 was found to be significantly elevated in human DMD patient serum. This study has identified multiple novel, therapy-responsive protein biomarkers in the serum of the mdx mouse with potential utility in DMD patients.

  19. Serum adipokine profiles in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Saji, Tsutomu; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Tanaka, Nahoko; Nishimura, Chiaki; Ishiguro, Akira; Kawai, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    Adipokines are cytokines derived from adipose tissue. Recently it has been established that adipokines are closely linked to the pathophysiology of not only metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerosis, but also to inflammation and immune diseases. In this study we measured serum levels of adipokines in patients with acute Kawasaki disease to investigate the role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease. Serum resistin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a total of 117 subjects: 56 patients with acute Kawasaki disease, 30 healthy children, and 31 patients with acute infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease were significantly higher than those of healthy children and patients with acute infectious diseases. In contrast, mean serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease exhibited no statistically significant differences compared with those in healthy children and patients with infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels decreased significantly after administration of intravenous immune globulin. Serum resistin levels on admission were significantly higher in nonresponders compared with responders to intravenous immune globulin therapy. A multivariate model revealed that C-reactive protein was a factor that was significantly related to elevated serum resistin level in patients with Kawasaki disease. In patients with Kawasaki disease, serum resistin levels were elevated, but decreased to nearly normal after intravenous administration of immune globulin. In contrast, serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels showed no statistically significant changes. These findings suggest that resistin plays an important role, while other adipokines do not play a major role, in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease.

  20. Detection of cancer biomarkers in serum using a hybrid mechanical and optoplasmonic nanosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, P. M.; Pini, V.; Ruz, J. J.; da Silva, R. A.; González, M. U.; Ramos, D.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Blood contains a range of protein biomarkers that could be used in the early detection of disease. To achieve this, however, requires sensors capable of detecting (with high reproducibility) biomarkers at concentrations one million times lower than the concentration of the other blood proteins. Here, we show that a sandwich assay that combines mechanical and optoplasmonic transduction can detect cancer biomarkers in serum at ultralow concentrations. A biomarker is first recognized by a surface-anchored antibody and then by an antibody in solution that identifies a free region of the captured biomarker. This second antibody is tethered to a gold nanoparticle that acts as a mass and plasmonic label; the two signatures are detected by means of a silicon cantilever that serves as a mechanical resonator for ‘weighing’ the mass of the captured nanoparticles and as an optical cavity that boosts the plasmonic signal from the nanoparticles. The capabilities of the approach are illustrated with two cancer biomarkers: the carcinoembryonic antigen and the prostate specific antigen, which are currently in clinical use for the diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of colon and prostate cancer, respectively. A detection limit of 1 × 10-16 g ml-1 in serum is achieved with both biomarkers, which is at least seven orders of magnitude lower than that achieved in routine clinical practice. Moreover, the rate of false positives and false negatives at this concentration is extremely low, ˜10-4.

  1. Serum glycoprotein-derived N- and O-linked glycans as cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ying; Hao, Cui; Zeng, Xuan; He, Yanli; Zeng, Pengjiao; Guo, Zhihua; Zhang, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of cancer is the key to improving survival. Since most clinically used serum cancer biomarkers are either glycoproteins or glycan structures that can be recognized by specific monoclonal antibodies, developing glycan structure-based biomarkers from human serum/plasma glycoproteins through mass spectrometry (MS) analysis are active research field during the past decades. Numerous studies have shown that changes in serum/plasma glycan structures occur during cancer initiation, progression, and treatment. This review describes N- and O-linked glycan structures identified from serum/plasma glycoprotein (s) by MS analysis with focus on alterations associated with different types of human cancers. The global changes in serum N- and O-linked glycan structures, especially the glycans that are not made by cancer cells such as B lymphocyte-derived IgG and liver-synthesized haptoglobin and α1 acid glycoprotein, suggest that glycans might be the long sought diagnostic biomarkers associated with system malfunction in the blood circulation of cancer patients. Therefore, N- and O-linked glycan structures have great potential to serve as cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring biomarkers to facilitate personalized medicine. PMID:27904760

  2. Serum miR-300 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Dong; Xin, Qun; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Sun, Pei-Feng; Xu, Peng; Wu, Bing; Qu, Liang; Li, Shu-Zhong

    2016-11-01

    In order to determine whether microRNA (miR)-300 is a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in osteosarcoma, the miR-300 levels in serum of 114 osteosarcoma patients and 114 healthy controls were compared, followed by serum analysis of the differences between the pre-operative and post-operative sera of these osteosarcoma patients. It was observed that the concentration levels of miR-300 in the serum of osteosarcoma patients was significantly higher than those in the serum of healthy controls (P<0.01). Furthermore, the concentration levels of miR-300 in the post-operative serum were significantly reduced when compared with the pre-operative serum levels (P<0.001). High miR-300 levels in serum correlated significantly with clinical stage, distant metastasis and poor survival of osteosarcoma patients. Notably, serum miR-300 was an independent prognostic marker for osteosarcoma. In conclusion, our results suggested that serum miR-300 may be a potential and useful noninvasive biomarker for the early detection of osteosarcoma.

  3. Serum miR-300 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Dong; Xin, Qun; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Sun, Pei-Feng; Xu, Peng; Wu, Bing; Qu, Liang; Li, Shu-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine whether microRNA (miR)-300 is a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in osteosarcoma, the miR-300 levels in serum of 114 osteosarcoma patients and 114 healthy controls were compared, followed by serum analysis of the differences between the pre-operative and post-operative sera of these osteosarcoma patients. It was observed that the concentration levels of miR-300 in the serum of osteosarcoma patients was significantly higher than those in the serum of healthy controls (P<0.01). Furthermore, the concentration levels of miR-300 in the post-operative serum were significantly reduced when compared with the pre-operative serum levels (P<0.001). High miR-300 levels in serum correlated significantly with clinical stage, distant metastasis and poor survival of osteosarcoma patients. Notably, serum miR-300 was an independent prognostic marker for osteosarcoma. In conclusion, our results suggested that serum miR-300 may be a potential and useful noninvasive biomarker for the early detection of osteosarcoma. PMID:27895748

  4. Serum and urine biomarkers for human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pastore, A L; Palleschi, G; Silvestri, L; Moschese, D; Ricci, S; Petrozza, V; Carbone, A; Di Carlo, A

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosis is mostly achieved incidentally by imaging provided for unrelated clinical reasons. The surgical management of localized tumors has reported excellent results. The therapy of advanced RCC has evolved considerably over recent years with the widespread use of the so-called "targeted therapies." The identification of molecular markers in body fluids (e.g., sera and urine), which can be used for screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and monitoring of drug-based therapy in RCC patients, is one of the most ambitious challenges in oncologic research. Although there are some promising reports about potential biomarkers in sera, there is limited available data regarding urine markers for RCC. The following review reports some of the most promising biomarkers identified in the biological fluids of RCC patients.

  5. Serum immunoglobulin profile in normal Kashmiri adults.

    PubMed

    Bhat, G A; Mubarik, M; Bhat, M Y

    1995-01-01

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM were estimated in 102 apparently healthy Kashmiri adults in the age group of 16-60 years, using single radial immunodiffusion method of Mancini et al. The mean serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM were observed to be 1289.19 +/- 234.9, 216.18 +/- 50.70 and 118.97 +/- 41.88 respectively. No significant difference in the mean serum levels was observed between the two sexes as such, but IgM showed a significant increase in females in the age group of 16-30 years. IgA showed a significant increase with age, with no such increase in case of IgG and IgM.

  6. Serum calprotectin: a new potential biomarker for thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tabur, S; Korkmaz, H; Özkaya, M; Elboğa, U; Tarakçıoglu, M; Aksoy, N; Akarsu, E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum calprotectin levels and oxidative stress status in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and the changes in their levels after total thyroidectomy. The study involved 30 patients with PTC and 30 healthy controls. Blood samples were obtained from the PTC patients before and 1 month after the operation. Preoperative and postoperative serum samples from PTC patients and healthy controls were analysed for calprotectin, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and lipid hydroperokside (LOOH). The preoperative calprotectin, TOS, OSI and LOOH levels of the patients with PTC were significantly higher compared to those of the control group (p < 0.001, for each). The levels of calprotectin decreased significantly in patients with PTC after the operation (p < 0.001), while TAS, TOS and OSI levels remained unchanged (p = 0.313, p = 0.085 and p = 0.163, respectively). Preoperative serum calprotectin levels were positively correlated with TOS, OSI and LOOH levels and negatively correlated with TAS levels in patients with PTC. In conclusion, serum calprotectin levels is increased in patients with PTC, and calprotectin is positively correlated with TOS and LOOH. Serum calprotectin levels is significantly decreased after total thyroidectomy.

  7. Sets of serum exosomal microRNAs as candidate diagnostic biomarkers for Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hong-Ling; Liu, Chao-Wu; Zhang, Li; Xu, Wei-Jun; Gao, Xue-Juan; Bai, Jun; Xu, Yu-Fen; Xu, Ming-Guo; Zhang, Gong

    2017-01-01

    Although Kawasaki disease is the main cause of acquired heart disease in children, no diagnostic biomarkers are available. We aimed to identify candidate biomarkers for diagnosing Kawasaki disease using serum exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs). Using frozen serum samples from a biobank, high-throughput microarray technologies, two-stage real-time quantitative PCR, and a self-referencing strategy for data normalization, we narrowed down the list of biomarker candidates to a set of 4 miRNAs. We further validated the diagnostic capabilities of the identified miRNAs (namely, CT(miR-1246)-CT(miR-4436b-5p) and CT(miR-197-3p)-CT(miR-671-5p)) in 79 samples from two hospitals. We found that this 4-miRNA set could distinguish KD patients from other febrile patients as well as from healthy individuals in a single pass, with a minimal rate of false positives and negatives. We thus propose, for the first time, that serum exosomal miRNAs represent candidate diagnostic biomarkers for Kawasaki disease. Additionally, we describe an effective strategy of screening for biomarkers of complex diseases even when little mechanistic knowledge is available. PMID:28317854

  8. Distinctive serum miRNA profile in mouse models of striated muscular pathologies.

    PubMed

    Vignier, Nicolas; Amor, Fatima; Fogel, Paul; Duvallet, Angélique; Poupiot, Jérôme; Charrier, Sabine; Arock, Michel; Montus, Marie; Nelson, Isabelle; Richard, Isabelle; Carrier, Lucie; Servais, Laurent; Voit, Thomas; Bonne, Gisèle; Israeli, David

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers are critically important for disease diagnosis and monitoring. In particular, close monitoring of disease evolution is eminently required for the evaluation of therapeutic treatments. Classical monitoring methods in muscular dystrophies are largely based on histological and molecular analyses of muscle biopsies. Such biopsies are invasive and therefore difficult to obtain. The serum protein creatine kinase is a useful biomarker, which is however not specific for a given pathology and correlates poorly with the severity or course of the muscular pathology. The aim of the present study was the systematic evaluation of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers in striated muscle pathologies. Mouse models for five striated muscle pathologies were investigated: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD2D), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C), Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Two-step RT-qPCR methodology was elaborated, using two different RT-qPCR miRNA quantification technologies. We identified miRNA modulation in the serum of all the five mouse models. The most highly dysregulated serum miRNAs were found to be commonly upregulated in DMD, LGMD2D and LGMD2C mouse models, which all exhibit massive destruction of striated muscle tissues. Some of these miRNAs were down rather than upregulated in the EDMD mice, a model without massive myofiber destruction. The dysregulated miRNAs identified in the HCM model were different, with the exception of one dysregulated miRNA common to all pathologies. Importantly, a specific and distinctive circulating miRNA profile was identified for each studied pathological mouse model. The differential expression of a few dysregulated miRNAs in the DMD mice was further evaluated in DMD patients, providing new candidates of circulating miRNA biomarkers for DMD.

  9. The effects of heparins on the liver: application of mechanistic serum biomarkers in a randomized study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Harrill, A H; Roach, J; Fier, I; Eaddy, J S; Kurtz, C L; Antoine, D J; Spencer, D M; Kishimoto, T K; Pisetsky, D S; Park, B K; Watkins, P B

    2012-08-01

    Heparins have been reported to cause elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) but have not been associated with clinically significant liver injury. The mechanisms underlying these benign laboratory abnormalities are unknown. Forty-eight healthy men were randomized to receive subcutaneous injections of unfractionated heparin (UFH; 150 U/kg), enoxaparin sodium (1 mg/kg), dalteparin sodium (120 IU/kg), or adomiparin sodium (125 IU/kg; a novel heparin) every 12 h for 4.5 days. Asymptomatic elevations in serum ALT or AST were observed in >90% of the subjects. Elevations were also observed in the levels of serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), miR-122, high-mobility group box-1 protein (including the acetylated form), full-length keratin 18, and DNA. Keratin 18 fragments, which are apoptosis biomarkers, were not detected. Biomarker profiles did not differ significantly across heparin treatments. We conclude that heparins as a class cause self-limited and mild hepatocyte necrosis with secondary activation of an innate immune response.

  10. Serum biomarkers in young adult and aged Brown Norway (BN) rats following episodic (weekly) ozone exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is an air pollutant that is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Older adults are considered to be particularly susceptible to oxidant air pollutants such as 03. Serum biomarkers are being sought that would lead to better predictions of susceptibili...

  11. Variation in serum biomarkers with sex and female hormonal status: implications for clinical tests

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jordan M.; Cooper, Jason D.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Few serum biomarker tests are implemented in clinical practice and recent reports raise concerns about poor reproducibility of biomarker studies. Here, we investigated the potential role of sex and female hormonal status in this widespread irreproducibility. We examined 171 serum proteins and small molecules measured in 1,676 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Concentrations of 96 molecules varied with sex and 66 molecules varied between oral contraceptive pill users, postmenopausal females, and females in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (FDR-adjusted p-value <0.05). Simulations of biomarker studies yielded up to 40% false discoveries when patient and control groups were not matched for sex and up to 41% false discoveries when premenopausal females were not matched for oral contraceptive pill use. High accuracy (over 90%) classification tools were developed to label samples with sex and female hormonal status where this information was not collected. PMID:27240929

  12. Correlation analysis between four serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis and liver function in infants with cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    TANG, NING; ZHANG, YAPING; LIU, ZEYU; FU, TAO; LIANG, QINGHONG; AI, XUEMEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between four serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis and liver function in infants with cholestasis. A total of 30 infants with cholestasis and 20 healthy infants were included in the study. Biochemical assays based on the initial rate method and colorimetric assays were conducted to determine the levels of liver function markers in the serum [such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin (IBIL), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), cholinesterase (CHE) and total bile acids (TBA)] and four serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis were measured using radioimmunoassays [hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen type III (PCIII), laminin (LN) and collagen type IV (cIV)]. The serum levels of ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, IBIL, γ-GT and TBA in the infants with cholestasis were significantly higher compared to the healthy infants (P<0.01); the serum levels of CHE in the infants with cholestasis were significantly lower compared to the healthy infants (P<0.01). The serum levels of HA, PCIII, and cIV in the infants with cholestasis were significantly higher compared to the healthy infants (P<0.01). Correlation analyses between liver function and the four biomarkers of liver fibrosis showed that HA was positively correlated with AST and γ-GT (P<0.05) and negatively correlated with ALT, CHE and TBA (P<0.05). cIV was positively correlated with γ-GT (P<0.05) and negatively correlated with CHE (P<0.05). In conclusion, statistically significant differences were identified for the liver function markers (ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, IBIL, γ-GT and TBA) and the biomarkers HA, PCIII and cIV of liver fibrosis between infants with cholestasis and healthy infants. Thus, the serum levels of HA, cIV, γ-GT and CHE are sensitive markers for cholestatic liver fibrosis in infants. PMID:27347413

  13. Targeted Lipid Profiling Discovers Plasma Biomarkers of Acute Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sunil A.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Liebeskind, David S.; Won, Seok Joon; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior efforts to identify a blood biomarker of brain injury have relied almost exclusively on proteins; however their low levels at early time points and poor correlation with injury severity have been limiting. Lipids, on the other hand, are the most abundant molecules in the brain and readily cross the blood-brain barrier. We previously showed that certain sphingolipid (SL) species are highly specific to the brain. Here we examined the feasibility of using SLs as biomarkers for acute brain injury. A rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a mouse model of stroke were used to identify candidate SL species though our mass-spectrometry based lipid profiling approach. Plasma samples collected after TBI in the rat showed large increases in many circulating SLs following injury, and larger lesions produced proportionately larger increases. Plasma samples collected 24 hours after stroke in mice similarly revealed a large increase in many SLs. We constructed an SL score (sum of the two SL species showing the largest relative increases in the mouse stroke model) and then evaluated the diagnostic value of this score on a small sample of patients (n = 14) who presented with acute stroke symptoms. Patients with true stroke had significantly higher SL scores than patients found to have non-stroke causes of their symptoms. The SL score correlated with the volume of ischemic brain tissue. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using lipid biomarkers to diagnose brain injury. Future studies will be needed to further characterize the diagnostic utility of this approach and to transition to an assay method applicable to clinical settings. PMID:26076478

  14. Differences in metabolite profile between blood plasma and serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linsheng; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji; Yan, Bei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xinwen; Zhao, Chunyan; Cao, Bei; Shi, Jian; Li, Mengjie; Zheng, Tian; Zheng, Yuanting; Hao, Gang; Zhou, Fang; Sun, Jianguo; Wu, Zimei

    2010-11-15

    In metabolomic research, blood plasma and serum have been considered to possess similar compositions and properties. Their perceived equivalence has resulted in researchers choosing arbitrarily between serum and plasma for analysis. Here, routine serum and plasma were prepared and their low-molecular-weight compounds were determined using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Principal components analysis was applied to process the acquired data, and marked differences in metabolite profiles were observed between serum and plasma. Of the 72 identified compounds, 36 (50%) discriminate serum from plasma, with 29 and 7 metabolites showing a significantly higher abundance (t test, P<0.05) in serum and plasma, respectively. Incubation of blood had distinct effects on the analyte peak areas, with the effects being more pronounced for plasma than for serum and more pronounced for a shorter incubation than for a longer incubation. These results highlight the importance in choosing serum or plasma as the analytical sample and in stipulating the incubation time. Because incubation affected the analyte peak areas less in serum than in plasma, we recommend serum as the sample of choice in metabolomic studies.

  15. Immunological signature of the different clinical stages of the HTLV-1 infection: establishing serum biomarkers for HTLV-1-associated disease morbidity.

    PubMed

    Starling, Ana Lúcia Borges; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela Alves; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Pascoal-Xavier, Marcelo Antônio; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Labanca, Ludimila; Souza Pereira, Silvio Roberto; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Ribas, João Gabriel; Trindade, Bruno Caetano; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara Freitas; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing the immunological signature and an algorithm for clinical management of the different clinical stages of the HTLV-1-infection based on serum biomarkers. A panel of serum biomarkers was evaluated by four sets of innovative/non-conventional data analysis approaches in samples from 87 HTLV-1 patients: asymptomatic carriers (AC), putative HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (pHAM/TSP) and HAM/TSP. The analysis of cumulative curves and molecular signatures pointed out that HAM/TSP presented a pro-inflammatory profile mediated by CXCL10/LTB-4/IL-6/TNF-α/IFN-γ, counterbalanced by IL-4/IL-10. The analysis of biomarker networks showed that AC presented a strongly intertwined pro-inflammatory/regulatory net with IL-4/IL-10 playing a central role, while HAM/TSP exhibited overall immune response toward a predominant pro-inflammatory profile. At last, the classification and regression trees proposed for clinical practice allowed for the construction of an algorithm to discriminate AC, pHAM and HAM/TSP patients with the elected biomarkers: IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4 and CysLT. These findings reveal a complex interaction among chemokine/leukotriene/cytokine in HTLV-1 infection and suggest the use of the selected but combined biomarkers for the follow-up/diagnosis of disease morbidity of HTLV-1-infected individuals.

  16. Serum activin B concentration as predictive biomarker for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Pooja; Senthilkumar, G P; Rajendiran, Soundravally; Sivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S; Kulandhasamy, Maheshwari

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of activin B in discriminating tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) from intrauterine miscarriages (IUM), and normal viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). We included 28 women with tEP, 31 women with IUM, and 29 normal IUP, confirmed both by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Serum activin B concentration was measured at the time of admission using the ELISA kit. The median serum activin B concentration was found to be significantly decreased in both tEP (p=0.004) and IUM (p=0.022) compared to normal IUP. When compared between tEP and IUM, activin B concentrations did not differ significantly. ROC analysis of activin B and free β-hCG demonstrated AUC of 0.722 and 0.805, respectively to discriminate tEP from viable IUP. The model including both activin B and free β-hCG improved the discriminating potential with greater AUC (0.824), and specificity (93%) than individual one. To discriminate tEP from IUM, activin B, free β-hCG and combination of both performed poorly. We conclude that serum activin B concentration is lower in tubal ectopic pregnancy, and can discriminate it from normal pregnancy with moderate accuracy. It also shows improved diagnostic potential along with free β-hCG, but cannot distinguish tEP from IUM reliably.

  17. Biomarkers intersect with the exposome.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Stephen M

    2012-09-01

    The exposome concept promotes use of omic tools for discovering biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of disease in studies of diseased and healthy populations. A two-stage scheme is presented for profiling omic features in serum to discover molecular biomarkers and then for applying these biomarkers in follow-up studies. The initial component, referred to as an exposome-wide-association study (EWAS), employs metabolomics and proteomics to interrogate the serum exposome and, ultimately, to identify, validate and differentiate biomarkers of exposure and biomarkers of disease. Follow-up studies employ knowledge-driven designs to explore disease causality, prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

  18. Serum metabolic profiles of pregnant women with burdened obstetrical history.

    PubMed

    Khaustova, S A; Senyavina, N V; Tonevitsky, A G; Eremina, O V; Pavlovich, S V

    2013-11-01

    The content of low-molecular-weight components in blood serum was studied by tandem mass-spectrometry in pregnant women. Serum metabolic profiles of patients with a grave obstetrical history were detected. The most significant changes were observed for the concentrations of low-molecular-weight substances involved in glucogenesis and β-oxidation processes and in metabolic chains involving carbohydrates, carnitines, amino acids, and lipids.

  19. Large-scale serum protein biomarker discovery in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Yetrib; Brody, Edward; Clemens, Paula R; Cripe, Linda; DeLisle, Robert Kirk; Furlong, Pat; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hache, Lauren; Henricson, Erik; Hoffman, Eric P; Kobayashi, Yvonne Monique; Lorts, Angela; Mah, Jean K; McDonald, Craig; Mehler, Bob; Nelson, Sally; Nikrad, Malti; Singer, Britta; Steele, Fintan; Sterling, David; Sweeney, H Lee; Williams, Steve; Gold, Larry

    2015-06-09

    Serum biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may provide deeper insights into disease pathogenesis, suggest new therapeutic approaches, serve as acute read-outs of drug effects, and be useful as surrogate outcome measures to predict later clinical benefit. In this study a large-scale biomarker discovery was performed on serum samples from patients with DMD and age-matched healthy volunteers using a modified aptamer-based proteomics technology. Levels of 1,125 proteins were quantified in serum samples from two independent DMD cohorts: cohort 1 (The Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy-Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center), 42 patients with DMD and 28 age-matched normal volunteers; and cohort 2 (The Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group, Duchenne Natural History Study), 51 patients with DMD and 17 age-matched normal volunteers. Forty-four proteins showed significant differences that were consistent in both cohorts when comparing DMD patients and healthy volunteers at a 1% false-discovery rate, a large number of significant protein changes for such a small study. These biomarkers can be classified by known cellular processes and by age-dependent changes in protein concentration. Our findings demonstrate both the utility of this unbiased biomarker discovery approach and suggest potential new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for ameliorating the burden of DMD and, we hope, other rare and devastating diseases.

  20. Large-scale serum protein biomarker discovery in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Brody, Edward; Clemens, Paula R.; Cripe, Linda; DeLisle, Robert Kirk; Furlong, Pat; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hache, Lauren; Henricson, Erik; Hoffman, Eric P.; Kobayashi, Yvonne Monique; Lorts, Angela; Mah, Jean K.; McDonald, Craig; Mehler, Bob; Nelson, Sally; Nikrad, Malti; Singer, Britta; Steele, Fintan; Sterling, David; Sweeney, H. Lee; Williams, Steve; Gold, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Serum biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may provide deeper insights into disease pathogenesis, suggest new therapeutic approaches, serve as acute read-outs of drug effects, and be useful as surrogate outcome measures to predict later clinical benefit. In this study a large-scale biomarker discovery was performed on serum samples from patients with DMD and age-matched healthy volunteers using a modified aptamer-based proteomics technology. Levels of 1,125 proteins were quantified in serum samples from two independent DMD cohorts: cohort 1 (The Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy–Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center), 42 patients with DMD and 28 age-matched normal volunteers; and cohort 2 (The Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group, Duchenne Natural History Study), 51 patients with DMD and 17 age-matched normal volunteers. Forty-four proteins showed significant differences that were consistent in both cohorts when comparing DMD patients and healthy volunteers at a 1% false-discovery rate, a large number of significant protein changes for such a small study. These biomarkers can be classified by known cellular processes and by age-dependent changes in protein concentration. Our findings demonstrate both the utility of this unbiased biomarker discovery approach and suggest potential new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for ameliorating the burden of DMD and, we hope, other rare and devastating diseases. PMID:26039989

  1. Dietary carotenoids are associated with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers mediated by serum carotenoid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Sang-Jin; McCullough, Marjorie L; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2014-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Previous studies indicated that higher serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with some of these biomarkers. However, whether dietary carotenoid intake is inversely associated with these CVD risk biomarkers is not well known. We assessed the associations between individual dietary carotenoid intake and CVD risk biomarkers and tested whether the serum carotenoid concentrations explain (mediate) or influence the strength of (moderate) the associations, if any association exists. Dietary data collected from 2 24-h dietary recalls and serum measurements in adult men (n = 1312) and women (n = 1544) from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Regression models designed for survey analysis were used to examine the associations between individual dietary carotenoids and log-transformed blood cholesterol, CRP, and tHcy. The corresponding individual serum carotenoid concentration was considered as mediator (and moderator if applicable). After adjustment for covariates, significant inverse associations with LDL cholesterol were observed for dietary β-carotene (P < 0.05) and lutein + zeaxanthin (P < 0.001), and with tHcy for dietary β-carotene (P < 0.05), lycopene (P < 0.05), and total carotenoids (P < 0.05). Dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake was also positively associated with HDL cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.01). Most of these associations were null after additional adjustment for corresponding serum carotenoid concentrations, indicating the complete mediation effects of serum carotenoids. Serum β-carotene significantly moderated the associations between dietary β-carotene and CRP (P-interaction < 0.05), and quartile 4 of dietary β-carotene was associated with lower CRP concentrations only among participants with serum β-carotene > 0.43 μmol/L. In this population-based cross-sectional study

  2. Serum calreticulin is a negative biomarker in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiao; Cao, Yunpeng; Gao, Jie

    2014-11-25

    Calreticulin is down-regulated in the cortical neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of AD. A total of 128 AD patients were randomly recruited from May 2012 to July 2013. The mRNA levels of calreticulin were measured from the serum of tested subjects using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR). Serum levels of calreticulin were determined by ELISA and Western Blot. Serum levels of calreticulin in AD patients were significantly lower than those from a healthy group (p < 0.01). The baseline characters indicated that sample size, gender, mean age, diabetes and BMI (body mass index) were not major sources of heterogeneity. The serum levels of mRNA and protein of calreticulin were lower in AD patients than those from a healthy group, and negatively associated with the progression of AD according to CDR scores (p < 0.01). Thus, there is a trend toward decreased serum levels of calreticulin in the patients with progression of AD. Serum levels of calreticulin can be a negative biomarker for the diagnosis of AD patients.

  3. Serum Cystatin C as a Biomarker in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Nada E; Salah El-Din, Manal A; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M; El-Gayar, Amal M

    2017-03-08

    Elevated serum levels of cystatin C are found to be related to poor outcome and metastatic potential of some malignant disorders. To evaluate the clinical prominence of serum cystatin C in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), blood samples were obtained from 58 patients at the time of diagnosis and paired blood samples were obtained from 22 patients at the time of remission. Also, serum cystatin C level was measured in matched healthy controls. Serum cystatin C levels were significantly more elevated in DLBCL patients than in controls (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, paired-sample analysis revealed that pretreatment cystatin C levels were reduced significantly in patients who achieved remission after therapy (p = 0.016). High serum cystatin C levels were correlated with age over 60 years (p = 0.049), extra-nodal involvement (p = 0.005) and with high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p < 0.013). Elevated serum cystatin C levels were associated with extra-nodal involvement and they were significantly reduced to normal range after the remission. However, Kaplan-Meier curves revealed no survival difference in the pretreatment serum cystatin C levels. Therefore, serum cystatin C may be a novel biomarker that reflects tumor burden in DLBCL but bears no prognostic significance regarding survival.

  4. Serum HMGB1 as a Potential Biomarker for Patients with Asbestos-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhaoqiang; He, Xianglei; Yu, Min; Chen, Riping; Chen, Junqiang; Ru, Guoqing; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Wanyuan; Zhu, Lijin; Li, Tao; Zhang, Yixiao; Guo, Xinnian; Yin, Xianhong; Zhang, Xing

    2017-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) functions as a proinflammatory cytokine and is one of the most intriguing molecules in inflammatory disorders and cancers. Notably, HMGB1 is a potential therapeutic target and novel biomarker in related diseases. However, the diagnostic value of HMGB1 for benign and malignant asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) remains unclear. In this work, we detected preoperative serum HMGB1 levels in Chinese asbestos-exposed (AE) and ARDs populations and further evaluated the diagnostic value of HMGB1 in patients with certain types of ARDs, including those with pleural plaques, asbestosis, or malignant mesothelioma (MM). The experimental data presented that the serum level of HMGB1 was significantly elevated in AE and ARDs subjects. Our findings indicated that serum HMGB1 is a sensitive and specific biomarker for discriminating asbestosis- and MM-affected individuals from healthy or AE individuals. In addition, serum matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 are not correlated with HMGB1 in ARDs. Thus, our study provides supporting evidence for HMGB1 as a potential biomarker either for the clinical diagnosis of high-risk AE cohorts or for evaluating ARDs. PMID:28348451

  5. Vitronectin: a promising breast cancer serum biomarker for early diagnosis of breast cancer in patients.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wende; Zhang, Xuhui; Xiu, Bingshui; Yang, Xiqin; Hu, Shuofeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Cuimi; Jin, Shujuan; Ying, Xiaomin; Zhao, Yanfeng; Han, Xiaowei; Hao, Xiaopeng; Fan, Yawen; Johnson, Heather; Meng, Di; Persson, Jenny L; Zhang, Heqiu; Feng, XiaoYan; Huang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, identification of new biomarkers for early diagnosis and detection will improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. In the present study, we determined serum levels of vitronectin (VN) in 93 breast cancer patients, 30 benign breast lesions, 9 precancerous lesions, and 30 healthy individuals by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum VN level was significantly higher in patients with stage 0-I primary breast cancer than in healthy individuals, patients with benign breast lesion or precancerous lesions, as well as those with breast cancer of higher stages. Serum VN level was significantly and negatively correlated with tumor size, lymph node status, and clinical stage (p < 0.05 in all cases). In addition, VN displayed higher area under curve (AUC) value (0.73, 95 % confidence interval (CI) [0.62-0.84]) than carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (0.64, 95 % CI [0.52-0.77]) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) (0.69, 95 % CI [0.58-0.81]) when used to distinguish stage 0-I cancer and normal control. Importantly, the combined use of three biomarkers yielded an improvement in receiver operating characteristic curve with an AUC of 0.83, 95 % CI [0.74-0.92]. Taken together, our current study showed for the first time that serum VN is a promising biomarker for early diagnosis of breast cancer when combined with CEA and CA15-3.

  6. Profiling human serum antibodies with a carbohydrate antigen microarray

    PubMed Central

    Oyelaran, Oyindasola; McShane, Lisa M.; Dodd, Lori; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen arrays (glycan arrays) have been recently developed for the high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate macromolecule interactions. When profiling serum, information about experimental variability, inter-individual biological variability, and intra-individual temporal variability is critical. In this report, we describe the characterization of a carbohydrate antigen array and assay for profiling human serum. Through optimization of assay conditions and development of a normalization strategy, we obtain highly reproducible results with a within-experiment coefficient of variation (CV) of 10.8% and an overall CV (across multiple batches of slides and days) of 28.5%. We also report antibody profiles for 48 human subjects and evaluate for the first time the effects of age, race, sex, geographic location, and blood type on antibody profiles for a large set of carbohydrate antigens. We found significant dependence on age and blood type of antibody levels for a variety of carbohydrates. Finally, we conducted a longitudinal study with a separate group of 7 serum donors to evaluate the variation in anti-carbohydrate antibody levels within an individual over a period ranging from 3 to 13 weeks and found that, for nearly all antigens on our array, antibody levels are generally stable over this period. The results presented here provide the most comprehensive evaluation of experimental and biological variation reported to date for a glycan array and have significant implications for studies involving human serum profiling. PMID:19624168

  7. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. Objective This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Methods Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10–100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Results Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies

  8. A Panel of Serum MiRNA Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Severe to Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bhomia, Manish; Balakathiresan, Nagaraja S.; Wang, Kevin K.; Papa, Linda; Maheshwari, Radha K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are small endogenous RNA molecules and have emerged as novel serum diagnostic biomarkers for several diseases due to their stability and detection at minute quantities. In this study, we have identified a serum miRNA signature in human serum samples of mild to severe TBI, which can be used for diagnosis of mild and moderate TBI (MMTBI). Human serum samples of MMTBI, severe TBI (STBI), orthopedic injury and healthy controls were used and miRNA profiling was done using taqman real time PCR. The real time PCR data for the MMTBI, STBI and orthopedic injury was normalized to the control samples which showed upregulation of 39, 37 and 33 miRNAs in MMTBI, STBI and orthopedic injury groups respectively. TBI groups were compared to orthopedic injury group and an up-regulation of 18 and 20 miRNAs in MMTBI and STBI groups was observed. Among these, a signature of 10 miRNAs was found to be present in both MMTBI and STBI groups. These 10 miRNAs were validated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from STBI and four miRNAs were found to be upregulated in CSF. In conclusion, we identified a subset of 10 unique miRNAs which can be used for diagnosis of MMTBI and STBI. PMID:27338832

  9. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is a biomarker in patients with diabetes and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Srikanth, Padma; Seshadri, Krishna G.; Barani, Ramya; Samanta, Maitreya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The role of serum Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) as a biomarker of periodontitis is well documented; however, its role in diabetic patients with periodontitis is unknown. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the presence and concentration of serum MCP-1 in diabetic patients with and without periodontitis and correlate it glycemic status with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Adult diabetic patients were enrolled and grouped into group I, II, and III based on their glycemic status and serum MCP-1 estimated by ELISA. Linear regression and correlation tests were performed using R statistical software, Medcalc software to observe correlation between the serum MCP-1 and glycated hemoglobin level among different groups. Results: Serum samples obtained from 37 patients tested positive for MCP-1. Mean serum MCP-1 concentration was highest (482.3 pg/ml) in group III, lowest (149.3 pg/ml) in group I, and intermediate 398.8 pg/ml in group II. Correlation and regression analysis was done between HbA1c and serum MCP-1. A significant positive correlation (P < 0.001) was observed. Serum MCP-1 increased by 37.278 pg/ml for every 1% rise in HbA1c, and the levels were raised in group II and group III than in group I irrespective of their glycemic status. With an HbA1c range of 6.5-6.9% (group II), the serum MCP-1 values cluster around 380-410 pg/ml. Elevated levels of serum MCP-1 (>500 pg/ml) in three subjects corresponded to HbA1c values more than 12.2% (group III). Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to document serum MCP-1 levels in diabetic patients with periodontitis. Glycemic status influences serum MCP-1, and lack of glycemic control contributes to increased serum MCP-1 levels. Serum MCP-1 may thus serve as a biomarker of inflammation and disease progression in diabetes with periodontitis. PMID:25143907

  10. Dietary quercetin supplementation increases serum antioxidant capacity and alters hepatic gene expression profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liting; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin on hepatic gene expression profile in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and the quercetin-treated group, in which a diet containing 0.5% quercetin was provided. After two weeks of feeding, serum and liver samples were collected. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including serum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E (VE), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The hepatic gene expression profile was examined using a microarray technique. The results showed that serum FRAP value, levels of ascorbic acid and VE were increased significantly, whereas serum levels of GSH and MDA were not changed significantly after quercetin supplementation. The microarray analysis revealed that some hepatic genes involved in phase 2 reaction, metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine, and energy production were expressed differentially in response to quercetin administration. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the actions played by quercetin in vivo.

  11. Serum C1q as a novel biomarker of sarcopenia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Sato, Koji; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Matsutani, Kenji; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Fujita, Satoshi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2015-03-01

    Aging-induced elevation in C1q secretion activates the Wnt signaling pathway in muscles, leading to the development of muscle fibrosis. However, the association between serum C1q level and muscle mass and strength remains unclear in humans. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether serum C1q level is associated with aging- and resistance training-induced changes in muscle mass and strength. First, in a cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between serum C1q level and muscle mass and strength in 131 healthy subjects, aged 20-81 yr. Second, in an intervention study, we examined the association between the effects of serum C1q level and muscle mass and strength on 12 wk resistance training in 11 healthy older adults (60-81 yr). In the cross-sectional study, serum C1q level increased with aging and was negatively correlated with muscle mass and strength. Furthermore, 12 wk resistance training in older adults reduced the age-associated elevation in serum C1q levels. The training effect of serum C1q level significantly correlated with the change in the cross-sectional area of the thigh (r = -0.703; P < 0.01). Serum C1q level may reflect loss of muscle mass; therefore, C1q may be a novel biomarker of sarcopenia.

  12. Neonatal acute kidney injury - Severity and recovery prediction and the role of serum and urinary biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Deirdre U

    2017-02-01

    Neonatal acute kidney injury is common, in part due to incomplete renal maturation and also due to frequent exposure to risk factors for acute kidney injury such as perinatal asphyxia, extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation, cardiac surgery, sepsis, prematurity and nephrotoxicity. However the current method by which acute kidney injury is diagnosed is sub-optimal and not universally accepted which impairs the accurate estimation of the true incidence of neonatal acute kidney injury. Serum Cystatin-C, urinary NGAL, KIM-1 and IL-18 are promising neonatal acute kidney injury biomarkers however the diagnosis of acute kidney injury remains serum creatinine/urine output-based in many studies. Emerging biomarkers which require further study in the neonatal population include netrin-1 and EGF. Increased awareness amongst clinicians of nephrotoxic medications being a modifiable risk factor for the development of neonatal acute kidney injury is imperative. The burden of chronic kidney failure following neonatal acute kidney injury is unclear and requires further study.

  13. Serum APN/CD13 as a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yan; Wang, Dawei; Wang, Guoqing; Meng, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N, also known as CD13, has been reported to be overexpressed in several cancers and may contribute to tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum APN/CD13 could be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). Serum APN/CD13 and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels were measured from 382 participants, which comprised of 204 participants with PC, 48 participants with benign pancreatic tumors (BPT), 43 participants with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and 87 healthy controls (HC). We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to calculate diagnostic accuracy. The association of serum APN/CD13 levels with the clinicopathological characteristics of PC patients and their survival was investigated. Serum APN/CD13 levels were substantially higher in PC patients than in controls. ROC analysis revealed that APN/CD13 was significantly better than CA19-9 in differentiating patients with PC from controls. Similar results were noted for early-stage PC. Moreover, the combined use of APN/CD13 and CA19-9 data improved the diagnostic accuracy for PC vs. controls, compared with either test alone. High serum APN/CD13 levels were associated with tumor size, lymph nodes, and metastasis (TNM) stage. Multivariate and ROC curve analyses revealed that high serum APN/CD13 level is an independent factor for predicting mortality and overall survival (OS). Moreover, Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated an inverse correlation between increased serum APN/CD13 level and OS. Our study established that serum APN/CD13 may be a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for PC. PMID:27788483

  14. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: Serum biomarkers in predicting liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Valva, Pamela; Ríos, Daniela A; De Matteo, Elena; Preciado, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Currently, a major clinical challenge in the management of the increasing number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients is determining the best means for evaluating liver impairment. Prognosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are partly dependent on the assessment of histological activity, namely cell necrosis and inflammation, and the degree of liver fibrosis. These parameters can be provided by liver biopsy; however, in addition to the risks related to an invasive procedure, liver biopsy has been associated with sampling error mostly due to suboptimal biopsy size. To avoid these pitfalls, several markers have been proposed as non-invasive alternatives for the diagnosis of liver damage. Distinct approaches among the currently available non-invasive methods are (1) the physical ones based on imaging techniques; and (2) the biological ones based on serum biomarkers. In this review, we discuss these approaches with special focus on currently available non-invasive serum markers. We will discuss: (1) class I serum biomarkers individually and as combined panels, particularly those that mirror the metabolism of liver extracellular matrix turnover and/or fibrogenic cell changes; (2) class II biomarkers that are indirect serum markers and are based on the evaluation of common functional alterations in the liver; and (3) biomarkers of liver cell death, since hepatocyte apoptosis plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. We highlight in this review the evidence behind the use of these markers and assess the diagnostic accuracy as well as advantages, limitations, and application in clinical practice of each test for predicting liver damage in CHC. PMID:26819506

  15. Clinical Significance of Serum Biomarkers in Pediatric Solid Mediastinal and Abdominal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, John A.; Malkas, Linda H.; Hickey, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer is the leading cause of death by disease among U.S. children between infancy and age 15. Despite successes in treating solid tumors such as Wilms tumor, disappointments in the outcomes of high-risk solid tumors like neuroblastoma have precipitated efforts towards the early and accurate detection of these malignancies. This review summarizes available solid tumor serum biomarkers with a special focus on mediastinal and abdominal cancers in children. PMID:22312308

  16. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  17. Comparison of biomarkers in serum and induced sputum of patients with occupational asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Kleniewska, Aneta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Piotrowski, Wojciech; Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Wiszniewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Occupational asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with the airway inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to compare the sputum and serum markers of inflammation in patients with occupational asthma and COPD. Methods: The study group included 20 patients with stable COPD, 24 patients with asthma, and 22 healthy subjects. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels in serum and induced sputum as well as fibrinogen and CRP in serum were determined in all the subjects. Results: Higher concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MMP-9 in induced sputum and an increased concentration of acute-phase proteins in serum were observed in COPD patients compared with healthy subjects. Higher concentrations of IL-1β and MMP-9 in induced sputum and a higher concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected in COPD patients than in asthmatic subjects. Never smokers with COPD had significantly higher levels of IL-1β and MMP-9 in induced sputum than never smoker controls. There was no significant difference between the serum and sputum levels of cytokines and MMP-9 of never smokers and smokers with COPD. Conclusions: Higher concentrations of IL-1β and MMP-9 in induced sputum and a higher concentration of CRP in serum allow distinguishing between biomarker profiles of COPD patients and asthmatic patients. Occupational exposure induces a systemic proinflammatory state with increased levels of acute-phase proteins in stable COPD patients. MMP-9 and IL-1β concentrations are increased in induced sputum of never smokers with COPD, which is associated with occupational exposure. PMID:27265531

  18. Serum Metabolomic Profiling Identifies Characterization of Non-Obstructive Azoospermic Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Yingwei; Liu, Changjie; Zhao, Mingming; Yang, Yuzhuo; Wu, Han; Zhang, Hongliang; Lin, Haocheng; Zheng, Lemin; Jiang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Male infertility is considered a common health problem, and non-obstructive azoospermia with unclear pathogenesis is one of the most challenging tasks for clinicians. The objective of this study was to investigate the differential serum metabolic pattern in non-obstructive azoospermic men and to determine potential biomarkers related to spermatogenic dysfunction. Serum samples from patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 31) were examined using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Serum metabolomic profiling could differentiate non-obstructive azoospermic patients from healthy control subjects. A total of 24 metabolites were screened and identified as potential markers, many of which are involved in energy production, oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in spermatogenesis. Moreover, the results showed that various metabolic pathways, including d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, the citrate cycle and alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, were disrupted in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia. Our results indicated that the serum metabolic disorders may contribute to the etiology of non-obstructive azoospermia. This study suggested that serum metabolomics could identify unique metabolic patterns of non-obstructive azoospermia and provide novel insights into the pathogenesis underlying male infertility. PMID:28125052

  19. Hydroxyproline, a Serum Biomarker Candidate for Gastric Ulcer in Rats: A Comparison Study of Metabolic Analysis of Gastric Ulcer Models Induced by Ethanol, Stress, and Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Kenichiro; Ohishi, Maki; Endo, Keiko; Suzumura, Kenichi; Naraoka, Hitoshi; Ohata, Takeji; Seki, Jiro; Miyamae, Yoichi; Honma, Masashi; Soga, Tomoyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common manifestation of adverse drug effects. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely prescribed drugs that induce the serious side effect of gastric mucosal ulceration. Biomarkers for these side effects have not been identified and ulcers are now only detectable by endoscopy. We previously identified five metabolites as biomarker candidates for NSAID-induced gastric ulcer using capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry (CE–MS)-based metabolomic analysis of serum and stomach from rats. Here, to clarify mechanism of changes and limitations of indications of biomarker candidates, we performed CE–MS-based metabolomic profiling in stomach and serum from rats with gastric ulcers induced by ethanol, stress, and aspirin. The results suggest that a decrease in hydroxyproline reflects the induction of gastric injury and may be useful in identifying gastric ulcer induced by multiple causes. While extrapolation to humans requires further study, hydroxyproline can be a new serum biomarker of gastric injury regardless of cause. PMID:25125970

  20. Microdevices integrating affinity columns and capillary electrophoresis for multi-biomarker analysis in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weichun; Yu, Ming; Sun, Xiuhua; Woolley, Adam T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Biomarkers in human body fluids have great potential for use in screening for diseases such as cancer and diabetes, diagnosis, determining the effectiveness of treatments, and detecting recurrence. Present 96-well immunoassay technology effectively analyzes large numbers of samples; however, this approach is more expensive and less time effective on single or a few samples. In contrast, microfluidic systems are well suited for assaying small numbers of specimens in a point-of-care setting, provided suitable procedures are developed to work within peak capacity constraints when analyzing complex mixtures like human blood serum. Here, we developed integrated microdevices with an affinity column and capillary electrophoresis channels to isolate and quantitate a panel of proteins in complex matrices. To form an affinity column, a thin film of a reactive polymer was photopolymerized in a microchannel, and four antibodies were covalently immobilized to it. The retained protein amounts were consistent from chip to chip, demonstrating reproducibility. Furthermore, the signals from four fluorescently labeled proteins captured on-column were in the same range after rinsing, indicating the column has little bias toward any of the four antibodies or their antigens. These affinity columns have been integrated with capillary electrophoresis separation, enabling us to simultaneously quantify four protein biomarkers in human blood serum in the low ng/mL range using either a calibration curve or standard addition. Our systems provide a fast, integrated and automated platform for multiple biomarker quantitation in complex media such as human blood serum. PMID:20664867

  1. Leucine-rich Alpha-2 Glycoprotein is a Serum Biomarker of Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Iijima, Hideki; Mizuno, Shinta; Serada, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Minoru; Arai, Norimitsu; Koyama, Noriyuki; Morii, Eiichi; Watanabe, Mamoru; Hibi, Toshifumi; Kanai, Takanori; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although several noninvasive and easily accessible biomarkers for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] are available, their sensitivity and specificity are not adequate to be used as single markers and do not overrule the need for endoscopic evaluation. We previously reported that serum leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein [LRG] was a novel biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis and IBD. We herein investigated whether LRG could indicate endoscopic activity in patients with ulcerative colitis [UC]. Methods: Serum LRG concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] in consecutive 129 patients with UC in two tertiary care hospitals, and associations of LRG with clinical and endoscopic activities were evaluated. Clinical activity index [CAI] < 6 was defined as clinical remission, and mucosal healing [MH] and complete mucosal healing were defined as Matts’ endoscopic grades of 1 or 2 and grade of 1, respectively. Results: Serum LRG levels were significantly increased and correlated with clinical and endoscopic activities in patients with UC. LRG levels were associated with both clinical and endoscopic activities even in patients with normal serum C-reactive protein [CRP] levels. Furthermore, LRG levels were significantly lower in patients with complete MH and deep remission. Serial measurements of LRG levels in a subset of patients demonstrated that LRG was significantly elevated during the endoscopically active stage compared with that during the MH stage. Conclusions: Serum LRG is a novel biomarker for detecting MH during disease course in patients with UC and a surrogate marker of endoscopic inflammation in patients with normal CRP levels. PMID:27466171

  2. Serum microRNA is a promising biomarker for osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqiang; Lu, Yanqin; Zhang, Xiumei; Ren, Xiuzhi; Wang, Yanzhou; Li, Zhiliang; Xu, Chao; Han, Jinxiang

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to screen preliminary differential expression bone-related microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum of patients with osteogenesis imperfacta and to clarify whether serum microRNA is a promising biomarker for osteogenesis imperfecta. geNorm and several other programes were performed to select suitable reference genes for quantitative detection of serum miRNAs from 6 candidate control genes. With geometric averaging of selected reference genes as a normalization factor, fluorescence-based quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect expression levels of more than 100 bone-related miRNAs obtained by means of miRanda, Targetscan and Pictar software calculations and reading the literature. Through analysis of expression stability and pairwise variations, all 6 candidate reference genes had a stable expression level in serum of 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with different characrteristics, and the optimal number of reference genes for normalization was 4 (snRNAU6, miR-92a, miR-16, and Let-7a). For further validation, the expression stability of 4 reference genes remained steady in serum of another 8 healthy controls and 16 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (M < 1.5). When normalized using multiple control genes, 11 bone-related miRNAs showed differential expression in serum of 8 osteogenesis imperfecta patients compared with 8 healthy controls. In conclusion, we identified snRNAU6, miR-92a, miR-16, and Let-7a as an internal reference gene group for qRT-PCR normalization and screening results revealed that there existed many differential expression bone-related miRNAs in serum of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta compared with healthy controls, and that these miRNAs had potential to be biomarkers for serologic tests and diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta with analysis of bioinformation.

  3. Evaluation of serum procathepsin B, cystatin B and cystatin C as possible biomarkers of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gashenko, Elena A.; Lebedeva, Valentina A.; Brak, Ivan V.; Tsykalenko, Elena A.; Vinokurova, Galina V.; Korolenko, Tatyana A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate procathepsin B, as well as endogenous inhibitors of cysteine proteases (cystatin B and cystatin C) in biological fluids as possible biomarkers of ovarian cancer. To observe levels of serum procathepsin B in different age groups. Study design The sample (N=27) of women with gynaecological tumours included 18 patients with ovarian cancer (n=18) and 9 patients with benign ovarian tumours (n=9); 72 healthy women were in the control group. All patients were treated in Novosibirsk Regional Oncological Center, Russia. Serum samples of healthy women (n=40) aged 18–70 years were used as controls for common biomarker of ovarian cancer CA-125. In the Procathepsin B study, serum samples of healthy women (n=32) aged 18–40 years (n=14), 41–55 years (n=10) and 56–80 (n=8) years were used as controls. Methods Common biomarker of ovarian cancer, CA-125, was assayed by using a commercial kit (Vector, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region, Russia). Procathepsin B was measured by means of a commercial kit for human procathepsin B (R&D, USA); cystatin C was measured by commercial ELISA kits for human (BioVendor, Czechia); cystatin B was measured by ELISA kits for human (USCN Life Science Inc., Wuhan, China). Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA (Statistica 10 Program). Results In the control group, serum procathepsin B concentration did not reveal age dependency. In the ovarian cancer group, both levels of serum procathepsin B and standard biomarker CA-125 increased significantly (both p<0.001) compared with the control group. In the benign ovarian tumour group, serum procathepsin B (p<0.001) and CA-125 (p=0.004) increased about 2.5- and 8-fold compared to the control group. Serum cystatin B level increased up to 1.7-fold in the ovarian cancer group compared to the control group. The increase of serum CA-125 was about 3.5-fold higher (p=0.017) and procathepsin B was 1.8-fold higher (p<0.05) in the ovarian cancer group compared to the benign tumour

  4. Serum Cytokine Profiles in Children with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyeva, Ekaterina; Abdulkhakov, Sayar; Cherepnev, Georgi; Mayanskaya, Irina; Valeeva, Alina; Abdulkhakov, Rustam; Safina, Dilyara

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can be diagnosed at any age. There are two major patient groups based on diagnosis of this disease, before or after the age of 20 (juvenile/adolescent or adult), with disease progression in adults usually milder than in juvenile CD patients. Immune mechanisms have been suggested to play an important role in CD pathogenesis, with cytokines governing the development of the immune response. Upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in serum of juvenile and adult CD patients has been documented; still little is known about age-dependent differences in serum cytokine profiles of CD patients. We applied multiplex technology to analyze serum levels of 12 cytokines in juveniles and adults. We show that during the acute stage of the disease all CD patients have high serum levels of CXCL10, which remains upregulated during remission. Increased serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 during the acute stage was characteristic of juvenile CD patients, whereas adult CD patients had upregulated levels of GM-CSF and IFN-γ. Taken together, these results demonstrate age-dependent differences in cytokine profiles, which may affect the pathogenesis of CD in patients at different ages of disease onset. PMID:28070144

  5. Serum and seminal plasma hormonal profiles of infertile Nigerian male.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B

    2006-12-01

    Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in infertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of seminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (P<0.005) than that of controls but the serum levels of testosterone were significantly higher (P<0.05) in azoospermic than oligospermic subjects and controls. There was no significant correlation between serum hormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (P<0.05). We concluded that male infertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.

  6. Biomarker Profiles in Women with PCOS and PCOS Offspring; A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Daan, Nadine M. P.; Koster, Maria P. H.; de Wilde, Marlieke A.; Dalmeijer, Gerdien W.; Evelein, Annemieke M. V.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; de Jager, Wilco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study metabolic/inflammatory biomarker risk profiles in women with PCOS and PCOS offspring. Design Cross-sectional comparison of serum biomarkers. Setting University Medical Center Utrecht. Patients Hyperandrogenic PCOS women (HA-PCOS, n = 34), normoandrogenic PCOS women (NA-PCOS, n = 34), non-PCOS reference population (n = 32), PCOS offspring (n = 14, age 6–8 years), and a paedriatic reference population (n = 30). Main Outcome Measure(s) Clustering profile of adipocytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TNF-α, adiponectin, adipsin, leptin, chemerin, resistin, RBP4, DPP-IV/sCD26, CCL2/MCP-1), growth factors (PIGF, VEGF, sVEGF-R1), soluble cell adhesion molecules (sICAM-1/sCD54, sVCAM-1/sCD106), and other inflammatory related proteases (MMP-9, S100A8, Cathepsin S). Differences in median biomarker concentrations between groups, and associations with the free androgen index (FAI; Testosterone/SHBG x100). Results The cluster analysis identified leptin, RBP-4, DPP-IV and adiponectin as potential discriminative markers for HA-PCOS with a specifically strong correlation in cases with increased BMI. Leptin (R2 = 0.219) and adiponectin (R2 = 0.182) showed the strongest correlation with the FAI. When comparing median protein concentrations adult PCOS women with or without hyperandrogenemia, the most profound differences were observed for leptin (P < 0.001), DPP-IV (P = 0.005), and adiponectin (P < 0.001). Adjusting for age, BMI and multiple testing attenuated all differences. In PCOS offspring, MMP-9 (P = 0.001) and S100A8 (P < 0.001) concentrations were significantly higher compared to a healthy matched reference population, even after correcting for age and BMI and adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion In this preliminary investigation we observed significant differences in adipocytokines between women with or without hyperandrogenic PCOS and non-PCOS controls, mostly influenced by BMI. Leptin and adiponectin showed the strongest correlation with

  7. Gene expression profiling identifies Fibronectin 1 and CXCL9 as candidate biomarkers for breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Garcia, E; Scott, V; Machavoine, C; Bidart, J M; Lacroix, L; Delaloge, S; Andre, F

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a need to develop blood-based bioassays for breast cancer (BC) screening. In this study, differential gene expression between BC samples and benign tumours was used to identify candidate biomarkers for blood-based screening. Methods: We identified two proteins (Fibronectin 1 and CXCL9) from a gene expression data set that included 120 BC samples and 45 benign lesions. These proteins fulfil the following criteria: differential gene expression between cancer and benign lesion, protein released in the extracellular medium and stable in the serum, commercially available ELISA kit, ELISA accuracy in a feasibility study. Protein concentrations were determined by ELISA. Blood samples were from normal volunteers (n=119) and early BC patients (n=133). Results: Seventy-three per cent of patients had cT1-T2 tumour. Patients had higher CXCL9 and Fibronectin 1 concentrations than volunteers. CXCL9 mean concentration was 851 and 635 pg ml−1 for patients and volunteers respectively (P=0.013). CXCL9 concentration was significantly higher in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative compared with volunteers (P=0.003), data consistent with gene expression profile. Fibronectin 1 mean concentration was 190 μg ml−1 for patients and 125 μg ml−1 for volunteers (P<0.001). Areas under the curve for BC diagnosis were 0.78 and 0.62 for Fibronectin 1 and CXCL9 respectively. A combined score including Fibronectin 1 and CXCL9 dosages presented 53% of sensitivity and 98% of specificity. Similar performances were observed for ER-negative tumours. Conclusions: This study suggests that Fibronectin 1/CXCL9 dosage in serum could screen a significant rate of BC, including ER-negative, and that differential gene expression analysis is a good approach to select candidate biomarkers to set up blood assays cancer screening. PMID:20068563

  8. Integrated microfluidic device for serum biomarker quantitation using either standard addition or a calibration curve.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weichun; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Hsiang-Yu; Woolley, Adam T

    2009-10-01

    Detection and accurate quantitation of biomarkers such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) can be a key aspect of early stage cancer diagnosis. Microfluidic devices provide attractive analysis capabilities, including low sample and reagent consumption, as well as short assay times. However, to date microfluidic analyzers have relied almost exclusively on calibration curves for sample quantitation, which can be problematic for complex mixtures such as human serum. We have fabricated integrated polymer microfluidic systems that can quantitatively determine fluorescently labeled AFP in human serum using either the method of standard addition or a calibration curve. Our microdevices couple an immunoaffinity purification step with rapid microchip electrophoresis separation in a laser-induced fluorescence detection system, all under automated voltage control in a miniaturized polymer microchip. In conjunction with laser-induced fluorescence detection, these systems can quantify AFP at approximately 1 ng/mL levels in approximately 10 microL of human serum in a few tens of minutes. Our polymer microdevices have been applied in determining AFP in spiked serum samples. These integrated microsystems offer excellent potential for rapid, simple, and accurate biomarker quantitation in a point-of-care setting.

  9. Significance of serum DKK1 as a diagnostic biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tung, Edmund Kwok-Kwan; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2012-12-01

    Hyperactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been implicated in cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is a secretory antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and has been found to be upregulated in many cancer types. The functional role of DKK1 in cancer progression has been revealed in several studies but there is controversy with regard to its antitumor function; its oncogenic role seems to be context-dependent. Nevertheless, DKK1 has been proposed to be a potential new biomarker in several types of cancers. The paper by Shen et al. revealed the diagnostic accuracy of DKK1 as a serum biomarker for HCC in a large-scale, multicenter study. Their study demonstrated that serum DKK1 was high in both sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing HCC, especially early-stage HCC and α-fetoprotein-negative HCCs. The authors also demonstrated that combination of serum α-fetoprotein with serum DKK1 could further improve the diagnostic accuracy. Overall, their findings revealed the importance and significance of DKK1 in HCC diagnosis.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay for the detection of the TNFα biomarker in human serum.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perdiguero, Josu; Retolaza, Aritz; Bujanda, Luis; Merino, Santos

    2014-02-01

    A simple method for the detection of TNF-alpha protein biomarker in human serum with great sensitivity has been developed using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor. Signal amplification based on a sandwich immunoassay including gold nanoparticles was used. Detection in serum proved to be challenging due to high undesirable non-specific binding to the sensor surface stemming from the matrix nature of the sample. After optimization of the assay parameters and, in the case of serum, of a sample dilution buffer to minimize the non-specific binding, very low limits of detection were achieved: 11.6 pg/mL (211 fM) and 54.4 pg/mL (989 fM) for spiked buffer and human serum respectively. The amplification steps with high affinity biotinylated antibodies and streptavidin-fuctionalized nanoparticles greatly enhanced the signal with the advantage of additional specificity. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, the immunoassay has proved feasible to be used for detection of low concentration biomarkers in real samples.

  11. Serum Nutritional Biomarkers and Their Associations with Sleep among US Adults in Recent National Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Canas, Jose A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Shah, Mauli T.; McNeely, Jessica M.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear. Methods Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2005–2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20–85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A) Sleep duration; (B) Sleep disorder; (C) Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as “Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction” (Factor 1), “Sleepiness” (Factor 2) and “Sleep disturbance” (Factor 3). Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene), folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models. Results Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OH)D and sleepiness (as well as insomnia), and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5–6 h per night) compared to normal sleep duration (7–8 h per night). Conclusions A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships. PMID:25137304

  12. Vitamin D Status Affects Serum Metabolomic Profiles in Pregnant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Julia L.; Pressman, Eva K.; Cooper, Elizabeth M.; Kent, Tera R.; Bar, Haim Y.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes through largely unknown mechanisms. This study was conducted to examine the role of vitamin D status in metabolomic profiles in a group of 30 pregnant, African American adolescents (17.1 ± 1.1 years) at midgestation (26.8 ± 2.8 weeks), in 15 adolescents with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥20 ng/mL, and in 15 teens with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum metabolomic profiles were examined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A novel hierarchical mixture model was used to evaluate differences in metabolite profiles between low and high groups. A total of 326 compounds were identified and included in subsequent statistical analyses. Eleven metabolites had significantly different means between the 2 vitamin D groups, after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing: pyridoxate, bilirubin, xylose, and cholate were higher, and leukotrienes, 1,2-propanediol, azelate, undecanedioate, sebacate, inflammation associated complement component 3 peptide (HWESASXX), and piperine were lower in serum from adolescents with 25(OH)D ≥20 ng/mL. Lower maternal vitamin D status at midgestation impacted serum metabolic profiles in pregnant adolescents. PMID:25367051

  13. Discovery of serum biomarkers predicting development of a subsequent depressive episode in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, M G; Cooper, J D; Chan, M K; Bot, M; Penninx, B W J H; Bahn, S

    2015-08-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is strongly associated with the subsequent development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder or dysthymia), no underlying biological risk factors are known. We aimed to identify biomarkers which predict depressive episodes in SAD patients over a 2-year follow-up period. One hundred sixty-five multiplexed immunoassay analytes were investigated in blood serum of 143 SAD patients without co-morbid depressive disorders, recruited within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Predictive performance of identified biomarkers, clinical variables and self-report inventories was assessed using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC) and represented by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Stepwise logistic regression resulted in the selection of four serum analytes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, vitronectin, collagen IV) and four additional variables (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory somatic subscale, depressive disorder lifetime diagnosis, BMI) as optimal set of patient parameters. When combined, an AUC of 0.86 was achieved for the identification of SAD individuals who later developed a depressive disorder. Throughout our analyses, biomarkers yielded superior discriminative performance compared to clinical variables and self-report inventories alone. We report the discovery of a serum marker panel with good predictive performance to identify SAD individuals prone to develop subsequent depressive episodes in a naturalistic cohort design. Furthermore, we emphasise the importance to combine biological markers, clinical variables and self-report inventories for disease course predictions in psychiatry. Following replication in independent cohorts, validated biomarkers could help to identify SAD patients at risk of developing a depressive disorder, thus facilitating early intervention.

  14. Early and delayed effects of naturally occurring asbestos on serum biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Andrews, Debora; Schladweiler, Mette C; Gavett, Stephen H; Dodd, Darol E; Cyphert, Jaime M

    2014-01-01

    Studies recently showed that intratracheal (IT) instillation of Libby amphibole (LA) increases circulating acute-phase proteins (APP; α-2 macroglobulin, A2M; and α-1 acid glycoprotein, AGP) and inflammatory biomarkers (osteopontin and lipocalin) in rats. In this study, objectives were to (1) compare changes in biomarkers of rats after instillation of different naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) minerals including LA, Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado Hills tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON), and (2) examine biomarkers after subchronic LA or amosite inhalation exposure. Rat-respirable fractions (aerodynamic diameter approximately 2.5 μm) prepared by water elutriation were delivered via a single IT instillation at doses of 0, 0.5, and 1.5 mg/rat in male F344 rats. Nose-only inhalation exposures were performed at 0, 1, 3.3, and 10 mg/m(3) for LA and at 3.3 mg /m(3) for amosite, 6h/d, 5 d/wk for 13 wk. Inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and cancer biomarkers were analyzed in the serum for up to 18 mo. IT instillation of some asbestos materials significantly increased serum AGP and A2M but to a varying degree (SM = LA > ON = ED). Numerical increases in interleukin (IL)-6 and osteopontin occurred in rats instilled with SM. SM and ED also elevated leptin and insulin at 15 mo, suggesting potential metabolic effects. LA inhalation tended to raise A2M at d 1 but not cytokines. Serum mesothelin appeared to elevate after 18 mo of LA inhalation. These results suggest that the lung injury induced by high levels of asbestos materials may be associated with systemic inflammatory changes and predisposition to insulin resistance.

  15. Circulating anti-filamin C autoantibody as a potential serum biomarker for low-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adult, and is usually not curable due to its invasive nature. Establishment of serum biomarkers for glioma would be beneficial both for early diagnosis and adequate therapeutic intervention. Filamins are an actin cross-linker and filamin C (FLNC), normally restricted in muscle tissues, offers many signaling molecules an essential communication fields. Recently, filamins have been considered important for tumorigenesis in cancers. Methods We searched for novel glioma-associated antigens by serological identification of antigens utilizing recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX), and found FLNC as a candidate protein. Tissue expressions of FLNC (both in normal and tumor tissues) were examined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was measured by ELISA in normal volunteers and in the patients with various grade gliomas. Results FLNC was expressed in glioma tissues and its level got higher as tumor grade advanced. Anti-FLNC autoantibody was also detected in the serum of glioma patients, but its levels were inversely correlated with the tissue expression. Serum anti-FLNC autoantibody level was significantly higher in low-grade glioma patients than in high-grade glioma patients or in normal volunteers, which was confirmed in an independent validation set of patients’ sera. The autoantibody levels in the patients with meningioma or cerebral infarction were at the same level of normal volunteers, and they were significantly lower than that of low-grade gliomas. Total IgG and anti-glutatione S-transferase (GST) antibody level were not altered among the patient groups, which suggest that the autoantibody response was specific for FLNC. Conclusions The present results suggest that serum anti-FLNC autoantibody can be a potential serum biomarker for early diagnosis of low-grade gliomas while it needs a large-scale clinical study

  16. Serum anion gap, bicarbonate and biomarkers of inflammation in healthy individuals in a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Farwell, Wildon R.; Taylor, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    Background In vitro data suggest that lower extracellular pH activates the immune system. We conducted a population-based study of the relation between serum acid–base status and inflammation. Methods We examined the serum anion gap and serum levels of bicarbonate and inflammatory biomarkers in 4525 healthy adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999–2006. We excluded participants who had chronic disease, recent infection and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Results The mean values of serum anion gap, bicarbonate level, leukocyte count and C-reactive protein level were all within normal limits. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnic background, body mass index, serum albumin level and other factors, we found that a higher anion gap and lower bicarbonate level were associated with a higher leukocyte count and higher C-reactive protein level. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of anion gap, those in the highest quartile had a leukocyte count that was 1.0 × 09/L higher and a C-reactive protein level that was 10.9 nmol/L higher (p < 0.01). Compared with participants in the highest quartile of bicarbonate level, those in the lowest quartile had a leukocyte count that was 0.7 × 109/L higher and a C-reactive protein level that was 4.0 nmol/L higher (p ≤ 0.02). A higher anion gap and lower bicarbonate level were also associated with a higher platelet count, a larger mean platelet volume and a higher ferritin level. Interpretation A higher serum anion gap and lower bicarbonate level were associated with higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers in a healthy sample of the general population. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relation between acid–base status and inflammation. PMID:20008503

  17. Serum MicroRNA Profiling and Bioinformatics of Patients with Spleen-Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long-Hui; Hong, Min; Yang, Xiao-Rong; Tang, Si-Meng; Yuan, Qian-Fa; He, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate serum microRNA (miRNA) profile and bioinformatics of patients with spleen-deficiency syndrome (SDS) and explore pathogenesis of SDS patients from miRNA levels, 10 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), within which 5 patients were with SDS and the remaining were with blood stasis syndrome (BSS), and 5 healthy volunteers were recruited. Serum miRNA profiles of SDS patients were identified by quantitative PCR array. Target prediction and functional annotation for miRNAs were performed by miRSystem database. The present study identified 11 candidate serum miRNAs for SDS patients, and their targets were significantly enriched in 18 KEGG pathways and 7 GO molecular functions. Those enriched KEGG pathways included (1) metabolisms of carbohydrate, protein, amino acid, and fatty acid, (2) signaling pathways of insulin, ErbB, chemokine, calcium, and type II diabetes mellitus, (3) invasions of bacterium, Escherichia coli, and Shigella (Shigellosis), and (4) endocytosis and phagocytosis. Those enriched GO molecular functions were mainly involved in transcription regulation and regulation of metabolism. Our findings might elucidate the pathogenesis of SDS patients with disorders of substance metabolism and hypoimmunity from miRNA levels, as well as providing some miRNA biomarkers for clinical syndrome differentiation of SDS. PMID:27994634

  18. Serum calreticulin as a novel biomarker of juvenile idiopathic arthritis disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Hashaad, Nashwa Ismail; Fawzy, Rasha Mohamed; Elazem, Abeer Ahmed Abo; Youssef, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relations between calreticulin (CRT) serum level and both disease activity and severity parameters in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Material and Methods In this study, 60 children with JIA and 50 age-and-sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled. The assessment of the disease activity was done using juvenile arthritis disease activity score 27 (JADAS-27). The assessment of disease severity was done via gray-scale ultrasonography (US) and power Doppler US (PDUS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assay the serum level of human CRT. Results The mean serum CRT levels in JIA patients was 8.6±1.2 ng/mL and showed a highly significant increase (p=0.001) as compared to the mean serum levels in the controls (5.02±0.77 ng/mL). There were statistically significant positive correlations between the serum CRT levels and disease duration, tender joint count, swollen joint count, visual analog scale, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, JADAS-27, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor titer, and ultrasonographic grading for synovitis and neovascularization. Conclusion Elevated serum CRT levels in JIA patients and its correlations with JIA disease activity and severity parameters signified that CRT might be used as a novel biomarker for disease activity and severity in JIA. PMID:28293448

  19. Biomarkers in Fasting Serum to Estimate Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Goldfine, Allison B.; Gerwien, Robert W.; Kolberg, Janice A.; O’Shea, Sheila; Hamren, Sarah; Hein, Glenn P.; Xu, Xiaomei M.; Patti, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biomarkers for estimating reduced glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, or impaired insulin secretion would be clinically useful, since these physiologic measures are important in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 94 individuals, of whom 84 had 1 or more risk factors and 10 had no known risk factors for diabetes, underwent oral glucose tolerance testing. We measured 34 protein biomarkers associated with diabetes risk in 250-μL fasting serum samples. We applied multiple regression selection techniques to identify the most informative biomarkers and develop multivariate models to estimate glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. The ability of the glucose tolerance model to discriminate between diabetic individuals and those with impaired or normal glucose tolerance was evaluated by area under the ROC curve (AUC) analysis. RESULTS Of the at-risk participants, 25 (30%) were found to have impaired glucose tolerance, and 11 (13%) diabetes. Using molecular counting technology, we assessed multiple biomarkers with high accuracy in small volume samples. Multivariate biomarker models derived from fasting samples correlated strongly with 2-h postload glucose tolerance (R2 = 0.45, P < 0.0001), composite insulin sensitivity index (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.0001), and insulin secretion (R2 = 0.45, P < 0.0001). Additionally, the glucose tolerance model provided strong discrimination between diabetes vs impaired or normal glucose tolerance (AUC 0.89) and between diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance vs normal tolerance (AUC 0.78). CONCLUSIONS Biomarkers in fasting blood samples may be useful in estimating glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. PMID:21149503

  20. [Search for potential gastric cancer biomarkers using low molecular weight blood plasma proteome profiling by mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, V E; Arnotskaia, N E; Ogorodnikova, E V; Davydov, M M; Ibraev, M A; Turkin, I N; Davydov, M I

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most widespread malignant tumors, still lacks reliable serum/plasma biomarkers of its early detection. In this study we have developed, unified, and tested a new methodology for search of gastric cancer biomarkers based on profiling of low molecular weight proteome (LMWP) (1-17 kDa). This approach included three main components: sample pre-fractionation, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), data analysis by a bioinformatics software package. Applicability and perspectives of the developed approach for detection of potential gastric cancer markers during LMWP analysis have been demonstrated using 69 plasma samples from patients with gastric cancer (stages I-IV) and 238 control samples. The study revealed peptides/polypeptides, which may be potentially used for detection of this pathology.

  1. Early serum biomarker networks in infants with distinct retinochoroidal lesion status of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Thádia Evelyn; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Machado, Anderson Silva; Cardoso, Ludmila Melo; Ribeiro, Ágata Lopes; Dias, Michelle Hallais França; Queiroz Andrade, Gláucia Manzan; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2017-02-28

    The present study characterized the early changes in the serum chemokines/cytokine signatures and networks in infants with congenital-toxoplasmosis/(TOXO) as compared to non-infected-controls/(NI). TOXO were subgrouped according to the retinochoroidal lesion status as no-lesion/(NL), active-lesion/(ARL), active/cicatricial-lesion/(ACRL) and cicatricial-lesion/(CRL). The results showed that TOXO display prominent chemokine production mediated by IL-8/CXCL8, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and RANTES/CCL5. Additionally, TOXO is accompanied by mixed proinflammatory/regulatory cytokine pattern mediated by IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10. While TNF appears as a putative biomarker for NL and IFN-γ/IL-5 as immunological features for ARL, IL-10 emerges as a relevant mediator in ACRL/CRL. IL-8/CXCL8 and IP-10/CXCL10 are broad-spectrum indicators of ocular disease, whereas TNF is a NL biomarker, IFN-γ and MIG/CXCL9 point out to ARL; and IL-10 is highlighted as a genuine serum biomarker of ACRL/CRL. The network analysis demonstrated a broad chemokine/cytokine crosstalk with divergences in the molecular signatures in patients with different ocular lesions during congenital toxoplasmosis.

  2. Identification of candidate diagnostic serum biomarkers for Kawasaki disease using proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yayoi; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Ino, Yoko; Aketagawa, Mao; Matsuo, Michie; Okayama, Akiko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Oba, Kunihiro; Morioka, Ichiro; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Yokota, Shumpei; Hirano, Hisashi; Mori, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and childhood febrile disease that can lead to cardiovascular complications. The diagnosis of KD depends on its clinical features, and thus it is sometimes difficult to make a definitive diagnosis. In order to identify diagnostic serum biomarkers for KD, we explored serum KD-related proteins, which differentially expressed during the acute and recovery phases of two patients by mass spectrometry (MS). We identified a total of 1,879 proteins by MS-based proteomic analysis. The levels of three of these proteins, namely lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), and angiotensinogen (AGT), were higher in acute phase patients. In contrast, the level of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) was decreased. To confirm the usefulness of these proteins as biomarkers, we analyzed a total of 270 samples, including those collected from 55 patients with acute phase KD, by using western blot analysis and microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Over the course of this experiment, we determined that the expression level of these proteins changes specifically in the acute phase of KD, rather than the recovery phase of KD or other febrile illness. Thus, LRG1 could be used as biomarkers to facilitate KD diagnosis based on clinical features. PMID:28262744

  3. Incidence and Predictors of Advanced Liver Fibrosis by a Validated Serum Biomarker in Liver Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Rollet-Kurhajec, Kathleen C.; Bhat, Aparna; Farag, Amanda; Deschenes, Marc; Wong, Philip; Sebastiani, Giada

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. Serum fibrosis biomarkers have shown good accuracy in the liver transplant (LT) population. We employed a simple serum biomarker to elucidate incidence and predictors of advanced fibrosis after LT over a long follow-up period. Methods. We included 440 consecutive patients who underwent LT between 1991 and 2013. Advanced liver fibrosis was defined as FIB-4 > 3.25 beyond 12 months after LT. Results. Over 2030.5 person-years (PY) of follow-up, 189 (43%) developed FIB-4 > 3.25, accounting for an incidence of 9.3/100 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1–10.7). Advanced fibrosis was predicted by chronic HCV infection (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 3.96, 95% CI 2.92–5.36, p < 0.001), hypoalbuminemia (aHR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.72–3.09; p < 0.001), and hyponatremia (aHR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.09–2.01; p = 0.01). LT recipients with more than 1 predictor had a higher incidence of advanced fibrosis, the highest being when all 3 predictors coexisted (log-rank: p < 0.001). Conclusions. Chronic HCV infection, hypoalbuminemia, and hyponatremia predict progression to advanced liver fibrosis following LT. Patients with these risk factors should be serially monitored using noninvasive fibrosis biomarkers and prioritized for interventions.

  4. Cancer-specific MALDI-TOF profiles of blood serum and plasma: biological meaning and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Karpova, M A; Moshkovskii, S A; Toropygin, I Y; Archakov, A I

    2010-01-03

    MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry has become a popular tool of cancer research during the last decade. High throughput and relative simplicity of this technology have made it attractive for biomarker discovery and validation across various platforms in blood serum/plasma. Many technical approaches have been developed for plasma/serum profiling including protein-chip based SELDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, purification of serum on magnetic beads, analysis of carrier-associated fraction and mass-spectrometric immunoassays. Extensive data about the identity of differential features detected on mass-spectra up to now makes it possible to draw conclusions about potency and perspectives of MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry in this field. A great majority of identified differentially expressed proteins are either house-keeping or inflammatory proteins as well as their modifications or fragments. Discriminating ability of mass-spectra is likely to be based on differential modification and fragmentation patterns of abundant serum proteins reflecting activity of enzymes including proteases and their inhibitors.

  5. Influence of honeybee sting on peptidome profile in human serum.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Jan; Światły, Agata; Hajduk, Joanna; Matysiak, Joanna; Kokot, Zenon J

    2015-05-22

    The aim of this study was to explore the serum peptide profiles from honeybee stung and non-stung individuals. Two groups of serum samples obtained from 27 beekeepers were included in our study. The first group of samples was collected within 3 h after a bee sting (stung beekeepers), and the samples were collected from the same person a second time after at least six weeks after the last bee sting (non-stung beekeepers). Peptide profile spectra were determined using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry combined with Omix, ZipTips and magnetic beads based on weak-cation exchange (MB-WCX) enrichment strategies in the mass range of 1-10 kDa. The samples were classified, and discriminative models were established by using the quick classifier, genetic algorithm and supervised neural network algorithms. All of the statistical algorithms used in this study allow distinguishing analyzed groups with high statistical significance, which confirms the influence of honeybee sting on the serum peptidome profile. The results of this study may broaden the understanding of the human organism's response to honeybee venom. Due to the fact that our pilot study was carried out on relatively small datasets, it is necessary to conduct further proteomic research of the response to honeybee sting on a larger group of samples.

  6. Serum microRNA-135a-5p as an auxiliary diagnostic biomarker for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinjun; Zhang, Hongchun; Shen, Xianjuan; Ju, Shaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to explore serum miR-135a-5p expression in colorectal cancer and examine the potential usefulness of this molecule as a biomarker for diagnosis in colorectal cancer. Methods Serum samples were collected from 60 patients with primary colorectal cancer, 40 patients with colorectal polyps and 50 healthy controls. Serum miR-135a-5p expression levels were detected by reverse transcription quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 199 concentrations were detected by MODULAR ANALYTICS E170. Results The relative expression level of serum miR-135a-5p in colorectal cancer patients, colorectal polyps patients and healthy controls was 2.451 (1.107, 4.413), 0.946 (0.401, 1.942) and 0.949 (0.194, 1.415), respectively, indicating that it was significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than that in the other two groups ( U = 351.0, 313.0, both P < 0.001). Additionally, it was significantly correlated with different degrees of tumour differentiation ( U = 215.0, P = 0.029) and different tumour stages ( U = 202.0, P = 0.013). There was no significant correlation between the relative expression of serum miR-135a-5p and carcinoembryonic antigen ( r(2 )= 0.023, P = 0.293) or carbohydrate antigen 199 ( r(2 )= 0.067, P = 0.068) in colorectal cancer patients. Compared with colorectal polyps group, AUC(ROC) of serum miR-135a-5p in colorectal cancer group was 0.832 with 95% CI 0.73-0.93; compared with healthy control group, AUC(ROC) was 0.875 with 95% CI 0.80-0.95. Conclusion Serum miR-135a-5p expression in colorectal cancer patients was higher than that in patients with colorectal polyps and healthy controls, suggesting that serum miR-135a-5p may prove to be an important biomarker for auxiliary diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

  7. Serum Metabolomic Profiling in Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis Identifies Multiple Dysregulated Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rachakonda, Vikrant; Gabbert, Charles; Raina, Amit; Bell, Lauren N.; Cooper, Sara; Malik, Shahid; Behari, Jaideep

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives While animal studies have implicated derangements of global energy homeostasis in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), the relevance of these findings to the development of human AAH remains unclear. Using global, unbiased serum metabolomics analysis, we sought to characterize alterations in metabolic pathways associated with severe AAH and identify potential biomarkers for disease prognosis. Methods This prospective, case-control study design included 25 patients with severe AAH and 25 ambulatory patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Serum samples were collected within 24 hours of the index clinical encounter. Global, unbiased metabolomics profiling was performed. Patients were followed for 180 days after enrollment to determine survival. Results Levels of 234 biochemicals were altered in subjects with severe AAH. Random-forest analysis, principal component analysis, and integrated hierarchical clustering methods demonstrated that metabolomics profiles separated the two cohorts with 100% accuracy. Severe AAH was associated with enhanced triglyceride lipolysis, impaired mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation, and upregulated omega oxidation. Low levels of multiple lysolipids and related metabolites suggested decreased plasma membrane remodeling in severe AAH. While most measured bile acids were increased in severe AAH, low deoxycholate and glycodeoxycholate levels indicated intestinal dysbiosis. Several changes in substrate utilization for energy homeostasis were identified in severe AAH, including increased glucose consumption by the pentose phosphate pathway, altered tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, and enhanced peptide catabolism. Finally, altered levels of small molecules related to glutathione metabolism and antioxidant vitamin depletion were observed in patients with severe AAH. Univariable logistic regression revealed 15 metabolites associated with 180-day survival in severe AAH. Conclusion Severe AAH is

  8. Serum carnitine as an independent biomarker of malnutrition in patients with impaired oral intake

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Junichi; Honda, Akira; Miyamoto, Yasunori; Miyazaki, Teruo; Murakami, Masashi; Saito, Yoshifumi; Ikegami, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Jiro; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Carnitine is a vitamin-like compound that plays important roles in fatty acid β-oxidation and the control of the mitochondrial coenzyme A/acetyl-CoA ratio. However, carnitine is not added to ordinary enteral nutrition or total parenteral nutrition. In this study, we determined the serum carnitine concentrations in subjects receiving ordinary enteral nutrition (EN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases to compare its levels with those of other nutritional markers. Serum samples obtained from 11 EN and 11 TPN patients and 82 healthy controls were examined. In addition, 10 Crohn’s disease and 10 ulcerative colitis patients with malnutrition who were barely able to ingest an ordinary diet were also evaluated. Carnitine and its derivatives were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The carnitine concentrations in EN and TPN subjects were significantly lower compared with those of the control subjects. Neither the serum albumin nor the total cholesterol level was correlated with the carnitine concentration, although a significant positive correlation was found between the serum albumin and total cholesterol levels. Indeed, patients with CD and UC showed significantly reduced serum albumin and/or total cholesterol levels, but their carnitine concentrations remained normal. In conclusion, only a complete blockade of an ordinary diet, such as EN or TPN, caused a reduction in the serum carnitine concentration. Serum carnitine may be an independent biomarker of malnutrition, and its supplementation is needed in EN and TPN subjects even if their serum albumin and total cholesterol levels are normal. PMID:25411530

  9. Serum carnitine as an independent biomarker of malnutrition in patients with impaired oral intake.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Junichi; Honda, Akira; Miyamoto, Yasunori; Miyazaki, Teruo; Murakami, Masashi; Saito, Yoshifumi; Ikegami, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Jiro; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

    2014-11-01

    Carnitine is a vitamin-like compound that plays important roles in fatty acid β-oxidation and the control of the mitochondrial coenzyme A/acetyl-CoA ratio. However, carnitine is not added to ordinary enteral nutrition or total parenteral nutrition. In this study, we determined the serum carnitine concentrations in subjects receiving ordinary enteral nutrition (EN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases to compare its levels with those of other nutritional markers. Serum samples obtained from 11 EN and 11 TPN patients and 82 healthy controls were examined. In addition, 10 Crohn's disease and 10 ulcerative colitis patients with malnutrition who were barely able to ingest an ordinary diet were also evaluated. Carnitine and its derivatives were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The carnitine concentrations in EN and TPN subjects were significantly lower compared with those of the control subjects. Neither the serum albumin nor the total cholesterol level was correlated with the carnitine concentration, although a significant positive correlation was found between the serum albumin and total cholesterol levels. Indeed, patients with CD and UC showed significantly reduced serum albumin and/or total cholesterol levels, but their carnitine concentrations remained normal. In conclusion, only a complete blockade of an ordinary diet, such as EN or TPN, caused a reduction in the serum carnitine concentration. Serum carnitine may be an independent biomarker of malnutrition, and its supplementation is needed in EN and TPN subjects even if their serum albumin and total cholesterol levels are normal.

  10. Patterns of dietary intake and serum carotenoid and tocopherol status are associated with biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Wood, Adrian D; Strachan, Anna A; Thies, Frank; Aucott, Lorna S; Reid, David M; Hardcastle, Antonia C; Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Simpson, William G; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary modification may affect inflammatory processes and protect against chronic disease. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary patterns, circulating carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations, and biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in a 10-year longitudinal study of Scottish postmenopausal women. Diet was assessed by FFQ during 1997-2000 (n 3237, mean age 54·8 (SD 2·2) years). Participants (n 2130, mean age 66·0 (SD 2·2) years) returned during 2007-11 for follow-up. Diet was assessed by FFQ (n 1682) and blood was collected for the analysis of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6, serum amyloid A, E-selectin, lipid profile and dietary biomarkers (carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol). Dietary pattern and dietary biomarker (serum carotenoid) components were generated by principal components analysis. A past 'prudent' dietary pattern predicted serum concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 (which decreased across the quintiles of the dietary pattern; P= 0·002 and P= 0·001, respectively; ANCOVA). Contemporary dietary patterns were also associated with inflammatory biomarkers. The concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 decreased across the quintiles of the 'prudent' dietary pattern (P= 0·030 and P= 0·006, respectively). hs-CRP concentration increased across the quintiles of a 'meat-dominated' dietary pattern (P= 0·001). Inflammatory biomarker concentrations decreased markedly across the quintiles of carotenoid component score (P< 0·001 for hs-CRP and IL-6, and P= 0·016 for E-selectin; ANCOVA). Prudent dietary pattern and carotenoid component scores were negatively associated with serum hs-CRP concentration (unstandardised β for prudent component: -0·053, 95% CI -0·102, -0·003; carotenoid component: -0·183, 95% CI -0·233, -0·134) independent of study covariates. A prudent dietary pattern (which reflects a diet high in the intakes of fish, yogurt, pulses, rice, pasta and wine, in addition to fruit

  11. Identification of serum stress biomarkers in pigs housed at different stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Marco-Ramell, A; Pato, R; Peña, R; Saco, Y; Manteca, X; Ruiz de la Torre, J L; Bassols, A

    2011-11-01

    Eight Duroc×(Landrace×Large White) male pigs housed at a stocking rate of 0.50m(2)/pig were subjected to a higher stocking rate of 0.25m(2)/pig (higher density, HD) for two 4-day periods over 26 days. Using biochemical and proteomic techniques serum and plasma samples were examined to identify potential biomarkers for monitoring stress due to HD housing. HD housed pigs showed significant differences (P<0.001) in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol, as well as in concentrations of the pig-major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) (P=0.002). No differences were observed in serum cortisol or other acute phase proteins such as haptoglobin, C-reactive protein or apolipoprotein A-I. HD-individuals also showed an imbalance in redox homeostasis, detected as an increase in the level of oxidized proteins measured as the total plasma carbonyl protein content (P<0.001) with a compensatory increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (P=0.012). Comparison of the serum proteome yielded a new potential stress biomarker, identified as actin by mass spectrometry. Cluster analysis of the results indicated that individuals segregated into two groups, with different response patterns, suggesting that the stress response depended on individual susceptibility.

  12. Methionine sulfoxides in serum proteins as potential clinical biomarkers of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Satoko; Kodera, Yoshio; Saito, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Kazumi; Momozono, Akari; Hayashi, Akinori; Kamata, Yuji; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases, and circulating biomarkers of its severity remains a topic of great interest for researchers. Our peptidomic strategy enables accurate and reproducible analysis of circulating proteins/peptides with or without post-translational modifications. Conventional wisdom holds that hydrophobic methionines exposed to an aqueous environment or experimental handling procedures are vulnerable to oxidation. However, we show that the mass spectra intensity ratio of oxidized to non-oxidized methionine residues in serum tryptic proteins can be accurately quantified using a single drop of human serum and give stable and reproducible results. Our data demonstrate that two methionine residues in serum albumin (Met-111 and Met-147) are highly oxidized to methionine sulfoxide in patients with diabetes and renal failure and in healthy smokers versus non-smoker controls. This label-free mass spectrometry approach to quantify redox changes in methionine residues should facilitate the identification of additional circulating biomarkers suitable for predicting the development or progression of human diseases. PMID:27929071

  13. Serum biomarkers of oxidative stress in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rubio, C P; Martínez-Subiela, S; Hernández-Ruiz, J; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Cerón, J J; Allenspach, K

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study and compare a panel of various serum biomarkers evaluating both the antioxidant response and oxidative damage in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Eighteen dogs with IBD and 20 healthy dogs were enrolled in the study. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing ability of the plasma (FRAP), total thiol concentrations, and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity were evaluated in serum to determine antioxidant response. To evaluate oxidative status, ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reactive oxygen species production (ROS) concentrations in serum were determined. Mean concentrations of all antioxidant biomarkers analyzed, with exception of FRAP, were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the sera of dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs. The oxidant markers studied were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in sera of dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs. These findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress could play an important role in the pathogenesis of canine IBD.

  14. Evaluation of the chondroprotective effects of glucosamine and fish collagen peptide on a rabbit ACLT model using serum biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Akihiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Matahira, Yoshiharu; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2013-05-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations of severity of osteoarthritis (OA) and serum biomarkers including keratan sulfate (KS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) 846 epitope. We also investigated the effect of glucosamine and fish collagen peptide (FCP) on OA. OA was induced in 12 rabbits (12 weeks of age) by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). After the surgery, the rabbits were orally administered FCP (F group), glucosamine (G group) or FCP and glucosamine (FG group) for 4 weeks. The control group was provided water ad libitum (C group). Blood was collected before surgery (pre-ACLT) and before euthanasia (post-ACLT) for serum marker measurement. Biomarker levels were measured by using commercial kits. We evaluated OA severity both macroscopically and histologically. Macroscopic evaluation showed mildly eroded condylar surfaces in the C group. Histological findings were significantly different from the FG and other groups. There were no significant differences between each group at post-ACLT in terms of serum KS, HA and CS 846. Histological assessment and serum biomarker measurements performed at post-ACLT showed a significant correlation between HA concentration and OA severity. Variations in the CS 846 concentration at pre-ACLT and post-ACLT were significantly correlated with OA severity. Administration of glucosamine and FCP had chondroprotective effects in the ACLT model. Serum biomarker concentrations were significantly correlated with cartilage injury. Serum biomarker measurement would be useful for monitoring articular cartilage damage in the clinical setting.

  15. Cancer serum biomarkers based on aberrant post-translational modifications of glycoproteins: Clinical value and discovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Silva, M Luísa S

    2015-12-01

    Due to the increase in life expectancy in the last decades, as well as changes in lifestyle, cancer has become one of the most common diseases both in developed and developing countries. Early detection remains the most promising approach to improve long-term survival of cancer patients and this may be achieved by efficient screening of biomarkers in biological fluids. Great efforts have been made to identify specific alterations during oncogenesis. Changes at the cellular glycosylation profiles are among such alterations. The "glycosylation machinery" of cells is affected by malignant transformation due to the altered expression of glycogens, leading to changes in glycan biosynthesis and diversity. Alterations in the post-translational modifications of proteins that occur in cancer result in the expression of antigenically distinct glycoproteins. Therefore, these aberrant and cancer-specific glycoproteins and the autoantibodies that are produced in response to their presence constitute targets for cancer biomarkers' search. Different strategies have been implemented for the discovery of cancer glycobiomarkers and are herein reviewed, along with their potentialities and limitations. Practical issues related with serum analysis are also addressed, as well as the challenges that this area faces in the near future.

  16. Seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Waheed, M M; Ghoneim, I M; Alhaider, A K

    2015-03-01

    Eight healthy fertile (control) and 11 infertile male dromedaries were used to investigate whether specific seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers could be related to their in vivo fertility. Eight fertility biomarkers and testosterone were determined in both seminal plasma and serum of all studied camels during the rutting season using commercial kits. Results revealed a significant (P < 0.01) difference in semen parameters between the control and infertile camels. There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the control and infertile dromedaries in seminal plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (15.04 ± 1.14 vs. 4.55 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; 50.66 ± 6.28 vs. 23.56 ± 4.29 pg/mL, respectively) and testosterone concentrations (732.14 ± 57.12 vs. 396.36 ± 79.34 pg/mL, respectively). A significant (P < 0.05) difference was found between the control and infertile camels in seminal plasma concentrations of osteopontin, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3), and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type). There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference between the fertile and infertile camels in serum GPx activity 67.81 ± 12.41 vs. 21.31 ± 4.63 nmol/min/mL, respectively) and both testosterone (599.57 ± 110.90 vs. 176.09 ± 24.05 pg/mL, respectively) and clusterin concentrations (137.29 ± 14.15 vs. 253.00 ± 17.14 ng/mL, respectively). A significant (P < 0.05) difference existed between the control and infertile male dromedaries in serum concentrations of sPLA2, CRISP3, malonialdehyde, and insulinlike growth factor 1. In conclusion, CRISP3, sPLA2, GPx, and testosterone are fertility-associated biomarkers in both seminal plasma and serum of dromedary camels. Seminal plasma osteopontin is positively correlated and prostaglandin D synthase (lipocalcin-type) is negatively correlated with camels' fertility. Serum malonialdehyde, insulinlike growth factor 1

  17. Serum Apo A-1 and Its Role as a Biomarker of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Salma; Ali, Yousaf; Khan, Uzma I; Ullah, Waqas; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Waleed, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the role of apolipoprotein(Apo A-1) as a biomarker of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its comparison with the traditional marker high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Methodology One hundred patients proven to have coronary artery disease by angiography were recruited and their serum biomarkers were compared with 100 normal individuals adjusted for age and sex. Result The mean +/-standard deviation (SD) value of plasma Apo A-1 levels in the normal individuals were observed to be 207.42 +/- 41.35 (mg/dL) against 90.69 +/- 20.77 (mg/dL) in the cardiac patients. On the other hand the serum HDL levels were 52.93 +/-33.58 (mg/dL) in the normal individuals and 37.86 +/- 23.19 (mg/dL) in the cardiac patients. Both of these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). For Apo A-1, a large proportion of patients (85%) were found to be in the abnormal range when compared to the control group in which only 7% had an abnormal value. For HDL, a majority (70%) of the cardiac patients had abnormal values while 40% of the normal individuals also had abnormal values. The sensitivity of Apo A-1 for detecting CAD was 85%, while for HDL, it was only 69%. Similarly, the specificity of Apo A-1 for detecting CAD was 93%, while for HDL, it was 60%. When plotted on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Apo A-1 had a much larger area under the curve when compared to HDL. Conclusion This study suggests that Apo A-1 may, in fact, be more sensitive than HDL as a predictor of CAD. However, to completely elucidate its role as a biomarker, to set target serum levels and to increase its clinical use, further studies are required. PMID:28123922

  18. Evaluation of serum chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan: biomarkers for osteoarthritis in canine hip dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Itthiarbha, Akanit; Ong-Chai, Siriwan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2008-01-01

    Hip dysplasia (HD) is one of the most important bone and joint diseases in dogs. Making the radiographic diagnosis is sometime possible when the disease has markedly progressed. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronan (HA) are the most important cartilage biomolecules that are elevated in the serum taken from dogs with osteoarthritis. The serum CS and HA can be detected by an ELISA technique, with using monoclonal antibodies against CS epitope 3B3 and WF6 and the HA chain as the primary antibodies. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of serum CS (both epitopes) and HA in non-HD and HD dogs. All 123 dogs were categorized into 2 groups. The non-HD group was composed of 98 healthy dogs, while the HD group was comprised of 25 HD dogs. Blood samples were collected for analyzing the serum CS and HA levels with using the ELISA technique. The results showed that the average serum level of the CS epitope WF6 in the HD group (2,594 ± 3,036.10 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that in the non-HD group (465 ± 208.97 ng/ml) (p < 0.01) while the epitope 3B3 in the HD group (105 ± 100.05 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that in the non-HD group (136 ± 142.03 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). The amount of serum HA in the HD group (134.74 ± 59.71 ng/ml) was lower than that in the non HD group (245.45 ± 97.84 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the serum CS and HA levels might be used as biomarkers for osteoarthritis in HD dogs. PMID:18716453

  19. The diagnostic effect of serum miR-196b as biomarker in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chunjie; Gu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The microRNA, miR-196b, serves a role in normal cell differentiation, proliferation and tumorigenesis of different types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to explore the serum expression of miR-196b in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its correlation with clinicopathological features. Sera samples were obtained from 103 patients with CRC, 51 patients with colorectal adenoma (Ad) and 100 healthy individuals for the present study. The serum expression of miR-196b in sera samples of the three cohorts was detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic value of miR-196b in the serum of the patients with CRC was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and survival analysis, using the Kaplan-Meier method, which was performed with the data from a 5-year follow-up. The expression of miR-196b in the serum of patients with CRC was significantly higher compared with that in Ad patients or healthy individuals (all P<0.001), and the overexpression of serum miR-196b was clearly associated with lymph node invasion, differentiation, and the tumor-lymph nodes-metastasis stage (all P<0.05). ROC curve analysis demonstrated that, comparing patients with CRC with healthy individuals, the area under the curve of serum miR-196b was 0.8135, and its specificity and sensitivity were 63 and 87.38%, respectively, at a diagnostic threshold of −4.785. Patients with CRC of miR-196b-high status had shorter overall survival and disease-free survival rates compared with those of miR-196b-low status. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that serum miR-196b is upregulated in CRC, and may have an application as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for patients with CRC. PMID:28123705

  20. Detection of glyco-mucin profiles improves specificity of MUC16 and MUC1 biomarkers in ovarian serous tumours.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Sara; Marcos-Silva, Lara; Pereira, Daniela; Pinto, Rita; Almeida, Raquel; Söderberg, Ola; Mandel, Ulla; Clausen, Henrik; Felix, Ana; Lunet, Nuno; David, Leonor

    2015-02-01

    The CA125 assay detects circulating MUC16 and is one of the most widely used cancer biomarkers for the follow-up of ovarian cancer. We previously demonstrated that detection of aberrant cancer-associated glycoforms of MUC16 as well as MUC1 in circulation could improve the yield of these serum assays. Our aim was to refine ovarian cancer biomarkers by detection of aberrant glycoforms (Tn, STn, and T) of MUC16 and MUC1 in ovarian cancer tissue using Proximity Ligation Assays (PLA). We studied two series of serous ovarian tumours, a pilot series of 66 ovarian tumours (27 cystadenomas, 16 borderline tumours and 23 adenocarcinomas) from Centro Hospitalar S. João, Porto and a validation series of 89 ovarian tumours (17 cystadenomas, 25 borderline tumours and 47 adenocarcinomas) from the Portuguese Institute of Oncology Francisco Gentil, Lisbon. PLA reactions for MUC16/Tn, MUC16/STn, MUC1/Tn and MUC1/STn were negative in benign lesions but often positive in borderline and malignant lesions, in both series. An even better yield was obtained based on positivity for any of the four glyco-mucin profiles, further increasing sensitivity to 72% and 83% in the two series, respectively, with 100% specificity. The strategy is designated glyco-mucin profiling and provides strong support for development of PLA-based serum assays for early diagnosis.

  1. Oral Fluids that Detect Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D.; Sneed, J. Darrell; Steinhubl, Steven R; Kolasa, Justin; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; McDevitt, John T.; Campbell, Charles L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the utility of oral fluids for assessment of coronary and cardiovascular (CVD) health. Study Design Twenty-nine patients with pre-existing CVD disease underwent an invasive cardiac procedure (alcohol septal ablation or percutaneous coronary intervention) and provided unstimulated whole saliva (UWS), sublingual swabs (LS), gingival swabs (GS) and serum at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 hr. Concentrations of 13 relevant biomarkers were determined and correlated with levels in serum and the oral fluids. Results Concentrations of the majority of biomarkers were higher in UWS than LS and GS. Coronary and CVD disease biomarkers in UWS correlated better with serum than LS and GS based on group status and measures of time effect. Seven biomarkers demonstrated time effect changes consistent with serum biomarkers, including C-reactive protein and troponin I. Conclusions Changes in serum biomarker profiles are reflected in oral fluids suggesting that oral fluid biomarkers could aid in the assessment of cardiac ischemia/necrosis. PMID:22769406

  2. Haptoglobin is an Early Serum Biomarker of Virus-Induced Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes in BBDR and LEW1.WR1 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Annie J.; Yang, Chaoxing; Tam, Sun W.; Hinerfeld, Douglas; Evans, James E.; Green, Karin M.; Leszyk, John; Yang, Kejian; Guberski, Dennis L.; Mordes, John P.; Greiner, Dale L.; Rossini, Aldo A.; Bortell, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic profiling of serum is a powerful technique to identify differentially expressed proteins that can serve as biomarkers predictive of disease onset. In this study, we utilized 2D gel analysis followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis to identify putative serum biomarkers for autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR) rats induced to express disease. Treatment with toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidilic acid (pIC), plus infection with Kilham rat virus (KRV), a rat parvovirus, results in nearly 100% of young BBDR rats becoming diabetic within 11–21 days. Sera collected from pre-diabetic rats at early time points following treatment with pIC + KRV were analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis and compared with sera from control rats treated with PBS, pIC alone, or pIC + H1, a non-diabetogenic parvovirus. None of the latter three control treatments precipitates T1D. 2D gel analysis revealed that haptoglobin, an acute phase and hemoglobin scavenger protein, was differentially expressed in the sera of rats treated with pIC + KRV relative to control groups. These results were confirmed by Western blot and ELISA studies that further validated haptoglobin levels as being differentially increased in the sera of pIC + KRV treated rats relative to controls during the first week following infection. Early elevations in serum haptoglobin were also observed in LEW1.WR1 rats that became diabetic following infection with rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV). The identification and validation of haptoglobin as a putative serum biomarker for autoimmune T1D in rats now affords us the opportunity to test the validity of this protein as a biomarker for human T1D, particularly in those situations where viral infection is believed to precede onset of disease. PMID:20975081

  3. The Temporal Pattern of Changes in Serum Biomarker Levels Reveals Complex and Dynamically Changing Pathologies after Exposure to a Single Low-Intensity Blast in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Farid; Plantman, Stefan; Cernak, Ibolja; Agoston, Denes V.

    2015-01-01

    Time-dependent changes in blood-based protein biomarkers can help identify the ­pathological processes in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), assess injury severity, and monitor disease progression. We obtained blood from control and injured mice (exposed to a single, low-intensity blast) at 2-h, 1-day, 1–week, and 1-month post-injury. We then determined the serum levels of biomarkers related to metabolism (4-HNE, HIF-1α, ceruloplasmin), vascular function (AQP1, AQP4, VEGF, vWF, Flk-1), inflammation (OPN, CINC1, fibrinogen, MIP-1a, OX-44, p38, MMP-8, MCP-1 CCR5, CRP, galectin-1), cell adhesion and the extracellular matrix (integrin α6, TIMP1, TIMP4, Ncad, connexin-43), and axonal (NF-H, Tau), neuronal (NSE, CK-BB) and glial damage (GFAP, S100β, MBP) at various post-injury time points. Our findings indicate that the exposure to a single, low-intensity blast results in metabolic and vascular changes, altered cell adhesion, and axonal and neuronal injury in the mouse model of bTBI. Interestingly, serum levels of several inflammatory and astroglial markers were either unchanged or elevated only during the acute and subacute phases of injury. Conversely, serum levels of the majority of biomarkers related to metabolic and vascular functions, cell adhesion, as well as neuronal and axonal damage remained elevated at the termination of the experiment (1 month), indicating long-term systemic and cerebral alterations due to blast. Our findings show that the exposure to a single, low-intensity blast induces complex pathological processes with distinct temporal profiles. Hence, monitoring serum biomarker levels at various post-injury time points may provide enhanced diagnostics in blast-related neurological and multi-system deficits. PMID:26124743

  4. Mapping CSF biomarker profiles onto NIA-AA guidelines for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Roesler, Jennifer; Thierjung, Nathalie; Werle, Lukas; Buck, Dorothea; Yakushev, Igor; Gleixner, Lena; Kagerbauer, Simone; Ortner, Marion; Grimmer, Timo; Kübler, Hubert; Martin, Jan; Laskaris, Nikolaos; Kurz, Alexander; Perneczky, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) propose the categorization of individuals according to their biomarker constellation. Though the NIA-AA criteria for preclinical AD and AD dementia have already been applied in conjunction with imaging AD biomarkers, the application of the criteria using comprehensive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker information has not been thoroughly studied yet. The study included a monocentric cohort with healthy (N = 41) and disease (N = 22) controls and patients with AD dementia (N = 119), and a multicentric sample with healthy controls (N = 116) and patients with AD dementia (N = 102). The CSF biomarkers β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau at threonine 181 were measured with commercially available assays. Biomarker values were trichotomized into positive for AD, negative, or borderline. In controls the presence of normal CSF profiles varied between 13.6 and 25.4 % across the studied groups, while up to 8.6 % of them had abnormal CSF biomarkers. In 40.3-52.9 % of patients with AD dementia, a typical CSF profile for AD was detected. Approximately 40 % of the potential biomarker constellations are not considered in the NIA-AA guidelines, and more than 40 % of participants could not be classified into the NIA-AA categories with distinct biomarker constellations. Here, a refined scheme covering all potential biomarker constellations is proposed. These results enrich the discussion on the NIA-AA guidelines and point to a discordance between clinical symptomatology and CSF biomarkers even in patients with full-blown AD dementia, who are supposed to have a clearly positive for AD neurochemical profile.

  5. Serum Helicobacter pylori NapA antibody as a potential biomarker for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Huimin; Zhang, Tingting; Ren, Xiyun; Nadolny, Christina; Dong, Xiaoqun; Huang, Lina; Yuan, Kexin; Tian, Wenjing; Jia, Yunhe

    2014-02-20

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is strongly associated with gastric cancer. However, only a minority of infected individuals ever develop gastric cancer. This risk stratification may be in part due to differences among strains. The relationship between neutrophil-activating protein (NapA) and gastric cancer is unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of NapA as a biomarker in gastric cancer. We used enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the status of H. pylori infection. Indirect ELISA method was used for detection of NapA antibody titer in the serum of H. pylori infected individuals. Unconditional logistic regressions were adopted to analyze the variables and determine the association of NapA and gastric cancer. The results of study indicated serum H. pylori NapA antibody level were associated with a reduced risk for development of gastric cancer. It may be used in conjugation with other indicators for gastric cancer detection.

  6. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and mi

  7. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; ...

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbonmore » monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins

  8. Serum Midkine and Osteopontin Levels as Diagnostic Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hodeib, Hossam; ELshora, Ola; Selim, Amal; Sabry, Nesreen Mohammed; EL-ashry, Heba Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is a primary tumor of the liver; it is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein which is implicated in enhancing invasive and metastatic progression of many tumors. Midkine (MDK) is a 13-kDa small heparin-binding growth factor which plays a significant role in carcinogenesis related activities. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of serum Midkine and Osteopontin levels as diagnostic biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Methods This study was carried out from January 2014 to January 2016 in Internal Medicine, Clinical Oncology and Tropical Medicine Departments of Tanta University Hospital (Egypt). One hundred forty subjects were enrolled in our study, they were divided into four groups: Group I included 35 patients presented with HCV without cirrhosis; Group II included 35 patients presented with HCV with liver cirrhosis; Group III included 35 patients presented with HCC on top of cirrhosis; and Group IV included 35 apparently healthy subjects as a control group. The studied groups were age and sex matched. Routine and specific (OPN and MDK) laboratory investigations were performed in all included subjects. Results The main finding of the present work was that the mean serum levels of OPN and MDK were significantly elevated in HCC patients either by comparing HCC patients vs. HCV patients without cirrhosis, HCC patients vs. HCV patients with cirrhosis or HCC patients vs. healthy subjects. Interestingly, by performing a ROC analysis, serum MDK levels had better sensitivity and specificity than OPN and AFP levels in the diagnosis of HCC (98.4 %, 97.1% and 97%) and (96.2%, 95.3% and 95%) for MDK, OPN and AFP respectively. Conclusion Serum MDK and OPN levels are comparable to AFP levels and could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers of HCC in HCV patients with liver cirrhosis and in the prediction of liver cirrhosis in HCV patients without cirrhosis

  9. Detection of Serum Protein Biomarkers for the Diagnosis and Staging of Hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Juan; Zhang, Junjie; Gao, Pengfei; Pei, Hang; Wang, Lei; Guo, Fei; Yu, Jiekai; Zheng, Shu; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2015-06-04

    The present study aimed to identify serum biomarkers for the detection of hepatoblastoma (HB). Serum samples were collected from 71 HB patients (stage I, n = 19; stage II, n = 19, stage III, n = 19; and stage IV, n = 14) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Differential expression of serum protein markers were screened using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), and the target proteins were isolated and purified using HPLC and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), SEQUEST, and bioinformatics analysis. Differential protein expression was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA). SELDI-TOF-MS screening identified a differentially expressed protein with an m/z of 9348 Da, which was subsequently identified as Apo A-I; its expression was significantly lower in the HB group as compared to the normal control group (1546.67 ± 757.81 vs. 3359.21 ± 999.36, respectively; p < 0.01). Although the expression level decreased with increasing disease stage, pair-wise comparison revealed significant differences in Apo A-I expression between the normal group and the HB subgroups (p < 0.01). ELISA verified the reduced expression of Apo A-I in the HB group. Taken together, these results suggest that Apo A-I may represent a serum protein biomarker of HB. Further studies will assess the value of using Apo A-I expression for HB diagnosis and staging.

  10. Serum neurogranin measurement as a biomarker of acute traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Korley, Frederick K.; Dai, Min; Everett, Allen D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Neurogranin (NRGN) is a small neuronal protein that plays an important role in synaptic signaling by regulating calmodulin (CaM) availability. In this study, we developed an ELISA to measure NRGN quantitatively in serum samples from a cohort of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and a non-TBI control cohort, and explored the potential value of NRGN as a circulating biomarker for TBI. Design and methods Recombinant His-NRGN protein was used to develop mouse monoclonal capture and rabbit polyclonal detection antibodies, and they were used to develop a sandwich ELISA. After validation, we used this ELISA to measure serum samples from a cohort of typical adult acute TBI patients (N = 76 TBI cases) and non-TBI control patients (N = 150 controls). Results The NRGN ELISA lower limit of detection was 0.055 ng/mL, lower limit of quantification was 0.2 ng/mL, and interassay CVs were ≤ 10.7%. The average recovery was 99.9% (range from 97.2–102%). Serum NRGN concentrations in TBI cases were significantly higher than in controls (median values were 0.18 ng/mL vs. 0.02 ng/mL, p < 0.0001), but did not discriminate TBI cases with intracranial hemorrhage (p = 0.09). Conclusions We have developed a highly sensitive and reproducible ELISA for measuring circulating NRGN in blood samples. Serum NRGN concentrations in acute TBI patients were significantly higher than in controls, indicating that NRGN could have utility as a circulating biomarker for acute TBI. This report provides evidence to support larger and controlled TBI clinical studies for NRGN validation and prediction of outcomes. PMID:26025774

  11. Serum DHCR24 Auto-antibody as a new Biomarker for Progression of Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Kimura, Kiminori; Sunagozaka, Hajime; Kaneko, Shuichi; Inoue, Kazuaki; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kohara, Michinori; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    Background New biomarkers are needed to identify the stage of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected diseases in order to reduce the mortality rates. Herein, we investigated whether serum 3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase antibody (DHCR24 Ab) may serve as a prognostic marker for hepatitis C infection progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Serum DHCR24 Abs from 395 HCV-positive patients, including 133 chronic hepatitis (CHC), 85 liver cirrhosis (LCC), and 177 HCC (HCC-C) patients; 232 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive patients, including 103 chronic hepatitis (CHB), 56 liver cirrhosis (LCB), and 73 HCC (HCC-B) patients; and 24 healthy controls, were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The serum DHCR24 Ab levels were significantly higher in patients with CHC than in healthy controls, in LCC than in CHC, and in LCC than in HCC-C (P < 0.0001 for all). The concentration of serum DHCR24 Ab in HCC-B patients showed no significant difference compared to CHB and LCB patients (P = 0.1247). The DHCR24 Ab levels were significantly higher in early HCC-C than CHC or LCC patients and in late HCC-C compared to early HCC-C patients. The sensitivity of the DHCR24 Ab for HCC-C detection (70.6%) was higher than that of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP; 54.8%) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II; 42 · 5%). Moreover, DHCR24 was up-regulated in HCV-positive, but not HBV-positive tissues or HBV-negative, HCV-negative HCC specimens. Conclusions DHCR24 auto-antibody represents a potential noninvasive biomarker for HCV-related liver disease and may facilitate the diagnosis of PIVKA-II and AFP-negative HCC. PMID:26288822

  12. Serum Protein KNG1, APOC3, and PON1 as Potential Biomarkers for Yin-Deficiency-Heat Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Mao, Liangen; Ping, Zepeng; Jiang, Tingting; Wang, Chong; Chen, Zhongliang; Li, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    Yin-deficiency-heat (YDH) syndrome is a concept in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for describing subhealth status. However, there are few efficient diagnostic methods available for confirming YDH syndrome. To explore the novel method for diagnosing YDH syndrome, we applied iTRAQ to observe the serum protein profiles in YDH syndrome rats and confirmed protein levels by ELISA. A total of 92 differentially expressed proteins (63 upregulated proteins and 29 downregulated proteins), which were mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades and glucose metabolism pathway, were identified by the proteomic experiments. Kininogen 1 (KNG1) was significantly increased (p < 0.0001), while apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3, p < 0.005) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1, p < 0.001) were significantly decreased in the serum of YDH syndrome rats. The combination of KNG1, APOC3, and PON1 constituted a diagnostic model with 100.0% sensitivity and 85.0% specificity. The results indicated that KNG1, APOC3, and PON1 may act as potential biomarkers for diagnosing YDH syndrome. KNG1 may regulate cytokines and chemokines release in YDH syndrome, and the low levels of PON1 and APOC3 may increase oxidative stress and lipolysis in YDH syndrome, respectively. Our work provides a novel method for YDH syndrome diagnosis and also provides valuable experimental basis to understand the molecular mechanism of YDH syndrome. PMID:27843478

  13. Assessing sample and miRNA profile quality in serum and plasma or other biofluids.

    PubMed

    Blondal, Thorarinn; Jensby Nielsen, Søren; Baker, Adam; Andreasen, Ditte; Mouritzen, Peter; Wrang Teilum, Maria; Dahlsveen, Ina K

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small cellular RNAs (typically 21-23nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Current estimates indicate that more than one third of the cellular transcriptome is regulated by miRNAs, although they are relatively few in number (less than 2000 human miRNAs). The high relative stability of miRNA in common clinical tissues and biofluids (e.g. plasma, serum, urine, saliva, etc.) and the ability of miRNA expression profiles to accurately classify discrete tissue types and disease states have positioned miRNA quantification as a promising new tool for a wide range of diagnostic applications. Furthermore miRNAs have been shown to be rapidly released from tissues into the circulation with the development of pathology. To facilitate discovery and clinical development of miRNA-based biomarkers, we developed a genome-wide Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA™)-based miRNA qPCR platform with unparalleled sensitivity and robustness. The platform allows high-throughput profiling of miRNAs from important clinical sources without the need for pre-amplification. Using this system, we have profiled thousands of biofluid samples including blood derived plasma and serum. An extensive quality control (QC) system has been implemented in order to secure technical excellence and reveal any unwanted bias coming from pre-analytical or analytical variables. We present our approaches to sample and RNA QC as well as data QC and normalization. Specifically we have developed normal reference ranges for circulating miRNAs in serum and plasma as well as a hemolysis indicator based on microRNA expression.

  14. Quantification of NS1 dengue biomarker in serum via optomagnetic nanocluster detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Paula; Watterson, Daniel; Parmvi, Mattias; Burger, Robert; Boisen, Anja; Young, Paul; Cooper, Matthew A.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Ranzoni, Andrea; Donolato, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Dengue is a tropical vector-borne disease without cure or vaccine that progressively spreads into regions with temperate climates. Diagnostic tools amenable to resource-limited settings would be highly valuable for epidemiologic control and containment during outbreaks. Here, we present a novel low-cost automated biosensing platform for detection of dengue fever biomarker NS1 and demonstrate it on NS1 spiked in human serum. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are coated with high-affinity monoclonal antibodies against NS1 via bio-orthogonal Cu-free ‘click’ chemistry on an anti-fouling surface molecular architecture. The presence of the target antigen NS1 triggers MNP agglutination and the formation of nanoclusters with rapid kinetics enhanced by external magnetic actuation. The amount and size of the nanoclusters correlate with the target concentration and can be quantified using an optomagnetic readout method. The resulting automated dengue fever assay takes just 8 minutes, requires 6 μL of serum sample and shows a limit of detection of 25 ng/mL with an upper detection range of 20000 ng/mL. The technology holds a great potential to be applied to NS1 detection in patient samples. As the assay is implemented on a low-cost microfluidic disc the platform is suited for further expansion to multiplexed detection of a wide panel of biomarkers.

  15. Serum biomarker screening for the diagnosis of early gastric cancer using SELDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Dianliang; Guo, Chunbao

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of sera from stage I gastric cancer patients using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) and established a diagnostic model for the early diagnosis of stage I gastric cancer. Serum samples from 169 gastric cancer patients and 83 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were analyzed by SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip array technology. The SELDI-TOF-MS spectral data were analyzed using the Biomarker Wizard™ and Biomarker Patterns™ software to find differential proteins and develop a classification tree for gastric cancer. A total of 34 mass peaks were identified. Six peaks at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 2873, 3163, 4526, 5762, 6121 and 7778 were used to construct the diagnostic model. The model effectively distinguished gastric cancer samples from control samples, achieving a sensitivity and specificity of 93.49 and 91.57%, respectively. In addition, we identified 3 of the 6 protein peaks at 2873, 6121 and 7778 m/z, which distinguished between stage I and stage II/III/IV gastric cancer. The model had an accuracy of 88.89% for the identification of stage I gastric cancer. In conclusion, the diagnostic model for the detection of serum proteins by SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip array technology correctly distinguishes gastric cancer from healthy samples, and has the ability to screen and distinguish between early gastric cancer from advanced gastric cancer.

  16. Quantification of NS1 dengue biomarker in serum via optomagnetic nanocluster detection

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Paula; Watterson, Daniel; Parmvi, Mattias; Burger, Robert; Boisen, Anja; Young, Paul; Cooper, Matthew A.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Ranzoni, Andrea; Donolato, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a tropical vector-borne disease without cure or vaccine that progressively spreads into regions with temperate climates. Diagnostic tools amenable to resource-limited settings would be highly valuable for epidemiologic control and containment during outbreaks. Here, we present a novel low-cost automated biosensing platform for detection of dengue fever biomarker NS1 and demonstrate it on NS1 spiked in human serum. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are coated with high-affinity monoclonal antibodies against NS1 via bio-orthogonal Cu-free ‘click’ chemistry on an anti-fouling surface molecular architecture. The presence of the target antigen NS1 triggers MNP agglutination and the formation of nanoclusters with rapid kinetics enhanced by external magnetic actuation. The amount and size of the nanoclusters correlate with the target concentration and can be quantified using an optomagnetic readout method. The resulting automated dengue fever assay takes just 8 minutes, requires 6 μL of serum sample and shows a limit of detection of 25 ng/mL with an upper detection range of 20000 ng/mL. The technology holds a great potential to be applied to NS1 detection in patient samples. As the assay is implemented on a low-cost microfluidic disc the platform is suited for further expansion to multiplexed detection of a wide panel of biomarkers. PMID:26536916

  17. Multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers in serum with nanowire arrays using readout ASIC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Jun; Chai, Kevin Tshun Chuan; Luo, Henry Zhan Hong; Huang, Joon Min; Tay, Ignatius Guang Kai; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Je, Minkyu

    2012-05-15

    Early detection of cardiac biomarkers for diagnosis of heart attack is the key to saving lives. Conventional method of detection like the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is time consuming and low in sensitivity. Here, we present a label-free detection system consisting of an array of silicon nanowire sensors and an interface readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). This system provides a rapid solution that is highly sensitive and is able to perform direct simultaneous-multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers in serum. Nanowire sensor arrays were demonstrated to have the required selectivity and sensitivity to perform multiplexed detection of 100 fg/ml troponin T, creatine kinase MM, and creatine kinase MB in serum. A good correlation between measurements from a probe station and the readout ASIC was obtained. Our detection system is expected to address the existing limitations in cardiac health management that are currently imposed by the conventional testing platform, and opens up possibilities in the development of a miniaturized device for point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  18. Serum Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, and their Ratio in Acute Ischemic Stroke: on the Trail of a Biomarker?

    PubMed

    Ormstad, Heidi; Verkerk, Robert; Sandvik, Leiv

    2016-01-01

    Fast diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of utmost importance to improving the outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A rapid and sensitive blood test for ischemic stroke is required. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of phenylalanine (PHE) and tyrosine (TYR) as diagnostic biomarkers in AIS. Serum levels of PHE and TYR, measured using HPLC, and their ratio (PHE/TYR) were compared between 45 patients with AIS and 40 healthy control subjects. The relationship between PHE/TYR and the serum levels of several cytokines were also examined. PHE/TYR was significantly higher in AIS patients than in healthy controls (1.75 vs 1.24, p < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of PHE/TYR in AIS patients relative to healthy controls revealed promising sensitivity and specificity, which at an optimal cutoff of 1.45 were 76 and 85 %, respectively. PHE/TYR was positively correlated with interleukin (IL)-1β (r = 0.37, p = 0.011) and IL-6 (r = 0.33, p = 0.025). This study shows that PHE/TYR is highly elevated in the acute phase of AIS, and that this elevation is coupled to the inflammatory response. The ROC analysis documents the possible value of PHE/TYR as a biomarker for AIS and demonstrates its clinical potential as a blood-based test for AIS.

  19. PiB-PET Imaging-Based Serum Proteome Profiles Predict Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seokjo; Jeong, Hyobin; Baek, Je-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Jin; Han, Sun-Ho; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hee; Hong, Hyun Seok; Kim, Young Ho; Yi, Eugene C; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L; Hwang, Daehee; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2016-07-06

    Development of a simple, non-invasive early diagnosis platform of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using blood is urgently required. Recently, PiB-PET imaging has been shown to be powerful to quantify amyloid-β plaque loads leading to pathophysiological alterations in AD brains. Thus, there has been a need for serum biomarkers reflecting PiB-PET imaging data as an early diagnosis platform of AD. Here, using LC-MS/MS analysis coupled with isobaric tagging, we performed comprehensive proteome profiling of serum samples from cognitively normal controls, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD patients, who were selected using PiB-PET imaging. Comparative analysis of the proteomes revealed 79 and 72 differentially expressed proteins in MCI and AD, respectively, compared to controls. Integrated analysis of these proteins with genomic and proteomic data of AD brain tissues, together with network analysis, identified three biomarker candidates representing the altered proteolysis-related process in MCI or AD: proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), coagulation factor XIII, A1 polypeptide (F13A1), and dermcidin (DCD). In independent serum samples of MCI and AD, we confirmed the elevation of the candidates using western blotting and ELISA. Our results suggest that these biomarker candidates can serve as a potential non-invasive early diagnosis platform reflecting PiB-PET imaging for MCI and AD.

  20. Serum cell death biomarkers for prediction of liver fibrosis and poor prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Tomohiro; Umemura, Takeji; Fujimori, Naoyuki; Shibata, Soichiro; Ichikawa, Yuki; Kimura, Takefumi; Joshita, Satoru; Komatsu, Michiharu; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tanaka, Eiji; Ota, Masao

    2015-01-01

    The development of simple, noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis is urgently needed for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This study examined the ability of several serum biomarkers of cell death to estimate fibrosis and prognosis in PBC. A cohort of 130 patients with biopsy-proven PBC and 90 healthy subjects were enrolled. We assessed the utility of the M30 ELISA, which detects caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) fragments and is representative of apoptotic cell death, as well as the M65 and newly developed M65 Epideath (M65ED) ELISAs, which detect total CK-18 as indicators of overall cell death, in predicting clinically relevant fibrosis stage. All 3 cell death biomarkers were significantly higher in patients with PBC than in healthy controls and were significantly correlated with fibrosis stage. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the M65 and M65ED assays for differentiation among significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis were 0.66 and 0.76, 0.66 and 0.73, and 0.74 and 0.82, respectively. In multivariate analysis, high M65ED (hazard ratio 6.13; 95% confidence interval 1.18-31.69; P = 0.031) and severe fibrosis (hazard ratio 7.45; 95% confidence interval 1.82-30.51; P = 0.005) were independently associated with liver-related death, transplantation, or decompensation. High serum M65ED was also significantly associated with poor outcome in PBC (log-rank test; P = 0.001). Noninvasive cell death biomarkers appear to be clinically useful in predicting fibrosis in PBC. Moreover, the M65ED assay may represent a new surrogate marker of adverse disease outcome.

  1. Microarray expression analysis and identification of serum biomarkers for Niemann–Pick disease, type C1

    PubMed Central

    Cluzeau, Celine V.M.; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E.; Fu, Rao; Borate, Bhavesh; Yanjanin, Nicole; Dail, Michelle K.; Davidson, Cristin D.; Walkley, Steven U.; Ory, Daniel S.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Pavan, William J.; Porter, Forbes D.

    2012-01-01

    Niemann–Pick disease type C (NPC) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by liver disease and progressive neurodegeneration. Deficiency of either NPC1 or NPC2 leads to the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in late endosomes and early lysosomes. In order to identify pathological mechanisms underlying NPC and uncover potential biomarkers, we characterized liver gene expression changes in an Npc1 mouse model at six ages spanning the pathological progression of the disease. We identified altered gene expression at all ages, including changes in asymptomatic, 1-week-old mice. Biological pathways showing early altered gene expression included: lipid metabolism, cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in arachidonic acid and drug metabolism, inflammation and immune responses, mitogen-activated protein kinase and G-protein signaling, cell cycle regulation, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling. In contrast, apoptosis and oxidative stress appeared to be late pathological processes. To identify potential biomarkers that could facilitate monitoring of disease progression, we focused on a subset of 103 differentially expressed genes that encode secreted proteins. Further analysis identified two secreted proteins with increased serum levels in NPC1 patients: galectin-3 (LGALS3), a pro-inflammatory molecule, and cathepsin D (CTSD), a lysosomal aspartic protease. Elevated serum levels of both proteins correlated with neurological disease severity and appeared to be specific for NPC1. Expression of Lgals3 and Ctsd was normalized following treatment with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, a therapy that reduces pathological findings and significantly increases Npc1−/− survival. Both LGALS3 and CTSD have the potential to aid in diagnosis and serve as biomarkers to monitor efficacy in therapeutic trials. PMID:22619379

  2. Plasma and serum from nonfasting men and women differ in their lipidomic profiles.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Tajima, Yoko; Murayama, Mayumi; Senoo, Yuya; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers will play important roles in disease diagnosis, drug development, and the proper use of drugs. Blood is considered the best biofluid for biomarker research because it is easy to access and a wealth of data are available. However, previous studies revealed that several ionic metabolites showed different levels (including presence or absence) in plasma and serum. Thus, attention should be paid to selecting the best biofluid for biomarker exploration. Many lipid molecules have biological significance and thus would be candidate biomarkers. However, no comprehensive study revealing differences in lipid metabolite levels between plasma and serum has been undertaken. Furthermore, gender differences have not been reported. To clarify the difference in the levels of lipid metabolites between human plasma and serum from both genders, we performed lipid metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based systems for phospholipids (PLs), lysoPLs, sphingomyelins, ceramides and oxidative fatty acids. Our results revealed that most of the lipid metabolites were present at similar levels in plasma and serum and in males and females. However, several oxidative fatty acid metabolites showed differences. Of the metabolites related to clotting processes, three showed higher levels in serum than in plasma, and three were detected only in serum. Furthermore, four metabolites were present at different levels between males and females, and two were detected only in males. Thus, attention should be paid to the selection of plasma or serum when utilizing these lipid metabolites as biomarkers.

  3. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  4. Biomarkers are used to predict quantitative metabolite concentration profiles in human red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Deep-coverage metabolomic profiling has revealed a well-defined development of metabolic decay in human red blood cells (RBCs) under cold storage conditions. A set of extracellular biomarkers has been recently identified that reliably defines the qualitative state of the metabolic network throughout this metabolic decay process. Here, we extend the utility of these biomarkers by using them to quantitatively predict the concentrations of other metabolites in the red blood cell. We are able to accurately predict the concentration profile of 84 of the 91 (92%) measured metabolites (p < 0.05) in RBC metabolism using only measurements of these five biomarkers. The median of prediction errors (symmetric mean absolute percent error) across all metabolites was 13%. The ability to predict numerous metabolite concentrations from a simple set of biomarkers offers the potential for the development of a powerful workflow that could be used to evaluate the metabolic state of a biological system using a minimal set of measurements. PMID:28264007

  5. Strategies for early detection of cardiotoxicities from anticancer therapy in adults: evolving imaging techniques and emerging serum biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Nausheen; Murtagh, Gillian; Yancy, Clyde

    2015-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in detecting cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction with serum biomarkers, cardiovascular MRI, echocardiography and multi-modality approaches. Serum biomarkers, notably cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, have been evaluated for their prognostic ability in predicting left ventricular dysfunction. Imaging modalities, such as cardiovascular MRI and echocardiography, have been used for cardiac surveillance of patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Developments in imaging, specifically myocardial deformation imaging, also known as strain, have been shown to be sensitive tools in detecting early changes in cardiac function. This review aims to synthesize the evidence that supports emerging serum biomarkers and complementary imaging modalities that continue to enhance the detection of cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction.

  6. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying Human Serum Albumin as a Biomarker of Carcinogenic Exposure.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jonathan; Wang, Yi; Turesky, Robert J; Kluetzman, Kerri; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Ding, Xinxin

    2016-05-16

    Albumin is a commonly used serum protein for studying human exposure to xenobiotic compounds, including therapeutics and environmental pollutants. Often, the reactivity of albumin with xenobiotic compounds is studied ex vivo with human albumin or plasma/serum samples. Some studies have characterized the reactivity of albumin with chemicals in rodent models; however, differences between the orthologous peptide sequences of human and rodent albumins can result in the formation of different types of chemical-protein adducts with different interaction sites or peptide sequences. Our goal is to generate a human albumin transgenic mouse model that can be used to establish human protein biomarkers of exposure to hazardous xenobiotics for human risk assessment via animal studies. We have developed a human albumin transgenic mouse model and characterized the genotype and phenotype of the transgenic mice. The presence of the human albumin gene in the genome of the model mouse was confirmed by genomic PCR analysis, whereas liver-specific expression of the transgenic human albumin mRNA was validated by RT-PCR analysis. Further immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the transgenic human albumin protein is a full-length, mature protein, which is less abundant than the endogenous mouse albumin that coexists in the serum of the transgenic mouse. The transgenic protein was able to form ex vivo adducts with a genotoxic metabolite of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a procarcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. This novel human albumin transgenic mouse model will facilitate the development and validation of albumin-carcinogen adducts as biomarkers of xenobiotic exposure and/or toxicity in humans.

  7. Serum midkine as a prognostic biomarker for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yi-Ju; Lin, Zoe H Y; Cheng, Tsun-I; Liang, Chung-Ting; Kuo, Tse-Ming; Kao, Kuo-Jang

    2011-10-01

    Gene expression profiles of paired hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and adjacent noncancerous liver tissue samples revealed preferential expression of midkine in HCC. This finding suggested the clinical usefulness of midkine measurement in serum for monitoring HCC treatment response, recurrence, and progression. A prospective study in 285 patients, 144 in complete remission and 141 at risk for developing de novo HCC, was conducted. The changes in serum midkine level were in parallel with disease activity in about 81% of patients with HCC. The study also revealed that rapidly rising serum midkine levels occurred in patients in the terminal stage of HCC. The rising rate of serum midkine levels was inversely correlated with remaining survival days. However, serum midkine measurement did not detect emergence of new HCC in most patients in complete remission and in high-risk people without a history of HCC. Serum midkine levels can be useful to monitor HCC progression, and a sharp rise signals the approach of end of life in patients with HCC.

  8. Multiplex Serum Protein Analysis Identifies Novel Biomarkers of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease with the Potential to Improve Diagnostic Accuracy of Established Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Katharine M.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Hoffmann, Isabell; Horsfall, Leigh U.; Fagan, Kevin J.; Bijin, Veonice; Lee, Bernett; Clouston, Andrew D.; Lampe, Guy; Connolly, John E.; Powell, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis are urgently required, especially for use in non-specialist settings. The aim of this study was to identify novel serum biomarkers of advanced fibrosis. Methods We performed an unbiased screen of 120 serum analytes including cytokines, chemokines and proteases in 70 patients (35 without fibrosis, 35 with cirrhosis on biopsy), and selected a panel of 44 candidate biomarkers, which were subsequently measured in a mixed-etiology cohort of 432 patients with known serum HA, PIIINP and TIMP1 (which comprise the validated Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test). Multivariate logistic regression modelling was used to generate models for the prediction of advanced or significant fibrosis (METAVIR ≥F3 and ≥F2, respectively); in addition to identifying biomarkers of disease activity and steatohepatitis. Results Seventeen analytes were significantly differentially expressed between patients with no advanced fibrosis and patients with advanced fibrosis, the most significant being hyaluronic acid (HA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 7 (p = 2.9E-41 and p = 1.0E-26, respectively). The optimal model for the prediction of advanced fibrosis comprised HA, MMP7, MMP1, alphafetoprotein (AFP) and the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI). We demonstrate enhanced diagnostic accuracy (AUROC = 0.938) compared to a model comprising HA, PIIINP and TIMP1 alone (ELF) (AUROC = 0.898, p<0.0001, De Long’s test). Conclusions We have identified novel serum biomarkers of advanced liver fibrosis, which have the potential to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of established biomarkers. Our data suggest MMP7 is a valuable indicator of advanced fibrosis and may play a role in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:27861569

  9. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G titer correlates with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density, and levels of serum biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. RESULTS. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend < 0.0001), respectively. As mucosal H. pylori density score increased from 0 to 3, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers also increased from 24.7 to 44.8 EIU (p for trend < 0.0001). Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer was associated positively with serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17 concentrations and negatively with PGI/II ratio, and the association was the strongest for PGII. The mean PGII concentration of the patients in the highest quartile of IgG titer was twice the mean concentration of the patients in the lowest quartile (17.2 vs. 8.6 EIU, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. Our results suggest that serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer was associated positively with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.

  10. Label-free femtomolar cancer biomarker detection in human serum using graphene-coated surface plasmon resonance chips.

    PubMed

    He, Lijie; Pagneux, Quentin; Larroulet, Iban; Serrano, Aritz Yanguas; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Mandler, Daniel; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2017-03-15

    Sensitive and selective detection of cancer biomarkers is vital for the successful diagnosis of early stage cancer and follow-up treatment. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) in combination with different amplification strategies is one of the analytical approaches allowing the screening of protein biomarkers in serum. Here we describe the development of a point-of-care sensor for the detection of folic acid protein (FAP) using graphene-based SPR chips. The exceptional properties of CVD graphene were exploited to construct a highly sensitive and selective SPR chip for folate biomarker sensing in serum. The specific recognition of FAP is based on the interaction between folic acid receptors integrated through π-stacking on the graphene coated SPR chip and the FAP analyte in serum. A simple post-adsorption of human serum:bovine serum albumin (HS:BSA) mixtures onto the folic acid modified sensor resulted in a highly anti-fouling interface, while keeping the sensing capabilities for folate biomarkers. This sensor allowed femtomolar (fM) detection of FAP, a detection limit well adapted and promising for quantitative clinical analysis.

  11. Metabolomic Profiling of Mice Serum during Toxoplasmosis Progression Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chun-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Elsheikha, Hany M.; Zhao, Yu; Suo, Xun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of the molecular changes associated with disease is essential for identifying new routes to improved therapeutics and diagnostic tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes in the metabolic profile of mouse sera during T. gondii infection. We carried out untargeted metabolomic analysis of sera collected from female BALB/c mice experimentally infected with the T. gondii Pru strain (Genotype II). Serum samples were collected at 7, 14 and 21 day post infection (DPI) from infected and control mice and were subjected to liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS)-based global metabolomics analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 79 differentially expressed metabolites in ESI+ mode and 74 in ESI− mode in sera of T. gondii-infected mice compared to the control mice. Further principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) identified 19 dysregulated metabolites (5 in ESI+ mode and 14 in ESI− mode) related to the metabolism of amino acids and energy metabolism. The potential utility of these metabolites as diagnostic biomarkers was validated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. These findings provide putative metabolite biomarkers for future study and allow for hypothesis generation about the pathophysiology of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26785939

  12. Expanded metabolomics approach to profiling endogenous carbohydrates in the serum of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Li, Li; Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Yan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We applied hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to the quantitative analysis of serum from 58 women, including ovarian cancer patients, ovarian benign tumor patients, and healthy controls. All of these ovarian cancer and ovarian benign tumor patients have elevated cancer antigen 125, which makes them clinically difficult to differentiate the malignant from the benign. All of the 16 endogenous carbohydrates were quantitatively detected in the human sera, of which, eight endogenous carbohydrates were significantly different (P-value < 0.05) between the ovarian cancer and healthy control. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, arabitol was the most potentially specific biomarker for discriminating ovarian cancer from healthy control, having an area under the curve of 0.911. A panel of metabolite markers composed of maltose, maltotriose, raffinose, and mannitol was selected, which was able to discriminate the ovarian cancer from the benign ovarian tumor counterparts, with an area under concentration-time curve value of 0.832. Endogenous carbohydrates in the expanded metabolomics approach after the global metabolic profiling are characterized and are potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  13. Metabolomics approach to serum biomarker for loperamide-induced constipation in SD rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Young-Ju; Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Jun, Go; Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Sung-Hwa; Seong, Ji-Eun; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Suhkmann

    2014-01-01

    Loperamide has long been known as an opioid-receptor agonist useful as a drug for treatment of diarrhea resulting from gastroenteritis or inflammatory bowel disease as well as to induce constipation. To determine and characterize putative biomarkers that can predict constipation induced by loperamide treatment, alteration of endogenous metabolites was measured in the serum of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with loperamide for 3 days using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectral data. The amounts and weights of stool and urine excretion were significantly lower in the loperamide-treated group than the No-treated group, while the thickness of the villus, crypt layer, and muscle layer was decreased in the transverse colon of the same group. The concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine (Cr) were also slightly changed in the loperamide-treated group, although most of the serum components were maintained at a constant level. Furthermore, pattern recognition of endogenous metabolites showed completely separate clustering of the serum analysis parameters between the No-treated group and loperamide-treated group. Among 35 endogenous metabolites, four amino acids (alanine, glutamate, glutamine and glycine) and six endogenous metabolites (acetate, glucose, glycerol, lactate, succinate and taurine) were dramatically decreased in loperamide-treated SD rats. These results provide the first data pertaining to metabolic changes in SD rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Additionally, these findings correlate the changes in 10 metabolites with constipation. PMID:24707303

  14. Dysregulated MicroRNA Expression Profiles and Potential Cellular, Circulating and Polymorphic Biomarkers in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Gabrielle; Sutherland, Heidi G.; Haupt, Larisa M.; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies have focused on identifying molecular biomarkers, including microRNAs (miRNAs) to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of the most common subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma. NHL is difficult to diagnose and treat with many cases becoming resistant to chemotherapy, hence the need to identify improved biomarkers to aid in both diagnosis and treatment modalities. This review summarises more recent research on the dysregulated miRNA expression profiles found in NHL, as well as the regulatory role and biomarker potential of cellular and circulating miRNAs found in tissue and serum, respectively. In addition, the emerging field of research focusing on miRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (miRSNPs) in genes of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in miRNA genes themselves, and in their target sites may provide new insights on gene expression changes in these genes. These miRSNPs may impact miRNA networks and have been shown to play a role in a host of different cancer types including haematological malignancies. With respect to NHL, a number of SNPs in miRNA-binding sites in target genes have been shown to be associated with overall survival. PMID:27999330

  15. Prediction of lung cancer based on serum biomarkers by gene expression programming methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhuang; Chen, Xiao-Zheng; Cui, Lian-Hua; Si, Hong-Zong; Lu, Hai-Jiao; Liu, Shi-Hai

    2014-01-01

    In diagnosis of lung cancer, rapid distinction between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors is very important. Serum markers, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), neurone specific enolase (NSE) and Cyfra21-1, are reported to reflect lung cancer characteristics. In this study classification of lung tumors was made based on biomarkers (measured in 120 NSCLC and 60 SCLC patients) by setting up optimal biomarker joint models with a powerful computerized tool - gene expression programming (GEP). GEP is a learning algorithm that combines the advantages of genetic programming (GP) and genetic algorithms (GA). It specifically focuses on relationships between variables in sets of data and then builds models to explain these relationships, and has been successfully used in formula finding and function mining. As a basis for defining a GEP environment for SCLC and NSCLC prediction, three explicit predictive models were constructed. CEA and NSE are frequently- used lung cancer markers in clinical trials, CRP, LDH and Cyfra21-1 have significant meaning in lung cancer, basis on CEA and NSE we set up three GEP models-GEP 1(CEA, NSE, Cyfra21-1), GEP2 (CEA, NSE, LDH), GEP3 (CEA, NSE, CRP). The best classification result of GEP gained when CEA, NSE and Cyfra21-1 were combined: 128 of 135 subjects in the training set and 40 of 45 subjects in the test set were classified correctly, the accuracy rate is 94.8% in training set; on collection of samples for testing, the accuracy rate is 88.9%. With GEP2, the accuracy was significantly decreased by 1.5% and 6.6% in training set and test set, in GEP3 was 0.82% and 4.45% respectively. Serum Cyfra21-1 is a useful and sensitive serum biomarker in discriminating between NSCLC and SCLC. GEP modeling is a promising and excellent tool in diagnosis of lung cancer.

  16. Alteration in sexually dimorphic testosterone biotransformation profiles as a biomarker of chemically induced androgen disruption in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, V S; McLachlan, J B; Falls, J G; LeBlanc, G A

    1999-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of environmental chemicals on androgen homeostasis in rodent models is confounded by high intraindividual and interindividual variability in circulating testosterone levels. Our goal was to evaluate changes in testosterone biotransformation processes as a measure of androgen homeostasis and as a biomarker of exposure to androgen-disrupting chemicals. Sex-specific differences in hepatic testosterone biotransformation enzyme activities were identified in CD-1 mice. Gonadectomy followed by replacement of individual steroid hormones identified specific sex differences in biotransformation profiles that were due to the inductive or suppressive effects of testosterone. Notably, significant androgen-dependent differences in testosterone 6[alpha]- and 15[alpha]-hydroxylase activities were demonstrated, and the ratio of 6[alpha]- and 15[alpha]-hydroxylase activities proved to be an excellent indicator of the androgen status within the animal. The male or "masculinized" testosterone 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio was significantly less than the female or "feminized" ratio. Male mice were exposed to both an antiandrogen, vinclozolin, and to a compound that modulates serum androgen levels, indole-3-carbinol, to test the utility of this ratio as a biomarker of androgen disruption. Treatment with the antiandrogen vinclozolin significantly increased the 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio. Indole-3-carbinol treatment resulted in a dose-dependent, but highly variable, decrease in serum testosterone levels. The 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio increased as serum testosterone levels decreased in these animals. However, the increase in the ratio was much less variable and more sensitive than serum testosterone levels. These investigations demonstrate that the 6[alpha]/15[alpha]-hydroxylase ratio is a powerful measure of androgen modulation and a sensitive indicator of exposure to androgen-disrupting chemicals in CD-1 mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

  17. Parallel expression profiling of hepatic and serum microRNA-122 associated with clinical features and treatment responses in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Butt, Azeem Mehmood; Raja, Arsalan Jamil; Siddique, Shafiqa; Khan, Jahangir Sarwar; Shahid, Muhammad; Tayyab, Ghias-Un-Nabi; Minhas, Zahid; Umar, Muhammad; Idrees, Muhammad; Tong, Yigang

    2016-02-22

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of biological processes. Recently, human liver-specific miRNA miR-122 has been reported to facilitate hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in liver cells. HCV is one of the leading causes of liver diseases worldwide. In Pakistan, the estimated prevalence is up to 10%. Here, we report hepatic and serum miR-122 expression profiling from paired liver and serum samples from treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and controls. We aimed to elucidate the biomarker potential of serum miR-122 for monitoring disease progression and predicting end treatment response (ETR). Hepatic miR-122 levels were significantly down-regulated in CHC patients. A significant inverse correlation was observed between hepatic and serum miR-122 levels, indicating that serum miR-122 levels reflect HCV-associated disease progression. Both hepatic and serum miR-122 were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with several clinicopathological features of CHC. Receiver operator curve analysis showed that serum miR-122 had superior discriminatory ability even in patients with normal alanine transaminase levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis highlighted pre-treatment serum miR-122 levels as independent predictors of ETR. In conclusion, serum miR-122 holds the potential to serve as a promising biomarker of disease progression and ETR in CHC patients.

  18. Detection of candidate biomarkers of prostate cancer progression in serum: a depletion-free 3D LC/MS quantitative proteomics pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, S E T; Johnston, H E; Jackson, T R; Jamieson, D G; Roumeliotis, T I; Mockridge, C I; Michael, A; Manousopoulou, A; Papachristou, E K; Brown, M D; Clarke, N W; Pandha, H; Aukim-Hastie, C L; Cragg, M S; Garbis, S D; Townsend, P A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common male cancer in the United Kingdom and we aimed to identify clinically relevant biomarkers corresponding to stage progression of the disease. Methods: We used enhanced proteomic profiling of PCa progression using iTRAQ 3D LC mass spectrometry on high-quality serum samples to identify biomarkers of PCa. Results: We identified >1000 proteins. Following specific inclusion/exclusion criteria we targeted seven proteins of which two were validated by ELISA and six potentially interacted forming an ‘interactome' with only a single protein linking each marker. This network also includes accepted cancer markers, such as TNF, STAT3, NF-κB and IL6. Conclusions: Our linked and interrelated biomarker network highlights the potential utility of six of our seven markers as a panel for diagnosing PCa and, critically, in determining the stage of the disease. Our validation analysis of the MS-identified proteins found that SAA alongside KLK3 may improve categorisation of PCa than by KLK3 alone, and that TSR1, although not significant in this model, might also be a clinically relevant biomarker. PMID:27685442

  19. High-yield peptide-extraction method for the discovery of subnanomolar biomarkers from small serum samples.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yusuke; Fukutomi, Toshiyuki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nomura, Fumio; Maeda, Tadakazu; Kodera, Yoshio

    2010-04-05

    Serum proteins/peptides reflect physiological or pathological states in humans and are an attractive target for the discovery of disease biomarkers. However, the existence of high-abundance proteins and the large dynamic range of serum proteins/peptides make any quantitative analysis of low-abundance proteins/peptides challenging. Furthermore, analyses of peptides, including the cleaved fragments of proteins, are difficult because of carrier protein binding. Here, we developed a differential solubilization (DS) method to extract low-molecular-weight proteins/peptides in serum with good reproducibility and yield as compared to typical peptide-extraction methods such as organic solvent precipitation and ultrafiltration. Using the DS method combined with reverse-phase HPLC fractionation followed by MALDI-TOF-MS, we performed high-quality comparative analyses of more than 1500 peptides from 1 microL of serum samples, including low-abundance peptides in the subnanomolar range and containing many peptides bound to carrier proteins such as albumin. We applied this method and successfully discovered four new biomarker candidates of colon cancer, none of which have previously been observed in serum and one of which is a fragment of the protein zyxin that possibly originated from tumor cells. Our results indicate that serum peptide analyses based on the DS method should greatly contribute to the discovery of novel low-abundance biomarkers.

  20. Elevated baseline serum glutamate as a pharmacometabolomic biomarker for acamprosate treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nam, H W; Karpyak, V M; Hinton, D J; Geske, J R; Ho, A M C; Prieto, M L; Biernacka, J M; Frye, M A; Weinshilboum, R M; Choi, D-S

    2015-01-01

    Acamprosate has been widely used since the Food and Drug Administration approved the medication for treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in 2004. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of acamprosate remains unclear, it has been largely known that acamprosate inhibits glutamate action in the brain. However, AUD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. Thus, biomarkers are required to prescribe this medication to patients who will have the highest likelihood of responding positively. To identify pharmacometabolomic biomarkers of acamprosate response, we utilized serum samples from 120 alcohol-dependent subjects, including 71 responders (maintained continuous abstinence) and 49 non-responders (any alcohol use) during 12 weeks of acamprosate treatment. Notably, baseline serum glutamate levels were significantly higher in responders compared with non-responders. Importantly, serum glutamate levels of responders are normalized after acamprosate treatment, whereas there was no significant glutamate change in non-responders. Subsequent functional studies in animal models revealed that, in the absence of alcohol, acamprosate activates glutamine synthetase, which synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. These results suggest that acamprosate reduces serum glutamate levels for those who have elevated baseline serum glutamate levels among responders. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that elevated baseline serum glutamate levels are a potential biomarker associated with positive acamprosate response, which is an important step towards development of a personalized approach to treatment for AUD. PMID:26285131

  1. Serum biomarkers of oxidative stress in cats with feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Tecles, F; Caldín, M; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Escribano, D; Martínez-Subiela, S; Cerón, J J

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the possible presence of oxidative stress in cats naturally affected by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) by investigating two antioxidant biomarkers in serum: paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). PON1 was measured by spectrophotometric assays using three different substrates: p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNA), phenyl acetate (PA) and 5-thiobutil butyrolactone (TBBL), in order to evaluate possible differences between them. The PA and TBBL assays for PON1 and the assay for TAC were validated, providing acceptable precision and linearity although PA and TAC assays showed limit of detection higher than the values found in some cats with FIP. Cats with FIP and other inflammatory conditions showed lower PON1 values compared with a group of healthy cats with the three assays used, and cats with FIP showed significant decreased TAC concentrations. This study demonstrated the existence of oxidative stress in cats with FIP.

  2. Inflammatory Biomarkers Profile as Microenvironmental Expression in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Jonescu-Cuypers, Christian; Nicula, Cristina; Voinea, Liliana-Mary

    2016-01-01

    Keratoconus is a degenerative disorder with progressive stromal thinning and transformation of the normal corneal architecture towards ectasia that results in decreased vision due to irregular astigmatism and irreversible tissue scarring. The pathogenesis of keratoconus still remains unclear. Hypotheses that this condition has an inflammatory etiopathogenetic component apart from the genetic and environmental factors are beginning to escalate in the research domain. This paper covers the most relevant and recent published papers regarding the biomarkers of inflammation, their signaling pathway, and the potentially new therapeutic options in keratoconus. PMID:27563164

  3. A comparison of current serum biomarkers as diagnostic indicators of mitochondrial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ryan L.; Liang, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To directly compare the diagnostic utility of growth differentiation factor–15 (GDF-15) with our previous fibroblast growth factor–21 (FGF-21) findings in the same adult mitochondrial disease cohort. Methods: Serum GDF-15 levels were measured using a quantitative ELISA. Statistical analyses of GDF-15 data were compared with our published FGF-21 findings. Results: Median serum GDF-15 concentrations were elevated in patients with mitochondrial disease and differed between all experimental groups, mirroring group results for FGF-21. There was a difference between patients diagnosed by muscle biopsy and genetic diagnosis, suggesting that serum GDF-15 measurement may be more broadly specific for mitochondrial disease than for muscle manifesting mitochondrial disease, in contrast to FGF-21. GDF-15 showed a markedly higher diagnostic odds ratio when compared with FGF-21 (75.3 vs 45.7), was a better predictor of disease based on diagnostic sensitivity (77.8% vs 68.5%), and outperformed FGF-21 on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (area under the curve 94.1% vs 91.1%). Combining both biomarkers did not improve the area under the curve remarkably over GDF-15 alone. GDF-15 was the best predictor of mitochondrial disease (p < 0.002) following multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: GDF-15 outperforms FGF-21 as an indicator of mitochondrial diseases. Our data suggest that GDF-15 is generally indicative of inherited mitochondrial disease regardless of clinical phenotype, whereas FGF-21 seems to be more indicative of mitochondrial disease when muscle manifestations are present. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that serum GDF-15 accurately distinguishes patients with mitochondrial diseases from those without them. PMID:27164684

  4. Potential serum and urine biomarkers in patients with lupus nephritis and the unsolved problems

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Song-Chou; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Yu, Chia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most frequent and serious complications in the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmune-mediated inflammation in both renal glomerular and tubulointerstitial tissues is the major pathological finding of LN. In clinical practice, the elevated anti-dsDNA antibody titer concomitant with reduced complement C3 and C4 levels has become the predictive and disease-activity surrogate biomarkers in LN. However, more and more evidences suggest that autoantibodies other than anti-dsDNA antibodies, such as anti-nucleosome, anti-C1q, anti-C3b, anti-cardiolipin, anti-endothelial cell, anti-ribonuclear proteins, and anti-glomerular matrix (anti-actinin) antibodies, may also involve in LN. Researchers have demonstrated that the circulating preformed and in situ-formed immune complexes as well as the direct cytotoxic effects by those cross-reactive autoantibodies mediated kidney damage. On the other hand, many efforts had been made to find useful urine biomarkers for LN activity via measurement of immune-related mediators, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry proteomic signature, and assessment of mRNA and exosomal-derived microRNA from urine sediment cell. Our group had also devoted to this field with some novel findings. In this review, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms of LN and try to figure out the potential serum and urine biomarkers in LN. Finally, some of the unsolved problems in this field are discussed. PMID:27843374

  5. An optimized procedure for exosome isolation and analysis using serum samples: Application to cancer biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Rai, Alex J; DeCastro, G Joel; Zeringer, Emily; Barta, Timothy; Magdaleno, Susan; Setterquist, Robert; Vlassov, Alexander V

    2015-10-01

    Exosomes are RNA and protein-containing nanovesicles secreted by all cell types and found in abundance in body fluids, including blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. These vesicles seem to be a perfect source of biomarkers, as their cargo largely reflects the content of parental cells, and exosomes originating from all organs can be obtained from circulation through minimally invasive or non-invasive means. Here we describe an optimized procedure for exosome isolation and analysis using clinical samples, starting from quick and robust extraction of exosomes with Total exosome isolation reagent, then isolation of RNA followed by qRT-PCR. Effectiveness of this workflow is exemplified by analysis of the miRNA content of exosomes derived from serum samples - obtained from the patients with metastatic prostate cancer, treated prostate cancer patients who have undergone prostatectomy, and control patients without prostate cancer. Three promising exosomal microRNA biomarkers were identified, discriminating these groups: hsa-miR375, hsa-miR21, hsa-miR574.

  6. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics discovering potential serum biomarkers in locoweed poisoned rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jifeng; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Ruishi; Ma, Zhiyan; Du, Guofeng; Chen, Xiaolu; Tao, Dayong; Zhao, Jinxiang

    2017-03-08

    Locoism threatens the sustainable development of animal husbandry in areas around the world with intensified desertification, especially in the western United States, western China, Canada, and Mexico, among other countries. This study was conducted to discover potential serum biomarkers in locoweed-poisoned rabbits and lay a foundation for early diagnosis of locoism. We performed iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS), comparing locoweed-poisoned rabbits and healthy controls. A total of 78 differentially-expressed proteins (fold change > 1.5 or < 0.67) were identified in the locoweed-poisoned rabbits compared to healthy controls. We found that 57.70% of differentially-expressed proteins were functionally related, and through bioinformatics analysis, we were able to construct a network mainly in complement and coagulation cascades. Significant differences in thrombospondin 4 (THBS4), kininogen 1 (KNG1), hemoglobin (HBB), and complement factor I (CFI) between locoweed poisoned animals and controls were found (P < 0.05) and validated by western blotting. These results suggested that locoweed could damage neurocytes, lower immunity, and form thrombi in rabbits. Our study proposes potential biomarkers for locoism diagnosis and also provides a new experimental basis to understand the pathogenesis of locoism.

  7. Identification of suitable reference gene and biomarkers of serum miRNAs for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Li, Kai; Pang, Qianqian; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Hongyu; Wu, Feng; Cao, Hongqing; Liu, Hongju; Wan, Yumin; Xia, Weibo; Wang, Jinfu; Dai, Zhongquan; Li, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify suitable reference genes in serum miRNA for normalization and screen potential new biomarkers for osteoporosis diagnosis by a systematic study. Two types of osteoporosis models were used like as mechanical unloading and estrogen deficiency. Through a large-scale screening using microarray, qPCR validation and statistical algorithms, we first identified miR-25-3p as a suitable reference gene for both type of osteoporosis, which also showed stability during the differentiation processes of osteoblast and osteoclast. Then 15 serum miRNAs with differential expression in OVX rats were identified by microarray and qPCR validation. We further detected these 15 miRNAs in postmenopausal women and bedrest rhesus monkeys and evaluated their diagnostic value by ROC analysis. Among these miRNAs, miR-30b-5p was significantly down-regulated in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis; miR-103-3p, miR-142-3p, miR-328-3p were only significantly decreased in osteoporosis. They all showed positive correlations with BMD. Except miR328-3p, the other three miRNAs were also declined in the rhesus monkeys after long-duration bedrest. Their AUC values (all >0.75) proved the diagnostic potential. Our results provided a reliable normalization reference gene and verified a group of circulating miRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers in the detection of postmenopausal- and mechanical unloading- osteoporosis. PMID:27821865

  8. Serum biomarkers and source of inflammation in acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Centurión, Osmar Antonio

    2016-03-01

    There is robust information that confirms the enormous contribution of inflammation to plaque development, progression and vulnerability. The presence of plaques with inflammatory components associates with a greater likelihood of future cardiovascular events. The inflammatory cascade has been implicated during the entire plaque formation, from the early stages of endothelial dysfunction to the development of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The presence of macrophages, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions; the detection of HLA class II antigen expression; and the finding of secretion of several cytokines point to the involvement of immune inflammatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Serum biomarkers reflecting the activity of biological processes involved in plaque growth or destabilization may provide great help in establishing the appropriate clinical management, and therapeutic interventions. Evidence for a role of inflammation in plaque rupture has been demonstrated by localization of inflammation at plaque rupture sites. However, the focus of inflammation may not precisely reside within the coronary vessel itself but rather in the injured myocardium distal to the disrupted plaque. These observations outline the potential benefits of therapies targeting inflammation in the arterial wall and cardiovascular system. Emerging anti-inflammatory approaches to vascular protection have the potential to benefit patients by marked reductions in serum biomarkers of inflammation and reduce vascular events. With ongoing technical advances, percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) will continue to play a critical role in the evaluation of novel compounds designed to modulate inflammation. The constant refinements in the different therapeutic strategies, the combination of scientific understanding in the adequate utilization of novel inflammatory markers, the new pharmacologic agents, and the new techniques in PCI will

  9. Correlation of serum levo-fucose levels as a biomarker with tumor node metastasis staging in oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Manchil, P. Redwin Dhas; Joy, E. Tatu; Kiran, M. Shashi; Sherubin, J. Eugenia; Khan, M. Farakath; Aravind, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: oral cancer is a result of disordered cellular behavior initiated by various stimuli which is characterized by the alteration of serum glycoproteins consisting of different monosaccharides. One of these is levo-fucose (L-fucose), a methyl pentose. Elevated levels of protein-bound fucose have been reported in various malignancies. Aim: The present study attempted to correlate levels of serum L-fucose as a biomarker with the various tumor node metastasis (TNM) stages of oral cancer. Methodology: The study was carried out on 90 subjects consisting of 30 healthy controls and 60 histopathologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases. The serum fucose level estimation was done based on the method adopted by Winzler. Statistical analysis included independent sample's t-test, one-way ANOVA test, Karl–Pearson correlation test, and Tukey's HSD post hoc test to evaluate the significance and variability of values between groups. Results: Significant elevation in serum fucose levels was noticed among OSCC patients when compared with the controls and a progressive ascent of L-fucose levels were noted as the stage of severity increased. Serum fucose levels were independent of histopathological grading, age, and sex. Conclusion: Serum L-fucose levels were increased in OSCC patients, and a positive correlation was observed between serum L-fucose levels and TNM staging of OSCC. Thus, serum L-fucose can be used as an effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in OSCC patients. PMID:27829767

  10. Serum Metabolomic Profiling and Incident CKD among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Zheng, Yan; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Alexander, Danny; Coresh, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Novel biomarkers that more accurately reflect kidney function and predict future CKD are needed. The human metabolome is the product of multiple physiologic or pathophysiologic processes and may provide novel insight into disease etiology and progression. This study investigated whether estimated kidney function would be associated with multiple metabolites and whether selected metabolomic factors would be independent risk factors for incident CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In total, 1921 African Americans free of CKD with a median of 19.6 years follow-up among the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study were included. A total of 204 serum metabolites quantified by untargeted gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry was analyzed by both linear regression for the cross-sectional associations with eGFR (specified by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation) and Cox proportional hazards model for the longitudinal associations with incident CKD. Results Forty named and 34 unnamed metabolites were found to be associated with eGFR specified by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation with creatine and 3-indoxyl sulfate showing the strongest positive (2.8 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per +1 SD; 95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 3.5) and negative association (−14.2 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per +1 SD; 95% confidence interval, −17.0 to −11.3), respectively. Two hundred four incident CKD events with a median follow-up time of 19.6 years were included in the survival analyses. Higher levels of 5-oxoproline (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.82) and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.80) were significantly related to lower risk of incident CKD, and the associations did not appreciably change when mutually adjusted. Conclusions These data identify a large number of metabolites associated with

  11. Analysis of the Serum Lipid Profile in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miaoling; Zhang, Xiongze; Liao, Nanying; Ye, Baikang; Peng, Yuting; Ji, Yuying; Wen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), the predominant subtype of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the Asian population, is associated with genetic polymorphism of lipid metabolism. In this study, we performed the untargeted lipidomics approach of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to reveal the potential discriminating lipid profile of PCV patients in serum (21 PCV patients and 19 age-matched controls). Unsupervised principal component, supervised orthogonal partial least squares analysis, correlation analysis, and heatmap analysis were performed with the data obtained by UPLC-MS. Forty–one discriminating metabolites were identified. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, pathway analysis and functional analysis were performed subsequently, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) was further selected as the key indicator of the distinct lipid metabolism in PCV patients. Finally, the serum level of PAF was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which is significantly higher in PCV patients compared to controls (65 PCV patients and 63 age-matched controls, p < 0.0001), consistent with the UPLC-MS analysis. Our results suggested that PAF is considered as the major indicator of the distinct lipid metabolism in PCV patients. PMID:27910906

  12. Discovery of serum protein biomarkers in the mdx mouse model and cross-species comparison to Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Marathi, Ramya L.; Rayavarapu, Sree; Zhang, Aiping; Brown, Kristy J.; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cirak, Sebahattin; Bello, Luca; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Partridge, Terry; Hoffman, Eric P.; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Mah, Jean K.; Henricson, Erik; McDonald, Craig

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that serum protein biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will reflect disease pathogenesis, progression and aid future therapy developments. Here, we describe use of quantitative in vivo stable isotope labeling in mammals to accurately compare serum proteomes of wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Biomarkers identified in serum from two independent dystrophin-deficient mouse models (mdx-Δ52 and mdx-23) were concordant with those identified in sera samples of DMD patients. Of the 355 mouse sera proteins, 23 were significantly elevated and 4 significantly lower in mdx relative to wild-type mice (P-value < 0.001). Elevated proteins were mostly of muscle origin: including myofibrillar proteins (titin, myosin light chain 1/3, myomesin 3 and filamin-C), glycolytic enzymes (aldolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, beta enolase and glycogen phosphorylase), transport proteins (fatty acid-binding protein, myoglobin and somatic cytochrome-C) and others (creatine kinase M, malate dehydrogenase cytosolic, fibrinogen and parvalbumin). Decreased proteins, mostly of extracellular origin, included adiponectin, lumican, plasminogen and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. Analysis of sera from 1 week to 7 months old mdx mice revealed age-dependent changes in the level of these biomarkers with most biomarkers acutely elevated at 3 weeks of age. Serum analysis of DMD patients, with ages ranging from 4 to 15 years old, confirmed elevation of 20 of the murine biomarkers in DMD, with similar age-related changes. This study provides a panel of biomarkers that reflect muscle activity and pathogenesis and should prove valuable tool to complement natural history studies and to monitor treatment efficacy in future clinical trials. PMID:25027324

  13. Discovery of serum protein biomarkers in the mdx mouse model and cross-species comparison to Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Yetrib; Marathi, Ramya L; Rayavarapu, Sree; Zhang, Aiping; Brown, Kristy J; Seol, Haeri; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cirak, Sebahattin; Bello, Luca; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Partridge, Terry; Hoffman, Eric P; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Mah, Jean K; Henricson, Erik; McDonald, Craig

    2014-12-15

    It is expected that serum protein biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) will reflect disease pathogenesis, progression and aid future therapy developments. Here, we describe use of quantitative in vivo stable isotope labeling in mammals to accurately compare serum proteomes of wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Biomarkers identified in serum from two independent dystrophin-deficient mouse models (mdx-Δ52 and mdx-23) were concordant with those identified in sera samples of DMD patients. Of the 355 mouse sera proteins, 23 were significantly elevated and 4 significantly lower in mdx relative to wild-type mice (P-value < 0.001). Elevated proteins were mostly of muscle origin: including myofibrillar proteins (titin, myosin light chain 1/3, myomesin 3 and filamin-C), glycolytic enzymes (aldolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 2, beta enolase and glycogen phosphorylase), transport proteins (fatty acid-binding protein, myoglobin and somatic cytochrome-C) and others (creatine kinase M, malate dehydrogenase cytosolic, fibrinogen and parvalbumin). Decreased proteins, mostly of extracellular origin, included adiponectin, lumican, plasminogen and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. Analysis of sera from 1 week to 7 months old mdx mice revealed age-dependent changes in the level of these biomarkers with most biomarkers acutely elevated at 3 weeks of age. Serum analysis of DMD patients, with ages ranging from 4 to 15 years old, confirmed elevation of 20 of the murine biomarkers in DMD, with similar age-related changes. This study provides a panel of biomarkers that reflect muscle activity and pathogenesis and should prove valuable tool to complement natural history studies and to monitor treatment efficacy in future clinical trials.

  14. Utility of a non-invasive serum biomarker panel for diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic esophagitis: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.; Rusin, Spencer; Gebhart, Jessica H.; Covey, Shannon; Higgins, Leana L.; Beitia, RoseMary; Speck, Olga; Woodward, Kimberly; Woosley, John T.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-invasive biomarkers would be valuable for diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The aim of this study was to determine the utility of a panel of serum biomarkers for the diagnosis and management of EoE. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of consecutive adults undergoing outpatient EGD. Incident cases of EoE were diagnosed per consensus guidelines; controls had GERD or dysphagia and did not meet EoE criteria. EoE cases were treated with topical steroids and had repeat endoscopy. Pre- and post-treatment serum samples were analyzed in a blinded fashion for: IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-13, TGF-α, TGF-β, TNF-α, eotaxin-1, -2, and -3, TSLP, major basic protein (MBP), and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). Cases and controls were compared at baseline, and pre- and post-treatment assays were compared in cases. Results A total of 61 incident EoE cases and 87 controls were enrolled; 51 EoE cases had post-treatment serum analyzed. There were no significant differences in any of the biomarkers between EoE cases and controls at baseline. IL-13 and eotaxin-3 for cases and controls were 85 ±160 vs 43 ±161 pg/mL (p=0.12), and 41 ±159 vs 21 ±73 (p=0.30). There were no significant differences in assay values among cases before and after treatment. There were also no differences after stratification by atopic status or treatment response. Conclusions A panel of inflammatory factors known to be associated with EoE pathogenesis were not increased in the serum, nor were they responsive to therapy. None of these biomarkers are likely candidates for a serum test for EoE. Histologic analysis for diagnosis and management of EoE continues to be necessary, and novel, less invasive, biomarkers are needed. PMID:25781367

  15. Effect of Swimming on Clinical Functional Parameters and Serum Biomarkers in Healthy and Osteoarthritic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Tanvisut, Sikhrin; Yano, Terdsak; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether swimming could improve function of osteoarthritic joints in canine hip OA. Fifty-five dogs were categorized into three groups. The OA with swimming group (OA-SW; n = 22), the healthy (non-OA; n = 18) with swimming group (H-SW), and the healthy (non-OA; n = 15) without swimming group (H-NSW). All animals were allowed to swim for a total of 8 weeks (2-day period, 3 cycles of swimming for 20 minutes, and resting period for 5 minutes in each cycle). Three ml of blood was collected every 2 weeks for evaluation of the levels of biomarkers for OA, including chondroitin sulfate epitope WF6 (CS-WF6) and hyaluronan (HA). Clinical evaluation of the OA-SW group found that most parameters showed improvement (P < 0.01) at week 8 compared to pretreatment, while pain on palpation was improved (P < 0.01) at week 6. The relative level of serum CS-WF6 in the OA-SW group was found to be significantly different (P < 0.01) at weeks 6 and 8 compared with the preexercise. The levels of serum HA of the H-SW group in weeks 2–8 were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than preexercise. Conclusion, swimming over 2-day period, 8 weeks continually, can improve the function of OA joint. PMID:24977044

  16. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  17. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Identified HSC71 as a Novel Serum Biomarker for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yushi; Cai, Yi; Yu, Hongyan; Li, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urologic cancers and about 80% of RCC are of the clear-cell type (ccRCC). However, there are no serum biomarkers for the accurate diagnosis of RCC. In this study, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis on serum samples from ccRCC patients and control group by using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to access differentially expressed proteins. Overall, 16 proteins were significantly upregulated (ratio > 1.5) and 14 proteins were significantly downregulated (ratio < 0.67) in early-stage ccRCC compared to control group. HSC71 was selected and subsequently validated by Western blot in six independent sets of patients. ELISA subsequently confirmed HSC71 as a potential serum biomarker for distinguishing RCC from benign urologic disease with an operating characteristic curve (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76~0.96), achieving sensitivity of 87% (95% CI 69%~96%) at a specificity of 80% (95% CI 61~92%) with a threshold of 15 ng/mL. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis led to identification of serum HSC71 as a novel serum biomarker of RCC, particularly useful in early diagnosis of ccRCC. PMID:26425554

  18. Serum Protein Profile at Remission Can Accurately Assess Therapeutic Outcomes and Survival for Serous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghamande, Sharad A.; Bush, Stephen; Ferris, Daron; Zhi, Wenbo; He, Mingfang; Wang, Meiyao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Miller, Eric; Hopkins, Diane; Macfee, Michael; Guan, Ruili; Tang, Jinhai; She, Jin-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomarkers play critical roles in early detection, diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic outcome and recurrence of cancer. Previous biomarker research on ovarian cancer (OC) has mostly focused on the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers. The primary purpose of this study is to identify serum biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic outcomes of ovarian cancer. Experimental Design Forty serum proteins were analyzed in 70 serum samples from healthy controls (HC) and 101 serum samples from serous OC patients at three different disease phases: post diagnosis (PD), remission (RM) and recurrence (RC). The utility of serum proteins as OC biomarkers was evaluated using a variety of statistical methods including survival analysis. Results Ten serum proteins (PDGF-AB/BB, PDGF-AA, CRP, sFas, CA125, SAA, sTNFRII, sIL-6R, IGFBP6 and MDC) have individually good area-under-the-curve (AUC) values (AUC = 0.69–0.86) and more than 10 three-marker combinations have excellent AUC values (0.91–0.93) in distinguishing active cancer samples (PD & RC) from HC. The mean serum protein levels for RM samples are usually intermediate between HC and OC patients with active cancer (PD & RC). Most importantly, five proteins (sICAM1, RANTES, sgp130, sTNFR-II and sVCAM1) measured at remission can classify, individually and in combination, serous OC patients into two subsets with significantly different overall survival (best HR = 17, p<10−3). Conclusion We identified five serum proteins which, when measured at remission, can accurately predict the overall survival of serous OC patients, suggesting that they may be useful for monitoring the therapeutic outcomes for ovarian cancer. PMID:24244307

  19. Elevated serum microRNA-122/222 levels are potential diagnostic biomarkers in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C but not hepatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Motawi, Tarek M K; Sadik, Nermin A H; Shaker, Olfat G; Ghaleb, Maggy H

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Because of their size, specificity, and relative stability in plasma, miRNAs can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to monitor liver injury, such as that caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and liver cancer. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression patterns from the serum of Egyptian patients with HCV and liver cancer compared with matched healthy controls. Using microarray-based expression profiling followed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation, we compared the levels of circulating miRNA-122 and miRNA-222 in serum from patients with hepatitis C virus (n = 40) and liver cancer (n = 60) to matched healthy controls (n = 30). MiRNA SNORD68 was the housekeeping endogenous control. We found that the serum levels of miR-122 and miR-222 were significantly elevated in HCV patients, but not in liver cancer patients, compared with controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that miR-122 and miR-222 have a high diagnostic potential in discriminating patients with HCV from controls. Serum miR-222 was significantly higher in HCV patients compared to liver cancer patients. Our results indicate that serum miR-122 and miR-222 are elevated in Egyptian patients with chronic HCV, and these miRNAs have a strong potential to serve as novel biomarkers for liver injury but not specifically for liver cancer.

  20. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Peter S.; O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder; Pilling, James E.; Sanganee, Hitesh; Wada, Hiroki; Courtney, Paul F.; Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A.; Escott, K. Jane

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis

  1. Altered Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Male and Female Power Lifters Ingesting Anabolic Steroids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein profiles were measured in nine male and three female weightlifters who were taking anabolic steroids. The profiles suggest that steriod users may face an increased risk of coronary artery disease. (Author/MT)

  2. Serum biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO).

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Sigrun Renate; Kubasch, Anne Sophie; Range, Ursula; Laass, Martin Walther; Morbach, Henner; Girschick, Hermann Joseph; Hedrich, Christian Michael

    2016-06-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), the most severe form of chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis, is an autoinflammatory bone disorder. A timely diagnosis and treatment initiation is complicated by the absence of widely accepted diagnostic criteria and an incomplete pathophysiological understanding. The aim of this study was to determine biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of CRMO. Serum of 56 CRMO patients was collected at the time of diagnosis. As controls, sera from treatment-naïve age-matched patients with Crohn's disease (N = 62) or JIA (N = 28) as well as healthy individuals (N = 62) were collected. Multiplex analysis of 25 inflammation markers was performed. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, canonical discriminant analysis, and mixed model variance analysis. Mostly monocyte-derived serum proteins were detectable and differed significantly between groups: IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-12, eotaxin, MCP-1, MIP-1b, RANTES. Multicomponent discriminant analysis allowed for the definition of algorithms differentiating between CRMO, Crohn's disease, and healthy controls. Persistently high levels of MCP-1, IL-12, sIL-2R correlated with incomplete remission in follow-up samples from CRMO patients. Discrimination algorithms allow differentiation between patients with CRMO or Crohn's disease, and healthy individuals. IL-12, MCP-1, and sIL-2R can act as markers for treatment response. Though confirmation of our findings in larger multiethnical cohorts is warranted, they may prove valuable to differentiate between otherwise healthy individuals or Crohn's disease patients with "bone pain" and CRMO patients. The elevation of mainly monocyte-derived pro-inflammatory serum proteins supports the hypothesis of pro-inflammatory monocyte/macrophages driving inflammation in CRMO.

  3. Serum inflammatory biomarkers fail to identify early axial spondyloarthritis: results from the SpondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Turina, Maureen C; Yeremenko, Nataliya; van Gaalen, Floris; van Oosterhout, Maikel; Berg, Inger J; Ramonda, Ramona; Lebre, Cristina (M C); Landewé, Robert; Baeten, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Decreasing the diagnostic delay in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) remains a major challenge. Here, we assessed the value of serum inflammatory biomarkers to distinguish early axSpA from other pathologies in a large cohort of patients referred with early back pain. Methods Serum c reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and calprotectin were determined in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort (n=310), an early back pain inception cohort. Additionally, explorative serum biomarkers derived from the literature (interleukin-27 (IL-27), human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) and lipcolin-2 (LCN-2)) were determined by ELISA in full-blown patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (n=21) and healthy controls (n=20). Results Serum CRP and ESR levels were not elevated in early axSpA versus ‘control’ back pain patients. Serum calprotectin was elevated in early axSpA versus controls (p=0.01) but failed to identify early axSpA at the individual level (positive predictive value of 38.7%). As to explorative biomarkers, serum levels of IL-27 were not detectable, and hBD-2 and LCN-2 serum levels were not elevated in full-blown AS versus healthy controls (p=0.572, p=0.562, respectively). Therefore, these markers were not further determined in the SPACE cohort. Conclusions None of the candidate serum inflammatory markers were useful as diagnostic markers in the early phase of axSpA. PMID:28123777

  4. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important

  5. Transcriptional profiling in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy to identify candidate biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Rahimov, Fedik; King, Oliver D.; Leung, Doris G.; Bibat, Genila M.; Emerson, Charles P.; Kunkel, Louis M.; Wagner, Kathryn R.

    2012-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by contractions of repetitive elements within the macrosatellite D4Z4 on chromosome 4q35. The pathophysiology of FSHD is unknown and, as a result, there is currently no effective treatment available for this disease. To better understand the pathophysiology of FSHD and develop mRNA-based biomarkers of affected muscles, we compared global analysis of gene expression in two distinct muscles obtained from a large number of FSHD subjects and their unaffected first-degree relatives. Gene expression in two muscle types was analyzed using GeneChip Gene 1.0 ST arrays: biceps, which typically shows an early and severe disease involvement; and deltoid, which is relatively uninvolved. For both muscle types, the expression differences were mild: using relaxed cutoffs for differential expression (fold change ≥1.2; nominal P value <0.01), we identified 191 and 110 genes differentially expressed between affected and control samples of biceps and deltoid muscle tissues, respectively, with 29 genes in common. Controlling for a false-discovery rate of <0.25 reduced the number of differentially expressed genes in biceps to 188 and in deltoid to 7. Expression levels of 15 genes altered in this study were used as a “molecular signature” in a validation study of an additional 26 subjects and predicted them as FSHD or control with 90% accuracy based on biceps and 80% accuracy based on deltoids. PMID:22988124

  6. Molecular profiling of childhood cancer: Biomarkers and novel therapies

    PubMed Central

    Saletta, Federica; Wadham, Carol; Ziegler, David S.; Marshall, Glenn M.; Haber, Michelle; McCowage, Geoffrey; Norris, Murray D.; Byrne, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Technological advances including high-throughput sequencing have identified numerous tumor-specific genetic changes in pediatric and adolescent cancers that can be exploited as targets for novel therapies. Scope of review This review provides a detailed overview of recent advances in the application of target-specific therapies for childhood cancers, either as single agents or in combination with other therapies. The review summarizes preclinical evidence on which clinical trials are based, early phase clinical trial results, and the incorporation of predictive biomarkers into clinical practice, according to cancer type. Major conclusions There is growing evidence that molecularly targeted therapies can valuably add to the arsenal available for treating childhood cancers, particularly when used in combination with other therapies. Nonetheless the introduction of molecularly targeted agents into practice remains challenging, due to the use of unselected populations in some clinical trials, inadequate methods to evaluate efficacy, and the need for improved preclinical models to both evaluate dosing and safety of combination therapies. General significance The increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of molecular causes of cancer favors the continued development of molecularly targeted agents, and their transfer to pediatric and adolescent populations. PMID:26675306

  7. Applying PET to Broaden the Diagnostic Utility of the Clinically Validated CA19.9 Serum Biomarker for Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Viola-Villegas, Nerissa Therese; Rice, Samuel L.; Carlin, Sean; Wu, Xiaohong; Evans, Michael J.; Sevak, Kuntal K.; Drobjnak, Marija; Ragupathi, Govind; Sawada, Ritsuko; Scholz, Wolfgang W.; Livingston, Philip O.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their considerable advantages, many circulating biomarkers have well-documented limitations. One prominent shortcoming in oncology is a high frequency of false-positive indications for malignant disease in upfront diagnosis. Because one common cause of false positivism is biomarker production from benign disorders in unrelated host tissues, we hypothesized that probing the sites of biomarker secretion with an imaging tool could be a broadly useful strategy to deconvolute the meaning of foreboding but inconclusive circulating biomarker levels. Methods In preparation to address this hypothesis clinically, we developed 89Zr-5B1, a fully human, antibody-based radiotracer targeting tumor-associated CA19.9 in the preclinical setting. Results 89Zr-5B1 localized to multiple tumor models representing diseases with undetectable and supraphysiologic serum CA19.9 levels. Among these, 89Zr-5B1 detected orthotopic models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, an elusive cancer for which the serum assay is measured in humans but with limited specificity in part because of the frequency of CA19.9 secretion from benign hepatic pathologies. Conclusion In this report, a general strategy to supplement some of the shortcomings of otherwise highly useful circulating biomarkers with immunoPET is described. To expedite the clinical validation of this model, a human monoclonal antibody to CA19.9 (a highly visible but partially flawed serum biomarker for several cancers) was radiolabeled and evaluated, and the compelling preclinical evidence suggests that the radiotracer may enhance the fidelity of diagnosis and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, a notoriously occult cancer. PMID:24029655

  8. Serum Osteopontin Predicts Degree of Hepatic Fibrosis and Serves as a Biomarker in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsue, Yasuhiro; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Saito, Takashi; Tsuchishima, Mutsumi; Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; George, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein that upregulates during pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. The present study was aimed to evaluate whether serum OPN could be used as a biomarker to assess the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods Needle biopsy was performed on HCV patients and scored as zero fibrosis (F0), mild fibrosis (F1), moderate fibrosis (F2), severe fibrosis (F3) and liver cirrhosis (F4) based on Masson’s trichrome and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining. Serum OPN levels were measured using ELISA and correlated with the degree of fibrosis. Furthermore, the OPN values were correlated and evaluated with platelets count, serum hyaluronic acid (HA), and collagen type IV and subjected to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results Serum OPN levels were remarkably increased from F0 through F4 in a progressive manner and the differences were significant (P < 0.001) between each group. The data were highly correlated with the degree of hepatic fibrosis. The ROC curve analysis depicted that serum OPN is an independent risk factor and an excellent biomarker and a prognostic index in HCV patients. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that serum OPN levels reflect the degree of hepatic fibrosis and could be used as a biomarker to assess the stage of fibrosis in HCV patients which would help to reduce the number of liver biopsies. Furthermore, serum OPN serves as a prognostic index towards the progression of hepatic fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25760884

  9. Clinical Significance of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 2, a Serum Biomarker Candidate for Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Masuishi, Yusuke; Ino, Yoko; Shigetomi, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Naoto; Ohtake, Norihisa; Miyagi, Yohei; Hirahara, Fumiki; Hirano, Hisashi; Miyagi, Etsuko

    2016-01-01

    Background There is currently no reliable serum biomarker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC), a highly lethal histological subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Previously, using a proteome-based approach, we identified tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) as a candidate serum biomarker for CCC. In this study, we sought to evaluate the clinical diagnostic performance of TFPI2 in preoperative prediction of CCC. Methods Serum TFPI2 levels were measured in serum samples from a retrospective training set consisting of patients with benign and borderline ovarian tumors, EOC subtypes, and uterine diseases. Via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, we compared the diagnostic performance of TFPI2 with that of CA125 in discrimination of patients with ovarian CCC from other patient groups. The observed diagnostic performances were examined in a prospective validation set. Results The 268-patient training set included 29 patients with ovarian CCC. Unlike CA125, which was also elevated in patients with endometriosis and several EOC subtypes, serum TFPI2 levels were specifically elevated only in ovarian CCC patients, consistent with the mRNA expression pattern in tumor tissues. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of serum TFPI2 was obviously higher than that of CA125 for discrimination of CCC from other ovarian diseases (AUC = 0.891 versus 0.595). Applying a cut-off value of 280 pg/mL, TFPI2 could distinguish early-stage (FIGO I and II) CCC from endometriosis with 72.2% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity, and 88.8% accuracy. Similar results were confirmed in an independent 156-patient prospective validation set. Conclusions TFPI2 is a useful serum biomarker for preoperative clinical diagnosis of CCC. PMID:27798689

  10. Serum Glycopatterns as Novel Potential Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Acute-on-Chronic Hepatitis B Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yaogang; Guo, Yonghong; Liu, Xiawei; Zhang, Jiaxu; Ma, Tianran; Shu, Jian; Yang, Jiajun; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Zhansheng; Li, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF) is an increasingly recognized distinct disease entity encompassing an acute deterioration of liver function in patients with cirrhosis, so little is known about the alterations of protein glycopatterns in serum with its development. We aimed to identify the alterations of serum glycopatterns in ACHBLF and probe the possibility of them as novel potential biomarkers for diagnosis of ACHBLF. As a result, there were 18 lectins (e.g., WFA, GSL-II, and PNA) to give significantly alterations of serum glycopatterns in ACHBLF compared with healthy controls (HC) (all p ≤ 0.0386). Meanwhile, among these lectins, there were 12 lectins (e.g., WFA, GAL-II, and EEL) also exhibited significantly alterations of serum glycopatterns in ACHBLF compared with HBV-infected chronic hepatitis (cHB) (all p ≤ 0.0252). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated there were 5 lectins (PHA-E + L, BS-I, ECA, ACA, and BPL) had the greatest discriminatory power for distinguishing ACHBLF and HC or cHB, respectively (all p ≤ 0.00136). We provided a new basic insight into serum glycopatterns in ACHBLF and investigated the correlation of alterations in serum glycopatterns as novel potential biomarkers for diagnosis of ACHBLF. PMID:28383031

  11. Serum Dickkopf-1 as a Biomarker for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Up; Kim, Hyon-Suk; Lee, Jae Myun; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hyemi; Choi, Sung Hoon; Baek, Shinhwa; Kim, Beom Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is a Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway inhibitor. We investigated whether DKK-1 is related to progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and HCC patients. Materials and Methods In vitro reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), wound healing assays, invasion assays, and ELISAs of patient serum samples were employed. The diagnostic accuracy of the serum DKK-1 ELISA was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under ROC (AUC) analyses. Results RT-PCR showed high DKK-1 expression in Hep3B and low in 293 cells. Similarly, the secreted DKK-1 concentration in the culture media was high in Hep3B and low in 293 cells. Wound healing and invasion assays using 293, Huh7, and Hep3B cells showed that DKK-1 overexpression promoted cell migration and invasion, whereas DKK-1 knock-down inhibited them. When serum DKK-1 levels were assessed in 370 participants (217 with HCC and 153 without), it was significantly higher in HCC patients than in control groups (median 1.48 ng/mL vs. 0.90 ng/mL, p<0.001). The optimum DKK-1 cutoff level was 1.01 ng/mL (AUC=0.829; sensitivity 90.7%; specificity 62.0%). Although DKK-1 had a higher AUC than alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) (AUC=0.829 vs. 0.794 and 0.815, respectively), they were statistically similar (all p>0.05). When three biomarkers were combined (DKK-1 plus AFP plus DCP), they showed significantly higher AUC (AUC=0.952) than single marker, DKK-1 plus AFP, or DKK-1 plus DCP (all p<0.001). Conclusion DKK-1 might be a key regulator in HCC progression and a potential therapeutic target in HCC. Serum DKK-1 could complement the diagnostic accuracy of AFP and DCP. PMID:26256972

  12. Diastolic Left Ventricular Function in Relation to Urinary and Serum Collagen Biomarkers in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ravassa, Susana; Yang, Wen-Yi; Zürbig, Petra; López, Begoña; Wei, Fang-Fei; Pontillo, Claudia; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jacobs, Lotte; González, Arantxa; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Verhamme, Peter; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Díez, Javier; Mischak, Harald; Staessen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge on the pathogenesis of diastolic heart failure predominantly rests on case-control studies involving symptomatic patients with preserved ejection fraction and relying on invasive diagnostic procedures including endomyocardial biopsy. Our objective was to gain insight in serum and urinary biomarkers reflecting collagen turnover and associated with asymptomatic diastolic LV dysfunction. We randomly recruited 782 Flemish (51.3% women; 50.5 years). We assessed diastolic LV function from the early and late diastolic peak velocities of the transmitral blood flow and of the mitral annulus. By sequencing urinary peptides, we identified 70 urinary collagen fragments. In serum, we measured carboxyterminal propeptide of procollagen type 1 (PICP) as marker of collagen I synthesis and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase type 1 (TIMP-1), an inhibitor of collagen-degrading enzymes. In multivariable-adjusted analyses with Bonferroni correction, we expressed effect sizes per 1-SD in urinary collagen I (uCI) or collagen III (uCIII) fragments. In relation to uCI fragments, e’ decreased by 0.183 cm/s (95% confidence interval, 0.017 to 0.350; p = 0.025), whereas E/e’ increased by 0.210 (0.067 to 0.353; p = 0.0012). E/e’ decreased with uCIII by 0.168 (0.021 to 0.316; p = 0.018). Based on age-specific echocardiographic criteria, 182 participants (23.3%) had subclinical diastolic LV dysfunction. Partial least squares discriminant analysis contrasting normal vs. diastolic LV dysfunction confirmed the aforementioned associations with the uCI and uCIII fragments. PICP and TIMP-1 increased in relation to uCI (p<0.0001), whereas these serum markers decreased with uCIII (p≤0.0006). Diastolic LV dysfunction was associated with higher levels of TIMP-1 (653 vs. 696 ng/mL; p = 0.013). In a general population, the non-invasively assessed diastolic LV function correlated inversely with uCI and serum markers of collagen I deposition, but positively with uCIII. These

  13. Human kallikrein 5: a potential novel serum biomarker for breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Yousef, George M; Polymeris, Mary-Ellen; Grass, Linda; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Chan, Pak-Cheung; Scorilas, Andreas; Borgoño, Carla; Harbeck, Nadia; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Dorn, Julia; Schmitt, Manfred; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2003-07-15

    The kallikrein family is a group of 15 serine protease genes clustered on chromosome 19q13.4. Human kallikrein (hK) gene 5 (KLK5) is a member of this family and encodes for a secreted serine protease (hK5). KLK5 was shown to be differentially expressed at the mRNA level in breast and ovarian cancer. Until now, detection of hK5 protein in either biological fluids or tissues has not been described due to lack of suitable reagents and methods. The aim of this study was to develop immunological reagents and a sensitive and specific fluorometric immunoassay (ELISA) for hK5, to examine the presence of hK5 in human tissues and biological fluids, and to study the possible clinical utility of hK5 as a biomarker for endocrine-related malignancies. Recombinant hK5 protein was produced and purified using a Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. The protein was used as an immunogen to generate mouse and rabbit polyclonal anti-hK5 antibodies. A sandwich-type microplate immunoassay (ELISA) was developed using these antibodies, coupled with a time-resolved fluorometric detection technique. The ELISA assay was then used to measure hK5 in various biological fluids, tissue extracts, and serum samples from normal individuals and patients with various malignancies. The hK5 ELISA immunoassay has a lower detection limit of 0.1 micro g/liter, is specific for hK5, and has no cross-reactivity with other homologous kallikreins. The dynamic range is 0.1-25 micro g/liter, and within-run and between-run coefficients of variation within this range are <10%. hK5 is found in many tissues, with the highest expression levels seen in the skin, breast, salivary gland, and esophagus. hK5 is present at relatively high levels in milk of lactating women. Whereas the levels of hK5 are almost undetectable in serum of normal individuals (male and female) and patients with diverse malignancies, higher concentrations were found in a proportion of patients with ovarian (69%) and breast (49%) cancer. High

  14. Expression profiling of serum microRNA-101 in HBV-associated chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yun; Yao, Qinwei; Butt, Azeem Mehmood; Guo, Jia; Tian, Zhou; Bao, Xuli; Li, Hongxia; Meng, Qinghua; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of evolutionarily conserved, non-coding small RNAs (18–25 nt) that have emerged as master regulators of several biological processes. Recently, circulating miRNAs have also been reported to be promising biomarkers for various pathological conditions. In the present study, we report the comparative expression profiling of microRNA-101 (miR-101) in serum and tissue samples from chronic hepatitis B (CHB), HBV-associated liver cirrhosis (HBV-LC), and HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC) patients and healthy controls. The serum miR-101 levels were found to be significantly downregulated in the HBV-HCC patients compared with the HBV-LC patients (P < 0.001), CHB patients (P < 0.001) and healthy controls but were upregulated in the HBV-LC patients compared with the CHB patients (P < 0.001) and healthy controls (P < 0.001). Consistent with the serum data, the expression of miR-101 was also upregulated and downregulated in the HBV-LC and HBV-HCC tissue samples, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of serum miR-101 yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.976 with 95.5% sensitivity and 90.2% specificity when differentiating between HBV-HCC and HBV-LC. Our results suggest that the serum miR-101 level can serve as a potential non-invasive biomarker to differentiate HBV-HCC from HBV-LC. PMID:24971953

  15. Accurate Quantification of Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Serum Using Protein Standard Absolute Quantification (PSAQ™) and Selected Reaction Monitoring*

    PubMed Central

    Huillet, Céline; Adrait, Annie; Lebert, Dorothée; Picard, Guillaume; Trauchessec, Mathieu; Louwagie, Mathilde; Dupuis, Alain; Hittinger, Luc; Ghaleh, Bijan; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Jaquinod, Michel; Garin, Jérôme; Bruley, Christophe; Brun, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Development of new biomarkers needs to be significantly accelerated to improve diagnostic, prognostic, and toxicity monitoring as well as therapeutic follow-up. Biomarker evaluation is the main bottleneck in this development process. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) combined with stable isotope dilution has emerged as a promising option to speed this step, particularly because of its multiplexing capacities. However, analytical variabilities because of upstream sample handling or incomplete trypsin digestion still need to be resolved. In 2007, we developed the PSAQ™ method (Protein Standard Absolute Quantification), which uses full-length isotope-labeled protein standards to quantify target proteins. In the present study we used clinically validated cardiovascular biomarkers (LDH-B, CKMB, myoglobin, and troponin I) to demonstrate that the combination of PSAQ and SRM (PSAQ-SRM) allows highly accurate biomarker quantification in serum samples. A multiplex PSAQ-SRM assay was used to quantify these biomarkers in clinical samples from myocardial infarction patients. Good correlation between PSAQ-SRM and ELISA assay results was found and demonstrated the consistency between these analytical approaches. Thus, PSAQ-SRM has the capacity to improve both accuracy and reproducibility in protein analysis. This will be a major contribution to efficient biomarker development strategies. PMID:22080464

  16. Midkine is a serum and urinary biomarker for the detection and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xin; Lu, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Shui-Shen; Su, Chun-Hua; Luo, Hong-He

    2016-01-01

    Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, has been identified as a promising cancer biomarker. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the serum and urine midkine levels have not been intensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of serum and urine midkine levels in patients with NSCLC. The serum midkine levels were measured in 153 patients with NSCLC, 23 patients with benign pulmonary disease and 95 healthy controls using ELISA. Urine midkine levels were examined in 20 controls and 45 patients with NSCLC. Midkine expression in tumor tissues from 72 patients with NSCLC who underwent definitive surgical resection without any pre-operative treatments was examined by immunohistochemistry. Serum levels were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC than in healthy controls (657.36±496.58 pg/ml vs. 194.49±122.57 pg/ml, P<0.001). As shown in the ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the cut-off serum midkine concentration of 400 pg/ml for predicting the presence of NSCLC were 71.2% and 88.1%, respectively. Positive correlations between the serum midkine levels and immunohistochemistry staining scores (r=0.315, P=0.007) and between the serum midkine levels and urine midkine levels (r=0.636, P<0.001) were observed using Spearman's bivariate correlations. The serum midkine concentration was identified as an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis, and its overexpression yielded a relative risk of death of 2.072 (0.01serum and urine midkine levels may be useful, minimally invasive biomarkers for detecting and predicting the prognosis of NSCLC. PMID:27974680

  17. Statistical Issues in Testing Conformance with the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA) Profile Claims.

    PubMed

    Obuchowski, Nancy A; Buckler, Andrew; Kinahan, Paul; Chen-Mayer, Heather; Petrick, Nicholas; Barboriak, Daniel P; Bullen, Jennifer; Barnhart, Huiman; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    A major initiative of the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance is to develop standards-based documents called "Profiles," which describe one or more technical performance claims for a given imaging modality. The term "actor" denotes any entity (device, software, or person) whose performance must meet certain specifications for the claim to be met. The objective of this paper is to present the statistical issues in testing actors' conformance with the specifications. In particular, we present the general rationale and interpretation of the claims, the minimum requirements for testing whether an actor achieves the performance requirements, the study designs used for testing conformity, and the statistical analysis plan. We use three examples to illustrate the process: apparent diffusion coefficient in solid tumors measured by MRI, change in Perc 15 as a biomarker for the progression of emphysema, and percent change in solid tumor volume by computed tomography as a biomarker for lung cancer progression.

  18. Evaluation of serum estrogen-DNA adducts as potential biomarkers for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Sandhya; Yang, Li; Sandhu, Nicole P; Ingle, James N; Beseler, Cheryl L; Suman, Vera J; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the ratio of estrogen-DNA adducts to their respective metabolites and conjugates in serum differed between women with early-onset breast cancer and those with average or high risk of developing breast cancer. Serum samples from women at average risk (n=63) or high risk (n=80) for breast cancer (using Gail model) and women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer (n=79) were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Adduct ratios were statistically compared among the three groups, and the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) was used to identify a diagnostic cut-off point. The median adduct ratio in the average-risk group was significantly lower than that of both the high-risk group and the breast cancer group (p values<0.0001), and provided good discrimination between those at average versus high risk of breast cancer (AUC=0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.90). Sensitivity and specificity were maximized at an adduct ratio of 77. For women in the same age and BMI group, the odds of being at high risk for breast cancer was 8.03 (95% CI 3.46-18.7) times higher for those with a ratio of at least 77 compared to those with a ratio less than 77. The likelihood of being at high risk for breast cancer was significantly increased for those with a high adduct ratio relative to those with a low adduct ratio. These findings suggest that estrogen-DNA adducts deserve further study as potential biomarkers for risk of developing breast cancer.

  19. Delayed Imatinib Treatment for Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Recovery and Serum Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Anja; Hao, Jingxia; Wellfelt, Katrin; Josephson, Anna; Svensson, Camilla I.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Eriksson, Ulf; Abrams, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With no currently available drug treatment for spinal cord injury, there is a need for additional therapeutic candidates. We took the approach of repositioning existing pharmacological agents to serve as acute treatments for spinal cord injury and previously found imatinib to have positive effects on locomotor and bladder function in experimental spinal cord injury when administered immediately after the injury. However, for imatinib to have translational value, it needs to have sustained beneficial effects with delayed initiation of treatment, as well. Here, we show that imatinib improves hind limb locomotion and bladder recovery when initiation of treatment was delayed until 4 h after injury and that bladder function was improved with a delay of up to 24 h. The treatment did not induce hypersensitivity. Instead, imatinib-treated animals were generally less hypersensitive to either thermal or mechanical stimuli, compared with controls. In an effort to provide potential biomarkers, we found serum levels of three cytokines/chemokines—monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene (interleukin 8)—to increase over time with imatinib treatment and to be significantly higher in injured imatinib-treated animals than in controls during the early treatment period. This correlated to macrophage activation and autofluorescence in lymphoid organs. At the site of injury in the spinal cord, macrophage activation was instead reduced by imatinib treatment. Our data strengthen the case for clinical trials of imatinib by showing that initiation of treatment can be delayed and by identifying serum cytokines that may serve as candidate markers of effective imatinib doses. PMID:25914996

  20. Plasma Biomarker Profiles Differ Depending on Breast Cancer Subtype but RANTES is Consistently Increased

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, Rachel M.; Daly, Don S.; Tan, Ruimin; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-07-01

    Background: Current biomarkers for breast cancer have little potential for detection. We determined if breast cancer subtypes influence circulating protein biomarkers. Methods: A sandwich-ELISA microarray platform was used to evaluate 23 candidate biomarkers in plasma samples that were obtained from subjects with either benign breast disease or invasive breast cancer. All plasma samples were collected at the time of biopsy, after a referral due to a suspicious screen (e.g., mammography). Cancer samples were evaluated based on breast cancer subtypes, as defined by the HER2 and estrogen receptor statuses. Results: Ten proteins were statistically altered in at least one breast cancer subtype, including four epidermal growth factor receptor ligands, two matrix metalloproteases, two cytokines, and two angiogenic factors. Only one cytokine, RANTES, was significantly increased (P<0.01 for each analysis) in all four subtypes, with areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) that ranged from 0.76 to 0.82, depending on cancer subtype. The best AUC values were observed for analyses that combined data from multiple biomarkers, with values ranging from 0.70 to 0.99, depending on the cancer subtype. Although the results for RANTES are consistent with previous publications, the multi-assay results need to be validated in independent sample sets. Conclusions: Different breast cancer subtypes produce distinct biomarker profiles, and circulating protein biomarkers have potential to differentiate between true and false positive screens for breast cancer. Impact: Subtype-specific biomarker panels may be useful for detecting breast cancer or as an adjunct assay to improve the accuracy of current screening methods.

  1. Quantification of specific glycation sites in human serum albumin as prospective type 2 diabetes mellitus biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Sandro; Frolov, Andrej; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-02-02

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common lifestyle disease affecting all countries. Due to its asymptomatic onset, it is often diagnosed after irreversible vascular complications have been initiated. Therefore, specific markers characteristic for very early disease stages and suitable for early diagnostics are required. Glycation of plasma proteins, such as human serum albumin (HSA), has been often suggested as marker. However, the total glycation degree of HSA does not provide sufficient information about short-term fluctuations of blood glucose concentrations due to the large number of glycation sites. Analysis of individual modification sites might be more informative, but methods for reliable quantifications are still missing. Here, we present a precise and robust quantitative strategy based on boronic acid affinity chromatography (BAC) to enrich glycated peptides in tryptic digests of plasma samples and to quantify them by LC-MS/MS (multiple reaction monitoring, MRM) using internal calibration or standard isotope dilution (stable isotope-labeled peptides). The high selectivity and precision (relative standard deviations below 10%) of the overall approach appeared to be well suited for the identification of prospective biomarkers. Indeed, six glycated peptides corresponding to different glycation sites of HSA were present in plasma samples obtained from T2DM patients at significantly higher levels than in non-diabetic men matched for age. Additionally, each of the studied glycation site of HSA appeared to be affected at different degrees.

  2. Testing breast cancer serum biomarkers for early detection and prognosis in pre-diagnosis samples

    PubMed Central

    Kazarian, Anna; Blyuss, Oleg; Metodieva, Gergana; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ryan, Andy; Kiseleva, Elena M; Prytomanova, Olga M; Jacobs, Ian J; Widschwendter, Martin; Menon, Usha; Timms, John F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although mammography screening is available, there is an ongoing interest in improved early detection and prognosis. Herein, we have analysed a combination of serological biomarkers in a case–control cohort of sera taken before diagnosis. Methods: This nested case–control study within the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) used serum samples from 239 women who subsequently developed breast cancer and 239 matched cancer-free controls. Sera were screened by ELISA for 9 candidate markers. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations with clinico-pathological features and between case controls in different time groups before diagnosis. Results: Significant associations with clinico-pathological features related to prognosis were found for several candidates (CA15-3, HSP90A and PAI-1). However, there were no consistent differences between cases and controls for any candidate in the lead up to diagnosis. Whilst combination models outperformed single markers, there was no increase in performance towards diagnosis. Conclusions: This study using unique pre-diagnosis samples shows that CA15-3, HSP90A and PAI-1 have potential as early prognostic markers and warrant further investigation. However, none of the candidates or combinations would be useful for screening. PMID:28081538

  3. BMI1, Stem Cell Factor Acting as Novel Serum-biomarker for Caucasian and African-American Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Hifzur Rahman; Parray, Aijaz; Zhong, Weixiong; Karnes, R. Jeffery; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Rhim, Johng S.; Konety, Badrinath R.; Saleem, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of reliable predictive biomarkers is a stumbling block in the management of prostate cancer (CaP). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) widely used in clinics has several caveats as a CaP biomarker. African-American CaP patients have poor prognosis than Caucasians, and notably the serum-PSA does not perform well in this group. Further, some men with low serum-PSA remain unnoticed for CaP until they develop disease. Thus, there is a need to identify a reliable diagnostic and predictive biomarker of CaP. Here, we show that BMI1 stem-cell protein is secretory and could be explored for biomarker use in CaP patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Semi-quantitative analysis of BMI1 was performed in prostatic tissues of TRAMP (autochthonous transgenic mouse model), human CaP patients, and in cell-based models representing normal and different CaP phenotypes in African-American and Caucasian men, by employing immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and Slot-blotting. Quantitative analysis of BMI1 and PSA were performed in blood and culture-media of siRNA-transfected and non-transfected cells by employing ELISA. BMI1 protein is (i) secreted by CaP cells, (ii) increased in the apical region of epithelial cells and stromal region in prostatic tumors, and (iii) detected in human blood. BMI1 is detectable in blood of CaP patients in an order of increasing tumor stage, exhibit a positive correlation with serum-PSA and importantly is detectable in patients which exhibit low serum-PSA. The clinical significance of BMI1 as a biomarker could be ascertained from observation that CaP cells secrete this protein in higher levels than cells representative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Conclusions/Significance BMI1 could be developed as a dual bio-marker (serum and biopsy) for the diagnosis and prognosis of CaP in Caucasian and African-American men. Though compelling these data warrant further investigation in a cohort of African-American patients. PMID:23308129

  4. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) as a biomarker for monitoring disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, V D; van Putten, M; Chaouch, A; Garrood, P; Straub, V; Lochmüller, H; Ginjaar, H B; Aartsma-Rus, A M; van Ommen, G J B; den Dunnen, J T; 't Hoen, P A C

    2011-08-01

    To identify serum biomarkers that allow monitoring of disease progression and treatment effects in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and osteopontin (OPN) were determined in 63 DMD patients on corticosteroid therapy. These proteins were selected for their role in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were significantly higher in sera of DMD patients compared to healthy controls, whereas the OPN levels showed no significant difference. MMP-9 levels were also observed to be significantly higher in older, nonambulant patients, compared to ambulant patients. Longitudinal data from a smaller cohort of DMD patients followed up for over 4years showed that MMP-9, but not TIMP-1 increased significantly with age. Hence, MMP-9 is a potential DMD biomarker for disease progression. Future studies have to confirm whether serum MMP-9 levels can be used to monitor therapeutic response.

  5. Relevance of serum biomarkers associated with melanoma during follow-up of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Felix, Joana; Cassinat, Bruno; Porcher, Raphael; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Maubec, Eve; Pages, Cécile; Baroudjian, Barouyr; Homyrda, Laurence; Boukouaci, Wahid; Tamouza, Ryad; Bagot, Martine; Caignard, Anne; Toubert, Antoine; Lebbé, Céleste; Moins-Teisserenc, Hélène

    2016-11-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a rapidly spreading cancer whose prognosis remains poor although important therapy advances in recent years. Ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy used in advanced melanoma, is an effective immunotherapy alone or combined with other agents but with few predictive biomarkers of response. Here, we sought to analyze the potential of S100B, MIA, soluble MICA, anti-MICA antibodies and LDH as serum biomarkers of response and survival in a cohort of 77 advanced melanoma patients subjected to ipilimumab. Lower levels of S100B, and LDH at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6 correlated to a better response and survival. After multivariate analysis LDH maintained its independence at baseline and week 6, whereas S100B might be a useful tool for anti-CTLA-4 treatment monitoring after the first two doses of ipilimumab (W6). In addition, higher sMICA serum levels at baseline were associated with less frequency of irAEs.

  6. Serum haptoglobin as a novel molecular biomarker predicting colorectal cancer hepatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lichao; Hu, Shusheng; Yu, Long; Guo, Chunguang; Sun, Lixin; Yang, Zhihua; Qi, Jun; Ran, Yuliang

    2016-06-01

    Early detection of liver metastasis is important for improving colorectal cancer (CRC) patient survival. Our previous studies showed haptoglobin was highly expressed in primary CRC tissues, especially in heterochronous metastatic cases. Here, we assessed the potential of serum haptoglobin (sHP) as a biomarker for early detection of CRC liver metastasis by evaluating the sHP in 475 CRC patients and 152 healthy volunteers. In the training set (250 cases), sHP level in CRC-M1 (1773.18 ± 690.25 ng/mL) were significantly increased as compared to in CRC-M0 (1544.37 ± 1497.65 ng/mL) or healthy (917.76 ± 571.59 ng/mL). And the high sHP level was correlated with poor survival. Logistic regression analysis revealed that sHP, serum carcinoembryonic antigen (sCEA) and serum carbohydrate antigen 19.9 (sCA19.9) level were the significant parameters for detecting liver metastasis. In leave-one-out-cross-validation, these three markers resulted in 89.1% sensitivity and 85.8% specificity for hepatic metastasis detection. In an independent test set (225 cases), receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of sHP in CRC liver metastasis showed an area under the curve of 0.735, with a sensitivity of 87.2% and a specificity of 59.9%. Combination of sHP, sCEA and sCA19.9 improved diagnostic accuracy to 0.880, with a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 87.8%. Silencing of HP by specific shRNA significantly inhibited the LOVO and SW620 cell invasion, and suppressed xenograft tumor invasive growth. In summary, these results demonstrate that sHP is associated with poor prognosis of CRC patients and that HP promotes colorectal cancer cell invasion. sHP combining with sCA19.9 and sCEA may be used as accurate predictors of CRC liver metastasis.

  7. Dynamic of CSF and serum biomarkers in HIV-1 subtype C encephalitis with CNS genetic compartmentalization-case study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sergio M; Rotta, Indianara; Ribeiro, Clea E; Oliveira, Michelli F; Chaillon, Antoine; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Cunha, Ana Paula; Zonta, Marise; Bents, Joao França; Raboni, Sonia M; Smith, Davey; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald J

    2017-02-28

    Despite the effective suppression of viremia with antiretroviral therapy, HIV can still replicate in the central nervous system (CNS). This was a longitudinal study of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum dynamics of several biomarkers related to inflammation, the blood-brain barrier, neuronal injury, and IgG intrathecal synthesis in serial samples of CSF and serum from a patient infected with HIV-1 subtype C with CNS compartmentalization.The phylogenetic analyses of plasma and CSF samples in an acute phase using next-generation sequencing and F-statistics analysis of C2-V3 haplotypes revealed distinct compartmentalized CSF viruses in paired CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. The CSF biomarker analysis in this patient showed that symptomatic CSF escape is accompanied by CNS inflammation, high levels of cell and humoral immune biomarkers, CNS barrier dysfunction, and an increase in neuronal injury biomarkers with demyelization. Independent and isolated HIV replication can occur in the CNS, even in HIV-1 subtype C, leading to compartmentalization and development of quasispecies distinct from the peripheral plasma. These immunological aspects of the HIV CNS escape have not been described previously. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CNS HIV escape and compartmentalization in HIV-1 subtype C.

  8. Detection of the Inflammation Biomarker C-Reactive Protein in Serum Samples: Towards an Optimal Biosensor Formula

    PubMed Central

    Fakanya, Wellington M.; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2014-01-01

    The development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), is reported in this work. CRP has been used to assess inflammation and is also used in a multi-biomarker system as a predictive biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. A gold-based working electrode sensor was developed, and the types of electrode printing inks and ink curing techniques were then optimized. The electrodes with the best performance parameters were then employed for the construction of an immunosensor for CRP by immobilizing anti-human CRP antibody on the working electrode surface. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was then constructed after sample addition by using anti-human CRP antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The signal was generated by the addition of a mediator/substrate system comprised of 3,3,5',5'-Tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Measurements were conducted using chronoamperometry at −200 mV against an integrated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A CRP limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 ng·mL−1 was achieved in spiked serum samples, and performance agreement was obtained with reference to a commercial ELISA kit. The developed CRP immunosensor was able to detect a diagnostically relevant range of the biomarker in serum without the need for signal amplification using nanoparticles, paving the way for future development on a cardiac panel electrochemical point-of-care diagnostic device. PMID:25587427

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum cytokine profiling to detect immune control of infectious and inflammatory neurological and psychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Maxeiner, Horst-Guenter; Marion Schneider, E; Kurfiss, Sina-Tatjana; Brettschneider, Johannes; Tumani, Hayrettin; Bechter, Karl

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed at profiling inflammatory cytokines for neurological and psychiatric diseases. A total of 86 patients with meningitis, multiple sclerosis, tension-type headache, idiopathic facial nerve palsy (IFNP), affective and schizophrenic disorders were tested for both, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using a multiplexed cytokine ELISA for IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8/CXCL8, IL-10, IL12p70, IL-13 and IL-17. Cases with viral and bacterial meningitis had unequivocally higher cytokine concentrations in the CSF when compared with serum. Bacterial meningitis was unique by extremely elevated IL-17, TNF-α and IL-1β, indicating a plethora of inflammatory pathways, selectively activated in the CSF. In relapsing multiple sclerosis, IFN-γ and IL-10 were elevated in both, serum and CSF, but IL-12p70, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α were more prominent in serum than in CSF. Qualitatively similar biomarker patterns were detected in patients with idiopathic facial nerve palsy and tension-type cephalgia. Affective and schizophrenic disorders clearly present with an inflammatory phenotype in the CSF and also serum, the cytokines determined were in general higher in schizophrenia. Except IFN-γ, schizophrenic patients had higher IL-12p70 and a trend of higher IL-10 and IL-13 in serum suggesting a more prominent TH2-type counter regulatory immune response than in affective disorders. These differences were also mirrored in the CSF. Elevated IL-8 appears to be the most sensitive marker for inflammation in the CSF of all diseases studied, whereas TNF-α was restricted to peripheral blood. With the exception of IL-8, all but viral and bacterial meningitis, studied, displayed higher means of elevated lymphokine concentrations in the serum than in the CSF. This observation supports the concept of immunological crosstalk between periphery and intrathecal immunity in neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  10. AGR3 in breast cancer: prognostic impact and suitable serum-based biomarker for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Garczyk, Stefan; von Stillfried, Saskia; Antonopoulos, Wiebke; Hartmann, Arndt; Schrauder, Michael G; Fasching, Peter A; Anzeneder, Tobias; Tannapfel, Andrea; Ergönenc, Yavuz; Knüchel, Ruth; Rose, Michael; Dahl, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Blood-based early detection of breast cancer has recently gained novel momentum, as liquid biopsy diagnostics is a fast emerging field. In this study, we aimed to identify secreted proteins which are up-regulated both in tumour tissue and serum samples of breast cancer patients compared to normal tissue and sera. Based on two independent tissue cohorts (n = 75 and n = 229) and one serum cohort (n = 80) of human breast cancer and healthy serum samples, we characterised AGR3 as a novel potential biomarker both for breast cancer prognosis and early breast cancer detection from blood. AGR3 expression in breast tumours is significantly associated with oestrogen receptor α (P<0.001) and lower tumour grade (P<0.01). Interestingly, AGR3 protein expression correlates with unfavourable outcome in low (G1) and intermediate (G2) grade breast tumours (multivariate hazard ratio: 2.186, 95% CI: 1.008-4.740, P<0.05) indicating an independent prognostic impact. In sera analysed by ELISA technique, AGR3 protein concentration was significantly (P<0.001) elevated in samples from breast cancer patients (n = 40, mainly low stage tumours) compared to healthy controls (n = 40). To develop a suitable biomarker panel for early breast cancer detection, we measured AGR2 protein in human serum samples in parallel. The combined AGR3/AGR2 biomarker panel achieved a sensitivity of 64.5% and a specificity of 89.5% as shown by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistics. Thus our data clearly show the potential usability of AGR3 and AGR2 as biomarkers for blood-based early detection of human breast cancer.

  11. Biomarkers of chemotaxis and inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in individuals with HIV-1 subtype C versus B.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sergio M; Rotta, Indianara; Jiang, Yanxin; Li, Xiao; Raboni, Sonia M; Ribeiro, Clea E; Smith, Davey; Potter, Michael; Vaida, Florin; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald J

    2016-12-01

    A defective chemokine motif in the HIV-1 Tat protein has been hypothesized to alter central nervous system cellular trafficking and inflammation, rendering HIV-1 subtype C less neuropathogenic than B. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared biomarkers of cellular chemotaxis and inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum in individuals infected with HIV-1 subtypes B (n = 27) and C (n = 25) from Curitiba, Brazil. None had opportunistic infections. Chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, IP-10) and cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10) were measured using the multiplex bead suspension array immunoassays or ELISA HD. CSF and serum biomarker concentrations were compared between subtype B and C groups and HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects (N = 19) using an independent group t test (unadjusted analysis) and linear regression (adjusted analysis), controlling for nadir CD4 and CSF and plasma HIV RNA suppression. CSF levels of cytokines and chemokines were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative participants for 7/13 biomarkers measured, but levels did not differ for subtypes B and C. Serum levels were significantly elevated for 4/13 markers, with no significant differences between subtypes B and C. Although pleocytosis was much more frequent in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative individuals (27 vs. 0 %), subtypes B and C did not differ (32 and 22 %; p = 0.23). We did not find molecular evidence to support the hypothesis that intrathecal chemotaxis and inflammation is less in HIV-1 subtype C than in subtype B. Biomarker changes in CSF were more robust than in serum, suggesting compartmentalization of the immunological response to HIV.

  12. Serum Natriuretic Peptides as Differential Biomarkers Allowing for the Distinction between Physiologic and Pathologic Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael E; Manfredi, Thomas G; Agostinucci, Kevin; Engle, Steven K; Powe, Josh; King, Nicholas M P; Rodriguez, Luis A; Gropp, Kathryn E; Gallacher, Matthew; Vetter, Frederick J; More, Vijay; Shimpi, Prajakta; Serra, David; Colton, Heidi M

    2017-02-01

    Given the proven utility of natriuretic peptides as serum biomarkers of cardiovascular maladaptation and dysfunction in humans and the high cross-species sequence conservation of atrial natriuretic peptides, natriuretic peptides have the potential to serve as translational biomarkers for the identification of cardiotoxic compounds during multiple phases of drug development. This work evaluated and compared the response of N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in rats during exercise-induced and drug-induced increases in cardiac mass after chronic swimming or daily oral dosing with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8 to 10 weeks were assigned to control, active control, swimming, or drug-induced cardiac hypertrophy groups. While the relative heart weights from both the swimming and drug-induced cardiac hypertrophy groups were increased 15% after 28 days of dosing, the serum NT-proANP and NT-proBNP values were only increased in association with cardiac hypertrophy caused by compound administration. Serum natriuretic peptide concentrations did not change in response to adaptive physiologic cardiac hypertrophy induced by a 28-day swimming protocol. These data support the use of natriuretic peptides as fluid biomarkers for the distinction between physiological and drug-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  13. Serum Lipid Profile in Subjects with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Laclaustra, Martin; Van Den Berg, Elizabeth Louise Maayken; Hurtado-Roca, Yamilée; Castellote, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Few large studies have examined the relationship between spinal cord injury (SCI) and lipid profile. We studied serum lipid concentrations in subjects with traumatic SCI in relation to the degree of neurological involvement and time since injury, and compared them with values from a reference sample for the Spanish population (DRECE study). Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort was built from 177 consecutive cases with traumatic SCI admitted to the SCI unit of the Miguel Servet Hospital in Aragon (Spain). Outcome measures (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c and LDL-c levels) were analyzed according to the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), neurological level of injury (involvement of all limbs vs. only lower limbs), and time since injury. All analyses were adjusted for age and sex. Results Cases without preserved motor function (AIS A or B) had lower total and HDL cholesterol than the others (-11.4 [-21.5, -1.4] mg/dL total cholesterol and -5.1 [-8.8, -1.4] mg/dL HDL-c), and cases with all-limb involvement had lower total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol than those with only lower-limb involvement (-14.0 [-24.6, -3.4] mg/dL total cholesterol, -4.1 [-8.0, -0.2] mg/dL HDL-c, and -10.0 [-19.7, -0.3] mg/dL LDL-c) (all p<0.05). No association was found between lipid concentrations and time since injury. Concentrations of lipid subfractions and triglycerides in SCI subjects were lower than in sex- and age-stratified values from the reference sample. Conclusion A high degree of neurological involvement in SCI (anatomically higher lesions and AIS A or B) is associated with lower total cholesterol and HDL-c. PMID:25706982

  14. Prospective associations between serum biomarkers of lipid metabolism and overall, breast and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    His, Mathilde; Zelek, Laurent; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Blacher, Jacques; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-02-01

    Experimental studies provided evidence about mechanisms by which cholesterol, especially high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), could influence carcinogenesis, notably through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, prospective studies that investigated the associations between specific lipid metabolism biomarkers and cancer risk provided inconsistent results. The objective was to investigate the prospective associations between total cholesterol (T-C), HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoproteins A1 (apoA1) and B, and triglycerides and overall, breast and prostate cancer risk. Analyses were performed on 7,557 subjects of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants Study, a nationwide French cohort study. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism were measured at baseline and analyzed regarding the risk of first primary incident cancer (N = 514 cases diagnosed during follow-up, 1994-2007), using Cox proportional hazards models. T-C was inversely associated with overall (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.91, 95 % CI 0.82-1.00; P = 0.04) and breast (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.69-0.99; P = 0.04) cancer risk. HDL-C was also inversely associated with overall (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.61, 95 % CI 0.46-0.82; P = 0.0008) and breast (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.48, 95 % CI 0.28-0.83; P = 0.009) cancer risk. Consistently, apoA1 was inversely associated with overall (HR(1g/L increment) = 0.56, 95 % CI 0.39-0.82; P = 0.003) and breast (HR(1g/L increment) = 0.36, 95 % CI 0.18-0.73; P = 0.004) cancer risk. This prospective study suggests that pre-diagnostic serum levels of T-C, HDL-C and ApoA1 are associated with decreased overall and breast cancer risk. The confirmation of a role of cholesterol components in cancer development, by further large prospective and experimental studies, may have important implications in terms of public health, since cholesterol is already crucial in cardiovascular prevention.

  15. A metabolite profiling approach to identify biomarkers of flavonoid intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Loke, Wai Mun; Jenner, Andrew M; Proudfoot, Julie M; McKinley, Allan J; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Halliwell, Barry; Croft, Kevin D

    2009-12-01

    Flavonoids are phytochemicals that are widespread in the human diet. Despite limitations in their bioavailability, experimental and epidemiological data suggest health benefits of flavonoid consumption. Valid biomarkers of flavonoid intake may be useful for estimating exposure in a range of settings. However, to date, few useful flavonoid biomarkers have been identified. In this study, we used a metabolite profiling approach to examine the aromatic and phenolic profile of plasma and urine of healthy men after oral consumption of 200 mg of the pure flavonoids, quercetin, (-)-epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate, which represent major flavonoid constituents in the diet. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, 71 aromatic compounds were quantified in plasma and urine at 2 and 5 h, respectively, after flavonoid ingestion. Plasma concentrations of different aromatic compounds ranged widely, from 0.01 to 10 micromol/L, with variation among volunteers. None of the aromatic compounds was significantly elevated in plasma 2 h after consumption of either flavonoid compared with water placebo. This indicates that flavonoid-derived aromatic compounds are not responsible for the acute physiological effects reported within 2 h in previous human intervention studies involving flavonoids or flavonoid-rich food consumption. These effects are more likely due to absorption of the intact flavonoid. Our urine analysis suggested that urinary 4-ethylphenol, benzoic acid, and 4-ethylbenzoic acid may be potential biomarkers of quercetin intake and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, 4-O-methylgallic acid, 3-O-methylgallic acid, and gallic acid may be potential markers of epigallocatechin gallate intake. Potential biomarkers of (-)-epicatechin were not identified. These urinary biomarkers may provide an accurate indication of flavonoid exposure.

  16. Lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, dietary intake, and drug use of older rural Iowa women.

    PubMed

    Witte-Foster, S R; Garcia, P A; Dove, C R

    1991-06-01

    Serum lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, and serum proteins were investigated in 65 noninstitutionalized older women living in a rural community. All women were mentally and physically able to participate in the study. They did not have any overt disease nor were they taking any prescription or nonprescription drugs that would interfere with the study. Personal interview elicited medical history, drug usage, dietary information, height, and weight from 25 reference women (50 through 64 years old), 28 young-old women (65 through 84 years old), and 12 old-old women (85 through 92 years old). Blood samples were obtained from fasting participants and analyzed for total serum cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), serum albumin, and total serum protein. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by age, drug use, or age-by-drug use interaction. Effects of age were observed for IgA and serum albumin. Mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulins, serum albumin, and total serum proteins were within normal limits for all participants. Based on this small sample of rural older women, our results indicate that the normal levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the healthy life-styles of these women may help offset any possible negative effects of elevated serum cholesterol concentrations.

  17. Regulation network of serum cytokines induced by tuberculosis-specific antigens reveals biomarkers for tuberculosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, M; Wu, Z Y; Lin, J H; Li, Y; Qian, Z X; Xie, Y Q; Su, H; Zhou, W

    2015-12-17

    In this study, we identified potential serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) and screening for latent TB infections (LTBIs). Peripheral blood samples from 40 healthy individuals, 40 patients with TB, and 40 LTBI individuals were stimulated with the TB-specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10. Human inflammatory cytokine arrays were used to detect the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines with significant changes were screened to construct a cytokine regulation network. The levels of the cytokines CCL1 (I-309), CXCL9 (MIG), IL-10, IL-6, CSF2, CSF3, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-7, TGF-β1, CCL2, IL-2, IL-13, and TNFα were significantly upregulated in the active TB group. The levels of CCL3, IL-1β, CCL8, IFNγ, and CXCL10 were significantly increased in the TB groups compared to those in the healthy control group. sTNF RII was upregulated in the LTBI group. CCL4 and MIP1d were significantly increased in all groups.The upregulated cytokines were mainly found in the IFNγ and IL-1α regulatory networks. Importantly, we found that CXCL10 (IP-10), CCL3, CCL8, and IL-1β may be more suitable than IFNγ for active or latent TB infection screening. Furthermore, we found that levels of CCL1 (I-309), CXCL9 (MIG), IL-10, IL-6, CSF2, CSF3, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-7, TGF-β1, CCL2, IL-2, and IL-13 after TB antigen stimulation may help distinguish between active and latent TB.

  18. Identification of serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene using mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Wen-Xu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yanfang; Huang, Peiwu; Yang, Xifei; Ren, Xiaohu; Ye, Jinbo; Huang, Haiyan; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Guifeng; Huang, Xinfeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-11-15

    Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become a serious occupational health hazard. In the present study, we collected fasting blood samples from patients with OMLDT (n = 18) and healthy volunteers (n = 33) to explore serum peptidome patterns. Peptides in sera were purified using weak cation exchange magnetic beads (MB-WCX), and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and ClinProTools bioinformatics software. The intensities of thirty protein/peptide peaks were significantly different between the healthy control and OMLDT patients. A pattern of three peaks (m/z 2106.3, 2134.5, and 3263.67) was selected for supervised neural network (SNN) model building to separate the OMLDT patients from the healthy controls with a sensitivity of 95.5% and a specificity of 73.8%. Furthermore, two peptide peaks of m/z 4091.61 and 4281.69 were identified as fragments of ATP-binding cassette transporter family A member 12 (ABCA12), and cationic trypsinogen (PRRS1), respectively. Our findings not only show that specific proteomic fingerprints in the sera of OMLDT patients can be served as a differentiated tool of OMLDT patients with high sensitivity and high specificity, but also reveal the novel correlation between OMLDT with ABC transports and PRRS1, which will be of potential value for clinical and mechanistic studies of OMLDT. - Highlights: • Identify 30 differential protein/peptide peaks between OMLDT and healthy control • The test sensitivity and test specificity were 95.5% and 73.8%, respectively. • ABCA12 and PRSS1 were identified as potential biomarkers in OMLDT patients.

  19. Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kolberg, Janice A.; Jørgensen, Torben; Gerwien, Robert W.; Hamren, Sarah; McKenna, Michael P.; Moler, Edward; Rowe, Michael W.; Urdea, Mickey S.; Xu, Xiaomei M.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to develop a model for assessing the 5-year risk of developing type 2 diabetes from a panel of 64 circulating candidate biomarkers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects were selected from the Inter99 cohort, a longitudinal population-based study of ∼6,600 Danes in a nested case-control design with the primary outcome of 5-year conversion to type 2 diabetes. Nondiabetic subjects, aged ≥39 years, with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 at baseline were selected. Baseline fasting serum samples from 160 individuals who developed type 2 diabetes and from 472 who did not were tested. An ultrasensitive immunoassay was used to measure of 58 candidate biomarkers in multiple diabetes-associated pathways, along with six routine clinical variables. Statistical learning methods and permutation testing were used to select the most informative biomarkers. Risk model performance was estimated using a validated bootstrap bias-correction procedure. RESULTS A model using six biomarkers (adiponectin, C-reactive protein, ferritin, interleukin-2 receptor A, glucose, and insulin) was developed for assessing an individual's 5-year risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This model has a bootstrap-estimated area under the curve of 0.76, which is greater than that for A1C, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, BMI, sex-adjusted waist circumference, a model using fasting glucose and insulin, and a noninvasive clinical model. CONCLUSIONS A model incorporating six circulating biomarkers provides an objective and quantitative estimate of the 5-year risk of developing type 2 diabetes, performs better than single risk indicators and a noninvasive clinical model, and provides better stratification than fasting plasma glucose alone. PMID:19564473

  20. Metabolite Profiling in the Pursuit of Biomarkers for IVF Outcome: The Case for Metabolomics Studies

    PubMed Central

    McRae, C.; Sharma, V.; Fisher, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. This paper presents the literature on biomarkers of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) outcome, demonstrating the progression of these studies towards metabolite profiling, specifically metabolomics. The need for more, and improved, metabolomics studies in the field of assisted conception is discussed. Methods. Searches were performed on ISI Web of Knowledge SM for literature associated with biomarkers of oocyte and embryo quality, and biomarkers of IVF outcome in embryo culture medium, follicular fluid (FF), and blood plasma in female mammals. Results. Metabolomics in the field of female reproduction is still in its infancy. Metabolomics investigations of embryo culture medium for embryo selection have been the most common, but only within the last five years. Only in 2012 has the first metabolomics investigation of FF for biomarkers of oocyte quality been reported. The only metabolomics studies of human blood plasma in this context have been aimed at identifying women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Conclusions. Metabolomics is becoming more established in the field of assisted conception, but the studies performed so far have been preliminary and not all potential applications have yet been explored. With further improved metabolomics studies, the possibility of identifying a method for predicting IVF outcome may become a reality. PMID:25763388

  1. Classification of Genes and Putative Biomarker Identification Using Distribution Metrics on Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hung-Chung; Jupiter, Daniel; VanBuren, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background Identification of genes with switch-like properties will facilitate discovery of regulatory mechanisms that underlie these properties, and will provide knowledge for the appropriate application of Boolean networks in gene regulatory models. As switch-like behavior is likely associated with tissue-specific expression, these gene products are expected to be plausible candidates as tissue-specific biomarkers. Methodology/Principal Findings In a systematic classification of genes and search for biomarkers, gene expression profiles (GEPs) of more than 16,000 genes from 2,145 mouse array samples were analyzed. Four distribution metrics (mean, standard deviation, kurtosis and skewness) were used to classify GEPs into four categories: predominantly-off, predominantly-on, graded (rheostatic), and switch-like genes. The arrays under study were also grouped and examined by tissue type. For example, arrays were categorized as ‘brain group’ and ‘non-brain group’; the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance and Pearson correlation coefficient were then used to compare GEPs between brain and non-brain for each gene. We were thus able to identify tissue-specific biomarker candidate genes. Conclusions/Significance The methodology employed here may be used to facilitate disease-specific biomarker discovery. PMID:20140228

  2. Serum Ceramide Kinase as a Biomarker of Cognitive Functions, and the Effect of Using Two Slimming Dietary Therapies in Obese Middle Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Moaty, Maha I. A.; Fouad, Suzanne; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Kazem, Yusr M. I.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Mohamed, Magda S.; Hussein, Ahmed M. S.; Arafa, Atiat M.; Hanna, Laila M.; Tapozada, Salwa T.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Highlighting the impact of obesity on mental and cognitive functions using serum ceramide kinase enzyme concentration as a biomarker for cognitive evaluation in the middle aged females, and also targeting to control the obesity and simultaneously postponing the deterioration of the cognitive functions, by implementing two slimming dietary therapies each incorporating different functional ingredients known to boost cognition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety six obese middle aged females, divided into two groups volunteered to follow a low caloric balanced diet combined with two bread supplements composed essentially of barley flour and wheat germ mixed with either 5% turmeric, group (A); or with 5% ginger, group (B) for 4 weeks, phase (1); to be followed by the hypocaloric diet alone for another 4 weeks, phase (2). RESULTS: By the end of phase (1), the biochemical analysis showed a positive response of the levels of C-peptide and modified homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; also increased levels of the serum ceramide kinase enzyme, coupled with improved cognitive functions tests. Improvement of the relevant metabolic profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and the anthropometric measurements was detected. CONCLUSION: Using dietary therapy supported by special formulas which contain active ingredients succeeded in reducing weight and improving both the metabolic profile and the cognitive functions. PMID:27275191

  3. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and hyaluronic acid are sensitive serum biomarkers for early cartilage lesions in the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Qiang; Wei, Lei; Chen, Chongwei; Li, Pengcui; Wang, Xiaohu; Li, Yongping; Guo, Li; Zhang, Congming; Wei, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between five previously established serum osteoarthritis biomarkers and the severity of cartilage lesions in the knee. Cartilage damage (classified according to the Outerbridge scoring system) and serum concentrations of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), collagen type II C-telopeptide (CTX-II), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), collagen type III N-propeptide, (PIIINP), and hyaluronic acid (HA) were determined in 79 patients who underwent knee arthroscopy or total knee replacement. HA and COMP concentrations were significantly higher in the Outerbridge score 1 and 2 groups, respectively. These results suggest that serum COMP and HA concentrations can be used to predict early cartilage lesions in the knee.

  4. Saliva proteome profiling reveals potential salivary biomarkers for detection of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Ching; Chu, Hao-Wei; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Kai-Ping; Liu, Hao-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is frequently associated with poor prognosis and mortality, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Discovery of body fluid accessible biomarkers is needed to improve OSCC screening. To this end, we profiled proteomes of saliva from the healthy volunteers, the individuals with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), and the OSCC patients by means of SDS-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS. In the control, the OPMD, and the OSCC groups, 958, 845, and 1030 salivary proteins were detected, respectively. With spectral counting-based label-free quantification, 22 overexpressed salivary proteins were identified in the OSCC group compared with the healthy controls and the OPMD individuals. Among them, resistin (RETN) was subjected to further validation with an independent cohort using ELISA. The data confirmed that the salivary RETN levels in the OSCC patients were significantly higher than that in the healthy or in the OPMD group. Moreover, the elevated levels of salivary RETN were highly correlated with late-stage primary tumors, advanced overall stage, and lymph-node metastasis. Our results not only reveal that profiling of saliva proteome is feasible for discovery of OSCC biomarkers, but also identify RETN as a potential salivary biomarker for OSCC detection.

  5. Quantitative lateral flow strip assays as User-Friendly Tools To Detect Biomarker Profiles For Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    van Hooij, Anouk; Tjon Kon Fat, Elisa M.; Richardus, Renate; van den Eeden, Susan J. F.; Wilson, Louis; de Dood, Claudia J.; Faber, Roel; Alam, Korshed; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.; Geluk, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a debilitating, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Despite the availability of multidrug therapy, transmission is unremitting. Thus, early identification of M. leprae infection is essential to reduce transmission. The immune response to M. leprae is determined by host genetics, resulting in paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) leprosy associated with dominant cellular or humoral immunity, respectively. This spectral pathology of leprosy compels detection of immunity to M. leprae to be based on multiple, diverse biomarkers. In this study we have applied quantitative user friendly lateral flow assays (LFAs) for four immune markers (anti-PGL-I antibodies, IL-10, CCL4 and IP-10) for whole blood samples from a longitudinal BCG vaccination field-trial in Bangladesh. Different biomarker profiles, in contrast to single markers, distinguished M. leprae infected from non-infected test groups, patients from household contacts (HHC) and endemic controls (EC), or MB from PB patients. The test protocol presented in this study merging detection of innate, adaptive cellular as well as humoral immunity, thus provides a convenient tool to measure specific biomarker profiles for M. leprae infection and leprosy utilizing a field-friendly technology. PMID:27682181

  6. HPLC profiles and biomarker contents of Australian-grown Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba roots.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun Guang; Sheng, Shu Jun; Pang, Edwin C K; May, Brian; Xue, Charlie Chang Li

    2009-07-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba (Baihua Danshen) is a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used for treating cardiovascular disease. It has been grown in Australia, although the quality of its main medicinal part (dried root) has not been assessed. In this study, we investigated HPLC profiles and biomarker contents of Australian-grown S. miltiorrhiza f. alba roots. Patterns of HPLC profiles were established in MeOH, and aqueous extracts in terms of number of common characteristic peaks and their relative retention times. The contents of three tanshinone biomarkers (cryptotanshinone (3), tanshinone I (1), and tanshinone IIA (2)) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the roots of one-year-old plants than those of two-year-old plants. In contrast, salvianolic acid B (4) content was significantly higher in the roots of two-year-old plants than in those of one-year-old plants. The findings suggest that the biomarker contents in Australian-grown S. miltiorrhiza f. alba roots vary with the growth periods of the plants, which may be important in determining the optimal harvest time for the plant roots with targeted levels of tanshinones and salvianolic acid B (4).

  7. Defining the purity of exosomes required for diagnostic profiling of small RNA suitable for biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bellingham, Shayne A.; Scicluna, Benjamin J.; Shambrook, Mitch C.; Sharples, Robyn A.; Cheng, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), including microRNAs (miRNA), enclosed in exosomes are being utilised for biomarker discovery in disease. Two common exosome isolation methods involve differential ultracentrifugation or differential ultracentrifugation coupled with Optiprep gradient fractionation. Generally, the incorporation of an Optiprep gradient provides better separation and increased purity of exosomes. The question of whether increased purity of exosomes is required for small ncRNA profiling, particularly in diagnostic and biomarker purposes, has not been addressed and highly debated. Utilizing an established neuronal cell system, we used next-generation sequencing to comprehensively profile ncRNA in cells and exosomes isolated by these 2 isolation methods. By comparing ncRNA content in exosomes from these two methods, we found that exosomes from both isolation methods were enriched with miRNAs and contained a diverse range of rRNA, small nuclear RNA, small nucleolar RNA and piwi-interacting RNA as compared with their cellular counterparts. Additionally, tRNA fragments (30–55 nucleotides in length) were identified in exosomes and may act as potential modulators for repressing protein translation. Overall, the outcome of this study confirms that ultracentrifugation-based method as a feasible approach to identify ncRNA biomarkers in exosomes. PMID:28005467

  8. Searching for Biomarkers: Humoral Response Profiling with Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS)

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D.; Ching, Kathryn H.; Bren, Kathleen E.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    B-cell mediated humoral responses are triggered in many human diseases including autoimmune, cancer, neurologic, and infectious diseases. However, the full exploitation of the information contained within a patient's antibody repertoire, for diagnosis, monitoring and even disease prediction has been limited due to the poor diagnostic performance of many immunoassay formats. We have developed Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) that harnesses light emitting proteins to generate high definition antibody profiles optimal for both diagnostics and biomarker discovery. Here we describe the results and implications from a range of LIPS antibody profiling studies performed in our laboratory. These include highly sensitive diagnostics for domestic and global pathogens, insights into infection-related diseases, discovery of new biomarkers for human diseases, subcategorization of symptoms and identification of pathogenic autoantibodies against self-proteins. These investigations highlight the types of humoral response profiles associated with different diseases, provide new information related to disease pathogenesis, and provide a framework for incorporating LIPS antibody profiling into global health initiatives and disease monitoring. PMID:21679112

  9. Serum microRNA-210 as a potential noninvasive biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Lai, N-s; Wu, D-g; Fang, X-g; Lin, Y-c; Chen, S-s; Li, Z-b; Xu, S-s

    2015-01-01

    Background: MicroRNA-210 (miR-210) is an oncogenic miRNA previously associated with prognosis in human gliomas, an incurable tumour type of the central nervous system. Here miR-210 was investigated as a potential serum biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of glioma. Methods: Serum was immediately prepared from blood samples collected from patients with glioma grades I–IV at primary diagnosis (n=136) and healthy controls (n=50) from February 2007 to March 2014 in the Department of Neurosurgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Wuhu, China). Total RNA was isolated from serum. cDNA was synthesised with primers specific for miR-210 and miR-16-1 (internal control), and quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed. Results were statistically analysed to determine the role of miR-210 in the diagnosis and prognosis of human glioma patients. Results: An approximately seven-fold increase in miR-210 expression was detected in serum samples from glioblastoma patients relative to healthy controls. A threshold expression value (2.259) was chosen from receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC), and the low and high miR-210 expression groups were analysed by multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan–Meier analyses. Results revealed an association of high serum miR-210 expression with tumour grade and poor patient outcome (P-values <0.001). Conclusions: Serum miR-210 is a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker that can be detected in the peripheral blood of patients with glioma. PMID:25756397

  10. Serum miR-21 level: a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Long; Xu, Qin-Fu; Zhao, Yu-Miao; Shi, Xiao-Ya; Xu, Ai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Because lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among both men and women, focused efforts are necessary to identify and develop biomarkers that aid in the detection and treatment of this serious disease. Recent research has been aimed at understanding the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumorigenesis and their utility as cancer biomarkers. Here, miR-21 was investigated as a potential serum biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The relative expression level of miR-21 was detected by real-time PCR in the sera of 80 NSCLC patients; sera were also collected from 60 healthy people as a control. The most suitable cut-off value and the prognostic value of serum miR-21 levels were analyzed using a receiver-operating curve. The relative serum miR-21 level in NSCLC patients was significantly higher than that in healthy people (P<0.05). For relative miR-21 expression, the area under the ROC curve was 0.812 (95% CI: 0.736-0.888) with a sensitivity of 73.8% and a specificity of 71.7%, based on a cut-off value of 1.22. NSCLC patients were divided into two groups based on miR-21 expression; those with higher relative expression (≥1.22) had significantly lower survival time than those in the lower expression group (P<0.05). Further, serum miR-21 level and survival time were negatively correlated in NSCLC patients (P<0.05). Thus, miR-21 may be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator of NSCLC.

  11. Gene expression profiles of putative biomarker candidates in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Eui; Shin, Min-Kyoung; Park, Hong-Tae; Jung, Myunghwan; Cho, Yong Il; Yoo, Han Sang

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the gene expression of prognostic potential biomarker candidates using the whole blood of cattle naturally infected with ITALIC! Mycobacterium aviumsubsp. ITALIC! paratuberculosis(MAP). We conducted real-time PCR to evaluate 23 potential biomarker candidates. Experimental animals were divided into four groups based on fecal MAP PCR and serum ELISA. Seven ( ITALIC! KLRB1, ITALIC! HGF, ITALIC! MPO, ITALIC! LTF, ITALIC! SERPINE1, ITALIC! S100A8and ITALIC! S100A9) genes were up-regulated in fecal MAP-positive cattle and three ( ITALIC! KLRB1, ITALIC! MPOand ITALIC! S100A9) were up-regulated in MAP-seropositive cattle relative to uninfected cattle. In subclinically infected animals, 17 genes ( ITALIC! TFRC, ITALIC! S100A8, ITALIC! S100A9, ITALIC! MPO, ITALIC! GBP6, ITALIC! LTF, ITALIC! KLRB1, ITALIC! SERPINE1, ITALIC! PIGR, ITALIC! IL-10, ITALIC! CXCR3, ITALIC! CD14, ITALIC! MMP9, ITALIC! ELANE, ITALIC! CHI3L1, ITALIC! HPand ITALIC! HGF) were up-regulated compared with the control group. Moreover, six genes ( ITALIC! CXCR3, ITALIC! HP, ITALIC! HGF, ITALIC! LTF, ITALIC! TFRCand ITALIC! GBP6) showed significant differences between experimental groups. Taken together, our data suggest that six genes ( ITALIC! LTF, ITALIC! HGF, ITALIC! HP, ITALIC! CXCR3, ITALIC! GBP6and ITALIC! TFRC) played essential roles in the immune response to MAP during the subclinical stage and therefore might be useful as prognostic biomarkers.

  12. Metabolic Profiling of an Echinostoma caproni Infection in the Mouse for Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Saric, Jasmina; Li, Jia V.; Wang, Yulan; Keiser, Jennifer; Bundy, Jake G.; Holmes, Elaine; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Background Metabolic profiling holds promise with regard to deepening our understanding of infection biology and disease states. The objectives of our study were to assess the global metabolic responses to an Echinostoma caproni infection in the mouse, and to compare the biomarkers extracted from different biofluids (plasma, stool, and urine) in terms of characterizing acute and chronic stages of this intestinal fluke infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve female NMRI mice were infected with 30 E. caproni metacercariae each. Plasma, stool, and urine samples were collected at 7 time points up to day 33 post-infection. Samples were also obtained from non-infected control mice at the same time points and measured using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spectral data were subjected to multivariate statistical analyses. In plasma and urine, an altered metabolic profile was already evident 1 day post-infection, characterized by reduced levels of plasma choline, acetate, formate, and lactate, coupled with increased levels of plasma glucose, and relatively lower concentrations of urinary creatine. The main changes in the urine metabolic profile started at day 8 post-infection, characterized by increased relative concentrations of trimethylamine and phenylacetylglycine and lower levels of 2-ketoisocaproate and showed differentiation over the course of the infection. Conclusion/Significance The current investigation is part of a broader NMR-based metabonomics profiling strategy and confirms the utility of this approach for biomarker discovery. In the case of E. caproni, a diagnosis based on all three biofluids would deliver the most comprehensive fingerprint of an infection. For practical purposes, however, future diagnosis might aim at a single biofluid, in which case urine would be chosen for further investigation, based on quantity of biomarkers, ease of sampling, and the degree of differentiation from the non-infected control group. PMID

  13. Serum levels of toxic AGEs (TAGE) may be a promising novel biomarker in development and progression of NASH.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Sakasai-Sakai, A; Takata, T; Ueda, T; Takino, J; Tsutsumi, M; Hyogo, H; Yamagishi, S

    2015-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leads to fibrosis and potentially cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD has also been implicated in other medical conditions such as insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome, hyperlipemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Continuous hyperglycemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macro-vascular complications via various metabolic pathways, and numerous hyperglycemia-induced metabolic and hemodynamic conditions exist, including the increased generation of various types of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). We recently demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGEs), the predominant components of toxic AGEs (TAGE), played an important role in the pathogenesis of angiopathy in diabetic patients. Moreover, a growing body of evidence suggests that the interaction between TAGE and the receptor for AGEs may alter intracellular signaling, gene expression, and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules and also elicits the generation of oxidative stress in numerous types of cells including hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells. Serum levels of TAGE were significantly higher in NASH patients than in those with simple steatosis and healthy controls. Moreover, serum levels of TAGE inversely correlated with adiponectin (adiponectin is produced by adipose tissue and is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that can increase insulin sensitivity). Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of TAGE showed intense staining in the livers of patients with NASH. Serum levels of TAGE may be a useful biomarker for discriminating NASH from simple steatosis. The administration of atorvastatin (10 mg daily) for 12 months significantly improved NASH-related metabolic parameters and significantly decreased serum levels of TAGE. The

  14. Quantitative metabolomic profiling of serum, plasma, and urine by (1)H NMR spectroscopy discriminates between patients with inflammatory bowel disease and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Schicho, Rudolf; Shaykhutdinov, Rustem; Ngo, Jennifer; Nazyrova, Alsu; Schneider, Christopher; Panaccione, Remo; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Vogel, Hans J; Storr, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Serologic biomarkers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have yielded variable differentiating ability. Quantitative analysis of a large number of metabolites is a promising method to detect IBD biomarkers. Human subjects with active Crohn's disease (CD) and active ulcerative colitis (UC) were identified, and serum, plasma, and urine specimens were obtained. We characterized 44 serum, 37 plasma, and 71 urine metabolites by use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy and "targeted analysis" to differentiate between diseased and non-diseased individuals, as well as between the CD and UC cohorts. We used multiblock principal component analysis and hierarchical OPLS-DA for comparing several blocks derived from the same "objects" (e.g., subject) to examine differences in metabolites. In serum and plasma of IBD patients, methanol, mannose, formate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, and amino acids such as isoleucine were the metabolites most prominently increased, whereas in urine, maximal increases were observed for mannitol, allantoin, xylose, and carnitine. Both serum and plasma of UC and CD patients showed significant decreases in urea and citrate, whereas in urine, decreases were observed, among others, for betaine and hippurate. Quantitative metabolomic profiling of serum, plasma, and urine discriminates between healthy and IBD subjects. However, our results show that the metabolic differences between the CD and UC cohorts are less pronounced.

  15. Serum HER2 as a predictive biomarker for tissue HER2 status and prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong-Zhi; Wang, Yu-Ning; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Ke-Cheng; Xi, Hong-Qing; Cui, Jian-Xin; Liu, Guo-Xiao; Liang, Wen-Tao; Wei, Bo; Chen, Lin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between serum human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) extracellular domain (ECD) and tissue HER2 status, and the prognostic value of serum HER2 ECD in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS A total of 239 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled from December 2012 to June 2013. Serum HER2 ECD was determined by chemiluminescent assay, and tissue HER2 status was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to identify the optimal cut-off value for serum HER2 ECD assay for predicting survival in gastric cancer patients. RESULTS Serum HER2 ECD was significantly correlated with tissue HER2 status (P < 0.001), tumor size (P < 0.001), and intestinal type of gastric cancer (P = 0.021). Serum HER2 ECD levels differed significantly between patients with HER2-positive tissue expression and those with HER2-negative tissue expression. ROC analysis yielded an area under the curve value of 0.79 (95%CI: 0.71-0.87, P < 0.001), with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.54 (95%CI: 0.37-0.70) and 0.93 (95%CI: 0.88-0.96), respectively. With a cut-off value of 24.75 ng/mL, high serum HER2 ECD had a negative impact on overall survival of the patients (HR: 1.93, 95%CI: 1.32-4.38, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION Serum HER2 ECD could be a highly specific surrogate biomarker for tissue HER2 status in gastric cancer. Optimal cut-off criteria for predicting survival should be established. PMID:28348489

  16. Serum microRNA-124 is a novel biomarker for liver necroinflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-Y; Mao, R-C; Zhang, Y-M; Zhang, Y-J; Liu, H-Y; Qin, Y-L; Lu, M-J; Zhang, J-M

    2015-02-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and normal or mildly increased transaminases may have sustained significant liver damage, as verified by liver biopsy. However, no suitable noninvasive method exists for identifying liver necroinflammation in such patients. We aimed to investigate the power of microRNA-124 as a novel biomarker for liver necroinflammation. A total of 131 recruited patients with chronic HBV infection underwent liver biopsy for grading of necroinflammation (G) and staging of fibrosis (S). Thirty healthy individuals were included as controls (HCs). Serum microRNA-124 and microRNA-122 levels were measured using qRT-PCR. Forty-five patients from the study population receiving entecavir therapy were monitored for changes in serum microRNA-124 levels in association with improved liver histology. The capacity of serum microRNA-124 levels in discriminating the grade of liver necroinflammation was compared with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with liver biopsy validation. Serum microRNA-124 levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic HBV infection than in HCs (P < 0.0001). Patients with considerable liver necroinflammation (G ≥ 2) had significantly higher serum miRNA-124 levels than those without or with mild necroinflammation (P < 0.0001). After 48 weeks of antiviral therapy, serum microRNA-124 levels considerably declined in 45 patients (P < 0.0001), which were associated with histological improvement. In patients with normal ALT and a serum HBV DNA load >10(4) copies/mL, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of serum microRNA-124 levels yielded an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.840, with 58.3% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity in discriminating between moderate-to-severe liver necroinflammation (G ≥ 2).

  17. Serum microRNA-125a-5p, a useful biomarker in liver diseases, correlates with disease progression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianjian; Zhou, Zhenxu; Xu, Ziqiang; Li, Guojun; Dong, Peihong; Chen, Zhanguo; Lin, Dezhao; Chen, Bicheng; Yu, Fujun

    2015-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that liver microRNA-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p) is correlated with disease progression in different liver diseases, including liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study investigated whether serum miR-125a-5p correlated with the progression of different liver diseases. Serum samples were obtained from healthy individuals, patients with chronic hepatitis B who had undergone a liver biopsy, and patients with HCC and were analyzed for the levels of miR-125a-5p. Compared with the healthy controls, the serum levels of miR-125a-5p were significantly higher in the liver fibrosis serum, and were reduced in HCC. With the development of liver fibrosis, there was a significant increase in the expression of miR-125a-5p (P<0.05). In comparing histological activity index (HAI) scores, higher expression levels of miR125a-5p were observed in the high HAI score group (P<0.05). Furthermore, correlation between serum miR-125a-5p and viral replication (P<0.001) was observed. Notably, miR-125a-5p demonstrated significant correlation with other markers in the liver fibrosis group (P<0.001). In the patients with HCC, lower serum levels of miR-125a-5p were correlated with a poor prognosis, determined by Kaplan-Meier curve analysis (P=0.009). In the liver fibrosis and HCC groups, different expression levels of serum miR-125a-5p were observed, and were correlated with disease progression. The results of the present study suggested that serum miR-125a-5p may be used as a non-invasive biomarker for monitoring disease progression in liver diseases.

  18. Off surface matrix based on-chip electrochemical biosensor platform for protein biomarker detection in undiluted serum.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sunil K; Kongsuphol, Patthara; Park, Mi Kyoung

    2017-06-15

    The manuscript describes a concept of using off surface matrix modified with capturing biomolecule for on-chip electrochemical biosensing. 3D matrix made by laser engraving of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheet as off surface matrix was integrated in very close vicinity of the electrode surface. Laser engraving and holes in PMMA along with spacing from surface provide fluidic channel and incubation chamber. Covalent binding of capturing biomolecule (anti-TNF-α antibody) on off-surface matrix was achieved via azide group activity of 4-fluoro-3-nitro-azidobenzene (FNAB), which act as cross-linker and further covalently binds to anti-TNF-α antibody via thermal reaction. Anti-TNF-α/FNAB/PMMA matrix was then integrated over comb structured gold electrode array based sensor chip. Separate surface modification followed by integration of sensor helped to prevent the sensor chip surface from fouling during functionalization. Nonspecific binding was prevented using starting block T20 (PBS). Results for estimating protein biomarker (TNF-α) in undiluted serum using Anti-TNF-α/FNAB/PMMA/Au reveal that system can detect TNF-α in 100pg/ml to 100ng/ml range with high sensitivity of 119nA/(ng/ml), with negligible interference from serum proteins and other cytokines. Thus, use of off surface matrix may provide the opportunity to electrochemically sense biomarkers sensitively to ng/ml range with negligible nonspecific binding and false signal in undiluted serum.

  19. Serum thymidine kinase 1 and C-reactive protein as biomarkers for screening clinically healthy dogs for occult disease.

    PubMed

    Selting, K A; Sharp, C R; Ringold, R; Knouse, J

    2015-12-01

    Thymidine kinase (TK1) is a biomarker that correlates well with diagnosis and prognosis in certain canine cancers. Canine C-reactive protein (cCRP) is a widely accepted marker of inflammation correlated with increased risk and severity of various diseases. We evaluated serum TK1 and cCRP concentrations in apparently healthy dogs (n = 360). All dogs were followed up for a minimum of 6 months by health questionnaire. All dogs with cancer were identified using a proprietary dual-biomarker algorithm [termed Neoplasia Index (NI)]. Specificity of positive NI is 0.91 and high positive is 0.98. All-cause mortality was 20% in dogs with elevated cCRP and 3% in dogs with low cCRP. The performance of serum TK1 and cCRP as tools for screening for occult cancer is improved when evaluated together. Serum TK1 and cCRP (unified in the NI) are useful in the screening of occult canine cancer. cCRP is useful in screening for other serious diseases.

  20. Detection of Soluble ED-A(+) Fibronectin and Evaluation as Novel Serum Biomarker for Cardiac Tissue Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ziffels, Barbara; Ospel, Johanna; Grün, Katja; Neri, Dario; Pfeil, Alexander; Fritzenwanger, Michael; Figulla, Hans R; Jung, Christian; Berndt, Alexander; Franz, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Fibronectin containing the extra domain A (ED-A(+) Fn) was proven to serve as a valuable biomarker for cardiac remodeling. The study was aimed at establishing an ELISA to determine ED-A(+) Fn in serum of heart failure patients. Methods. ED-A(+) Fn was quantified in serum samples from 114 heart failure patients due to ischemic (ICM, n = 44) and dilated (DCM, n = 39) cardiomyopathy as well as hypertensive heart disease (HHD, n = 31) compared to healthy controls (n = 12). Results. In comparison to healthy volunteers, heart failure patients showed significantly increased levels of ED-A(+) Fn (p < 0.001). In particular in ICM patients there were significant associations between ED-A(+) Fn serum levels and clinical parameters, for example, increased levels with rising NYHA class (p = 0.013), a negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.026, r: -0.353), a positive correlation with left atrial diameter (p = 0.008, r: 0.431), and a strong positive correlation with systolic pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.002, r: 0.485). In multivariate analysis, ED-A(+) Fn was identified as an independent predictor of an ischemic heart failure etiology. Conclusions. The current study could clearly show that ED-A(+) Fn is a promising biomarker in cardiovascular diseases, especially in heart failure patients due to an ICM. We presented a valid ELISA method, which could be applied for further studies investigating the value of ED-A(+) Fn.

  1. Serum UCH-L1 as a Novel Biomarker to Predict Neuronal Apoptosis Following Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Ping; Zhu, Yao-Bin; Duan, Dayue Darrel; Fan, Xiang-Ming; He, Yan; Su, Jun-Wu; Liu, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) has been used in cardiac surgery involving infant complex congenital heart disease and aortic dissection. DHCA carries a risk of neuronal apoptotic death in brain. Serum ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) level is elevated in a number of neurological diseases involving neuron injury and death. We studied the hypothesis that UCH-L1 may be a potential biomarker for DHCA-induced ischemic neuronal apoptosis. Methods: Anesthetized piglets were used to perform cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DHCA was induced for 1 hour followed by CPB rewarming. Blood samples were collected and serum UCH-L1 levels were measured. Neuron apoptosis and Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in hippocampus were examined. The relationship between neuron apoptosis and UCH-L1 level was determined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and correlation analysis. Results: DHCA resulted in marked neuronal apoptosis, significant increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio in hippocampus and UCH-L1 level elevations in serum (all P<0.05). Positive correlation was obtained between serum UCH-L1 level and the severity of neuron apoptosis (r= 0.78, P<0.01). By ROC, the area under the curve were 0.88 (95% CI: 0.74-0.99; P<0.01), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.81-0.96; P<0.05), 0.71 (95% CI: 0.47-0.92; P=0.11) for UCH-L1, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Bax, respectively. Using a cut-off point of 0.25, the UCH-L1 predicted neuronal apoptosis with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 57%. Conclusion: Serum UCH-L1, as an easy and quick measurable biomarker, can predict neural apoptosis induced by DHCA. The elevation in UCH-L1 concentration is consistent with the severity of neural apoptosis following DHCA. PMID:26180514

  2. Systemic complement profiling in multiple sclerosis as a biomarker of disease state

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, G; Hakobyan, S; Hirst, CL; Harris, CL; Loveless, S; Mitchell, JP; Pickersgill, TP; Robertson, NP

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence of significant and dynamic systemic activation and upregulation of complement in multiple sclerosis (MS), which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Objective: We aimed to investigate the pathological role of complement in MS and the potential role for complement profiling as a biomarker of MS disease state. Methods: Key components of the classical, alternative and terminal pathways of complement were measured in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS in different clinical phases of disease and in matched controls. Results: Increased plasma levels of C3 (p<0.003), C4 (p<0.001), C4a (p<0.001), C1 inhibitor (p<0.001), and factor H (p<0.001), and reduced levels of C9 (p<0.001) were observed in MS patients compared with controls. Combined profiling of these analytes produced a statistical model with a predictive value of 97% for MS and 73% for clinical relapse when combined with selected demographic data. CSF-plasma correlations suggested that source of synthesis of these components was both systemic and central. Conclusion: These data provide further evidence of alterations in both local and systemic expression and activation of complement in MS and suggest that complement profiling may be informative as a biomarker of MS disease, although further work is needed to determine its use in distinguishing MS from its differential. PMID:22354735

  3. Profiling of microRNAs in tumor interstitial fluid of breast tumors - a novel resource to identify biomarkers for prognostic classification and detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Helland, Åslaug; Gromov, Pavel; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Brunner, Nils; Sandhu, Vandana; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Gromova, Irina; Haakensen, Vilde D

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesized based on accumulated data that a class of small noncoding RNAs, termed microRNAs, are key factors in intercellular communication. Here, microRNAs present in interstitial breast tumor fluids have been analyzed to identify relevant markers for a diagnosis of breast cancer and to elucidate the cross-talk that exists among cells in a tumor microenvironment. Matched tumor interstitial fluid samples (TIF, n = 60), normal interstitial fluid samples (NIF, n = 51), corresponding tumor tissue specimens (n = 54), and serum samples (n = 27) were collected from patients with breast cancer, and detectable microRNAs were analyzed and compared. In addition, serum data from 32 patients with breast cancer and 22 healthy controls were obtained for a validation study. To identify potential serum biomarkers of breast cancer, first the microRNA profiles of TIF and NIF samples were compared. A total of 266 microRNAs were present at higher level in the TIF samples as compared to normal counterparts. Sixty-one of these microRNAs were present in > 75% of the serum samples and were subsequently tested in a validation set. Seven of the 61 microRNAs were associated with poor survival, while 23 were associated with the presence of immune cells and adipocytes. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate for the first time that profiling of microRNAs in TIF can identify novel biomarkers for the prognostic classification and detection of breast cancer. In addition, the present findings demonstrate that microRNAs may represent the cross-talk that occurs between tumor cells and their surrounding stroma.

  4. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Identification of Serum Biomarkers of Two Chronic Hepatitis B Subtypes Diagnosed by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weilong; Zhong, Sen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. By traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pattern classification, damp heat stasis in the middle-jiao (DHSM) and liver Qi stagnation and spleen deficiency (LSSD) are two most common subtypes of CHB. Results. In this study, we employed iTRAQ proteomics technology to identify potential serum protein biomarkers in 30 LSSD-CHB and 30 DHSM-CHB patients. Of the total 842 detected proteins, 273 and 345 were differentially expressed in LSSD-CHB and DHSM-CHB patients compared to healthy controls, respectively. LSSD-CHB and DHSM-CHB shared 142 upregulated and 84 downregulated proteins, of which several proteins have been reported to be candidate biomarkers, including immunoglobulin (Ig) related proteins, complement components, apolipoproteins, heat shock proteins, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, and alpha-2-macroglobulin. In addition, we identified that proteins might be potential biomarkers to distinguish LSSD-CHB from DHSM-CHB, such as A0A0A0MS51_HUMAN (gelsolin), PON3_HUMAN, Q96K68_HUMAN, and TRPM8_HUMAN that were differentially expressed exclusively in LSSD-CHB patients and A0A087WT59_HUMAN (transthyretin), ITIH1_HUMAN, TSP1_HUMAN, CO5_HUMAN, and ALBU_HUMAN that were differentially expressed specifically in DHSM-CHB patients. Conclusion. This is the first time to report serum proteins in CHB subtype patients. Our findings provide potential biomarkers can be used for LSSD-CHB and DHSM-CHB. PMID:28025641

  5. The Identification of Circulating MiRNA in Bovine Serum and Their Potential as Novel Biomarkers of Early Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Louise; MacHugh, David E.; Markey, Bryan; Gordon, Stephen V.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the aetiological agent of Johne’s disease (JD), a chronic enteritis in ruminants that causes substantial economic loses to agriculture worldwide. Current diagnostic assays are hampered by low sensitivity and specificity that seriously complicate disease control; a new generation of diagnostic and prognostic assays are therefore urgently needed. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to have significant potential as novel biomarkers for a range of human diseases, but their potential application in the veterinary sphere has been less well characterised. The aim of this study was therefore to apply RNA-sequencing approaches to serum from an experimental JD infection model as a route to identify novel diagnostic and prognostic miRNA biomarkers. Sera from experimental MAP-challenged calves (n = 6) and age-matched controls (n = 6) were used. We identified a subset of known miRNAs from bovine serum across all samples, with approximately 90 being at potentially functional abundance levels. The majority of known bovine miRNAs displayed multiple isomiRs that differed from the canonical sequences. Thirty novel miRNAs were identified after filtering and were found within sera from all animals tested. No significant differential miRNA expression was detected when comparing sera from MAP-challenged animals to their age-matched controls at six-month’s post-infection. However, comparing sera from pre-infection bleeds to six-month’s post-infection across all 12 animals did identify increased miR-205 (2-fold) and decreased miR-432 (2-fold) within both challenged and control groups, which suggests changes in circulating miRNA profiles due to ageing or development (P<0.00001). In conclusion our study has identified a range of novel miRNA in bovine serum, and shown the utility of small RNA sequencing approaches to explore the potential of miRNA as novel biomarkers for infectious disease in cattle. PMID:26218736

  6. Exploration of Serum Proteomic Profiling and Diagnostic Model That Differentiate Crohn's Disease and Intestinal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fenming; Xu, Chengfu; Ning, Longgui; Hu, Fengling; Shan, Guodong; Chen, Hongtan; Yang, Ming; Chen, Wenguo; Yu, Jiekai; Xu, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the diagnostic models of Crohn’s disease (CD), Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and the differential diagnostic model between CD and ITB by analyzing serum proteome profiles. Methods Serum proteome profiles from 30 CD patients, 21 ITB patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed by using weak cationic magnetic beads combined with MALDI-TOF-MS technique to detect the differentially expressed proteins of serum samples. Three groups were made and compared accordingly: group of CD patients and HCs, group of ITB patients and HCs, group of CD patients and ITB patients. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to screen the ten most differentiated protein peaks (P < 0.05). Genetic algorithm combining with support vector machine (SVM) was utilized to establish the optimal diagnostic models for CD, ITB and the optimal differential diagnostic model between CD and ITB. The predictive effects of these models were evaluated by Leave one out (LOO) cross validation method. Results There were 236 protein peaks differently expressed between group of CD patients and HCs, 305 protein peaks differently expressed between group of ITB patients and HCs, 332 protein peaks differently expressed between group of CD patients and ITB patients. Ten most differentially expressed peaks were screened out between three groups respectively (P < 0.05) to establish diagnostic models and differential diagnostic model. A diagnostic model comprising of four protein peaks (M/Z 4964, 3029, 2833, 2900) can well distinguish CD patients and HCs, with a specificity and sensitivity of 96.7% and 96.7% respectively. A diagnostic model comprising four protein peaks (M/Z 3030, 2105, 2545, 4210) can well distinguish ITB patients and HCs, with a specificity and sensitivity of 93.3% and 95.2% respectively. A differential diagnostic model comprising three potential biomarkers protein peaks (M/Z 4267, 4223, 1541) can well distinguish CD patients and ITB patients, with a specificity and sensitivity of 76

  7. A comparison of statistical methods for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma based on serum biomarkers and clinical variables

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, a surgical approach is the best curative treatment for those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, this requires HCC detection and removal of the lesion at an early stage. Unfortunately, most cases of HCC are detected at an advanced stage because of the lack of accurate biomarkers that can be used in the surveillance of those at risk. It is believed that biomarkers that could detect HCC early will play an important role in the successful treatment of HCC. Methods In this study, we analyzed serum levels of alpha fetoprotein, Golgi protein, fucosylated alpha-1-anti-trypsin, and fucosylated kininogen from 113 patients with cirrhosis and 164 serum samples from patients with cirrhosis plus HCC. We utilized two different methods, namely, stepwise penalized logistic regression (stepPLR) and model-based classification and regression trees (mob), along with the inclusion of clinical and demographic factors such as age and gender, to determine if these improved algorithms could be used to increase the detection of cancer. Results and discussion The performance of multiple biomarkers was found to be better than that of individual biomarkers. Using several statistical methods, we were able to detect HCC in the background of cirrhosis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of at least 0.95. stepPLR and mob demonstrated better predictive performance relative to logistic regression (LR), penalized LR and classification and regression trees (CART) used in our prior study based on three-fold cross-validation and leave one out cross-validation. In addition, mob provided unparalleled intuitive interpretation of results and potential cut-points for biomarker levels. The inclusion of age and gender improved the overall performance of both methods among all models considered, while the stratified male-only subset provided the best overall performance among all methods and models considered. Conclusions In addition to multiple

  8. Imaging and serum biomarkers reflecting the functional efficacy of extended erythropoietin treatment in rats following infantile traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Shenandoah; Winer, Jesse L.; Berkner, Justin; Chan, Lindsay A. S.; Denson, Jesse L.; Maxwell, Jessie R.; Yang, Yirong; Sillerud, Laurel O.; Tasker, Robert C.; Meehan, William P.; Mannix, Rebekah; Jantzie, Lauren L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity for otherwise healthy full-term infants around the world. Currently, the primary treatment for infant TBI is supportive, as no targeted therapies exist to actively promote recovery. The developing infant brain, in particular, has a unique response to injury and the potential for repair, both of which vary with maturation. Targeted interventions and objective measures of therapeutic efficacy are needed in this special population. The authors hypothesized that MRI and serum biomarkers can be used to quantify outcomes following infantile TBI in a preclinical rat model and that the potential efficacy of the neuro-reparative agent erythropoietin (EPO) in promoting recovery can be tested using these biomarkers as surrogates for functional outcomes. METHODS With institutional approval, a controlled cortical impact (CCI) was delivered to postnatal Day (P)12 rats of both sexes (76 rats). On postinjury Day (PID)1, the 49 CCI rats designated for chronic studies were randomized to EPO (3000 U/kg/dose, CCI-EPO, 24 rats) or vehicle (CCI-veh, 25 rats) administered intraperitoneally on PID1–4, 6, and 8. Acute injury (PID3) was evaluated with an immunoassay of injured cortex and serum, and chronic injury (PID13–28) was evaluated with digitized gait analyses, MRI, and serum immunoassay. The CCI-veh and CCI-EPO rats were compared with shams (49 rats) primarily using 2-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc correction. RESULTS Following CCI, there was 4.8% mortality and 55% of injured rats exhibited convulsions. Of the injured rats designated for chronic analyses, 8.1% developed leptomeningeal cyst–like lesions verified with MRI and were excluded from further study. On PID3, Western blot showed that EPO receptor expression was increased in the injured cortex (p = 0.008). These Western blots also showed elevated ipsilateral cortex calpain degradation products for αII-spectrin (αII-SDPs; p < 0

  9. Imaging and serum biomarkers reflecting the functional efficacy of extended erythropoietin treatment in rats following infantile traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Shenandoah; Winer, Jesse L; Berkner, Justin; Chan, Lindsay A S; Denson, Jesse L; Maxwell, Jessie R; Yang, Yirong; Sillerud, Laurel O; Tasker, Robert C; Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah; Jantzie, Lauren L

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity for otherwise healthy full-term infants around the world. Currently, the primary treatment for infant TBI is supportive, as no targeted therapies exist to actively promote recovery. The developing infant brain, in particular, has a unique response to injury and the potential for repair, both of which vary with maturation. Targeted interventions and objective measures of therapeutic efficacy are needed in this special population. The authors hypothesized that MRI and serum biomarkers can be used to quantify outcomes following infantile TBI in a preclinical rat model and that the potential efficacy of the neuro-reparative agent erythropoietin (EPO) in promoting recovery can be tested using these biomarkers as surrogates for functional outcomes. METHODS With institutional approval, a controlled cortical impact (CCI) was delivered to postnatal Day (P)12 rats of both sexes (76 rats). On postinjury Day (PID)1, the 49 CCI rats designated for chronic studies were randomized to EPO (3000 U/kg/dose, CCI-EPO, 24 rats) or vehicle (CCI-veh, 25 rats) administered intraperitoneally on PID1-4, 6, and 8. Acute injury (PID3) was evaluated with an immunoassay of injured cortex and serum, and chronic injury (PID13-28) was evaluated with digitized gait analyses, MRI, and serum immunoassay. The CCI-veh and CCI-EPO rats were compared with shams (49 rats) primarily using 2-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc correction. RESULTS Following CCI, there was 4.8% mortality and 55% of injured rats exhibited convulsions. Of the injured rats designated for chronic analyses, 8.1% developed leptomeningeal cyst-like lesions verified with MRI and were excluded from further study. On PID3, Western blot showed that EPO receptor expression was increased in the injured cortex (p = 0.008). These Western blots also showed elevated ipsilateral cortex calpain degradation products for αII-spectrin (αII-SDPs; p < 0

  10. Association between chlorinated pesticides in the serum of prepubertal Russian boys and longitudinal biomarkers of metabolic function.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jane S; Williams, Paige L; Korrick, Susan A; Hauser, Russ; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Lam, Thuy; Lee, Mary M

    2014-11-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been linked to adult metabolic disorders; however, few studies have examined these associations in childhood. We prospectively evaluated the associations of baseline serum OCPs (hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) in Russian boys with subsequent repeated measurements of serum glucose, insulin, lipids, leptin, and calculated homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (IR). During 2003-2005, we enrolled 499 boys aged 8-9 years in a prospective cohort; 318 had baseline serum OCPs and serum biomarkers measured at ages 10-13 years. Multivariable generalized estimating equation and mediation regression models were used to examine associations and direct and indirect (via body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2))) effects of prepubertal OCP tertiles and quintiles with biomarkers. In multivariable models, higher p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1) was associated with lower leptin, with relative mean decreases of 61.8% (95% confidence interval: 48.4%, 71.7%) in models unadjusted for BMI and 22.2% (95% confidence interval: 7.1%, 34.9%) in models adjusted for BMI; the direct effect of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene on leptin accounted for 27% of the total effect. IR prevalence was 6.6% at ages 12-13 years. Higher hexachlorobenzene (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1) was associated with higher odds of IR in models adjusted for BMI (odds ratio = 4.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.44, 13.28). These results suggest that childhood OCPs may be associated with IR and lower leptin.

  11. Effects of the Dietary Detoxification Program on Serum γ-glutamyltransferase, Anthropometric Data and Metabolic Biomarkers in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Ah; Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are well-known environmental contaminants which are associated with chronic diseases. As foods are the major sources of human exposure to toxic pollutants, we developed an integrated dietary and education program to eliminate the chemical toxin throughout the human body. The present study evaluated effects of the dietary detoxification program on serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), anthropometric data and metabolic biomarkers in adults. Methods Single-armed, pre-post study was conducted from June 2013 to June 2015 at a health examination center and a public health center in Seoul, Korea. Sixty eight subjects (mean age of 52.4 years) were recruited. Subjects participated 20 hours’ dietary education sessions. On-line coaching with SNS was performed to enhance participants’ proper protocol compliance. Physical and laboratory examinations were assessed at week 0 and 3. Results Changes of the serum GGT were correlated with reductions of the body fat percentage (r = .379, p = .001), body fat mass (r = .435, p = .000) and fasting blood glucose (r = .423, p = .000). Serum GGT, weight, body fat percentage, body fat mass, waist circumference, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and blood pressure of all participants were reduced with statistical significance in 3 weeks. In metabolic syndrome group, total cholesterol (p = .049), fasting blood glucose (p = .002), and systolic blood pressure (p = .001) were significantly reduced comparison to non-metabolic syndrome group. Conclusion This dietary detoxification program might decrease serum GGT which indicated the overall toxic burden in the body. Anthropometric data and metabolic biomarkers were improved. The integrated dietary and education detoxification program seemed to be a protective intervention for elimination of toxicants from the body. PMID:27924283

  12. Monodispersity of magnetic immuno-nanoprobes enhances the detection sensitivity of low abundance biomarkers in one drop of serum.

    PubMed

    Capangpangan, Rey Y; dela Rosa, Mira Anne C; Obena, Rofeamor P; Chou, Yu-Jen; Tzou, Der-Lii; Shih, Shao-Ju; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2015-11-21

    To enhance the detection sensitivity of target clinical protein biomarkers, a simple and rapid nanoprobe-based immuno-affinity mass spectrometry assay employing biocompatible monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is reported herein. The MNPs were synthesized via a streamlined protocol that includes (a) fabrication of core MNPs using the thermal decomposition method to minimize aggregation, (b) surface protection by gold coating (MNP@Au) and surfactant coating using MNP@IGEPAL to improve hydrophilicity, and lastly, (c) oriented functionalization of antibodies to maximize immuno-affinity. The enrichment performances of the monodisperse MNPs for the C-reactive protein (CRP) serum biomarker were then evaluated and compared with aggregated magnetic nanoparticles synthesized from the conventional co-precipitation method (MNP(CP)). The detection sensitivity for CRP at an extremely low amount of serum sample (1 μL) was enhanced ∼19- and ∼15-fold when monodisperse MNP@Au and MNP@IGEPAL, respectively, were used. Furthermore, the detection sensitivity of CRP by this approach (1 ng mL(-1), S/N = 3) provided a 1000-fold sensitivity enhancement to the clinical cut-off (1 μg mL(-1)) of CRP. We supposed that these observed improvements are due to the enhanced nanoparticle dispersibility and size uniformity which eliminated completely other non-specific binding of high-abundance serum proteins. Most interestingly, the enrichment efficiency correlates more closely with the MNP dispersibility than the ligand density. Our investigation revealed the critical role of MNP dispersibility, as well as provided mechanistic insight into its impact on immunoaffinity enrichment and detection of CRP in one drop of serum sample. This strategy offers an essential advantage over the other methods by providing a simple and facile biofunctionalization protocol while maintaining excellent solvent dispersibility of MNPs.

  13. Serum folate receptor alpha as a biomarker for ovarian cancer: Implications for diagnosis, prognosis and predicting its local tumor expression.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Akira; Hasegawa, Kosei; Kato, Tomomi; Abe, Kenji; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Miyara, Akiko; O'Shannessy, Daniel J; Somers, Elizabeth B; Yasuda, Masanori; Sekino, Tetsuo; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2016-04-15

    Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a GPI-anchored glycoprotein and encoded by the FOLR1 gene. High expression of FRA is observed in specific malignant tumors of epithelial origin, including ovarian cancer, but exhibits very limited normal tissue expression, making it as an attractive target for the ovarian cancer therapy. FRA is known to shed from the cell surface into the circulation which allows for its measurement in the serum of patients. Recently, methods to detect the soluble form of FRA have been developed and serum FRA (sFRA) is considered a highly promising biomarker for ovarian cancer. We prospectively investigated the levels of sFRA in patients clinically suspected of having malignant ovarian tumors. A total of 231 patients were enrolled in this study and analyzed for sFRA as well as tumor expression of FRA by immunohistochemistry. High sFRA was predominantly observed in epithelial ovarian cancer patients, but not in patients with benign or borderline gynecological disease or metastatic ovarian tumors from advanced colorectal cancers. Levels of sFRA were highly correlated to clinical stage, tumor grade and histological type and demonstrated superior accuracy for the detection of ovarian cancer than did serum CA125. High sFRA was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival in both early and advanced ovarian cancer patients. Finally, tumor FRA expression status was strongly correlated with sFRA levels. Taken together, these data suggest that sFRA might be a useful noninvasive serum biomarkers for future clinical trials assessing FRA-targeted therapy.

  14. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling Reveals S100B as Biomarker for Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Dix, Andreas; Czakai, Kristin; Springer, Jan; Fliesser, Mirjam; Bonin, Michael; Guthke, Reinhard; Schmitt, Anna L.; Einsele, Hermann; Linde, Jörg; Löffler, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a devastating opportunistic infection and its treatment constitutes a considerable burden for the health care system. Immunocompromised patients are at an increased risk for IA, which is mainly caused by the species Aspergillus fumigatus. An early and reliable diagnosis is required to initiate the appropriate antifungal therapy. However, diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy still needs to be improved, which can be achieved at least partly by the definition of new biomarkers. Besides the direct detection of the pathogen by the current diagnostic methods, the analysis of the host response is a promising strategy toward this aim. Following this approach, we sought to identify new biomarkers for IA. For this purpose, we analyzed gene expression profiles of hematological patients and compared profiles of patients suffering from IA with non-IA patients. Based on microarray data, we applied a comprehensive feature selection using a random forest classifier. We identified the transcript coding for the S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) as a potential new biomarker for the diagnosis of IA. Considering the expression of this gene, we were able to classify samples from patients with IA with 82.3% sensitivity and 74.6% specificity. Moreover, we validated the expression of S100B in a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and we also found a down-regulation of S100B in A. fumigatus stimulated DCs. An influence on the IL1B and CXCL1 downstream levels was demonstrated by this S100B knockdown. In conclusion, this study covers an effective feature selection revealing a key regulator of the human immune response during IA. S100B may represent an additional diagnostic marker that in combination with the established techniques may improve the accuracy of IA diagnosis. PMID:27047454

  15. High-Resolution Taxonomic Profiling of the Subgingival Microbiome for Biomarker Discovery and Periodontitis Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Szymon P.; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L.; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jáuregui, Ruy; Plumeier, Iris; Klawonn, Frank; Tomasch, Jürgen; Meisinger, Christa; Kühnisch, Jan; Sztajer, Helena; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiome plays a key role for caries, periodontitis, and systemic diseases. A method for rapid, high-resolution, robust taxonomic profiling of subgingival bacterial communities for early detection of periodontitis biomarkers would therefore be a useful tool for individualized medicine. Here, we used Illumina sequencing of the V1-V2 and V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. A sample stratification pipeline was developed in a pilot study of 19 individuals, 9 of whom had been diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Five hundred twenty-three operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the V1-V2 region and 432 from the V5-V6 region. Key periodontal pathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia could be identified at the species level with both primer sets. Principal coordinate analysis identified two outliers that were consistently independent of the hypervariable region and method of DNA extraction used. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size algorithm (LEfSe) identified 80 OTU-level biomarkers of periodontitis and 17 of health. Health- and periodontitis-related clusters of OTUs were identified using a connectivity analysis, and the results confirmed previous studies with several thousands of samples. A machine learning algorithm was developed which was trained on all but one sample and then predicted the diagnosis of the left-out sample (jackknife method). Using a combination of the 10 best biomarkers, 15 of 17 samples were correctly diagnosed. Training the algorithm on time-resolved community profiles might provide a highly sensitive tool to detect the onset of periodontitis. PMID:25452281

  16. Fatty acid profile of the sea snail Gibbula umbilicalis as a biomarker for coastal metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla O; Simões, Tiago; Novais, Sara C; Pimparel, Inês; Granada, Luana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos; Lemos, Marco F L

    2017-05-15

    Metals are among the most common environmental pollutants with natural or anthropogenic origin that can be easily transferred through the food chain. Marine gastropods are known to accumulate high concentrations of these metals in their tissues. Gibbula umbilicalis ecological importance and abundant soft tissues, which enables extent biochemical assessments, makes this particular organism a potentially suitable species for marine ecotoxicological studies. Fatty acids are carbon-rich compounds that are ubiquitous in all organisms and easy to metabolize. Their biological specificity, relatively well-studied functions and importance, and the fact that they may alter when stress is induced, make fatty acids prospect biomarkers. This work aimed to assess fatty acid profile changes in the gastropod G. umbilicalis exposed to three metal contaminants. After a 168h exposure to cadmium, mercury, and nickel, the following lipid related endpoints were measured: total lipid content; lipid peroxidation; and fatty acid profile (FAP). The analysis of the FAP suggested an alteration in the fatty acid metabolism and indicated a link between metals exposure and homeoviscous adaptation and immune response. In particular, five fatty acids (palmitic, eicosatrienoic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids), demonstrated to be especially good indicators of G. umbilicalis responses to the array of metals used, having thus the potential to be used as biomarkers for metal contamination in this species. This work represents a first approach for the use of FAP signature as a sensitive and informative parameter and novel tool in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of coastal environments, using G. umbilicalis as model species.

  17. Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride does not significantly alter the serum metabolic profile and metabolic enzyme profile of finishing heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®) to cattle has been implicated as having a negative impact on the well-being of cattle. However, there is no data to support or refute these claims. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the serum metabolic profile and m...

  18. Serum Osteoprotegerin Is a Potential Biomarker of Insulin Resistance in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the circulating OPG levels in postmenopausal women with diabetes and prediabetes and explore the relationships between serum OPG and insulin resistance. A total of 271 unrelated Chinese postmenopausal women were recruited in this study. The subjects were divided into type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) group (n = 93), impaired glucose regulation (IGR) (n = 90), and normal glucose regulation group (NGR) (n = 88), according to different glucose regulation categories. Serum OPG levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum OPG concentration in NGR group, 151.00 ± 45.72 pg/mL, was significantly lower than that in IGR group (169.28 ± 64.91 pg/mL) (p = 0.031) and T2DM group (183.20 ± 56.53 pg/mL) (p < 0.01), respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, HOMA-IR, age, 2hPG, AST, ALP, and eGFR were found to be independent predictors of OPG. Increased serum OPG levels (OR = 1.009, p = 0.006) may be a risk factor for insulin resistance. The present study suggests that OPG might be implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and is a potential biomarker of insulin resistance in subjects with diabetes and prediabetes. PMID:28255300

  19. Establishment of Magnetic Microparticles-Assisted Time-Resolved Fluoroimmunoassay for Determinating Biomarker Models in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Tian-Cai; Zhuang, Si-Hui; Lin, Guan-Feng; Hou, Jing-Yuan; Wu, Ying-Song

    2015-01-01

    In order to early screen and detect suspected biomarkers from pathogens and the human body itself, tracers or reaction strategies that can act as signal enhancers have been proposed forth at purpose. In this paper, we discussed the applicability of magnetic microparticles-assisted time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (MMPs-TRFIA) for sensitive determination of potential analytes. Hepatitis B e antigen, antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen and free triiodothyronine were used as biomarker models to explore the reliability of the method. By coupling with bioprobes, MMPs were used as immunoassay carriers to capture target molecules. Under optimal condition, assay performance, including accuracy, precision and specificity, was outstanding and demonstrated satisfactory. To further evaluate the performance of the MMPs-TRFIA in patients, a total of 728 serum samples from hospital were analyzed for three biomarkers in parallel with the proposed method and chemiluminescence immunoassay kit commercially available. Fairly good agreements are obtained between the two methods via data analysis. Not only that but the reliability of MMPs-TRFIA has also been illustrated by three different reaction models. It is confirmed that the novel method modified with MMPs has been established and showed great potential applications in both biological detection and clinical diagnosis, including big molecule protein and low molecular weight haptens. PMID:26103625

  20. Prospective evaluation of 64 serum autoantibodies as biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer in a true screening setting

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongda; Werner, Simone; Butt, Julia; Zörnig, Inka; Knebel, Phillip; Michel, Angelika; Eichmüller, Stefan B.; Jäger, Dirk; Waterboer, Tim; Pawlita, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Novel blood-based screening tests are strongly desirable for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to identify and evaluate autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens as biomarkers for early detection of CRC. 380 clinically identified CRC patients and samples of participants with selected findings from a cohort of screening colonoscopy participants in 2005–2013 (N=6826) were included in this analysis. Sixty-four serum autoantibody markers were measured by multiplex bead-based serological assays. A two-step approach with selection of biomarkers in a training set, and validation of findings in a validation set, the latter exclusively including participants from the screening setting, was applied. Anti-MAGEA4 exhibited the highest sensitivity for detecting early stage CRC and advanced adenoma. Multi-marker combinations substantially increased sensitivity at the price of a moderate loss of specificity. Anti-TP53, anti-IMPDH2, anti-MDM2 and anti-MAGEA4 were consistently included in the best-performing 4-, 5-, and 6-marker combinations. This four-marker panel yielded a sensitivity of 26% (95% CI, 13–45%) for early stage CRC at a specificity of 90% (95% CI, 83–94%) in the validation set. Notably, it also detected 20% (95% CI, 13–29%) of advanced adenomas. Taken together, the identified biomarkers could contribute to the development of a useful multi-marker blood-based test for CRC early detection. PMID:26909861

  1. Serum midkine as a surrogate biomarker for metastatic prediction in differentiated thyroid cancer patients with positive thyroglobulin antibody

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qiang; Meng, Zhaowei; Xu, Ke; He, Xianghui; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; Li, Xue; Liu, Na; Hu, Tianpeng; Zhou, Pingping; Wang, Sen; Upadhyaya, Arun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Huiying; Zhang, Chunmei

    2017-01-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is the main post-operative tumor biomarker for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the presence of thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) can interfere with Tg level and invalidate the test. In this study, we aimed to investigate the predicative value of midkine (MK) as a cancer biomarker for DTC patients with positive TgAb before the first 131I therapy. MK levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 151 recruited DTC patients after exercising strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. There were 28 TgAb positive DTC patients with metastases and 123 DTC patients without metastases. The value of pre-131I-ablative MK to predict metastasis was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in these two groups of patients. MK levels in the TgAb positive DTC patients were significantly higher than the DTC patients without metastases. ROC showed good predictability of MK, with an area under the curve of 0.856 (P < 0.001), and a diagnostic accuracy of 83% at the optimal cut-off value of 550 pg/ml. In conclusion, we show that MK can potentially be used as a surrogate biomarker for predicting DTC metastases when Tg is not suitable due to TgAb positivity. PMID:28240744

  2. Serum proteomic analysis identifies sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism and inflammation profiles in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The higher prevalence of Asperger Syndrome (AS) and other autism spectrum conditions in males has been known for many years. However, recent multiplex immunoassay profiling studies have shown that males and females with AS have distinct proteomic changes in serum. Methods Here, we analysed sera from adults diagnosed with AS (males = 14, females = 16) and controls (males = 13, females = 16) not on medication at the time of sample collection, using a combination of multiplex immunoassay and shotgun label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MSE). The main objective was to identify sex-specific serum protein changes associated with AS. Results Multiplex immunoassay profiling led to identification of 16 proteins that were significantly altered in AS individuals in a sex-specific manner. Three of these proteins were altered in females (ADIPO, IgA, APOA1), seven were changed in males (BMP6, CTGF, ICAM1, IL-12p70, IL-16, TF, TNF-alpha) and six were changed in both sexes but in opposite directions (CHGA, EPO, IL-3, TENA, PAP, SHBG). Shotgun LC-MSE profiling led to identification of 13 serum proteins which had significant sex-specific changes in the AS group and, of these, 12 were altered in females (APOC2, APOE, ARMC3, CLC4K, FETUB, GLCE, MRRP1, PTPA, RN149, TLE1, TRIPB, ZC3HE) and one protein was altered in males (RGPD4). The free androgen index in females with AS showed an increased ratio of 1.63 compared to controls. Conclusion Taken together, the serum multiplex immunoassay and shotgun LC-MSE profiling results indicate that adult females with AS had alterations in proteins involved mostly in lipid transport and metabolism pathways, while adult males with AS showed changes predominantly in inflammation signalling. These results provide further evidence that the search for biomarkers or novel drug targets in AS may require stratification into male and female subgroups, and could lead to the development of novel targeted treatment

  3. Serum Helicobacter pylori KatA and AhpC antibodies as novel biomarkers for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Hai-Lin; Fan, Qing; Guo, Fang; Ren, Xi-Yun; Zhou, Hai-Bo; Zhu, Ji-Wei; Zhao, Ya-Shuang; Tian, Wen-Jing

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate catalase (KatA) and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) antibodies of Helicobacter pylori as biomarkers for gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: This study included 232 cases and 264 controls. Recombinant KatA and AhpC proteins were constructed and the levels of antibodies were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Logistic regression was applied to analyze the relationships between KatA, AhpC and GC. The χ2 trend test was used to evaluate the dose-response relationships between serum KatA and AhpC antibody levels and GC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the screening accuracy of KatA and AhpC as biomarkers. Combined analysis was used to observe screening accuracy of predictors for GC. RESULTS: In all subjects, the association between KatA and AhpC and GC risk was significant (P < 0.001) with odds ratio (OR) = 12.84 (95%CI: 7.79-21.15) and OR = 2.4 (95%CI: 1.55-3.73), respectively. KatA and AhpC antibody levels were strongly related to GC risk with a dose-dependent effect (P for trend < 0.001). The area under the ROC (AUC) for KatA was 0.806, providing a sensitivity of 66.81% and specificity of 86.36%; and the AUC for AhpC was 0.615, with a sensitivity of 75.65% and specificity of 45.49%. The AUC was 0.906 for KatA and flagella protein A (FlaA) combined analysis. CONCLUSION: Serum KatA and AhpC antibodies are associated with GC risk and KatA may serve as a biomarker for GC. KatA/FlaA combined analysis improved screening accuracy. PMID:27275098

  4. Integrated analysis of numerous heterogeneous gene expression profiles for detecting robust disease-specific biomarkers and proposing drug targets.

    PubMed

    Amar, David; Hait, Tom; Izraeli, Shai; Shamir, Ron

    2015-09-18

    Genome-wide expression profiling has revolutionized biomedical research; vast amounts of expression data from numerous studies of many diseases are now available. Making the best use of this resource in order to better understand disease processes and treatment remains an open challenge. In particular, disease biomarkers detected in case-control studies suffer from low reliability and are only weakly reproducible. Here, we present a systematic integrative analysis methodology to overcome these shortcomings. We assembled and manually curated more than 14,000 expression profiles spanning 48 diseases and 18 expression platforms. We show that when studying a particular disease, judicious utilization of profiles from other diseases and information on disease hierarchy improves classification quality, avoids overoptimistic evaluation of that quality, and enhances disease-specific biomarker discovery. This approach yielded specific biomarkers for 24 of the analyzed diseases. We demonstrate how to combine these biomarkers with large-scale interaction, mutation and drug target data, forming a highly valuable disease summary that suggests novel directions in disease understanding and drug repurposing. Our analysis also estimates the number of samples required to reach a desired level of biomarker stability. This methodology can greatly improve the exploitation of the mountain of expression profiles for better disease analysis.

  5. A serum miRNA profile of human longevity: findings from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Christine; Gorospe, Myriam; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gill, Thomas M.; Slack, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    In C. elegans, miRNAs are genetic biomarkers of aging. Similarly, multiple miRNAs are differentially expressed between younger and older persons, suggesting that miRNA-regulated biological mechanisms affecting aging are evolutionarily conserved. Previous human studies have not considered participants' lifespans, a key factor in identifying biomarkers of aging. Using PCR arrays, we measured miRNA levels from serum samples obtained longitudinally at ages 50, 55, and 60 from 16 non-Hispanic males who had documented lifespans from 58 to 92. Numerous miRNAs showed significant changes in expression levels. At age 50, 24 miRNAs were significantly upregulated, and 73 were significantly downregulated in the long-lived subgroup (76-92 years) as compared with the short-lived subgroup (58-75 years). In long-lived participants, the most upregulated was miR-373-5p, while the most downregulated was miR-15b-5p. Longitudinally, significant Pearson correlations were observed between lifespan and expression of nine miRNAs (p value<0.05). Six of these nine miRNAs (miR-211-5p, 374a-5p, 340-3p, 376c-3p, 5095, 1225-3p) were also significantly up- or downregulated when comparing long-lived and short-lived participants. Twenty-four validated targets of these miRNAs encoded aging-associated proteins, including PARP1, IGF1R, and IGF2R. We propose that the expression profiles of the six miRNAs (miR-211-5p, 374a-5p, 340-3p, 376c-3p, 5095, and 1225-3p) may be useful biomarkers of aging. PMID:27824314

  6. Host serum miR-223 is a potential new biomarker for Schistosoma japonicum infection and the response to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of various human diseases. Hence, serum miRNAs are considered to be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of human diseases. This study examined whether several miRNAs known to be commonly deregulated in liver diseases are deregulated in the serum of hosts with hepatic schistosomiasis, and thus whether they could serve as potential markers for detection of schistosome infection and evaluation of the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Methods We analyzed the serum levels of six selected candidate miRNA molecules (miR-146b, miR-122, miR-223, miR-199a-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-34a) from mice, rabbits, buffalos and humans infected with Schistosoma japonicum using qPCR. We evaluated liver pathology by determining the hydroxyproline content in liver tissues. Primary resident liver cells were isolated to quantify the expression level of deregulated miRNAs. Bioinformatics analyses were also conducted to assess the potential function of miR-223. Results Using a mouse model of Schistosoma japonicum infection, we found that the expression level of serum miR-223 was significantly elevated after infection, but returned to near normal levels after the treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Importantly, the level of serum miR-223 reflected the extent of liver pathology post-infection. We validated the elevated level of the circulating miR-223 in serum samples of other host species including rabbits, buffalos and humans. In addition, our results showed that miR-223 was primarily located in the Kupffer cells, but its expression levels were significantly up-regulated in hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells and Kupffer cells after infection. Bioinformatics analyses revealed a potential functional role of miR-223 in transcription regulator activity, transcription factor activity and DNA binding. Conclusions This study suggested that the circulating miR-223 could

  7. Serum enolase: a non-destructive biomarker of white skeletal myopathy during pancreas disease (PD) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Braceland, M; McLoughlin, M F; Tinsley, J; Wallace, C; Cockerill, D; McLaughlin, M; Eckersall, P D

    2015-09-01

    Diseases which cause skeletal muscle myopathy are some of the most economically damaging diseases in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., aquaculture. Despite this, there are limited means of assessing fish health non-destructively. Previous investigation of the serum proteome of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., during pancreas disease (PD) has identified proteins in serum that have potential as biomarkers of the disease. Amongst these proteins, the enzyme enolase was selected as the most viable for use as a biomarker of muscle myopathy associated with PD. Western blot and immunoassay (ELISA) validated enolase as a biomarker for PD, whilst immunohistochemistry identified white muscle as the source of enolase. Enolase was shown to be a specific marker for white muscle myopathy in salmon, rising in serum concentration significantly correlating with pathological damage to the tissue.

  8. Analysis of serum metabolites for the discovery of amino acid biomarkers and the effect of galangin on cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Yang, Hongjun; Chen, Jianxin; Fang, Jiansong; Chen, Chang; Liang, Rixin; Yang, Gengliang; Wu, Hongwei; Wu, Chuanhong; Li, Shaojing

    2013-09-01

    Ischemic stroke, a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology, is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In our previous study, we reported that galangin provided direct protection against ischemic injury and acted as a potential neuroprotective agent. However, its associated neuroprotective mechanism has not yet been clarified. In this paper, we explored the potential AA biomarkers in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia and the effect of galangin on those potential biomarkers. In our study, 12 AAs were quantified in rat serum and found to be impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Using partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), we identified the following amino acids as potential biomarkers of cerebral ischemia: glutamic acid (Glu), homocysteine (Hcy), methionine (Met), tryptophan (Trp), aspartic acid (Asp), alanine (Ala) and tyrosine (Tyr). Moreover, four amino acids (Hcy, Met, Glu and Trp) showed significant change in galangin-treated (100 and 50 mg kg(-1)) groups compared to vehicle groups. Furthermore, we identified three pathway-related enzymes tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), glutamine synthetase (GLUL) and monocarboxylate transporter (SLC16A10) by multiplex interactions with Glu and Hcy, which have been previously reported to be closely related to cerebral ischemia. Through an analysis of the metabolite-protein network analysis, we identified 16 proteins that were associated with two amino acids by multiple interactions with three enzymes; five of them may become potential biomarkers of galangin for acute ischemic stroke as the result of molecule docking. Our results may help develop novel strategies to explore the mechanism of cerebral ischemia, discover potential targets for drug candidates and elucidate the related regulatory signal network.

  9. Effect of alprazolam on rat serum metabolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lin, Gaotong; Chen, Bingbao; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Lingtian; Li, Zixia; Cao, Yungang; Wen, Congcong; Yang, Xuezhi; Cao, Gaozhong; Wang, Xianqin; Cao, Guoquan

    2017-02-10

    We developed a serum metabolomic method by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the effect of alprazolam in rats. The GC-MS with HP-5MS (0.25 µm × 30 m × 0.25 mm), mass was conducted in EI mode with electron energy of 70 eV, full-scan mode with m/z 50-550. The rats were randomly divided to four group, three alprazolam treated group and control group. The alprazolam treated group rats were given 5, 10, 20 mg/kg (Low, Medium, High) of alprazolam by intragastric administration each day for 14 days, the serum samples were corrected on the seventh and fourteenth day for metabolomic study. The blood was collected for biochemical tests. Then liver and brain were rapidly isolated and immersed for pathological study. Compared to the control group on seventh and fourteen days, the level of d-glucose, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, butanoic acid, L-proline, d-mannose and malic acid changed, indicating that alprazolam treated rats induced energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism perturbations in rats. There is no significant difference for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and uric acid (UA) between control and alprazolam group. According to the pathological results, alprazolam is not hepatotoxic. Metabolomics could distinguish different alprazolam dose in rats.

  10. Molecular Expression Profile Reveals Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Canine Endometrial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Voorwald, Fabiana Azevedo; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Villacis, Rolando Andre Rios; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Fonseca; Toniollo, Gilson Hélio; Amorim, Renee Laufer

    2015-01-01

    Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), mucometra, and pyometra are common uterine diseases in intact dogs, with pyometra being a life threatening disease. This study aimed to determine the gene expression profile of these lesions and potential biomarkers for closed-cervix pyometra, the most severe condition. Total RNA was extracted from 69 fresh endometrium samples collected from 21 healthy female dogs during diestrus, 16 CEH, 15 mucometra and 17 pyometra (eight open and nine closed-cervixes). Global gene expression was detected using the Affymetrix Canine Gene 1.0 ST Array. Unsupervised analysis revealed two clusters, one mainly composed of diestrus and CEH samples and the other by 12/15 mucometra and all pyometra samples. When comparing pyometra with other groups, 189 differentially expressed genes were detected. SLPI, PTGS2/COX2, MMP1, S100A8, S100A9 and IL8 were among the top up-regulated genes detected in pyometra, further confirmed by external expression data. Notably, a particular molecular profile in pyometra from animals previously treated with exogenous progesterone compounds was observed in comparison with pyometra from untreated dogs as well as with other groups irrespective of exogenous hormone treatment status. In addition to S100A8 and S100A9 genes, overexpression of the inflammatory cytokines IL1B, TNF and IL6 as well as LTF were detected in the pyometra from treated animals. Interestingly, closed pyometra was more frequently detected in treated dogs (64% versus 33%), with IL1B, TNF, LBP and CXCL10 among the most relevant overexpressed genes. This molecular signature associated with potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets, such as CXCL10 and COX2, should guide future clinical studies. Based on the gene expression profile we suggested that pyometra from progesterone treated dogs is a distinct molecular entity. PMID:26222498

  11. Expression Profiling Reveals Novel Hypoxic Biomarkers in Peripheral Blood of Adult Mice Exposed to Chronic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Ulrike; Khurana, Tejvir S.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia induces a myriad of changes including an increase in hematocrit due to erythropoietin (EPO) mediated erythropoiesis. While hypoxia is of importance physiologically and clinically, lacunae exist in our knowledge of the systemic and temporal changes in gene expression occurring in blood during the exposure and recovery from hypoxia. To identify these changes expression profiling was conducted on blood obtained from cohorts of C57Bl-10 wild type mice that were maintained at normoxia (NX), exposed for two weeks to normobaric chronic hypoxia (CH) or two weeks of CH followed by two weeks of normoxic recovery (REC). Using stringent bioinformatic cut-offs (0% FDR, 2 fold change cut-off), 230 genes were identified and separated into four distinct temporal categories. Class I) contained 1 transcript up-regulated in both CH and REC; Class II) contained 202 transcripts up-regulated in CH but down-regulated after REC; Class III) contained 9 transcripts down-regulated both in CH and REC; Class IV) contained 18 transcripts down-regulated after CH exposure but up-regulated after REC. Profiling was independently validated and extended by analyzing expression levels of selected genes as novel biomarkers from our profile (e.g. spectrin alpha-1, ubiquitin domain family-1 and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase-1) by performing qPCR at 7 different time points during CH and REC. Our identification and characterization of these genes define transcriptome level changes occurring during chronic hypoxia and normoxic recovery as well as novel blood biomarkers that may be useful in monitoring a variety of physiological and pathological conditions associated with hypoxia. PMID:22629407

  12. Mass Spectrometry-Based Serum and Plasma Peptidome Profiling for Prediction of Treatment Outcome in Patients With Solid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Labots, Mariette; Schütte, Lisette M.; van der Mijn, Johannes C.; Pham, Thang V.; Jiménez, Connie R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Treatment selection tools are needed to enhance the efficacy of targeted treatment in patients with solid malignancies. Providing a readout of aberrant signaling pathways and proteolytic events, mass spectrometry-based (MS-based) peptidomics enables identification of predictive biomarkers, whereas the serum or plasma peptidome may provide easily accessible signatures associated with response to treatment. In this systematic review, we evaluate MS-based peptide profiling in blood for prompt clinical implementation. Methods. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies using a syntax based on the following hierarchy: (a) blood-based matrix-assisted or surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS peptide profiling (b) in patients with solid malignancies (c) prior to initiation of any treatment modality, (d) with availability of outcome data. Results. Thirty-eight studies were eligible for review; the majority were performed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Median classification prediction accuracy was 80% (range: 66%–93%) in 11 models from 14 studies reporting an MS-based classification model. A pooled analysis of 9 NSCLC studies revealed clinically significant median progression-free survival in patients classified as “poor outcome” and “good outcome” of 2.0 ± 1.06 months and 4.6 ± 1.60 months, respectively; median overall survival was also clinically significant at 4.01 ± 1.60 months and 10.52 ± 3.49 months, respectively. Conclusion. Pretreatment MS-based serum and plasma peptidomics have shown promising results for prediction of treatment outcome in patients with solid tumors. Limited sample sizes and absence of signature validation in many studies have prohibited clinical implementation thus far. Our pooled analysis and recent results from the PROSE study indicate that this profiling approach enables treatment selection, but additional prospective studies are warranted. PMID:25187478

  13. Early and Delayed Effects of Naturally Occurring Asbestos on Serum Biomarkers of Inflammation and Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies recently showed that intratracheal (IT) instillation of Libby amphibole (LA) increases circulating acute-phase proteins (APP; a-2 macroglobulin, A2M; and a-1 acid glycoprotein, AGP) and inflammatory biomarkers (osteopontin and lipocalin) in rats. In this study, objectives...

  14. The past and present of serum aminotransferases and the future of liver injury biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Mitchell R.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory testing is important in the diagnosis and monitoring of liver injury and disease. Current liver tests include plasma markers of injury (e.g. aminotransferases, γ-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase), markers of function (e.g. prothrombin time, bilirubin), viral hepatitis serologies, and markers of proliferation (e.g. α-fetoprotein). Among the injury markers, the alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) are the most commonly used. However, interpretation of ALT and AST plasma levels can be complicated. Furthermore, both have poor prognostic utility in acute liver injury and liver failure. New biomarkers of liver injury are rapidly being developed, and the US Food and Drug Administration the European Medicines Agency have recently expressed support for use of some of these biomarkers in drug trials. The purpose of this paper is to review the history of liver biomarkers, to summarize mechanisms and interpretation of ALT and AST elevation in plasma in liver injury (particularly acute liver injury), and to discuss emerging liver injury biomarkers that may complement or even replace ALT and AST in the future. PMID:28337112

  15. Screening and evaluating the mimic peptides as a useful serum biomarker of ankylosing spondylitis using a phage display technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Li, Xianping; Chen, Jingwei; Zhou, Yong; Cao, Hong; Wu, Xiang; Jiang, Hongmin

    2011-08-01

    To screen specific serum biomarker for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using a phage random peptide library. A phage random peptide library of random peptide 12-mers was immunoscreened with purified immunoglobulin (Ig) G from sera of AS patients. Positive clones obtained after three rounds of biopanning were detected with ELISA and sequenced. Reaction of the screened positive clones with sera from AS patients, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, osteoarthritis (OA) patients and healthy controls was detected using phage ELISA. Correlation among erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the absorbance value of the positive clone in phage ELISA was examined in AS patients. Seventeen out of twenty randomly selected phage clones exhibited specific reaction with purified sera IgG from AS patients, among them seven coming from the same clone whose inserted peptide sequence was LALPPLAPNHHH (named "AS1"). Phage ELISA results showed that the positive reaction rate of the AS1 clone was 92.0% with AS patients, significantly different (P < 0.01) from those with SLE patients (56.7%), RA patients (50.0%), OA patients (13.3%), and healthy controls (14.0%). Absorbance value of the AS1 clone in phage ELISA was significantly higher than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). In addition, the absorbance value of the AS1 clone showed no statistically significant correlation with ESR and CRP in AS patients, suggesting that AS1 detects AS patients through a unique mechanism other than inflammation. The short peptide AS1 obtained through screening of a phage random peptide library with purified serum IgG from AS patients can specifically react with the sera of AS patients, and thereby may be a candidate of AS-specific serum biomarkers.

  16. Detection of Soluble ED-A+ Fibronectin and Evaluation as Novel Serum Biomarker for Cardiac Tissue Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Ospel, Johanna; Neri, Dario; Pfeil, Alexander; Fritzenwanger, Michael; Figulla, Hans R.; Jung, Christian; Berndt, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Fibronectin containing the extra domain A (ED-A+ Fn) was proven to serve as a valuable biomarker for cardiac remodeling. The study was aimed at establishing an ELISA to determine ED-A+ Fn in serum of heart failure patients. Methods. ED-A+ Fn was quantified in serum samples from 114 heart failure patients due to ischemic (ICM, n = 44) and dilated (DCM, n = 39) cardiomyopathy as well as hypertensive heart disease (HHD, n = 31) compared to healthy controls (n = 12). Results. In comparison to healthy volunteers, heart failure patients showed significantly increased levels of ED-A+ Fn (p < 0.001). In particular in ICM patients there were significant associations between ED-A+ Fn serum levels and clinical parameters, for example, increased levels with rising NYHA class (p = 0.013), a negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.026, r: −0.353), a positive correlation with left atrial diameter (p = 0.008, r: 0.431), and a strong positive correlation with systolic pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.002, r: 0.485). In multivariate analysis, ED-A+ Fn was identified as an independent predictor of an ischemic heart failure etiology. Conclusions. The current study could clearly show that ED-A+ Fn is a promising biomarker in cardiovascular diseases, especially in heart failure patients due to an ICM. We presented a valid ELISA method, which could be applied for further studies investigating the value of ED-A+ Fn. PMID:27635109

  17. Evaluation and characterization of anti-RalA autoantibody as a potential serum biomarker in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ningjing; Xing, Mengtao; Li, Pei; Luo, Chenglin; Casiano, Carlos A.; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against intracellular tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are commonly found in human cancers. In this study, we characterized the serum autoantibody response to the RalA, Ras-like GTPase, in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). The autoantibodies were detected by immunofluorescence assay in PCa cell lines, ELISA, and immunoblotting in 339 serum samples from patients with PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and in normal human sera (NHS). The expression of RalA in prostate tumor tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tumor microarrays. The autoantibody level to RalA (median) in NHS was significantly lower than in PCa (0.053 vs 0.138; P < 0.001) and BPH (0.053 vs 0.132; P < 0.005) groups. The circulating anti-RalA autoantibody could distinguish PCa patients from normal individuals with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) performing at 0.861, with sensitivity of 52.9% and specificity of 91.0%. Elevation in serum immunoreactivity was observed in PCa patients after radical prostatectomy. The combined use of both anti-RalA autoantibody and PSA showed a significantly higher discriminatory ability compared with either of those markers alone. RalA protein expression was detected by IHC in 85.3% of tumor tissues from PCa patients, but without significant difference compared to BPH or normal control tissues. Together, our study shows the additional benefits of anti-RalA autoantibody as a potential serological biomarker for PCa, particularly in patients with normal PSA, and further demonstrate the utility of biomarker combinations in the immunodiagnosis of PCa. PMID:27286458

  18. Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Holland, Angelia Maleah; Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Lowery, Ryan P; Shake, Joshua J; Patel, Romil K; Healy, James C; McCullough, Danielle J; Kluess, Heidi A; Huggins, Kevin W; Kavazis, Andreas N; Wilson, Jacob M; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P < 0.05). Absolute and relative (body mass-adjusted) omental adipose tissue (OMAT) masses were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and OMAT adipocyte diameters were lowest in KD-fed rats (P < 0.05). None of the assayed OMAT or subcutaneous (SQ) protein markers were affected by the diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum β-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss.

  19. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination.

  20. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  1. Metabolomics-Based Discovery of Small Molecule Biomarkers in Serum Associated with Dengue Virus Infections and Disease Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Voge, Natalia V.; Perera, Rushika; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Loroño-Pino, María A.; Hopf-Jannasch, Amber S.; Belisle, John T.; Harris, Eva; Blair, Carol D.; Beaty, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemic dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) are overwhelming public health capacity for diagnosis and clinical care of dengue patients throughout the tropical and subtropical world. The ability to predict severe dengue disease outcomes (DHF/DSS) using acute phase clinical specimens would be of enormous value to physicians and health care workers for appropriate triaging of patients for clinical management. Advances in the field of metabolomics and analytic software provide new opportunities to identify host small molecule biomarkers (SMBs) in acute phase clinical specimens that differentiate dengue disease outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings Exploratory metabolomic studies were conducted to characterize the serum metabolome of patients who experienced different dengue disease outcomes. Serum samples from dengue patients from Nicaragua and Mexico were retrospectively obtained, and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-mass spectrometry (MS) identified small molecule metabolites that were associated with and statistically differentiated DHF/DSS, DF, and non-dengue (ND) diagnosis groups. In the Nicaraguan samples, 191 metabolites differentiated DF from ND outcomes and 83 differentiated DHF/DSS and DF outcomes. In the Mexican samples, 306 metabolites differentiated DF from ND and 37 differentiated DHF/DSS and DF outcomes. The structural identities of 13 metabolites were confirmed using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Metabolomic analysis of serum samples from patients diagnosed as DF who progressed to DHF/DSS identified 65 metabolites that predicted dengue disease outcomes. Differential perturbation of the serum metabolome was demonstrated following infection with different DENV serotypes and following primary and secondary DENV infections. Conclusions/Significance These results provide proof-of-concept that a metabolomics approach can be used to identify metabolites or SMBs in serum

  2. Prognostic Value of Serum Biomarkers of Autoimmunity for Recurrence of IgA Nephropathy after Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Berthoux, Francois; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Mohey, Hesham; Maillard, Nicolas; Mariat, Christophe; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A

    2017-03-02

    A prognostic biomarker for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) recurrence after renal transplant is lacking. We followed 96 consecutive first renal transplant recipients with native kidney IgAN (79 men; 92 deceased donors; mean age =48.1 years old) on calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression over 10 years for death, allograft failure, and clinicopathologic recurrence (CPR; clinically evident and biopsy proven). Using time-dependent Cox regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves, we assessed prognostic significance of levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1; autoantigen) and Gd-IgA1-specific IgG and IgA autoantibodies in serum obtained at time of transplant or native kidney IgAN diagnosis (30 patients only). Overall, 13 patients died, 34 kidneys failed (17 due to CPR), and 34 patients developed CPR after a mean interval of 5.8 years. Compared with healthy controls (n=30), patients had significantly elevated serum Gd-IgA1 levels at diagnosis and transplant, but levels did not associate with any outcome. Patients also had significantly elevated levels of normalized (but not total) serum Gd-IgA1-specific IgG autoantibodies at diagnosis and transplant, and the level at transplant associated with higher risk of CPR (relative risk, 2.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 5.71; P=0.01; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.74; P=0.05). Normalized Gd-IgA1-specific IgG autoantibody level remained an independent risk factor for CPR in multivariate analysis. Serum Gd-IgA1-specific IgA autoantibody level did not change between diagnosis and transplant or predict outcome. This study emphasizes post-transplant prognostic value of normalized serum IgG antiglycan autoantibody level in patients with IgAN.

  3. Metabolic profiling of presymptomatic Huntington’s disease sheep reveals novel biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Skene, Debra J.; Middleton, Benita; Fraser, Cara K.; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Kuchel, Timothy R.; Rudiger, Skye R.; Bawden, C. Simon; Morton, A. Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The pronounced cachexia (unexplained wasting) seen in Huntington’s disease (HD) patients suggests that metabolic dysregulation plays a role in HD pathogenesis, although evidence of metabolic abnormalities in HD patients is inconsistent. We performed metabolic profiling of plasma from presymptomatic HD transgenic and control sheep. Metabolites were quantified in sequential plasma samples taken over a 25 h period using a targeted LC/MS metabolomics approach. Significant changes with respect to genotype were observed in 89/130 identified metabolites, including sphingolipids, biogenic amines, amino acids and urea. Citrulline and arginine increased significantly in HD compared to control sheep. Ten other amino acids decreased in presymptomatic HD sheep, including branched chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine and valine) that have been identified previously as potential biomarkers of HD. Significant increases in urea, arginine, citrulline, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, alongside decreases in sphingolipids, indicate that both the urea cycle and nitric oxide pathways are dysregulated at early stages in HD. Logistic prediction modelling identified a set of 8 biomarkers that can identify 80% of the presymptomatic HD sheep as transgenic, with 90% confidence. This level of sensitivity, using minimally invasive methods, offers novel opportunities for monitoring disease progression in HD patients. PMID:28223686

  4. Lipidomic profiling of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 knockout mice reveals novel lipid biomarkers associated with serotonin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Burton, Casey; Yang, Li; Nie, Honggang; Tian, Yonglu; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2016-04-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that regulates a wide range of physiological, neuropsychological, and behavioral processes. Consequently, serotonin deficiency is involved in a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying serotonin deficiency, particularly from a lipidomics perspective, remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel lipid biomarkers associated with serotonin deficiency by lipidomic profiling of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 knockout (Tph2-/-) mice. Using a high-throughput normal-/reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (NP/RP 2D LC-QToF-MS) method, 59 lipid biomarkers encompassing glycerophospholipids (glycerophosphocholines, lysoglycerophosphocholines, glycerophosphoethanolamines, lysoglycerophosphoethanolamines glycerophosphoinositols, and lysoglycerophosphoinositols), sphingolipids (sphingomyelins, ceramides, galactosylceramides, glucosylceramides, and lactosylceramides) and free fatty acids were identified. Systemic oxidative stress in the Tph2-/- mice was significantly elevated, and a corresponding mechanism that relates the lipidomic findings has been proposed. In summary, this work provides preliminary findings that lipid metabolism is implicated in serotonin deficiency.

  5. Could clinical profile influence CSF biomarkers in early-onset Alzheimer disease?

    PubMed

    Koric, Lejla; Felician, Olivier; Guedj, Eric; Hubert, Anne Michele; Mancini, Julien; Boucraut, Jose; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    In common forms of Alzheimer disease (AD), anterograde memory impairment is the first deficit to occur. However, the disease, especially in its presenile forms, may also manifest itself through initial deficits that are predominantly of a nonmemory type. These distinct clinical profiles, which reflect the distinct topography of the underlying pathologic processes, may also differ in terms of their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total tau, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-beta 42 peptide in the CSF of "atypical" (nonmemory) early-onset AD patients. CSF biomarkers were evaluated in 22 atypical patients, and compared with those from a group of 13 "typical" patients, with a memory onset form of the disease. Our results show that independently of age, disease duration, education level, and clinical severity indices, patients with an atypical onset have significantly higher levels of total tau in the CSF (P=0.023). These findings indicate that an assessment of CSF biomarkers may be of particular use in the clinical diagnosis of "atypical-onset" forms of early-onset AD in which the initial symptoms involve language and visuospatial abilities rather than memory. In addition, they highlight the heterogeneity of pathologic processes in AD, suggesting more intense degeneration in the forms of the disease that primarily involve neocortical structures.

  6. A survey of immunohistochemical biomarkers for basal-like breast cancer against a gene expression profile gold standard.

    PubMed

    Won, Jennifer R; Gao, Dongxia; Chow, Christine; Cheng, Jinjin; Lau, Sherman Y H; Ellis, Matthew J; Perou, Charles M; Bernard, Philip S; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2013-11-01

    Gene expression profiling of breast cancer delineates a particularly aggressive subtype referred to as 'basal-like', which comprises ∼15% of all breast cancers, afflicts younger women and is refractory to endocrine and anti-HER2 therapies. Immunohistochemical surrogate definitions for basal-like breast cancer, such as the clinical ER/PR/HER2 triple-negative phenotype and models incorporating positive expression for CK5 (CK5/6) and/or EGFR are heavily cited. However, many additional biomarkers for basal-like breast cancer have been described in the literature. A parallel comparison of 46 proposed immunohistochemical biomarkers of basal-like breast cancer was performed against a gene expression profile gold standard on a tissue microarray containing 42 basal-like and 80 non-basal-like breast cancer cases. Ki67 and PPH3 were the most sensitive biomarkers (both 92%) positively expressed in the basal-like subtype, whereas CK14, IMP3 and NGFR were the most specific (100%). Among biomarkers surveyed, loss of INPP4B (a negative regulator of phosphatidylinositol signaling) was 61% sensitive and 99% specific with the highest odds ratio (OR) at 108, indicating the strongest association with basal-like breast cancer. Expression of nestin, a common marker of neural progenitor cells that is also associated with the triple-negative/basal-like phenotype and poor breast cancer prognosis, possessed the second highest OR at 29 among the 46 biomarkers surveyed, as well as 54% sensitivity and 96% specificity. As a positively expressed biomarker, nestin possesses technical advantages over INPP4B that make it a more ideal biomarker for identification of basal-like breast cancer. The comprehensive immunohistochemical biomarker survey presented in this study is a necessary step for determining an optimized surrogate immunopanel that best defines basal-like breast cancer in a practical and clinically accessible way.

  7. Distinctive serum protein profiles involving abundant proteins in lung cancer patients based upon antibody microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei-Min; Kuick, Rork; Orchekowski, Randal P; Misek, David E; Qiu, Ji; Greenberg, Alissa K; Rom, William N; Brenner, Dean E; Omenn, Gilbert S; Haab, Brian B; Hanash, Samir M

    2005-01-01

    Background Cancer serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has uncovered mass profiles that are potentially diagnostic for several common types of cancer. However, direct mass spectrometric profiling has a limited dynamic range and difficulties in providing the identification of the distinctive proteins. We hypothesized that distinctive profiles may result from the differential expression of relatively abundant serum proteins associated with the host response. Methods Eighty-four antibodies, targeting a wide range of serum proteins, were spotted onto nitrocellulose-coated microscope slides. The abundances of the corresponding proteins were measured in 80 serum samples, from 24 newly diagnosed subjects with lung cancer, 24 healthy controls, and 32 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two-color rolling-circle amplification was used to measure protein abundance. Results Seven of the 84 antibodies gave a significant difference (p < 0.01) for the lung cancer patients as compared to healthy controls, as well as compared to COPD patients. Proteins that exhibited higher abundances in the lung cancer samples relative to the control samples included C-reactive protein (CRP; a 13.3 fold increase), serum amyloid A (SAA; a 2.0 fold increase), mucin 1 and α-1-antitrypsin (1.4 fold increases). The increased expression levels of CRP and SAA were validated by Western blot analysis. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to construct Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA) classifiers. At a cutoff where all 56 of the non-tumor samples were correctly classified, 15/24 lung tumor patient sera were correctly classified. Conclusion Our results suggest that a distinctive serum protein profile involving abundant proteins may be observed in lung cancer patients relative to healthy subjects or patients with chronic disease and may have utility as part of strategies for detecting lung cancer. PMID:16117833

  8. Prostate Cancer in African-American Men: Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection Using Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    So we developed a gold nanowire biosensor surface with electrochemical detection on which the PSA antibody is immobilized, We proved the...cancer detection through essential investigation into emerging cutting-edge technologies. In the future, the utilization of the gold nanowire ...biomarker is still PSA. The m ost optimal and cost-effective nanotechnology was to conjugate the PSA antibody onto gold nanowire encased microfluidic

  9. Plasma Protein Biomarkers for Depression and Schizophrenia by Multi Analyte Profiling of Case-Control Collections

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Enrico; Willé, David R.; Tozzi, Federica; Prokopenko, Inga; Miller, Sam; McKeown, Astrid; Brittain, Claire; Rujescu, Dan; Giegling, Ina; Turck, Christoph W.; Holsboer, Florian; Bullmore, Edward T.; Middleton, Lefkos; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Alexander, Robert C.; Muglia, Pierandrea

    2010-01-01

    Despite significant research efforts aimed at understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders, the diagnosis and the evaluation of treatment of these disorders are still based solely on relatively subjective assessment of symptoms. Therefore, biological markers which could improve the current classification of psychiatry disorders, and in perspective stratify patients on a biological basis into more homogeneous clinically distinct subgroups, are highly needed. In order to identify novel candidate biological markers for major depression and schizophrenia, we have applied a focused proteomic approach using plasma samples from a large case-control collection. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM criteria using structured interviews and a number of additional clinical variables and demographic information were assessed. Plasma samples from 245 depressed patients, 229 schizophrenic patients and 254 controls were submitted to multi analyte profiling allowing the evaluation of up to 79 proteins, including a series of cytokines, chemokines and neurotrophins previously suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and schizophrenia. Univariate data analysis showed more significant p-values than would be expected by chance and highlighted several proteins belonging to pathways or mechanisms previously suspected to be involved in the pathophysiology of major depression or schizophrenia, such as insulin and MMP-9 for depression, and BDNF, EGF and a number of chemokines for schizophrenia. Multivariate analysis was carried out to improve the differentiation of cases from controls and identify the most informative panel of markers. The results illustrate the potential of plasma biomarker profiling for psychiatric disorders, when conducted in large collections. The study highlighted a set of analytes as candidate biomarker signatures for depression and schizophrenia, warranting further investigation in independent collections. PMID

  10. Urinary BTEX, MTBE and naphthalene as biomarkers to gain environmental exposure profiles of the general population.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Rossella, Federica; Campo, Laura; Mercadante, Rosa; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m+p-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and naphthalene (NAP) as biomarkers of exposure to environmental pollutants. Personal air and urine samples from 108 subjects belonging to the Italian general population were compared. Urinary profiles were obtained by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX, MTBE, ETBE and NAP median airborne exposures during a 5-h sampling were 4.0, 25.3, 3.8, 9.3, 3.4, 3.4, <0.8, and 3.4 microg/m(3), respectively. Meanwhile, median urinary levels, as geometric means of three determinations were: 122, 397, 74, 127, 43, 49, <15, and 46 ng/L, respectively. Urinary benzene and toluene concentrations were 4.6- and 1.2-fold higher in smokers than in non-smokers. For most chemicals, significant positive correlations between airborne exposure (log-transformed) and the corresponding biological marker (log-transformed) were found, with Pearson's r values for correlation, ranging from 0.228 to 0.396. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the urinary level of these chemicals was influenced by personal airborne exposure, urinary creatinine, and urinary cotinine, with R(2) 0.733 for benzene. Urinary chemicals are useful biomarkers of environmental exposure. Given the ease of rapidly obtaining urine samples, they represent a non-invasive alternative to blood chemical analysis. The possibility of obtaining urinary exposure profiles makes this method an appealing tool for environmental epidemiology.

  11. Identification of biomarkers that distinguish chemical contaminants based on gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High throughput transcriptomics profiles such as those generated using microarrays have been useful in identifying biomarkers for different classification and toxicity prediction purposes. Here, we investigated the use of microarrays to predict chemical toxicants and their possible mechanisms of action. Results In this study, in vitro cultures of primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to 105 chemicals and vehicle controls, representing 14 compound classes. We comprehensively compared various normalization of gene expression profiles, feature selection and classification algorithms for the classification of these 105 chemicals into14 compound classes. We found that normalization had little effect on the averaged classification accuracy. Two support vector machine (SVM) methods, LibSVM and sequential minimal optimization, had better classification performance than other methods. SVM recursive feature selection (SVM-RFE) had the highest overfitting rate when an independent dataset was used for a prediction. Therefore, we developed a new feature selection algorithm called gradient method that had a relatively high training classification as well as prediction accuracy with the lowest overfitting rate of the methods tested. Analysis of biomarkers that distinguished the 14 classes of compounds identified a group of genes principally involved in cell cycle function that were significantly downregulated by metal and inflammatory compounds, but were induced by anti-microbial, cancer related drugs, pesticides, and PXR mediators. Conclusions Our results indicate that using microarrays and a supervised machine learning approach to predict chemical toxicants, their potential toxicity and mechanisms of action is practical and efficient. Choosing the right feature and classification algorithms for this multiple category classification and prediction is critical. PMID:24678894

  12. Proteomic Profiling of Exosomes Leads to the Identification of Novel Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Duijvesz, Diederick; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Hoogland, Marije; Vredenbregt-van den Berg, Mirella S.; Willemsen, Rob; Luider, Theo N.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Jenster, Guido

    2013-12-31

    Introduction: Current markers for prostate cancer, such as PSA lack specificity. Therefore, novel biomarkers are needed. Unfortunately, biomarker discovery from body fluids is often hampered by the high abundance of many proteins unrelated to disease. An attractive alternative biomarker discovery approach is the isolation of small vesicles (exosomes, ~100 nm). They contain proteins that are specific to the tissue from which they are derived and therefore can be considered as treasure chests for disease-specific marker discovery. Profiling prostate cancer-derived exosomes could reveal new markers for this malignancy. Materials and Methods: Exosomes were isolated from 2 immortalized primary prostate epithelial cells (PNT2C2 and RWPE-1) and 2 PCa cell lines (PC346C and VCaP) by ultracentrifugation. Proteomic analyses utilized a nanoLC coupled with an LTQ-Orbitrap operated in tandem MS (MS/MS) mode, followed by the Accurate Mass and Time (AMT) tag approach. Exosomal proteins were validated by Western blotting. A Tissue Micro Array, containing 481 different PCa samples (radical prostatectomy), was used to correlate candidate markers with several clinical-pathological parameters such as PSA, Gleason score, biochemical recurrence, and (PCa-related) death. Results: Proteomic characterization resulted in the identification of 263 proteins by at least 2 peptides. Specifically analysis of exosomes from PNT2C2, RWPE-1, PC346C, and VCaP identified 248, 233, 169, and 216 proteins, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed 52 proteins differently expressed between PCa and control cells, 9 of which were more abundant in PCa. Validation by Western blotting confirmed a higher abundance of FASN, XPO1 and PDCD6IP (ALIX) in PCa exosomes. The Tissue Micro 4 Array showed strong correlation of higher Gleason scores and local recurrence with increased cytoplasmic XPO1 (P<0.001). Conclusions: Differentially abundant proteins of cell line-derived exosomes make a clear subdivision between

  13. Serum anti-Ku86 is a potential biomarker for early detection of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Fumio; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Noda, Kenta; Seimiya, Masanori; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Miura, Toshihide; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Imazeki, Fumio; Takizawa, Hirotaka; Mogushi, Kaoru; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2012-05-18

    stage I solitary tumor <2 cm in diameter, whereas the sensitivities of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) were 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. The results of ROC analyses indicated the better performance of anti-Ku86 for early detection of HCC. Serum anti-Ku86 levels decreased after surgical resection of the tumors in the 12 HCC cases tested, Elevation of anti-Ku86 in solid tumors other than liver was minimal. Serum anti-Ku86 is a potential biomarker for early detection of HCV-related HCC. Further studies in a larger number of HCC patients with various etiologies are needed to further evaluate the diagnostic and pathophysiological roles of elevation of serum anti-Ku86 in early HCC.

  14. Twelve serum protein profiles in children with acute nonbacterial gastroenterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Wiermannová, D; Wiedermann, D; Kadlcáková, E

    1978-01-01

    In thirty children hospitalized with acute benign, short-duration gastroenterocolitis, no obligate pathogens were isolated from stools. Five bleedings were established from each patient in order to obtain the protein profiles of albumin, orosomucoid, haptoglobin, alpha2-macroglobulin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, C3-component, C-reactive protein, immunglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD. The proteins were quantitated by the single radial immunodiffusion method. The initial drop in some of the proteins followed may be related to general protein loss, negative nitrogen balance or hemodilution. The absence of a significant increase in all the investigated immunoglobulin classes contrasted with remarkable increase in haptoglobin and orosomucoid, both reaching normal levels in late convalescence. C-reactive protein could be demonstrated in half of the children showing early normalization with disappearance of clinical symptoms. In contrast to ceruloplasmin and C3- component, alpha2-macroglobulin was not involved in the acute phase protein reaction.

  15. Investigation of serum Ki-67 as a biomarker in tumor-bearing dogs.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Stephan; Schuettler, Julia; Frenz, Meike; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Gessler, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Because of the limited number of tumor markers in veterinary medicine, there is need for identifying new markers. Ki-67 has been investigated as a tissue marker of malignant alterations. We hypothesized that Ki-67 would also be measurable in serum and should therefore be elevated in cases of malignancy. The purpose of this prospective study was to measure Ki-67 in clinically healthy dogs, dogs with nonmalignant diseases, and dogs with malignant tumors. Samples from 8 healthy dogs, 13 dogs with nonmalignant diseases, and 20 dogs with malignant tumors were collected. Ki-67 was measured using the commercially available canine-specific ELISA. Results demonstrated undetectable Ki-67 serum concentrations in healthy dogs. Dogs with nonmalignant diseases displayed low Ki-67 serum concentrations. In contrast, dogs with malignancies showed significantly increased serum Ki-67 concentrations compared with the healthy (p<0.001) or nonmalignant diseased dogs (p<0.001). The degree of malignancy had a positive influence on serum Ki-67 levels. In contrast, no influence of tumor size on Ki-67 serum concentration was observed (p>0.05). Comparing healthy dogs and tumor bearing dogs a sensitivity of 0.75 and a specificity of 1.0 can be calculated using a Ki-67 cut-off value of 5.5pg/mL. When dogs with a low degree of malignancy were compared with dogs of moderate-to-severe degree malignant tumors a sensitivity of 1.0 and a specificity of 1.0 can be observed at a Ki-67 cut-off value of 19.25pg/mL. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an association of malignancies with elevated Ki-67 serum concentrations in dogs.

  16. Serum beta-2 microglobulin as a prognostic biomarker in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Changhoon; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Kim, Shin; Huh, Jooryung; Park, Chan-Sik; Park, Chan-Jeong; Lee, Sang-Wook; Suh, Cheolwon

    2016-03-01

    Although serum beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) has been suggested as a prognostic factor for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), additional data are necessary to confirm its role. Between November 2005 and July 2014, a total of 52 patients with MCL were identified from the database of Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Pretreatment serum B2M information was available in 50 patients (96%). Overall survival (OS) was compared according to the serum B2M level with a cut-off value of 2.5 mg/L. The median MCL international prognostic index (MIPI) score was 5.84 (range 4.72-7.80), and the median biologic MIPI (MIPI-b) score was 6.27 (4.93-8.47). Pretreatment serum B2M was elevated in 30 patients (60%) and was significantly related to advanced stage (p = 0.02) and high MIPI (p = 0.03) and MIPI-b (p = 0.03) scores. With median follow-up duration of 29.8 months (range 0.8-87.0 months), the median OS was 56.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 36.6-75.9 months] in all patients, and serum B2M was significantly associated with OS (p = 0.001). In multivariate analyses adjusted for MIPI or MIPI-b scores and rituximab, elevated serum B2M was significantly associated with poor OS (when adjusting MIPI, hazard ratio = 26.4, 95% CI 2.9-241.3, p = 0.004; when adjusting MIPI-b, hazard ratio = 20.1, 95% CI 2.4-170.1, p = 0.006). Thus, pretreatment serum B2M may be an independent and significant prognostic factor in patients with MCL.

  17. Comparison of serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as kidney function biomarkers in healthy geriatric cats fed reduced protein foods enriched with fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Yu, S; Jewell, D E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether feeding cats reduced protein and phosphorus foods with added fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) altered serum biomarkers of renal function. Thirty-two healthy cats, mean age 14.0 (8.3-19.6) years, were fed control food or one of two experimental foods for 6 months. All foods had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approximately 8.0%, 26.5%, and 20.0%, respectively). Both experimental foods contained added fish oil (1.5%) and L-carnitine (500 mg/kg). Experimental-food 2 also contained increased MCT (10.5% from coconut oil), 1.5% added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum biochemistries, renal function biomarkers including serum creatinine (sCr) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA), and plasma metabolomic profiles were measured at baseline, and at 1.5, 3, and 6 months. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Although both experimental foods altered plasma fatty acids, carnitine and related metabolites, and lysophospholipid concentrations, there were no changes in renal function biomarkers. There was, however, a benefit in using SDMA versus sCr to assess renal function in older cats with less total lean mass. Compared with cats <12 years, those >15 years had lower total lean mass (P < 0.01), lower GFR (P = 0.04), and lower sCr concentrations (P < 0.01). However, SDMA concentrations (P < 0.01) were higher in older cats. This study shows that in cats, serum SDMA concentration is more highly correlated with GFR than sCr concentration, and, unlike sCr, which declines with age because of muscle wasting, SDMA increases as GFR declines with age.

  18. Proteomics profiling of urine reveals specific titin fragments as biomarkers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rouillon, Jeremy; Zocevic, Aleksandar; Leger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Udd, Bjarne; Wong, Brenda; Servais, Laurent; Voit, Thomas; Svinartchouk, Fedor

    2014-07-01

    Diagnosis of muscular dystrophies is currently based on invasive methods requiring muscle biopsies or blood tests. The aim of the present study was to identify urinary biomarkers as a diagnostic tool for muscular dystrophies. Here, the urinary proteomes of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and healthy donors were compared with a bottom-up proteomic approach. Label-free analysis of more than 1100 identified proteins revealed that 32 of them were differentially expressed between healthy controls and DMD patients. Among these 32 proteins, titin showed the highest fold change between healthy subjects and DMD patients. Interestingly, most of the sequenced peptides belong to the N-terminal and C-terminal parts of titin, and the presence of the corresponding fragments in the urine of DMD patients was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Analysis of a large cohort of DMD patients and age-matched controls (a total of 104 individuals aged from 3 to 20 years) confirmed presence of the N-ter fragment in all but two patients. In two DMD patients aged 16 and 20 years this fragment was undetectable and two healthy controls of 16 and 19 years with serum CK >800 IU/L demonstrated a low level of the fragment. N- and C-terminal titin fragments were also detected in urine from patients with other muscular dystrophies such as Becker muscular dystrophy and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (type 1D, 2D and 2J) but not in neurogenic spinal muscular atrophy. They were also present in urine of dystrophin-deficient animal models (GRMD dogs and mdx mice). Titin is the first urinary biomarker that offers the possibility to develop a simple, non-invasive and easy-to-use test for pre-screening of muscular dystrophies, and may also prove to be useful for the non-invasive follow up of DMD patients under treatment.

  19. Validation of biomarkers of CVD risk from dried blood spots in community-based research: Methodologies and study-specific serum equivalencies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Laura B.; Hall, Martica H.; McLean, Shakir; Porter, James H.; Berkman, Lisa; Marino, Miguel; Sembajwe, Grace; McDade, Thomas W.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dried blood spot (DBS) methodology offers significant advantages over venipuncture in vulnerable populations or large-scale studies, including reduced participant burden and higher response rates. Uncertainty about validity of cardiovascular risk biomarkers remains a barrier to wide-scale use. We determined the validity of DBS-derived biomarkers of CVD risk versus gold-standard assessments, and study-specific, serum-equivalency values for clinical relevance of DBS-derived values. Methods Concurrent venipuncture serum and DBS samples (n=150 adults) were assayed in CLIA-certified and DBS laboratories, respectively. Time controls of DBS standard samples were assayed single-blind along with test samples. Linear regression analyses evaluated DBS-to-serum equivalency values; agreement and bias were assessed via Bland-Altman plots. Results Linear regressions of venipuncture values on DBS-to-serum equivalencies provided R2 values for TC, HDL-C, CRP of 0.484, 0.118, 0.666, respectively. Bland-Altman plots revealed minimal systematic bias between DBS-to-serum and venipuncture values; precision worsened at higher mean values of CRP. Time controls reveal little degradation or change in analyte values for HDL-C and CRP over 30 weeks. Conclusions DBS-assessed biomarkers represent a valid alternative to venipuncture assessments. Large studies using DBS should include study-specific serum-equivalency determinations to optimize individual-level sensitivity, viability of detecting intervention effects, and generalizability in community-level, primary prevention interventions. PMID:26652683

  20. Fluorogenic 2D Peptidosheet Unravels CD47 as a Potential Biomarker for Profiling Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma Tissues.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Han; Dou, Wei-Tao; Pan, Yu-Fei; Dong, Li-Wei; Tan, Ye-Xiong; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He; Wang, Hong-Yang

    2017-02-01

    A 2D peptidosheet unravels CD47 as a potential biomarker to image hepatocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma cells and tissues. Supramolecular assembly between water-soluble 2D MoS2 and a peptide probe produces the 2D peptidosheet suited for the profiling of hepatocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma tissues over healthy tissues on clinical specimens.

  1. Serum Biomarkers Reveal Long-term Cardiac Injury in Isoproterenol-treated African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yashu; Parman, Toufan; Schneider, Bridget; Song, Benben; Galande, Amit; Anderson, Dave; Mirsalis, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of cardiac toxicity is a major challenge in both drug development and clinical trials, and numerous marketed pharmaceuticals have been removed from the market due to unpredicted cardiac effects. Serum troponins are widely-used indicators of cardiac injury; however, they are short-lived, and have not been validated in preclinical animal models. In this study, we have used filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling to investigate serum protein alterations in isoproterenol-treated African green monkeys. Our results showed that the combination of FASP and TMT labeling provided highly reproducible and efficient sample preparation, which enables us to identify and quantify serum proteins with high confidence. We focused on the proteins that exhibit long-term alteration upon isoproterenol injection and discovered nine proteins exhibiting significant changes at 48 and 72 hr post-dosing. We further chose three proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA), frutose biphosphate aldolase A (FBAA), and fetuin A, for validation using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum concentration of SAA showed a ~50 fold increase, while concentration of FBAA and fetuin A exhibited a significant decrease accompanying isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity. This work provides valuable insights for multi-marker evaluation of long-term cardiac injury. PMID:23473367

  2. Metabolomic study of lipids in serum for biomarker discovery in Alzheimer's disease using direct infusion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, R; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the potential of direct infusion mass spectrometry for the lipidomic characterization of Alzheimer's disease. Serum samples were extracted for lipids recovery, and directly analyzed using an electrospray source. Metabolomic fingerprints were subjected to multivariate analysis in order to discriminate between groups of patients and healthy controls, and then some key-compounds were identified as possible markers of Alzheimer's disease. Major differences were found in lipids, although some low molecular weight metabolites also showed significant changes. Thus, important metabolic pathways involved in neurodegeneration could be studied on the basis of these perturbations, such as membrane breakdown (phospholipids and diacylglycerols), oxidative stress (prostaglandins, imidazole and histidine), alterations in neurotransmission systems (oleamide and putrescine) and hyperammonaemia (guanidine and arginine). Moreover, it is noteworthy that some of these potential biomarkers have not been previously described for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Association between urinary biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate insecticides and serum reproductive hormones in men from NHANES 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Omoike, Ogbebor; Lewis, Ryan C.; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides may alter reproductive hormone levels in men and increase the risk for poor reductive health and other adverse health outcomes. However, relevant epidemiology studies in men are limited. We evaluated urinary concentrations of OP metabolites (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol and six dialkyl phosphates) in relation to serum concentrations of testosterone (T) and estradiol among 356 men aged 20–55 years old from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Biomarkers were detected in greater than 50% of the samples, except for diethyldithiophosphate, dimethylphosphate, and dimethyldithiophosphate. In adjusted regression models, we observed a statistically significant inverse relationship between diethyl phosphate (DEP) and T when DEP was modeled as either a continuous or categorical variable. These findings add to the limited evidence that exposure to certain OP insecticides is linked to altered T in men, which may have important implications for male health. PMID:25908234

  4. Mass spectrometric discovery and selective reaction monitoring (SRM) of putative protein biomarker candidates in first trimester Trisomy 21 maternal serum.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Mary F; Kuppusamy, Ramesh; Sarracino, David A; Prakash, Amol; Athanas, Michael; Krastins, Bryan; Rezai, Taha; Sutton, Jennifer N; Peterman, Scott; Nicolaides, Kypros

    2011-01-07

    The accurate diagnosis of Trisomy 21 requires invasive procedures that carry a risk of miscarriage. The current state-of-the-art maternal serum screening tests measure levels of PAPP-A, free bhCG, AFP, and uE3 in various combinations with a maximum sensitivity of 60-75% and a false positive rate of 5%. There is currently an unmet need for noninvasive screening tests with high selectivity that can detect pregnancies at risk, preferably within the first trimester. The aim of this study was to apply proteomics and mass spectrometry techniques for the discovery of new putative biomarkers for Trisomy 21 in first trimester maternal serum coupled with the immediate development of quantitative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) assays. The results of the novel workflow were 2-fold: (1) we identified a list of differentially expressed proteins in Trisomy 21 vs Normal samples, including PAPP-A, and (2) we developed a multiplexed, high-throughput SRM assay for verification of 12 new putative markers identified in the discovery experiments. To narrow down the initial large list of differentially expressed candidates resulting from the discovery experiments, we incorporated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve algorithms early in the data analysis process. We believe this approach provides a substantial advantage in sifting through the large and complex data typically obtained from discovery experiments. The workflow efficiently mined information derived from high-resolution LC-MS/MS discovery data for the seamless construction of rapid, targeted assays that were performed on unfractionated serum digests. The SRM assay lower limit of detection (LLOD) for the target peptides in a background of digested serum matrix was approximately 250-500 attomoles on column and the limit of accurate quantitation (LOQ) was approximately 1-5 femtomoles on column. The assay error as determined by coefficient of variation at LOQ and above ranged from 0 to 16%. The workflow developed in

  5. Serum IL-18 as biomarker in predicting long-term renal outcome among pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao-Yi; Yang, Huang-Yu; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Liu, Su-Hsun; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An urge of biomarker identification is needed to better monitor lupus nephritis (LN) disease activity, guide clinical treatment, and predict patient's long-term outcome. With the proinflammatory effect and its association with inflammasomes, the significance of interleukin-18 (IL-18) among pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematous (pSLE) patient, especially, its importance in predicting long-term renal outcome was investigated. In a pSLE cohort of 96 patients with an average follow-up period of 10.39 ± 3.31 years, clinical data and laboratory workups including serum IL-18 were collected at time of disease onset and 6 months after treatment despite their initial renal status. Through Cox regression analysis, the parameters at baseline and at 6 months posttreatment were carefully analyzed. Average age of all cases was 12.74 ± 3.01 years old and 65 of them underwent renal biopsy at the time of diagnosis. Nine subjects (9.38%) progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 2 cases (2.08%) died during follow-up. Through multivariate analysis, serum IL-18 level 6 months posttreatment was found to be the most unfavorable factor associating poor clinical outcome despite patient's initial renal status. In addition, the presentation of serum IL-18 in its correlation with SLE global disease activity as well as the presence and severity of LN were all significant (P < 0.001, P = 0.03, and P = 0.02, respectively). The histological classification of LN, however, was not associated with the level of IL-18 among the pSLE patients (P = 0.64). The role of serum IL-18 as biomarker representing global disease activity and status of renal flares among pSLE population was shown for the first time. Additionally, we have identified IL-18 at 6 months posttreatment a novel marker for long-term renal outcome prediction. PMID:27749566

  6. Serum Metabolomics to Identify the Liver Disease-Specific Biomarkers for the Progression of Hepatitis to Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Rong; Cheng, Jianhua; Fan, Chunlei; Shi, Xiaofeng; Cao, Yuan; Sun, Bo; Ding, Huiguo; Hu, Chengjin; Dong, Fangting; Yan, Xianzhong

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy that has region specific etiologies. Unfortunately, 85% of cases of HCC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Reliable biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HCC are urgently required to reduced mortality and therapeutic expenditure. We established a non-targeted gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) metabolomics method in conjunction with Random Forests (RF) analysis based on 201 serum samples from healthy controls (NC), hepatitis B virus (HBV), liver cirrhosis (LC) and HCC patients to explore the metabolic characteristics in the progression of hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Ultimately, 15 metabolites were identified intimately associated with the process. Phenylalanine, malic acid and 5-methoxytryptamine for HBV vs. NC, palmitic acid for LC vs. HBV, and asparagine and β-glutamate for HCC vs. LC were screened as the liver disease-specific potential biomarkers with an excellent discriminant performance. All the metabolic perturbations in these liver diseases are associated with pathways for energy metabolism, macromolecular synthesis, and maintaining the redox balance to protect tumor cells from oxidative stress.

  7. Serum Metabolomics to Identify the Liver Disease-Specific Biomarkers for the Progression of Hepatitis to Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong; Cheng, Jianhua; Fan, Chunlei; Shi, Xiaofeng; Cao, Yuan; Sun, Bo; Ding, Huiguo; Hu, Chengjin; Dong, Fangting; Yan, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy that has region specific etiologies. Unfortunately, 85% of cases of HCC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Reliable biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HCC are urgently required to reduced mortality and therapeutic expenditure. We established a non-targeted gas chromatography–time of flight–mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) metabolomics method in conjunction with Random Forests (RF) analysis based on 201 serum samples from healthy controls (NC), hepatitis B virus (HBV), liver cirrhosis (LC) and HCC patients to explore the metabolic characteristics in the progression of hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Ultimately, 15 metabolites were identified intimately associated with the process. Phenylalanine, malic acid and 5-methoxytryptamine for HBV vs. NC, palmitic acid for LC vs. HBV, and asparagine and β-glutamate for HCC vs. LC were screened as the liver disease-specific potential biomarkers with an excellent discriminant performance. All the metabolic perturbations in these liver diseases are associated with pathways for energy metabolism, macromolecular synthesis, and maintaining the redox balance to protect tumor cells from oxidative stress. PMID:26658617

  8. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  9. Measurement of Differentially Methylated INS DNA Species in Human Serum Samples as a Biomarker of Islet β Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Tersey, Sarah A; Nelson, Jennifer B; Fisher, Marisa M; Mirmira, Raghavendra G

    2017-01-01

    Summary Islet β cell death precedes development of type 1 diabetes, and detecting this process may allow for early therapeutic intervention. Here, we provide a detailed description of how to measure differentially methylated INS DNA species in human serum as a biomarker of β cell death. The death of islet β cells is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of virtually all forms of diabetes and to precede the development of frank hyperglycemia, especially in type 1 diabetes. The development of sensitive and reliable biomarkers of β cell death may allow for early therapeutic intervention to prevent or delay the development of diabetes. Recently, several groups including our own have reported that cell-free, differentially methylated DNA encoding preproinsulin (INS) in the circulation is correlated to β cell death in pre-type 1 diabetes and new-onset type 1 diabetes. Here, we present a step-by-step protocol using digital PCR for the measurement of cell-free INS DNA that is differentially methylated at cytosine at position -69 bp (relative to the transcriptional start site). We demonstrate that the assay can distinguish between methylated and unmethylated cytosine at position -69 bp, is linear across several orders of magnitude, provides absolute quantitation of DNA copy numbers, and can be applied to samples of human serum from individuals with new-onset type 1 diabetes and disease-free controls. The protocol described here can be adapted to any DNA species for which detection of differentially methylated cytosines is desired, whether from circulation or from isolated cells and tissues, and can provide absolute quantitation of DNA fragments. PMID:28060259

  10. Correlation between serum lipid profile and carotid intima-media thickness in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sarama; Sarkar, Chandan; Biswas, Subhash Chandra; Karim, R

    2008-07-01

    Abnormal lipid profile is often found in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. To assess the impact of abnormal lipid profile on atherosclerosis in young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women, carotid intima-media thickness as judged by B-mode ultrasonography were done in 30 young (18-35 yrs) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women and in similarly age-matched 30 apparently healthy controls. Compared to controls, young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women had significantly elevated serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C levels and carotid intima-media thickness. HDL-C level did not differ significantly between two groups of women. In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women carotid intima-media thickness was positively correlated with serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C and negatively correlated with serum HDL-C. Our study suggests that even young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women are prone to atherosclerosis from early age.

  11. MicroRNA and messenger RNA profiling reveals new biomarkers and mechanisms for RDX induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background RDX is a well-known pollutant to induce neurotoxicity. MicroRNAs (miRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles are useful tools for toxicogenomics studies. It is worthy to integrate MiRNA and mRNA expression data to understand RDX-induced neurotoxicity. Results Rats were treated with or without RDX for 48 h. Both miRNA and mRNA profiles were conducted using brain tissues. Nine miRNAs were significantly regulated by RDX. Of these, 6 and 3 miRNAs were up- and down-regulated respectively. The putative target genes of RDX-regulated miRNAs were highly nervous system function genes and pathways enriched. Fifteen differentially genes altered by RDX from mRNA profiles were the putative targets of regulated miRNAs. The induction of miR-71, miR-27ab, miR-98, and miR-135a expression by RDX, could reduce the expression of the genes POLE4, C5ORF13, SULF1 and ROCK2, and eventually induce neurotoxicity. Over-expression of miR-27ab, or reduction of the expression of unknown miRNAs by RDX, could up-regulate HMGCR expression and contribute to neurotoxicity. RDX regulated immune and inflammation response miRNAs and genes could contribute to RDX- induced neurotoxicity and other toxicities as well as animal defending reaction response to RDX exposure. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that integrating miRNA and mRNA profiles is valuable to indentify novel biomarkers and molecular mechanisms for RDX-induced neurological disorder and neurotoxicity. PMID:25559034

  12. Time-dependent changes in serum biomarker levels after blast traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gyorgy, Andrea; Ling, Geoffrey; Wingo, Daniel; Walker, John; Tong, Lawrence; Parks, Steve; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Baumann, Richard; Agoston, Denes V

    2011-06-01

    Neuronal and glial proteins detected in the peripheral circulating blood after injury can reflect the extent of the damage caused by blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The temporal pattern of their serum levels can further predict the severity and outcome of the injury. As part of characterizing a large-animal model of bTBI, we determined the changes in the serum levels of S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myelin basic protein (MBP), and neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H). Blood samples were obtained prior to injury and at 6, 24, 72 h, and 2 weeks post-injury from animals with different severities of bTBI; protein levels were determined using reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM) technology. Serum levels of S100B, MBP, and NF-H, but not NSE, showed a time-dependent increase following injury. The detected changes in S100B and MBP levels showed no correlation with the severity of the injury. However, serum NF-H levels increased in a unique, rapid manner, peaking at 6 h post-injury only in animals exposed to severe blast with poor clinical and pathological outcomes. We conclude that the sudden increase in serum NF-H levels following bTBI may be a useful indicator of injury severity. If additional studies verify our findings, the observed early peak of serum NF-H levels can be developed into a useful diagnostic tool for predicting the extent of damage following bTBI.

  13. Hyper-coagulable profile with elevated pro-thrombotic biomarkers and increased cerebro- and cardio-vascular disease risk exist among healthy dyslipidemic women.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia N; Carvalho, Maria G; Reis, Helton J; Gomes, Karina B; Sousa, Marinez O; Palotás, András

    2014-05-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the pathognomonic elements of athero-genesis, as well as cerebro- and cardio-vascular disease (CCVD). Hemostatic factors are also involved in athero-sclerosis and ischemic changes, however their relationship with disrupted lipid homeostasis is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the coagulation state of dyslipidemic patients and to evaluate their association with CCVD risk factors. Biochemical and hematological parameters, as well as neuro-psychiatric profile of 109 dyslipidemic subjects and 107 normo-lipidic healthy volunteers were assessed. Serum bio-marker levels and cognitive performance generally did not differ in the groups, but prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) and D-dimer concentrations were markedly higher among women. Hyper-coagulability was not associated with dyslipidemia, but was correlated with the female gender, which might pose an increased thromboembolic risk in asymptomatic women.

  14. Serum periplakin as a potential biomarker for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Ikeda, Masaomi; Matsumoto, Toshihide; Nagashio, Ryo; Nishimori, Takanori; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Nomura, Fumio; Sato, Yuichi; Kitasato, Hidero; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine serum periplakin expression in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder and in normal controls, and to examine relationships with clinicopathological findings. Detection of serum periplakin was performed in 50 patients and 30 normal controls with anti-periplakin antibodies using the automatic dot blot system, and a micro-dot blot array with a 256 solid-pin system. Levels in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder were significantly lower than those in normal controls (0.31 and 5.68, respectively; p<0.0001). The area under the receiver-operator curve level for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder was 0.845. The sensitivity and specificity, using a cut-off point of 4.045, were 83.7% and 73.3%, respectively. In addition, serum periplakin levels were significantly higher in patients with muscle-invasive cancer than in those with nonmuscle-invasive cancer (P=0.03). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, none of the clinicopathological factors was associated with an increased risk for progression and cancer-specific survival. Examination of the serum periplakin level may play a role as a non- invasive diagnostic modality to aid urine cytology and cystoscopy.

  15. MicroRNA biomarkers of Parkinson's disease in serum exosome-like microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiang-Yang; Lu, Jing-Min; Zhao, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Ming-Chao; Lu, Ting; An, Xu-Sheng; Xue, Liu-Jun

    2017-02-20

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive age-related debilitating motor disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of 24 candidate miRNAs in PD and to assess their diagnostic value in patients with PD. We collected serum samples from 109 patients with PD and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (control group). RNAs encapsulated in exosome-like microvesicles in serum were extracted and reverse transcribed. Serum miRNAs were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the ability of the miRNAs to accurately discriminate PD was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves. Based on our analysis, we further validated the downregulation of miR-19b and the upregulation of miR-195 and miR-24 in patients with PD. When compared with the control group, the area under the curve (AUC) values for miR-19b, miR-24, and miR-195 were 0.753, 0.908, and 0.697, respectively. Therefore, analysis of the expression levels of miR-19b, miR-24, and miR-195 in serum may be useful for the diagnosis of PD.

  16. Using Metabolomic Profiles as Biomarkers for Insulin Resistance in Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chenglin

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown the intimate relationship between metabolomic profiles and insulin resistance (IR) in obese adults, while little is known about childhood obesity. In this review, we searched available papers addressing metabolomic profiles and IR in obese children from inception to February 2016 on MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMASE. HOMA-IR was applied as surrogate markers of IR and related metabolic disorders at both baseline and follow-up. To minimize selection bias, two investigators independently completed this work. After critical selection, 10 studies (including 2,673 participants) were eligible and evaluated by using QUADOMICS for quality assessment. Six of the 10 studies were classified as “high quality.” Then we generated all the metabolites identified in each study and found amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism were the main affected metabolic pathways in obese children. Among identified metabolites, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), and acylcarnitines were reported to be associated with IR as biomarkers most frequently. Additionally, BCAAs and tyrosine seemed to be relevant to future metabolic risk in the long-term follow-up cohorts, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and prevention strategy. Because of limited scale and design heterogeneity of existing studies, future studies might focus on validating above findings in more large-scale and longitudinal studies with elaborate design. PMID:27517054

  17. From proteomic multimarker profiling to interesting proteins: thymosin-β4 and kininogen-1 as new potential biomarkers for inflammatory hepatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Corinna; Schwamborn, Kristina; Zimmermann, Henning W; Tacke, Frank; Kühnen, Elisabeth; Odenthal, Margarete; Groseclose, M Reid; Caprioli, Richard M; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Despite tremendous efforts in disclosing the pathophysiological and epidemiological factors associated with liver fibrogenesis, non-invasive diagnostic measures to estimate the clinical outcome and progression of liver fibrogenesis are presently limited. Therefore, there is a mandatory need for methodologies allowing the reasonable and reliable assessment of the severity and/or progression of hepatic fibrogenesis. We here performed proteomic serum profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in 179 samples of patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus and 195 control sera. Multidimensional analysis of spectra allowed the definition of algorithms capable to distinguish class-specific protein expression profiles in serum samples. Overall about 100 peaks could be detected per single spectrum. Different algorithms including protein peaks in the range of 2000 and 10,000 Da were generated after pre-fractionation on a weak cation exchange surface. A specificity of 93% with a sensitivity of 86% as mean of the test set results was found, respectively. The nature of three of these protein peaks that belonged to kininogen-1 and thymosin-β4 was further analysed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. We further found that kininogen-1 mRNA was significantly down-regulated in cirrhotic livers. We have identified kininogen-1 and thymosin-β4 as potential new biomarkers for human chronic hepatitis C and conclude that serum profiling is a reliable technique to identify hepatitis-associated expression patterns. Based on the high throughput capability, the identified differential protein panel may serve as a diagnostic marker and warrants further validation in larger cohorts. PMID:21496200

  18. Comparative proteome analysis of serum from acute pulmonary embolism rat model for biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-qing; Yun, Jun; Xue, Fu-bo; Bai, Chang-qing; Yang, Shu-guang; Que, Hai-ping; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Zhe; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, potentially fatal disease and its diagnosis is challenging because clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific. In this study, to investigate protein alterations of a rat PE model, total serum proteins collected at different time points were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Bioinformatics analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 20 had corresponding protein candidates in the database. According to their properties and obvious alterations after PE, changes of serum concentrations of Hp, Fn, DBP, RBP, and TTR were selected to be reidentified by western blot analysis. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed DBP, RBP, and TTR to be down-regulated at mRNA levels in livers but not in lung tissues. The low serum concentrations of DBP, RBP, and TTR resulted in the up-regulation of 25(OH)D3, vitamin A, and FT4 (ligands of DBP, RBP, and TTR) after acute PE in rat models. The serum levels of Hp and Fn were detected in patients with DVT/PE and controls to explore their diagnostic prospects in acute PE because the mRNA levels of Hp and Fn were found to be up-regulated both in lung tissues and in livers after acute PE. Our data suggested that the concentration of serum Fn in controls was 79.42 +/- 31.57 microg/L, whereas that of PE/DVT patients was 554.43 +/- 136.18 microg/L (P < 0.001), and that the concentration of serum Hp in controls was 824.37 +/- 235.24 mg/L, whereas that of PE/DVT patients was 2063.48 +/- 425.38 mg/L (P < 0.001). The experimental PE rat model selected in this study was more similar to the clinical process than the other existing PE animal models, and the findings indicated instant changes of serum proteins within 48 h after acute PE. The exploration of these differentially expressed proteins or their combination with existent markers such as D-dimer may greatly improve the

  19. MGMT promoter methylation in serum and cerebrospinal fluid as a tumor-specific biomarker of glioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Yahong; Guo, Yang; Cong, Zheng; DU, Fangfang; Song, Bin

    2015-07-01

    O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is a conventional technique to predict the prognosis or individualized treatment of glioma in tumor tissue following surgery or biopsy. However, the technique cannot be applied in those glioma patients with concomitant neurological dysfunctions or advanced age. The present study aimed to find a new minimally invasive and efficient alternative method for the detection of MGMT promoter methylation. The expression of MGMT promoter methylation was assessed in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and compared to the corresponding tumor tissue from glioma patients. The 89 patients in the study [32 World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, 19 WHO grade III and 38 WHO grade IV) were pathologically-diagnosed glioma and received radiation therapy following sample collection. The resected glioma tumor tissue (89), corresponding serum (89) and CSF (78) samples were collected for the detection of MGMT promoter methylation using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting MGMT promoter methylation in CSF and serum were compared. Among the tumor tissue samples, 51/89 (57.3%) showed MGMT promoter methylation. The specificity of the detection in the CSF and serum samples reached 100%. The sensitivity of MGMT promoter methylation detection in CSF and serum were 26/40 (65.0%) and 19/51 (37.3%), respectively (P<0.05). In the WHO II, III and IV subgroups, the sensitivities of MGMT promoter methylation detection using CSF were 8/12 (66.7%), 11/18 (61.1%) and 7/10 (70.0%), respectively, which were significantly higher than the sensitivities using serum (7/21, 33.3%; 7/19, 36.8%; and 5/11, 45.5%, respectively P<0.05). Among patients with residual postoperative tumors, the sensitivities of detecting MGMT promoter methylation using CSF and serum were 18/25 (72.0%) and 10/24 (41.7%), respectively, both of which were significantly higher than the corresponding

  20. Serum and synovial fluid lipidomic profiles predict obesity-associated osteoarthritis, synovitis, and wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lung; Kimmerling, Kelly A.; Little, Dianne; Guilak, Farshid

    2017-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) and diminished wound healing. The objective of this study was to determine the associations among serum and synovial fluid lipid levels with OA, synovitis, adipokine levels, and wound healing in a pre-clinical obese mouse model of OA. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a low-fat (10% kcal) or one of three high-fat (HF, 60% kcal) diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), ω-6 or ω-3 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs). OA was induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus. Mice also received an ear punch for evaluating wound healing. Serum and synovial fluid were collected for lipidomic and adipokine analyses. We demonstrated that the serum levels of ω-3 PUFAs were negatively correlated with OA and wound size, but positively correlated with adiponectin levels. In contrast, most ω-6 PUFAs exhibited positive correlations with OA, impaired healing, and inflammatory adipokines. Interestingly, levels of pentadecylic acid (C15:0, an odd-chain SFA) and palmitoleic acid were inversely correlated with joint degradation. This study extends our understanding of the links of FAs with OA, synovitis and wound healing, and reports newly identified serum and synovial fluid FAs as predictive biomarkers of OA in obesity. PMID:28317846

  1. Interrelationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and lipid profiles in premenopausal Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pinal A.; Patel, Prerna P.; Mughal, Zulf; Padidela, Raja; Patel, Ashish D.; Patwardhan, Vivek; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide, and observational studies have associated it with an atherogenic lipid profile. Aim: To determine the interrelationship between Vitamin D and lipid profile in apparently healthy premenopausal Indian women, considering confounding factors such as lifestyle that independently influence lipids. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty healthy premenopausal women (20–45 year) were recruited from Gujarat, India. Data were collected on anthropometry, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and diet. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D), parathyroid hormone, and lipid profile. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive correlation between serum 25[OH]D concentrations and serum lipids. Results: Ninety-three percent women showed Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25[OH]D < 20 ng/ml). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations showed significant inverse correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r = −0.202, P = 0.027), triglycerides (TG) (r = −0.284, P = 0.002), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = −0.184, P = 0.044) and positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.250, P = 0.006). On dichotomizing the population according to median 25(OH)D concentration (11.1 ng/dl), no significant differences were observed between the groups for anthropometry, sunlight exposure, and lifestyle. Serum lipid profiles were significantly different, above median serum 25(OH)D concentration group showed favorable serum lipids (TC: 179.3 ± 30 vs. 191.8 ± 31.7 mg/dl; TG: 140 ± 39.1 vs. 165.5 ± 53.4 mg/dl; LDL-C: 100 ± 30.2 vs. 112 ± 32 mg/dl; HDL-C: 53 ± 14 vs. 47.6 ± 9.3 mg/dl)(P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that association of 25(OH)D concentrations with lipid profile even after considering lifestyle factors which independently influence lipids

  2. Serum Metabolic Profiling Reveals Altered Metabolic Pathways in Patients with Post-traumatic Cognitive Impairments.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lunzhao; Shi, Shuting; Wang, Yang; Huang, Wei; Xia, Zi-an; Xing, Zhihua; Peng, Weijun; Wang, Zhe

    2016-02-17

    Cognitive impairment, the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related disability, adversely affects the quality of life of TBI patients, and exacts a personal and economic cost that is difficult to quantify. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is currently unknown, and an effective treatment of the disease has not yet been identified. This study aimed to advance our understanding of the mechanism of disease pathogenesis; thus, metabolomics based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), coupled with multivariate and univariate statistical methods were used to identify potential biomarkers and the associated metabolic pathways of post-TBI cognitive impairment. A biomarker panel consisting of nine serum metabolites (serine, pyroglutamic acid, phenylalanine, galactose, palmitic acid, arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, citric acid, and 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyrate) was identified to be able to discriminate between TBI patients with cognitive impairment, TBI patients without cognitive impairment and healthy controls. Furthermore, associations between these metabolite markers and the metabolism of amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates were identified. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify several serum metabolite markers and investigate the altered metabolic pathway that is associated with post-TBI cognitive impairment. These markers appear to be suitable for further investigation of the disease mechanisms of post-TBI cognitive impairment.

  3. Serum Metabolic Profiling Reveals Altered Metabolic Pathways in Patients with Post-traumatic Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lunzhao; Shi, Shuting; Wang, Yang; Huang, Wei; Xia, Zi-an; Xing, Zhihua; Peng, Weijun; Wang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related disability, adversely affects the quality of life of TBI patients, and exacts a personal and economic cost that is difficult to quantify. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is currently unknown, and an effective treatment of the disease has not yet been identified. This study aimed to advance our understanding of the mechanism of disease pathogenesis; thus, metabolomics based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), coupled with multivariate and univariate statistical methods were used to identify potential biomarkers and the associated metabolic pathways of post-TBI cognitive impairment. A biomarker panel consisting of nine serum metabolites (serine, pyroglutamic acid, phenylalanine, galactose, palmitic acid, arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, citric acid, and 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyrate) was identified to be able to discriminate between TBI patients with cognitive impairment, TBI patients without cognitive impairment and healthy controls. Furthermore, associations between these metabolite markers and the metabolism of amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates were identified. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify several serum metabolite markers and investigate the altered metabolic pathway that is associated with post-TBI cognitive impairment. These markers appear to be suitable for further investigation of the disease mechanisms of post-TBI cognitive impairment. PMID:26883691

  4. Haptoglobin serum concentration is a suitable biomarker to assess the efficacy of a feed additive in pigs.

    PubMed

    Saco, Y; Fraile, L; Giménez, M; Pato, R; Montoya, M; Bassols, A

    2010-09-01

    Levels of haptoglobin and Pig-major acute phase protein (MAP) were analysed in animals from a commercial herd receiving or not a diet enriched with an additive. The group receiving the additive exhibited a decrease in haptoglobin after 3 weeks, suggesting that a better health status has been established, together with an improvement in total body weight and average daily gain. In contrast, Pig-MAP does not significantly change under these conditions. Aujeszky live modified vaccination, which is compulsory in Spain, did cause a significant increment in haptoglobin serum concentration although it did not affect Pig-MAP. The response of acute phase proteins to vaccination was similar in both control and additive-treated groups. Interleukins (IL)-1β and IL-6 was below the detection limits in most of the animals. In conclusion, this study shows that haptoglobin serum concentration, but not Pig-MAP, is a good biomarker to monitorize production parameters and for monitoring Aujeszky modified live vaccine in pigs reared under standard commercial conditions.

  5. Serum Procalcitonin and Procalcitonin Clearance as a Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min-Yi; Chen, Chun-Yu; Chien, Ju-Huei; Wu, Kun-Hsi; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the tendency of the plasma concentration and procalcitonin (PCT) clearance (PCTc) to act as biomarkers of prognosis in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. From 2011 to 2013, we prospectively analyzed patients with sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The serum PCT was evaluated at the time of sepsis diagnosis and again after 48 h (day 3) and 96 h (day 5). PCTc after 48 h (PCTc-day 3) and 96 h (PCTc-day 5) was also calculated to evaluate the prognostic value for survival in patients with sepsis. A total of 48 patients were included. Overall mortality was 16.7% (8 patients). PCTc was higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors, with significant differences on day 3 and day 5 (p = 0.033; p = 0.002, resp.); however, serum PCT levels on day 1, day 3, and day 5 were not significant prognostic factors for survival. The prognosis of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock may be associated with PCTc. Dynamic changes of PCT reflected as PCTc at 48 h (day 3) and 96 h (day 5) after admission to the ICU may serve as a predictor of survival in critically ill patients with severe sepsis.

  6. Serum Procalcitonin and Procalcitonin Clearance as a Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min-Yi; Chen, Chun-Yu; Chien, Ju-Huei; Wu, Kun-Hsi; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the tendency of the plasma concentration and procalcitonin (PCT) clearance (PCTc) to act as biomarkers of prognosis in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. From 2011 to 2013, we prospectively analyzed patients with sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The serum PCT was evaluated at the time of sepsis diagnosis and again after 48 h (day 3) and 96 h (day 5). PCTc after 48 h (PCTc-day 3) and 96 h (PCTc-day 5) was also calculated to evaluate the prognostic value for survival in patients with sepsis. A total of 48 patients were included. Overall mortality was 16.7% (8 patients). PCTc was higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors, with significant differences on day 3 and day 5 (p = 0.033; p = 0.002, resp.); however, serum PCT levels on day 1, day 3, and day 5 were not significant prognostic factors for survival. The prognosis of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock may be associated with PCTc. Dynamic changes of PCT reflected as PCTc at 48 h (day 3) and 96 h (day 5) after admission to the ICU may serve as a predictor of survival in critically ill patients with severe sepsis. PMID:27088084

  7. The usefulness of biomarkers of alcohol abuse in hair and serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Giovanni, Nadia; Cittadini, Francesca; Martello, Simona

    2015-08-01

    The detection of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in serum is widely accepted to identify chronic alcohol consumption over the previous two weeks, but minor ethanol metabolites detected in hair often complete the information obtained. In particular, ethylglucuronide and cocaethylene (a marker of simultaneous intake of cocaine and alcohol) allow correct interpretation of data obtained in forensic cases. We refer to a negative CDT value obtained from a serum sample collected during hospitalization of a man admitted for cardiac arrest who died about 14 h later. Clinical analysis performed on admission showed a high ethanol level and a positive urinary screening for cocaine. The toxicological analyses of post-mortem samples found cocaine metabolites in his urine and blood. The negative CDT level suggested the ethanol concentration at admission to be an acute episode. Cocaine and cocaethylene well above the cut-off suggested by the literature were found in hair analyzed for the entire length (about 1 cm). Ethylglucuronide detected on the same hair sample confirmed chronic abuse of ethanol in the previous month, at least. The present report suggests caution in the interpretation of biomarkers of alcohol abuse, encouraging the detection of more than one marker to avoid misinterpretation.

  8. miRNA profiling of circulating EpCAM+ extracellular vesicles: promising biomarkers of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Jensen, Steffen Grann; Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Christensen, Lise-Lotte; Thorsen, Stine Buch; Stenvang, Jan; Hvam, Michael Lykke; Thomsen, Anni; Mouritzen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads Heilskov; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells secrete small membranous extracellular vesicles (EVs) into their microenvironment and circulation. These contain biomolecules, including proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs). Both circulating EVs and miRNAs have received much attention as biomarker candidates for non-invasive diagnostics. Here we describe a sensitive analytical method for isolation and subsequent miRNA profiling of epithelial-derived EVs from blood samples of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The epithelial-derived EVs were isolated by immunoaffinity-capture using the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) as marker. This approach mitigates some of the specificity issues observed in earlier studies of circulating miRNAs, in particular the negative influence of miRNAs released by erythrocytes, platelets and non-epithelial cells. By applying this method to 2 small-scale patient cohorts, we showed that blood plasma isolated from CRC patients prior to surgery contained elevated levels of 13 EpCAM+-EV miRNAs compared with healthy individuals. Upon surgical tumour removal, the plasma levels of 8 of these were reduced (miR-16-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-23b-3p, miR-27a-3p, miR-27b-3p, miR-30b-5p, miR-30c-5p and miR-222-3p). These findings indicate that the miRNAs are of tumour origin and may have potential as non-invasive biomarkers for detection of CRC. This work describes a non-invasive blood-based method for sensitive detection of cancer with potential for clinical use in relation to diagnosis and screening. We used the method to study CRC; however, it is not restricted to this disease. It may in principle be used to study any cancer that release epithelial-derived EVs into circulation. PMID:27576678

  9. Estimation of Salivary and Serum Biomarkers in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Patients - A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ladgotra, Amit; Raj, Seetharamaiah Sunder

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Blood is the gold standard body fluid for diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) but saliva offers an alternative to serum as a biological fluid for diagnostic purposes because it contains serum constituents. Aim The study was conducted to estimate and compare serum and salivary glucose, amylase, proteins, calcium and phosphorus levels in DM and healthy subjects and to evaluate whether saliva can be used as a diagnostic fluid in DM patients. Materials and Methods Study consisted of 120 subjects from OPD of Surendera Dental College, Sriganganagar, Rajasthan, India. The study groups were divided into Group I-60 DM patients (Type I & II) and Group II-60 healthy subjects. The saliva and serum samples were collected from each subject and levels of different biochemical parameters were estimated. Results Mean serum level of glucose (211.50 ± 43.82), amylase (79.86 ± 16.23), total proteins (6.65 ± 0.84), calcium (7.17 ± 0.91) and phosphorus (3.68±0.65) as observed in Group I while in Group II, glucose (88.81±11.29), amylase (77.67±14.88), total proteins (6.35±0.76), calcium (7.52±0.97) and phosphorus (3.96 ± 0.91) were noted. Mean salivary level of glucose (14.10±6.99), amylase (1671.42±569.86), total proteins (1.33±1.11), calcium (10.06±2.76) and phosphorus (13.75±4.45) as observed in Group I while in Group II, glucose (5.87± 2.42), amylase (1397.59 ±415.97), total proteins (1.36±0.81), calcium (7.73±2.78) and phosphorus (8.39 ± 1.95) were noted. On comparing values in saliva and serum, among two groups, an insignificant difference (p>0.005) was found between few of them. Conclusion Values regarding blood and salivary biochemical parameters were distinctly different between two groups suggesting salivary parameters can be used as a diagnostic alternative to blood parameters for diabetes mellitus. PMID:27504412

  10. Altered exhaled biomarker profiles in children during and after rhinovirus-induced wheeze.

    PubMed

    van der Schee, Marc P; Hashimoto, Simone; Schuurman, Annemarie C; van Driel, Janine S Repelaer; Adriaens, Nora; van Amelsfoort, Romy M; Snoeren, Tessa; Regenboog, Martine; Sprikkelman, Aline B; Haarman, Eric G; van Aalderen, Wim M C; Sterk, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Preschool rhinovirus-induced wheeze is associated with an increased risk of asthma. In adult asthma, exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) are associated with inflammatory activity. We therefore hypothesised that acute preschool wheeze is accompanied by a differential profile of exhaled VOC, which is maintained after resolution of symptoms in those children with rhinovirus-induced wheeze. We included 178 children (mean±sd age 22±9 months) from the EUROPA cohort comparing asymptomatic and wheezing children during respiratory symptoms and after recovery. Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs were tested for rhinovirus by quantitative PCR. Breath was collected via a spacer and analysed using an electronic nose. Between-group discrimination was assessed by constructing a 1000-fold cross-validated receiver operating characteristic curve. Analyses were stratified by rhinovirus presence/absence. Wheezing children demonstrated a different VOC profile when compared with asymptomatic children (p<0.001), regardless of the presence (area under the curve (AUC) 0.77, 95% CI 0.07) or absence (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.05) of rhinovirus. After symptomatic recovery, discriminative accuracy was maintained in children with rhinovirus-induced wheeze (AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.06), whereas it dropped significantly in infants with non-rhinovirus-induced wheeze (AUC 0.67, 95% CI 0.06). Exhaled molecular profiles differ between preschool children with and without acute respiratory wheeze. This appears to be sustained in children with rhinovirus-induced wheeze after resolution of symptoms. Therefore, exhaled VOC may qualify as candidate biomarkers for early signs of asthma.

  11. Gene expression profiling of human neural progenitor cells following the serum-induced astrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Shinya; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Kim, Seung U; Satoh, Jun-ichi

    2009-05-01

    Neural stem cells (NSC) with self-renewal and multipotent properties could provide an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat spinal cord injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the majority of transplanted NSC and neural progenitor cells (NPC) differentiate into astrocytes in vivo under pathological environments in the central nervous system, which potentially cause reactive gliosis. Because the serum is a potent inducer of astrocyte differentiation of rodent NPC in culture, we studied the effect of the serum on gene expression profile of cultured human NPC to identify the gene signature of astrocyte differentiation of human NPC. Human NPC spheres maintained in the serum-free culture medium were exposed to 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 72 h, and processed for analyzing on a Whole Human Genome Microarray of 41,000 genes, and the microarray data were validated by real-time RT-PCR. The serum elevated the levels of expression of 45 genes, including ID1, ID2, ID3, CTGF, TGFA, METRN, GFAP, CRYAB and CSPG3, whereas it reduced the expression of 23 genes, such as DLL1, DLL3, PDGFRA, SOX4, CSPG4, GAS1 and HES5. Thus, the serum-induced astrocyte differentiation of human NPC is characterized by a counteraction of ID family genes on Delta family genes. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis identified ID1 as a direct binding partner of a proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor MASH1. Luciferase assay indicated that activation of the DLL1 promoter by MASH1 was counteracted by ID1. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) elevated the levels of ID1 and GFAP expression in NPC under the serum-free culture conditions. Because the serum contains BMP4, these results suggest that the serum factor(s), most probably BMP4, induces astrocyte differentiation by upregulating the expression of ID family genes that repress the proneural bHLH protein-mediated Delta expression in human NPC.

  12. Serum citrulline as a biomarker of gastrointestinal function during hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in children

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Kerri B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Sonis, Andrew L.; Bechard, Lori J.; Kellogg, Mark D.; Gura, Kathleen; Venick, Robert; Gordon, Catherine M.; Guinan, Eva C.; Duggan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine if serum citrulline (CIT), an amino acid produced by small bowel enterocytes, was associated with clinical and biochemical markers of gastrointestinal function in children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Methods We conducted a multi-center, prospective cohort study of 26 children to define time-related changes in serum CIT over the course of HCT. Markers of gastrointestinal function including oral energy intake, emesis, stool volume, presence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), oral mucositis severity, and cytokine and neurohormone levels were measured. Weekly serum CIT concentrations were obtained from 10 days prior until 30 days after HCT. Results Mean baseline CIT concentration was 22.7 µmol/L (95% CI 17.7 – 27.6) on day −10, which decreased to a nadir of 7.5 µmol/L (95% CI 3.1 – 18.0, p = 0.017) on day +8 following HCT before returning to baseline by day 30. After adjustment for IL-6 level (1.0% lower CIT per 10% increase in IL-6, p=0.004), presence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), (27% lower CIT, p=0.025) and oral energy intake (2.1% lower CIT per 10% decrease in energy intake, p=0.018), the nadir shifted to day +10, when mean CIT concentration was lower in patients with severe oral mucositis (6.7 µmol/L, 95% CI 3.4–13.1) than in those without severe mucositis (11.9 µmol/L, 95% CI 5.8–24.4, p=0.003). Change in CIT was not correlated with stool volume, C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha, leptin, or ghrelin. Conclusion In children undergoing HCT, serum CIT correlates with measures of gastrointestinal function (oral mucositis severity, dietary intake, acute GVHD) and may reflect mucosal injury to the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24614125

  13. Identification of Sensitive Serum microRNA Biomarkers for Radiation Biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Naduparambil Korah; Cooley, James V.; Yee, Tamara N.; Jacob, Jidhin; Alder, Hansjuerg; Wickramasinghe, Priyankara; Maclean, Kirsteen H.; Chakravarti, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation through environmental, occupational or a nuclear reactor accident such as the recent Fukushima Daiichi incident often results in major consequences to human health. The injury caused by radiation can manifest as acute radiation syndromes within weeks in organs with proliferating cells such as hematopoietic and gastrointestinal systems. Cancers, fibrosis and degenerative diseases are also reported in organs with differentiated cells, months or years later. Studies conducted on atom bomb survivors, nuclear reactor workers and animal models have shown a direct correlation of these effects with the absorbed dose. Physical dosimeters and the available radio-responsive biologics in body fluids, whose responses are rather indirect, have limitations to accurately evaluate the extent of post exposure damage. We have used an amplification-free, hybridization based quantitative assay utilizing the nCounter multiplex platform developed by nanoString Technologies to compare the levels of over 600 miRNAs in serum from mice irradiated at a range of 1 to 12 Gy at 24 and 48 hr time points. Development of a novel normalization strategy using multiple spike-in oligonucleotides allowed accurate measurement of radiation dose and time dependent changes in serum miRNAs. The response of several evolutionarily conserved miRNAs abundant in serum, were found to be robust and sensitive in the dose range relevant for medical triage and in patients who receive total body radiation as preparative regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Notably, miRNA-150, abundant in lymphocytes, exhibited a dose and time dependent decrease in serum, which we propose as a sensitive marker indicative of lymphocyte depletion and bone marrow damage. Our study has identified several markers useful for evaluation of an individual’s response by minimally invasive methods, relevant to triage in case of a radiation accident and evaluation of toxicity and response during and after

  14. Serum protein profiling of adults and children with Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Vaiopoulou, Anna; Gazouli, Maria; Papadopoulou, Aggeliki; Anagnostopoulos, Athanassios K; Karamanolis, George; Theodoropoulos, George E.; M’Koma, Amosy; Tsangaris, George T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), known collectively as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic immuno-inflammatory pathologies of unknown etiology. Despite the frequent utilization of biomarkers in medical practice, there is a relative lack of information regarding validated paediatric biomarkers for IBD. Further, biomarkers proved to be efficacious in adults are frequently extrapolated to the paediatric clinical setting without considering that the pathogenesis of many diseases is distinctly different in children. In the current study, proteomics technology was employed in order to monitor differences in protein expression among adult and children CD patients, in order to identify a panel of candidate protein biomarkers that might be used to improve prognostic-diagnostic accuracy and to advance paediatric medical care. Methods Male and female serum samples from 12 adults and 12 children with active CD were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Following the relative quantitation of protein spots exhibiting a differential expression between the two groups by densitometry, the spots were further characterized by MALDI-TOF-MS. Results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results Clusterin (CLUS) was found to be significantly over-expressed in adults with CD, whereas ceruloplasmin (CERU) and apolipoprotein B-100 (APOB) were found to be significantly over-expressed in children indicating that the expression of these proteins might be implicated in the onset or progression of CD in these two sub-groups of patients. Conclusions Interestingly, we found a differential expression of several proteins in adults versus paediatric CD patients. Undoubtedly, future experiments using a larger cohort of CD patients are needed to evaluate the relevance of our preliminary findings. PMID:25250685

  15. Serum microRNAs are non-invasive biomarkers for the presence and progression of subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Nian-sheng; Zhang, Jia-qi; Qin, Fei-yun; Sheng, Bin; Fang, Xing-gen

    2017-01-01

    miRNAs are important regulators of translation and have been associated with the pathogenesis of a number of cardiovascular diseases including stroke and may be possible prognostic biomarkers. The purpose of the present study was to determine the expression levels of miRNAs in the sera of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients and to evaluate their relationships with the severity and clinical outcome of SAH. Serum samples on day 3 after the onset of SAH were subjected to microarray analysis with Exqion miRCURYTM LNA array and quantitative PCR analysis. Serum samples from SAH patients (n=60) and healthy controls (n=10) were subjected to quantitative PCR analysis. The severities and clinical outcomes of the SAH patients were evaluated with the WFNS grade and the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Three miRNAs, miR-502-5p, miR-1297 and miR-4320 were significantly up-regulated in the sera of SAH patients when compared with the healthy controls. The serum miR-502-5p and miR-1297 levels were significantly higher in the patients with severe SAH and a poor outcome than in those with mild SAH and a good outcome (P<0.05). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUCs) of miR-502-5p, miR-1297 and miR-4320 to distinguish the SAH patients from the healthy controls were 0.958 (P<0.001), 0.950 (P<0.001) and 0.843 (P<0.001) respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-502-5p and miR-1297 are potentially valuable indicators of the diagnosis, severity and prognosis of SAH, and miR-4320 was a potentially valuable indicator of the diagnosis of SAH. PMID:28115593

  16. Serum albumin and body weight as biomarkers for the antemortem identification of bone and gastrointestinal disease in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Victoria K; Shaw, Gillian C; Sotuyo, Nathaniel P; Carlson, Cathy S; Olson, Erik J; Zink, M Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L; Adams, Robert J; Hutchinson, Eric K; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in research makes it important to diagnose spontaneous disease that may confound experimental studies. Bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are two major causes of morbidity and mortality in captive marmosets, but currently no effective antemortem tests are available to identify affected animals prior to the terminal stage of disease. In this study we propose that bone disease and gastrointestinal disease are associated disease entities in marmosets and aim to establish the efficacy of several economical antemortem tests in identifying and predicting disease. Tissues from marmosets were examined to define affected animals and unaffected controls. Complete blood count, serum chemistry values, body weight, quantitative radiographs, and tissue-specific biochemical markers were evaluated as candidate biomarkers for disease. Bone and gastrointestinal disease were associated, with marmosets being over seven times more likely to have either concurrent bone and gastrointestinal disease or neither disease as opposed to lesions in only one organ system. When used in tandem, serum albumin <3.5 g/dL and body weight <325 g identified 100% of the marmosets affected with concurrent bone and gastrointestinal disease. Progressive body weight loss of 0.05% of peak body weight per day predicted which marmosets would develop disease prior to the terminal stage. Bone tissue-specific tests, such as quantitative analysis of radiographs and serum parathyroid hormone levels, were effective for distinguishing between marmosets with bone disease and those without. These results provide an avenue for making informed decisions regarding the removal of affected marmosets from studies in a timely manner, preserving the integrity of research results.

  17. Serum cytokine and chemokine profiles in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Minako; Sawai, Setsu; Misawa, Sonoko; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Mori, Masahiro; Ishige, Takayuki; Satoh, Mamoru; Nomura, Fumio; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-02-15

    To identify serum cytokine networks specific to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), serum samples of two subgroups (18 patients with typical CIDP and 12 patients with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy [MADSAM]) were analyzed with multiplex magnetic bead-based cytokine assay. TNF-α, HGF, MIP-1β and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in total CIDP patients than in normal controls. Of these, HGF levels were elevated in typical CIDP patients, but not in MADSAM patients. Patients with high HGF levels showed good responses to steroid treatment. Different cytokine profiles among the CIDP subtypes presumably reflect differences in pathophysiology.

  18. Acute Phase Response, Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers of Libby Asbestos Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. Objective: We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help ...

  19. Serum Beta 2-Microglobulin/Cystatin C Index: A Useful Biomarker in Lupus Nephritis?

    PubMed Central

    Madureira Silva, Marcus Vinicius; Moscoso-Solorzano, Grace T.; Nishida, Sonia K.; Mastroianni-Kirsztajn, Gianna

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease with frequent flares. Our aim was to evaluate the beta 2-microglobulin/cystatin C (β2M/CysC) index versus other markers as a predictor factor for assessment of SLE reactivation. Methods We prospectively analyzed 42 patients with lupus nephritis. Disease activity was classified using SLEDAI-2K and BILAG. Routine renal function and laboratory markers of SLE activity were performed, as well as serum β2M (Sβ2M)/serum CysC (SCysC) and Sβ2M/serum creatinine (SCreat) indexes determinations. Results The 42 enrolled patients had a mean age of 37.7 ± 13.1 years, 88% were female and 67% Caucasians; mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 61.9 ± 20.0 ml/min/1.73 m2. There was a strong correlation between SCreat versus SCysC (r = 0.887), SCreat versus Sβ2M (r = 0.865), and SCysC versus Sβ2M (r = 0.880). Multivariate analysis showed that the Sβ2M/SCreat index is a prognostic factor predicting active lupus nephritis. Conclusion As SCysC is a good marker of renal function, it would be expected that the Sβ2M/SCysC index could be a better indicator of renal activity than Sβ2M/SCreat, but in the present study it did not add relevant clinical information in the assessment of renal activity in SLE. PMID:22811690

  20. Quantification of a Cardiac Biomarker in Human Serum Using Extraordinary Optical Transmission (EOT)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Tao; Hong, Minghui; Richards, A. Mark; Wong, Ten It; Zhou, Xiaodong; Drum, Chester Lee

    2015-01-01

    Nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) is a manufacturing process that can produce macroscale surface areas with nanoscale features. In this paper, this technique is used to solve three fundamental issues for the application of localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) in practical clinical measurements: assay sensitivity, chip-to-chip variance, and the ability to perform assays in human serum. Using NIL, arrays of 140 nm square features were fabricated on a sensing area of 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm with low cost. The high reproducibility of NIL allowed for the use of a one-chip, one-measurement approach with 12 individually manufactured surfaces with minimal chip-to-chip variations. To better approximate a real world setting, all chips were modified with a biocompatible, multi-component monolayer and inter-chip variability was assessed by measuring a bioanalyte standard (2.5−75 ng/ml) in the presence of a complex biofluid, human serum. In this setting, nanoimprinted LSPR chips were able to provide sufficient characteristics for a ‘low-tech’ approach to laboratory-based bioanalyte measurement, including: 1) sufficient size to interface with a common laboratory light source and detector without the need for a microscope, 2) high sensitivity in serum with a cardiac troponin limit of detection of 0.55 ng/ml, and 3) very low variability in chip manufacturing to produce a figure of merit (FOM) of 10.5. These findings drive LSPR closer to technical comparability with ELISA-based assays while preserving the unique particularities of a LSPR based sensor, suitability for multiplexing and miniaturization, and point-of-care detections. PMID:25774658

  1. Metabolomic profiling for identification of potential biomarkers in the protective effects of modified Sinisan against liver injury in dimethylnitrosamine treated rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Li; Du, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, De-You; Geng, Nai-Zhi; Zhang, Shuo-Xin; Zhou, Yuan-Yuan; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics is a new platform based on the comprehensive analysis of low molecular weight metabolites and provides a powerful approach to discover biomarkers in biological systems. Modified Sinisan (MSNS), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, displayed bright prospects in the prevention and therapy of liver injury. However, its molecular mechanism of hepatoprotective effects remains unclear. This paper was designed to explore the effects and potential mechanisms of MSNS against dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury. Global metabolic profiling was performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS) in conjunction with multivariate data analysis and pathway analysis. Eleven serum biomarkers were identified and pathway analysis results showed that phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, retinol metabolism, tyrosine metabolism were perturbed by liver injury. More importantly, MSNS has showed satisfactory pharmacological effect on liver injury through partially regulating the perturbed pathways, correlates well to the biochemical and histopathological detection results. The present study proved that the robust metabolomics approach is promising for unraveling hepatoprotective effects of MSNS and these findings provide new insights into mechanisms of the liver injury, and its pathophysiologic processes.

  2. Human Xeno-autoantibodies Against a Non-human Sialic acid Serve As Novel Serum Biomarkers and Immunotherapeutics in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Padler-Karavani, Vered; Hurtado-Ziola, Nancy; Pu, Minya; Yu, Hai; Huang, Shengshu; Muthana, Saddam; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Cao, Hongzhi; Secrest, Patrick; Friedmann-Morvinski, Dinorah; Singer, Oded; Ghaderi, Darius; Verma, Inder M.; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Messer, Karen; Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit; Schwab, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Human carcinomas can metabolically incorporate and present the dietary non-human sialic acid Neu5Gc, which differs from the human sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) by one oxygen atom. Tumor-associated Neu5Gc can interact with low levels of circulating anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, thereby facilitating tumor progression via chronic inflammation in a human-like Neu5Gc-deficient mouse model. Here we show that human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies can be affinity-purified in substantial amounts from clinically-approved intravenous IgG (IVIG) and used at higher concentrations to suppress growth of the same Neu5Gc-expressing tumors. Hypothesizing that this polyclonal spectrum of human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies also includes potential cancer biomarkers, we then characterize them in cancer and non-cancer patients’ sera, using a novel sialoglycan-microarray presenting multiple Neu5Gc-glycans and control Neu5Ac-glycans. Antibodies against Neu5Gcα2–6GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr (GcSTn) were found to be more prominent in patients with carcinomas than with other diseases. This unusual epitope arises from dietary Neu5Gc incorporation into the carcinoma marker Sialyl-Tn, and is the first example of such a novel mechanism for biomarker generation. Finally, human serum or purified antibodies rich in anti-GcSTn-reactivity kill GcSTn-expressing human tumors via complement-dependent-cytotoxicity or antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity. Such xeno-autoantibodies and xenoautoantigens have potential for novel diagnostics, prognostics and therapeutics in human carcinomas. PMID:21505105

  3. Serum Proteomic Signature of Human Chagasic Patients for the Identification of Novel Potential Protein Biomarkers of Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jian-Jun; Zago, M. Paola; Nuñez, Sonia; Gupta, Shivali; Burgos, Federico Nuñez; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is initiated upon infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the health consequences is a decline in heart function, and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this manifestation are not well understood. To explore the possible mechanisms, we employed IgY LC10 affinity chromatography in conjunction with ProteomeLab PF2D and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to resolve the proteome signature of high and low abundance serum proteins in chagasic patients. MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis yielded 80 and 14 differentially expressed proteins associated with cardiomyopathy of chagasic and other etiologies, respectively. The extent of oxidative stress-induced carbonyl modifications of the differentially expressed proteins (n = 26) was increased and coupled with a depression of antioxidant proteins. Functional annotation of the top networks developed by ingenuity pathway analysis of proteome database identified dysregulation of inflammation/acute phase response signaling and lipid metabolism relevant to production of prostaglandins and arachidonic acid in chagasic patients. Overlay of the major networks identified prothrombin and plasminogen at a nodal position with connectivity to proteome signature indicative of heart disease (i.e., thrombosis, angiogenesis, vasodilatation of blood vessels or the aorta, and increased permeability of blood vessel and endothelial tubes), and inflammatory responses (e.g., platelet aggregation, complement activation, and phagocyte activation and migration). The detection of cardiac proteins (myosin light chain 2 and myosin heavy chain 11) and increased levels of vinculin and plasminogen provided a comprehensive set of biomarkers of cardiac muscle injury and development of clinical Chagas disease in human patients. These results provide an impetus for biomarker validation in large cohorts of clinically characterized chagasic patients. PMID:22543060

  4. Deep proteome profiling of circulating granulocytes reveals bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein as a biomarker for severe atherosclerotic coronary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bleijerveld, Onno B; Wijten, Patrick; Cappadona, Salvatore; McClellan, Elizabeth A; Polat, Ayse N; Raijmakers, Reinout; Sels, Jan-Willem; Colle, Loes; Grasso, Simona; van den Toorn, Henk W; van Breukelen, Bas; Stubbs, Andrew; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Heck, Albert J R; Hoefer, Imo E; Scholten, Arjen

    2012-11-02

    Coronary atherosclerosis represents the major cause of death in Western societies. As atherosclerosis typically progresses over years without giving rise to clinical symptoms, biomarkers are urgently needed to identify patients at risk. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated suggesting cross-talk between the diseased vasculature and cells of the innate immune system. We therefore employed proteomics to search for biomarkers associated with severe atherosclerotic coronary lumen stenosis in circulating leukocytes. In a two-phase approach, we first performed in-depth quantitative profiling of the granulocyte proteome on a small pooled cohort of patients suffering from chronic (sub)total coronary occlusion and matched control patients using stable isotope peptide labeling, two-dimensional LC-MS/MS and data-dependent decision tree fragmentation. Over 3000 proteins were quantified, among which 57 candidate biomarker proteins remained after stringent filtering. The most promising biomarker candidates were subsequently verified in the individual samples of the discovery cohort using label-free, single-run LC-MS/MS analysis, as well as in an independent verification cohort of 25 patients with total coronary occlusion (CTO) and 19 matched controls. Our data reveal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) as a promising biomarker for severe atherosclerotic coronary stenosis, being down-regulated in circulating granulocytes of CTO patients.

  5. Metabolic Profiling of Right Ventricular-Pulmonary Vascular Function Reveals Circulating Biomarkers of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gregory D.; Ngo, Debby; Hemnes, Anna R.; Farrell, Laurie; Domos, Carly; Pappagianopoulos, Paul P.; Dhakal, Bishnu P.; Souza, Amanda; Shi, Xu; Pugh, Meredith E.; Beloiartsev, Arkadi; Sinha, Sumita; Clish, Clary B.; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pulmonary hypertension and associated right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are important determinants of morbidity and mortality, which are optimally characterized by invasive hemodynamic measurements. OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine whether metabolite profiling could identify plasma signatures of right ventricular-pulmonary vascular (RV-PV) dysfunction. METHODS We measured plasma concentrations of 105 metabolites using targeted mass spectrometry in 71 individuals (discovery cohort) who underwent comprehensive physiological assessment with right-sided heart catheterization and radionuclide ventriculography at rest and during exercise. Our findings were validated in a second cohort undergoing invasive hemodynamic evaluations (n = 71), as well as in an independent cohort with or without known pulmonary arterial (PA) hypertension (n = 30). RESULTS In the discovery cohort, 21 metabolites were associated with 2 or more hemodynamic indicators of RV-PV function (i.e., resting right atrial pressure, mean PA pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance [PVR], and PVR and PA pressure-flow response [ΔPQ] during exercise). We identified novel associations of RV-PV dysfunction with circulating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)–dependent tryptophan metabolites (TMs), tricarboxylic acid intermediates, and purine metabolites and confirmed previously described associations with arginine–nitric oxide metabolic pathway constituents. IDO-TM levels were inversely related to RV ejection fraction and were particularly well correlated with exercise PVR and ΔPQ. Multisite sampling demonstrated transpulmonary release of IDO-TMs. IDO-TMs also identified RV-PV dysfunction in a validation cohort with known risk factors for pulmonary hypertension and in patients with established PA hypertension. CONCLUSIONS Metabolic profiling identified reproducible signatures of RV-PV dysfunction, highlighting both new biomarkers and pathways for further functional characterization. PMID

  6. Characterization of miRNAs expression profiles and identification of potential biomarkers in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Karina T O S; Souza, Renan P; Assis, Marieta T A; Araújo, Marcelo G; Locati, Massimo; Jesus, Amélia M R; Baptista, Ida M F D; Lima, Cristiano X; Teixeira, Antônio L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Soriani, Frederico M

    2017-03-08

    Leprosy is an important cause of disability in the developing world. Early diagnosis is essential to allow cure and interrupt transmission of this infection. MiRNAs are important factors for host-pathogen interaction and they have been identified as biomarkers for various infectious diseases. The expression profile of 377 microRNAs were analyzed by TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) in skin lesions of tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy patients, as well as skin specimens from healthy controls. In a second step, sixteen microRNAs were selected for validation experiments with qRT-PCR in skin samples from new individuals. Principal component analysis followed by logistic regression model and ROC curve analysis were performed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of selected miRNAs. Four patterns of differential expression were identified in TLDA experiment suggesting a diagnostic potential of miRNAs in leprosy. After validation experiments, a combination of four miRNAs (miR-101, miR-196b, miR-27b, miR-29c) was revealed as able to discriminate healthy control and leprosy patients with 80% sensitivity and 91% specificity. This set of miRNAs was also able to discriminate lepromatous and tuberculoid patients with sensitivity of 83% and 80% of specificity. In this work, it was possible to identify a set of miRNAs with good diagnostic potential for leprosy.

  7. Multiplatform molecular profiling identifies potentially targetable biomarkers in malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Gatalica, Zoran; Vranic, Semir; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Xiu, Joanne; Ocal, Idris Tolgay; McGill, John; Bender, Ryan P; Discianno, Erin; Schlum, Aaron; Sanati, Souzan; Palazzo, Juan; Reddy, Sandeep; Pockaj, Barbara

    2016-01-12

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare breast malignancy with sarcomatous overgrowth and with limited effective treatment options for recurrent and metastatic cases. Recent clinical trials indicated a potential for anti-angiogenic, anti-EGFR and immunotherapeutic approaches for patients with sarcomas, which led us to investigate these and other targetable pathways in malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. Thirty-six malignant phyllodes tumors (including 8 metastatic tumors with two cases having matched primary and metastatic tumors) were profiled using gene sequencing, gene copy number analysis, whole genome expression, and protein expression. Whole genome expression analysis demonstrated consistent over-expression of genes involved in angiogenesis including VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2, VCAM1, PDGFRA, and PTTG1. EGFR protein overexpression was observed in 26/27 (96%) of cases with amplification of the EGFR gene in 8/24 (33%) cases. Two EGFR mutations were identified including EGFRvIII and a presumed pathogenic V774M mutation, respectively. The most common pathogenic mutations included TP53 (50%) and PIK3CA (15%). Cases with matched primary and metastatic tumors harbored identical mutations in both sites (PIK3CA/KRAS and RB1 gene mutations, respectively). Tumor expression of PD-L1 immunoregulatory protein was observed in 3/22 (14%) of cases. Overexpression of molecular biomarkers of increased angiogenesis, EGFR and immune checkpoints provides novel targeted therapy options in malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast.

  8. Oxidative stress biomarkers and hormonal profile in human patients undergoing varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Hurtado de Catalfo, Graciela E; Ranieri-Casilla, Adalberto; Marra, Fernando A; de Alaniz, María J T; Marra, Carlos A

    2007-12-01

    The aetiology of varicocele is multifactorial although hormonal imbalance and oxidative stress play a key role in the progression of illness. No conclusive evidence has been presented previously, describing the changes in these two factors and the evolution of patients after varicocelectomy. Semen characteristics and hormonal profile were analysed in 36 infertile men with unilateral left varicocele and 33 age-paired controls (proved to be fertile men), after careful inclusion/exclusion selection criteria. Liposoluble and hydrosoluble antioxidants, oligoelements and enzyme activities of the antioxidant defence system were also determined in plasma and erythrocyte from antecubital and spermatic veins, and in spermatozoa. Data were compared between groups at different times before and after varicocelectomy. Decreased levels of liposoluble and hydrosoluble antioxidants and increased activities of the antioxidant defence system enzymes were observed in patients compared with controls. Varicocelectomy normalized this condition at different post-surgical times. Levels of Zn and Se in seminal plasma, protein carbonyls and fragmented DNA remained elevated up to 1 month after surgery. Luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone concentrations exhibited a biphasic behaviour while testosterone was diminished in patients but normalized soon after varicocelectomy. The results clearly demonstrate the link between the antioxidant defence system, hormonal status and semen characteristics along the post-varicocelectomy period. We suggest that oxidative biomarkers may be appropriate in controlling the evolution of post-varicocelectomy patients, and antioxidant supplementation may improve the clinical condition of infertile men with varicocele.

  9. Evaluation of pretreatment serum interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha as a potential biomarker for recurrence in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brailo, Vlaho; Vidovic-Juras, Danica; Vucicevic-Boras, Vanja; Milenovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 3 percent of all cancers with predominant occurrence in middle aged and elderly males. Tumour recurrence worsens disease prognosis and decreases quality of life in patients with OSCC. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) have been suggested to play a certain role in variety of tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of pretreatment serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels on tumour recurrence in patients with OSCC in order to identify potential biomarkers for the early detection of disease recurrence. Material and Methods The patients with newly diagnosed OSCC were treated and followed from the first visit from November 2006 until January 2008. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were measured. The records of the patients were re-examined in July 2012 and data were recorded about cancer characteristics and tumour recurrence. Disease free survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Serum IL-6 was shown as an independent risk factor for tumour recurrence. Conclusions Pretreatment serum IL-6 concentration may be a useful biomarker for identification of OSCC patients with increased risk of the disease recurrence. Key words: Serum IL-6, serum TNF-α, oral cancer, recurrence. PMID:25858079

  10. Proteomic study of serum using gel chromatography and MALDI-TOF MS reveals diagnostic biomarkers in male patients with liver-cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xin-Hua; Huang, He-Qing; Chen, Dong-Shi; Jin, Hong-Wei; Huang, Hui-Ying

    2007-03-01

    Human serum has been widely employed clinically for diagnosing various fatal diseases. However, the concentration of most proteins in human serum is too low to be directly measured using normal analytical methods. In order to obtain reliable analytical results from proteomic analysis of human serum, appropriate sample preparation is essential. A combined off-line analytical technique of gel chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully established to separate proteins for MS analysis. Using these combined techniques, 176 mass signal peaks of proteins/peptides were found in 6 of 18 fractions from normal male serum (NMS) in the presence of buffer consisting of NH4HCO3 and acetonitrile. A simple gel chromatography column packed with Sephadex G-50 removed most signal-suppressing compounds such as salts and high abundance proteins (HAP). The molecular mass to charge (m/z) ratios of differential peptides revealed in serum of male patient with liver-cancer (LCMPS) compared to NMS were 5365, 5644 and 6462, and these peptides can be used as biomarkers to clinically diagnose liver-cancer. The simple and convenient chromatographic method described here is not only superior to recently described HPLC separation for MS analysis, but also reveals many novel and significant serum biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of various diseases.

  11. Serum microRNA-17 functions as a prognostic biomarker in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai; Gao, Yong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Kun; Dai, Zhi-Peng; Xu, Dong; Liu, Wei; Li, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Zheng-Dong; Yang, Shu-Hua; Yang, Cao

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are a class of small noncoding RNA molecules that have important roles in regulating the expression of target genes associated with the development and progression of cancer. The majority of miRNAs are expressed in a highly tissue- and region-specific manner, and released into the bloodstream as a consequences of different diseases. Furthermore, altered levels of miRNAs have been observed in several diseases, including cancer. In the present study, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) demonstrated that circulating miR-17 levels were significantly upregulated in patients with osteosarcoma (OS) compared with healthy subjects. RT-qPCR also revealed that high levels of circulating miR-17 expression were inversely correlated with phosphatase and tensin homolog expression, which was identified as a target gene of miR-17 in OS tissues. Furthermore, the overall survival of patients with OS was shorter in those with high miR-17 expression compared with moderate and low expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that miR-17 may function as a useful diagnostic and prognosis biomarker or therapeutic target of OS. PMID:28105199

  12. Two of Them Do It Better: Novel Serum Biomarkers Improve Autoimmune Hepatitis Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cardaci, Angela; Rossi, Riccardo Lorenzo; Muratori, Luigi; Abrignani, Sergio; Bombaci, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Background Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disease of unknown aetiology and characterized by continuing hepatocellular inflammation and necrosis. Autoantibodies represent accessible markers to measure the adaptive immune responses in the clinical investigation. Protein microarrays have become an important tool to discriminate the disease state from control groups, even though there is no agreed-upon standard to analyze the results. Results In the present study 15 sera of patients with AIH and 78 healthy donors (HD) have been tested against 1626 proteins by an in house-developed array. Using a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) the resulting data interpretation led to the identification of both new and previously identified proteins. Two new proteins AHPA9419 and Chondroadherin precursor (UNQ9419 and CHAD, respectively), and previously identified candidates as well, have been confirmed in a validation phase by DELFIA assay using a new cohort of AIH patients. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was used for the evaluation of biomarker candidates. The sensitivity of each autoantigen in AIH ranged from 65 to 88%; moreover, when the combination of the two new autoantigens was analyzed, the sensitivity increased to 95%. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the detection of autoantibodies against the two autoantigens could improve the performance in discriminating AIH patients from control classes and in combination with previously identified autoantigens and they could be used in diagnostic/prognostic markers. PMID:26375394

  13. MicroRNA profiling in plasma or serum using quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marina C; Leitão, Ana Lúcia; Enguita, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important cellular modulators that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Circulating miRNAs present in human plasma or serum have recently become an emerging field in biomedical research, mostly due to its potential applications in the diagnosis and prognosis of several diseases. Although miRNA profiling in biofluids holds great promise, there are several challenges to overcome. Here, we present an experimental procedure for profiling miRNA in plasma or serum with high sensitivity and specificity using qRT-PCR. This method is also suitable for studying miRNAs in other body fluids or clinical samples that also contain low amounts of RNA.

  14. Discovering potential serological biomarker for chronic Hepatitis B Virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese population by MAL-associated serum glycoproteomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianhua; Liu, Denghe; Liu, Riqiang; Jiang, Hucong; Yan, Guoquan; Li, Wei; Sun, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Liu, Yinkun; Guo, Kun

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of current biomarkers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-related HCC, is limited. Recent progress in glycoproteomics has provided a novel platform for screening novel serological biomarkers of HCC. In this study, lectin affinity chromatography by Maackia amurensis lectin (MAL) and iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometric analysis were performed to enrich and identify the glycoprotein fractions in serum samples from HBV-related HCC patients and from healthy controls. Seventeen differential MAL-associated glycoproteins were identified. Among them, Galectin 3 binding protein (Gal-3BP) was selected for further evaluated by ELISA analysis and showed a high diagnostic potential of HBV-related HCC, with the AUC of 0.898 and a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 80.00%, 93.75% and 86.88%, respectively. Moreover, we constructed a predictive model through the combined use of serum Gal-3BP and Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP), which improved the sensitivity (from 87.5% to 95%), specificity (from 93.75% to 95%) and accuracy (from 90.63% to 95%) of diagnosing early HCC. These data suggested serum Gal-3BP level is a promising biomarker to identify HBV-related HCC and the combined use of serum Gal-3BP and AFP improves the diagnostic potential of HBV-HCC compared with AFP alone in current clinical practice. PMID:28079114

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum cytokine profiles in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lecendreux, Michel; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Cristol, Jean Paul; Blain, Hubert; Dupuy, Anne-Marie

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures provide strong support that narcolepsy-cataplexy is an immune-mediated disease. Only few serum cytokine studies with controversial results were performed in narcolepsy and none in the cerebrospinal fluid. We measured a panel of 12 cytokines by a proteomic approach in the serum of 35 patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy compared to 156 healthy controls, and in the cerebrospinal fluid of 34 patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy compared to 17 non-narcoleptic patients; and analyzed the effect of age, duration and severity of disease on the cytokine levels. After multiple adjustments we reported lower serum IL-2, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1 and EGF levels, and a tendency for higher IL-4 level in narcolepsy compared to controls. Significant differences were only found for IL-4 in cerebrospinal fluid, being higher in narcolepsy. Positive correlations were found in serum between IL-4, daytime sleepiness, and cataplexy frequency. The expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, VEGF, EGF, IL2, IL-1β, IFN-γ) in either serum or CSF was negatively correlated with disease severity and duration. No correlation was found for any specific cytokine in 18 of the patients with narcolepsy with peripheral and central samples collected the same day. Significant decreased pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles were found at peripheral and central levels in narcolepsy, together with a T helper 2/Th1 serum cytokine secretion imbalance. To conclude, we showed some evidence for alterations in the cytokine profile in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy compared to controls at peripheral and central levels, with the potential role of IL-4 and significant Th1/2 imbalance in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy.

  16. Circulating Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Spitali, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. Genetic and biochemical research over the years has characterized the cause, pathophysiology and development of the disease providing several potential therapeutic targets and/or biomarkers. High throughput – omic technologies have provided a comprehensive understanding of the changes occurring in dystrophic muscles. Murine and canine animal models have been a valuable source to profile muscles and body fluids, thus providing candidate biomarkers that can be evaluated in patients. This review will illustrate known circulating biomarkers that could track disease progression and response to therapy in patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We present an overview of the transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics and lipidomic biomarkers described in literature. We show how studies in muscle tissue have led to the identification of serum and urine biomarkers and we highlight the importance of evaluating biomarkers as possible surrogate endpoints to facilitate regulatory processes for new medicinal products. PMID:27858763

  17. 13C Natural Abundance in Serum Retinol Acts as a Biomarker for Increases in Dietary Provitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Julie A; Valentine, Ashley R; Hull, Angela K; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2009-01-01

    The natural isotopic composition of 13C and 12C in tissues is largely determined by the diet. Sources of provitamin A carotenoids (e.g., vegetables) typically have a lower 13C to 12C ratio (13C:12C) than preformed vitamin A sources (i.e., dairy and meat) from corn-fed animals, which are prevalent in the US. The 13C:12C of serum retinol (13C:12C-retinol) was evaluated as a biomarker for vegetable intake in a 3-mo dietary intervention designed to promote weight-loss by increased vegetable consumption or reduced calorie and fat intake. Subjects were 21–50 y of age with a BMI between 30–40 kg/m2 and were enrolled from one geographic area in the US. The high vegetable group (n = 20) was encouraged to increase daily vegetable and fruit consumption to 0.95 liter vegetables and 0.24–0.35 liter fruits. The caloric reduction group (n = 17) was encouraged to lower caloric intake by 500 kcal and consume ≤25% kcal from fat daily. Provided meals supplied 75–100% vegetable and fruit goals and 50–67% kcal and fat g per day. Carotenoid supplementation was discontinued by subjects during the study. Serum retinol and provitamin A carotenoid concentrations; intake of preformed vitamin A, provitamin A, and fat; and body weight, fat mass, and lean mass were analyzed for correlations to 13C:12C-retinol. 13C:12C-Retinol decreased in the vegetable group after intervention (P = 0.050) and the correlation with provitamin A intake was approaching significance (P = 0.079). 13C:12C-Retinol did not change in the caloric reduction group (P = 0.43). 13C:12C-Retinol changes with the vitamin A source in the diet and can be used as a biomarker for increases in dietary provitamin A vegetable intake. PMID:19116317

  18. Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency as decreased acyl-carnitine profile in serum.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bing; Li, Duoling; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yuying; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2015-06-01

    We report a case with late onset riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) characterized by decreased acyl-carnitine profile in serum which is consistent with primary systemic carnitine deficiency (CDSP) while just the contrary to a typical MADD. This patient complained with muscle weakness, muscle pain and intermittent vomiting, and was diagnosed as polymyositis, received prednisone therapy before consulted with us. Muscle biopsy revealed mild lipid storage. The findings of serum acyl-carnitines were consistent with CDSP manifesting as decreased free and total carnitines in serum. But oral L-carnitine supplementation was not very effective to this patient and mutation analysis of the SLC22A5 gene for CDSP was normal. Later, another acyl-carnitine analysis revealed a typical MADD profile in serum, which was characterized by increased multiple acyl-carnitines. Compound heterozygous mutations were identified in electron transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) gene which confirmed the diagnosis of MADD. After administration of riboflavin, he improved dramatically, both clinically and biochemically. Thus, late onset riboflavin-responsive MADD should be included in the differential diagnosis for adult carnitine deficiency.

  19. The future of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in metabolic profiling and metabolomic studies for biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Thomas O.; Zhang, Qibin; Page, Jason S.; Shen, Yufeng; Callister, Stephen J.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The future utility of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in metabolic profiling and metabolomic studies for biomarker discover will be discussed, beginning with a brief description of the evolution of metabolomics and the utilization of the three most popular analytical platforms in such studies: NMR, GC-MS, and LC-MS. Emphasis is placed on recent developments in high-efficiency LC separations, sensitive electrospray ionization approaches, and the benefits to incorporating both in LC-MS-based approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of various quantitative approaches are reviewed, followed by the current LC-MS-based tools available for candidate biomarker characterization and identification. Finally, a brief prediction on the future path of LC-MS-based methods in metabolic profiling and metabolomic studies is given. PMID:19177179

  20. Longitudinal Bank for Serum, Plasma and DNA for Detection of Biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David C

    2009-01-31

    With the support of this DOE appropriation, NVCI has established a biorepository for serum, plasma, DNA and urine specimens. Over 2,500 patients have been consented which is over 90% of all new patients seen at NVCI. The specimens have been coded, centrifuged, aliquoted and frozen at -80°C in a rapid manner so that they are all processed in less than 1 hour from the acquisition. There are over 28,000 aliquoted, coded tubes in our inventory. Specimens from 200 control volunteer subjects without any history of cancer also have been banked. The patient specimens are encoded and the demographics and therapeutic treatments are linked to the Oncore software. This computer program catalogues the specimens and provides a rapid conduit between the biorepository and the NVCI electronic medical record.

  1. Longitudinal Bank for Serum, Plasma, and DNA for Detection of Biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelzang, Nicolas; Fink, Louis

    2007-11-12

    The discovery of genetic or biochemical markers to discriminate malignant cancers from normal or benign disease states, markers to stage cancer or monitor disease progression and markers that provide an early indication of an individual’s response to chemotherapy have become a major research objectives of the oncology community over the past few years. The goal of the project is to create a patient speciment bank of serum, plasma, urine and tissues from approximately 1500 individuals. The collection of samples from individuals on a longitudinal basis provided proteomic and biochemical data to be correlated with clinical endpoints. This greatly enhanced our ability to identify biiomarkers for staging different cancers and to detect patient responsiveness to therapy at an early state in the treatment process.

  2. Effects of a honeybee sting on the serum free amino acid profile in humans.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Jan; Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Matysiak, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Kokot, Zenon J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln), L-glutamic acid (Glu), L-methionine (Met) and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis) between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting.

  3. Effects of a Honeybee Sting on the Serum Free Amino Acid Profile in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Jan; Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Matysiak, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln), L-glutamic acid (Glu), L-methionine (Met) and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis) between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting. PMID:25072247

  4. Effects of a Terrified-Sound Stress on Serum Proteomic Profiling in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Zhang, Xin; Xiong, Xiaofan; Wu, Qiuhua; Zhao, Lingyu; Liu, Liying; Qin, Yannan; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2015-10-01

    The serum proteomic profiles of mice exposed to terrified-sound-induced stress and after stress release were investigated. Serum samples from 32 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 each) and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques (MALDI-TOF MS) combined with magnetic bead-based weak cation-exchange chromatography. ClinProTools software identified several distinct markers that differed between the stressed and control groups and between the stress released and stressed released controls. Of 33 m/z peaks that differed among the four groups, 17 were significantly different (P < 0.05). Five peaks (m/z: 2793.37, 2924.86, 1979.90, 3492.49, 3880.24) showed significant differences in expression after exposure to terrified-sound stress and returned to control levels after stress release. These were sequence identified as peptide regions of dimethylaniline monooxygenase, myosin-9, uncharacterized protein in Rattus norvegicus, apolipoprotein C-I, and plasma serine protease inhibitor (Serpina 5). Our study provides the first evidence of significant changes in serum proteomic profiles in mice exposed to terrified-sound stress, which suggests that protein expression profiles are affected by the stress. Normal expression levels were restored after stress release, suggesting the activation of self-adjustment mechanisms for the recovery of protein expression levels altered by this stress.

  5. A novel panel of serum miR-21/miR-155/miR-365 as a potential diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Guang; Jiang, Yong-Dong; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Yang, Yan-Mei; Pang, Da; Song, Yan-Ni

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Insufficient sensitivity and specificity prevent the use of most existing biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer. Recently, it was reported that serum microRNAs (miRNAs) may be potential biomarkers in many cancer diseases. In this study, we investigated whether serum levels of 5 miRNAs including miR-21, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, and miR-365 could discriminate breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Methods Serum levels of miRNAs were measured by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 99 breast cancer patients and 21 healthy controls. The abundance change of serum miRNAs were also evaluated following surgical resection in 20 breast cancer patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers. Results Serum levels of miR-21 and miR-155 was significantly higher, while miR-365 was significantly lower in breast cancer as compared with healthy controls. The serum levels of miR-21 and miR-155 significantly decreased following surgical resection. Additionally, the serum level of miR-155 at stages I and II was significantly higher compared to stage III. The serum miR-145 level was remarkably higher in progesterone receptor (PR)-positive patients than PR-negative. The positivity of miR-21, miR-155, and miR-365 was high compared to CA 153 and CEA in breast cancer. ROC curve analyses of a combination of miR-21, miR-155, and miR-365 yielded much higher area under curve and enhanced sensitivity and specificity in comparison to each miRNA alone. Conclusion The combination of serum miR-21/miR-155/miR-365 may potentially serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker that enables differentiation of breast cancer from healthy controls. PMID:28203552

  6. Serum acute phase proteins as biomarkers of pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation in slaughter-aged pigs.

    PubMed

    Saco, Yolanda; Fraile, Lorenzo; Giménez, Mercè; Alegre, Ana; López-Jimenez, Rosa; Cortey, Martí; Segalés, Joaquim; Bassols, Anna

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the existence of lung lesions in pigs at slaughter and the concentration of the serum acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp), pig-major acute protein (Pig-MAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A total of 24 pig farms were selected out of a larger farm database previously screened to study risk factors associated with pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC) lesions at slaughter-aged pigs in Spain. The farms were classified as "pleuritis negative (P-) or positive (P+)" and as "CVPC negative (M-) or positive (M+)" and divided into four groups according to a 2X2 factorial design (P-M-, P-M+, P+M-, P+M+). Also at slaughter, blood from 20 randomly selected pigs from each farm was collected. Obtained serum samples were used to measure acute phase proteins. All APP concentrations were significantly higher for M+ farms than for M- ones. However, only Hp and Pig-MAP showed significantly higher concentrations for P+ farms than for P- ones. Pig-MAP was the most sensitive biomarker since it was able to clearly discriminate between P-/P+ and M-/M+ groups (p<0.001 in both cases). Hp was an excellent marker for pleuritis and good for CVPC lesions. CRP was able to discriminate for CVPC lesions but not for pleuritis. The present results indicate that Pig-MAP and, possibly Hp, may be used as potential markers to characterise and discriminate respiratory lesions in swine herds at slaughter.

  7. MiR-139-5p as a novel serum biomarker for recurrence and metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Jinsei; Toden, Shusuke; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Alberts, Steven R.; Kusunoki, Masato; Sinicrope, Frank A.; Goel, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 30–50% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who undergo curative resection subsequently experience tumor recurrence or metastasis. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs frequently deregulated in various human malignancies, it remains unknown if these can help predict recurrence and metastasis in CRC patients. MiRNAs were initially screened using miRNA-microarray and miRNA-seq datasets with or without recurrence. Candidate miRNAs were then tested in two independent cohorts of 111 stage II/III and 139 stage I-III CRC patients, as well as serum samples and matched primary and metastatic liver tissues. An animal model of peritoneal dissemination was used to assess the oncogenic role of the target miRNA. Four candidate miRNAs were identified during the initial screening, and we subsequently validated upregulation of miR-139-5p in two independent clinical cohorts, wherein it associated with poor recurrence-free survival. Moreover, miR-139-5p were also upregulated in the serum of recurrence-positive CRC patients and yielded significantly shorter recurrence-free survival. Intriguingly, miR-139-5p was upregulated in metastatic liver tissues and negatively correlated with genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Lastly, we showed that miR-139-5p overexpression enhanced peritoneal dissemination in a mouse model. In conclusion, we identified miR-139-5p as a novel biomarker for tumor recurrence and metastasis in CRC. PMID:28262692

  8. Technology in MicroRNA Profiling: Circulating MicroRNAs as Noninvasive Cancer Biomarkers in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Fernando; Bonilla, Patricia; Ravishankar, Yashwanth G; Contag, Alec; Gopal, Nimish; LaCour, Sarah; Lee, Trenton; Niemz, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    This report describes technologies to identify and quantify microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential cancer biomarkers, using breast cancer as an example. Most breast cancer patients are not diagnosed until the disease has advanced to later stages, which decreases overall survival rates. Specific miRNAs are up- or downregulated in breast cancer patients at various stages, can be detected in plasma and serum, and have shown promising preliminary clinical sensitivity and specificity for early cancer diagnosis or staging. Nucleic acid testing methods to determine relative concentrations of selected miRNAs include reverse transcription, followed by quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), microarrays, and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Of these methods, NGS is the most powerful approach for miRNA biomarker discovery, whereas RT-qPCR shows the most promise for eventual clinical diagnostic applications.

  9. Serum proteomic profiling and haptoglobin polymorphisms in patients with GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    McGuirk, Joseph; Hao, Gang; Hou, Weijian; Abhyankar, Sunil; Williams, Casey; Yan, Weisi; Yuan, Jianda; Guan, Xiuqin; Belt, Robert; Dejarnette, Shaun; Wieman, Jeffery; Yan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    We studied serum proteomic profiling in patients with graft versus host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry analysis. The expression of a group of proteins, haptoglobin (Hp), alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A-IV, serum paraoxonase and Zn-alpha-glycoprotein were increased and the proteins, clusterin precursor, alpha-2-macroglobulin, serum amyloid protein precursor, sex hormone-binding globulin, serotransferrin and complement C4 were decreased in patients with extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Serum haptoglobin (Hp) levels in patients with cGVHD were demonstrated to be statistically higher than in patients without cGVHD and normal controls (p < 0.01). We used immunoblotting and PCR in combination with 2-DE gel image analysis to determine Hp polymorphisms in 25 allo-HCT patients and 16 normal donors. The results demonstrate that patients with cGVHD had a higher incidence of HP 2-2 phenotype (43.8%), in comparison to the patients without cGVHD (0%) and normal donors (18.7%), suggesting the possibility that specific Hp polymorphism may play a role in the development of cGVHD after allo-HCT. In this study, quantitative serum Hp levels were shown to be related to cGVHD development. Further, the data suggest the possibility that specific Hp polymorphisms may be associated with cGVHD development and warrant further investigation. PMID:19379511

  10. Ameliorative effects of boron on serum profile in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed high fluoride ration.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-02-01

    An experiment was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of boron on the serum profile of buffalo calves fed a high fluoride ration. Twelve male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves of 6-8 months age, divided into three groups of four calves in each, were fed basal diets and supplemented with sodium fluoride (NaF, 60 ppm) alone or in combination with borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O, 140 ppm) for 90 days. Boron (B) was added in the ration as borax to make @140 ppm boron (elemental B) on DM basis in treatment II. Dietary F caused a significant (p<0.05) depressing effect on serum Ca and Zn on day 90 which was improved with B supplementation. However, serum Fe and Cu did not show any significant change on F or F+B supplementation. The serum ALP and phosphorus level were increased significantly (p<0.05) on F feeding but declined significantly (p<0.05) when B was fed. The findings suggested beneficial effect of boron on serum minerals and ALP in buffalo calves fed high fluoride ration.

  11. Serum Cytokine Profile in Asian Indian Patients with Takayasu Arteritis and its Association with Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ruchika; Kabeerdoss, Jayakanthan; Ram, Babu; Prakash, John Antony Jude; Babji, Sudhir; Nair, Aswin; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Mathew, John; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; Joseph, George; Danda, Debashish

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arterial inflammation Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an outcome of balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Comprehensive assessment of these cytokines is important for understanding pathogenesis and assessing disease activity. Objective: To study pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines representing different T-helper cell pathway in serum samples of Asian Indian patients with TA and to assess their association with disease activity. Methods: Consecutive Indian patients with TA were assayed for serum interferon-γ, interleukin-6, interleukin-23, interleukin-17, interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor- β levels at baseline and follow up visit. Patients were grouped into active and stable disease based on Indian Takyasu Arteritis clinical Activity Score-2010. Serum levels of these cytokines between active and stable disease and between baseline and follow up visits were compared by non-parametric tests. Results: Among 32 patients enrolled, 15 were classified as active while 17 as stable disease at baseline. IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in active disease than stable disease (p=0.0129) while other cytokines did not differ significantly between 2 groups. Serum levels of none of the cytokines changed significantly over 2 visits in both responders and non-responders. IL23 levels positively correlate with disease duration ((r=0.999; p<0.005). Modest correlation was observed between IFN-γ and IL23 levels at both baseline and follow up and between IFN-γ and IL-6 and CRP at follow up. Conclusion: IFN-γ levels are raised in active disease in TA and correlates well with other biomarkers of disease activity and proinflammatory cytokines. There is also a direct correlation between Il-23 levels and disease duration.

  12. Randomized Trial of Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplementation on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Plasma Proteomics Profiles in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; White, Emily; Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Zhang, Yuzheng; Rho, Junghyun; Song, Xiaoling; Milne, Ginger L.; Lampe, Paul D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucosamine and chondroitin are popular non-vitamin dietary supplements used for osteoarthritis. Long-term use is associated with lower incidence of colorectal and lung cancers and with lower mortality; however, the mechanism underlying these observations is unknown. In vitro and animal studies show that glucosamine and chondroitin inhibit NF-kB, a central mediator of inflammation, but no definitive trials have been done in healthy humans. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to assess the effects of glucosamine hydrochloride (1500 mg/d) plus chondroitin sulfate (1200 mg/d) for 28 days compared to placebo in 18 (9 men, 9 women) healthy, overweight (body mass index 25.0–32.5 kg/m2) adults, aged 20–55 y. We examined 4 serum inflammatory biomarkers: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II; a urinary inflammation biomarker: prostaglandin E2-metabolite; and a urinary oxidative stress biomarker: F2-isoprostane. Plasma proteomics on an antibody array was performed to explore other pathways modulated by glucosamine and chondroitin. Results Serum CRP concentrations were 23% lower after glucosamine and chondroitin compared to placebo (P = 0.048). There were no significant differences in other bi