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Sample records for serum corticosterone level

  1. Dentin hypersensitivity induces anxiety and increases corticosterone serum levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, Marcelo R; Bernardi, Maria M; Sufredini, Ivana B; Ciaramicoli, Marcia T; Kodama, Ricardo M; Kabadayan, Fernanda; Saraceni, Cintia H C

    2014-03-11

    Investigate the relationships between experimentally induced dentin hypersensitivity (DH) with behavioral, endocrine and dentin erosion data. Male Wistar rats divided into four groups, two controls and two experimental, received tap water or isotonic solution (Gatorade®, lemon, pH2.7) for 30 or 45 days. The DH test was performed by a cold water stimulus on molars. A score (0-3) was given to the rats' pain response. Anxiety was evaluated by the elevated plus maze model and by serum corticosterone levels. The dentin erosion was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Anatomopathological studies were performed on the stomach, adrenal, kidney, and liver. Relative to control groups, experimental rats showed: 1) increased hypersensitivity scores (control group, 0; experimental groups, 2 (limits 0.5-3) on the 30th day and 2 (limits 1-3) on the 45th day); 2) reduced percentage of time and entries in the open arms and in serum corticosterone levels; 3) totally exposed dentinal tubules on the 30th day in SEM analysis of the teeth; and 4) no alterations in the anatomopathological and histological evaluations. The treatment with isotonic solution for 30 days was able to induce DH after erosive challenge and severe DH was observed after isotonic solution treatment for 45 days. The pain induced by cold stimuli was consistent with the grade of DH. The close relationships between dental erosion, response to pain, serum levels of corticosterone and the EPM behavior responses reveal the effects of DH at several levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effects of early enriched environment on long-term behavior development and serum corticosterone level in rats].

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Chen, Yan-Hui; Wei, Li-Xin

    2011-07-01

    To study the effects of early enriched environment on behavioral development and serum corticosterone level in rats. Forty-five neonatal rats were randomly assigned into three groups:blank control, enriched environment and isolated environment. The open-field environment test and the Lat maze test were performed to assess anxiety/irritability-related behaviors of the rats on postnatal day 31. The level of serum corticosterone was measured by radioimmunology assay. The level of serum corticosterone in the enriched environment group (8±3 ng/mL) was significantly lower than the blank control (11±4 ng/mL) and the isolated groups (22±4 ng/mL) (P<0.01). The open-field environment test showed that the numbers of passing panels, keeping an erect posture and grooming were less than those in the blank control and the isolated groups (P<0.05). According to the results of the Lat maze test, the frequencies of running across the corner, keeping an erect posture and leaning against the wall in the enriched environment group were less than those in the blank control and the isolated groups (P<0.05). Early enriched environment can decrease serum corticosterone level and thus alleviates anxiety and irritability in rats. It may play an important role in the improvement of brain development.

  3. Effect of forced exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, serum and hippocampal corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that there are positive effects of exercise on learning and memory. Moreover, some studies have demonstrated that forced exercise plays the role of a stressor. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of different timing of exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, and serum and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels. Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, sham, exercise-rest (exercise withdrawal), rest-exercise (exercised group), and exercise-exercise (continuous exercise). Rats were forced to run on a treadmill for 1 h/day at a speed 20-21-m/min. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test in different intervals (1, 7 and 21 days) after foot shock. Findings showed that after the exercise withdrawal, short-term and mid-term memories, had significant enhancement compared to the control group, while the long-term memory did not present this result. In addition, the serum and hippocampal CORT levels were at the basal levels after the rest period in the exercise-rest group. In the rest-exercise group, exercise improved mid- and long-term memories, whereas continuous exercise improved all types short-, mid- and long-term memories, particularly the mid-term memory. Twenty-one and forty-two days of exercise significantly decreased the serum and hippocampal CORT levels. It seems that exercise for at least 21 days with no rest could affect biochemical factors in the brain. Also, regular continuous exercise plays an important role in memory function. Hence, the duration and withdraw of exercise are important factors for the neurobiological aspects of the memory responses.

  4. Effect of chrysin on nociception in formalin test and serum levels of noradrenalin and corticosterone in rats

    PubMed Central

    Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimin-Nezhad, Mohsen; Samini, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The levels of corticosterone and noradrenalin as the two nociception modulators modify after stress condition. The propose of current study was to investigate the effect of chrysin on formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors and serum levels of corticosterone and noradrenalin in rats. Materials and methods: Pain was induced by applying 20 μL of 5% formalin in distilled water in the subplantar of the right hind paw. Chrysin (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) was administered 60 min before formalin injection. Morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 min before formalin injection. The control group received the same volume of saline by i.p. injection 30 min before formalin injection. Results: Chrysin treatment can significantly decrease formalin-induced pain in rat in a dose-dependent manner. Chrysin (150 mg/kg) significantly inhibit the first phase (P < 0.01), whereas, the all concentration of chrysin were affected on the later phase of formalin-induced pain (P < 0.05). Chrysin could significantly attenuate the content of corticosterone and noradrenalin in the serum versus to the control rats (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The current study confirms that the chrysin decreased the nociceptive behaviors in the formalin test and indicate a correlation with decrease in serum corticosterone and noradrenalin levels. PMID:25932190

  5. Resveratrol reverses the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress on behavior, serum corticosterone levels and BDNF expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dexiang; Xie, Kai; Yang, Xudong; Gu, Jianhua; Ge, Li; Wang, Xueer; Wang, Zhen

    2014-05-01

    Depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders and has been associated with the neuroendocrine system and alterations in specific brain proteins. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in polygonum cuspidatum and has diverse biological activities, including potent antidepressant-like effects. The present study attempts to explore the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like action of resveratrol by measuring serum corticosterone levels and the content of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and amygdala of rats exposed to the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Male Wistar rats were subjected to the CUMS protocol for a period of 5 weeks to induce depressive-like behavior. Resveratrol treatment (20, 40 and 80mg/kg/i.p. 5 weeks) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities (reduced sucrose preference, increased immobility time and decreased locomotor activity) and the elevated serum corticosterone levels observed in stressed rats. Additionally, 5-weeks of CUMS exposure significantly decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala, and was accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), while resveratrol treatment normalized these levels. All of these effects of resveratrol were essentially identical to that observed with the established antidepressant, desipramine. In conclusion, our study shows that resveratrol exerted antidepressant-like effects in CUMS rats, mediated in part by normalizing serum corticosterone levels while up-regulating pERK, pCREB and BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala.

  6. Maternal tobacco smoke increased visceral adiposity and serum corticosterone levels in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Lang, Brook Y; Yu, Baifeng; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Chengshe; Fitzhugh, Melanie; Dahl, Marjanna; Campbell, Michael S; Fung, Camille; Malleske, Daniel; Albertine, Kurt H; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2014-07-01

    Maternal tobacco smoke (MTS) predisposes human and rat offspring to visceral obesity in early adulthood. Glucocorticoid excess also causes visceral obesity. We hypothesized that in utero MTS would increase visceral adiposity and alter the glucocorticoid pathway in young adult rats. We developed a novel model of in utero MTS exposure in pregnant rats by exposing them to cigarette smoke from E11.5 to term. Neonatal rats were cross-fostered to control dams and weaned to standard rat chow through young adulthood (postnatal day 60). We demonstrated increased visceral adiposity (193%)*, increased visceral adipose 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 mRNA (204%)*, increased serum corticosterone (147%)*, and no change in glucocorticoid receptor protein in adult male MTS rat offspring. Female rats exposed to MTS in utero demonstrated no change in visceral or subcutaneous adiposity, decreased serum corticosterone (60%)*, and decreased adipose glucocorticoid receptor protein (66%)*. *P < 0.05. We conclude that in utero MTS exposure increased visceral adiposity and altered in the glucocorticoid pathway in a sex-specific manner. We speculate that in utero MTS exposure programs adipose dysfunction in adult male rat offspring via alteration in the glucocorticoid pathway.

  7. Water maze performance and changes in serum corticosterone levels in zinc-deprived and pair-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Y; Mouat, M F; Harris, R B S; Coffield, J A; Grider, A

    2003-04-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the learning and short- and long-term memory of zinc-deprived (ZD) and pair-fed (PF) rats in a Morris water maze (MWM) and (2) to monitor the serum corticosterone levels of these rats before and after swimming. Young Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 27-31 days) consumed AIN-93G diet for 10 days, and then were separated into ad libitum control (CT), PF and ZD groups. The zinc content of the diet was 25-30 ppm (CT and PF) or <1 ppm (ZD). After 17 days on experimental diets, a MWM was used to test spatial cognition. Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP) test results indicate that both zinc deprivation and food restriction had no effect on short-term memory. The PF rats exhibited significantly impaired learning and thigmotaxia (i.e., wall hugging) in the learning test. The PF group also demonstrated less preference for the target zone in the first 15 s of the probing test. When the total 120 s of the probing test was considered, there were no differences in preference for the target zone, but thigmotaxia was greater in the PF than the CT group. The only behavioral change of the ZD group was thigmotaxia observed during the 120-s probing test following training, indicating the increment of anxiety. Morning basal corticosterone levels before swim training were significantly elevated in the PF group on Day 15 of dietary treatment, whereas a significant elevation of the basal corticosterone level in the ZD group was not statistically significant until Day 22. The data indicate an association between impaired learning, poor searching strategy and elevated corticosterone in the PF group. In contrast, the ZD rats showed normal cognitive performance but had elevated corticosterone and increased anxiety-like behavior (thigmotaxia).

  8. Reproductive status of captive Loggerhead sea turtles based on serum levels of gonadal steroid hormones, corticosterone and thyroxin.

    PubMed

    Valente, Ana Luisa S; Velarde, Roser; Parga, Maria Luz; Marco, Ignasi; Lavin, Santiago; Alegre, Ferran; Cuenca, Rafaela

    2011-02-01

    Serum levels of gonadal steroid hormones, corticosterone and thyroxin (T(4)), were monitored monthly in two male and one female captive Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) over a period of 12 months in 2004 and 3 months in 2006. Ovary ultrasonography was performed in April and July 2006. The turtles were kept together in an outdoor sea pool in natural temperature and photoperiod conditions from May to November, then in separate indoor pools from December to April. Circulating hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Oestradiol levels in the female turtle surged significantly in July, as did the progesterone level in September. Total testosterone levels were different in both males, but both peaked in September. The peaks of oestradiol in the female and testosterone in the males did not coincide, both showing delay with respect to the hormone cycle described in free-ranging Loggerhead sea turtles. A seasonal pattern in T(4) levels was not observed. The three captive turtles showed very low corticosterone levels throughout the year, with a September peak coinciding with the peaks of progesterone in females and testosterone in males. The results suggested that conditions of captivity should be as close as possible to natural conditions throughout the entire year since the process of vitellogenesis in this species is protracted. Exposure to natural conditions for only a few months is insufficient to induce reproduction/oviposition.

  9. Levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Fang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuwei

    2014-11-01

    Sociability is the prerequisite to social living. Oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. We hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. Here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability. We found that low-social voles showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in open field tests, and had more serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone than high-social voles. High-social individuals had more glucocorticoid receptor positive neurons in the hippocampus and more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than low-social individuals. Within the same level of sociability, females had more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than males. These results indicate that naturally occurring social preferences are associated with higher levels of central oxytocin and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor and lower levels of anxiety and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone.

  10. Restraint-induced changes in serum luteinizing hormone, prolactin, growth hormone and corticosterone levels in rats: effect of superior cervical ganglionectomy.

    PubMed

    Martín, A I; López-Calderón, A; Tresguerres, J A; González-Quijano, M I; Cardinali, D P

    1995-02-01

    From about 10 to 36 h after superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx), peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals in the median eminence degenerate, nerve ending content is released, and a transient period of increased postsynaptic activity ensues. After this time, an irreversible, paralytic phase is established in the denervated territory. The present experiment was undertaken to examine, at single points during the wallerian degeneration phase (24 h after SCGx) and during the paralytic phase (10 days after denervation), the participation of peripheral sympathetic nerves in restraint-stress-induced changes of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and corticosterone levels. During the wallerian degeneration phase, serum LH did not augment after stress, as it did in sham-operated controls. In the paralytic phase, the poststress increases in LH attained similar values in sham-operated and SCGx rats. Immobilization stress augmented PRL levels to a similar extent in sham-operated and SCGx rats either 24 h or 10 days after surgery. During the wallerian degeneration phase, a decrease in serum GH levels was found in unrestrained rats. Immobilization stress decreased GH levels to 5-12% of unrestrained values in sham-operated and SCGx rats at both examination time points after surgery. Rats studied 24 h after SCGx exhibited significantly augmented serum corticosterone levels and failed to show restraint-stress-induced stimulation of corticosterone release. In rats subjected to SCGx 10 days earlier, both basal and poststress levels of corticosterone did not differ from sham-operated controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Functional characterization of neotropical snakes peripheral blood leukocytes subsets: Linking flow cytometry cell features, microscopy images and serum corticosterone levels.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Lourenço, Mariana Mathias; Levin, Gabriel; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Reptiles are the unique ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotes fish and amphibians, and endothermic birds and mammals; becoming an important group to study with the aim of providing significant knowledge into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity. Classification systems for reptiles' leukocytes have been described by their appearance rather than function, being still inconsistent. With the advent of modern techniques and the establishment of analytical protocols for snakes' blood by flow cytometry, we bring a qualitative and quantitative assessment of innate activities presented by snakes' peripheral blood leukocytes, thereby linking flow cytometric features with fluorescent and light microscopy images. Moreover, since corticosterone is an important immunomodulator in reptiles, hormone levels of all blood samples were measured. We provide novel and additional information which should contribute to better understanding of the development of the immune system of reptiles and vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Home Cage Bedding in the Induction Chamber on Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone Levels in Response to Isoflurane-induced Anesthesia in C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Cara P; Christy, Amanda C; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2017-03-01

    Mice are routinely anesthetized with isoflurane in an induction chamber. The AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals states that distress should be minimized during euthanasia but does not address this point in regard to induction of anesthesia. Here we evaluated the potential for familiar surroundings to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane. However, adding bedding from the animals' home cage to the induction chamber failed to significantly reduce serum cortisol or corticosterone levels in male and female C57BL/6J mice. These results indicate that familiar surroundings do not appear sufficient to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane.

  13. Experimental enhancement of corticosterone levels positively affects subsequent male survival.

    PubMed

    Cote, J; Clobert, J; Meylan, S; Fitze, P S

    2006-03-01

    Corticosterone is an important hormone of the stress response that regulates physiological processes and modifies animal behavior. While it positively acts on locomotor activity, it may negatively affect reproduction and social activity. This suggests that corticosterone may promote behaviors that increase survival at the cost of reproduction. In this study, we experimentally investigate the link between corticosterone levels and survival in adult common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) by comparing corticosterone-treated with placebo-treated lizards. We experimentally show that corticosterone enhances energy expenditure, daily activity, food intake, and it modifies the behavioral time budget. Enhanced appetite of corticosterone-treated individuals compensated for increased energy expenditure and corticosterone-treated males showed increased survival. This suggests that corticosterone may promote behaviors that reduce stress and it shows that corticosterone per se does not reduce but directly or indirectly increases longer-term survival. This suggests that the production of corticosterone as a response to a stressor may be an adaptive mechanism that even controls survival.

  14. Weight change affects serum leptin and corticosterone in the collared lemming.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maria S; Onorato, David P; Gower, Barbara A; Nagy, Tim R

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether photoperiod-induced changes in body and fat mass are accompanied by changes in leptin and corticosterone concentrations in collared lemmings. At weaning, eighty male lemmings were maintained in either long photoperiod (LD, n = 40 ) or short photoperiod (SD, n = 40 ). Ten weeks post-weaning lemmings were weighed and assigned to a secondary photoperiod that consisted of either remaining in the same photoperiod or being transferred to the alternate photoperiod (LD-LD, LD-SD, SD-SD, and SD-LD; n = 20 per group). Ten days post-switch, half the animals from each group were sacrificed. The remaining animals were sacrificed on day 21 post-switch. Blood was collected for determination of serum leptin and corticosterone, and carcasses were analyzed for body composition. LD-SD lemmings gained the most weight, whilst SD-LD lemmings lost weight. SD-LD lemmings had significantly lower leptin levels relative to fat mass than SD-SD lemmings. Corticosterone levels were higher in the SD-LD than SD-SD lemmings on both days 10 and 21. Levels were not significantly different between LD-LD and LD-SD lemmings; however by day 21 the levels were slightly lower in the LD-SD lemmings. Discussion. Lemmings showed seasonally appropriate body weight changes in response to the changing photoperiod. Weight loss was associated with higher corticosterone, and lower leptin levels adjusted for fat mass. Neither relative leptin levels, nor corticosterone levels changed significantly with weight gain. Our results indicate that corticosterone and leptin are associated more with seasonal weight loss than weight gain in lemmings.

  15. Evaluation of response to restraint stress by salivary corticosterone levels in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Masakatsu; Tohei, Atsushi; Sato, Takumi; Amao, Hiromi

    2016-06-01

    Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva-collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents-we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (P<0.001). Monitoring the results of individual mice showed that restraint stress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (P<0.001) than in the others (P<0.05). These results suggest that the corticosterone levels in saliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments.

  16. Nest predation and circulating corticosterone levels within and among species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.; Arriero, E.; Schwabl, H.; Martin, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in the risk of predation to offspring can influence the expression of reproductive strategies both within and among species. Appropriate expression of reproductive strategies in environments that differ in predation risk can have clear advantages for fitness. Although adult-predation risk appears to influence glucocorticosteroid levels, leading to changes in behavioral and life-history strategies, the influence of offspring-predation risk on adult glucocorticosteroid levels remains unclear. We compared total baseline corticosterone concentrations in Gray-headed Juncos (Junco hyemalis dorsalis) nesting on plots with and without experimentally reduced risk of nest predation. Despite differences in risk between treatments, we failed to find differences in total baseline corticosterone concentrations. When we examined corticosterone concentrations across a suite of sympatric species, however, higher risk of nest predation correlated with higher total baseline corticosterone levels. As found previously, total baseline corticosterone was negatively correlated with body condition and positively correlated with date of sampling. However, we also found that corticosterone levels increased seasonally, independent of stage of breeding. Nest predation can alter the expression of birds' reproductive strategies, but our findings suggest that total baseline corticosterone is not the physiological mechanism regulating these responses. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  17. Nest predation and circulating corticosterone levels within and among species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Joseph J.; Arriero, Elena; Schwabl, Hubert; Martin, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in the risk of predation to offspring can influence the expression of reproductive strategies both within and among species. Appropriate expression of reproductive strategies in environments that differ in predation risk can have clear advantages for fitness. Although adult-predation risk appears to influence glucocorticosteroid levels, leading to changes in behavioral and life-history strategies, the influence of offspring-predation risk on adult glucocorticosteroid levels remains unclear. We compared total baseline corticosterone concentrations in Gray-headed Juncos (Junco hyemalis dorsalis) nesting on plots with and without experimentally reduced risk of nest predation. Despite differences in risk between treatments, we failed to find differences in total baseline corticosterone concentrations. When we examined corticosterone concentrations across a suite of sympatric species, however, higher risk of nest predation correlated with higher total baseline corticosterone levels. As found previously, total baseline corticosterone was negatively correlated with body condition and positively correlated with date of sampling. However, we also found that corticosterone levels increased seasonally, independent of stage of breeding. Nest predation can alter the expression of birds' reproductive strategies, but our findings suggest that total baseline corticosterone is not the physiological mechanism regulating these responses.

  18. Mercury Exposure May Suppress Baseline Corticosterone Levels in Juvenile Birds.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (Sterna forsteri) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in blood of older chicks (decreasing by 81% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and number of fledgling chicks within the colony and chick age. In recently hatched chicks, baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations were weakly negatively correlated with mercury concentrations in down feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  19. Reproductive experience alters corticosterone and CBG levels in the rat dam.

    PubMed

    Pawluski, Jodi L; Charlier, Thierry D; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2009-01-08

    Reproductive experience has significant effects on the brain, behavior and hormone profiles of the mother. Recent work has demonstrated that primiparous rats exhibit decreased dendritic arborizations in the hippocampus, and enhanced hippocampus-dependent spatial memory performance at the time of weaning compared to nulliparous and, to a lesser degree, multiparous rats. Interestingly, enhanced spatial learning and reduced dendritic arbors are seen in nulliparous female rats exposed to chronic stress or repeated corticosterone administration. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that corticosterone may be altered in primiparous rats compared to multiparous and nulliparous rats. The present study investigated whether the levels of circulating corticosterone and its binding protein, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), are altered with reproductive experience and pup-exposure during late pregnancy and the postpartum. Total serum corticosterone and CBG were assayed from five groups; multiparous, primiparous, nulliparous, primip-no-pups, and sensitized rats during gestation (days 14 and 19) and the postpartum period (days 1, 5, 14, 21, and 35). Results show that primiparous rats had significantly elevated total corticosterone on postpartum day 1. In addition, primiparous and multiparous rats had significantly lower CBG throughout the postpartum period than all other groups, with primiparous rats exhibiting lower levels than multiparous rats during mid-lactation. These data suggest that free corticosterone is elevated in both primiparous and multiparous dams and is elevated to a greater degree in primiparous compared to multiparous dams during lactation. Corticosterone and CBG levels were positively correlated with specific maternal behaviors during the first week postpartum in parturient rats, but not in sensitized rats, suggesting a role for corticosterone in the modulation of maternal behavior in parturient rats alone.

  20. Early social deprivation impairs pair bonding and alters serum corticosterone and the NAcc dopamine system in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; An, Shucheng; Tai, Fadao; Wang, Jianli; Wu, Ruiyong; Wang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Early life stress has a long-term negative impact on emotion, learning, memory and adult sexual behavior, and these deficits most likely impair pair bonding. Here, we investigated whether early social deprivation (ED) affects the formation of pair bonds in socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). In a partner preference test (PPT), ED-reared adult females and males did not show a preference for their partner, spent more time exploring the cage of an unfamiliar animal and directed high levels of aggression toward unfamiliar animals. In social interaction test, ED increased exploring behavior only in females, but increased movement around the partner and reduced inactivity in both males and females. Three days of cohabitation did not alter serum corticosterone levels in ED-reared males, but increased corticosterone levels in males that received bi-parental care (PC). Interestingly, serum corticosterone levels in ED- and PC-reared females declined after cohabitation. ED significantly increased basal serum corticosterone levels in males, but had no effect on females. ED significantly up-regulated the levels of dopamine and the mRNA expression of dopamine 1-type receptor (D1R) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in females and males. ED suppressed dopamine 2-type receptor mRNA (D2R) expression in females, but increased this in males. After three days of cohabitation, levels of D1R mRNA and D2R mRNA expression changed in opposite directions in PC-reared voles, but in the same direction in ED-reared males, and only the expression of D2R mRNA increased in ED-reared females. Our results indicate that early social deprivation inhibits pair bonding at adulthood. This inhibition is possibly associated with sex-specific alterations in serum corticosterone, levels of dopamine and mRNA expression of two types of dopamine receptors in the NAcc. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cage Change Influences Serum Corticosterone and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Skye; Miller, Melinda M.; Filipski, Sarah B.; Tolwani, Ravi J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variables and husbandry practices can influence physiology and alter behavior in mice. Our study evaluated the effects of cage change on serum corticosterone levels and anxiety-like behaviors in C57BL/6 male mice. We examined the effects of 3 different methods of performing cage transfer and of transferring mice to a clean or a dirty familiar cage microenvironment. The 3 different handling methods were forceps transfer, gentle transfer with gloved hands, and a passive transfer technique that did not involve active handling. Active handling methods and transfer to both clean and dirty cage microenvironments significantly increased serum corticosterone 15 min after cage change; however, at 60 min after cage change, levels were comparable to those of unmanipulated mice. Although the effects were transient, cage change altered anxiety-like behaviors in the open field when behavioral testing was performed on the same day. These results demonstrate that the timing of cage change can influence behavioral results, an effect that is an important consideration for rodent behavioral studies. PMID:21838975

  2. Effects of early adolescent methamphetamine exposure on anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Rud, Micaela A; Do, Thao N; Siegel, Jessica A

    2016-10-28

    Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive psychomotor stimulant that affects the central nervous system and alters behavior. The effects of MA are modulated by age, and while much research has examined the effects of MA use in adults, relatively little research has examined the effects in adolescents. As the brain is developing during adolescence, it is important that we understand the effects of MA exposure in adolescence. This research examined the effects of acute MA exposure on locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and plasma corticosterone levels in adolescent male C57BL/6J mice. Baseline locomotor and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in the open field test. Immediately following baseline measurements, mice were exposed to saline or 4mg/kg MA and locomotor and anxiety-like behavior were measured. Serum was collected immediately after testing and plasma corticosterone levels measured. There were no group differences in baseline behavioral measurements. MA-exposed adolescent mice showed increased locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in the open field compared with saline controls. There was no effect of MA on plasma corticosterone levels. These data suggest that acute MA exposure during adolescence increases locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior, but does not alter plasma corticosterone levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal changes in testosterone and corticosterone levels in four social classes of a desert dwelling sociable rodent.

    PubMed

    Schradin, Carsten

    2008-04-01

    Animals have to adjust their physiology to seasonal changes, in response to variation in food availability, social tactics and reproduction. I compared basal corticosterone and testosterone levels in free ranging striped mouse from a desert habitat, comparing between the sexes, breeding and philopatric non-breeding individuals, and between the breeding and the non-breeding season. I expected differences between breeders and non-breeders and between seasons with high and low food availability. Basal serum corticosterone was measured from 132 different individuals and serum testosterone from 176 different individuals of free living striped mice. Corticosterone and testosterone levels were independent of age, body weight and not influenced by carrying a transmitter. The levels of corticosterone and testosterone declined by approximately 50% from the breeding to the non-breeding season in breeding females as well as non-breeding males and females. In contrast, breeding males showed much lower corticosterone levels during the breeding season than all other classes, and were the only class that showed an increase of corticosterone from the breeding to the non-breeding season. As a result, breeding males had similar corticosterone levels as other social classes during the non-breeding season. During the breeding season, breeding males had much higher testosterone levels than other classes, which decreased significantly from the breeding to the non-breeding season. My results support the prediction that corticosterone decreases during periods of low food abundance. Variation in the pattern of hormonal secretion in striped mice might assist them to cope with seasonal changes in energy demand in a desert habitat.

  4. Disuse atrophy, plasma corticosterone, and muscle glucocorticoid receptor levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of whole-body suspension on the time course and the extent of plasma corticosterone changes and the tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids were investigated in rats subjected to seven days of whole-body suspension. Plasma corticosterone increased significantly on the first and the third days of suspension, but returned to control levels by day seven. Muscle glucocorticoid receptors exhibited a characteristic hormonal specificity (evaluated in competitive-displacement experiments). In controls, receptor site concentration in the slow-twitch soleus was comparable to that in the fast-twitch gastrocnemius and plantaris, but was significantly less than in the extensor; seven days of suspension resulted in significant differential effects on muscle receptor levels. The largest increase in receptor concentration was observed in the soleus in which it remained elevated after the receptor levels in other muscles returned to normal.

  5. Assessing Stress in Arctic Lemmings: Fecal Metabolite Levels Reflect Plasma Free Corticosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Fauteux, Dominique; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique; Bosson, Curtis; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    Interest in the ecology of stress in wild populations has triggered the development of noninvasive methods for quantifying stress hormones. Measurement of fecal corticosteroid metabolites (FCMs) is one such method, but it is still unclear whether FCMs can be a reliable proxy of free plasma glucocorticoids. To assess the validity of this assumption, we carried out a robust assessment on brown lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, that were hand captured and anesthetized and related plasma glucocorticoid levels to fecal metabolite glucocorticoid levels. We examined endogenous factors that could explain interindividual variability. Blood corticosterone was measured from samples obtained on capture and 30 min later, and FCM levels were measured from animals kept in captivity for 72 h. Plasma free corticosterone increased 135-fold over baseline values 30 min after capture, which confirmed that initial handling was perceived as a stressor. We found that FCM levels were highly related with free (marginal [Formula: see text] = 0.53) but not with total ([Formula: see text] = 0.02) corticosterone levels, regardless of age, sex, and reproductive condition. FCM levels started increasing 2 h after capture and reached maximum levels 4 h after capture. No circadian rhythm in FCMs was found. Plasma total corticosterone levels were much higher in adult females compared with adult males, but this difference was much smaller when measuring free corticosterone levels and FCM levels. Our results suggest that FCM levels are good measures of stress by being closely related to plasma free corticosterone levels in brown lemmings.

  6. Comparisons among serum, egg albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of basal and stimulated adrenocortical activity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cook, N J; Renema, R; Wilkinson, C; Schaefer, A L

    2009-09-01

    1. Serial blood samples from individual birds were analysed for corticosterone concentrations under basal and stimulated conditions, and matched to eggs from the same birds for comparison to albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone. 2. Serum corticosterone exhibited increases in response to stimulation by ACTH and Handling stress. There were no significant increases in egg albumin or yolk concentrations of corticosterone following stimulation. 3. Several significant correlations were observed between the mean and area under the curve (AUC) measurements of serum corticosterone concentrations with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid from 1 to 2 d later. 4. The results demonstrated a relationship between endogenous concentrations of serum corticosterone that reflected daily adrenocortical output with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid the following day. 5. The results do not support the concept of albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of acute adrenocortical responses to stimulation.

  7. The Anxiolytic Effects of Valtrate in Rats Involves Changes of Corticosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shu-Ning; Shi, Jin-Li; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yan-Li; Wang, Chun-Guo; Hou, Wen-Hui; Guo, Jian-You

    2014-01-01

    Valtrate is a principle compound isolated from Valeriana jatamansi Jones, which is a Traditional Chinese Medicine used to treat various mood disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anxiolytic effects of valtrate in rats. The animals were orally administered valtrate (5, 10, and 20 g/kg daily) for 10 days and exposed to open field test (OFT) and elevated plus-maze (EPM). Then the corticosterone levels in the rat serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The valtrate (10 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited the anxiolytic effect in rats by increasing the time and entry percentage into the open arms in the EPM and the number of central entries in the OFT. Valtrate (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the corticosterone level in the rat serum. Taken together, these results suggest that the valtrate has anxiolytic activity in behavioral models that might be mediated via the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:24782906

  8. Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galapagos marine iguanas during El Nino events.

    PubMed

    Romero, L M; Wikelski, M

    2001-06-19

    Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of "stress" in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations.

  9. Sympathetic nervous system contributes to enhanced corticosterone levels following chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Lowrance, Steven A; Ionadi, Amy; McKay, Erin; Douglas, Xavier; Johnson, John D

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to chronic stress often elevates basal circulating glucocorticoids during the circadian nadir and leads to exaggerated glucocorticoid production following exposure to subsequent stressors. While glucocorticoid production is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, there is evidence that the sympathetic nervous system can affect diurnal glucocorticoid production by direct actions at the adrenal gland. Experiments here were designed to examine the role of the HPA and sympathetic nervous system in enhancing corticosterone production following chronic stress. Rats were exposed to a four-day stress paradigm or control conditions then exposed to acute restraint stress on the fifth day to examine corticosterone and ACTH responses. Repeated stressor exposure resulted in a small increase in corticosterone, but not ACTH, during the circadian nadir, and also resulted in exaggerated corticosterone production 5, 10, and 20min following restraint stress. While circulating ACTH levels increased after 5min of restraint, levels were not greater in chronic stress animals compared to controls until following 20min. Administration of astressin (a CRH antagonist) prior to restraint stress significantly reduced ACTH responses but did not prevent the sensitized corticosterone response in chronic stress animals. In contrast, administration of chlorisondamine (a ganglionic blocker) returned basal corticosterone levels in chronic stress animals to normal levels and reduced early corticosterone production following restraint (up to 10min) but did not block the exaggerated corticosterone response in chronic stress animals at 20min. These data indicate that increased sympathetic nervous system tone contributes to elevated basal and rapid glucocorticoid production following chronic stress, but HPA responses likely mediate peak corticosterone responses to stressors of longer duration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Cortisol and corticosterone in the songbird immune and nervous systems: local vs. systemic levels during development.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kim L; Soma, Kiran K

    2008-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have profound effects on the immune and nervous systems during development. However, circulating GC levels are low neonatally and show little response to stressors. This paradox could be resolved if immune and neural tissues locally synthesize GCs. Here, we measured baseline corticosterone and cortisol levels in plasma, immune organs, and brain regions of developing zebra finches. Steroids were extracted using solid phase-extraction and quantified using specific immunoassays. As expected, corticosterone was the predominant GC in plasma and increased with age. In contrast, cortisol was the predominant GC in immune tissues (bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen) and decreased with age. Cortisol levels in immune tissues were higher than cortisol levels in plasma. In the brain, corticosterone and cortisol levels were similarly low, providing little evidence for local synthesis of GCs in the brain. This is the first study to measure 1) cortisol in the plasma of songbirds, 2) corticosterone or cortisol in the brain of songbirds, and 3) corticosterone or cortisol in the immune system of any species. Despite the prevailing dogma that corticosterone is the primary GC in birds, these results indicate that cortisol is the predominant GC in the immune system of developing zebra finches. These results raise the hypothesis that cortisol is synthesized de novo from cholesterol in the immune system as an "immunosteroid," analogous to neurosteroids synthesized in the brain. Local production of GCs in immune tissues may allow GCs to regulate lymphocyte selection while avoiding the costs of high systemic GCs during development.

  11. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  12. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L.; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippo-campus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20 min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1 h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippo-campus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal. PMID:27208490

  13. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation.

    PubMed

    Namvar, Sara; Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D

    2016-04-15

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D.

    2016-01-01

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. PMID:26818054

  15. Body mass and clutch size may modulate prolactin and corticosterone levels in eiders.

    PubMed

    Criscuolo, Francois; Bertile, Fabrice; Durant, Joel M; Raclot, Thierry; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Massemin, Sylvie; Chastel, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Altered body condition, increased incubation costs, and egg loss are important proximate factors modulating bird parental behavior, since they inform the adult about its remaining chances of survival or about the expected current reproductive success. Hormonal changes should reflect internal or external stimuli, since corticosterone levels (inducing nest abandonment) are known to increase while body condition deteriorates, and prolactin levels (stimulating incubation) decrease following egg predation. However, in a capital incubator that based its investment on available body reserves and naturally lost about half of its body mass during incubation, corticosterone should be maintained at a low threshold to avoid protein mobilization for energy supply. This study focused on the regulation of corticosterone and prolactin release in such birds during incubation, when facing egg manipulation (control, reduced, or increased) or a stressful event. Blood samples were taken before and after clutch manipulation and at hatching. Corticosterone levels were determined before and after 30 min of captivity. Female eiders exhibited a high hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal sensitivity, plasma concentration of corticosterone being increased by four- to fivefold following 30 min of captivity. The adrenocortical response was not modified by body mass loss but was higher in birds for which clutch size was increased. In the same way, females did not show different prolactin levels among the experimental groups. However, when incubation started, prolactin levels were correlated to body mass, suggesting that nest attendance is programmed in relation to the female initial body condition. Moreover, due to an artifactual impact of bird manipulation, increased baseline corticosterone was associated with a prolactin decrease in the control group. These data suggest that, in eiders, body mass and clutch size modification can modulate prolactin and corticosterone levels, which cross-regulate each

  16. The effects of maternal corticosterone levels on offspring behavior in fast- and slow-growth garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans).

    PubMed

    Robert, Kylie A; Vleck, Carol; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after determining both natural corticosterone levels in the field and pre-treatment levels upon arrival in the lab. Additional measurements of plasma corticosterone were taken at days 1, 5, and 10 during the 10-day exposure, which occurred during the last third of gestation (of 4-month gestation). These pregnant snakes were from replicate populations of fast- and slow-growth ecotypes occurring in Northern California, with concomitant short and long lifespans. Field corticosterone levels of pregnant females of the slow-growth ecotype were an order of magnitude higher than fast-growth dams. In the laboratory, corticosterone levels increased over the 10 days of corticosterone manipulation for animals of both ecotypes, and reached similar plateaus for both control and treated dams. Despite similar plasma corticosterone levels in treated and control mothers, corticosterone-treated dams produced more stillborn offspring and exhibited higher total reproductive failure than control dams. At one month of age, offspring from fast-growth females had higher plasma corticosterone levels than offspring from slow-growth females, which is opposite the maternal pattern. Offspring from corticosterone-treated mothers, although unaffected in their slither speed, exhibited changes in escape behaviors and morphology that were dependent upon maternal ecotype. Offspring from corticosterone-treated fast-growth females exhibited less anti-predator reversal behavior; offspring from corticosterone-treated slow-growth females exhibited less anti-predator tail lashing behavior.

  17. Chronic stress induces structural alterations in splenic lymphoid tissue that are associated with changes in corticosterone levels in wistar-kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  18. The effects of neonatal paternal deprivation on pair bonding, NAcc dopamine receptor mRNA expression and serum corticosterone in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; An, Shucheng; Tai, Fadao; Zhang, Xia; He, Fengqin; Wang, Jianli; An, Xiaolei; Wu, Ruiyong

    2012-05-01

    High levels of paternal care are important for the development of social behavior in monogamous rodents. However, the effects of paternal care on the formation of pair bonding and underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms, especially the involvements of dopamine system and corticosterone, are not well understood. We investigated effects of paternal deprivation on pair bonding in mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), a socially monogamous rodent. Paternal deprivation was found to inhibit the formation of pair bonding in females according to partner preference tests (PPT). Paternal deprivation also reduced body contact behavior and increased aggression in males and females in PPT. During social interaction tests (SIT), paternal deprivation was found to reduce investigative and aggressive behaviors but increase body contact and self-grooming in females, and reduce staring, aggression, body contact and self-grooming in males when interacting with the opposite sex. Paternal deprivation reduced the expression of dopamine 1-type receptor (D1R) mRNA and dopamine 2-type receptor (D2R) mRNA in the nucleus accumbens of female offspring in later life, but enhanced mRNA expression of these two dopamine receptors in males. After three days of cohabitation the expression of D1R mRNA and D2R mRNA was negatively correlated for voles reared by two parents, but positively correlated in paternally deprived animals. Paternal deprivation reduced serum corticosterone levels in females but had the opposite effect in males. Three days of cohabitation did not alter corticosterone levels of PD females, but reduced it in PC females. Our results provide substantial evidence that paternal deprivation inhibits the formation of pair bonding in female mandarin voles and alters social behavior later in life. These behavioral variations were possibly associated with sex-specific alterations in the expression of two types of dopamine receptors and serum corticosterone levels induced by paternal

  19. Hypericum Perforatum Decreased Hippocampus TNF-α and Corticosterone Levels with No Effect on Kynurenine/Tryptophan Ratio in Bilateral Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Bakly, Wesam M; Hasanin, Amany H

    2014-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect Hypericum Perforatum (HP), on behavioral changes, corticosterone, TNF-α levels and tryptophan metabolism and disposition in bilateral ovariectomized rats compared to 17α -ethinylestradiol. Behavioral analysis by measuring immobility time in forced swimming test and open field test, serum and hippocampal corticosterone and TNF-α along with hippocampal kynurenine/tryptophan ratio were determined in mature ovariectomized rats treated orally either by HP at three different doses 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day or by 17α-ethinylestradiol 30 µg/kg/day for 30 days. Ovariectomized rats showed significant increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test. Along with elevation in serum and hippocampal TNF-α and corticosterone levels associated with significant increase in hippocampal kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Immobility time in the forced swimming test was decreased in rats treated by different doses of HP in a dose dependent manner and 17α-ethinylestradiol with no concomitant changes in the open field test. Only Rats treated with HP exhibited significant decrease in the elevated serum and hippocampal TNF-α and corticosterone, which couldn't explain the associated insignificant effect on hippocampaus kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in comparison to ovariectomized untreated rats. It is concluded that increased tryptophan metabolism toward kynurenine secondary to elevated corticosterone and TNF-α might be one of the pathohphysiological mechanisms that could explain depression like state observed in this rat model. Further, the observed attenuating effect of HP on TNF-α and corticosterone could contribute in its antidepressant effect in this animal model by other ways than their effects on tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism pathway.

  20. Evaluation of serum cortisol, metabolic parameters, acute phase proteins and faecal corticosterone as indicators of stress in cows.

    PubMed

    Saco, Yolanda; Fina, Marta; Giménez, Mercè; Pato, Raquel; Piedrafita, Jesús; Bassols, Anna

    2008-09-01

    To assess the validity of laboratory parameters in blood and faeces as indicators of stress in cows, concentrations of cortisol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), 3-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin in serum, as well as corticosterone in faeces, were determined in two breeds of cattle (Alberes and Bruna dels Pirineus) under different systems of housing and feeding. Serum cortisol concentrations were markedly elevated in the Alberes group, probably because they were less habituated to human handling. Corticosterone concentrations in faeces were significantly increased in the Bruna dels Pirineus cattle on Alberes pastures. Concentrations of NEFAs and cholesterol were significantly elevated in the Alberes cows, indicating an adrenergic stimulus of lipolysis or the existence of nutritional stress. SAA concentrations were significantly higher in groups living in hardy conditions, whereas there were no significant differences in haptoglobin between the three groups.

  1. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances an increase of plasma corticosterone levels induced by forced swim-stress.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazunori; Koushi, Emi; Irie, Keiichi; Higuchi, Sei; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Kinjo, Junei; Egashira, Nobuaki; Oishi, Ryozo; Uchida, Naoki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Ryoji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2009-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on susceptibility to stress. We reported that THC significantly prolonged the immobility time during the forced swim-stress. The selective cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist O-2050 significantly reduced the enhancement of immobility by THC. We investigated the effect of THC on levels of stress hormone corticosterone under non-stress and forced swim-stress conditions. THC did not affect plasma corticosterone levels under non-stress conditions. However, THC, together with forced swim-stress, significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels. This effect was inhibited by O-2050. This evidence suggests that THC, under stressful conditions, enhances the susceptibility of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis to stress via the CB(1) receptor, thereby increasing the risk of depression.

  2. Relationship of climatic conditions to fecal corticosterone levels of captive cheetahs reared in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Une, Yumi; Ito, Shu; Yamabe, Marino; Toyoda, Hideto; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    To assess the stress level of cheetahs reared in Japan and to identify the prime components of the climatic conditions that affect their thermal stress, fecal corticosterone was monitored for 8 months from May to the following January. A total of 203 fecal samples were gathered in the morning from seven adult cheetahs that were kept at a zoological garden in Wakayama, Japan. Cheetahs were on exhibit singly or together with a harmonious conspecific during the day, but housed singly at night. Although the monthly fluctuation in corticosterone concentrations was not significant, the concentrations were relatively low during the summer season. Individual differences among cheetahs and the interaction effect between individual and month on the corticosterone concentrations were significant. Whereas the corticosterone concentrations negatively correlated with air temperature, they were positively correlated with the amount of rainfall. The highest air temperature and the amount of rainfall were extracted as the prime factors affecting corticosterone concentrations. These results suggest that cheetahs reared in Japan are somewhat subjected to thermal stress, particularly on cooler and/or rainy days.

  3. Levels of fecal corticosterone in sandhill cranes during a human-led migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartup, B.K.; Olsen, G.H.; Czekala, Nancy M.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Langenberg, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen captive-reared greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) were conditioned to follow ultralight aircraft to promote migration between Wisconsin and Florida (U SA) after release. Fecal samples were collected throughout the training period in Wisconsin and during a 1,977-km human-led migration to Florida to determine fecal corticosterone (FC) concentrations by radioimmunoassay. The mean (?SE) FC concentration during the training period was 1O9.5?7.5 ng/g and was representative of baseline levels recorded previously from sandhill cranes. Fecal corticosterone concentrations increased in early migration compared to concentrations 1 mo prior to departure (P<0.01) but were not different from baseline concentrations at the end of the 6-wk migration period. The variability of FC concentrations in individual samples was greater throughout the migration than the training period. Increases in FC during migration were modest and generally consistent with normal corticosterone elevations observed in migrating birds.

  4. Faecal corticosterone levels of dogs relinquished to a shelter in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Uetake, K.; Uchida, H.; Ishihara, J.; Kushima, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the baseline level of faecal corticosterone in dogs relinquished to a shelter and compared changes in it caused by social events that dogs experienced. Faecal corticosterone was measured to assess the average stress levels of dogs that depend on the actual conditions of the shelter. One category of subject animals was dogs relinquished by their owner or stray dogs who were penned in a group (group RG) or caged individually due to their incompatibility (group RI), and the other category was demonstration dogs kept for dog training classes (group DT) and petting activities held in welfare facilities for the elderly and in elementary schools (group DP). While the number of dogs that were included in groups RG and RI fluctuated almost daily, the demonstration dogs were kept together for three months. The average level of faecal corticosterone was significantly higher in group RG than in groups DT and DP. The level of group RI was also relatively high, but the difference from the other three groups was not statistically significant. Faecal corticosterone concentrations of groups DT and DP rose somewhat from the baseline levels on the day after social service activities. The results of this study reaffirm that temporarily relinquished and socially unstable dogs especially suffer a certain level of stress in a shelter. PMID:26457191

  5. Faecal corticosterone levels of dogs relinquished to a shelter in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uetake, K; Uchida, H; Ishihara, J; Kushima, S; Tanaka, T

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the baseline level of faecal corticosterone in dogs relinquished to a shelter and compared changes in it caused by social events that dogs experienced. Faecal corticosterone was measured to assess the average stress levels of dogs that depend on the actual conditions of the shelter. One category of subject animals was dogs relinquished by their owner or stray dogs who were penned in a group (group RG) or caged individually due to their incompatibility (group RI), and the other category was demonstration dogs kept for dog training classes (group DT) and petting activities held in welfare facilities for the elderly and in elementary schools (group DP). While the number of dogs that were included in groups RG and RI fluctuated almost daily, the demonstration dogs were kept together for three months. The average level of faecal corticosterone was significantly higher in group RG than in groups DT and DP. The level of group RI was also relatively high, but the difference from the other three groups was not statistically significant. Faecal corticosterone concentrations of groups DT and DP rose somewhat from the baseline levels on the day after social service activities. The results of this study reaffirm that temporarily relinquished and socially unstable dogs especially suffer a certain level of stress in a shelter.

  6. Baseline corticosterone levels are higher in migrating than sedentary common blackbirds in autumn, but not in spring.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Müller, Florian; Klinner, Thomas; Bairlein, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Corticosterone at baseline levels is thought to be mainly involved in the regulation of uptake, storage and release of energy, processes central to avian migration. Consequently, corticosterone levels are thought to be upregulated during migration, but the temporal pattern of its secretion during migration is not well defined. For example, although it appears that corticosterone levels decrease from flight to stopover, it is unknown if levels at stopover are still elevated and it is largely unclear how these levels compare to non-migratory life-history stages. Furthermore, what role corticosterone plays in crucial migratory processes, such as refueling and departure from stopover, is far from understood. We here determined baseline corticosterone levels in migrating and resident common blackbirds (Turdus merula), sampled simultaneously on Helgoland, a stopover site that also supports a sedentary breeding population. In autumn, migrants had higher corticosterone levels than residents, but in spring levels did not differ between the two groups. Corticosterone levels of migrants were very similar in spring and autumn, whereas in residents levels tended to be higher in spring than autumn. Higher levels in residents in spring than autumn most likely reflect the higher daily workload faced by birds during the pre-breeding than the post-breeding period. Our study thus indicates that, relative to the levels observed in residents in autumn, in spring baseline corticosterone levels were moderately elevated in both migrants and residents and that in autumn levels were moderately elevated in migrants only. Currently, corticosterone's main function at stopover is thought to lie in the regulation of departure. Because most migrant blackbirds stay only one or two days on Helgoland, our results are in line with this idea and suggest that migrating blackbirds up-regulated their corticosterone level in anticipation of an oncoming flight bout.

  7. Lifetime variation in feather corticosterone levels in a long-lived raptor.

    PubMed

    López-Jiménez, Lidia; Blas, Julio; Tanferna, Alessandro; Cabezas, Sonia; Marchant, Tracy; Hiraldo, Fernando; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2017-02-01

    In long-lived animals, the challenges that threaten individual homeostasis, and the way they are dealt with, are expected to vary in an age-related manner, encompassing the progressive selection of superior phenotypes and the acquisition and improvement of key skills (e.g. foraging, breeding and fighting abilities). Since exposure to homeostatic challenges typically elevates circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels in vertebrates (modulating the behavioural and physiological responses that mediate allostasis), we may expect concomitant age-related changes in these hormones. Here, we investigated whether the level of corticosterone (the main avian GC) deposited in feathers during regular moult reflected the expected lifelong progression of energetic challenges in a long-lived raptor, the black kite (Milvus migrans). Feather corticosterone values were highest in the youngest birds, gradually declined to reach minimum levels in prime age, 7- to 11-year-old birds, and then increased again slightly among the oldest, senescent birds (≥12 years old). This pattern mirrored the age-related changes in reproductive success and survival rates previously reported for this population, suggesting that feather corticosterone levels captured the most vulnerable and challenging periods experienced by these birds as they proceeded through life. Moreover, feather corticosterone levels were negatively related to body size, suggesting that larger birds either experienced fewer homeostatic challenges, or were better able to cope with them. Feather corticosterone measures thus provided a valuable snapshot of how allostatic loads vary along the life of individuals, supporting the idea of a tight, long-term link between cumulative physiological responses to ecological challenges and demographic performance.

  8. Post-operative corticosterone levels in plasma and feces of mice subjected to permanent catheterization and automated blood sampling.

    PubMed

    Sundbom, Renée; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of surgical placement of permanent arterial catheters on plasma corticosterone levels, fecal corticosterone excretion and body weight in male BALB/c/Sca mice. In addition, the effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight on these parameters were studied. A catheter was placed in the carotid artery during isoflurane anesthesia. Immediately after surgery, the mice were connected to an AccuSampler® μ and blood samples for plasma corticosterone quantification were collected automatically during the first 24 h postoperatively. All fecal boli produced 24 h before and 24 h after surgery were collected for fecal corticosterone excretion measures and the pre- and post-operative body weights were registered. Plasma corticosterone levels were in the range of 150-300 ng/ml after the surgical procedure and the body weight was significantly lower 24 h after surgery compared to its pre-operative value. Contrary to what was expected, the total fecal corticosterone excretion was significantly reduced 24 h after surgery, as was the defecation. Buprenorphine treatment significantly lowered the plasma corticosterone levels, but had no effect on fecal corticosterone excretion or body weight change. It was concluded that surgical placement of an arterial catheter induces a significant stress response, as judged by its effect on plasma corticosterone and body weight. Voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine improved postoperative recovery by lowering plasma corticosterone concentrations. Neither fecal corticosterone excretion nor body weight change seems suitable for postoperative stress assessment in mice in the present experimental setup.

  9. Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M

    2010-01-01

    Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development.

  10. Effects of Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) extract on neurogenesis associated with serum corticosterone and GABA in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kim, Woosuk; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-02-01

    Lemon balm, leaves of Melissa officinalis L., has been used for anti-anxiety and spasmolytics. We observed the extract of Melissa officinalis L. (MOE) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged mice (12 months of age) using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively. We also observed changes in corticosterone, GAD67 and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) to check their possible mechanisms related to neurogenesis. We administered 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE to the animals once a day for 3 weeks. For labeling of newly generated cells, we also administered 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) twice a day for 3 days from the day of the first MOE treatment. Administration of 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE dose-dependently increased Ki67 positive nuclei to 244.1 and 763.9% of the vehicle-treated group, respectively. In addition, 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE significantly increased DCX positive neuroblasts with well-developed (tertiary) dendrites. Furthermore, MOE administration significantly increased BrdU/calbindin D-28 k double labeled cells (integrated neurons into granule cells in the DG) to 245.2% of the vehicle-treated group. On the other hand, administration of MOE reduced corticosterone levels in serum and decreased GABA-T levels in the DG homogenates. These results suggest that MOE increases cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration into granule cells by decreasing serum corticosterone levels as well as by increasing GABA levels in the mouse DG.

  11. Do cortisol and corticosterone play the same role in coping with stressors? Measuring glucocorticoid serum in free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe).

    PubMed

    Ovejero, Ramiro; Novillo, Agustina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Mosca-Torres, Maria E; Cuello, Pablo; Gregório, Pablo; Jahn, Graciela; Carmanchahi, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Habitat can constrain and shape successful ecological and physiological strategies, thus providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits. However, unpredictable challenges, such as storms, natural disasters, and human activities can also have great effects on stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are adrenal steroid hormones that play an important role in how vertebrates cope with these predictable and unpredictable environmental challenges. Although assessing GCs levels can have many applications in the study of wildlife and/or captive animals, with or without capturing individuals, it requires a species-specific complete validation (analytical and biological) before its use. In this work, our aim was to: (a) validate a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring GCs levels in L. guanicoe serum; (b) assess cortisol and corticosterone levels (if present) in serum of wild L. guanicoe individuals; and (c) compare the response to acute stressors (handling, shearing, and release). Our results successfully: (a) validated RIA for asses GCs levels in wild ungulates; (b) confirmed the presence for cortisol and corticosterone and showed that both GCs are differently affected by environmental stimuli in L. guanicoe; and (c) showed that GCs exhibit different patterns in the field and in response to acute stressors, making these camelids an interesting endocrinological model when seeking the adaptive functions of a given variation and further emphasizing the complexity of GC physiology in wild mammals. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Molindone: higher doses needed to block pergolide-induced elevation of serum corticosterone than to elevate dopamine metabolites in brain.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W; Snoddy, H D

    1983-12-05

    Molindone at a dose of 3 mg/kg i.p. in rats prevented pergolide-induced decreases in brain DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and HVA (homovanillic acid), causing instead significant increases in these dopamine metabolites when given in combination with pergolide. Molindone alone at 3 mg/kg caused two-fold or greater increases in DOPAC and HVA and at doses as low as 0.3 mg/kg caused significant increases in these metabolites. However, molindone at 3 mg/kg and lower doses was without effect on pergolide-induced elevation of serum corticosterone, though a higher dose of molindone, 10 mg/kg, significantly antagonized this increase in corticosterone. These data support earlier findings with molindone, suggesting it has greater affinity for presynaptic dopamine autoreceptors than for postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

  13. Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galápagos marine iguanas during El Niño events

    PubMed Central

    Romero, L. Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of “stress” in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations. PMID:11416210

  14. Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition-induced changes in plasma corticosterone levels, anxiety and locomotor activity in male CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Aliczki, Mano; Zelena, Dora; Mikics, Eva; Varga, Zoltan K; Pinter, Otto; Bakos, Nikoletta Venczkone; Varga, Janos; Haller, Jozsef

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis is strongly controlled by the endocannabinoid system. The specific impact of enhanced 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling on corticosterone plasma levels, however, was not investigated so far. Here we studied the effects of the recently developed monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 on basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels in male CD1 mice, and found that this compound dramatically increased basal levels without affecting stress responses. Since acute changes in corticosterone levels can affect behavior, JZL184 was administered concurrently with the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, to investigate whether the previously shown behavioral effects of JZL184 are dependent on corticosterone. We found that in the elevated plus-maze, the effects of JZL184 on "classical" anxiety-related measures were abolished by corticosterone synthesis blockade. By contrast, effects on the "ethological" measures of anxiety (i.e. risk assessment) were not affected by metyrapone. In the open-field, the locomotion-enhancing effects of the compound were not changed either. These findings show that monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition dramatically increases basal levels of corticosterone. This endocrine effect partly affects the anxiolytic, but not the locomotion-enhancing effects of monoacylglycerol lipase blockade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Central injection of CDP-choline suppresses serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyici, Sinem; Basaran, Nesrin Filiz; Cavun, Sinan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-10-05

    In this study we aimed to test central administration of CDP-choline on serum ghrelin, leptin, glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol CDP-choline and saline were administered to male Wistar-Albino rats. For the measurement of serum leptin and ghrelin levels, blood samples were obtained baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min following i.c.v. CDP-choline injection. Equimolar doses of i.c.v. choline (1.0 µmol) and cytidine (1.0 µmol) were administered and measurements were repeated throughout the second round of the experiment. Atropine (10 µg) and mecamylamine (50 µg) were injected intracerebroventricularly prior to CDP-choline and measurements repeated in the third round of the experiment. After 1 µmol CDP-choline injection, serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 60 min (P=0.025), whereas serum leptin levels were increased at 60 and 120 min (P=0.012 and P=0.017 respectively). CDP-choline injections also induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum glucose and corticosterone levels. The effect of choline on serum leptin and ghrelin levels was similar with CDP-choline while no effect was seen with cytidine. Suppression of serum ghrelin levels was eliminated through mecamylamine pretreatment while a rise in leptin was prevented by both atropine and mecamylamine pretreatments. In conclusion; centrally injected CDP-choline suppressed serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels. The observed effects following receptor antagonist treatment suggest that nicotinic receptors play a role in suppression of serum ghrelin levels,whereas nicotinic and muscarinic receptors both play a part in the increase of serum leptin levels.

  16. Changes in serum and urinary corticosterone and testosterone during short-term capture and handling in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-09-15

    Non-invasive endocrine monitoring with minimally invasive biological samples, such as urine, is being used widely for conservation biology research on amphibians. Currently, it is unknown how closely urinary measurements correspond with the traditional serum hormone measurements. We compared urinary and serum concentrations of corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) in adult male cane toads (Rhinella marina) using a standard capture and handling (short-term stressor) protocol. Free-living male cane toads were captured and sampled for baseline urine (0h) with a second urine sample taken at 0.5h and hourly between 1 and 8h. A single blood sample was collected from each toad after the final urine sampling and capture handling. The mean serum CORT concentration increased between 0 and 0.5h, reaching the highest level between 6 and 8h. The mean urinary CORT concentration increased with a lag-time of 1h and continued to increase up to 8h. The mean level of serum T decreased between 0 and 7h and increased between 7 and 8h. Mean urinary T concentration decreased with a lag-time of 0.5h. Urinary T levels did not change between 4 and 8h. Mean serum T levels reached 50% of the original 0h value at 1h while mean serum CORT levels reached 200% of the original 0h value within 0.5h. Mean urinary T levels reached 50% of the original 0h value within 3h while mean urinary CORT levels reached 200% of the original 0h value within 3h. The inter-individual variation in baseline serum and urinary CORT and T levels were highly comparable, suggesting that baseline urine sample provides a reliable indicator of the physiological status of the animal. Overall, the results have demonstrated that urine sampling and standard capture handling protocol provide reliable measures of baseline corticosterone and testosterone, as well as short-term stress hormone responses in amphibians.

  17. Increased corticosterone levels in mice subjected to the rat exposure test.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Vanessa Cristiane Santana; Santos Gomes, Karina; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz

    2010-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable interest in studying prey-predator relationships to develop rodent-based models for the neurobehavioral aspects of stress and emotion. However, despite the growing use of transgenic mice and results showing important differences in the behavioral responses of rats and mice, little research has been conducted regarding the responses of mice to predators. The rat exposure test (RET), a recently developed and behaviorally validated prey-predator (mouse-rat)-based model, has proven to be a useful tool in evaluating the defensive responses of mice facing rats. To further validate the RET, we investigated the endocrine and behavioral responses of mice exposed to this apparatus. We first constructed a plasma corticosterone secretion curve in mice exposed to a rat or to an empty cage (control). Rat-exposed mice showed a pronounced rise in corticosterone levels that peaked 15 min from the beginning of the predator exposure. The corticosterone levels and behavioral responses of mice exposed to a rat or to a toy in the RET apparatus were then measured. We observed high plasma corticosterone levels along with clear avoidance behaviors represented by decreases in tunnel and surface area exploration and increases in risk assessment behaviors and freezing. This strongly suggests that the test elicits a repertoire of behavioral responses compatible with an aversion state and indicates that it is a promising model for the evaluation of prey-predator interactions. However, more physiological, neurochemical, and pharmacological studies are needed to further validate the test. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of housing density on reproductive parameters and corticosterone levels in nursing mice.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, James; Dambrosia, James M; Davis, Judith A

    2008-03-01

    The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide) recommends minimum floor space per mouse based on weight, with no other factors considered. We conducted a randomized experiment to evaluate the effect of housing density on reproductive indices and corticosterone levels in lactating mice. Female mice matched for age, strain, and date-of-pregnancy were housed individually. At parturition the dams were randomly allocated to have litters culled or remain intact. The experimental group had litters culled to meet the Guide's space density requirement. Litters of the second group were maintained as the numbers born to each dam. Fecal corticosterone levels (first-generation mice only), growth, and weaning weights were measured for mice in all cages; in addition, the reproductive behavior of progeny generated under both housing conditions was assessed to determine whether a space x litter size interaction affected subsequent reproduction. The growth rates for pups from culled litters were significantly greater than those from intact litters. The first-generation pups showed no statistically significant differences in fecal corticosterone or reproductive parameters. The second-generation pups showed no statistically significant differences in growth rates. The results of the study suggest that a strict interpretation of space requirements as listed in Table 2.1 of the Guide is not warranted for lactating dams with litters.

  19. Effect of Housing Density on Reproductive Parameters and Corticosterone Levels in Nursing Mice

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, James; Dambrosia, James M; Davis, Judith A

    2008-01-01

    The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide) recommends minimum floor space per mouse based on weight, with no other factors considered. We conducted a randomized experiment to evaluate the effect of housing density on reproductive indices and corticosterone levels in lactating mice. Female mice matched for age, strain, and date-of-pregnancy were housed individually. At parturition the dams were randomly allocated to have litters culled or remain intact. The experimental group had litters culled to meet the Guide’s space density requirement. Litters of the second group were maintained as the numbers born to each dam. Fecal corticosterone levels (first-generation mice only), growth, and weaning weights were measured for mice in all cages; in addition, the reproductive behavior of progeny generated under both housing conditions was assessed to determine whether a space × litter size interaction affected subsequent reproduction. The growth rates for pups from culled litters were significantly greater than those from intact litters. The first-generation pups showed no statistically significant differences in fecal corticosterone or reproductive parameters. The second-generation pups showed no statistically significant differences in growth rates. The results of the study suggest that a strict interpretation of space requirements as listed in Table 2.1 of the Guide is not warranted for lactating dams with litters. PMID:18351716

  20. Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Marsden, Charles A

    2011-06-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO), Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn. (Rutaceae), is used widely in aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety despite limited scientific evidence. A previous study showed that BEO significantly increased gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in rat hippocampus, suggesting potential anxiolytic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BEO (1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% w/w) administered to rats on both anxiety-related behaviours (the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and hole-board tests) and stress-induced levels of plasma corticosterone in comparison with the effects of diazepam. Inhalation of BEO (1% and 2.5%) and injection of diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries on the EPM. The percentage time spent in the open arms was also significantly enhanced following administration of either BEO (2.5% and 5%) or diazepam. Total arm entries were significantly increased with the highest dose (5%), suggesting an increase in locomotor activity. In the hole-board test, 2.5% BEO and diazepam significantly increased the number of head dips. 2.5% BEO and diazepam attenuated the corticosterone response to acute stress caused by exposure to the EPM. In conclusion, both BEO and diazepam exhibited anxiolytic-like behaviours and attenuated HPA axis activity by reducing the corticosterone response to stress.

  1. Vibrissal paralysis produces increased corticosterone levels and impairment of spatial memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Patarroyo, William E; García-Perez, Milady; Lamprea, Marisol; Múnera, Alejandro; Troncoso, Julieta

    2017-03-01

    This research was aimed at establishing how the absence of active whisking in rats affects acquisition and recovery of spatial memory. The mystacial vibrissae were irreversibly paralyzed by cutting the facial nerve's mandibular and buccal branches bilaterally in the facial nerve lesion group (N=14); control animals were submitted to sham-surgery (N=15). Sham-operated (N=11) and facial nerve-lesioned (N=10) animals were trained (one session, eight acquisition trials) and tested 24h later in a circular Barnes maze. It was found that facial nerve lesioned-animals adequately acquired the spatial task, but had impaired recovery of it when tested 24h after training as compared to control ones. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured after memory testing in four randomly chosen animals of each trained group and after a single training trial in the maze in additional facial nerve-lesioned (N=4) and sham-operated animals (N=4). Significant differences respecting the elevation of corticosterone concentration after either a single training trial or memory testing indicated that stress response was enhanced in facial nerve-lesioned animals as compared to control ones. Increased corticosterone levels during training and testing might have elicited the observed whisker paralysis-induced spatial memory retrieval impairment.

  2. Effects of Chlorophytum arundinaceum, Asparagus adscendens and Asparagus racemosus on pro-inflammatory cytokine and corticosterone levels produced by stress.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Anubha Singh; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Chlorophytum arundinaceum, Asparagus adscendens and Asparagus racemosus are used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for improving the general state of health and for stress-related immune disorders. The effects of the methanol and aqueous extracts of the tuberous roots of these plants were examined in an experimental mouse model of stress, induced by swimming. The extracts were shown to exert an inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin 1β and tumour necrosis factor α, and on the production of nitric oxide in mouse macrophage cells RAW 264.7 stimulated by lipopolysaccharide in vitro. Similar inhibition was also observed in the production of interleukin 2 in EL 4 lymphoma cells stimulated by concanavalin A. Corticosterone levels in serum and adrenal glands were measured. The findings suggest that these plants may be beneficial in the management of stress and inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Relationships between POPs and baseline corticosterone levels in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) across their breeding cycle.

    PubMed

    Nordstad, Tore; Moe, Børge; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Bech, Claus; Chastel, Olivier; Goutte, Aurélie; Sagerup, Kjetil; Trouvé, Colette; Herzke, Dorte; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2012-05-01

    Chronic exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in wildlife might alter the response to environmental changes through interference with the regulation of stress hormones. Here, we examined the relationship between blood concentrations of several POPs and baseline plasma corticosterone levels in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) during three distinct periods in the breeding season. The concentrations of POPs and corticosterone increased, whereas body mass decreased progressively from the pre-laying period to the incubation and the chick rearing period. ∑PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) correlated positively with the baseline corticosterone levels during the pre-laying period, which might suggest that PCBs affect the regulation of corticosterone. However, this relationship was not found during the incubation or the chick rearing period. Possible explanations are discussed with emphasis on how total stress/allostatic load is handled during different periods and conditions.

  4. Influence of starvation on heart contractility and corticosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Ko, Tae Hee; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Marquez, Jubert; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The physiological changes, including cardiac modification, that occur during starvation are not yet completely understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a 2-week starvation period on heart contractility, muscle mass, and irisin and corticosterone levels in rats. Rats in the starved group showed a significant reduction in the body, heart, kidney, and muscle weight (n = 23, p < 0.05). Blood glucose, total protein, and albumin showed a 44, 17.5, and 10.3 % reduction, respectively (p < 0.05). Lipid reserves, such as total lipid, triglyceride, and free fatty acid, were also comparably reduced (p < 0.05). However, the bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and creatine kinase levels were higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). The blood irisin level was unchanged, but the stress-related corticosterone level was significantly higher in the starved group. The differences observed in M-mode echocardiography were further compared with the body-weight-matched control group. Starvation reduced the left ventricle mass; however, this difference was not significant compared with the body-weight-matched group (p > 0.05). In the starvation group, the impairment of cardiac output was dependent on the reduction in stroke volume and heart rate. Starvation induced a severe reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening when compared with the body-weight-matched control group (p < 0.05). In summary, prolonged starvation, which leads to a deficiency of available nutrition, increases the stress-related corticosterone level, impairs the cardiac output, and is associated with changes in cardiac morphogeometry.

  5. Stress in the wild: chronic predator pressure and acute restraint affect plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Newman, A E M; Zanette, L Y; Clinchy, M; Goodenough, N; Soma, K K

    2013-05-01

    The effects of chronic stressors on glucocorticoid levels are well described in laboratory rodents, but far less is known about the effects of chronic stressors on wild animals or on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels. DHEA can be produced by the adrenal cortex and has prominent antiglucocorticoid properties. Here, we examined wild songbirds to elucidate the relationship between chronic predator pressure and plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels. We measured circulating steroid levels at baseline and after acute restraint in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. During the breeding season, males in low predator pressure (LPP) environments had higher baseline DHEA levels than males in high predator pressure (HPP) environments. Also, acute restraint decreased DHEA levels in LPP males only but increased corticosterone levels in HPP and LPP males similarly. During the nonbreeding season, DHEA and corticosterone levels were lower than during the breeding season, and acute restraint decreased DHEA levels in both HPP and LPP males. Unlike males, breeding females showed no effect of predator pressure on baseline DHEA or corticosterone levels. These data suggest that naturalistic chronic and acute stressors affect circulating DHEA and corticosterone levels in wild animals and highlight the importance of using multiple endpoints when studying the physiological effects of chronic stress.

  6. Propranolol reduces cognitive deficits, amyloid β levels, tau phosphorylation and insulin resistance in response to chronic corticosterone administration.

    PubMed

    Dobarro, Marta; Orejana, Lourdes; Aguirre, Norberto; Ramírez, Maria J

    2013-07-01

    Chronic exposure to glucocorticoids might result not only in insulin resistance or cognitive deficits, but it is also considered as a risk factor for pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease. Propranolol is a β-adrenergic antagonist commonly used in the treatment of hypertension or acute anxiety. The effects of propranolol (5 mg/kg) have been tested in a model of chronic corticosterone administration (100 μg/ml, 4 wk) in drinking water. Corticosterone administration led to cognitive impairment in the novel object recognition test that was reversed by propranolol. Increased levels of Aβ in the hippocampus of corticosterone-treated mice were counteracted by propranolol treatment, purportedly through an increased IDE expression. Chronic corticosterone treatment induced responses characteristic of insulin resistance, as increased peripheral insulin levels, decreased activation of the insulin receptor (pIR) and decreased associated intracellular pathways (pAkt). These effects might be related to a decreased c-Jun N terminal kinase 1 expression. Again, propranolol was able to counteract all corticosterone-induced effects. One of the main kinases involved in tau phosphorylation, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is inactivated by phosphorylation by pAkt, was found to be decreased after corticosterone and increased after propranolol treatment. Concomitant changes in pTau expression were found. Overall, these data further strengthen the potential of propranolol as a therapeutic agent for pathologies associated with the interaction glucocorticoids-insulin resistance and the development of relevant cellular processes for Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G.; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L.; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress. PMID:23533999

  8. Effects of Sheltering on Behavior and Fecal Corticosterone Level of Elderly Dogs.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Yang, Chu Han; Endo, Aki; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess stress levels and demonstrate stress responses of elderly dogs just after admission to an animal shelter. As stress indicators, fecal corticosterone levels and changes in the ethogram of the dogs were investigated during the first week of admittance. Fecal corticosterone levels (mean ± SE) stayed high during the first week of residence, although they fell gently from the day after admittance (16650.1 ± 3769.7 ng/g) to the seventh day (12178.4 ± 2524.4 ng/g) (P < 0.001). The proportions of behavioral expressions changed as the days passed (P < 0.001). In particular, stereotypies decreased from 35.7% on the first day to 2.6% on the sixth day, and time spent sleeping increased from 0.0 to 42.7%. These results indicate that elderly dogs admitted to an animal shelter seem to behaviorally adapt themselves to their novel circumstances but might be stressed even on the seventh day of residence.

  9. Effects of Sheltering on Behavior and Fecal Corticosterone Level of Elderly Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Uetake, Katsuji; Yang, Chu Han; Endo, Aki; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess stress levels and demonstrate stress responses of elderly dogs just after admission to an animal shelter. As stress indicators, fecal corticosterone levels and changes in the ethogram of the dogs were investigated during the first week of admittance. Fecal corticosterone levels (mean ± SE) stayed high during the first week of residence, although they fell gently from the day after admittance (16650.1 ± 3769.7 ng/g) to the seventh day (12178.4 ± 2524.4 ng/g) (P < 0.001). The proportions of behavioral expressions changed as the days passed (P < 0.001). In particular, stereotypies decreased from 35.7% on the first day to 2.6% on the sixth day, and time spent sleeping increased from 0.0 to 42.7%. These results indicate that elderly dogs admitted to an animal shelter seem to behaviorally adapt themselves to their novel circumstances but might be stressed even on the seventh day of residence. PMID:27917385

  10. Effects of Acute Restraint Stress, Prolonged Captivity Stress and Transdermal Corticosterone Application on Immunocompetence and Plasma Levels of Corticosterone on the Cururu Toad (Rhinella icterica)

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Vania Regina; Titon, Stefanny Christie Monteiro; Barsotti, Adriana Maria Giorgi; Titon Jr., Braz; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid steroids modulate immunocompetence in complex ways with both immunoenhancing and immunosuppressive effects in vertebrates exposed to different stressors. Such bimodal effects have been associated with variation in duration and intensity of the stress response. Given that natural populations have been exposed to a multitude of stressors, a better understanding of the functional association between duration and intensity of the stress response, the resulting changes in glucocorticoid plasma levels and their impact on different aspects of immunocompetence emerges as a cornerstone for vertebrate conservation strategies. We investigated the effects of a restraint challenge (with and without movement restriction), long-term captivity, and transdermal corticosterone application on plasma levels of corticosterone (hereinafter referred to as CORT) and different parameters of innate immunocompetence in the male cururu toads (Rhinella icterica). We show that for R. icterica restraint for 24h proved to be a stressful condition, increasing CORT by 3-fold without consistent immunological changes. However, the application of a more intense stressor (restraint with movement restriction), for the same period, potentiated this response resulting in a 9-fold increase in CORT, associated with increase Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (N:L) and a lower bacterial killing ability (BKA). Transdermal application of corticosterone efficiently mimics repeated acute stress response events, without changing the immune parameters even after 13 days of treatment. Interestingly, long-term captivity did not mitigate the stress response, since the toads maintained 3-fold increased CORT even after 3 months under these conditions. Moreover, long-term captivity in the same condition increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and generated an even greater decrease in BKA, suggesting that consequences of the stress response can be aggravated by time in captivity. PMID:25831055

  11. Effects of acute restraint stress, prolonged captivity stress and transdermal corticosterone application on immunocompetence and plasma levels of corticosterone on the cururu Toad (Rhinella icterica).

    PubMed

    de Assis, Vania Regina; Titon, Stefanny Christie Monteiro; Barsotti, Adriana Maria Giorgi; Titon, Braz; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid steroids modulate immunocompetence in complex ways with both immunoenhancing and immunosuppressive effects in vertebrates exposed to different stressors. Such bimodal effects have been associated with variation in duration and intensity of the stress response. Given that natural populations have been exposed to a multitude of stressors, a better understanding of the functional association between duration and intensity of the stress response, the resulting changes in glucocorticoid plasma levels and their impact on different aspects of immunocompetence emerges as a cornerstone for vertebrate conservation strategies. We investigated the effects of a restraint challenge (with and without movement restriction), long-term captivity, and transdermal corticosterone application on plasma levels of corticosterone (hereinafter referred to as CORT) and different parameters of innate immunocompetence in the male cururu toads (Rhinella icterica). We show that for R. icterica restraint for 24h proved to be a stressful condition, increasing CORT by 3-fold without consistent immunological changes. However, the application of a more intense stressor (restraint with movement restriction), for the same period, potentiated this response resulting in a 9-fold increase in CORT, associated with increase Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (N:L) and a lower bacterial killing ability (BKA). Transdermal application of corticosterone efficiently mimics repeated acute stress response events, without changing the immune parameters even after 13 days of treatment. Interestingly, long-term captivity did not mitigate the stress response, since the toads maintained 3-fold increased CORT even after 3 months under these conditions. Moreover, long-term captivity in the same condition increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and generated an even greater decrease in BKA, suggesting that consequences of the stress response can be aggravated by time in captivity.

  12. Impact of stress and levels of corticosterone on the development of breast cancer in rats

    PubMed Central

    De la Roca-Chiapas, José María; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Martínez-García, Jorge Antonio; Martínez-Soto, Joel; Ramos-Frausto, Víctor Manuel; González-Ramírez, Leivy Patricia; Nowack, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Stress is experienced during cancer, and impairs the immune system’s ability to protect the body. Our aim was to investigate if isolation stress has an impact on the development of tumors in rats, and to measure the size and number of tumors and the levels of corticosterone. Breast cancer was induced in two groups of female rats (N=20) by administration of a single dose of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea 50 mg/kg. Rats in the control group (cancer induction condition) were allowed to remain together in a large cage, whereas in the second group, rats were also exposed to a stressful condition, that is, isolation (cancer induction and isolation condition, CIIC). The CIIC group displayed anxious behavior after 10 weeks of isolation. In the CIIC group, 16 tumors developed, compared with only eleven tumors in the control cancer induction condition group. In addition, compared with the control group, the volume of tumors in the CIIC group was greater, and more rats had more than one tumor and cells showed greater morphological damage. Levels of corticosterone were also significantly different between the two groups. This study supports the hypothesis that stress can influence the development of cancer, but that stress itself is not a sufficient factor for the development of cancer in rats. The study also provides new information for development of experimental studies and controlled environments. PMID:26793009

  13. Impact of stress and levels of corticosterone on the development of breast cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    De la Roca-Chiapas, José María; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Martínez-García, Jorge Antonio; Martínez-Soto, Joel; Ramos-Frausto, Víctor Manuel; González-Ramírez, Leivy Patricia; Nowack, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Stress is experienced during cancer, and impairs the immune system's ability to protect the body. Our aim was to investigate if isolation stress has an impact on the development of tumors in rats, and to measure the size and number of tumors and the levels of corticosterone. Breast cancer was induced in two groups of female rats (N=20) by administration of a single dose of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea 50 mg/kg. Rats in the control group (cancer induction condition) were allowed to remain together in a large cage, whereas in the second group, rats were also exposed to a stressful condition, that is, isolation (cancer induction and isolation condition, CIIC). The CIIC group displayed anxious behavior after 10 weeks of isolation. In the CIIC group, 16 tumors developed, compared with only eleven tumors in the control cancer induction condition group. In addition, compared with the control group, the volume of tumors in the CIIC group was greater, and more rats had more than one tumor and cells showed greater morphological damage. Levels of corticosterone were also significantly different between the two groups. This study supports the hypothesis that stress can influence the development of cancer, but that stress itself is not a sufficient factor for the development of cancer in rats. The study also provides new information for development of experimental studies and controlled environments.

  14. Bilateral lesions of suprachiasmatic nuclei affect circadian rhythms in (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation into deoxyribonucleic acid in mouse intestinal tract, mitotic index of corneal epithelium, and serum corticosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Scheving, L.E.; Tsai, T.H.; Powell, E.W.; Pasley, J.N.; Halberg, F.; Dunn, J.

    1983-03-01

    Investigations into the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the coordination of circadian rhythms have presented differing results. Several reports have shown that ablation of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNA) alters the phase and amplitude of rhythms but does not abolish them. The present study investigates the effect of SCNA on the rhythms in cell proliferation in various regions of the intestinal tract as measured by the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid, in the mitotic activity of the corneal epithelium, and in serum corticosterone levels. The study involved mice with verified lesions of the SCN (six to 13 mice per time point) and control groups of both sham-operated and unoperated mice (seven of each per time point). The mice were killed in groups that represented seven time points over a single 24 hr span (3 hr intervals with the 0800 hr sampled both at start and end of the series). The tissues examined were the tongue, esophagus, gastric stomach, and colon for DNA synthesis, the corneal epithelium for mitotic index, and blood serum for corticosterone level. The most consistent result of SCNA was a phase advance in the rhythms in cell proliferation in the tongue, esophagus, gastric stomach, colon, and corneal epithelium. A reduction in rhythm amplitude occurred in the tongue, esophagus, and corneal epithelium; however, there was an amplitude increase for the stomach, colon, and serum corticosterone. The mesor (rhythm-adjusted mean) was increased by SCNA in all tissues except the corneal epithelium. These findings further support the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclear area in the control of rhythms in cell proliferation and corticosterone production, by acting as a ''phase-resetter'' and as a modulator of rhythm amplitude.

  15. Developmental responses to opioids reveals a lack of effect on stress-induced corticosterone levels in neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C. C.; Kitchen, I.

    1987-01-01

    The neonate has an unusual capacity for survival and the possibility exists that mechanisms for controlling stress responses may differ in the developing animal. In adults both endogenous and exogenous opioids can modulate the corticosterone responses to stress. We have studied this effect in neonatal rats and found that opioid modulation is absent in early postnatal development. Neonatal rats of either sex were injected with morphine (5-50 mg kg-1), fentanyl (10-100 micrograms kg-1), buprenorphine (0.1-30 mg kg-1) or naloxone (0.1-10 mg kg-1) and plasma corticosterone measured fluorimetrically 15 or 20 min later. In addition naloxone reversibility studies (1 mg kg-1, co-administered) were carried out for the opioid agonists. In adult rats, elevations in plasma corticosterone caused by injection stress were potentiated by morphine, fentanyl and buprenorphine. In neonates, though injection stress-induced rises in plasma corticosterone were absent at 10 days, elevations were observed at 21 days and later. However, significant potentiation of this corticosterone response by fentanyl was absent at 21 days and at later ages (30 and 40 days) for morphine and buprenorphine. The potentiating effect of all three agonists did not become fully effective until day 45. In addition, in animals acclimatized to injection stress by 7 day injection pretreatment, fentanyl did not significantly alter corticosterone levels in 30 day old neonates. High doses of naloxone (10 mg kg-1) significantly increased the corticosterone response to injection stress in adult rats but this effect was absent in 30 day old animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3594070

  16. Effects of ethanol administration on corticosterone levels in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Willey, Amanda Rachel; Anderson, Rachel Ivy; Morales, Melissa; Ramirez, Ruby Liane; Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-02-01

    Adolescent humans and rodents have been shown to consume more alcohol than their adult counterparts. Given that corticosterone (CORT) has been shown to be related to the intake of several drugs of abuse, this study assessed the ontogenetic effects of low-moderate doses of ethanol on CORT increases and recovery. Despite no significant differences in baseline (home cage) CORT levels, CORT responses to ethanol were greater in females than in males and in adult females than in adolescent females; males, however, showed less marked age differences in CORT levels after ethanol consumption. Adolescent blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) were lower than those of adults, although these BEC differences appear insufficient to account for the ontogenetic differences in CORT levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that it is unlikely that age differences in CORT elevations provide a major contribution to the ontogenetic differences in alcohol intake seen between adolescents and adults.

  17. A novel technique to measure chronic levels of corticosterone in turtles living around a major roadway

    PubMed Central

    Baxter-Gilbert, James H.; Riley, Julia L.; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F.; Litzgus, Jacqueline D.; Lesbarrères, David

    2014-01-01

    Conservation biology integrates multiple disciplines to expand the ability to identify threats to populations and develop mitigation for these threats. Road ecology is a branch of conservation biology that examines interactions between wildlife and roadways. Although the direct threats of road mortality and habitat fragmentation posed by roads have received much attention, a clear understanding of the indirect physiological effects of roads on wildlife is lacking. Chronic physiological stress can lower immune function, affect reproductive rates and reduce life expectancy; thus, it has the potential to induce long-lasting effects on populations. Reptiles are globally in decline, and roads are known to have negative effects on reptile populations; however, it is unknown whether individual responses to roads and traffic result in chronic stress that creates an additional threat to population viability. We successfully extracted reliable measures of corticosterone (CORT), a known, commonly used biomarker for physiological stress, from claw trimmings from painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) captured at three study sites (road-impacted site, control site and validation site). Corticosterone levels in claws were evaluated as a measure of chronic stress in turtles because CORT is deposited during growth of the claw and could provide an opportunity to examine past long-term stress levels. While male turtles had higher CORT levels on average than females, there was no difference in the level of CORT between the road-impacted and control site, nor was there a relationship between CORT and turtle body condition. In validating a novel approach for non-invasive measurement of long-term CORT levels in a keratinized tissue in wild reptiles, our study provides a new avenue for research in the field of stress physiology. PMID:27293657

  18. Elevated corticosterone levels and severe weather conditions decrease parental investment of incubating Adélie penguins.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    Corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, mediates resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to changes in the environment. Incubation is a time and energy-consuming phase of the avian reproductive cycle. It may be terminated prematurely, when the parents' energy stores are depleted or when environmental conditions are severe. In this study, the effects of experimentally elevated baseline corticosterone levels on the parental investment of incubating male Adélie penguins were investigated. Incubation duration and reproductive success of 60 penguins were recorded. The clutches of some birds were replaced by dummy eggs, which recorded egg temperatures and rotation rates, enabling a detailed investigation of incubation behaviour. Corticosterone levels of treated birds were 2.4-fold higher than those of controls 18 days post treatment. Exogenous corticosterone triggered nest desertion in 61% of the treated birds; consequently reducing reproductive success, indicating that corticosterone can reduce or disrupt parental investment. Regarding egg temperatures, hypothermic events became more frequent and more pronounced in treated birds, before these birds eventually abandoned their nest. The treatment also significantly decreased incubation temperatures by 1.3°C and lengthened the incubation period by 2.1 days. However, the number of chicks at hatching was similar among successful nests, regardless of treatment. Weather conditions appeared to be particularly important in determining the extent to which corticosterone levels affected the behaviour of penguins, as treated penguins were more sensitive to severe weather conditions. This underlines the importance of considering the interactions of organisms with their environment in studies of animal behaviour and ecophysiology.

  19. Do mice habituate to "gentle handling?" A comparison of resting behavior, corticosterone levels and synaptic function in handled and undisturbed C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Longordo, Fabio; Fan, Jing; Steimer, Thierry; Kopp, Caroline; Lüthi, Anita

    2011-05-01

    "Gentle handling" has become a method of choice for 4-6 h sleep deprivation in mice, with repeated brief handling applied before sleep deprivation to induce habituation. To verify whether mice do indeed habituate, we assess how 6 days of repeated brief handling impact on resting behavior, on stress, and on the subunit content of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at hippocampal synapses, which is altered by sleep loss. We discuss whether repeated handling biases the outcome of subsequent sleep deprivation. Adult C57BL/6J mice, maintained on a 12 h-12 h light-dark cycle, were left undisturbed for 3 days, then handled during 3 min daily for 6 days in the middle of the light phase. Mice were continuously monitored for their resting time. Serum corticosterone levels and synaptic NMDAR subunit composition were quantified. Handling caused a ∼25% reduction of resting time throughout all handling days. After six, but not after one day of handling, mice had elevated serum corticosterone levels. Six-day handling augmented the presence of the NR2A subunit of NMDARs at hippocampal synapses. Repeated handling induces behavioral and neurochemical alterations that are absent in undisturbed animals. The persistently reduced resting time and the delayed increase in corticosterone levels indicate that mice do not habituate to handling over a 1-week period. Handling-induced modifications bias effects of gentle handling-induced sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, stress, glutamate receptor composition and signaling. A standardization of sleep deprivation procedures involving gentle handling will be important for unequivocally specifying how acute sleep loss affects brain function.

  20. Feather corticosterone levels on wintering grounds have no carry-over effects on breeding among three populations of great skuas (Stercorarius skua).

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza H K; Magnusdóttir, Ellen; Furness, Robert W; Strøm, Hallvard; Petersen, Aevar; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2014-01-01

    Environmental conditions encountered by migratory seabirds in their wintering areas can shape their fitness. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain largely unknown as birds are relatively inaccessible during winter. To assess physiological condition during this period, we measured corticosterone concentrations in winter-grown primary feathers of female great skuas (Stercorarius skua) from three breeding colonies (Bjørnøya, Iceland, Shetland) with wintering areas identified from characteristic stable isotope signatures. We subsequently compared winter feather corticosterone levels between three wintering areas (Africa, Europe and America). Among females breeding in 2009, we found significant differences in feather corticosterone levels between wintering areas. Surprisingly, levels were significantly higher in Africa despite seemingly better local ecological factors (based on lower foraging effort). Moreover, contrary to our predictions, females sharing the same wintering grounds showed significant differences in feather corticosterone levels depending on their colony of origin suggesting that some skuas could be using suboptimal wintering areas. Among females wintering in Africa, Shetland females showed feather corticosterone levels on average 22% lower than Bjørnøya and Iceland females. Finally, the lack of significant relationships between winter feather corticosterone levels and any of the breeding phenology traits does not support the hypothesis of potential carry-over effects of winter feather corticosterone. Yet, the fitness consequences of elevated feather corticosterone levels remain to be determined.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and corticosterone levels in seven polar seabird species.

    PubMed

    Tartu, S; Angelier, F; Bustnes, J O; Moe, B; Hanssen, S A; Herzke, D; Gabrielsen, G W; Verboven, N; Verreault, J; Labadie, P; Budzinski, H; Wingfield, J C; Chastel, O

    2015-02-01

    The role of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on exposure-related endocrine effects has been poorly investigated in wild birds. This is the case for stress hormones including corticosterone (CORT). Some studies have suggested that environmental exposure to PCBs and altered CORT secretion might be associated. Here we investigated the relationships between blood PCB concentrations and circulating CORT levels in seven free-ranging polar seabird species occupying different trophic positions, and hence covering a wide range of PCB exposure. Blood ∑₇PCB concentrations (range: 61-115,632 ng/g lw) were positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT levels in three species and negatively associated to stress-induced CORT levels in one species. Global analysis suggests that in males, baseline CORT levels generally increase with increasing blood ∑₇PCB concentrations, whereas stress-induced CORT levels decrease when reaching high blood ∑₇PCB concentrations. This study suggests that the nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure.

  2. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels.

  3. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

    2004-12-01

    The cortex of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. has been used extensively in Russia, China, Korea and Japan as an adaptogen whose properties are the ability to increase as non-specific body resistance to stress and fatigue. Although it has been reported that Eleutherococcus senticosus has anti-fatigue and anti-stress actions, their actions are still unclear on the relationship between immune system, especially natural killer (NK) activity and endocrine system (corticosterone level). We compared the effects of the water extracts (A, B, C, D and E) of five Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on the swimming time, NK activity and blood corticosterone level using forced swimming stressed mice. Among five kinds, C, D and E extracts significantly prolonged the swimming time. C and D extracts inhibited the reduction of NK activity and the corticosterone elevation induced by forced swimming. The contents of eleutheroside E, isoflaxidin and eleutherosides B plus E were in the order C > D > E > B > A and C > E > D > A > B extracts, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that eleutheroside E may be contributed to the anti-fatigue action, the recovery of the reduction of NK activity and the inhibition of corticosterone elevation induced by swimming stress.

  4. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  5. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice. PMID:25559957

  6. Psychosocial maternal stress during pregnancy affects serum corticosterone, blood immune parameters and anxiety behaviour in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Götz, Alexander A; Stefanski, Volker

    2007-01-30

    Exposure to prenatal stress can impair the behavioural and hormonal development in mammals. However, the consequences for the immune system are rarely investigated and there is only limited evidence that naturalistic prenatal stressors do also have the potential to affect the offspring. Thus, by using a social conflict model in female Long-Evans rats, we investigated the effects of prenatal social stress on several behavioural, hormonal and immunological parameters. Offspring from stressed and non-stressed pregnant females were housed in pairs after weaning, and tested at an age of 4-6 months. Prenatally stressed (PS) males were more active in the elevated plus-maze test as indicated by significantly more frequent entries into the open arms compared to prenatal control males (PC). In addition, PS males had significantly lower serum corticosterone concentrations under basal conditions as well as after ACTH-challenge. The basal number of total leukocytes was significantly lower in the PS group due to significantly lower lymphocyte counts. In particular, the CD4+ T-helper cell subset was affected. The lymphocyte proliferation to pokeweed mitogen was lower in PS males. Because some of the present findings do not correspond to previous studies using conventional stressors, we assume that the nature of the stressor plays an important role for pregnancy outcome and behaviour and physiology of the offspring in later life.

  7. Effects of population density on corticosterone levels of prairie voles in the field.

    PubMed

    Blondel, Dimitri V; Wallace, Gerard N; Calderone, Stefanie; Gorinshteyn, Marija; St Mary, Colette M; Phelps, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    High population density is often associated with increased levels of stress-related hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT). Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a socially monogamous species known for their large population density fluctuations in the wild. Although CORT influences the social behavior of prairie voles in the lab, the effect of population density on CORT has not previously been quantified in this species in the field. We validated a non-invasive hormone assay for measuring CORT metabolites in prairie vole feces. We then used semi-natural enclosures to experimentally manipulate population density, and measured density effects on male space use and fecal CORT levels. Our enclosures generated patterns of space use and social interaction that were consistent with previous prairie vole field studies. Contrary to the positive relationship between CORT and density typical of other taxa, we found that lower population densities (80 animals/ha) produced higher fecal CORT than higher densities (240/ha). Combined with prior work in the lab and field, the data suggest that high prairie vole population densities indicate favorable environments, perhaps through reduced predation risk. Lastly, we found that field animals had lower fecal CORT levels than laboratory-living animals. The data emphasize the usefulness of prairie voles as models for integrating ecological, evolutionary, and mechanistic questions in social behavior.

  8. Effects of population density on corticosterone levels of prairie voles in the field

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Dimitri V.; Wallace, Gerard N.; Calderone, Stefanie; Gorinshteyn, Marija; St. Mary, Colette M.; Phelps, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    High population density is often associated with increased levels of stress-related hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT). Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a socially monogamous species known for their large population density fluctuations in the wild. Although CORT influences the social behavior of prairie voles in the lab, the effect of population density on CORT has not previously been quantified in this species in the field. We validated a non-invasive hormone assay for measuring CORT metabolites in prairie vole feces. We then used semi-natural enclosures to experimentally manipulate population density, and measured density effects on male space use and fecal CORT levels. Our enclosures generated patterns of space use and social interaction that were consistent with previous prairie vole field studies. Contrary to the positive relationship between CORT and density typical of other taxa, we found that lower population densities (80 animals/ha) produced higher fecal CORT than high densities (240/ha). Combined with prior work in the lab and field, the data suggest that high prairie vole population densities indicate favorable environments, perhaps through reduced predation risk. Lastly, we found that field animals had lower fecal CORT levels than laboratory-living animals. The data emphasize the usefulness of prairie voles as models for integrating ecological, evolutionary and mechanistic questions in social behavior. PMID:26342968

  9. Corticosterone levels as indicators of habitat quality: effects of habitat segregation in a migratory bird during the non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Marra, Peter P; Holberton, Rebecca L

    1998-08-01

    During the non-breeding season, many species of territorial migratory birds exhibit a non-random pattern of habitat distribution, with males and females occupying different habitats. In this study, we examined possible physiological consequences arising from such habitat segregation in one migrant passerine species, the American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), on its non-breeding grounds in Jamaica, West Indies. For 2 years, we measured concentrations of corticosterone, at the time of capture (baseline) and 30 min after capture (profile of acute corticosterone secretion), in redstarts in two distinct habitats, one occupied predominately by males and one mostly by females. All redstarts in both habitat types exhibited similar concentrations of baseline corticosterone levels in fall (October), whereas in spring (March-April), redstarts in female-biased habitat exhibited significantly higher baseline levels regardless of age or sex. In fall, all individuals in both habitats exhibited significant increases in corticosterone concentration with capture and handling, but in spring only redstarts (both sexes) in male-biased habitat continued to exhibit acute corticosterone secretion. Redstarts in female-biased habitat had elevated baseline corticosterone levels and reduced acute corticosterone secretion. In spring, baseline corticosterone concentration was negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting muscle catabolism associated with high corticosterone concentrations or possibly that birds are leaner as a result of increased foraging effort. These results indicate that redstarts (primarily females) in female-biased habitats suffered a decline in physiological condition, which could in turn influence their departure schedules, migration patterns and even their condition and arrival schedules on the breeding grounds. Thus, segregation of populations into habitats of different quality during the non-breeding period may have ramifications throughout the annual cycle of

  10. Distinct responses of baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels to genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Homberger, Benjamin; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, i.e. corticosterone (CORT) in birds, support physiological homeostasis and facilitate adaptations to stressful situations. However, maintaining high GC levels are energetically costly and interfere with other physiological processes. To keep the balance of costs and benefits of GC hormones, various mechanisms act to adapt GC levels to environmental conditions on different timescales, i.e. over generations, between parents and their offspring and within the life-time of a single individual. We elucidated whether two strains (domesticated and wild) of grey partridges (Perdix perdix) differed in the developmental trajectories of baseline and stress response CORT throughout the first 80 days of life. We also explored the potential of prenatal and postnatal factors, e.g. parental origin, predictable vs. unpredictable food treatments, individual and social factors to modify these trajectories. Baseline CORT was similar between strains and unaffected by perinatal food treatments. It was negatively related to body size and body condition. Conversely, the CORT stress response was not markedly affected by physiological condition. It was stronger in wild than in domesticated birds and it increased with age. Birds subjected to prenatal unpredictable food supply exhibited an accelerated development of the CORT stress response which could reflect an adaptive maternal effect. We conclude that the vital role of baseline CORT may allow little adaptive scope since changes can quickly become detrimental. In contrast, the CORT stress response may show considerable adaptive potential which might ultimately support homeostasis in a changing environment.

  11. Temporal overlap and repeatability of feather corticosterone levels: practical considerations for use as a biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christopher M.; Madliger, Christine L.; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of corticosterone (CORT) levels in feathers has recently become an appealing tool for the conservation toolbox, potentially providing a non-invasive, integrated measure of stress activity throughout the time of feather growth. However, because the mechanism of CORT deposition, storage and stability in feathers is not fully understood, it is unclear how reliable this measure may be, especially when there is an extended interval between growth and feather collection. We compared CORT levels of naturally grown feathers from tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) that were moulted and regrown concurrently and therefore expected to have similar CORT levels. Specifically, we compared the same feather from the left and right wing (moulted symmetrically) and different types of feathers (wing, back and tail) expected to have been moulted within the same time period. We found that larger, heavier feathers held more CORT per unit length. In addition, we found a lack of concordance in CORT levels both within the same feather type and between different feather types, even after taking into account differences in feather density. Our results indicate that naturally grown feathers may not consistently provide an indication of stress status. Additionally, conflict in results may arise depending on the feather assayed, and total feather volume may be an important consideration when interpreting feather CORT levels. Future work is necessary to determine explicitly the mechanisms of CORT deposition, the effects of environmental exposure and feather wear on the permanence of the feather CORT signal, and the influence of responses to wild stressors on feather CORT levels, before feather CORT can be implemented effectively as a tool for ecological and conservation applications. PMID:27933163

  12. Temporal overlap and repeatability of feather corticosterone levels: practical considerations for use as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christopher M; Madliger, Christine L; Love, Oliver P

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of corticosterone (CORT) levels in feathers has recently become an appealing tool for the conservation toolbox, potentially providing a non-invasive, integrated measure of stress activity throughout the time of feather growth. However, because the mechanism of CORT deposition, storage and stability in feathers is not fully understood, it is unclear how reliable this measure may be, especially when there is an extended interval between growth and feather collection. We compared CORT levels of naturally grown feathers from tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) that were moulted and regrown concurrently and therefore expected to have similar CORT levels. Specifically, we compared the same feather from the left and right wing (moulted symmetrically) and different types of feathers (wing, back and tail) expected to have been moulted within the same time period. We found that larger, heavier feathers held more CORT per unit length. In addition, we found a lack of concordance in CORT levels both within the same feather type and between different feather types, even after taking into account differences in feather density. Our results indicate that naturally grown feathers may not consistently provide an indication of stress status. Additionally, conflict in results may arise depending on the feather assayed, and total feather volume may be an important consideration when interpreting feather CORT levels. Future work is necessary to determine explicitly the mechanisms of CORT deposition, the effects of environmental exposure and feather wear on the permanence of the feather CORT signal, and the influence of responses to wild stressors on feather CORT levels, before feather CORT can be implemented effectively as a tool for ecological and conservation applications.

  13. Effects of Water Loss on New Mexico Spadefoot Toad (Spea multiplicata) Development, Spleen Cellularity, and Corticosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Bagwill, April L; Lovern, Matthew B; Worthington, Thomas A; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-10-01

    Amphibian metamorphosis is complex and larval morphology and physiology are completely restructured during this time. Amphibians that live in unpredictable environments are often exposed to stressors that can directly and indirectly alter physiological systems during development, with subsequent consequences (carryover effects) later in life. In this study, we investigated the effects of water level reduction on development rate, spleen size and cellularity, and examined the role of corticosterone levels in premetamorphic, metamorphic, and postmetamorphic New Mexico spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that declining water level would increase tadpole developmental rate, but with the trade-off of increasing corticosterone to a level that would subsequently affect spleen size and cellularity, thus prolonging potential immunological suppression. Declining water levels increased developmental rate by 3 days; however, there were no significant body size effects. Corticosterone (CORT) was negatively correlated with total length, snout vent length, body weight, and spleen weight at metamorphosis, suggesting that size at metamorphosis and the immune system may be affected by excessive CORT levels. When compared to other studies, our results support the view that multiple factors may be acting as stressors in the field affecting amphibian responses, and simple pathways as tested in this study may not adequately represent field conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of breed, cage type, and reproductive phase on fecal corticosterone levels in doe rabbits.

    PubMed

    Prola, Liviana; Cornale, Paolo; Renna, Manuela; Macchi, Elisabetta; Perona, Giovanni; Mimosi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Fecal corticosterone concentration (FCC) is increasingly being used as a noninvasive indicator of stress in assessment of nonhuman animal welfare. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of breed, cage type, reproductive phase, and their interactions on FCC levels in doe rabbits. A total of 252 doe rabbits were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Does were individually housed in either standard dimension cages (SC) or in cages with a volume more than double that of the SC. Bigger cages (BC) were equipped with a plastic foot mat. Breed, cage type, and reproductive phase significantly affected FCC. New Zealand hybrids showed higher FCCs (p < .001) when compared with the autochthonous breed (27.77 ± 0.47 vs. 24.61 ± 0.36 pg g(-1), respectively). Increased cage size coupled with a plastic foot mat resulted in a significant decrease in doe FCC. The highest FCCs were detected at partum (BC: 30.40 ± 0.81 pg g(-1); SC: 33.36 ± 0.86 pg g(-1); p ≤ .05), followed by postweaning (BC: 25.09 ± 0.95 pg g(-1); SC: 27.63 ± 0.95 pg g(-1); p ≤ .05). These results support the hypothesis that measurement of FCC provides a useful indicator of chronic stress in doe rabbits.

  15. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

  16. Impact of water temperature and stressor controllability on swim stress-induced changes in body temperature, serum corticosterone, and immobility in rats.

    PubMed

    Drugan, Robert C; Eren, Senem; Hazi, Agnes; Silva, Jennifer; Christianson, John P; Kent, Stephen

    2005-10-01

    The present study compared the effects of three different water temperatures (20, 25, and 30 degrees C) and stressor controllability on several physiological and behavioral endpoints in an intermittent swim stress paradigm. The escape latency of rats in the 20 and 25 degrees C water was less than that observed for the 30 degrees C group. Both escape and yoked groups at 20 and 25 degrees C exhibited moderate to severe hypothermia following the swim stress session that returned to prestress levels 30-40 min post-stress. At 30 degrees C core body temperature (Tb) only decreased by 1 degree C for either swim group. Following swim, serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were significantly elevated in both escape and yoked groups in comparison to confined and home cage controls. The confined control group showed a significant elevation that was approximately halfway between the home cage control and the swim stress groups. At 30 degrees C, there was still a significant elevation of serum CORT in both swim groups in comparison to confined and home cage controls. Therefore, 30 degrees C appears to be the optimal water temperature to evaluate stress controllability effects in the current paradigm. In a final experiment, swim stressor controllability effects were examined in a 5 min forced swim test (FST) 24 h following the initial stress exposure. Rats exposed to yoked-inescapable swim stress at 30 degrees C exhibited more immobility than their escapable swim stress and confined counterparts, while the escape and confined controls did not differ. These results demonstrate that the behavioral deficits observed in the FST are attributable to the stress of inescapable swim and not swim stress per se.

  17. The effects of seeds with hot and cold temperaments on serum thyroid hormones, corticosterone and urine vanillylmandelic acid concentrations of healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Parvinroo, Shirin; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Zahediasl, Saleh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh

    2014-10-28

    Hot and cold temperaments are the basic concepts of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). Nevertheless, studies on the functional mechanisms of medicinal herbs based on hot and cold temperaments are not very extensive. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diets containing hot or cold temperament seeds according to ITM on some hormonal and neuromediator parameters with a regulatory role in thermogenesis and energy metabolism in acute (24 hr) and subacute (7-day) experiments that were performed on rats. Each experiment was performed on 42 male Wistar rats, which were randomly divided into 7 groups. while 1 group received usual diet (controls), 6 other groups were fed with a diet containing 10% seeds, namely, anise, fennel, or ajowan (hot temperament groups) or cucumber, pumpkin, or watermelon (cold temperament groups), respectively. The levels of the rats׳ serum free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3), triiodothyronin (T3), thyroxin (T4), corticosterone and urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were analyzed. After 24 hours, a significant decrease in FT3 was observed in groups that were fed anise or fennel seeds. However, a significant increase in T3 was observed in the ajowan seed-fed group, and no changes in other parameters were observed in this group. On the 7th day, FT4 was significantly increased in fennel seed-fed group; T3 was significantly increased in the anise, fennel, ajowan and watermelon seed-fed groups; corticosterone was significantly increased in the watermelon and pumpkin seed-fed groups; and VMA was significantly increased in the fennel seed-fed group and significantly decreased in the cucumber seed-fed group. Alterations induced by hot and cold temperament seeds in measured hormonal and neuromediator levels that have a regulatory role in thermogenesis and the body׳s energy metabolism revealed that hot and cold temperament characteristics of studied seeds may most likely be related to their intervention in the body׳s energy metabolism

  18. Parental care, loss of paternity and circulating levels of testosterone and corticosterone in a socially monogamous song bird

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In biparental birds testosterone levels of males are typically high during the mating phase and decrease during the parental phase. Testosterone implants may enhance mating behaviors, increase the likelihood of males to engage in extra-pair mating behavior and may reduce paternal care. Thus, sex steroids such as testosterone influence reproductive behaviors. Little is known, however, as to whether the more subtle differences in physiological concentrations of testosterone that occur between individuals are related to differences in paternal care, extra-pair behavior, and genetic paternity between those males. Here, we investigate these relationships in the male black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros), a socially monogamous songbird with a low breeding synchrony. We used nestling provisioning as a proxy for parental care behavior and genetic paternity loss as a proxy for the efficiency of mate-guarding. Results There was no relationship between nestling provisioning and paternity loss of males. Baseline and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced levels of testosterone, but not baseline corticosterone, were significantly higher during the mating than during the provisioning phase. Males fed more often when temperatures decreased and fed less when they sang more, but we found no correlation between parental behavior and baseline or GnRH-induced testosterone, and baseline corticosterone – both measured during either the mating or the parental phase. However, males that experienced loss of paternity had lower levels of testosterone during the provisioning phase than males that did not lose paternity. Further, males that lost paternity also expressed higher baseline levels of corticosterone. Conclusions Physiological differences in testosterone or baseline corticosterone were not related to differences in parental care, suggesting that the variation of testosterone within a physiological range may not relate to the degree of paternal care in this

  19. Increased plasma corticosterone levels after periaqueductal gray stimulation-induced escape reaction or panic attacks in rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lee Wei; Blokland, Arjan; van Duinen, Marlies; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Tan, Sonny; Vlamings, Rinske; Janssen, Mark; Jahanshahi, Ali; Aziz-Mohammadi, Mujzgan; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Schruers, Koen; Temel, Yasin

    2011-04-15

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is involved in stress, depression and anxiety. Controversy exists on HPA axis activation during panic attacks (PAs). We examined whether the HPA axis is involved in the escape or panic-like response in an animal model of PAs induced by electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) in rats. Additionally, rats were also treated with chronic administration of buspirone (BUSP) and escitalopram (ESCIT), respectively; and they were stimulated in the open-field arena for panic-like reaction. Levels of stress hormone corticosterone were measured following 30 min after escape or panic condition. Our results demonstrated that the levels of plasma corticosterone were significantly increased after the induction of escape or panic-like response in comparison with the sham animals. The levels of corticosterone were significantly decreased in the dlPAG stimulated groups after rats were treated chronically with the ESCIT but not the BUSP as compared to the saline treated animals. Importantly, the increase of corticosterone level after escape or panic-like response was paralleled by an increase of neuronal activation of c-Fos in both the parvocellular and magnocellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Moreover, the c-Fos data also showed a decrease in the number of positive cells particularly for the ESCIT as well as the BUSP in comparison with the saline stimulated animals. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrated that PA or escape response activates the HPA axis and it remains difficult to anticipate the mechanism underlying HPA axis during PAs and its relationship with 5-HT drugs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala prevents chronic immobilization stress-induced memory impairment and associated changes in corticosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sunil Jamuna; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Srikumar, B N; Raju, T R; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2017-07-01

    Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task. The BLA was ablated bilaterally using ibotenic acid prior to CIS. Chronically stressed rats showed impairment in spatial learning with decreased percentage correct choice and increased reference memory errors. Excitotoxic lesion of the BLA prevented the impairment in spatial learning and reference memory. In the retention test, lesion of the BLA was able to rescue the chronic stress-induced impairment. Interestingly, stress-induced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels were partially prevented by the lesion of BLA. These results motivated us to evaluate if the same effects can be observed with temporary inactivation of BLA, only during stress. We found that chronic stress-induced spatial learning deficits were also prevented by temporary inactivation of the BLA. Additionally, temporary inactivation of BLA partially precluded the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, inactivation of BLA precludes stress-induced spatial learning deficits, and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. It is speculated that BLA inactivation-induced reduction in corticosterone levels during stress, might be crucial in restoring spatial learning impairments. Our study provides evidence that amygdalar modulation during stress might be beneficial for strategic

  1. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  2. Morphine-induced sensitization of locomotor activity in mice: effect of social isolation on plasma corticosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Francès, H; Graulet, A; Debray, M; Coudereau, J P; Guéris, J; Bourre, J M

    2000-03-31

    This study examined the influence of social isolation on behavioural sensitization to the locomotor effect of morphine and the link between this behaviour and plasma corticosterone concentrations. Four weeks isolation induced an increase in the locomotor effect of morphine. In social and isolated mice, repeated administrations (6) of morphine (one injection every 3 or 4 days) followed by 3 h in an actimeter induced behavioural sensitization to the locomotor effect of morphine. No interaction was observed between social isolation and behavioural sensitization to morphine. Resocializing previously isolated mice for 3 weeks reduced the morphine-induced locomotor effect without altering the behavioural sensitization. Corticosterone plasma levels were more increased (416%) in mice isolated 5 weeks than in mice isolated for 2 weeks (243%) and they return to the control levels following 3 weeks of resocialization. Since there was no interaction between the increase in morphine locomotor effect induced by social isolation and the morphine-induced behavioural sensitization, it is suggested that each of these two events acts independently. Whether or not a common mechanism (plasma corticosterone levels?) partly underlies both effects, the result resembles a simple additive effect.

  3. Experimental relationships between levels of corticosterone in plasma and feathers in a free-living bird.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Marchant, Tracy A; Soos, Catherine; Machin, Karen L; Clark, Robert G

    2013-11-01

    Integrated measures of corticosterone (CORT), such as from feathers (CORTf), have intuitive appeal because they incorporate both the duration and amplitude of glucocorticoid secretion. An association between CORTf and plasma CORT has never been shown in wild birds, and it is unclear as to when and whether these measures should be correlated, given that they are fundamentally different yet related measures of physiology. We hypothesized that CORTf should correlate with instantaneous measurements of plasma CORT when the latter reflect sustained changes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To test this, we experimentally manipulated levels of plasma CORT in wild nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) using 5 day time-release CORT pellets, and measured plasma CORT and growth parameters before, during and at the end of hormone manipulation (days 7, 9 and 11 post-hatch, respectively). CORTf and plasma CORT were significantly positively related only when the latter was at its highest and most variable among individuals (day 9). A similar relationship was expected at day 11, but plasma CORT had returned to near-original levels. Nestlings with higher CORTf were smaller, lighter and less likely to fledge, but we did not detect seasonal effects on CORTf. Our results clearly demonstrate that CORTf from free-living birds can reflect plasma CORT, but correlations may not always be expected, especially if elevations in plasma CORT are relatively modest and of short duration. Our work suggests that CORTf is best used to study the activity of the HPA axis over relatively long time frames and can be used effectively to advance avian ecology.

  4. Corticosterone protects against memory impairments and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels induced by a chronic low dose of ethanol in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Mohamed Elsaed; Latif, Liaque M; Kendall, David A; Pardon, Marie Christine

    2014-01-01

    Acute low doses of ethanol can produce reversible memory deficits, but it is unknown whether they persist upon chronic use. We investigated whether the chronic intake of a low dose of ethanol induces memory impairments in the ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mouse strain. Because stress precipitates alcohol abuse and the stress hormone corticosterone contributes to memory processes, ethanol consumption and toxic effects, we also determined the impact of co-treatment with corticosterone on these effects. BDNF contributes to memory function and toxic effects of ethanol, therefore its levels were quantified in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Ethanol (1% in drinking water) and corticosterone (250 μg/mL) were administered using the two-bottle choice test to monitor their appetitive properties. Spatial and non-spatial memory performance was assessed using the spontaneous alternation, object recognition and object location tests. The chronic exposure to a low dose of ethanol caused spatial and non-spatial memory deficits after withdrawal associated with a reduction in hippocampal BDNF levels, which were prevented by co-treatment with corticosterone (~21 mg/kg/day). The protective effect of corticosterone on memory was no longer observed at higher doses (~41 mg/kg/day), but persisted for hippocampal BDNF levels. C57BL/6J mice did not develop an appetence for 1% ethanol, but the addition of corticosterone increased voluntary consumption of and preference for the ethanol+corticosterone solutions. Although acute low doses of corticosterone (1 mg/kg) were found to rescue established memory impairments, this is the first report of a protective effect of chronic doses of corticosterone in the range of 20-32 mg/kg, and particularly against memory deficits induced by alcohol.

  5. Quantification of extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats: a dialysis study of circadian variation and stress-induced modulation.

    PubMed

    Bouchez, Gaëlle; Millan, Mark J; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Billiras, Rodolphe; Boulanger, Raphaël; Gobert, Alain

    2012-05-03

    Corticosterone influences emotion and cognition via actions in a diversity of corticolimbic structures, including the amygdala. Since extracellular levels of corticosterone in brain have rarely been studied, we characterized a specific and sensitive enzymatic immunoassay for microdialysis quantification of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats. Corticosterone levels showed marked diurnal variation with an evening (dark phase) peak and stable, low levels during the day (light phase). The "anxiogenic agents", FG7142 (20 mg/kg) and yohimbine (10 mg/kg), and an environmental stressor, 15-min forced-swim, induced marked and sustained (1-3 h) increases in dialysis levels of corticosterone in basolateral amygdaloid complex. They likewise increased dialysis levels of dopamine and noradrenaline, but not serotonin and GABA. As compared to basal corticosterone levels of ~200-300 pg/ml, the elevation provoked by forced-swim was ca. 20-fold and this increase was abolished by adrenalectomy. Interestingly, stress-induced rises of corticosterone levels in basolateral amygdaloid complex were abrogated by combined but not separate administration of the corticotrophin releasing factor(1) (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist, CP154,526, and the vasopressin(1b) (V(1b)) receptor antagonist, SSR149,415. Underpinning their specificity, they did not block forced-swim-induced elevations in dopamine and noradrenaline. In conclusion, extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex display marked diurnal variation. Further, they are markedly elevated by acute stressors, the effects of which are mediated (in contrast to concomitant elevations in levels of monoamines) by co-joint recruitment of CRF(1) and V(1b) receptors.

  6. Effects of inhibiting neonatal methamphetamine-induced corticosterone release in rats by adrenal autotransplantation on later learning, memory, and plasma corticosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Grace, Curtis E; Schaefer, Tori L; Graham, Devon L; Skelton, Matthew R; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2010-06-01

    Neonatal rat methamphetamine (MA) exposure has been shown to cause long-term behavioral impairments similar to some of those observed following neonatal stress. The mechanism by which MA induces impairments is unknown but may be related to early increases in corticosterone release. We previously developed a method to attenuate MA-induced corticosterone release using adrenal autotransplantation (ADXA) in neonatal rats. This exposure period corresponds to the second-half of human pregnancy. To determine whether inhibition of neonatal MA-induced increases in corticosterone attenuates the long-term behavioral deficits associated with early MA treatment. ADXA successfully attenuated MA-induced plasma corticosterone increases by approximately 50% during treatment (P11-20) but did not attenuate the long-term behavioral effects of MA treatment. MA-treated rats, regardless of surgery, showed increased errors and latencies in the Cincinnati water maze test of egocentric learning and increased latency, path length, and cumulative distance in three phases of Morris water maze spatial learning and reference memory. MA-treated offspring were hypoactive, had subtle reductions in anxiety in the elevated zero maze but not in the light-dark test. ADXA had no effect on MA-induced long-term 5-HT reductions in the neostriatum or entorhinal cortex or on 5-HIAA reductions in the hippocampus. Fifty percent attenuation of neonatal MA-induced elevations in corticosterone does not alter the long-term egocentric or allocentric learning deficits or other behavioral effects of neonatal MA exposure. Because the ADXA effect was partial, the data cannot rule out the possibility that a more complete block of MA-induced corticosterone release might not prevent later cognitive deficits. Copyright 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The immunomodulatory tellurium compound ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O,O') tellurate reduces anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone levels of submissive mice.

    PubMed

    Gross, Moshe; Stanciu, Emanuel; Kenigsbuch-Sredni, Dvora; Sredni, Benjamin; Pinhasov, Albert

    2017-09-01

    Ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O,O') tellurate (AS101) is a synthetic organotellurium compound with potent immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties shown to inhibit the function of integrin αvβ3, a presynaptic cell-surface-adhesion receptor. As partial deletion of αvβ3 downregulated reuptake of serotonin by the serotonin transporter, we hypothesized that AS101 may influence pathways regulating anxiety. AS101 was tested in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior using the selectively bred Submissive (Sub) mouse strain that develop anxiety-like behavior in response to an i.p. injection. Mice were treated daily with AS101 (i.p., 125 or 200 μg/kg) or vehicle for 3 weeks, after which their anxiety-like behavior was measured in the elevated plus maze. Animals were then culled for the measurement of serum corticosterone levels by ELISA and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by RT-PCR. Chronic administration of AS101 significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior of Sub mice in the elevated plus maze, according to both time spent and entries to open arms, relative to vehicle-treated controls. AS101 also markedly reduced serum corticosterone levels of the treated mice and increased their hippocampal BDNF expression. Anxiolytic-like effects of AS101 may be attributed to the modulation of the regulatory influence integrin of αvβ3 upon the serotonin transporter, suggesting a multifaceted mechanism by which AS101 buffers the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to injection stress, enabling recovery of hippocampal BDNF expression and anxiety-like behavior in Sub mice. Further studies should advance the potential of AS101 in the context of anxiety-related disorders.

  8. Do Mice Habituate to “Gentle Handling?” A Comparison of Resting Behavior, Corticosterone Levels and Synaptic Function in Handled and Undisturbed C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Longordo, Fabio; Fan, Jing; Steimer, Thierry; Kopp, Caroline; Lüthi, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: “Gentle handling” has become a method of choice for 4-6 h sleep deprivation in mice, with repeated brief handling applied before sleep deprivation to induce habituation. To verify whether mice do indeed habituate, we assess how 6 days of repeated brief handling impact on resting behavior, on stress, and on the subunit content of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at hippocampal synapses, which is altered by sleep loss. We discuss whether repeated handling biases the outcome of subsequent sleep deprivation. Design: Adult C57BL/6J mice, maintained on a 12 h-12 h light-dark cycle, were left undisturbed for 3 days, then handled during 3 min daily for 6 days in the middle of the light phase. Mice were continuously monitored for their resting time. Serum corticosterone levels and synaptic NMDAR subunit composition were quantified. Results: Handling caused a ∼25% reduction of resting time throughout all handling days. After six, but not after one day of handling, mice had elevated serum corticosterone levels. Six-day handling augmented the presence of the NR2A subunit of NMDARs at hippocampal synapses. Conclusion: Repeated handling induces behavioral and neurochemical alterations that are absent in undisturbed animals. The persistently reduced resting time and the delayed increase in corticosterone levels indicate that mice do not habituate to handling over a 1-week period. Handling-induced modifications bias effects of gentle handling-induced sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, stress, glutamate receptor composition and signaling. A standardization of sleep deprivation procedures involving gentle handling will be important for unequivocally specifying how acute sleep loss affects brain function. Citation: Longordo F; Fan J; Steimer T; Kopp C; Lüthi A. Do mice habituate to “gentle handling?” A comparison of resting behavior, corticosterone levels and synaptic function in handled and undisturbed C57BL/6J mice. SLEEP 2011

  9. Acute melatonin and para-chloroamphetamine interactions on pineal, brain and serum serotonin levels as well as stress hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Manzana, E J; Chen, W J; Champney, T H

    2001-08-03

    para-Chloroamphetamine, an amphetamine analog, alters serotonergic neurochemistry. In previous reports, melatonin (MEL), when administered with other amphetamine analogs, altered the decline in serotonin content produced by these analogs. The present studies assessed the effects of various doses of melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine on serotonin levels in numerous brain regions in male rats. Melatonin (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, s.c.) and p-chloroamphetamine (3 or 5 mg/kg, s.c.) were administered and, 3 h later, brain samples and serum were collected. Serotonin levels in the serum and various regions of the brain were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin in combination with a high dose of p-chloroamphetamine (5 mg/kg) produced cumulative deficits in serotonin levels in the serum. However, serotonin levels in the pineal, cortex or brain stem in all combined melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine groups were not significantly different from groups that received p-chloroamphetamine alone. Serum adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels were significantly elevated in the melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine combined groups, suggesting that animals receiving both treatments were more stressed than control animals or animals receiving melatonin or p-chloroamphetamine alone. These results indicate that melatonin does not alter p-chloroamphetamine-induced deficits in central serotonin levels. The increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and serotonin levels observed following melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine treatment suggest that this combination may have adverse peripheral effects.

  10. The stress hormone corticosterone increases synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors via serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) regulation of the GDI-Rab4 complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhua; Yuen, Eunice Y; Yan, Zhen

    2010-02-26

    Corticosterone, the major stress hormone, plays an important role in regulating neuronal functions of the limbic system, although the cellular targets and molecular mechanisms of corticosteroid signaling are largely unknown. Here we show that a short treatment of corticosterone significantly increases alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission and AMPAR membrane trafficking in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex, a key region involved in cognition and emotion. This enhancing effect of corticosterone is through a mechanism dependent on Rab4, the small GTPase-controlling receptor recycling between early endosome and plasma membrane. Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI), which regulates the cycle of Rab proteins between membrane and cytosol, forms an increased complex with Rab4 after corticosterone treatment. Corticosterone also triggers an increased GDI phosphorylation at Ser-213 by the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK). Moreover, AMPAR synaptic currents and surface expression and their regulation by corticosterone are altered by mutating Ser-213 on GDI. These results suggest that corticosterone, via SGK phosphorylation of GDI at Ser-213, increases the formation of GDI-Rab4 complex, facilitating the functional cycle of Rab4 and Rab4-mediated recycling of AMPARs to the synaptic membrane. It provides a potential mechanism underlying the role of corticosteroid stress hormone in up-regulating excitatory synaptic efficacy in cortical neurons.

  11. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Ya-Min; Shen, Ji-Duo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Pei, Yang-Yi; Fang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-13

    Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  12. Effect of age, breeding experience and senescence on corticosterone and prolactin levels in a long-lived seabird: the wandering albatross.

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Shaffer, Scott A; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

    2006-10-01

    Although several studies have described age-specific pattern of breeding performance, physiological and endocrine mechanisms underlying the variation in reproductive success in relation to age are poorly understood. We described baseline levels of: (1) corticosterone, which can trigger nest desertion when secreted at high levels, and (2) prolactin, a hormone known to trigger parental behaviour in incubating known-aged (7-39 years old) wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans). In this long-lived species, reproductive performance increases with age and breeding experience before it stabilizes in middle-aged individuals and declines in senescent individuals. We found that breeding experience was a much better statistical predictor of hormone levels than age. Baseline corticosterone levels slightly increased with advancing experience and reached maximal levels about the sixth breeding attempt. Similarly, prolactin levels were positively correlated with breeding experience in males. No such relationship was found in females, but first-time breeding females had lower prolactin levels than experienced females. This parallel increases in hormonal levels with advancing experience could result from improvements of skills, development of an endocrine system adapted to energetic constraints of reproduction or may mirror a higher investment in reproduction. Corticosterone levels decreased in senescent birds, but such a decline was not observed for prolactin. Low corticosterone levels in senescent birds could be associated with a lower ability to secrete/sustain elevated corticosterone levels or with a decreased parental expenditure.

  13. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Elisabeth; Wang, Jia Bei

    2009-11-13

    Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1) is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO) mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST) and the tail suspension (TST) tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  14. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1) is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO) mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST) and the tail suspension (TST) tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS. PMID:19912621

  15. Carbamazepine and serum sodium levels.

    PubMed

    Kalff, R; Houtkooper, M A; Meyer, J W; Goedhart, D M; Augusteijn, R; Meinardi, H

    1984-06-01

    Serum sodium levels of 674 epileptic patients were tabulated according to the following categories: less than 135 mmol/L, hyponatremia (28 patients); 135-145 mmol/L, normonatremia (530 patients); greater than 145 mmol/L, hypernatremia (116 patients). One hundred one patients were treated with antiepileptics without carbamazepine (CBZ), 113 with CBZ monotherapy, and 460 with CBZ plus other antiepileptic drugs. Twenty-three patients could be followed up after the first detection of a serum sodium level of less than 135 mg/L. Ten patients were consistently hyponatremic (greater than 50% of the follow-up measurements were less than 135 mg/L), whereas the remaining 13 were occasionally hyponatremic. The following facts could be derived from the study: (1) The hyponatremic group was significantly older compared with the other groups. (2) In patients not treated with CBZ, no hyponatremia was seen. Only two patients on CBZ monotherapy showed hyponatremia. (3) The combination of CBZ, valproic acid, especially in high dosages, and barbiturates seemed to lead to hyponatremia. (4) The excretion of antidiuretic hormone, measured in 12 patients, was subnormal (less than 25 ng/24 h) in seven hyponatremic patients and in three normonatremic patients and normal (25-250 ng/24 h) in two other normonatremic patients. (5) Cyclic AMP, measured in five hyponatremic patients, was normal. (6) In all patients the hyponatremia was slight and did not cause any clinical symptoms. Special treatment was not required.

  16. The effects of group and single housing and automated animal monitoring on urinary corticosterone levels in male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Remi; Kovalainen, Miia; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Mäkelä, Kari A

    2016-02-01

    Mice are used extensively in physiological research. Automated home-cage systems have been developed to study single-housed animals. Increased stress by different housing conditions might affect greatly the results when investigating metabolic responses. Urinary corticosteroid concentration is considered as a stress marker. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different housing conditions and an automated home-cage system with indirect calorimetry located in an environmental chamber on corticosterone levels in mice. Male mice were housed in different conditions and in automated home-cage system to evaluate the effects of housing and measuring conditions on urine corticosterone levels. Corticosterone levels in single-housed mice in the laboratory animal center were consistently lower compared with the group-housed mice. Single-housed mice in a separate, small animal unit showed a rise in their corticosterone levels a day after they were separated to their individual cages, which decreased during the following 2 days. The corticosterone levels of group-housed mice in the same unit were increased during the first 7 days and then decreased. On day 7, the corticosterone concentrations of group-housed mice were significantly higher compared with that of single-housed mice, including the metabolic measurement protocol. In conclusion, single housing caused less stress when compared with group-housed mice. In addition, the urine corticosterone levels were decreased in single-housed mice before the metabolic measurement started. Thus, stress does not affect the results when utilizing the automated system for measuring metabolic parameters like food and water intake and calorimetry.

  17. Somatostatin Is Essential for the Sexual Dimorphism of GH Secretion, Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Production, and Corticosterone Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jessica M.; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Qi, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Distinct male and female patterns of pituitary GH secretion produce sexually differentiated hepatic gene expression profiles, thereby influencing steroid and xenobiotic metabolism. We used a fully automated system to obtain serial nocturnal blood samples every 15 minutes from cannulated wild-type (WT) and somatostatin knockout (Sst-KO) mice to determine the role of SST, the principal inhibitor of GH release, in the generation of sexually dimorphic GH pulsatility. WT males had lower mean and median GH values, less random GH secretory bursts, and longer trough periods between GH pulses than WT females. Each of these parameters was feminized in male Sst-KO mice, whereas female Sst-KO mice had higher GH levels than all other groups, but GH pulsatility was unaffected. We next performed hepatic mRNA profiling with high-density microarrays. Male Sst-KO mice exhibited a globally feminized pattern of GH-dependent mRNA levels, but female Sst-KO mice were largely unaffected. Among the differentially expressed female-predominant genes was Serpina6, which encodes corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). Increased CBG was associated with elevated diurnal peak plasma corticosterone in unstressed WT females and both sexes of Sst-KO mice compared with WT males. Sst-KO mice also had exaggerated ACTH and corticosterone responses to acute restraint stress. However, consistent with their lack of phenotypic signs of excess glucocorticoids, cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of free corticosterone in Sst-KO mice were not elevated. In summary, SST is necessary for the prolonged interpulse troughs that define masculinized pituitary GH secretion. SST also contributes to sexual dimorphism of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via GH-dependent regulation of hepatic CBG production. PMID:25551181

  18. Brief anesthesia by isoflurane alters plasma corticosterone levels distinctly in male and female rats: implications for tissue collection methods

    PubMed Central

    Bekhbat, Mandakh; Merrill, Liana; Kelly, Sean D.; Lee, Vanessa K.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2016-01-01

    Euthanasia by anesthetic agents is commonly performed prior to tissue collection in order to minimize pain and distress to the animal. However, depending on their mechanism of action as well as administration regimen, different methods of anesthesia may trigger an acute stress response through engaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which can impact numerous other physiological processes that the researcher may wish to examine as endpoints. We investigated the effects of the commonly used anesthetic agent isoflurane on two different endpoints related to the stress response: plasma corticosterone levels and gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as well as several of its regulators including FK506-binding protein 51 (Fkbp5) in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Our results indicate that brief exposure to anesthesia by isoflurane prior to decapitation can alter plasma corticosterone levels differentially in male and female rats within minutes without impacting gene expression in the hippocampus. We conclude that collection methods can influence stress-related physiological endpoints in female rats and the potential influence of even brief anesthesia as well as sex differences in response to anesthesia should be evaluated during the experimental design process and data interpretation. This finding is particularly important in light of new NIH standards regarding sex and reproducibility, and care should be taken to be certain that sex differences in endpoints of interest are not an artifact of sex differences in response to collection paradigms. PMID:26946276

  19. [Serum sclerostin levels and metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-06-01

    Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.

  20. Corticosterone levels and behavioral changes induced by simultaneous exposure to chronic social stress and enriched environments in NMRI male mice.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Ramos-Campos, Marta; Redolat, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental model which is believed to counteract some of the effects induced by stressors, although few studies have exposed rodents simultaneously to EE and stress. Our aim was to compare the short- and long-term effects of different housing conditions in mice submitted to chronic stress. 128 NMRI male mice arrived at our laboratory on postnatal day (PND) 21. During Phase I (PND 28), animals were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions: 1) EE+STRESS: mice housed in EE and submitted to social stress (n=32); 2) EE+NO STRESS: mice housed in EE without stress (n=32); 3) SE+STRESS: mice maintained in standard conditions (SE) and submitted to social stress (n=32); and 4) SE+NO STRESS (n=32). At the end of Phase I (PND 77), one cohort of 32 animals was used for behavioral assessment whereas another cohort of 32 was sacrificed for corticosterone analysis. Results indicated that EE animals showed less body weight, higher water and food intake, diminished anxiety response and decreased motor and exploratory behavior than SE mice. Mice exposed to stress gained less body weight, showed higher food and fluid intake and displayed decreased exploratory behavior than non-stressed mice. Furthermore, EE+STRESS group displayed significantly higher corticosterone levels than EE+NO STRESS group whereas EE+NO STRESS group showed lower levels than SE+NO STRESS. On PND 83, Phase II of the study began. Animals (n=96) were assigned to two different housing conditions: EE (n=48) and SE (n=48). On PND 112, corticosterone analysis (n=32) and behavioral study (n=64) were done. The factor "Housing Phase II" reached statistical significance. Results indicated that EE animals showed lower body weight and higher fluid intake than SE group, as well as decreased anxiety. No clear effects on motor and exploratory behavior or learning were observed. When long-term effects were analyzed, results indicated that "Initial Housing" condition was significant

  1. Effects of Axial Vibration on Needle Insertion into the Tail Veins of Rats and Subsequent Serial Blood Corticosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Ryan S; Unger, Erica L; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Cronin, Thomas L; Mulvihill, Maureen L

    2016-01-01

    Blood collection is commonplace in biomedical research. Obtaining sufficient sample while minimizing animal stress requires significant skill and practice. Repeated needle punctures can cause discomfort and lead to variable release of stress hormones, potentially confounding analysis. We designed a handheld device to reduce the force necessary for needle insertion by using low-frequency, axial (forward and backward) micromotions (that is, vibration) delivered to the needle during venipuncture. Tests with cadaver rat-tail segments (n = 18) confirmed that peak insertion forces were reduced by 73% on average with needle vibration. A serial blood-sampling study was then conducted by using Sprague–Dawley rats divided into 2 groups based on needle condition used to cause bleeds: vibration on (n = 10) and vibration off (n = 9). On 3 days (1 wk apart), 3 tail-vein blood collections were performed in each subject at 1-h intervals. To evaluate associated stress levels, plasma corticosterone concentration was quantified by radioimmunoassay and behavior (that is, movement and vocalization) was scored by blinded review of blood-sampling videos. After the initial trial, average corticosterone was lower (46% difference), the mean intrasubject variance trended lower (72%), and behavioral indications of stress were rated lower for the vibration-on group compared with the vibration-off group. Adding controlled vibrations to needles during insertion may decrease the stress associated with blood sampling from rats—an important methodologic advance for investigators studying and assessing stress processes and a refinement over current blood sampling techniques. PMID:27025813

  2. Effects of voluntarily-ingested buprenorphine on plasma corticosterone levels, body weight, water intake, and behaviour in permanently catheterised rats.

    PubMed

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the peri- and postoperative effect of pre-emptive analgesia through voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in Nutella, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. An arterial catheter was inserted and the rats were connected to an automated blood sampling device (AccuSampler). Blood samples were drawn up to 18 h after surgery and the plasma concentrations of corticosterone were quantified. Postoperative changes in water intake and body weight were recorded, and the behaviour of the rats was analysed during two 30-min periods. Pre-emptive oral buprenorphine treatment reduced the plasma corticosterone levels in the postoperative period, compared to controls treated with local anaesthetics. Buprenorphine-treated rats consumed more water and maintained body weight better. Behavioural observations indicated that buprenorphine changed the behaviour in non-operated rats but there was no difference in the operated rats. The present study strengthens the hypothesis that pre-emptive oral buprenorphine in Nutella is suitable for treatment of postoperative pain in rats.

  3. Effects of Axial Vibration on Needle Insertion into the Tail Veins of Rats and Subsequent Serial Blood Corticosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Clement, Ryan S; Unger, Erica L; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Cronin, Thomas L; Mulvihill, Maureen L

    2016-03-01

    Blood collection is commonplace in biomedical research. Obtaining sufficient sample while minimizing animal stress requires significant skill and practice. Repeated needle punctures can cause discomfort and lead to variable release of stress hormones, potentially confounding analysis. We designed a handheld device to reduce the force necessary for needle insertion by using low-frequency, axial (forward and backward) micromotions (that is, vibration) delivered to the needle during venipuncture. Tests with cadaver rat-tail segments (n = 18) confirmed that peak insertion forces were reduced by 73% on average with needle vibration. A serial blood-sampling study was then conducted by using Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 2 groups based on needle condition used to cause bleeds: vibration on (n = 10) and vibration off (n = 9). On 3 days (1 wk apart), 3 tail-vein blood collections were performed in each subject at 1-h intervals. To evaluate associated stress levels, plasma corticosterone concentration was quantified by radioimmunoassay and behavior (that is, movement and vocalization) was scored by blinded review of blood-sampling videos. After the initial trial, average corticosterone was lower (46% difference), the mean intrasubject variance trended lower (72%), and behavioral indications of stress were rated lower for the vibration-on group compared with the vibration-off group. Adding controlled vibrations to needles during insertion may decrease the stress associated with blood sampling from rats--an important methodologic advance for investigators studying and assessing stress processes and a refinement over current blood sampling techniques.

  4. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). In subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the HFD+BSA diet increased the mRNA levels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  5. Elevated corticosterone levels decrease reproductive output of chick-rearing Adélie penguins but do not affect chick mass at fledging

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Study of physiological mechanisms can help us to understand how animals respond to changing environmental conditions. In particular, stress hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone) are described as mediating resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to predictable and unpredictable changes in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of an experimental increase in baseline corticosterone levels on the breeding effort and the reproductive output of chick-rearing male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The number of chicks per nest, their body mass, and their size were monitored throughout the study. Direct observations allowed measurement of the time spent foraging at sea and caring for the young on the nest. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected for isotope analysis. Although all birds raised at least one chick, reproductive output was decreased by 42% in corticosterone-treated birds compared with control birds. The increase in corticosterone levels during the guard stage did not affect the mass of surviving chicks or the brood mass at fledging. Corticosterone-treated males spent on average 21% more time at the nest than control birds. However, the duration of foraging trips was similar between both groups. In addition, the similarity of isotopic signatures suggests that both groups foraged at similar locations and ingested the same prey species. The detailed on-land behaviour of birds should be examined in further studies to clarify the possible links between corticosterone levels, brooding time, and reproductive output. Understanding the relationships between glucocorticoids, fitness, and ultimately population dynamics is fundamental to enabling conservation physiology as a discipline to be successful in helping to manage species of conservation concern. PMID:27293591

  6. Elevated corticosterone levels decrease reproductive output of chick-rearing Adélie penguins but do not affect chick mass at fledging.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Study of physiological mechanisms can help us to understand how animals respond to changing environmental conditions. In particular, stress hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone) are described as mediating resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to predictable and unpredictable changes in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of an experimental increase in baseline corticosterone levels on the breeding effort and the reproductive output of chick-rearing male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The number of chicks per nest, their body mass, and their size were monitored throughout the study. Direct observations allowed measurement of the time spent foraging at sea and caring for the young on the nest. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected for isotope analysis. Although all birds raised at least one chick, reproductive output was decreased by 42% in corticosterone-treated birds compared with control birds. The increase in corticosterone levels during the guard stage did not affect the mass of surviving chicks or the brood mass at fledging. Corticosterone-treated males spent on average 21% more time at the nest than control birds. However, the duration of foraging trips was similar between both groups. In addition, the similarity of isotopic signatures suggests that both groups foraged at similar locations and ingested the same prey species. The detailed on-land behaviour of birds should be examined in further studies to clarify the possible links between corticosterone levels, brooding time, and reproductive output. Understanding the relationships between glucocorticoids, fitness, and ultimately population dynamics is fundamental to enabling conservation physiology as a discipline to be successful in helping to manage species of conservation concern.

  7. Comparison of monoamine and corticosterone levels 24 h following (+)methamphetamine, (+/−)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, cocaine, (+)fenfluramine or (+/−)methylphenidate administration in the neonatal rat

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Tori L.; Ehrman, Lisa A.; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Williams, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown that neonatal administration of (+/−)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and (+)fenfluramine produce deficits in spatial and path integration learning, whereas (+)methamphetamine causes deficits in spatial learning. Conversely, cocaine and (+/−)methylphenidate have no effect on either form of learning following neonatal administration. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether corticosterone and/or monoamine levels were changed following subcutaneous administration of 10 mg/kg (+)methamphetamine, (+/−)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, (+)fenfluramine, (+/−)methylphenidate or cocaine every 2 h (total of four injections) on postnatal day 11. Twenty-four hours after the first dose, plasma, striatum and hippocampus were collected. Corticosterone levels were increased in methamphetamine-, fenfluramine-, methylenedioxymethamphetamine- and methylphenidate-treated rats relative to levels in saline-treated rats, whereas cocaine-treated rats were unaffected. In the striatum and hippocampus, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid were reduced in animals treated with methylenedioxymethamphetamine or fenfluramine, compared with levels in saline controls. Dopamine levels were not changed by any of the drugs, although 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was decreased following methylenedioxymethamphetamine or methamphetamine. Minimal effects were seen in neurotransmitter levels following injection of cocaine or methylphenidate. These data suggest that drugs that affect corticosterone and hippocampal serotonin are associated with both spatial learning and path integration deficits, and those that affect corticosterone and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid are associated with spatial learning deficits only. PMID:16923155

  8. Individual differences in cocaine-induced locomotor activity of male Sprague-Dawley rats are not explained by plasma corticosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anna M; Kleschen, Melissa J; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2010-05-26

    Humans differ in their initial response to, and subsequent abuse of, addictive drugs like cocaine. Rodents also exhibit marked individual differences in responsiveness to cocaine. Previously, we classified male Sprague-Dawley rats as either low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs, respectively), based on their acute low-dose cocaine-induced locomotor activity, and found that with repeated drug exposure LCRs exhibit greater cocaine locomotor sensitization, reward and reinforcement than HCRs. Differential cocaine-induced increases in striatal dopamine help to explain the LCR/HCR phenotypes. Differential levels of stress and/or anxiety could also contribute but have not been explored. Here we measured open-field activity and plasma corticosterone levels both pre- and post-cocaine treatment in LCRs, HCRs, and saline-treated controls. The three groups did not differ in baseline locomotor activity or corticosterone levels. Importantly, LCR/HCR differences in corticosterone levels were also not observed following acute cocaine (10mg/kg, i.p.), when cocaine induced approximately 3.5-fold greater locomotor activity in HCRs than LCRs. Additionally, there were no LCR/HCR differences in plasma corticosterone levels following 5 days of once-daily cocaine, during which time LCRs developed locomotor sensitization such that their cocaine-induced locomotor activity no longer differed from that of HCRs. Likewise, there were no group activity differences in any of four concentric zones within the open-field chamber. In summary, neither plasma corticosterone levels nor thigmotaxis-type anxiety appears to be a factor that contributes to the observed cocaine-induced LCR/HCR behavioral differences.

  9. Maternal corticosterone but not testosterone level is associated with the ratio of second-to-fourth digit length (2D:4D) in field vole offspring (Microtus agrestis).

    PubMed

    Lilley, Thomas; Laaksonen, Toni; Huitu, Otso; Helle, Samuli

    2010-03-30

    The steroid environment encountered by a foetus can strongly affect its post-natal physiology and behaviour. It has been proposed that steroid concentrations experienced in utero could be estimated from adults by measuring their second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D). However, there is still little direct evidence that intra-uterine steroid levels affect individual 2D:4D. We examined whether maternal pre-pregnancy testosterone and corticosterone levels (as estimates of intra-uterine testosterone and corticosterone exposure) affected the 2D:4D of pups in non-domesticated field voles (Microtus agrestis), measured by X-rays at the age of weaning (21 days). Furthermore, for the first time in a non-human species, we studied whether testosterone and corticosterone levels correlated with 2D:4D in adult females. We found that the maternal pre-pregnancy level of testosterone was not associated with offspring 2D:4D in either the left or the right paw. Instead, maternal pre-pregnancy corticosterone level was positively correlated with offspring 2D:4D in the right paw, but unrelated to 2D:4D in the left paw. In addition, the 2D:4D of adult females was not associated with either their circulating testosterone or corticosterone levels. Our results suggest that in field voles maternally administered testosterone is not a major determinant of offspring 2D:4D, whereas maternal stress appears to account for some of the variation in the 2D:4D of their offspring. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between serum ghrelin levels and cocaine-seeking behaviour triggered by cocaine-associated conditioned stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Michela; Catalano, Antonio; Pellitteri, Michele; Di Francesco, Carla; Marini, Francesca; Gerrard, Philip A; Heidbreder, Christian A; Melotto, Sergio

    2007-03-01

    Ghrelin is a brain-gut peptide with growth hormone-releasing and appetite-inducing activities. A growing body of evidence suggests that ghrelin may affect the central reward system and modulate the activity of the mesolimbic system. Recent clinical studies also showed a significant positive correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and craving in alcoholics. Accordingly, the present study investigated the potential role of serum ghrelin levels in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour triggered by cocaine-associated cues. In addition, serum corticosterone levels were determined in the light of evidence suggesting that corticosterone plays a modulatory role in cocaine-seeking behaviour. Male Lister Hooded rats under a restricted diet regime were first trained to intravenously self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Conditioned stimuli (CS: tone and cue-light on for 5 seconds) were presented contingently with cocaine delivery. Once a stable baseline of cocaine self-administration was observed, lever presses were extinguished to less than 30% of baseline rates by removing both cocaine and CS. Reinstatement of responding was then induced by re-exposure to cocaine-associated CS. Blood samples for the enzyme immunoassay determination of serum ghrelin and the radioimmunoassay determination of serum corticosterone levels were collected 30 minutes before the beginning of reinstatement sessions. Rats significantly reinstated their responding when exposed to CS. A positive and significant correlation was observed between ghrelin levels (r = 0.64; P < 0.05), but not corticosterone (r = 0.37; NS), and the increased active lever presses only in animals exposed to CS. These findings suggest a potential role of ghrelin in the modulation of cue-triggered reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour.

  11. Effects of parasitic infection and reproduction on corticosterone plasma levels in Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus.

    PubMed

    Onorati, Michela; Sancesario, Giulia; Pastore, Donatella; Bernardini, Sergio; Cruz, Marilyn; Carrión, Jorge E; Carosi, Monica; Vignoli, Leonardo; Lauro, Davide; Gentile, Gabriele

    2017-08-01

    In vertebrates, one main feature of stress response is the release of glucocorticoids (corticosterone in reptiles), steroid hormones whose synthesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). In the Galápagos Islands, populations of land iguanas are differentially impacted by a tick-transmitted apicomplexan hemoparasite of genus Hepatozoon, which could cause diseases and ultimately reduce fitness. Using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we examined baseline plasma corticosterone levels of two syntopic and highly parasitized populations of the land iguana species Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus in Wolf volcano (Isabela Island). We also used a poorly parasitized population of C. subcristatus from the same island (Bahia Urbina) as a reference. To better interpret the observed glucocorticoids patterns, we simultaneously performed the count of white blood cells (WBCs) in all individuals and investigated the reproductive status of females. We did not find evidence in support of either a positive or negative relationship between the tick load, hemoparasite infection, and glucocorticoid plasma concentration in C. marthae and C. subcristatus at Wolf volcano. The comparison between parasitized and non-parasitized sites (V. Wolf and Bahia Urbina) would instead suggest an inverse relationship between corticosterone and parasites. Our findings support association between corticosterone plasma levels and reproduction.

  12. A flexible Bayesian hierarchical approach for analyzing spatial and temporal variation in the fecal corticosterone levels in birds when there is imperfect knowledge of individual identity.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Link, William A; Woods, Rami J; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-12-01

    Population cycles have long interested biologists. The ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbellus, is one such species whose populations cycle over most of their range. Thus, much effort has been expended to understand the mechanisms that might control cycles in this and other species. Corticosterone metabolites are widely used in studies of animals to measure physiological stress. We evaluated corticosterone metabolites in feces of territorial male grouse as a potential tool to study mechanisms governing grouse cycles. However, like most studies of corticosterone in wild animals, we did not know the identity of all individuals for which we had fecal samples. This presented an analytical problem that resulted in either pseudoreplication or confounding. Therefore, we derived an analytical approach that accommodated for uncertainty in individual identification. Because we had relatively low success capturing birds, we estimated turnover probabilities of birds on territorial display sites based on capture histories of a limited number of birds we captured. Hence, we developed a study design and modeling approach to quantify variation in corticosterone levels among individuals and through time that would be applicable to any field study of corticosterone in wild animals. Specifically, we wanted a sampling design and model that was flexible enough to partition variation among individuals, spatial units, and years, while incorporating environmental covariates that would represent potential mechanisms. We conducted our study during the decline phase of the grouse cycle and found high variation among corticosterone samples (11.33-443.92 ng/g [x=113.99 ng/g, SD=69.08, median=99.03 ng/g]). However, there were relatively small differences in corticosterone levels among years, but levels declined throughout each breeding season, which was opposite our predictions for stress hormones correlating with a declining population. We partitioned the residual variation into site, bird, and

  13. Stimulatory effect of intracerebroventricular met- and leu-enkephalin on corticosterone secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Gadek-Michalska, A; Bugajski, J

    1996-01-01

    The significance of enkephalins for the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, in spite of many efforts, is still elusive. We investigated the effect of leucine- and methionine-enkephalin on the HPA activity in conscious rats. These enkephalins, given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) increased dose-dependently the activity of the HPA axis, measured indirectly through serum corticosterone levels. On a molar basis, leu-enkephalin exerted a stronger effect that met-enkephalin. Naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, given i.c.v. prior to enkephalins almost abolished the corticosterone response to met-enkephalin and significantly impaired the response to leu-enkephalin. Prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist, considerably reduced the increase in serum corticosterone levels induced by both enkephalins. Pretreatment of rats with yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, also considerably reduced the corticosterone response to met-enkephalin and significantly diminished the response induced by leu-enkephalin. Naloxone and yohimbine inhibited to the same extent the corticosterone response to met- and leu-enkephalin. This suggests an interaction between presynaptic opioid and alpha 2-receptors in regulation of the HPA function. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, given i.c.v. did not alter the corticosterone levels raised by met- and leu-enkephalin. These results indicate that both met- and leu-enkephalin increase the activity of the HPA axis in rats and both central opioid and adrenergic alpha-receptors are involved in this stimulation.

  14. The antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine increase plasma glucose and corticosterone levels in rats: comparison with aripiprazole, ziprasidone, bifeprunox and F15063.

    PubMed

    Assié, Marie-Bernadette; Carilla-Durand, Elisabeth; Bardin, Laurent; Maraval, Mireille; Aliaga, Monique; Malfètes, Nathalie; Barbara, Michèle; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2008-09-11

    Several novel antipsychotics activate serotonin 5-HT1A receptors as well as antagonising dopamine D2/3 receptors. Such a pharmacological profile is associated with a lowered liability to produce extrapyramidal side effects and enhanced efficacy in treating negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, 5-HT1A receptor agonists increase plasma corticosterone and many antipsychotics disturb the regulation of glucose. Here, we compared the influence on plasma glucose and corticosterone of acute treatments with 'new generation' antipsychotics which target dopamine D2/3 receptors and 5-HT1A receptors, with that of atypical antipsychotics, and with haloperidol. Olanzapine and clozapine, antipsychotics that are known to produce weight gain and diabetes in humans, both at 10 mg/kg p.o., substantially increased plasma glucose (from 0.8 to 1.7 g/l) at 1 h after administration, an effect that returned to control levels after 4 h. In comparison, F15063 (40 mg/kg p.o.) was without effect at any time point. Olanzapine and clozapine dose-dependently increased plasma glucose concentrations as did SLV313 and SSR181507. Haloperidol and risperidone had modest effects whereas aripiprazole, ziprasidone and bifeprunox, antipsychotics that are not associated with metabolic dysfunction in humans, and F15063 had little or no influence on plasma glucose. The same general pattern of response was found for plasma corticosterone levels. The present data provide the first comparative study of conventional, atypical and 'new generation' antipsychotics on glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. A variety of mechanisms likely underlie the hyperglycemia and corticosterone release observed with clozapine and olanzapine, whilst the balance of dopamine D2/3/5-HT1A interaction may contribute to the less favourable impact of SLV313 and SSR181507 compared with that of bifeprunox and F15063.

  15. Oral administration of corticosterone at stress-like levels drives microglial but not vascular disturbances post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Katarzyna; Ong, Lin Kooi; Johnson, Sarah J; Nilsson, Michael; Walker, Frederick R

    2017-03-11

    Exposure to chronic stress following stroke has been shown, both clinically and pre-clinically, to impact negatively on the recovery process. While this phenomenon is well established, the specific mechanisms involved have remained largely unexplored. One obvious signaling pathway through which chronic stress may impact on the recovery process is via corticosterone, and its effects on microglial activity and vascular remodeling. In the current study, we were interested in examining how orally delivered corticosterone at stress-like concentration impacted on microglial activity and vascular remodeling after stroke. We identified that corticosterone administration for two weeks following stroke significantly increased tissue loss and decreased the weight of the spleen and thymus. We also identified that corticosterone administration significantly altered the expression of the key microglial complement receptor, CD11b after stroke. Corticosterone administration did not alter the expression of the vessel basement membrane protein, Collagen IV after stroke. Together, these results suggest that corticosterone is likely to represent only one of the major stress signals responsible for driving the negative impacts of chronic stress on recovery.

  16. Flattening plasma corticosterone levels increases the prevalence of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons inhibitory responses to nicotine in adrenalectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Frías-Domínguez, Carmen; Garduño, Julieta; Hernández, Salvador; Drucker-Colin, René; Mihailescu, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Major depression is characterized by a diminished activity of the brain serotonergic system as well as by the flattening of plasma cortisol levels. Nicotine improves mood in patients with major depression and in experimentally depressed animals by increasing brain serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline and dopamine levels. The present study was directed to determine if flattening plasma glucocorticoid levels changes nicotine's stimulatory effects upon 5-HT DRN neurons. The experiments were performed in brain slices obtained from rats previously (14 days) adrenalectomised and implanted subcutaneously with one pellet containing 75mg of corticosterone (Adx+CSR rats). Whole cell voltage and current clamp techniques were used to study the activity of immunocitochemically identified 5-HT DRN neurons. Administration of nicotine (1μM) in sham-operated animals produced stimulatory effects in all 5-HT DRN neurons studied. In Adx+CSR rats however, nicotine inhibited 75% of 5-HT DRN neurons and increased the potassium-dependent inward rectifying current. The inhibitory effect of nicotine upon 5-HT DRN neurons was dependent on serotonin release inside the DRN, since it was converted into a stimulatory response by the selective antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635, 25nM). Adx+CSR rats also presented an increased function of 5-HT1A autoreceptors, since, in these rats, serotonin (1-10μM) produced a higher increase in the potassium dependent inward rectifying current in comparison with sham-operated animals. Serotonin release inside DRN was mediated by α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors since the selective antagonist of these receptors dihydro-β-erytroidine hydrobromide (DHβE, 100nM) blocked the inhibitory effects of nicotine 5-HT DRN neurons. These data indicate that, in the experimental model of adrenalectomised rats implanted with corticosterone pellets, nicotine increases the function of

  17. Vocal and territorial behavior in the Smith frog (Hypsiboas faber): relationships with plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Vania Regina; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Mendonça, Mary T; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    The possible trade-off between the roles of glucocorticoids as facilitators of energy substrate mobilization and neural inhibitors of sexual behavior during breeding season is under debate. We studied the relationship between calling and territorial behavior with plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) and plasma levels of testosterone (T) across the breeding season of Hypsiboas faber, a large and territorial Neotropical treefrog. We investigated these relationships through focal observations of males calling naturally, followed by blood sampling for hormonal radioimmunoassay. We additionally used an experimental approach, which consisted of broadcasting recorded advertisement calls for 10 min to simulate an invasion in the territory of the focal subjects, followed by behavioral observation and blood sampling for hormonal radioimmunoassay. Results showed a pattern of co-variation between CORT and T across the breeding season. Furthermore, individual variation in CORT and T was related to different aspects of behavior: individuals with higher CORT showed higher calling rates, and individuals with higher steroid levels, mainly T, showed higher responsivity to social stimulation by other males in the chorus. Experimental simulation of territorial intrusion by using playback of advertisement calls of this species did not elicit consistent changes in agonistic behavior and CORT, but decreased T in focal males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental acidification is not associated with altered plasma corticosterone levels in the stream-side salamander, Desmognathus ochrophaeus.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Sarah K; Freeman, Peter; Ricciardella, Lauren F

    2014-05-15

    As environments become increasingly altered due to anthropogenic factors, interest is growing in how endocrine systems respond to pollution and environmental degradation. Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) are a type of stress hormones that are released upon activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and have widespread effects throughout the body. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to environmental acidification is associated with altered levels of plasma GCs in adult, stream-side Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus). We compared plasma corticosterone (CORT) in salamanders living in 9 streams that differed in pH. Although capture and handling induced a robust increase in plasma CORT in all populations of salamanders, we discerned no significant effect of environmental pH on baseline CORT or handling-induced CORT levels. In a laboratory study, low pH decreased salamander locomotory activity compared to acid-neutral controls, but there was no effect of pH on plasma CORT. Decreased locomotory activity is a common amphibian response to stress, indicating that low pH has adverse effects on Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders. Overall, we conclude that the effects of environmental pH on salamander behavior and other potential responses are not mediated by changes in plasma CORT levels. We discuss alternative explanations for our results and describe difficulties involved in searching for relationships between plasma GCs and environmental degradation.

  19. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves.

    PubMed

    Miller, David A; Vleck, Carol M; Otis, David L

    2009-10-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10-15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  20. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  1. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  2. Influence of Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite) invasion on the plasma levels of corticosterone, catecholamines and proteins in layer hens.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, A; Sokół, R

    2009-01-01

    The results of studies conducted in 2006 revealed that mass red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) invasions cause somatic stress which may be responsible for the pathophysiological mechanism of decreased egg production, lower humoral immunity and higher mortality in layer hens. The aim of this study was to validate the above research results, to investigate whether in addition to somatic stress, red mite invasions cause psychogenic stress due to the activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullar system, and to determine the level of stress resulting from red mite infestations in comparison with a short, 1.5 h period of acute immobilisation stress. The study investigated 36 HY-Line Brown layer hens divided into three groups: a non-infested control group, an experimental group infested with red mites and a non-infested experimental group subjected to acute immobilisation stress for 1.5 h. Blood samples were taken from all hens for the determination of the levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, albumin, and alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulins. The results validated the previous reports on the occurrence of somatic stress and on a significant decrease in y-globulin levels (p < or = 0.01) in the group of birds infested with red mites, in comparison with the control group. Adrenaline levels in infested hens were indicative of psychogenic stress. Based on a comparison of hormonal indicators in all hen groups, the level of somatic stress resulting from red mite infestation can be classified as moderate, while the level of psychogenic stress can be interpreted as high. A significant drop in y-globulin levels in the blood of birds infested with red mites also shows that the invasion induces chronic stress which lowers the humoral immunity of hens.

  3. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  4. Diurnal rhythms of blood glucose, serum ghrelin, faecal IgA and faecal corticosterone in rats subjected to restricted feeding using the diet board.

    PubMed

    Kasanen, Iiris; Inhilä, Katja; Savontaus, Eriika; Voipio, Hanna-Marja; Õkva, Kai; Mering, Satu; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hau, Jann; Laaksonen, Sakari; Nevalainen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory rats are generally fed ad libitum, although this method is associated with obesity and an increased frequency of spontaneous tumours. It has been challenging looking for ways to limit feed consumption in group-housed rats without any setbacks to animal welfare and scientific results. The diet board, as a method of dietary restriction, was used in the present study. Diet board feeding allows group housing and should result in enhanced welfare compared with traditional methods of dietary restriction. With respect to animal model robustness and translatability of results it is important that the feeding regime does not affect diurnal rhythmicity of biological parameters. In the present study the effects of diet board feeding on diurnal rhythms of blood glucose, serum ghrelin, faecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and faecal corticosterone were assessed. The diet board did not alter diurnal rhythms, and adds weight to the use of this method for dietary restriction which should benefit animal health and the validity of scientific results generated from the animals.

  5. Relation of serum molindone levels to serum prolactin levels and antipsychotic response.

    PubMed

    Pandurangi, A K; Narasimhachari, N; Blackard, W G; Landa, B S

    1989-10-01

    The antipsychotic drug molindone is considered to be atypical in its mode of action and to have mild side effects. Currently no data are available on the range of serum levels of this drug during treatment. By means of a high performance liquid chromatographic technique, serum molindone levels were measured in 14 psychotic patients receiving a wide range of doses of this drug. Molindone levels as high as 350 ng/mL were obtained and were not associated with any toxic effects. Significant relations were noted between the serum level of the drug and both serum prolactin level and treatment response. The authors suggest that molindone may have a range of serum levels consistent with therapeutic benefit. Serum molindone and prolactin levels might help assess resistance to molindone treatment.

  6. Effects of high-fat diets on body composition, hypothalamus NPY, and plasma leptin and corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Stachoń, Małgorzata; Fürstenberg, Ewa; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the adipogenic effects of high-fat diets with different fat sources, as well as their influence on hypothalamus NPY content (NPY) and plasma corticosterone (Cs) and leptin (Lep) concentrations. In a 6-wk experiment performed in 28 male Wistar rats, high-fat diets (approx 60% of energy as fat) containing sunflower oil (S), rapeseed oil (R), palm oil (P), or lard (L) as the fat source were applied. Carcass composition was analyzed by standard methods; NPY, Cs, and Lep were determined by RIA method. Gas chromatography was applied to measure fatty acid composition of dietary fats. S group had the highest body fat content and Lep and the lowest Cs and NPY, while L rats had high Lep and the highest Cs and NPY. We conclude that the fatty acid composition of dietary fat is of high importance where effects of high fat diets on adiposity, as well as on plasma levels of both hormones and hypothalamus NPY content are concerned.

  7. Clinical importance of thrombomodulin serum levels.

    PubMed

    Califano, F; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P; Campana, E; Parlapiano, C; Alegiani, F; Vincentelli, G M; Turchetti, P

    2000-01-01

    Thrombomodulin is a glycoprotein that can bind to thrombin and activate protein C, thus mitigating the effects of cytokines produced by inflammatory and immunological processes. The molecule exerts a protective function on endothelial cells. Thrombomodulin is cleaved to its soluble form by neutrophil elastase and by other substances produced during acute and chronic inflammatory responses, immunologic reactions and complement activation. ELISA technique yields normal serum levels of 3.1 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; in males these levels are higher; TM levels also rise during menopause. Other circumstances associated with an increase of serum TM levels are smoking, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), cardiac surgery, atherosclerosis, ARDS, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cerebral and myocardial infarction, and multiple sclerosis. Serum levels of TM represent an useful prognostic index, because they are associated with an increase in mortality rate, or however a progression of the underlying pathological condition.

  8. Retinoic acid modulates intrahippocampal levels of corticosterone in middle-aged mice: consequences on hippocampal plasticity and contextual memory.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Damien; Pallet, Véronique; Dominguez, Gaelle; Servant, Laure; Henkous, Nadia; Lafenêtre, Pauline; Higueret, Paul; Béracochéa, Daniel; Touyarot, Katia

    2014-01-01

    It is now established that vitamin A and its derivatives, retinoic acid (RA), are required for cognitive functions in adulthood. RA hyposignaling and hyperactivity of glucocorticoid (GC) pathway appear concomitantly during aging and would contribute to the deterioration of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and functions. Furthermore, recent data have evidenced counteracting effects of retinoids on GC signaling pathway. In the present study, we addressed the following issue: whether the stimulation of RA pathway could modulate intrahippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in middle-aged mice and thereby impact on hippocampal plasticity and cognitive functions. We firstly investigated the effects of vitamin A supplementation and RA treatment in middle-aged mice, on contextual serial discrimination task, a paradigm which allows the detection of early signs of age-related hippocampal-dependent memory dysfunction. We then measured intrahippocampal CORT concentrations by microdialysis before and after a novelty-induced stress. Our results show that both RA treatment and vitamin A supplementation improve "episodic-like" memory in middle-aged mice but RA treatment appears to be more efficient. Moreover, we show that the beneficial effect of RA on memory is associated to an increase in hippocampal PSD-95 expression. In addition, intrahippocampal CORT levels are reduced after novelty-induced stress in RA-treated animals. This effect cannot be related to a modulation of hippocampal 11β-HSD1 expression. Interestingly, RA treatment induces a modulation of RA receptors RARα and RARβ expression in middle-aged mice, a finding which has been correlated with the amplitude of intrahippocampal CORT levels after novelty-induced stress. Taken together, our results suggest that the preventive action of RA treatment on age-related memory deficits in middle-aged mice could be, at least in part, due to an inhibitory effect of retinoids on GC activity.

  9. Retinoic acid modulates intrahippocampal levels of corticosterone in middle-aged mice: consequences on hippocampal plasticity and contextual memory

    PubMed Central

    Bonhomme, Damien; Pallet, Véronique; Dominguez, Gaelle; Servant, Laure; Henkous, Nadia; Lafenêtre, Pauline; Higueret, Paul; Béracochéa, Daniel; Touyarot, Katia

    2014-01-01

    It is now established that vitamin A and its derivatives, retinoic acid (RA), are required for cognitive functions in adulthood. RA hyposignaling and hyperactivity of glucocorticoid (GC) pathway appear concomitantly during aging and would contribute to the deterioration of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and functions. Furthermore, recent data have evidenced counteracting effects of retinoids on GC signaling pathway. In the present study, we addressed the following issue: whether the stimulation of RA pathway could modulate intrahippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in middle-aged mice and thereby impact on hippocampal plasticity and cognitive functions. We firstly investigated the effects of vitamin A supplementation and RA treatment in middle-aged mice, on contextual serial discrimination task, a paradigm which allows the detection of early signs of age-related hippocampal-dependent memory dysfunction. We then measured intrahippocampal CORT concentrations by microdialysis before and after a novelty-induced stress. Our results show that both RA treatment and vitamin A supplementation improve “episodic-like” memory in middle-aged mice but RA treatment appears to be more efficient. Moreover, we show that the beneficial effect of RA on memory is associated to an increase in hippocampal PSD-95 expression. In addition, intrahippocampal CORT levels are reduced after novelty-induced stress in RA-treated animals. This effect cannot be related to a modulation of hippocampal 11β-HSD1 expression. Interestingly, RA treatment induces a modulation of RA receptors RARα and RARβ expression in middle-aged mice, a finding which has been correlated with the amplitude of intrahippocampal CORT levels after novelty-induced stress. Taken together, our results suggest that the preventive action of RA treatment on age-related memory deficits in middle-aged mice could be, at least in part, due to an inhibitory effect of retinoids on GC activity. PMID:24570662

  10. Reference levels for corticosterone and immune function in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) hatchlings using current Code of Practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Thomson, Peter C; Adams, Amanda L; Benedict, Suresh; Moran, Christopher; Isberg, Sally R

    2015-02-01

    To determine reference levels for on-farm stressors on immune responsiveness and growth rate, 253 hatchling crocodiles from 11 known breeding pairs were repeatedly measured and blood sampled during their first year. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) was used to quantify baseline stress levels in captive animals and were found to be lower (mean 1.83±SE 0.16 ng/mL) than previously reported in saltwater crocodile hatchlings. Two tests of immune function were also conducted. Innate constitutive immunity was assessed using bacterial killing assays (BKA) against two bacterial species: Escherichia coli and Providencia rettgeri, whereby the latter causes considerable economic loss to industry from septicaemic mortalities. Although the bactericidal capabilities were different at approximately 4 months old (32±3% for E. coli and 16±4% for P. rettgeri), the differences had disappeared by approximately 9 months old (58±2% and 68±6%, respectively). To assess immune responsiveness to a novel antigen, the inflammatory swelling response caused by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection was assessed but was only significantly different between Samplings 1 and 3 (5% LSD). There were no significant clutch effects for CORT or PHA but there were for both BKA traits. CORT was not significantly associated with growth (head length) or the immune parameters except for P. rettgeri BKA where higher CORT levels were associated with better bactericidal capability. As such, these results suggest that the crocodiles in this study are not stressed, therefore endorsing the management strategies adopted within the Australian industry Code of Practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P < 0.05). In subgroup analysis, an inverse association between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  12. Apigenin reverses depression-like behavior induced by chronic corticosterone treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lianjin; Guo, Xiaohua; Li, Yang; Yang, Xin; Han, Yuanyuan

    2016-03-05

    Previous researches found that apigenin exerted antidepressant-like effects in rodents. However, it is unclear whether the neurotrophic system is involved in the antidepressant-like effects of apigenin. Our present study aimed to explore the neurotrophic related mechanism of apigenin in depressive-like mice induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Mice were repeatedly injected with corticosterone (40 mg/kg) subcutaneously (s.c) once daily for consecutive 21 days. Apigenin (20 and 40 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) were administered 30 min prior to the corticosterone injection. The behavioral tests indicated that apigenin reversed the reduction of sucrose preference and the elevation of immobility time in mice induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. In addition, the increase in serum corticosterone levels and the decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in corticosterone-treated mice were also ameliorated by apigenin administration. Taken together, our findings intensively confirmed the antidepressant-like effects of apigenin and indicated that the antidepressant-like mechanism of apigenin was mediated, at least partly by up-regulation of BDNF levels in the hippocampus.

  13. Effect of water deprivation on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni).

    PubMed

    Dupoué, Andréaz; Angelier, Frédéric; Lourdais, Olivier; Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François

    2014-02-01

    Corticosterone (CORT) secretion is influenced by endogenous factors (e.g., physiological status) and environmental stressors (e.g., ambient temperature). Heretofore, the impact of water deprivation on CORT plasma levels has not been thoroughly investigated. However, both baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT are expected to respond to water deprivation not only because of hydric stress per se, but also because CORT is an important mineralocorticoid in vertebrates. We assessed the effects of water deprivation on baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT, in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni), a species that experiences seasonal droughts in natural conditions. We imposed a 52-day water deprivation on a group of unfed Children's pythons (i.e., water-deprived treatment) and provided water ad libitum to another group (i.e., control treatment). We examined body mass variations throughout the experiment, and baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT at the end of the treatments. Relative body mass loss averaged ~10% in pythons without water, a value 2 to 4 times higher compared to control snakes. Following re-exposition to water, pythons from the water-deprived treatment drank readily and abundantly and attained a body mass similar to pythons from the control treatment. Together, these results suggest a substantial dehydration as a consequence of water deprivation. Interestingly, stress-induced but not baseline CORT level was significantly higher in water-deprived snakes, suggesting that baseline CORT might not respond to this degree of dehydration. Therefore, possible mineralocorticoid role of CORT needs to be clarified in snakes. Because dehydration usually induces adjustments (reduced movements, lowered body temperature) to limit water loss, and decreases locomotor performances, elevated stress-induced CORT in water-deprived snakes might therefore compensate for altered locomotor performances. Future studies should test this hypothesis.

  14. How does whisky lower serum urate level?

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Nakanishi, Takeo; Fukazawa, Miki; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-05-01

    Clinical studies have shown that moderate whisky consumption increased renal excretion of urate into urine and decreased serum urate level, but the mechanism involved has not been established. Because renal reabsorption influences serum urate level, the effects of the whisky congeners on urate transporters, urate transporter 1 (URAT1), and voltage-driven urate transporter (URATv1) involved in reabsorptive transport of urate were examined. In transporter-expressing Xenopus oocytes, 12-year-old and 18-year-old whisky congeners inhibited urate uptake by URAT1 with IC50 values of 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively, while urate uptake by URATv1 was inhibited only at 1 mg/mL. Decreased serum urate level after whisky consumption may be mainly due to inhibition of URAT1 by the congeners. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Paula Madeira; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Vasconcelos, Mailton; Ascoli, Bruna Maria; Menegolla, Ana Paula; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2017-01-01

    Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation), or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Avoidance is Attenuated by Corticosterone and Associated with Brain Levels of Steroid Receptor Co-Activator-1 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Annie M.; Farooq, Muhammad A.; Edwards, Scott; Gilpin, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) avoid trauma-related stimuli and exhibit blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation at the time of stress. Our laboratory has established a rodent model of stress that mimics the avoidance symptom cluster of PTSD. Rats are classified as ‘Avoiders’ or ‘Non-Avoiders’ post-stress based on avoidance of a predator-odor paired context. Previously, we demonstrated that Avoiders exhibit an attenuated HPA stress response to predator odor. We hypothesized that corticosterone administration prior to stress would reduce magnitude and incidence of avoidance of a stress-paired context. Furthermore, we predicted that Avoiders would exhibit altered expression of GR signaling machinery elements, such as steroid receptor co-activator (SRC)-1. Male Wistar rats (n = 16) were pre-treated with corticosterone (25 mg/kg) or saline and exposed to predator odor stress paired with a context, and tested for avoidance 24 h later, A second group of corticosterone-naïve rats (n = 24) were stressed (or not stressed), indexed for avoidance 24 h later, and killed 48 h post-odor exposure for analysis of phosphorylated GR, FKBP51, and SRC-1 levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral hippocampus (VH), all brain sites that express high quantities of GRs and regulate HPA function. Rats pre-treated with corticosterone exhibited lower magnitude and incidence of avoidance. Predator odor exposure also reduced SRC-1 expression in the PVN and CeA of Avoiders, and increased SRC-1 expression in the VH of Avoiders. SRC-1 expression in PVN, CeA, and VH was predicted by prior avoidance behavior. These results suggest that blunted HPA stress response may contribute to stress-induced neuroadaptations in central SRC-1 levels and behavioral dysfunction in Avoider rats. PMID:26482332

  17. Post-traumatic stress avoidance is attenuated by corticosterone and associated with brain levels of steroid receptor co-activator-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Annie M; Farooq, Muhammad A; Edwards, Scott; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) avoid trauma-related stimuli and exhibit blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation at the time of stress. Our rodent model of stress mimics the avoidance symptom cluster of PTSD. Rats are classified as "Avoiders" or "Non-Avoiders" post-stress based on the avoidance of a predator-odor paired context. Previously, we found Avoiders exhibit an attenuated HPA stress response to predator odor. We hypothesized that corticosterone administration before stress would reduce the magnitude and incidence of stress-paired context avoidance. Furthermore, we also predicted that Avoiders would exhibit altered expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling machinery elements, including steroid receptor co-activator (SRC)-1. Male Wistar rats (n = 16) were pretreated with corticosterone (25 mg/kg) or saline and exposed to predator-odor stress paired with a context and tested for avoidance 24 h later. A second group of corticosterone-naïve rats (n = 24) were stressed (or not), indexed for avoidance 24 h later, and killed 48 h post-odor exposure to measure phosphorylated GR, FKBP51 and SRC-1 levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral hippocampus (VH), all brain sites that highly express GRs and regulate HPA function. Corticosterone pretreatment reduced the magnitude and incidence of avoidance. In Avoiders, predator-odor exposure led to lower SRC-1 expression in the PVN and CeA, and higher SRC-1 expression in the VH. SRC-1 expression in PVN, CeA and VH was predicted by prior avoidance behavior. Hence, a blunted HPA stress response may contribute to stress-induced neuroadaptations in central SRC-1 levels and behavioral dysfunction in Avoider rats.

  18. Do smart birds stress less? An interspecific relationship between brain size and corticosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Lendvai, Ádám Z; Bókony, Veronika; Angelier, Frédéric; Chastel, Olivier; Sol, Daniel

    2013-11-07

    Vertebrates respond to unpredictable noxious environmental stimuli by increasing secretion of glucocorticoids (CORT). Although this hormonal stress response is adaptive, high levels of CORT may induce significant costs if stressful situations are frequent. Thus, alternative coping mechanisms that help buffer individuals against environmental stressors may be selected for when the costs of CORT levels are elevated. By allowing individuals to identify, anticipate and cope with the stressful circumstances, cognition may enable stress-specific behavioural coping. Although there is evidence that behavioural responses allow animals to cope with stressful situations, it is unclear whether or not cognition reduces investment in the neuroendocrine stress response. Here, we report that in birds, species with larger brains relative to their body size show lower baseline and peak CORT levels than species with smaller brains. This relationship is consistent across life-history stages, and cannot be accounted for by differences in life history and geographical latitude. Because a large brain is a major feature of birds that base their lifetime in learning new things, our results support the hypothesis that enhanced cognition represents a general alternative to the neuroendocrine stress response.

  19. Measurement of feline serum interleukin-5 level.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ayumi; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Kadoya, Michiyo; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2007-08-01

    A bioassay was developed to measure feline interleukin-5 (IL-5). Human IL-5 receptor alpha chain transfected murine Ba/F3 cells (Ba/F3-IL-5R) showed feline IL-5-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. IL-5 levels in serum samples from 54 cats with suspected allergic dermatitis and from 11 control cats could be successfully measured using Ba/F3-IL-5R cells. The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood was not correlated with serum IL-5 level.

  20. Elevated corticosterone levels during the first postpartum period influence subsequent pregnancy outcomes and behaviours of the dam.

    PubMed

    Wong, J H K; Brummelte, S; Galea, L A M

    2011-11-01

    Postpartum depression affects 15% of new mothers and previous depressive episodes increase the risk for postpartum depression. Chronic administration of corticosterone (CORT) to dams during the postpartum period causes depressive-like behaviour and has been used as a model of postpartum depression. To better understand the subsequent progress of this model, we examined whether there were persistent effects of CORT treatment during the dam's first postpartum period on maternal care and mood following a subsequent pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley female rats received either sesame oil (control) or CORT (40 mg/kg) injections for 22 days during their first postpartum period. Subsequently, all females were re-mated for a second time and neither group received treatment during the second postpartum period. Maternal care was observed from days 2-8 of each postpartum period and dams were tested in the forced-swim test on days 21 and 22 of the first and days 4 and 21 of the second postpartum period. As expected, the amount of time spent immobile in the forced-swim test was increased in CORT dams at the end of the first postpartum period; however, the amount of time spent immobile was decreased at the end of the second postpartum period relative to oil dams. Furthermore, dams treated with CORT in first postpartum period gave birth to a smaller litter with a larger male/female sex ratio after their second pregnancy. This implies that elevated stress hormone levels during the first postpartum period have a substantial influence on subsequent postpartum behaviour and litter characteristics. Further investigations are necessary to fully understand the effect of parity, experience during first motherhood, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation on postpartum depression. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. [Serum immunoglobulin E level in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Denchev, K; Radkov, M; Lipcheva, N

    1976-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin E level was determined in 50 patients with bronchial asthma, treated in the out-patients department and clinical conditions at the Faculty Hospital--Varna. The quantitative determination of immunoglobulin E was carried out by radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini with monospecific anti-IgE globulin serum from Behringswerke (GFR). A considerable elevation of immunoglobulin E in the patients' sera was found, at an average of 394 IU (control 124 IU). A discrepancy in serum immunoglobulin E level was established with the different clinical forms of asthma. The highest are the values with infectious-allergic astmha-424 IU. High are the values both in the treated and not-treated with corticosteroids, without an essential difference between the two patient groups. Some of the rest immunoglobulins showed also an elevationppIgG 2620 mg% and IgA 366 mg%.

  2. Cysteamine Attenuates the Decreases in TrkB Protein Levels and the Anxiety/Depression-Like Behaviors in Mice Induced by Corticosterone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Terry, Alvin V.; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective Stress and glucocorticoid hormones, which are released into the circulation following stressful experiences, have been shown to contribute significantly to the manifestation of anxiety-like behaviors observed in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its receptor TrkB plays an important role in stress-mediated changes in structural as well as functional neuroplasticity. Studies designed to elucidate the mechanisms whereby TrkB signaling is regulated in chronic stress might provide valuable information for the development of new therapeutic strategies for several stress-related psychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods We examined the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to attenuate anxiety and depression like behaviors in a mouse model of anxiety/depression induced by chronic corticosterone exposure. Results Cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg/day, through drinking water) for 21 days significantly ameliorated chronic corticosterone-induced decreases in TrkB protein levels in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, cysteamine treatment reversed the anxiety and depression like behavioral abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in behavioral tests, suggesting that TrkB signaling plays an important role in the antidepressant effects of cysteamine. Conclusions The animal studies described here highlight the potential use of cysteamine as a novel therapeutic strategy for glucocorticoid-related symptoms of psychiatric disorders. PMID:22039440

  3. Cysteamine attenuates the decreases in TrkB protein levels and the anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice induced by corticosterone treatment.

    PubMed

    Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Terry, Alvin V; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2011-01-01

    Stress and glucocorticoid hormones, which are released into the circulation following stressful experiences, have been shown to contribute significantly to the manifestation of anxiety-like behaviors observed in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its receptor TrkB plays an important role in stress-mediated changes in structural as well as functional neuroplasticity. Studies designed to elucidate the mechanisms whereby TrkB signaling is regulated in chronic stress might provide valuable information for the development of new therapeutic strategies for several stress-related psychiatric disorders. We examined the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to attenuate anxiety and depression like behaviors in a mouse model of anxiety/depression induced by chronic corticosterone exposure. Cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg/day, through drinking water) for 21 days significantly ameliorated chronic corticosterone-induced decreases in TrkB protein levels in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, cysteamine treatment reversed the anxiety and depression like behavioral abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in behavioral tests, suggesting that TrkB signaling plays an important role in the antidepressant effects of cysteamine. The animal studies described here highlight the potential use of cysteamine as a novel therapeutic strategy for glucocorticoid-related symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  4. Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  5. Effect of Acute Swim Stress on Plasma Corticosterone and Brain Monoamine Levels in Bidirectionally Selected DxH Recombinant Inbred Mouse Strains Differing in Fear Recall and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Caroline A.; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F.; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 minutes after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  6. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake.

  7. Serum ferritin levels in hemoglobin H disease.

    PubMed

    Galanello, R; Melis, M A; Paglietti, E; Cornacchia, G; de Virgiliis, S; Cao, A

    1983-01-01

    This study shows that hemoglobin H disease patients aged between 0.5 and 44 years, usually (27 out of 30) have normal serum ferritin levels according to age. This reconfirms that in this disease there are usually normal iron stores. However, in a few patients (3 out of 30) increased levels were found. This may be due to inappropriate iron medication, transfusions or associated idiopathic hereditary hemocromatosis gene.

  8. Serum fucose level in malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Sawke, N G; Sawke, G K

    2010-01-01

    We review the present knowledge of serum fucose with special attention to its relation with various malignant diseases. We summarize the role of serum fucose as a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker when used singly or in combination. The purpose of this review is to provide an expert opinion on the practical and applied aspect of serum fucose level in clinical practice and research settings. Our review is based on information from published research studies, library books, and electronic searches through Medline and PubMed. The available published data were used as the basis for recommendations. Each of the subsections concludes to provide information to assist the clinicians and the research scientists make informed decisions.

  9. Serum irisin levels in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Baran, Anna; Myśliwiec, Hanna; Kiluk, Paulina; Świderska, Magdalena; Flisiak, Iwona

    2017-06-01

    Irisin has been proposed to regulate metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes or metabolic syndrome which are common comorbidities in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum irisin level in psoriasis and elucidate possible associations with disease activity, inflammatory or metabolic parameters and topical treatment. Thirty-seven individuals with active plaque-type psoriasis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were collected before and after two weeks of therapy. Serum irisin concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and effectiveness of topical treatment. Irisin serum levels were insignificantly increased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls (p = 0.38). No significant correlations between investigated adipokine and several indicators of metabolic disorders, nor BMI (p = 0.37) or PASI (p = 0.5) were found. Significant positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP) (0.009), lipocalin-2 (p = 0.02), age (p = 0.02) and disease duration (p = 0.008) were noted. After topical treatment, serum irisin level did not significantly change (p = 0.31), despite clinical improvement. Irisin might be a marker of inflammation in psoriatic patients, but may not be a reliable indicator of metabolic conditions, severity of psoriasis nor efficacy of antipsoriatic treatment.

  10. Association between serum levels of carotenoids and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Watarai, Rika; Suzuki, Koji; Ichino, Naohiro; Osakabe, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Keiko; Yamada, Hiroya; Hamajima, Takeshi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (NOS). ADMA binds to a substrate-binding site of NOS and then inhibits nitric oxide production from vascular endothelial cells. Elevated ADMA levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, it was reported that plasma ADMA levels were negatively correlated with vegetable and fruit consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between serum levels of carotenoids and serum ADMA levels in Japanese subjects. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 470 subjects (203 men and 267 women) who attended a health examination in August 2011. Serum levels of several carotenoids were separately measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum ADMA levels were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. In women, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of elevated serum ADMA levels were significantly decreased in the highest tertile for β-cryptoxanthin (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.95), α-carotene (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18-0.79), and β-carotene (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.73) compared to the lowest tertile. In men, significantly decreased ORs were observed in the highest tertiles of serum zeaxanthin/lutein (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.69) and α-carotene (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.82), and in the middle and the highest tertiles of serum β-carotene (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.74 and OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.03-0.88, respectively) when the tertile cutoff points of women were extrapolated to men. Higher serum levels of carotenoids, such as α-carotene and β-carotene, may help to prevent elevated serum ADMA levels in Japanese subjects.

  11. Corticosterone inhibits normal and FSH-induced testicular recrudescence in the lizard, Mabuya carinata.

    PubMed

    Yajurvedi, H N; Nijagal, B S

    2000-12-01

    Administration (ip) of 1, 10, or 20 microg corticosterone (alternate days for 30 days) to adult male Mabuya carinata did not affect the seasonal recrudescence of spermatogenesis whereas administration of 40 microg corticosterone did result in inhibition of spermatogenesis. Further, administration of FSH (10 IU/lizard/alternate day for 30 days) during the quiescent phase of the testicular cycle stimulated spermatogenetic and steroidogenic activity of the testis as shown by significant increases in the mean number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids and serum levels of testosterone. In addition there were abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the tubules in FSH-treated lizards. Administration of 10 IU FSH + 40 microg corticosterone (per lizard on alternate days for 30 days) increased the mean number of primary and secondary spermatocytes whereas the mean number of spermatids did not show significant variation compared with that of controls. Further, the mean numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids and serum levels of testosterone were significantly less when compared to those of FSH alone treated lizards. In addition, FSH-induced development of epididymis was also inhibited by corticosterone treatment. The results indicate that corticosterone inhibits FSH-induced testicular recrudescence, possibly by suppressing testosterone secretion in M. carinata.

  12. Obesity and chronic stress are able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of serum levels of leptin and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; de Souza, Andressa; de Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Marques Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system can lead to metabolic dysfunction as a response to environmental alterations. This study assessed the effects of the association between obesity and chronic stress on the temporal pattern of serum levels of adipogenic markers and corticosterone in rats. We evaluated weekly weight, delta weight, Lee index, and weight fractions of adipose tissue (mesenteric, MAT; subcutaneous, SAT; and pericardial, PAT) to control for hypercaloric diet-induced obesity model efficacy. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard chow (C), hypercaloric diet (HD), stress plus standard chow (S), and stress plus hypercaloric diet (SHD), and analyzed at three time points: ZT0, ZT12, and ZT18. Stressed animals were subjected to chronic stress for 1h per day, 5 days per week, during 80 days. The chronic exposure to a hypercaloric diet was an effective model for the induction of obesity and metabolic syndrome, increasing delta weight, Lee index, weight fractions of adipose tissue, and triglycerides and leptin levels. We confirmed the presence of a temporal pattern in the release of triglycerides, corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin in naïve animals. Chronic stress reduced delta weight, MAT weight, and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin. There were interactions between chronic stress and obesity and serum total cholesterol levels, between time points and obesity and adiponectin and corticosterone levels, and between time points and chronic stress and serum leptin levels. In conclusion, both parameters were able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of leptin and triglyceride release, which could contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum gastrin level in early childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Sann, L; Chayvialle, A P; Bremond, A; Lambert, R

    1975-01-01

    Serum gastrin concentration was measured in newborns and infants with no gastrointestinal disorders, in the fasting state and after food stimulation. Mean fasting concentration in 14 newborns aged 1 to 12 days (130 . 4 pg/ml +/- 11 . 4 SE) was significantly higher than the mean value in 23 infants aged 1.5 to 22 months (101.4 +/- 6.6 pg/ml). Ingestion of the usual milk meal resulted in a definite rise of the serum gastrin level in the 5 subjects tested (3 newborns and 2 infants). The mean fasting serum gastrin level in 6 babies with hiatus hernia and gastro-oesophageal reflux was found to be no different from the corresponding value in 8 age-matched controls. However, a conspicuously raised fasting gastrin concentration was observed in one infant with lower oesophageal dyskinesia. The results indicate that the release of gastrin and the reactivity of the hormone-producing sites to food stimulation in early life are similar to those in adult humans. No defect of gastrin release was shown in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux. PMID:1244175

  14. Baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone in male and female Afrotropical and European temperate stonechats during breeding.

    PubMed

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Helm, Barbara; Illera, Juan Carlos; Mortega, Kim G; Smiddy, Patrick; Evans, Neil P

    2017-05-22

    Latitudinal variation in avian life histories falls along a slow-fast pace of life continuum: tropical species produce small clutches, but have a high survival probability, while in temperate species the opposite pattern is found. This study investigated whether differential investment into reproduction and survival of tropical and temperate species is paralleled by differences in the secretion of the vertebrate hormone corticosterone (CORT). Depending on circulating concentrations, CORT can both act as a metabolic (low to medium levels) and a stress hormone (high levels) and, thereby, influence reproductive decisions. Baseline and stress-induced CORT was measured across sequential stages of the breeding season in males and females of closely related taxa of stonechats (Saxicola spp) from a wide distribution area. We compared stonechats from 13 sites, representing Canary Islands, European temperate and East African tropical areas. Stonechats are highly seasonal breeders at all these sites, but vary between tropical and temperate regions with regard to reproductive investment and presumably also survival. In accordance with life-history theory, during parental stages, post-capture (baseline) CORT was overall lower in tropical than in temperate stonechats. However, during mating stages, tropical males had elevated post-capture (baseline) CORT concentrations, which did not differ from those of temperate males. Female and male mates of a pair showed correlated levels of post-capture CORT when sampled after simulated territorial intrusions. In contrast to the hypothesis that species with low reproduction and high annual survival should be more risk-sensitive, tropical stonechats had lower stress-induced CORT concentrations than temperate stonechats. We also found relatively high post-capture (baseline) and stress-induced CORT concentrations, in slow-paced Canary Islands stonechats. Our data support and refine the view that baseline CORT facilitates energetically

  15. Effect of atrazine and fenitrothion at no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on amphibian and mammalian corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

    2014-11-04

    This study determines the effect of atrazine and fenitrothion no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on the binding of corticosterone (B) to corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG) in an amphibian and a mammal. Plasma from five cane toads and five Wistar rats was exposed to atrazine and fenitrothion at the NOEL approved for Australian fresh water residues and by the World Health Organization (WHO). The concentration required to displace 50% (IC50) of B binding to CBG was determined by a competitive microdialysis protein assay. Competition studies showed that both atrazine and fenitrothion at NOEL are able to compete with B for CBG binding sites in toad and rat plasma. The IC50 levels for atrazine in toads and rats were 0.004 nmol/l and 0.09 nmol/l respectively. In the case of fenitrothion the IC50 level found in toads was 0.007 nmol/l, and 0.025 nmol/l in rats. Plasma dilution curves showed parallelism with the curve of B, demonstrating that these agro-chemicals are competitively inhibiting binding to CBG. The displacement of B by atrazine and fenitrothion would affect the total:free ratio of B and consequently disrupt the normal stress response. This is the first time that the potential disruptive effect of atrazine and fenitrothion on B-CBG interaction at the NOELs has been demonstrated in amphibian and mammalian models.

  16. Resveratrol ameliorates depressive-like behavior in repeated corticosterone-induced depression in mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Hamid; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; K V, Athira; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Pitta, Sathish; Mahareddy, Jalandhar Reddy; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-09-01

    A mouse model of depression has been recently developed by exogenous corticosterone (CORT) administration, which has shown to mimic HPA-axis induced depression-like state in animals. The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol of phytoalexin family, on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 40mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) chronically for 21days. Resveratrol and fluoxetine were administered 30min prior to the CORT injection. After 21-days treatment with respective drugs, behavioral and biochemical parameters were estimated. Since brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in antidepressant activity of many drugs, we also evaluated the effect of resveratrol on BDNF in the hippocampus. Three weeks of CORT injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test. Further, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant decrease in hippocampus BDNF level in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with resveratrol significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. These results suggest that resveratrol produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated by rectifying the stress-based hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction paradigm and upregulation of hippocampal BDNF levels.

  17. Effect of chronic m-CPP on locomotion, hypophagia, plasma corticosterone and 5-HT2C receptor levels in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Fone, Kevin C F; Austin, Rachel H; Topham, Ian A; Kennett, Guy A; Punhani, Taniya

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined 5-HT2C receptor agonist-induced behavioural tolerance and 5-HT2C receptor down-regulation in adult rat brain. The effect of chronic subcutaneous infusion of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP, 10 mg kg−1, day−1), for 14 days was examined on daily food intake, the ability of acute m-CPP (2.5 mg kg−1, i.p.) to induce hypolocomotion in a novel arena and elevate plasma corticosterone levels and on ex vivo cortical [3H]-mesulergine binding and hippocampal 5-HT2C receptor protein levels.Before chronic infusion, m-CPP (2.5 mg kg−1, i.p.) attenuated the number of turns and rears made in a novel open field arena. In contrast, while m-CPP still elicited this hypolocomotion following 14 days, saline infusion, no such hypolocomotion occurred in rats given chronic m-CPP (10 mg kg−1 day−1), indicating that almost complete tachyphylaxis of this behaviour occurred with chronic 5-HT2C receptor agonist injection.During chronic infusion of m-CPP, rats consumed less food per day than saline-treated controls. Acute challenge with m-CPP following two weeks, treatment still attenuated food intake over the next four hours (by 43% and 30%, respectively from that on the previous day) in saline and m-CPP infusion groups, showing that only partial tolerance to 5-HT2C receptor agonist-induced hypophagia occurred.In naive home cage rats, plasma corticosterone was elevated in a dose-dependent manner 35 min after m-CPP injection (0.5, 1 and 3 mg kg−1, i.p.) but levels were comparable to control values 16 h after m-CPP (2, 5 and 10 mg kg−1, i.p.). Sixteen hours after a single m-CPP injection (2.5 mg kg−1, i.p.), plasma corticosterone levels were comparable in a group of rats which had received 14 days infusion of m-CPP or saline. However, following a similar acute m-CPP injection (2.5 mg kg−1, i.p., −16 h) in rats previously infused for 14 days with m-CPP, plasma corticosterone levels

  18. Effect of cyproheptadine on serum leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Calka, Omer; Metin, Ahmet; Dülger, Haluk; Erkoç, Reha

    2005-01-01

    Leptin is a 167 amino acid protein encoded by the obesity gene that is synthesized in adipose tissue and interacts with receptors in the hypothalamus linked to the regulation of appetite and metabolism. It is known to suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. Cyproheptadine is a piperidine antihistamine that increases appetite through its antiserotonergic effect on 5-HT2 receptors in the brain. Although both leptin and cyproheptadine are effective in controlling appetite, their interaction has not been addressed in clinical studies. This study evaluated serum leptin concentrations in patients who received cyproheptadine to treat a variety of disorders. Sixteen patients aged 7 to 71 years (mean, 26.25 years) were given cyproheptadine 2 to 6 mg/day for a minimum of 7 days. Body weight was measured and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 1 week of treatment. Serum leptin levels were determined by leptin radioimmunoassay. The mean body weight at baseline (52.59 kg) did not differ significantly from that at 1 week after treatment (52.84 kg; P > .05), but the mean leptin level after 1 week of treatment with cyproheptadine (3.14 ng/mL) was 14.2% higher than that at baseline (2.75 ng/mL; P < .05). This increase may suggest that both leptin and cyproheptadine may affect appetite via similar receptors and that cyproheptadine does not impair leptin activity through these receptors. Further study will be necessary to clarify this relationship.

  19. Stress-sensitive organs and blood corticosterone after immobilization of active and passive rats immunized with glutamate-bovine serum albumin conjugate.

    PubMed

    Umryukhin, A E; Sotnikov, S V; Chekmareva, N Yu; Vetrile, L A; Zakharova, I A

    2014-12-01

    We studied stress-induced organ and hormonal responses in behaviorally active and passive rats against the background of immunization with glutamate-BSA conjugate. The relative weight of the adrenal glands after immobilization was lower in rats immunized with the conjugate in comparison with non-immunized animals. The weight of the adrenal glands in behaviorally active rats decreased in parallel with the decrease in blood corticosterone. In behaviorally active and passive rats immunized with the conjugate, ulcer formation in the stomach was slightly intensified after immobilization. It was hypothesized that immunization with glutamate-BSA conjugate suppresses activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal feedback mechanism underlying the production of glucocorticoid hormones, which is manifested in slightly increased ulceration due to attenuation of the gastroprotective action of corticosterone under stress.

  20. Effect of fish oil and coconut fat supplementation on depressive-type behavior and corticosterone levels of prenatally stressed male rats.

    PubMed

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe Cristina; Suchecki, Deborah; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2011-04-18

    Prenatal stress (PNS) during critical periods of brain development has been associated with numerous behavioral and/or mood disorders in later life. These outcomes may result from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, can be modulated by environmental factors, such as nutritional status. In this study, the adult male offspring of dams exposed to restraint stress during the last semester of pregnancy and fed different diets were evaluated for depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and for the corticosterone response to the test. Female Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or with fish oil, offered during pregnancy and lactation. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control or stress groups. Stress consisted of restraint and bright light for 45 min, three times per day, in the last week of pregnancy. The body weight of the adult offspring submitted to PNS was lower than that of controls. In the forced swimming test, time of immobility was reduced and swimming was increased in PNS rats fed fish oil and plasma corticosterone levels immediately after the forced swimming test were lower in PNS rats fed regular diet than their control counterparts; this response was reduced in control rats whose mothers were fed fish oil and coconut fat. The present results indicate that coconut fat and fish oil influenced behavioral and hormonal responses to the forced swimming test in both control and PNS adult male rats.

  1. Serum Telomerase Levels and COPD Exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Bozkus, Fulsen; Guler, Selma; Sımsek, Secıl

    2016-03-01

    To our knowledge, there is no study on the level of telomerase in subjects with COPD during an exacerbation period. The objective of this work was to compare lipid peroxidation, telomerase, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and malondialdehyde levels in asymptomatic smokers and subjects with COPD exacerbation. The study included 45 subjects with COPD exacerbation and 42 healthy subjects with tobacco use as a control group. Samples were taken from blood and after the serum levels of telomerase malondialdehyde, Cu, and Zn were measured, the values were compared between the 2 groups. Tests for respiratory function were performed, and sedimentation and C-reactive protein levels were measured. The COPD exacerbation group had a significantly (P < .001) lower Cu/Zn ratio compared with the control group; however, the COPD exacerbation group had significantly (P < .001) higher levels of telomerase malondialdehyde, Cu, and Zn compared with the control group. Malondialdehyde, Cu, Zn, and FEV1 were found negatively correlated in the COPD exacerbation and control groups (P < .001). The COPD exacerbation group had lower FEV1 and FVC compared with the control group. The COPD exacerbation group had significantly (P < .001) higher levels of C-reactive protein and a higher blood cell sedimentation rate compared with the control group. The reason why the subjects had a reduced Cu/Zn ratio and increased levels of telomerase, Cu, and Zn is likely to be oxidative stress, which can be defined as an increased exposure to oxidants and/or decreased antioxidant capacities It is obvious from this study that lung oxidant-antioxidant balance is abnormal in subjects with COPD exacerbation and also that the increased level of telomerase is associated with this imbalance. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  3. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  4. High levels of corticosterone, and gene expression of star, cyp17a2, hsd3b, cyp21, hsd11b2 during acute stress in common carp with interrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, M A; van Pelt-Heerschap, H; Atsma, W; Komen, J

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the acute stress response in a common carp strain (E5) with interrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency, and in an isogenic standard (STD) carp strain. Cortisol, corticosterone and the head kidney-somatic index were measured during and after a 3 h net confinement stress. Star, cyp17a2, hsd3b, cyp21, hsd11b2 mRNA levels were measured in head kidneys using real-time qPCR. The results show very high corticosterone levels and enlargement of the head kidney in E5 fish. This is the first report in a teleost fish showing a significant increase of corticosterone levels in response to stress due to interrenal hyperplasia. The high levels of corticosterone in E5 suggest that corticosterone is not converted to aldosterone in common carp. star and hsd3b mRNA levels were significantly higher in E5 compared to STD fish, while cyp17a2 levels were significantly lower in E5. In contrast to E5, star levels did not change during stress and recovery in STD, suggesting that the enzyme is regulated in a different manner in E5 and STD fish. In E5, the levels of cyp17a2 dropped below control values after 20 min stress. These findings strongly suggest that cyp17a2 is impaired at (post)-transcriptional level. As a consequence the accumulated precursor (pregnenolone) is not converted to cortisol, but to corticosterone. In contrast to STD, significant levels of cortisol could not be detected in E5. Finally, hsd11b2 mRNA levels were significantly lower in E5 compared to STD, and did not change during stress and recovery. These results support the idea that hsd11b2 is involved in the conversion of physiologically active cortisol to inactive cortisone, as reported earlier for STD carp. In conclusion our results show high levels of corticosterone in E5 and differences in star and mRNA levels of steroidogenic genes between E5 and STD carp during net confinement stress.

  5. Dysfunction of the Scn8a Voltage-gated Sodium Channel Alters Sleep Architecture, Reduces Diurnal Corticosterone Levels, and Enhances Spatial Memory*

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Ligia A.; Paul, Ketema N.; Sawyer, Nikki T.; Manns, Joseph R.; Tufik, Sergio; Escayg, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are responsible for the initiation and propagation of transient depolarizing currents and play a critical role in the electrical signaling between neurons. A null mutation in the VGSC gene SCN8A, which encodes the transmembrane protein Nav1.6, was identified previously in a human family. Heterozygous mutation carriers displayed a range of phenotypes, including ataxia, cognitive deficits, and emotional instability. A possible role for SCN8A was also proposed in studies examining the genetic basis of attempted suicide and bipolar disorder. In addition, mice with a Scn8a loss-of-function mutation (Scn8amed-Tg/+) show altered anxiety and depression-like phenotypes. Because psychiatric abnormalities are often associated with altered sleep and hormonal patterns, we evaluated heterozygous Scn8amed-jo/+ mutants for alterations in sleep-wake architecture, diurnal corticosterone levels, and behavior. Compared with their wild-type littermates, Scn8amed-jo/+ mutants experience more non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, a chronic impairment of REM sleep generation and quantity, and a lowered and flattened diurnal rhythm of corticosterone levels. No robust differences were observed between mutants and wild-type littermates in locomotor activity or in behavioral paradigms that evaluate anxiety or depression-like phenotypes; however, Scn8amed-jo/+ mutants did show enhanced spatial memory. This study extends the spectrum of phenotypes associated with mutations in Scn8a and suggests a novel role for altered sodium channel function in human sleep disorders. PMID:20353942

  6. Massive naproxen overdose with serial serum levels.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Suad A; Anderson, Ilene B; Pedram, Fatehi; Colby, Jennifer M; Olson, Kent R

    2015-03-01

    Massive naproxen overdose is not commonly reported. Severe metabolic acidosis and seizure have been described, but the use of renal replacement therapy has not been studied in the context of overdose. A 28-year-old man ingested 70 g of naproxen along with an unknown amount of alcohol in a suicidal attempt. On examination in the emergency department 90 min later, he was drowsy but had normal vital signs apart from sinus tachycardia. Serum naproxen level 90 min after ingestion was 1,580 mg/L (therapeutic range 25-75 mg/L). He developed metabolic acidosis requiring renal replacement therapy using sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and had recurrent seizure activity requiring intubation within 4 h from ingestion. He recovered after 48 h. Massive naproxen overdose can present with serious toxicity including seizures, altered mental status, and metabolic acidosis. Hemodialysis and renal replacement therapy may correct the acid base disturbance and provide support in cases of renal impairment in context of naproxen overdose, but further studies are needed to determine the extraction of naproxen.

  7. Decreased levels of serum nesfatin-1 in patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuijuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yunhai; Li, Jie; Liu, Ruxin; Liu, Hong

    2014-08-01

    Nesfatin-1 is implicated to possess an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of our study is to investigate whether abnormal serum levels of nesfatin-1 are associated with the presence and severity of preeclampsia. A total of 120 women with preeclampsia and 92 women with uncomplicated pregnancies were enrolled in this study. Women with preeclampsia showed significantly reduced levels of serum nesfatin-1 levels than women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Serum nesfatin-1 levels were significantly decreased in women with severe preeclampsia compared with women with mild preeclampsia. Decreased serum nesfatin-1 levels are associated with the presence and severity of preeclampsia.

  8. The effect of neonatal maternal stress on plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, leptin, and ghrelin in adult male rats exposed to acute heterotypic stressor.

    PubMed

    Holubová, A; Štofková, A; Jurčovičová, J; Šlamberová, R

    2016-12-22

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is important for maintenance of homeostasis during stress. Recent studies have shown a connection between the HPA axis and adipose tissue. The present study investigated the effect of acute heterotypic stress on plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), leptin, and ghrelin in adult male rats with respect to neonatal maternal social and physical stressors. Thirty rat mothers and sixty of their male progeny were used. Pups were divided into three groups: unstressed control (C), stressed by maternal social stressor (S), stressed by maternal social and physical stressors (SW). Levels of hormones were measured in adult male progeny following an acute swimming stress (10 min) or no stress. ELISA immunoassay was used to measured hormones. The ACTH and CORT levels were significantly increased in all groups of adult progeny after acute stress; however, CORT levels were significantly lower in both neonatally stressed groups compared to controls. After acute stress, plasma leptin levels were decreased in the C and SW groups but increased in the S group. The data suggest that long-term neonatal stressors lead to lower sensitivity of ACTH receptors in the adrenal cortex, which could be a sign of stress adaptation in adulthood. Acute stress in adult male rats changes plasma levels of leptin differently relative to social or physical neonatal stressors.

  9. Impact of vegetarian diet on serum immunoglobulin levels in children.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, Daiva; Prescha, Anna; Szeremeta, Karolina

    2013-03-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in immune response. We evaluated the effect of nutrient intake on serum immunoglobulin levels in vegetarian and omnivore children. Serum immunoglobulin levels and iron status were estimated in 22 vegetarian and 18 omnivore children. Seven-day food records were used to assess the diet. There were no significant differences in serum IgA, IgM, and IgG levels between groups of children. Serum immunoglobulin levels were lower in vegetarian children with iron deficiency in comparison with those without iron deficiency. In the vegetarians, IgG level correlated positively with energy, zinc, copper, and vitamin B(6) intake. In the omnivores, these correlations were stronger with IgM level. Despite negligible differences in serum immunoglobulin levels between vegetarian and omnivore children, the impact of several nutrient intakes on IgM and IgG levels differed between groups. Low iron status in vegetarian children can lead to decreased immunoglobulin levels.

  10. Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

  11. Serum zinc levels in corticosteroid-treated asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ellul-Micallef, R.; Galdes, A.; Fenech, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Serum zinc levels have been measured in twenty-four asthmatic patients, of whom sixteen were on long term corticosteroid therapy. They were carefully screened to exclude any concomitant disease. The non-steroid-treated asthmatics had normal serum zinc levels which ranged from 89 to 138 μg/ml. The corticosteroid-treated patients had a mean serum zinc level of 64 ± 9 μg/100 ml; this was significantly lower than normal (P = < 0·001). PMID:1264936

  12. Berberine up-regulates the BDNF expression in hippocampus and attenuates corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ji-Duo; Ma, Li-Gang; Hu, Chun-Yue; Pei, Yang-Yi; Jin, Shuang-Li; Fang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yu-Cheng

    2016-02-12

    Depression is increasingly become a global public healthy problem. This study was to investigate whether berberine could attenuate the depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injection and explore the possible mechanisms. The present results showed that exogenous corticosterone injection caused depressive-like behaviors in mice, such as decreased sucrose intake in sucrose preference test (SPT) and increased immobility time in forced swimming test (FST). These behavioral alterations were accompanying with the decreased BDNF mRNA and protein levels in hippocampus and the elevated serum corticosterone levels. Treatment with berberine prevented these changes above. Our findings confirmed the antidepressant-like effect of berberine and suggested its mechanisms might be partially mediated by up-regulation of BDNF in hippocampus.

  13. Assessment of Testicular Corticosterone Biosynthesis in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Naoyuki; Tahata, Sachi; Yagi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Emi; Masu, Kanae; Sato, Michiko; Haeno, Satoko; Onaga, Takenori; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Corticosterone is synthesized in the adrenal glands and is circulated throughout the body to perform regulatory functions in various tissues. The testis is known to synthesize and secrete testosterone and other androgens. We developed an accurate method to measure steroid content using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. In the present study, significant levels of the precursor compounds of testosterone and corticosterone synthesis could be detected in rat testis using this method. After adrenalectomy, corticosterone remained in the blood and testicular tissue at approximately 1% of the amount present in the control testis. When the excised testicular tissue was washed and incubated with NADH, NADPH and progesterone, not only testosterone and its precursors but also 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone were produced; the levels of 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone increased with incubation time. The production rate of 11-deoxycorticosterone from progesterone was estimated to be approximately 1/20 that of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and the corticosterone level was approximately 1/10 that of testosterone. These ratios coincided with those in the testicular tissue of the adrenalectomized rats, indicating that corticosterone was synthesized in the testis and not in the blood. A primary finding of this study was that corticosterone and testosterone were synthesized in a 1/10-20 ratio in the testis. It is concluded that corticosterone, which has various functions, such as the regulation of glycolysis and mediating spermatogenesis, is produced locally in the testis and that this the local production is convenient and functional to respond to local needs. PMID:25706382

  14. Elevated levels of serum creatine kinase induced by hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, I; Jonas, M; Thaler, M; Grossman, E

    1997-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase levels are one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial injury. Noncardiac causes such as muscular and brain damage may also be associated with elevated serum creatine kinase levels. Hyponatremia may induce increased serum creatine kinase in association with rhabdomyolysis or with hypothyroidism. A patient is described where three episodes of hyponatraemia not associated with rhabdomyolysis or hypothyroidism induced transient elevations of serum creatine kinase levels. The association between hyponatraemia and elevated creatine kinase levels should be emphasized to prevent erroneous diagnosis of myocardial injury.

  15. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Kiral, Eylem; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-03-17

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia.

  16. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Kiral, Eylem; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia. PMID:27103976

  17. Serum and red cell folate and serum vitamin B12 levels in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ford, H C; Carter, J M; Rendle, M A

    1989-08-01

    Serum and red blood cell folate levels and serum B12 concentration were determined by radioassay in 20 hyperthyroid patients and compared with values obtained when the same patients had been euthyroid for at least 4 months. In hyperthyroidism, the levels of serum and red blood cell folate were significantly (P less than .01) higher than when euthyroidism was achieved. There was no significant change in serum B12 concentration. Declines in serum and red blood cell folate levels between hyperthyroidism and euthyroidism occurred in 15 and 16 of the 20 patients, respectively. Although the explanation for the relative elevations of serum and red blood cell folate levels in hyperthyroid patients is unclear at present, our findings do not support the view that hyperthyroidism in man is associated with depletion of folate stores or subclinical deficiency of the vitamin.

  18. Serum Potassium Levels in Sigmoid Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Keles, M. Sait; Aydinli, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the serum potassium concentrations in patients with sigmoid volvulus (SV), which is a rare large bowel obstruction. Materials and Methods: The records of 86 patients with SV were reviewed retrospectively, while the records of 41 patients diagnosed with obstructive rectosigmoid cancer (ORC) were considered as the control group and as such, served as a source for comparison. Results: The analysis revealed a mean serum potassium concentration of 3.9 ± 0.6 mEq/L for the patients with SV, while the mean potassium concentration was 3.9 ± 0.5 mEq/L for the patients diagnosed with ORC (t:0.1, P>0.05). The number of hypokalemic and hyperkalemic patients identified in this study sample were 11 versus 5 patients and 1 versus 0 patients, respectively for the SV and ORC groups (x2 = 0.1 and 0.5, respectively with a P>0.05). Conclusions: No cause-and-effect relationship was observed between the serum potassium concentrations and SV. The serum potassium concentration is not pathognomonic for SV. PMID:25610090

  19. Maternal separation alters nerve growth factor and corticosterone levels but not the DNA methylation status of the exon 17 glucocorticoid receptor promoter region

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, WMU; Fairbairn, LR; van Tilburg, G; McEvoy, CRE; Zigmond, MJ; Russell, VA; Stein, DJ

    2010-01-01

    Separating rat pups from their mothers during the early stages of life is an animal model commonly used to study the development of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The present study investigated how soon after the termination of the maternal separation period behavioural and neuroendocrine abnormalities relevant to above-mentioned illnesses would manifest. Sprague Dawley rat pups were subjected to maternal separation (3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 through 14) and their behaviour and HPA axis activity determined 7 days later. We also measured nerve growth factor levels in their hippocampi and assessed the DNA methylation status of the promoter region of exon 17 of the glucocorticoid receptor in this brain region. As early as 7 days after the termination of the adverse event, a change in behaviour was observed that was associated with increased plasma corticosterone release and elevated nerve growth factor levels in the hippocampus. No alteration in the methylation status of the exon 17 glucocorticoid receptor promoter region was observed. Our data indicate that early life adversity may lead to the rapid development of abnormal behaviours and HPA axis dysregulation though no epigenetic changes to the exon 17 glucocorticoid receptor promoter region occurred. We further propose that the observed increased neurotrophin levels reflect compensatory mechanisms that attempt to combat the long-term deleterious effects of maternal separation. PMID:19816761

  20. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongchao; Lin, Yanlin; Liu, Yuxiu; Chen, Ying; Wang, Bin; Li, Changgui; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Wenjuan

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies assessing the association between serum uric acid levels and neurological outcome after acute ischemic stroke reported conflicting results. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the impact of serum uric acid levels on outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google scholar were searched through September 26, 2014 to identify eligible published or unpublished studies on the association between serum uric acid levels and outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Hazard ratio (HR) for poor outcome or mean differences of serum uric acid levels with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were pooled using meta-analysis. The primary outcome was occurrence of poor outcomes, while the secondary outcome was the mean differences of serum uric acid levels in patients with good or poor outcomes. Ten eligible studies with a total of 8131 acute ischemic stroke patients were included into the meta-analysis. Compared with low serum uric acid level, high serum uric acid level was associated better outcome after acute ischemic stroke (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.88, P = 0.0001). Sensitivity analysis further identified the prognostic role of serum uric acid levels on outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Patients with good outcomes had a higher serum uric acid level compared with those with poor outcome (mean difference = 30.61 μmol/L, 95% CI 20.13-41.08, P < 0.00001). There was no obvious risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis. This meta-analysis supports that serum uric acid level has a protective effect on neurological outcome after acute ischemic stroke. High uric acid level at the onset is a biomarker of better prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  1. Pre- and Postnatal Effects of Corticosterone on Fitness-Related Traits and the Timing of Endogenous Corticosterone Production in a Songbird.

    PubMed

    Strange, Meghan S; Bowden, Rachel M; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2016-07-01

    Maternally derived corticosterone in the egg and corticosterone produced endogenously by altricial nestling birds play essential roles during development. Although persistently high corticosterone levels can be harmful, moderately elevated levels above baseline can lead to reallocation of resources between growth and maintenance to ensure immediate survival or to enhance the development of fitness-related traits. We tested two hypotheses concerning the fitness consequences of elevated corticosterone during prenatal and postnatal development in altricial house wrens: (1) elevated corticosterone shifts resources away from growth and immune function and (2) elevated corticosterone serves as a signal to allocate resources to fitness-related traits. We also explored the development of the stress response, hypothesizing that early-stage nestlings have little endogenously produced corticosterone, but that their baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels increase with age. Nestlings hatching from corticosterone-injected eggs were lighter at hatching, but through compensatory growth, ended up heavier than controls near the time of fledging, an important, fitness-related trait. Nestlings that hatched from corticosterone-injected eggs and those given oral doses of corticosterone did not differ from controls in three other fitness-related traits: immunoresponsiveness, size, or haematocrit. Early- and late-stage nestlings had similar baseline corticosterone levels, and all nestlings increased their plasma corticosterone levels in response to a capture-and-restraint protocol, with older nestlings mounting a stronger stress-induced response than younger nestlings. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to corticosterone is important in shaping offspring phenotype and are consistent with the hypothesis that maternally derived corticosterone in the egg can have long-term, fitness-related effects on offspring phenotype.

  2. Pre- and Post-Natal Effects of Corticosterone on Fitness-Related Traits and the Timing of Endogenous Corticosterone Production in a Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Meghan S.; Bowden, Rachel M.; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Maternally-derived corticosterone in the egg and corticosterone produced endogenously by altricial nestling birds play essential roles during development. Although persistently high corticosterone levels can be harmful, moderately elevated levels above baseline can lead to reallocation of resources between growth and maintenance to ensure immediate survival or to enhance the development of fitness-related traits. We tested two hypotheses concerning the fitness consequences of elevated corticosterone during pre-natal and post-natal development in altricial house wrens: (1) elevated corticosterone shifts resources away from growth and immune function and (2) elevated corticosterone serves as a signal to allocate resources to fitness-related traits. We also explored the development of the stress response, hypothesizing that early-stage nestlings have little endogenously produced corticosterone, but that their baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels increase with age. Nestlings hatching from corticosterone-injected eggs were lighter at hatching, but through compensatory growth, ended up heavier than controls near the time of fledgling, an important, fitness-related trait. Nestlings that hatched from corticosterone-injected eggs and those given oral doses of corticosterone did not differ from controls in three other fitness-related traits: immunoresponsiveness, size, or haematocrit. Early- and late-stage nestlings had similar baseline corticosterone levels, and all nestlings increased their plasma corticosterone levels in response to a capture-and-restraint protocol, with older nestlings mounting a stronger stress-induced response than younger nestlings. These results suggest that pre-natal exposure to corticosterone is important in shaping offspring phenotype, and are consistent with the hypothesis that maternally derived corticosterone in the egg can have long-term, fitness-related effects on offspring phenotype. PMID:27279255

  3. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  4. Are serum zinc and copper levels related to semen quality?

    PubMed

    Yuyan, Li; Junqing, Wu; Wei, Yuan; Weijin, Zhou; Ersheng, Gao

    2008-04-01

    Low serum zinc levels are harmful to semen quality in Chinese men. In this study, eligible men aged 20-59 years old-excluding those who had ever had urinary or genital disease, tuberculosis, or occupational heavy metal contact-were examined for semen quality and serum zinc and copper concentrations. Progressive motility showed differences among the five copper groups, but multiple logistic analyses did not show that higher or lower serum copper levels had a significant effect on sperm quality. When serum zinc concentration was low, the risk of asthenozoospermia was higher. The ratio of Cu/Zn was higher in the progressive motility abnormal group than in the normal group.

  5. Alteration of maternal serum irisin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ulku Mete; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Cüre, Medine Cumhur; Sezgin, Hacer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare serum irisin concentrations in pregnant women with and without ges-tational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study was performed at the Tertiary Care Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecol-ogy, between January 2014 and April 2014. A total of 45 pregnant women with GDM (diabetes group) and 41 BMI- and age-matched healthy pregnant women (control group) were recruited. Maternal serum irisin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit at 24-28 weeks of gestation. An association between maternal serum irisin lev-els and metabolic parameters was analyzed. Body mass index, serum levels of glucose, insulin and irisin were tested and analyzed in the study group and controls. Pregnant women with GDM had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.001), first-hour OGTT glucose (p = 0.001), second-hour OGTT glucose (p = 0.001), and fasting insulin (p = 0.045) levels as compared to controls. Serum irisin levels were 1.04 ± 0.3 and 1.3 ± 0.2 in pregnant women with GDM and healthy pregnant controls, respectively (p = 0.001). Correlation analysis between irisin levels and anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with gestational diabetes revealed that none of the investigated parameters correlated with serum irisin level. Our results suggest that serum irisin levels might be introduced as a novel marker for GDM, with decreased levels of irisin being indicative of GDM.

  6. Serum Hepcidin Levels in Childhood-Onset Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Seham F.; Akeel, Nagwa E.; Abdalhady, Mohamed A.; Elhewala, Ahmed A.; Ali, Al Shymaa A.; Amin, Ezzat K.; Sarhan, Dina T.; Almalky, Mohamed A.A.; Elhindawy, Eman M.; Salam, Mohamed M.A.; Soliman, Attia A.; Abdellatif, Sawsan H.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elsamad, Nahla A.; Hashem, Mustafa I.A.; Aziz, Khalid A.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.; Arafat, Manal S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Despite the growing evidence of iron imbalance in childhood-onset ischemic stroke, serum hepcidin level in those patients has not yet been researched. In this study, we aimed to estimate serum (hepcidin) level in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and to investigate whether subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium, which is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) derivative, could modulate serum hepcidin level in those patients. This was a case–control study included 60 (AIS) cases, and 100 healthy children with comparable age and gender as control group. For all subjects’ serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]) levels were assessed by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method). Iron parameters including (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were also measured. The patients were subdivided according to treatment with an LMWH derivative into 2 groups and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and 1 week after stroke onset for all cases. We found that AIS cases had higher serum iron, ferritin, and IL6 levels compared to the control group (all P < 0.01). Serum hepcidin was significantly higher in AIS cases (median, 36[15–73]ng/mL) compared to the control group (median, 24[10–41]ng/mL; P < 0.01). On the 1st day of AIS diagnosis, serum hepcidin levels were similar in both stroke subgroups (P > 0.05). However, on the 7th day of diagnosis serum hepcidin level decreased significantly in AIS cases treated with LMWH (group 1) (median, 36 vs 21 ng/mL; P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in serum hepcidin level in AIS cases not treated with LMWH (group 2) (P > 0.05). Serum hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and IL6 (r = 0.375, P < 0

  7. Evaluation of serum uric acid levels in psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Emrah; Tamer, Emine; Artüz, Ferda; Külcü Çakmak, Seray; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2017-04-18

    Psoriasis has been accepted as a systemic disease and it is known to be associated with various disorders including metabolic syndrome. High serum uric acid levels are also associated with the components of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we aimed to determine serum uric acid levels in patients with psoriasis and the association of uric acid levels with disease activity by taking the presence of metabolic syndrome criteria into account, since it is one of the most important factors that affect serum uric acid levels. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 70 psoriasis patients and 70 healthy individuals who were matched with the patients according to the presence of metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the demographic features, levels of serum uric acid, Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores, presence of psoriatic arthritis, nail involvement, and metabolic syndrome criteria of the patients. Serum uric acid levels of psoriasis patients were significantly higher than those of controls. There was a positive correlation between PASI scores and serum uric acid levels of the patients. As hyperuricemia had a close relationship with psoriasis and PASI scores, we suggest monitoring patients with psoriasis for serum uric acid levels during treatment and follow-up.

  8. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED.

  9. Short- and long-term effects of (+)-methamphetamine and (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on monoamine and corticosterone levels in the neonatal rat following multiple days of treatment.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Herring, Nicole R; Gudelsky, Gary A; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2008-03-01

    Rats treated with (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or (+)-methamphetamine (MA) neonatally exhibit long-lasting learning impairments (i.e., after treatment on postnatal days (P)11-15 or P11-20). Although both drugs are substituted amphetamines, they each produce a unique profile of cognitive deficits (i.e., spatial vs. path integration learning and severity of deficits) which may be the result of differential early neurochemical changes. We previously showed that MA and MDMA increase corticosterone (CORT) and MDMA reduces levels of serotonin (5-HT) 24 h after treatment on P11, however, learning deficits are seen after 5 or 10 days of drug treatment, not just 1 day. Accordingly, in the present experiment, rats were treated with MA or MDMA starting on P11 for 5 or 10 days (P11-15 or P11-20) and tissues collected on P16, P21, or P30. Five-day MA administration dramatically increased CORT on P16, whereas MDMA did not. Both drugs decreased hippocampal 5-HT on P16 and P21, although MDMA produced larger reductions. Ten-day treatment with either drug increased dopamine utilization in the neostriatum on P21, whereas 5-day treatment had no effect. No CORT or brain 5-HT or dopamine changes were found with either drug on P30. Although the monoamine changes are transient, they may alter developing neural circuits sufficiently to permanently disrupt later learning and memory abilities.

  10. Determinants of serum leptin levels in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, A; Schürmeyer, T H; Von zur Mühlen, A; Brabant, G

    1998-02-01

    Corticosteroids and insulin increase leptin expression in vivo and in vitro. To investigate whether increased serum cortisol influences serum leptin concentrations in humans, we analyzed fasting serum leptin and insulin levels in 50 patients with Cushing's syndrome [34 female patients: 27 with the pituitary form and 7 with the adrenal form; age, 41.6 +/- 2.7 yr; body mass index (BMI), 29.6 +/- 1.2 kg/m2; 16 male patients all with the pituitary form; age, 39.2 +/- 3.1 yr; BMI, 26.3 +/- 2.3 kg/m2] and in controls matched for BMI, age, and gender. Serum leptin levels were higher in female than in male patients in both the Cushing (P < 0.01) and control (P < 0.001) groups. Disease-specific differences in serum leptin levels were only detected in male (106 vs. 67 pmol/L; Cushing's syndrome vs. control, P < 0.05), not female, patients. Multiple stepwise regression analysis of both patient groups revealed insulin as the best predictor of serum leptin concentrations, accounting for 37% of the variance in serum leptin levels, in contrast to BMI or mean serum cortisol (as measured by sampling in 10-min intervals over 24 h). In the subgroup of patients (n = 9) with pituitary adenoma, serum leptin levels were reduced after tumor resection, with concurrent decreases in serum cortisol, insulin, and BMI. In conclusion, chronic hypercortisolemia in Cushing's syndrome appears not to directly affect serum leptin concentrations, but to have an indirect effect via the associated hyperinsulinemia and/or impaired insulin sensitivity.

  11. Factors affecting serum oxytetracycline levels in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Mercer, H D; Rollins, L D; Carter, G G; Gural, R P; Bourne, D W; Dittert, L W

    1977-08-01

    Fifteen Aberdeen Angus steers, 295-364 kg, were dosed with either 4.4 or 11 mg of oxytetracycline hydrochloride/kg im. The antimicrobial activity of the serum was determined periodically, and the resulting data were treated statistically to determine the sources of variation. Variance in serum levels of oxytetracycline activity was attributed to dose, time of bleeding, order of dosing, animal, and assay. The total variance component was proportionately greater for the 11-mg/kg dose than for the 4.4-mg/kg dose. Animal variance increased with the higher dose level of oxytetracycline. The influence of dose on serum level was tested by applying a t test to the mean serum levels and their standard deviations at each bleeding time. The 4.4- and 11-mg/kg serum levels were significantly different (p less than 0.01) at all bleeding times. The 4.4-mg/kg serum levels mutliplied by 2.5 were not significantly different (p less than 0.05) from the 11-mg/kg serum levels at all bleeding times.

  12. Association between Serum Magnesium Levels and Depression in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Kai; Luan, Xiaoqian; Liu, Zhihua; Cai, Yan; Wang, Qiongzhang; Zhu, Beilei; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common psychiatric complication of stroke that is associated with a poor outcome in stroke patients. Our aim was to assess the association between the serum magnesium levels and the presence of PSD in Chinese patients. Two hundred nine stroke patients were included in the study. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 17-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at 3 months after stroke. Based on the depressive symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in line with the DSM-IV criteria for PSD. Serum magnesium levels were evaluated using the dimethyl aniline blue colorimetric method at admission. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Further, 120 normal subjects were recruited, and their serum magnesium levels were also measured as control. At 3 months, fifty-nine patients (28.2%) were diagnosed as PSD. The serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in both PSD patients and non-PSD patients than in normal subjects (p < 0.001). Indeed, patients with PSD showed lower serum magnesium levels (p < 0.001) than did non-PSD patients at admission. In the multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential variables, we found that an increased risk of PSD was associated with serum magnesium levels ≤ 0.84mmol/L (OR 2.614, 95% CI 1.178-5.798, p=0.018). Low serum magnesium levels at admission were found to be associated with the presence of PSD at 3 months after stroke. PMID:28053818

  13. Corticosterone facilitates begging and affects resource allocation in the black-legged kittiwake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and their dependent chicks respond to food shortages by increasing circulating levels of corticosterone. To examine the behavioral significance of corticosterone release, we experimentally increased levels of circulating corticosterone in parents and chicks up to the levels observed during food shortages. We found that corticosterone-implanted chicks begged more frequently than sham-implanted controls. Corticosterone-implanted chicks in broods of two begged more frequently than singletons. Parent kittiwakes then responded to the increase in corticosterone levels in their chicks by increasing chick-feeding rates. However, feeding rates were not different among corticosterone-implanted chicks in broods of two and singletons. We also found that corticosterone-implanted parents spent more time away from the nest - perhaps foraging - and less time brooding/guarding chicks than sham-implanted controls. Untreated mates of the corticosterone-implanted bird did not compensate for the change in their partner's behavior; consequently, chicks were left unattended about 20% of the time compared to 1% at the control nests. However, corticosterone-implanted parents did not decrease their chick-feeding rates. Our findings suggest two functional implications of the increased corticosterone secretion during food shortages in the black-legged kittiwake: it facilitates begging in chicks, and it affects time allocated by parents to guarding young at the nest. Thus, release of corticosterone might provide a mechanistic link between physiological condition and behavioral interactions among adults and their young.

  14. Failure of pyridoxine to suppress raised serum prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    de Waal, J M; Steyn, A F; Harms, J H; Slabber, C F; Pannall, P R

    1978-02-25

    Pyridoxine has been reported as having an antilactogenic effect, presumably by suppressing prolactin secretion. We have measured serum prolactin levels during pyridoxine administration in two groups of hyperprolactinaemic subjects. In normal postpartum women, the postdelivery fall in serum prolactin levels did not differ significantly in treated and control subjects. In patients with chlorpromazine-induced hyperprolactinaemia and galactorrhoea, pyridoxine did not reduce the elevated levels. In neither group was milk production suppressed.

  15. Basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels in olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) in relation to their mass nesting behavior.

    PubMed

    Valverde, R A; Owens, D W; MacKenzie, D S; Amoss, M S

    1999-11-01

    Adrenocortical responsiveness to turning stress was examined in wild, reproductively-active olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) in relation to their mass nesting (arribada) behavior. We hypothesized that the high sensitivity threshold (HST) observed in ovipositing sea turtles is associated with a diminished sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stressful stimuli in arribada females. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether arribada females exhibited an increased activation threshold of the HPA axis to an imposed stressor (turning stress). Mean basal corticosterone (B) and glucose levels were below 1.0 ng/ml and 60 mg/dl, respectively. Basal B remained unchanged throughout a 24-hr period in basking females. Most animals responded to turning stress with elevated mean B levels (up to 6.5 ng/ml after 6 hr) and no increase in circulating glucose. Nearly 50% of females (and none of the males) were refractory to the stimulation. Males exhibited the most rapid response, with B levels significantly elevated by 20 min over basal levels. Among females, arribada and solitary nesters exhibited a slower rate of response than basking, non-nesting animals. These results demonstrate that olive ridleys exhibit stress-induced changes in circulating B which are slower than those observed in most reptilian and in mammalian, avian, and piscine species. Furthermore, the presence of refractory females and the relatively slower increase in B in arribada and solitary nesters indicate a hyporesponsiveness of the HPA axis to turning stress in nesting olive ridleys. The hyporesponsiveness may be part of a mechanism to facilitate arribada nesting. J. Exp. Zool. 284:652-662, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Binge-like ethanol consumption increases corticosterone levels and neurodegneration whereas occupancy of type II glucocorticoid receptors with mifepristone is neuroprotective.

    PubMed

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Damadzic, Ruslan; Hamelink, Carol; Brunnquell, Michael; Thorsell, Annika; Heilig, Markus; Eskay, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol (EtOH) use leads to impaired memory and cognition. Using a rat model of binge-like intoxication, we tested whether elevated corticosterone (Cort) levels contribute to the neurotoxic consequences of EtOH exposure. Rats were adrenalectomized (Adx) and implanted with cholesterol pellets, or cholesterol pellets containing Cort in order to achieve basal, medium, or high blood concentrations of Cort. Intragastric EtOH or an isocaloric control solution was given three times daily for 4 days to achieve blood alcohol levels ranging between 200 and 350 mg/dl. Mean 24-hour plasma levels of Cort were ∼110 and ∼40 ng/ml in intact EtOH-treated and intact control animals, respectively. Basal Cort replacement concentrations in EtOH-treated Adx animals did not exacerbate alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) or the entorhinal cortex (EC) as observed by amino-cupric silver staining. In contrast, Cort replacement pellets resulting in plasma Cort levels twofold higher (medium) than normal, or greater than twofold higher (high) in Adx-Cort-EtOH animals increased neurodegeneration. In separate experiments, pharmacological blockade of the Type II glucocorticoid (GC) receptor was initiated with mifepristone (RU38486; 0, 5, 15 mg/kg/day, i.p.). At the higher dose, mifepristone decreased the number of degenerating hippocampal DG cells in binge-EtOH-treated intact animals, whereas, only a trend for reduction was observed in 15 mg/kg/day mifepristone-treated animals in the EC, as determined by fluoro-jade B staining. These results suggest that elevated circulating Cort in part mediates EtOH-induced neurotoxicity in the brain through activation of Type II GC receptors. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Binge-Like Ethanol Consumption Increases Corticosterone Levels and Neurodegneration whereas occupancy of Type II Glucocorticoid Receptors with Mifepristone is Neuroprotective

    PubMed Central

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Damadzic, Ruslan; Hamelink, Carol; Brunnquell, Michael; Thorsell, Annika; Heilig, Markus; Eskay, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Excessive ethanol (EtOH) use leads to impaired memory and cognition. Using a rat model of binge-like intoxication, we tested whether elevated corticosterone (Cort) levels contribute to the neurotoxic consequences of EtOH exposure. Rats were adrenalectomized (Adx) and implanted with cholesterol pellets, or cholesterol pellets containing basal, medium or high Cort. Intragastric EtOH or an isocaloric control solution was given 3 times daily for 4 days to achieve blood alcohol levels (BALs) ranging between 200-350 mg/dl. Mean 24 hour (24-hr) plasma Cort levels were ~110 ng/ml and ~40 ng/ml in intact EtOH treated and intact control, respectively. Basal Cort replacement in EtOH-treated Adx animals animals did not exacerbate alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) or the entorhinal cortex (EC) as observed by amino-cupric silver staining. In contrast, Cort replacement resulting in levels 2-fold higher (medium) than normal, or higher (high) in Adx-Cort-EtOH animals increased neurodegeneration. In separate experiments, pharmacological blockade of the Type II glucocortocoid (GC) receptor was initiated with mifepristone (RU38486; 0, 5, 15 mg/kg/day, i.p.). At the higher dose, mifepristone decreased the number of degenerating hippocampal DG cells in binge-EtOH treated intact animals, whereas, only a trend for reduction was observed in 15 mg/kg/day mifepristone treated animals in the EC, as determined by Fluoro Jade B staining. These results suggest that Cort in part mediates EtOH-induced neurotoxicity in the brain through activation of Type II GC receptors. PMID:22500955

  18. Comparative Circulating Serum Levels of Mepivacaine with Levo-Nordefrin

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, William M.; Allen, Gerald; Randall, Friederike

    1979-01-01

    Expected blood levels of common local anesthetics have been reported for numerous types of injections. Comparative levels of mepivacaine and lidocaine after dental injection have been only partially evaluated. A study was designed to compare the circulating serum level of 36 mgs. of mepivacaine with 1:20,000 levonordefrin (M) and 36 mgs. of lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (L) in 1.8 cc dental cartridges after standardized's bilateral maxillary infiltrations. Each of five subjects received 1.8 cc of (L) to the left maxillary second bicuspid and 1.8 cc of (M) to the right maxillary second bicuspid at a rate of one cc per minute. The serum was sampled before the injections and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 240 minute intervals after the injections and analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the serum level of (M) peaked at 30 minutes, 0.37 μg/ml of serum and (L) had peaks at 15 and 30 minutes, 0.22 μg/ml of serum. This difference was statistically significant, (p <.01) at all times sampled with (M) always resulting in a higher serum level. Serum levels persisted throughout the four hour test period. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3 PMID:298455

  19. Serum hepcidin concentrations correlate with serum iron level and outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Wen-Yao; Zhao, Ting; Zhong, Qi; Zhou, Kai; Meng, Zhao-You; Wang, Yan-Chun; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fang, Huang; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2015-10-01

    Iron plays a detrimental role in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage, while hepcidin is the most important iron-regulated hormone. Here, we investigate the association between serum hepcidin and serum iron, outcome in patients with ICH. Serum samples of 81 cases with ICH were obtained on consecutive days to detect the levels of hepcidin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) was measured at admission and on days 7 and 30, and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was evaluated at 3 months after ICH. Additionally, the correlations of serum hepcidin with serum iron and the mRS score were analyzed by a generalized linear model. Higher serum hepcidin levels were detected in patients with poor outcomes (P < 0.001), and the mRS score increased by a mean of 1.135 points (95% CI 1.021-1.247, P < 0.001) for every serum hepcidin quartile after adjusting for other prognostic variables. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum hepcidin was negatively correlated with serum iron (r = -0.5301, P < 0.001), and a significantly lower concentration of serum iron was found in patients with poor outcomes (P = 0.007). Additionally, serum hepcidin was independently correlated with mRS scores of ICH patients (OR 1.115, 95% CI 0.995-1.249, P = 0.021). Our results suggest that serum hepcidin is closely related to the outcome of patients with ICH and may be a biological marker for outcome prediction.

  20. Serum-soluble Fas and serum levels of erythropoietin in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Góes, M A; Dalboni, M A; Manfredi, S R; Cendoroglo, M S; Batista, M C; Canziani, M E; Balakrishnan, V S; Pereira, B J G; Draibe, S A; Cendoroglo, M

    2010-01-01

    Soluble Fas levels (sFas) are increased in the serum of uremic patients and are associated with the presence of anemia and recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) dosage in dialysis patients. It is possible that sFas levels are associated with an increased need for serum erythropoietin levels (Epo) in chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients in order to maintain hematocrit (Hct) levels. To investigate the relationship between serum sFas levels, serum Epo levels and the ratio between Epo levels and Hct in uremic patients. We studied 52 predialysis chronic kidney disease patients (CKD; 33 M, 57 +/- 12 years, hematocrit (Hct) = 37 +/- 7%), 29 peritoneal dialysis patients (PD; 12 M, 54 +/- 14 years, Hct = 36 +/- 7%), 29 hemodialysis patients (HD; 19 M, 47 +/- 14 years, Hct = 33 +/- 5%) and 29 healthy volunteers (control group 17 M, 50 +/- 16 years, Hct = 43 +/- 3%). We examined the relationship between Hct and serum levels of Epo, sFas, C-reactive protein, IL-6 and iron status. The ratio of serum Epo divided by Hct (Epo/Hct) was used as an indicator of Epo responsiveness. Compared to normal subjects, the CKD, PD and HD groups presented lower Hct levels and higher serum levels of sFas, Epo, Epo/Hct and IL-6. Serum levels of sFas correlated negatively with albumin (r = -0.24, p = 0.02), IL-6 (r = -0.18, p = 0.04) and Epo/Hct (r = -0.37, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for markers of iron store and inflammation, only sFas correlated with Epo/Hct. In the CKD group, there were negative correlations between serum levels of sFas and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.45, p < 0.001) and between Epo/Hct and GFR (r = -0.32; p = 0.02). There was a positive correlation between Epo/Hct and serum levels of sFas in the CKD group (r = 0.31, p = 0.03) and in the HD groups (r = 0.58, p = 0.001). Our findings show that serum sFas is associated with higher Epo/Hct ratio, suggesting that sFas may be a marker of Epo hyporesponsiveness in uremia. Further studies are

  1. Baseline and acute levels of corticosterone in Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens): effects of food supplementation, suburban habitat, and year.

    PubMed

    Schoech, Stephan J; Bowman, Reed; Bridge, Eli S; Boughton, Raoul K

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has shown that Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) living in suburban habitats, as well as birds that reside in a natural habitat (hereafter referred to as wildland birds) provided supplemental food during the pre-breeding period, have lower baseline corticosterone (CORT) levels than nonsupplemented wildland birds, suggesting that predictable and abundant foods can lower stress levels. Here, we investigate whether the acute CORT response to capture stress reflects our earlier findings. During the pre-breeding seasons in 2004 and 2005 we captured over 200 Florida Scrub-Jays and collected four blood samples from each bird over a 30 min time period. We compared hormonal and morphometric data from birds in four treatment groups: wildland birds that were provided with supplemental food during the pre-breeding period, wildland birds that were provided with supplemental food during the winter and pre-breeding period, nonsupplemented wildland birds, and suburban birds that effectively have access to ad libitum human-source food year-round. Suburban birds had lower baseline levels, and a more acute initial CORT response (i.e., rate of increase) than wildland birds, but we did not observe any differences among the treatment groups of wildland birds. Baseline CORT concentrations were unusually low across treatments in 2005, a year that was characterized by increased adult body mass, superior body condition, and a high fledgling success rate, all of which suggest favorable environmental conditions. Thus, abundant or more reliable food sources in 2005 may have overwhelmed any potential benefits of supplemental feeding and explain the absence of any strong experimental effects on CORT for that year.

  2. [Seasonal alterations in serum iron levels in elite football players].

    PubMed

    Malićević, Sead; Nesić, Dejan; Rosić, Ilija

    2008-01-01

    It is very important to monitor levels of serum iron and other factors of iron metabolism and oxygen transport system as they play a very important role in functional ability of football players. A decrease in serum iron level can be the very first sign of development of iron deficiency anaemia, which seriously influences health and functional ability of an athlete and is a common problem in competitive sports. The aim of this study was to observe and evaluate changes in serum iron values during the competition season in relation to the training process. During four years, serum iron level was measured in 28-34 players of one of the top football clubs in Serbia, four times a year: at the beginning and at peak-point of both half-seasons. Differences between basic and control findings, relative and absolute changes in serum iron levels and statistical significance of the findings were than calculated. There was a significant decrease in mean serum iron levels on each control test, compared to basic values. Mean value of control serum iron levels is significantly lower than mean of preseason values (20.64 +/- 6.58 vs. 16.38 +/- 5.51 micromol/l). A significant decrease in serum iron level among footballers during both half-seasons is most probably due to an increased loss and/or diminished absorption resulting from a high intensity training process. Because the decline in serum iron may be an early sign of iron store depletion and iron deficiency anaemia, it is very important to evaluate it regularly, along with other factors of iron metabolism and oxygen transport system.

  3. Serum irisin levels in new-onset type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Bae, Kwi Hyun; Seo, Hyun-Ae; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Lee, Won-Kee; Kim, Jung-Guk; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2013-04-01

    Irisin has been identified as a novel myokine that drives brown-fat-like conversion of white adipose tissue. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether serum irisin levels are decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with control subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and assessed the association between serum irisin levels and various metabolic parameters. The study population was selected from a population-based study and included 104 subjects with NGT and 104 subjects with new-onset T2D. Serum irisin and adiponectin levels and metabolic parameters were measured. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between irisin levels and newly diagnosed T2D. Serum irisin levels were significantly decreased in the new-onset T2D group compared with the NGT control group (p=0.003). In a multivariable model adjusted for various metabolic parameters, increased irisin levels were associated with reduced odds (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.88, p=0.006) of prevalent newly diagnosed T2D. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that 2 h plasma glucose was an independent variable influencing serum irisin levels (p=0.004). In the present study, we found that serum irisin levels were decreased in T2D patients and inversely associated with newly diagnosed T2D, suggesting that irisin may play a crucial role in glucose intolerance and T2D. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ≤ 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders.

  5. Serum IL-9 levels and sublingual immunotherapy: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Th9 is a new T cell subset characterized by IL-9 production. It has been reported that serum IL-9 levels are related with symptom severity in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). This study is aimed at investigating whether serum IL-9 may be modulated by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in patients with persistent AR due to Parietaria allergy. Twenty-one AR patients (9 males, median age 41 years) successfully treated with SLIT and 52 AR patients (25 males, median age 34 years) treated only with drugs were evaluated during the pollen season. Serum IL-9 was dosed in all patients. SLIT-treated patients showed significantly lower serum IL-9 levels than untreated AR patients (p <0.0001). In conclusion, this preliminary study shows that a single pre-seasonal SLIT course might modulate serum IL-9.

  6. Serum & cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels in children with acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, A; Rusia, U; Anand, N K; Sood, S K

    1989-06-01

    Serum and CSF ferritin were estimated in 35 consecutive patients of acute leukaemia at the time of admission and on induction of remission. Serum ferritin levels were significantly raised in 94 per cent patients of acute leukaemia. The mean (+/- SD) serum ferritin (314.36 +/- 158.4 micrograms/1) was significantly higher when compared with control values (P less than 0.001). Remission induction resulted in significant fall in serum ferritin values to a mean of 149 (+/- 98.7) micrograms/l (P less than 0.05). Serum ferritin is thus of value in assessing the state of remission and is a sensitive indicator of the leukaemic cell mass and the state of activity of the disease. CSF ferritin levels in acute leukaemia were comparable to normal control values. CSF ferritin did not reflect CNS involvement in acute leukaemia and therefore its value as a tumour marker of CNS infiltration is doubtful.

  7. Acute mild footshock alters ethanol drinking and plasma corticosterone levels in C57BL/6J male mice, but not DBA/2J or A/J male mice

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Douglas B.; Morrow, A. Leslie; Todd, O’Buckley; Flanigan, Timothy J.; Berry, Raymond B.; Cook, Melloni N.; Mittleman, Guy; Goldowitz, Dan; Tokunaga, Sayaka; Silvers, Janelle M.

    2008-01-01

    Stress is an often-reported cause for alcohol consumption in humans. Acute intermittent footshock is a frequently used paradigm to produce stress in laboratory animals including mice. The effect produced by intermittent footshock stress on ethanol self-administration has been inconsistent: both increases and decreases in ethanol consumption have been reported. The current set of studies further investigates, in three commonly studied mouse strains, the effect of footshock stress on ethanol self-administration. Furthermore, the effect of footshock on plasma corticosterone levels was determined to investigate potential biochemical correlates. Adult male C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and A/J mice were allowed to self-administer 10% (wt/vol) ethanol for 12 days in a standard 23-h two-bottle paradigm before receiving either 15 min of mild inescapable footshock or no footshock. Shock intensity was equal to the mean intensity at which each strain vocalized as previously determined. Following footshock, animals had the opportunity to self-administer ethanol for an additional 23 h. Separate animals were subjected to either footshock or no shock prior to collection of plasma for corticosterone. Mild footshock stress altered ethanol self-administration and increased plasma corticosterone levels in C57BL/6J mice. Footshock stress did not alter ethanol self-administration or plasma corticosterone levels in DBA/2J or A/J mice. These data demonstrate that mild footshock stress is a suboptimal method of modeling the stress-induced increases in ethanol consumption often reported by humans. PMID:18599253

  8. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  9. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  10. Pre-profiling factors influencing serum microRNA levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by preventing the translation of specific mRNA transcripts. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are stably expressed in human serum samples, making them good candidates for the non-invasive detection of disease. However, before circulating miRNAs can be used reliably as biomarkers of disease, the pre-measurement variables that may affect serum miRNA levels must be assessed. Methods In this study we used quantitative RT-PCR to examine the effect of hemolysis, fasting, and smoking on the levels of 742 miRNAs in the serum of healthy individuals. We also compared serum miRNA profiles of samples taken from healthy individuals over different time periods to assess normal serum miRNA fluctuations. Results We have found that mechanical hemolysis of blood samples can significantly alter serum miRNA quantification and have identified 162 miRNAs that are significantly up-regulated in hemolysed serum samples. Conversely, fasting and smoking were demonstrated to not have a significant effect on the overall serum miRNA profiles of healthy individuals. The serum miRNA profiles of matched samples taken from individuals over varying time periods showed a high correlation and no miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in these samples further suggesting the utility of serum miRNAs as biomarkers of disease. Taking the above results into consideration, we have identified miR-99a-5p and miR-139-5p as novel endogenous controls for serum miRNA studies due to their consistency across all sample sets. Conclusion These results identify important pre-profiling factors that should be taken into consideration when identifying endogenous controls and candidate biomarkers for circulating miRNA studies. PMID:25093010

  11. Influence of maternal ingestion of Aroclor 1254[reg sign] (PCB) or FireMaster BP-6[reg sign] (PBB) on unstimulated and stimulated corticosterone levels in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Meserve, L.A.; Murray, B.A.; Landis, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    The organohalides polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) remain troublesome environmental pollutants. For example, the percentage of the population in which PCB is detectable in adipose tissue remains high. These compounds are of particular interest to residents of the North Central United States, especially in regions surrounding the Great Lakes where contaminated fish may be a regular component of the diet. Additionally, PBB was mistakenly fed to cattle and chickens in Michigan during the early 1970s, products of which were ingested by humans. Among the physiological effects of ingestion of PCB or PBB is the depression of thyroid status, which has been reported in adult humans, in adult experimental animals, and in the offspring of these animals. In adult rats, circulating levels of thyroid hormones are inversely proportional to dose of PCB or PBB in the diet. On the other hand, reports of effects of these organohalides on adrenocortical function remain equivocal, describing both PCB- and PBB-induced depression, and absence of effect in rats and monkeys. Despite the possible consequences of maternal ingestion of PCB or PBB on future generations, little work has been done previously to determine whether consumption of these materials by pregnant and lactating animals confers hypothyroidism on their offspring, and/or influences other mechanisms of endocrine control in the young. Since early studies showed that hypothyroidism induced by feeding pregnant rats the goitrogen thiouracil altered the functional capabilities in their young of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as revealed by circulating corticosterone levels, the present study was done to determine whether ingestion of either PCB (Aroclor 1254[reg sign]) or PBB (FireMaster BP-6[reg sign]) by pregnant and lactating rats resulted in depressed thyroid status and/or modified HPA axis function in their 15 day old young. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Marked serum procalcitonin level in response to isolated anaphylactic shock.

    PubMed

    Mann, Jason; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present a case report that highlights the limitation of serum procalcitonin levels greater than 10 ng/mL as being almost exclusively secondary to septic shock. Data source was a medical intensive care unit patient at the University of Louisville. Anaphylactic shock may cause elevations of serum procalcitonin to levels greater than 10 ng/mL.

  13. Serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ohyoshi, Yukimi; Makino, Takamitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Wakana; Fukushima, Satoshi; Inoue, Yuji; Ihn, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Microvascular damage is one of the primary pathologic components of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Serological abnormalities of angiogenic and angiostatic factors in SSc have previously been described. Like these factors, the plasma levels of leptin were significantly elevated in patients with SSc in comparison to normal controls. However, leptin receptor has not been examined in patients with SSc. The current study used sandwich ELISA to evaluate the serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with SSc. Serum samples were obtained from 36 patients with SSc. Samples were also obtained from 12 healthy control subjects and 10 patients with scleroderma spectrum disorder (SSD) who did not fulfill the criteria for SSc but who had the potential to develop SSc. Mean serum leptin receptor levels were significantly higher in patients with SSD than in patients with SSc (255.7 ng/mL vs. 184.6 ng/mL, p < 0.05 according to a Mann-Whitney test). There were no statistically significant differences between healthy control subjects and patients with SSc. Clinical parameters were evaluated, and the frequency of esophageal reflux was significantly lower in patients with elevated serum leptin receptor levels than in those with reduced levels (6.3% vs. 35.3%, p < 0.05). In summary, these results suggest that the serum levels of leptin receptor are a clinically useful marker of SSD, and measurement of serum leptin receptor over time in patients with SSD may lead to early detection of SSc. PMID:25343103

  14. Serum YKL-40 Level Positively Correlates With Uterine Leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenping; Wang, Jing; Wei, Hongyi

    2016-11-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (ULMs) are the most common benign tumors in premenopausal women associated with major tissue fibrosis. It has been suggested that inflammatory response is associated with the development of ULM. YKL-40 is a chitinase-like protein present in serum of healthy participants, and its levels are increased in several human inflammatory diseases. However, the association between YKL-40 and ULM has not been reported. The aim of this study was to identify whether serum YKL-40 levels correlate with ULM. Premenopausal women with ULM (n = 61) and leiomyoma-free control women (n = 45) were recruited for this study. Serum YKL-40 levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlations were assessed by Spearman rank correlation test. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to define the optimal cutoff value for predicting ULM. We found that serum YKL-40 levels in patients with ULM were significantly higher than in healthy controls (P < .001). Positive correlation was also observed between serum YKL-40 levels and leiomyoma weight (r = .92; P < .001). Moreover, ROC curves yielded robust area under the curve value (0.94) accompanied by high sensitivity (82.0%) and specificity (91.1%) in distinguishing patients with ULM from healthy controls. These findings suggest that elevated serum YKL-40 levels are associated with the existence of ULM, and YKL-40 might be a potential adjunct biomarker for diagnosis of ULM. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Serum paraoxonase level and paraoxonase polymorphism in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Arpaci, Dilek; Karakas Celik, Sevim; Can, Murat; Ermiş, Esra; Kuzu, Fatih; Kokturk, Furuzan; Hamamcioglu, Ayse Ceylan; Dursun, Ahmet; Bayraktaroglu, Taner

    2016-11-01

    Acromegalic patients have increased cardiometabolic risk factors due to an elevation of growth hormone (GH) levels. Human serum paraoxonase (PON), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-related enzyme, is one of the major bioscavengers and decreases the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a key regulator in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated a potential relationship between serum PON levels or PON polymorphisms and acromegaly. A total of 48 acromegalic patients and 44 healthy controls were included in this study. Serum GH levels, insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and lipid profiles were measured. Serum PON levels, as well as PON 1 L55M and Q192R gene polymorphisms, were examined. No significant differences were found in terms of age, gender, presence of diabetes, serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, or triglyceride levels between the case and control groups (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found in serum PON levels between the cases and controls (P = 0.007). The median serum PON level was 101 ± 63.36 U/l in the case group and 63 ± 60.50 U/l in the control group. There was a significant correlation between serum PON levels and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.004, r = 0.319); however, no significant differences were found in PON1 L55M and PON Q192R polymorphisms between the patients and controls (P = 0.607 and P = 0.308, respectively). In addition, no significant differences were found in serum PON levels in acromegalic patients who were and were not in remission (P = 0.385), nor between those with PON1 L55M and Q192R polymorphisms (P = 0.161 and P = 0.336, respectively). Elevated serum PON levels were detected in acromegalic patients, independently of their remission status. This suggests protective effects for cardiometabolic risk parameters.

  16. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and captivity in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-01

    Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture have recently been shown for the first time in amphibians, and in the present study urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and to confinement in captivity were measured in adult cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Queensland, Australia. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was used to provide a biological validation for urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Urinary corticosterone metabolite increased 1-2 days after ACTH but not saline injection and then returned to initial values, indicating that the RIA could detect changes in corticosterone secretion in toads. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to short-term capture and restraint in plastic bags were first apparent 2h after capture of wild toads. Toads held communally in captivity for 5 days had elevated urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations. Mean corticosterone concentrations declined significantly after a further 7 days in individual housing chambers. There was no sex difference in urinary corticosterone metabolite responses of toads to ACTH challenge, short-term capture or captivity. The relative amount of variation in the mean corticosterone responses was quantified by calculating coefficients of variation (CV) for each mean corticosterone response. Mean corticosterone at 0 min was more variable for captive toads than wild toads. Furthermore, initial corticosterone concentrations (0 min) were more variable than concentrations during the ACTH challenge, short-term capture and captivity. There was little change in the amount of variation of mean corticosterone levels between male and female toads with increasing time in captivity (12-29 days). This study has shown individual corticosterone responses of amphibians for the first-time, and has provided a novel method for quantifying the relative amount of variation in amphibian corticosterone responses. Copyright © 2011

  17. Serum iron and ferritin level in idiopathic Parkinson.

    PubMed

    Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Farid, Gholnar Abbasi; Talebi, Mahnaz; Pashapou, Ali; Majidi, Jafar; Goldust, Mohamad

    2012-11-15

    Parkinson disease is a prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disorder, especially in western countries and among the elderly. This study aimed at evaluating serum iron and ferritin in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. In this case-control study, 50 patients with clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson disease (case group) were evaluated during a 12 month period. Fifty healthy persons (control group) recruited as well. Serum iron and ferritin levels were measured by biochemical and quantitative luminance methods, respectively in the case and control group. Fifty patients, 28 males and 22 females with the mean age of 64.53 +/- 10.18 (40-84) years and 50 controls were enrolled. Serum iron levels were 70.22 +/- 25.18 mg dL(-1) and 67.62 +/- 39.53 mg dL(-1) in case and control group, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were 129.79 +/- 137.67 ng dL(-1) and 109.87 +/- 154.71 ng dL(-1) in case and control group, respectively. There was no significant difference between different grades of Parkinson disease considering the serum level of iron or ferritin. The current study showed that generally there is no significant difference between the patients with the idiopathic Parkinson disease and healthy controls in terms of serum iron and ferritin levels. The same results were attributable to different grades of the disease.

  18. Signaling stress? An analysis of phaeomelanin-based plumage color and individual corticosterone levels at two temporal scales in North American barn swallows, Hirundo rustica erythrogaster.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Brittany R; Vitousek, Maren N; Safran, Rebecca J

    2013-09-01

    Sexually selected traits confer greater reproductive benefits to individuals with more elaborate forms of the signal. However, whether these signals convey reliable information about the physiology underlying trait development remains unknown in many species. The steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) mediates important physiological and behavioral processes during the vertebrate stress response, and CORT secretion itself can be modulated by melanocortins. Thus, sexually selected melanin-based plumage coloration could function as an honest signal of an individual's ability to respond to stressors. This hypothesis was tested in North American barn swallows, Hirundo rustica erythrogaster, where males with darker ventral plumage color exhibit higher phaeomelanin content and are more successful at reproduction. Because reproductive behavior occurs months after plumage signals are developed, we also addressed the potential temporal disconnect of physiological state during trait development and trait advertisement by analyzing three different measurements of CORT levels in adult males during the breeding season (trait advertisement) and in nestling males while they were growing their feathers (trait development). Variation in adult plumage color did not predict baseline or stress-induced CORT, or stress responsiveness. Likewise, there was no relationship between nestling plumage color and any of the CORT measurements, but heavier nestlings had significantly lower baseline CORT. Our finding that a predominantly phaeomelanin-based trait is unrelated to circulating CORT suggests that phaeomelanin and eumelanin signals may convey different physiological information, and highlights the need for further study on the biochemical links between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the production of different melanin-based pigments.

  19. Developmental programming: cumulative effects of increased pre-hatching corticosterone levels and post-hatching unpredictable food availability on physiology and behaviour in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Cédric; Boogert, Neeltje J; Spencer, Karen A

    2013-08-01

    Prolonged exposure to stress during development can have long-term detrimental effects on health and wellbeing. However, the environmental matching hypothesis proposes that developmental stress programs physiology and behaviour in an adaptive way that can enhance fitness if early environments match those experienced later in life. Most research has focused on the harmful effects that stress during a single period in early life may exert in adulthood. In this study, we tested the potential additive and beneficial effects that stress experienced during both pre- and post-hatching development may have on adult physiology and behaviour. Japanese quail experienced different stress-related treatments across two developmental life stages: pre-hatching corticosterone (CORT) injection, post-hatching unpredictable food availability, both pre- and post-hatching treatments, or control. In adulthood, we determined quails' acute stress response, neophobia and novel environment exploration. The pre-hatching CORT treatment resulted in attenuated physiological responses to an acute stressor, increased activity levels and exploration in a novel environment. Post-hatching unpredictable food availability decreased adults' latency to feed. Furthermore, there were cumulative effects of these treatments across the two developmental stages: quail subjected to both pre- and post-hatching treatments were the most explorative and risk-taking of all treatment groups. Such responses to novel environments could enhance survival in unpredictable environments in later life. Our data also suggest that these behavioural responses may have been mediated by long-term physiological programming of the adrenocortical stress response, creating phenotypes that could exhibit fitness-enhancing behaviours in a changing environment. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum copper and zinc levels in melanoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.L.; Spitler, L.E.; McNeill, K.L.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    Serum copper levels (SCL) and serum zinc levels (SZL) were evaluated in malignant melanoma patients at various clinical stages. Copper levels were generally found to be elevated, reflecting the degree and extent of tumor activity. Zinc levels and, hence, SCL:SZL ratios did not reflect tumor activity. SCL appeared to prognosticate disease progression in that all patients whose values never declined below 150 ..mu..g/100 ml died during the course of the study. However, not all patients who died from tumor metastases displayed persistent elevations of SCL. Patients receiving BCG immunotherapy appeared to have higher SCL than untreated patients.

  1. Serum cytokine levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, C C; Ala, T A; Hu, S; Crossley, K B; Sherman, R E; Peterson, P K; Frey, W H

    1994-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed to be an inflammatory disorder. In a recent study, markedly elevated levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with advanced AD suggested a potential predictive value of this cytokine in patients with AD. In the present prospective study, we tested the hypothesis that the levels of TGF-beta in serum would be increased in patients with AD and could thereby serve as a diagnostic marker. We found that serum TGF-beta levels but not proinflammatory cytokine levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in patients with AD (n = 22) in comparison with the levels in their healthy spousal controls. Also, serum TGF-beta levels were positively correlated (r = 0.45; P < 0.05) with disease severity. Nevertheless, the elevation in serum TGF-beta levels in patients with Ad was modest, and considerable overlap with the control values suggests that the diagnostic usefulness of this cytokine for AD is limited. PMID:8556481

  2. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone prevents chronic corticosterone induced depression-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Ching; Chen, Han-Ting; Chang, Han-Ying; Yang, Ching-Yao; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Chen, Jin-Chung

    2013-06-01

    High level of serum corticosteroid is frequently associated with depression, in which a notable HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis hyperactivity is often observed. There are two types of corticosteroid receptors expressed in the hippocampus that provide potent negative feedback regulation on the HPA axis but dysfunction during depression, i.e. the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). The balance between hippocampal MR and GR during chronic stress plays an important role in the occurrence of depression. The aim of this study is to explore if chronic corticosterone administration would induce depression-like behavior and affect the expression and function of hippocampal MR and GR, in addition to assess whether manipulation of corticosteroid receptors would modulate depressive behaviors. Hence, mice were treated with corticosterone (40 mg/kg) for 21 days followed by assessment in a battery of depression-like behaviors. The results show that chronic corticosterone-treated animals displayed an increased immobility time in a forced-swimming test, decreased preference to sucrose solution and novel object recognition performance, and enhanced hippocampal serotonin but decreased MR expression in both hippocampus and hypothalamus. On the other hand, co-administration of MR antagonist, spironolactone (25mg/kg, i.p. × 7 days) in corticosteroid-treated animals reduced immobility time in a forced-swimming test and improved performance in a novel object recognition test. In conclusion, we demonstrate that chronic corticosterone treatment triggers several depression-like behaviors, and in parallel, down-regulates MR expression in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Administration of an MR antagonist confers an anti-depressant effect in chronic corticosterone-treated animals.

  3. Elevated Corticosterone Levels and Changes in Amphibian Behavior Are Associated with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Infection and Bd Lineage.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Caitlin R; Fisher, Matthew C; Bosch, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the role hormones play in mediating clinical changes associated with infection by the parasite Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones such as corticosteroids (CORT) regulate homeostasis and likely play a key role in response to infection in amphibians. We explore the relationship between CORT release rates and Bd infection in tadpoles of the common midwife toad, Alytes obstetricians, using a non-invasive water-borne hormone collection method across seven populations. We further examined whether tadpoles of A. muletensis infected with a hypervirulent lineage of Bd, BdGPL, had greater CORT release rates than those infected with a hypovirulent lineage, BdCAPE. Finally, we examined the relationship between righting reflex and CORT release rates in infected metamorphic toads of A. obstetricans. We found an interaction between elevation and Bd infection status confirming that altitude is associated with the overall severity of infection. In tandem, increasing elevation was associated with increasing CORT release rates. Tadpoles infected with the hypervirulent BdGPL had significantly higher CORT release rates than tadpoles infected with BdCAPE showing that more aggressive infections lead to increased CORT release rates. Infected metamorphs with higher CORT levels had an impaired righting reflex, our defined experimental endpoint. These results provide evidence that CORT is associated with an amphibian's vulnerability to Bd infection, and that CORT is also affected by the aggressiveness of infection by Bd. Together these results indicate that CORT is a viable biomarker of amphibian stress.

  4. Elevated Corticosterone Levels and Changes in Amphibian Behavior Are Associated with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Infection and Bd Lineage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the role hormones play in mediating clinical changes associated with infection by the parasite Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones such as corticosteroids (CORT) regulate homeostasis and likely play a key role in response to infection in amphibians. We explore the relationship between CORT release rates and Bd infection in tadpoles of the common midwife toad, Alytes obstetricians, using a non-invasive water-borne hormone collection method across seven populations. We further examined whether tadpoles of A. muletensis infected with a hypervirulent lineage of Bd, BdGPL, had greater CORT release rates than those infected with a hypovirulent lineage, BdCAPE. Finally, we examined the relationship between righting reflex and CORT release rates in infected metamorphic toads of A. obstetricans. We found an interaction between elevation and Bd infection status confirming that altitude is associated with the overall severity of infection. In tandem, increasing elevation was associated with increasing CORT release rates. Tadpoles infected with the hypervirulent BdGPL had significantly higher CORT release rates than tadpoles infected with BdCAPE showing that more aggressive infections lead to increased CORT release rates. Infected metamorphs with higher CORT levels had an impaired righting reflex, our defined experimental endpoint. These results provide evidence that CORT is associated with an amphibian’s vulnerability to Bd infection, and that CORT is also affected by the aggressiveness of infection by Bd. Together these results indicate that CORT is a viable biomarker of amphibian stress. PMID:25893675

  5. Relation of oral dose of oxtriphylline to serum theophylline level.

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, G. H.; Desai, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    Serum theophylline levels were studied in relation to oral doses of oxtriphylline in 30 patients with reversible airway obstruction. A wide scattering of levels was observed and was attributed to widely differing rates of metabolism of the drug. From the data obtained it was concluded that the most commonly prescribed daily dose of oxtriphylline, 800 mg, will produce a therapeutic level of theophylline in only about one quarter of patients. A daily starting dose of 15 to 20 mg/kg, however, will produce therapeutic levels in approximately one third of patients without significant toxic effects. Once the patient's conditions is stable the serum theophylline concentration should be measured; if it is subtherapeutic the dose of oxtriphylline should be increased slowly and the serum theophylline concentration remeasured until a level of 10 to 20 microgram/ml is achieved. PMID:7034918

  6. Uses of proton pump inhibitors and serum potassium levels.

    PubMed

    Gau, Jen-Tzer; Heh, Victor; Acharya, Utkarsh; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Kao, Tzu-Cheg

    2009-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) may suppress adrenal cortical steroid synthesis and release, thereby leading to electrolyte disturbances. Both hyponatremia and hyperkalemia in the setting of PPI therapy have been documented in case reports. The objective of this study was to examine the association between serum potassium (K(+)) level and PPI use. A retrospective data analysis of hospitalized adults aged > or = 65 years during 2006, including PPI users (N = 257) and PPI non-users (N = 388), was conducted. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between PPI use and serum K(+) level. PPI users [mean age (SD):79.7 (8.0) years; 70% female] had significantly higher serum K(+) levels than PPI non-users [80.2 (8.8) years; 64% female] on admission [4.13 (0.62) vs. 3.97 (0.57) mmol/L; p < 0.001]. The linear regression model revealed that > or = 2 defined daily dose (DDD) units of PPI use were a significantly positive contributor to serum K(+) levels (p = 0.021) after adjusting for age, serum creatinine levels, sex, history of diabetes, and uses of the following drugs: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, beta blocker, diuretics, spironolactone, K(+) supplement, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, atypical antipsychotics, and narcotics. However, multiple logistic regression model revealed that high dose PPI therapy was not associated with an increased risk for hyperkalemia occurrence (p = 0.762). Higher serum K(+) levels were observed among PPI users when compared to PPI non-users. High daily dose PPI therapy may be an independent positive predictor of serum potassium levels.

  7. Interleukin-22 serum levels are elevated in active scleritis.

    PubMed

    Sainz-de-la-Maza, Maite; Molins, Blanca; Mesquida, Marina; Llorenç, Victor; Zarranz-Ventura, Javier; Sala-Puigdollers, Anna; Matas, Jessica; Adan, Alfredo; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate serum cytokine profile from patients with active scleritis in a two-centre prospective case-control study. The serum of 20 active scleritis patients not treated with any local, periocular, or systemic immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) was analysed with multiplex assay to determine the levels of 11 cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-5, TNF-α, and TNF-β, and with ELISA to determine the levels of TGF-β1, IL-22, and IL-23. Twenty-five age-matched healthy volunteers were used as controls. In a subgroup of 13 patients with active disease, a second serum sample was obtained when the disease was inactive and levels of IL-22 were determined. Serum IL-22 levels from patients with active scleritis were correlated with type of scleritis (non-necrotizing and necrotizing), degree of inflammation (0-4+ :≤2+ and >2+), and associated systemic disease. Serum levels of IL-22 were elevated in active scleritis patients compared to controls (6.41 ± 1.52 pg/ml versus 1.93 ± 0.39 pg/ml, p = 0.012) and significantly decreased after scleritis remission with the use of IMT (p = 0.005). There was no statistical association with scleritis type, degree of inflammation, or associated systemic disease. The serum levels of other cytokines were not significantly different from controls. In our study cohort, IL-22 serum levels were significantly elevated in active scleritis patients compared to controls and decreased significantly after remission. Our results suggest that IL-22, a T helper (Th) 17- and Th22- derived cytokine, may play a critical role in the physiopathology of scleritis. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease.

  9. Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Dyslipidemia in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferritin is associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance in adults. We aimed to study the association between serum ferritin levels and dyslipidemia in adolescents, because dyslipidemia is considered an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the young. Methods We analyzed 1,879 subjects (1,026 boys and 853 girls) from the 2009–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Subjects were categorized into quartiles according to their lipid parameters, which were classified according to age and gender. Those in the highest quartile groups for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride concentrations were diagnosed as having dyslipidemia. Those in the lowest quartile for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were diagnosed with abnormal levels. Results In boys, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly correlated with serum ferritin levels. In both boys and girls, serum ferritin levels were negatively associated with HDL-C values, even after adjusting for all covariates. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride concentrations in girls. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with major dyslipidemia parameters, more prominently in boys than in girls, and this association represents a cardiometabolic risk factor. PMID:27070153

  10. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  11. Tissue and serum sialidase levels in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, H; Süer, S; Güngör, Z; Baloglu, H; Kökoglu, E

    1999-02-08

    Breast cancer is both one of the most common and one of the most treatable of all human malignancies. It has been suggested by various investigators that sialic acid increases in the sera of cancerous patients. In cancer patients, an increase in the levels of serum sialic acid may also be due to an increase in the activity of serum or tissue sialidase. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the concentration of sialidase in serum and breast tissue could be used as a tumor marker in breast cancer. In this study; serum sialidase levels in 26 patient with breast cancer and 31 controls were found to be 77.04+/-25.07 U/l and 55.56+/-7.50 U/l, respectively. The mean tissue sialidase levels in 26 breast cancer patients and 13 controls were 39.76+/-17.03 U/g protein and 14.30+/-7.09 U/g protein, respectively. Serum and tissue sialidase levels in breast cancer were significantly higher than those found in the control group (P < 0.001). The mean serum and tissue sialidase levels in 14 Grade I-II and 12 Grade III breast cancer patients were found to be 67.73+/-11.87 U/l and 33.41+/-12.17 U/g protein and 87.89+/-31.94 U/l and 47.17+/-19.30 U/g protein, respectively. Also we found a significant difference between the levels of serum and tissue sialidase in Grade I-II and III (P < 0.05).

  12. High serum apolipoprotein AIV levels in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Massy, Z A; Kandoussi, A M; Mamzer-Bruneel, M F; Kreis, H; Drüeke, T; Lacour, B

    2001-02-01

    Human apolipoprotein (apo) AIV might play a role in post-transplant reverse cholesterol transport, which appears to be comparable to that seen in healthy subjects. However, there may be subtle differences between healthy individuals and renal transplant recipients, given the other abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism in the latter. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate possible changes of serum apo AIV levels in renal transplant recipients, and to evaluate potential factors influencing these levels. Total and free serum apo AIV was determined in 36 clinically stable renal transplant recipients and in 20 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. Mean total serum apo IV concentrations (+/- SD) were significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than in control subjects (202 +/- 102 vs 79 +/- 45 mg/l, p < 0.01). The percentage of lipoprotein-free fractions of apo AIV was comparable in both groups. The elevated total serum concentrations of apo AIV were mainly related to creatinine clearance and partially to serum triglyceride levels in renal transplant recipients. Our data suggest that the observed elevation of serum apo AIV concentrations in renal transplant recipients is essentially related to the presence of impaired renal function.

  13. Serum anti - TPO levels in benign and malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Sabitha; Suneetha; Mohanty, Shruti; Rao, Pragna

    2009-07-01

    Breast cancer is a hormone dependent neoplasm. Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the association of anti - TPO levels in patients having complaints of a lump in breast. Serum samples and Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples were collected from 31 female patients with a lump in breast between the age group of 20-75 years. 31 age matched normal healthy controls were also examined for the same parameters. Serum samples were analyzed for its anti - TPO levels. FNAC reports confirmed patients as having duct cell carcinoma. They had raised serum anti - TPO levels compared to controls. FNAC results of others (n=26) were reported as fibroadenoma whose anti - TPO levels were less than the controls.

  14. Relationship between serum neopterin levels and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Y; Li, Y D

    2013-10-07

    The relationship between serum neopterin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) was investigated. Eighty-six CHD patients were divided into an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group (N = 21), an unstable angina pectoris (UAP) group (N = 35), and a stable angina pectoris (SAP) group (N = 30), based on coronary angiography (CAG), 30 subjects without CHD served as the control group. Serum neopterin levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and relationships between neopterin and the severity of stenosis, stenosis number, and the stability of coronary artery were analyzed. Serum neopterin levels were higher in the AMI and UAP groups than in the SAP and control groups (P < 0.01), but no significant differences were observed between the AMI and UAP groups or between the SAP and control groups (P > 0.05). Mean serum neopterin levels were higher in the single, double, and three vessel lesion groups than in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas there were no significant differences among the lesion groups (P > 0.05). Serum levels of neopterin were significantly higher in the type II than in the type I or type III, plaque groups (P < 0.01), the incidence of type II plaque was significantly higher in the AMI and UAP groups compared to the SAP group (P < 0.01). Neopterin likely plays a role in the occurrence and development of athermanous plaque and can serve as a useful biomarker of vulnerable plaques. Immunoreaction may be involved in the pathophysiological process of CHD.

  15. Serum leptin levels may be correlated with cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun-Bin; Yao, Xian-Li; Sun, Ping-Ge; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xing; Liu, Jun-Qi; Li, Yi-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background: To investigate the relation between serum leptin levels and cerebral infarction (CI) by meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Scientific literature databases were searched for studies published in Chinese and English. After retrieving relevant articles through database searches and screening using predefined selection criteria, high-quality studies related to our research topic were selected for inclusion in this meta-analysis. All statistical analyses were conducted using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey, USA). Results: The study results revealed that serum leptin levels were significantly higher in CI patients as compared to normal controls. The outcomes of subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the serum leptin levels in CI patients were significantly higher than normal controls in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Further, subgroup analysis based on the detection method indicated that the serum leptin levels in CI patients were significantly higher compared with normal controls when measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) but enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based measurements did not show such statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis results suggest that serum leptin levels in CI patients may be closely correlated with CI risks. PMID:27904550

  16. Serum Reactive Oxygen Metabolite Levels Predict Severe Exacerbations of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Keitaro; Watanabe, Masato; Sada, Mitsuru; Inui, Toshiya; Nakamura, Masuo; Honda, Kojiro; Wada, Hiroo; Mikami, Yu; Matsuzaki, Hirotaka; Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Hikari; Kogane, Toshiyuki; Kohyama, Tadashi; Takizawa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are intimately linked to chronic airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of BA. However, the role of ROS in the management of BA patients is not yet clear. We attempted to determine the role of ROS as a biomarker in the clinical setting of BA. Subjects and Methods We enrolled patients with BA from 2013 through 2015 and studied the degrees of asthma control, anti-asthma treatment, pulmonary function test results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels, and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Results We recruited 110 patients with BA. Serum ROM levels correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count (rs = 0.273, p = 0.004), neutrophil count (rs = 0.235, p = 0.014), CRP (rs = 0.403, p < 0.001), and IL-6 (rs = 0.339, p < 0.001). Serum ROM levels and IL-8 and CRP levels negatively correlated with %FEV1 (rs = -0.240, p = 0.012, rs = -0.362, p < 0.001, rs = -0.197, p = 0.039, respectively). Serum ROM levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced severe exacerbation within 3 months than in patients who did not (339 [302–381] vs. 376 [352–414] CARR U, p < 0.025). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis showed that ROM levels correlated significantly with the occurrence of severe exacerbation (area under the curve: 0.699, 95% CI: 0.597–0.801, p = 0.025). Conclusions Serum levels of ROM were significantly associated with the degrees of airway obstruction, WBC counts, neutrophil counts, IL-6, and severe exacerbations. This biomarker may be useful in predicting severe exacerbations of BA. PMID:27776186

  17. Further studies on the use of serum gastrin levels in assessing the significance of low serum B12 levels.

    PubMed

    Miller, A; Slingerland, D W; Cardarelli, J; Burrows, B A

    1989-07-01

    The reported incidence of low serum vitamin B12 levels in patients ranges from 4% to 8%. In only a small percentage can this be ascribed to readily diagnosed pernicious anemia, malabsorption syndrome, or to gastrointestinal surgery. This leaves a number of patients in whom the meaning of the low serum B12 is not immediately apparent. In 71 patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts, hematological indices did not adequately separate patients with decreased absorption of unbound B12 from those with normal absorption. A low absorption of B12, either unbound or food-bound, was found, however, when the level of serum gastrin was elevated. In contrast, a normal absorption of unbound B12 was likely (95% of 44 patients) when the serum gastrin was normal.

  18. Serum Selenium Levels in Euthyroid Nodular Thyroid Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sakız, Davut; Kaya, Ahmet; Kulaksizoglu, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    The thyroid gland is susceptible to nodulation. The mechanism responsible for the growth of only some follicular cells, which results in nodule formation, is not yet clear. Selenium deficiency may be a risk factor in the development of thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between selenium levels in patients with euthyroid nodular thyroid disease. Seventy patients with a solitary euthyroid thyroid nodule, 70 patients with more than one euthyroid nodule, and 60 healthy patients without thyroid nodules were included in the study. Venous serum samples were stored at -80°C and analyzed the same day using spectrometry. The selenium levels of patients with multiple thyroid nodules, solitary nodules, and patients without nodules were 57.3 ± 14.8 μg/L; 58.8 ± 15.1 μg/L; and 57.6 ± 13.3 μg/L, respectively. The mean serum selenium level of all patients included in the study was 57.9 ± 14.4 μg/L. Although serum selenium levels were slightly higher in men, a statistically significant difference was not observed. In our study, a significant relationship between serum selenium levels and nodular thyroid disease was not seen. Our study was undertaken in an iodine sufficient region. Mean serum selenium levels were lower compared with many other studies, which may be associated with the low selenium content of the soil. Nodular thyroid disease shows multifactorial features. When our study is considered together with previous studies, serum selenium levels may considered to be effective on structural thyroid diseases if combined with additional factors such as severe iodine deficiency. Further studies are required to assess the role of selenium in thyroid nodule formation.

  19. Salivary and serum cortisol levels in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Forclaz, María V; Moratto, Eduardo; Pennisi, Alicia; Falco, Silvina; Olsen, Graciela; Rodríguez, Patricia; Papazian, Regina; Bergadá, Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    Given that serum cortisol level interpretation in newborn infants (NBIs) is hard, the objective of this study was to correlate baseline salivary and serum cortisol levels and to describe salivary cortisol levels in the first month of life. Descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, and correlational study. Term NBIs were selected from the Division of Neonatology of Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas in 2014. Cortisol was measured in saliva specimens while cortisol, cortisol-binding globulin, and albumin were measured in blood specimens. A linear correlation was performed to relate serum and salivary cortisol levels; Friedman test was conducted to compare cortisol levels during the first month of life, and the difference was used to analyze the performance of values equal to or lower than the first quartile. Fifty-five NBIs were studied. Serum cortisol: 7.65 (1.0-18.1 gg/dL); salivary cortisol: 35.88 (5.52-107.64 mmol/L); cortisol-binding globulin: 22.07 (16.5-33.0 gg/mL), expressed as median and range. The correlation coefficient between serum and salivary cortisol was 0.54, P = 0.001. Cortisol performance during the first month of life showed no statistically significant differences, and the difference between the second and the first specimen of values equal to or lower than the first quartile increased in 10 out of 12 patients. The measurement of cortisol in saliva reflects serum cortisol levels in normal NBIs. Some patients had low levels of cortisol at 36 hours of life and showed a trend towards a spontaneous increase during the first month of life.

  20. Serum adiponectin levels in advanced-stage Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Erica; Cancello, Raffaella; Cavanna, Ferruccio; Maestrini, Sabrina; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Liuzzi, Antonio; Pezzoli, Gianni; Barichella, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) experience body weight loss and reductions in the most common cardiovascular risk factors. At present, the pathogenetic mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin, which possesses antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, are associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to determine adiponectin serum concentrations in PD patients. Thirty PD patients underwent a full nutritional status assessment, including the determination of adiponectin serum concentrations. Mean ± SD adiponectin concentrations were 9.59 ± 5.9 μg/mL (interquartile range: 5.92-12.9 μg/mL). In PD patients, adiponectin serum levels were similar to those in normal-weight, healthy, young subjects and significantly higher than that in an aged-matched group of morbidly obese subjects. Further studies are warranted to establish the role of adiponectin in the management of PD patients.

  1. A multivariate analysis of serum nutrient levels and lung function

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, Tricia M; Lewis, Sarah A; Smit, Henriette A; Burney, Peter; Cassano, Patricia A; Britton, John

    2008-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence that estimates of intakes of a range of dietary nutrients are related to both lung function level and rate of decline, but far less evidence on the relation between lung function and objective measures of serum levels of individual nutrients. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive examination of the independent associations of a wide range of serum markers of nutritional status with lung function, measured as the one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1). Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relation between 21 serum markers of potentially relevant nutrients and FEV1, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Systematic approaches were used to guide the analysis. Results In a mutually adjusted model, higher serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E), selenium, normalized calcium, chloride, and iron were independently associated with higher levels of FEV1. Higher concentrations of potassium and sodium were associated with lower FEV1. Conclusion Maintaining higher serum concentrations of dietary antioxidant vitamins and selenium is potentially beneficial to lung health. In addition other novel associations found in this study merit further investigation. PMID:18823528

  2. Serum irisin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bostancı, M S; Akdemir, N; Cinemre, B; Cevrioglu, A S; Özden, S; Ünal, O

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is clinically heterogeneous endocrine disorders. Insulin resistance-related proteins play a role in the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. Irisin is a newly identified myokine which act like adipokines. Irisin has been shown to be associated with the insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum levels of irisin in PCOS patients and evaluate the correlations with other metabolic and hormonal parameters. Thirty-five PCOS patients and 35 matched healthy controls were enrolled to study. Serum irisin levels, anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters including HOMA-IR were measured. Linear regression analysis was employed to study the relationship between irisin and hormonal and metabolic parameters. Serum irisin level in PCOS patients (mean value; 0.491±0.145 µg/mL) was significantly elevated when compared to control group (mean value 0.281±0.138 µg/mL) (p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that serum irisin was positively associated with body mass index, luteinizing hormone, fasting insulin and total cholesterol in the overall patient population but not for PCOS group alone (p < 0.05). Serum irisin level of PCOS patients was high compared to that of healthy control subjects. In patients with PCOS, this situation may be due to insulin resistance, when there is leptin resistance or metabolic syndrome.

  3. Experimentally reduced corticosterone release promotes early breeding in black-legged kittiwakes.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Aurélie; Clément-Chastel, Céline; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Chastel, Olivier

    2011-06-15

    Breeding at the right time is important for successful reproduction. In birds, stressful environmental conditions are known to delay the timing of breeding but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The stress hormone corticosterone appears to be a good candidate for mediating egg-laying date according to early environmental conditions and physiological state. By experimentally reducing the release of corticosterone in black-legged kittiwakes during the pre-laying period, we tested whether egg-laying date was mechanistically linked to corticosterone levels. Male and female kittiwakes were implanted with a low dose of exogenous corticosterone to inhibit endogenous corticosterone production. According to our predictions, the experimental reduction of corticosterone release was paralleled by a significant advancement of egg laying in females (around 4 days earlier). In addition, females with experimentally reduced corticosterone release gained mass during the pre-laying period compared with controls. Ultimately, the advancement of egg laying in females with experimentally reduced corticosterone levels was associated with an enhanced breeding success. This effect was strongly sex specific. In corticosterone-treated male kittiwakes, egg-laying date and reproductive success were not affected, but breeding probability was lower than in controls. This corticosterone treatment did not influence immediate clutch size, or return rate and breeding decision the following year. Our results support the hypothesis that corticosterone secretion during the pre-laying period mediates the timing of breeding in this long-lived seabird, possibly through the dynamics of energy reserves.

  4. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in restless legs syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Hatice; Yıldız, Özlem Kayım; Çil, Gülsüm; Şentürk, İlteriş Ahmet; Erselcan, Taner; Bolayır, Ertuğrul; Topaktaş, Suat

    2012-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome is characterised by discomfort during rest and an urge to move the limbs that is accompanied by abnormal sensations. Studies on disease pathophysiology have focused on dopaminergic dysfunction. Vitamin D may play an important role in dopamine function, but the role of vitamin D in restless legs syndrome has not been examined. We compared the serum vitamin D levels of RLS patients and matched controls and explored the correlation of plasma vitamin D levels with disease severity. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 36 patients with restless legs syndrome and compared them to 38 healthy control subjects. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 7.31±4.63 ng/mL in female patients with restless legs syndrome and 12.31±5.27 ng/mL in female control subjects (p=0.001). We found a significant inverse correlation between vitamin D levels and disease severity in females (p=0.01, r=-0.47). The mean serum vitamin D levels were lower in female patients with restless legs syndrome. Low vitamin D levels may cause dopaminergic dysfunction in restless legs syndrome patients. Further studies are required to confirm these results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of serum immunoglobulin E levels in bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Thirunavukkarasu; Roopakala, Mysore Subrahmanyam; Silvia, Chickballapur Rayappa Wilma Delphine; Chandrashekara, Srikantaiah; Rao, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immunoglobulin E and associated cellular responses are responsible for allergic airway diseases. A hypersensitivity reaction initiated by immunologic mechanisms, mediated by IgE antibodies occurs in allergic asthma Aim: To estimate and compare serum IgE levels in mild, moderate, and severe asthmatics and in normal subjects and to obtain a mathematical model describing the relationship between serum IgE levels and severity of asthma. Materials and Methods: A stratified sample of 60 patients within age group of 18-60 years and 31 male and 29 female asthmatic patients and 13 healthy controls within 18-60 years were included in this study and classified according to GINA classification. Serum IgE levels were estimated by using ELISA kit. Results: Mean IgE levels ranged from 151.95 IU/ml in normal subjects to 1045.32 IU/ml in severe asthmatics. The model developed was 27% efficient. Conclusion: Serum Immunoglobulin E levels were high in asthmatics as compared to normal subjects. On an average, the levels increased as the severity of asthma increased. However, there was no statistically significant correlation since the variability in each level of asthma was very large PMID:20931031

  6. Total serum calcium level may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female university faculty and staffs.

    PubMed

    He, Lianping; Qian, Yifan; Ren, Xiaohua; Jin, Yuelong; Chang, Weiwei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects, but the relationship between serum calcium level and blood lipids is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and blood lipids. In our study, total serum calcium level and blood lipids were measured among 1,075 subjects, with age range of 30-60 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The results showed that serum calcium level was positively correlated with triglyceride and total cholesterol weight, but not HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in female subjects (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between total serum calcium level and blood lipids in male subjects (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that a higher total serum calcium level may have a adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female subjects.

  7. The relationship of serum erythropoietin level with coronary collateral grade.

    PubMed

    Sahinarslan, Asife; Yalcin, Ridvan; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Ercin, Ugur; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Topal, Salih; Bukan, Neslihan; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin has been shown to induce neovascularization and protect against ischemic vascular injury. We investigated whether a higher serum erythropoietin (EPO) level is related to better coronary collateral vessel grade. Ninety-nine patients with stable angina pectoris who have at least 1 coronary stenosis of equal to or greater than 70% at coronary angiography were prospectively enrolled. Serum EPO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were studied. Coronary collateral degree was graded according to the Rentrop method. Patients with grade 2-3 collateral degree were included in the good collateral group and formed Group I. The patients with grade 0-1 collateral degree were included in the poor collateral group and formed Group II. The serum EPO level was significantly higher in the good collateral group (17.3 ± 9.3 mU/mL vs 11.7 ± 5.0 mU/mL; P < 0.001). There was also a positive correlation between serum EPO level and Rentrop score (r = 0.39; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, serum EPO level (odds ratio [OR] 1.336; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.120-1.593; P = 0.001), oxygen saturation (OR 0.638; 95% CI, 0.422-0.963; P = 0.033) and presence of chronic total occlusion (CTO) (OR 26.7; 95% CI, 3.874-184.6; P = 0.001) were independently related to well-developed coronary collaterals. Higher serum EPO level is related to better coronary collateral development. Erythropoietin may have a positive effect on the development of collaterals and may provide a new agent for the treatment strategies to enhance coronary collateral vessel development. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk for Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L.; von Stein, Richard T.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; German, Dwight C.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School’s Alzheimer’s Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. RESULTS Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P < .001). The highest tertile of DDE levels was associated with an odds ratio of 4.18 for increased risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54–5.82; P < .001) and lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (−1.605; range, −3.095 to −0.114; P < .0001). The Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the highest tertile of DDE were −1.753 points lower in the subpopulation carrying an APOE ε4 allele compared with those carrying an APOE ε3 allele (P interaction = .04). Serum levels of DDE were highly correlated with brain levels of DDE (ρ = 0.95). Exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to DDT or DDE increased levels of amyloid precursor protein. CONCLUSIONS

  9. Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L; von Stein, Richard T; Hossain, Muhammad M; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I; German, Dwight C

    2014-03-01

    The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School's Alzheimer's Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P < .001). The highest tertile of DDE levels was associated with an odds ratio of 4.18 for increased risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54-5.82; P < .001) and lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (-1.605; range, -3.095 to -0.114; P < .0001). The Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the highest tertile of DDE were -1.753 points lower in the subpopulation carrying an APOE ε4 allele compared with those carrying an APOE ε3 allele (P interaction = .04). Serum levels of DDE were highly correlated with brain levels of DDE (ρ = 0.95). Exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to DDT or DDE increased levels of amyloid precursor protein. Elevated serum DDE levels are associated with an increased risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ε4 allele may

  10. Positive Association Between Vitamin D Serum Levels and Naevus Counts.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Glass, Dan; Mangino, Massimo; Aviv, Abraham; Spector, Tim; Bataille, Veronique

    2017-03-10

    Lower vitamin D serum levels are linked to increased melanoma risk and poorer survival. Naevus counts are associated with both melanoma risk and survival and to leucocyte telomere length. Vitamin D is also linked to telomere biology with higher levels of vitamin D in individuals with longer leucocyte telomere length despite adjusting for age. Using the TwinsUK data, we explored the association between naevus count, leucocyte telomere length and vitamin D serum levels. Increasing vitamin D levels were associated with increasing naevus count: serum levels were 73.3 nmol/l in individuals with less than 50 naevi compared to 78.8 nmol/l in individuals with more than 50 naevi (p?=?0.002). In the final regression model, using naevus count as a continuous variable, vitamin D remained associated with higher naevus counts despite adjustment for age, weight, height, season of sampling and twin relatedness (p?=?0.02). Further adjustment for leucocyte telomere length, decreased the magnitude of the association but it remained significant so leucocyte telomere length is not the sole driver of this association. Having large numbers of naevi is associated with higher vitamin D serum levels.

  11. Serum Copper and Zinc Levels Among Iranian Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, Zahra; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Abdollahi, Kourosh; Shojaei, Shahla; Moradi, Mostafa; Malekzadeh, Mahyar

    2016-04-01

    Alterations of trace element concentrations adversely affect biological processes and could promote carcinogenesis. Only a few studies have investigated the degree of changes in copper and zinc levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to compare the serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in patients with CRC from Iran with those of healthy subjects. Cu and Zn concentrations in the serum of 119 cancer patients and 128 healthy individuals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. We found a significant decrease in the total mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in CRC patients as compared with the control group (137.5 ± 122.38 vs. 160.68 ± 45.12 μg/dl and 81.04 ± 52.05 vs. 141.64 ± 51.75, respectively). However, the serum Cu/Zn ratio in the patient group was significantly higher than that measured in the control group (p = 0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean values of serum Cu and Zn concentrations between young (<60 years) and elderly (≥60 years) patients. However, the Cu/Zn ratio in <60-year cases was significantly higher than that in ≥60-year age group (p < 0.05). In addition, mean serum Cu level in normal weight patients was significantly higher than that in overweight/obese cases (132.31 ± 87.43 vs. 103.81 ± 53.72 μg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.05). There was no difference in mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in patients stratified by the site, stage, or differentiation grade of tumors. Our findings suggest that imbalance in Cu and Zn trace element level is associated with CRC and might play an important role in cancer development among Iranian patients.

  12. Measuring Serum Level of Ionized Magnesium in Patients with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    ASSARZADEGAN, Farhad; ASADOLLAHI, Mostafa; DERAKHSHANFAR, Hojjat; KASHEFIZADEH, Azam; ARYANI, Omid; KHORSHIDI, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Objective Migraine is known as one of the most disabling types of headache. Among the variety of theories to explain mechanism of migraine, role of serum magnesium is of great importance. Serum magnesium, as a pathogenesis factor, was considerably lower in patients with migraine. We established this study to see if serum ionized magnesium, not its total serum level, was different in migraineurs from normal individuals. Materials & Methods In this case control study, all participants were recruited from Neurology Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Ninety-six people were entered in the study, 48 for each of case and control groups. The two groups were matched by age and sex. Migrainous patients were selected according to the criteria of International Headache Society. Various characteristics of headache were recorded based on patients’ report. Controls had no history of migraine or any significant chronic headaches. Serum ionized magnesium level was measured in both of the case and control groups and the results were compared to each other. P value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Results Case group consisted of 13 males, 35 females, and control group included 14 males, as well as 34 females. Mean age was 33.47± 10.32 yr for case and 30.45 ±7.12 yr for control group. Twenty-eight patients described the intensity of their headaches as moderate; 15 patients had severe and the 5 remainders had only mild headaches. Mean serum level of ionized Mg was 1.16± 0.08 in case group and 1.13± 0.11 in control group of no significant difference (P >0.05). Conclusion Serum ionized magnesium, which is the active form of this ion, was not significantly different in migraineurs and those without migraine. This may propose a revision regarding pathogenesis of migraine and question the role of magnesium in this type of headache. PMID:26401148

  13. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Toussirot, Éric; Gaugler, Béatrice; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis) and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3 ± 1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7 ± 0.6 μg/mL; P = .01). As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined. PMID:21234350

  14. Elevated serum level of human alkaline phosphatase in obesity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Rehman; Awan, Fazli Rabbi; Najam, Syeda Sadia; Islam, Mehboob; Siddique, Tehmina; Zain, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass. normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Of the 197 subjects, 97(49%) were obese and 100(51%) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity.

  15. Changes in serum desnutrin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Demir, Betul; Ucak, Haydar; Cicek, Demet; Aydin, Suleyman; Erden, Ilker; Dertlioglu, Selma Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and insulin may contribute to increased sebum production in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. We investigated the association between serum desnutrin levels and acne vulgaris in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. 25 patients presenting with acne vulgaris and 25 control subjects participated in this study. Fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, HDL, total cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide and thyroid function tests were measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance. Desnutrin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Patients with acne vulgaris had a mean serum desnutrin level of (8.83 ± 1.13 μIU/mL), which was statistically significantly lower in the control group (10:58 ± 3.43 μIU/mL). In patients with acne vulgaris the serum glucose levels, insulin levels and HOMA-IR values (87.92 ± 7:46 mg/dL, 11.33 ± 5.93 μIU/mL, 2.49 ± 1.40, respectively) were significantly higher than the control group (77.36 ± 9.83 mg/dL, 5.82 ± 2.68 μIU/mL, 1.11 ± 0.51, respectively) (p = 0.01, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). Full cohort (patients and controls) evaluation revealed a negative correlation between the serum glucose and desnutrin levels (r = -0.31, p<0.05). A positive correlation was found between insulin and desnutrin levels (r = 0.42, p<0.001). In patients with acne vulgaris, as a result of increased levels of serum glucose and insulin, the function of desnutrin was suppressed, perhaps contributing to insulin resistance.

  16. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides β-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. β-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood.

  17. Maternal Serum Meteorin Levels and the Risk of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, María F.; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Cardona, Luisa F.; Simanca, Elkin L.; González, Iván; Leal, Luis G.; Mora, José A.; Bedoya, Andrés; Alzate, Juan P.; Sánchez, Ángel Y.; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H.; Franco-Vega, Roberto; Parra, Mario O.; Ruíz—Parra, Ariel I.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Meteorin (METRN) is a recently described neutrophic factor with angiogenic properties. This is a nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort study that describes the serum profile of METRN during different periods of gestation in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women. Moreover, we explore the possible application of METRN as a biomarker. Methods and Findings Serum METRN was measured by ELISA in a longitudinal prospective cohort study in 37 healthy pregnant women, 16 mild preeclamptic women, and 20 healthy non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle with the aim of assessing serum METRN levels and its correlations with other metabolic parameters. Immunostaining for METRN protein was performed in placenta. A multivariate logistic regression model was proposed and a classifier model was formulated for predicting preeclampsia in early and middle pregnancy. The performance in classification was evaluated using measures such as sensitivity, specificity, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In healthy pregnant women, serum METRN levels were significantly elevated in early pregnancy compared to middle and late pregnancy. METRN levels are significantly lower only in early pregnancy in preeclamptic women when compared to healthy pregnant women. Decision trees that did not include METRN levels in the first trimester had a reduced sensitivity of 56% in the detection of preeclamptic women, compared to a sensitivity of 69% when METRN was included. Conclusions The joint measurements of circulating METRN levels in the first trimester and systolic blood pressure and weight in the second trimester significantly increase the probabilities of predicting preeclampsia. PMID:26121675

  18. Fasting Serum Glucose Level in Postmenopausal Bangladeshi Women.

    PubMed

    Tajkia, T; Nessa, A; Mia, M R; Das, R K; Sufrin, S; Zannat, M R; Naznin, R; Khanam, A; Akter, R; Nasreen, S

    2016-07-01

    The study was done to find out the causes that changes the fasting serum glucose level in postmenopausal women. This was descriptive type of cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year from July 2014 to June 2015 in the department of physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Women of reproductive age (25-45 years) and clinically diagnosed 100 menopausal women (45-70 years) were included for this study. Convenience type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of fasting serum glucose was done by GOD-PAP method. Data were expressed as mean±SD and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test. The mean±SD of serum glucose in menopausal women were significant at 1% level of probability than women of reproductive age. This study revealed that postmenopausal women showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose level. Fasting blood sugar level between the study & control group were 7.69±2.37 and 4.59±0.73 and the difference was statistically significant.

  19. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on serum element levels in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangchu; Ma, Shirong; Ren, Dongqing; Li, Yurong; Ding, Guirong; Liu, Junye; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guozhen

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) was a potentially harmful factor to the human body, and a biological dosimetry to evaluate effects of EMP is necessary. Little is known about effects of EMP on concentration of macro and trace elements in serum so far. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 50-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 100-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 200-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 40), and the sham-exposed group (n = 20). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after EMP exposure at different electric field intensities. Compared with the sham-exposed groups, the concentration of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in rat serum was not changed significantly within 48 h after 200 pulses of EMP exposure at electric field intensity of 50, 100, and 200 kV/m although the K level was decreased and the Ca level was increased with the electric field intensity of EMP increasing. In addition, there was a tendency that the Zn level was decreased with the time going on within 48 h after EMP exposure. Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect the concentration of macro and trace elements in rat serum. There was no time-effect or dose-effect relationship between EMP exposure and serum element levels. The macro and trace elements in serum are not suitable endpoints of biological dosimetry of EMP.

  20. Serum irisin levels are regulated by acute strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Dennis; Müller, Ulrike; Scheuermann, Kathrin; Friebe, Daniela; Gesing, Julia; Bielitz, Julia; Erbs, Sandra; Landgraf, Kathrin; Wagner, Isabel Viola; Kiess, Wieland; Körner, Antje

    2015-04-01

    The newly discovered myokine irisin has been proposed to affect obesity and metabolism by promoting browning of white adipose tissue. However, clinical and functional studies on the association of irisin with obesity, muscle mass, and metabolic status remain controversial. Here we assessed the effect of 4 distinct exercise regimens on serum irisin levels in children and young adults and systematically evaluated the influence of diurnal rhythm, anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and exercise on irisin. Serum irisin levels did not show diurnal variations, nor were they affected by meal intake or defined glucose load during oral glucose tolerance testing. Irisin levels decreased with age. In adults, irisin levels were higher in men than in women, and obese subjects had significantly higher levels than lean control subjects. Irisin levels were closely correlated with muscle-associated bioimpedance parameters such as fat-free mass and body cell mass. Of the 4 exercise regimens that differed in duration and intensity, we identified a clear and immediate increase in serum irisin levels after acute strenuous exercise (cycling ergometry) and a 30-minute bout of intensive exercise in children and young adults, whereas longer (6 weeks) or chronic (1 year) increases in physical activity did not affect irisin levels. We show that irisin levels are affected by age, sex, obesity, and particularly muscle mass, whereas diurnal rhythm and meals do not contribute to the variation in irisin levels. Short bouts of intensive exercise but not long-term elevations in physical activity, acutely and transiently increase serum irisin levels in children and adults.

  1. Interleukin-6 serum levels in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Kerly Wollmeister; Schuh, Artur Francisco Schumacher; Saute, Jonas; Townsend, Raquel; Fricke, Daniele; Leke, Renata; Souza, Diogo O; Portela, Luis Valmor; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Rieder, Carlos R M

    2009-08-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that neuroimmune mechanisms may be involved in the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease (PD). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is increased in the nigrostriatal region and in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with PD. IL-6 serum level was evaluated in PD patients. The effects of levodopa treatment and disease severity on IL-6 were also studied. The IL-6 levels were similar between PD patients (treated and not treated) and controls. However, there was a negative correlation of IL-6 levels and the activities of daily living scale (P < 0.05), indicating that patients with more severe disease have higher levels of this cytokine. No correlation involving levodopa treatment and IL-6 serum level was found. The results suggest that only marginal effects of IL-6 occur on the peripheral immune system, and that the role of IL-6 and others neuroimmune factors needs to be well elucidated on PD.

  2. Has westernization influenced serum cholesterol levels in Bougainvillian males?

    PubMed

    Iser, D J; Avera, K

    1993-12-01

    This study was performed to see if there was any difference in cholesterol levels between three socioeconomic groups of Bougainvillian males, each with different levels of exposure to western influences. Serum cholesterol levels were measured in 50 subjects from each of 1) village people leading a traditional lifestyle, 2) town dwellers exposed to western influences, and 3) mine workers who regularly dined in the company mess. Mean cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the mine workers (5.3 +/- SD 0.9 mmol/l) and the town dwellers (4.8 +/- SD 0.8 mmol/l) than in the village people (3.7 +/- SD 1.0 mmol/l). There was a positive correlation between serum cholesterol level and age in two groups, the town dwellers and the village people, even though the latter group had a low mean cholesterol level. There was a significant correlation between body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol level for the entire group as well as the town dwellers and mine workers. The higher mean cholesterol levels in the mine workers and town dwellers than in the village people may reflect a difference in lifestyle, particularly in diet, between these groups, and may represent an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease.

  3. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    SciTech Connect

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 ..mu..U/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 ..mu..U/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 ..mu..Um1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 ..mu..U/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy.

  4. Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

    PubMed

    Kellum, John A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Shaw, Andrew D; Clermont, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist.

  5. Serum transaminase levels after experimental paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, M F; Fulker, M J; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J; Losowsky, M S

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between serum transaminase levels and the extent of paracetamol-induced liver necrosis has been investigated in the rat. Three methods of histological quantitation were used to assess of necrosis--arbitrary grading, point counting, and the image-analysis computer. Highly significant correlations were obtained between the three methods and all were found to be reproducible. A close correlation was found between the extent of hepatic necrosis and the serum ASAT and ALAT 24 hours after a large dose (4 g/kg) of paracetamol. Likewise, the mean grade of necrosis correlated reasonably well with the serum enzyme levels in the recovery phase at 36 and 72 hours, although the transaminase level for a given degree of necrosis was considerably lower at 72 hours than at 24 hours. These findings suggest that serum transaminase levels gives a reliable indication of the severity of hepatic necrosis if the time of ingestion of the paracetamol is known and taken into account. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:1205274

  6. Preterm birth in relation to maternal organochlorine serum levels.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arreola, Laura; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Cebrián, Mariano E; Uribe, Marisela; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the associations of serum levels of p,pacute;-DDE and two other persistent organochlorine pesticides, beta-HCH and HCB, in relation to preterm birth. During 1995 we performed a case-cohort study and 233 mothers were recruited at three large maternity hospitals in Mexico City. Serum levels were obtained shortly after delivery. A non-significant increased risk of preterm birth in relation to serum p,p'-DDE levels was observed. There was also a suggestion of an increased risk of preterm birth among women in the highest tertile of beta-HCH (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, 95% CI = 0.94-3.66, p value for test of trend p = 0.08) compared with the lowest tertile. No association was found between HCB serum levels and preterm births. These findings suggest that p,pacute;-DDE and other organochlorine pesticides may pose a risk to preterm birth in countries that continue to use such insecticides for malaria control.

  7. Chlorotriazine Herbicides and Metabolites Activate an ACTH-Dependent Release of Corticosterone in Male Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...

  8. Chlorotriazine Herbicides and Metabolites Activate an ACTH-Dependent Release of Corticosterone in Male Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...

  9. [Effect of anabolic preparation fenobolin on blood, reproductive system and hormone levels in blood serum of fractionally irradiated male rats].

    PubMed

    Vereshchako, G G; Gorokh, G A; Fedosenko, O L; Gun'kova, N V; Iakushev, D L; Konoplia, E F

    2011-01-01

    Influence of anabolic drug (phenobolin) injection at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg on some indexes of blood, reproductive system, the level of thyroid hormones, corticosterone and testosterone in blood serum of the male rats exposed to a fractional irradiation at the total dose of 2.0 Gy have been studied. A significant decrease in the quantity of leucocytes and lymphocytes after a fractional irradiation without and with phenobolin introduction was determined. Introduction of anabolic drug resulted in a significant drop of relative mass of testes and, particularly, epididymes, and also in a sharp decrease of the number of mature germ cells isolated from epididymes. A combined action of phenobolin and fractional irradiation (2.0 Gy) led to a significant reduction (3-5 times) in the quantity of mature germ cells in an epididymis. In some cases phenobolin influenced the level of testosterone in blood serum of the intact and irradiated animals. The anabolic steroid drug affects negatively the state of reproductive system of male rats.

  10. Serum hyaluronic acid levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Turan, Yasemin; Cerrahoglu, Lale; Isbilen, Banu

    2008-05-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate serum hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and the relationship between clinical parameters in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Approximately 30 patients with AS and 30 healthy individuals were recruited in this study consecutively. Cross-sectional study was planned, and demographic, clinical, functional, radiological, and laboratory data of patients were evaluated. Disease activity, functional status, and quality of life were assessed, respectively, with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Short-Form 36 (SF-36). Mander Enthesis Index (MEI) was used for evaluation of enthesis involvement. We examined serum concentrations of HA (ng/ml) in patients with AS and controls. The mean ages of patients and control group were 38.3 (SD=10.8) and 42.7 (SD=10.6) years, respectively. The mean of serum HA levels in AS patients was 40.4 (SD=34.8) ng/ml and in controls was 24.9 (SD=20.2). There was significant difference of HA levels between two groups (p=0.04). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between HA level and distance of hand-floor (r=0.444, p=0.014), modified lumbar Schober's (r= -0.413, p=0.023), distance of chin to chest (r=0.436, p=0.016), right sacroiliit grade (r=0.601, p<0.001), left sacroiliit grade (r=0.610, p<0.001), C reactive protein level (r=0.404, p=0.027), albumin (r= -0.464, p=0.010), C3 (p=0.449, p=0.013), and IgA levels (r=0.369, p=0.045). However, there was no significant correlation between HA levels with MEI, BASFI, BASDAI, and SF-36 (p >or= 0.05). Serum HA level was significantly higher in AS patients than controls. However, there was no significant correlation between serum HA level and disease-specific measures as BASFI and BASDAI; it had significant relation with spinal mobility limitation, sacroiliitis, and laboratory parameters related with acute inflammation. The serum HA level may be a potential biomarker of axial

  11. Serum ghrelin levels in patients with Behcet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Ilker; Demir, Betül; Cicek, Demet; Dertlioğlu, Selma Bakar; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozturk, Savas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Behcet’s disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Aim To measure serum ghrelin levels in BD patients and healthy controls and to investigate its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Material and methods Thirty BD patients and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Ghrelin levels were measured in blood samples using ELISA. Results The mean serum ghrelin level in BD patients (28.57 ±14.04) was significantly lower compared to healthy controls (40.72 ±23.21) (p = 0.01). The mean serum ghrelin level in BD patients who had MetS (24.18 ±12.73) was lower compared to BD patients who did not have MetS (30.77 ±14.45), but this difference was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions Ghrelin levels were lower in BD patients compared to healthy controls. There was no association between reduced ghrelin levels and MetS; however, there was a negative correlation between ghrelin levels and disease activity. PMID:28035223

  12. Decreased nitric oxide serum level after pituitary adenoma resection.

    PubMed

    Babula, Daniel; Horecka, Anna; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Kocot, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2017-09-22

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by the conversion of Arginine (Arg) into the NO and Citrulline (Cit). Although the NO is involved into the pathogenesis of several physiological and pathological processes, the role of NO in pituitary adenomas (PA) progres-sion is not determined. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between NO and PA as well as the effect of tumor resection on NO metabolites level in serum. The study group consisted of 21 patients with PA, 18 patients with macroade-nomas and 3 with microadenomas. Venous blood samples were collected at two time-points; 1) before the surgery and 2) 3-5 days after PA resection. Arg and Cit levels were determined by the automated ion-exchange chromatography with usage of Amino Acids Analyser (AAA 400). Commercially available kit for the evaluation of nitrate/nitrite serum levels was applied for indirect assessment of serum NO level. Significant decrease in NO concentration after the surgery was observed in com-parison with the time-point 1. Arg level did not significantly change during the study period. Cit level was ranged below the detection limit of applied method. The decrease of NO level after the pituitary adenoma resection indicates the relationship between NO synthesis and PA occurrence.

  13. Measurement of human serum IgD levels.

    PubMed

    Overed-Sayer, Catherine L; Mosedale, David E; Goodall, Margaret; Grainger, David J

    2009-04-01

    This unit describes an ELISA for the quantitative measurement of IgD levels in human serum. The ELISA is highly specific and sensitive, with a minimum detectable concentration of 30 pg/ml and more than 10,000-fold specificity for IgD over all other human immunoglobulins. Linear dilution characteristics enable measurement of IgD concentrations ranging over 5 orders of magnitude. These factors are vital for the IgD assay, since IgD makes up only a small proportion of the total immunoglobulins present in normal sera, and IgD serum concentrations are known to vary widely between individuals.

  14. Serum neopterin levels in female dogs with malignant mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Szczubiał, M; Dąbrowski, R; Łopuszyński, W

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we have determined serum neopterin levels in female dogs with primary malignant mammary tumours. The study involved 50 female dogs which had a malignant mammary tumours removed surgically (32 animals with carcinoma, 12 animals with sarcoma and 6 animals with carcinosarcoma) and 10 clinically healthy female dogs. Serum neopterin levels were determined using a commercial ELISA kit. The mean neopterin levels were lower in the malignant tumour groups than in healthy animals but differences were statistically significant only in carcinoma and sarcoma groups. The decrease of neopterin levels in animals with malignant mammary tumours may suggest their decreased cellular immunity. Moreover, it might indicate that decreased activity of cellular mechanisms of the anti-neoplastic response is one of the factors associated with the development and course of malignant mammary tumours in female dogs; however, further studies are necessary. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Corticosterone responses and personality in birds: Individual variation and the ability to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, John F

    2013-09-01

    Birds can respond to an internal or external stimulus with activation of the HPA axis and secretion of corticosterone. There is considerable individual variation in corticosterone responses, and individual responses can be very different from the mean response for a group of birds. Corticosterone responses and behavioural responses to environmental stimuli are determined by individual characteristics called personality. It is proposed that birds with low corticosterone responses and proactive personalities are likely to be more successful (have greater fitness) in constant or predictable conditions, whilst birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be more successful in changing or unpredictable conditions. The relationship between corticosterone responses and fitness thus depends on the prevailing environmental conditions, so birds with either low or high corticosterone responses can have the greatest fitness and be most successful, but in different situations. It is also proposed that birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be better able to cope with environmental changes due to climate change than birds with proactive personalities and relatively low corticosterone responses. Phenotypic plasticity in corticosterone responses can be quantified using a reaction norm approach, and reaction norms can be used to determine the degree of plasticity in corticosterone responses of individual birds, and mean levels of plasticity in responses of species of birds. Individual corticosterone responses and personality, and reaction norms for corticosterone responses, can in future be used to predict the ability of birds to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

  16. Salivary and serum interleukin-6 levels in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Bagan, Leticia; Sáez, Guillermo T; Tormos, M Carmen; Labaig-Rueda, Carlos; Murillo-Cortes, Judith; Bagan, Jose V

    2016-05-01

    Cytokines and chemokines have been analysed in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders. We selected interleukin-6 (IL-6) because it is a multifunctional interleukin reported to be altered in potentially malignant oral disorders and in malignant lesions. To date, this has not been evaluated or tested in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL), however. This study aimed to analyse the differences in serum and saliva IL-6 levels among patients with PVL, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy controls and to examine the relationship between salivary IL-6 levels and the extent of the verrucous area. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we determined the serum and saliva IL-6 levels in three groups: 20 patients with PVL, 20 with OSCC and 20 healthy controls. There were significant (p < 0.01) differences in the serum and saliva IL-6 levels among the three groups and among the three grades of extent of the verrucous areas (p = 0.01). In the OSCC group, there was a significant difference in the saliva IL-6 levels between patients with and without lymph node metastasis at diagnosis (p = 0.02). We found that patients with OSCC had the highest salivary and serum IL-6 levels, while PVL had lower values than OSCC, but higher than the controls, and these altered levels were associated with the extent of the verrucous areas. Salivary and plasma IL-6 are altered in patients with PVL, with more extensive verrucous areas being associated to the highest IL-6 levels. This could be a significant tool for monitoring patients with PVL, their progression to more advances stages and their recurrences.

  17. Salivary and serum immunoglobulin levels in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2003-02-01

    The salivary and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G, M and A (IgG, IgM and IgA), and the salivary concentrations of albumin were measured by ELISA in 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 32 healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis had significantly higher salivary concentrations of IgG, IgM and albumin, and higher serum concentrations of IgG, IgM and IgA, but significantly lower salivary concentrations of IgA than the healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis were treated with either methylprednisolone, sodium aurothiomalate, metronidazole and spiramycin, or oral hygiene products. After three months of treatment, the cats receiving methylprednisolone had a significant reduction in serum IgG levels compared to the cats treated with sodium aurothiomalate or metronidazole and spiramycin, but after six months of treatment there were no significant differences between the groups. Before the treatments, the levels of oral inflammation were not correlated significantly with any of the serum or salivary immunoglobulin levels. However, the changes in oral inflammation were correlated significantly with the changes in the salivary IgM concentration after three and six months of treatment, and with the change in the salivary IgA concentration after six months of treatment.

  18. Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Patients With Candiduria

    PubMed Central

    Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314

  19. Serum procalcitonin levels in patients with primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Kenneth K; Grys, Thomas E; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Blair, Janis E

    2014-10-01

    The serum procalcitonin assay has emerged as a promising biomarker to distinguish between bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections but has not been used to differentiate coccidioidomycosis from bacterial infection. A correlation between procalcitonin serum levels and coccidioidomycosis has never been reported. To determine any association between serum procalcitonin levels and primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. We identified and enrolled 20 immunocompetent patients with symptomatic primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis of < 8 weeks' duration and performed a one-time procalcitonin assay, with a cutoff of < 0.25 μg/L indicating a nonbacterial infection. Nineteen of 20 patients (95%) had serum procalcitonin of < 0.25 μg/L. The median procalcitonin level was 0.05 μg/L (range, < 0.05-0.87 μg/L; interquartile range, 0.05-0.05 μg/L). Sixteen of 20 patients (80%) had undetectable procalcitonin of < 0.05 μg/L. The four patients with detectable procalcitonin had a median value of 0.2 μg/L (range, 0.09-0.87 μg/L). In this pilot study, procalcitonin was not elevated in immunocompetent patients with primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis at a median of 32 days after symptom onset. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  20. [Serum phosphate level and the prognosis of dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takayuki

    2009-02-01

    U-shaped relationship was observed between serum phosphate and mortality in dialysis patients. The connection between high serum phosphate and mortality can be explained partially by the contribution of phosphate to vascular calcification and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Epidemiological study about the prior history of hip fracture in Japan revealed that high serum phosphate was associated with lower prevalence of prior fracture by univariate analysis. However, this association was eliminated by including many nutritional variables in multivariate analysis. This analysis also showed that severe hypophosphatemia less than 3 mg/dL was independently associated with high prevalence, implying the connection of malnutrition with bone health. Epidemiological data regarding incident fracture is also needed to know the factors really contributing to bone fragility. There is no way other than to determine target ranges of serum phosphate using observational studies, since interventional trial with hard outcome was practically impossible. The focus of observational studies will move on, in future, to the association between mortality and the methods to decrease serum phosphate level.

  1. Interannual variability of Black-legged Kittiwake productivity is reflected in baseline plasma corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Buck, C Loren; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Kildaw, S Dean

    2007-02-01

    Seabird productivity is shaped by marine resource availability. We examined the link between seabird productivity and an indirect measure of food availability: baseline plasma corticosterone. We predicted low productivity would coincide with elevated baseline corticosterone levels in Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). During a 5-year period of declining Kittiwake productivity in Chiniak Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska, we found increasing baseline corticosterone levels during both incubation and chick-rearing. Significantly lower baseline corticosterone levels were observed in the years with the highest Kittiwake productivity and the least productive years exhibited the greatest baseline corticosterone levels in Kittiwakes. Although we did not measure food availability, declining Kittiwake productivity was consistent with warming ocean temperatures and decreased availability of forage fishes to apex predators. Baseline corticosterone measurements may help researchers assess how Kittiwakes are responding to variations in the marine environment.

  2. [Serum IgD levels in various dermatoses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Guilhou, J J; Lhie, E; Robinet-Lévy, M; Malbos, S; Meynadier, J

    1980-01-01

    Serum IgD levels were determined by radial immunodiffusion among 349 patients with various dermatoses and 40 normal blood donnors. An increase of serum concentrations was found in atopic patients 62,5 p. 100 of which had levels over 50 mg/1 compared to 20 p. 100 in controls. No correlation was found between IgD and IgE levels in these patients. An increase (but statistically not significant) was also found in chronic urticaria whereas levels were normal in acute urticaria. No difference was found in contact dermatitis nor in psoriasis. High levels occurred in most of patients with primo-secondary syphilis and in acne pustulosa, whereas low IgD levels were found in most patients with malignant proliferative diseases (mycosis fongoide, malignant melanoma, carcinoma). However, the number of patients tested in these groups is too small to allow definitive conclusions. In our experience, determination of serum IgD values is not very useful for diagnosis in dermatologic patients.

  3. HLA-G antigen and parturition: maternal serum, fetal serum and amniotic fluid levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hackmon, Rinat; Hallak, Mordechai; Krup, Margalit; Weitzman, Dahlia; Sheiner, Eyal; Kaplan, Boris; Weinstein, Yacob

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether soluble HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1) concentrations in maternal serum and in amniotic fluid are lower at term than in the second trimester. In this prospective study amniotic fluid and maternal serum samples were aspirated from 21 pregnant women during genetic amniocentesis at 16-20 weeks' gestation, and from 19 women undergoing a cesarean section at term. In the latter group arterial umbilical cord blood was aspirated as well. sHLA-G1 levels were determined using ELISA assay. This assay included the anti-HLA-G monoclonal antibodies 87G and 16G1, both as capture antibodies and horseradish-peroxidase-labeled rabbit anti-human beta(2)-microglobulin antibodies, as the detection antibody. The relative concentrations of sHLA-G1 were measured from the absorbancy of the blue product at 650 nm. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. sHLA-G1 levels in amniotic fluid were significantly lower at term than in the second trimester (0.160 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.272 +/- 0.150 OD units; p < 0.05). Levels of sHLA-G1 in maternal serum declined toward term, but the difference from the second trimester was not statistically significant (0.266 +/- 0.157 vs. 0.205 +/- 0.120 OD units; p = 0.193). There was a strong correlation of sHLA-G1 concentrations between cord serum and maternal serum (R(2) = 0.79; p < 0.001), but not between cord serum and amniotic fluid (R(2) = 0.00004) or amniotic fluid and maternal serum (R(2) = 0.02). sHLA-G1 antigen expression is higher in amniotic fluid than in maternal-fetal compartments and significantly decreases toward term. We speculate that the declining amniotic fluid sHLA-G1 levels may stimulate a maternal immunological response against the fetus and contribute to the initiation of parturition. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Pyoderma gangrenosum with increased levels of serum cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kozono, Kana; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Satoko; Itoh, Eriko; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-12-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented after an episode of accidental trauma with a painful ulcer on her scalp which rapidly enlarged in size, accompanied by central necrosis and undermining ulceration. The patient's past history was negative for underlying systemic disease, although she had had a similar post-traumatic intractable leg ulcer 3 years prior, which was unresponsive to surgical management but successfully treated with systemic steroids. A biopsied specimen from the scalp showed marked neutrophilic infiltrates in the dermis, compatible with a diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). The large ulcerative lesion responded very well to oral steroid therapy, showing rapid epithelialization. Serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated prior to treatment, with decrease to normal levels after treatment. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels were within normal limits. The significance and pathogenic role of cytokine burst in PG is reviewed and discussed.

  5. Serum immunoglobulin levels in healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Stoop, J. W.; Zegers, B. J. M.; Sander, P. C.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Serum levels of IgM, IgG and IgA were determined in 270 healthy children, 4–12 years old, and in thirty healthy adults by the radial immunodiffusion method of Mancini. There were nine 1-year age groups of thirty children each (fifteen boys and fifteen girls); the adult group consisted of fifteen males and fifteen females. The difference in values between adults and children was statistically significant. The IgG and IgA concentrations showed a gradual rise with increasing age; the IgM concentration remained constant at a distinctly lower level than that in adults. The IgA level was about the same in both sexes. Girls had significantly higher IgM and IgG levels than boys. A consistent seasonal influence on the three serum immunoglobulin concentrations could not be demonstrated. A very wide variation in serum levels of each immunoglobulin in each age group was found. Very low values were by no means exceptional. The consequence of this finding for the diagnosis of immunological incompetency is discussed. PMID:4182354

  6. Serum levels of TWEAK in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Özlem; Sivrikaya, Abdullah; Toker, Aysun; Ünlü, Ali; Altınyazar, Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. However, studies conducted on the relationship of TWEAK and psoriasis patients are limited. In this study, we aimed to explore the serum levels of TWEAK and investigated whether TWEAK levels are associated with clinical variables and expression of other well-known psoriasis-related cytokines including IL-6, IL-23 and TNF-α. Forty-five patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 43 controls were enrolled in this study. The severity of psoriasis was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Serum levels of cytokines were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The mean TWEAK, IL-6, IL-23, and TN-α levels were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in control subjects. However, there were no significant correlations between the psoriasis severity, the illness duration and serum cytokine levels. This study shows that TWEAK may be associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis, like TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-23.

  7. Association between serum fetuin-A level and erectile function.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Bozkurt, A; Gunay, M; Aktas, B K; Hirik, E; Aydın, M; Nuhoglu, B

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that ED is an early symptom of atherosclerosis. Fetuin-A, a glycoprotein secreted by the liver, kidneys and choroid plexus, has been linked to systemic fibrosis and calcification in human and rat studies. Deficiency of this compound may play a role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease progression. The aim of the study was to examine whether serum fetuin-A level is related to erectile function or severity of ED. Sixty ED patients without cardiovascular disease were assigned to one of the three groups (mild, moderate or severe ED) depending on ED severity. Twenty healthy volunteers were included as the control group. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire was used to measure erection quality in all four groups. Mean age, body mass index, total testosterone, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not significantly differ between the three erectile dysfunction and control groups (P > 0.05). The group with severe ED had a significantly lower mean fetuin-A level than the mild ED and control groups. For both mild and moderate ED groups, the mean serum fetuin-A level was significantly lower in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Serum fetuin-A level may be used as a supplemental biochemical parameter in preliminary evaluation of ED. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Serum irisin levels, precocious myocardial infarction, and healthy exceptional longevity.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscles produce irisin. Growing controversy exists on the association between this myokine and chronic disease risk. On the basis of the potential protective effects that irisin could exert on both vascular function and skeletal muscle mass, we hypothesized that an elevated level of this molecule may contribute to successful aging. Serum irisin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in disease-free centenarians, young healthy controls, and patients with precocious acute myocardial infarction. We found the highest levels of serum irisin in disease-free centenarians (35.3 ± 5.5 ng/mL) compared with young healthy controls (20.7 ± 6.3 ng/mL) and especially with young patients with acute myocardial infarction (15.1 ± 5.4 ng/mL). Our study demonstrates that healthy centenarians are characterized by increased serum irisin levels, whereas levels of this molecule were found to be significantly lower in young patients with myocardial infarction. Our findings may prompt further research into the role played by irisin not only in vascular disorders but also in life span modulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum vitamin D levels decrease in children with acute urticaria.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, B; Köksal, B T; Karakaş, N M; Ozbek, O Y

    Acute urticaria is an immune-inflammatory disease, characterised by acute immune activation. There has been increasing evidence showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased incidence and severity of immune-inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum vitamin D levels in acute urticaria. We enrolled 30 children with acute urticaria and 30 control subjects. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a biomarker of vitamin D status, were measured in serum of acute urticaria patients and compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in baseline variables (age, gender, weight) between the groups. Vitamin D deficiency (<20ng/ml) was significantly higher in patients with acute urticaria than in control patients. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in the study group compared to those in the control group (13.1±4.3 vs 28.2±7.4ng/mL, p<0.05). Moreover, we found negative correlation between mean duration of acute urticaria and serum vitamin D levels (p<0.01). This study revealed a significant association of lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations with acute urticaria and an inverse relationship with disease duration. These findings may open up the possibility of the clinical use of vitamin D as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of acute urticaria and a predictive marker for disease activity in acute urticaria. A potential role of vitamin D in pathogenesis and additive therapy in acute urticaria needs to be examined. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between serum ferritin level and amikacin ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Shayaninasab, Mohammad; Fatololoomi, Mohammadreza; Behnood, Fatollah; Alizamir, Azam

    2012-07-01

    Aminoglycosides are highly effective against bacteria but have serious side-effects including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. One of the theories in aminoglycosides ototoxicity is that Iron-aminoglycoside complex causes ototoxicity by creating free radicals. Based on this theory, the relationship between serum iron level and amikacin ototoxicity was studied to determine whether more iron results in more ototoxcity. This prospective cohort study was conducted from August 2005 to October 2008. Patients with amikacin prescription and different serum-ferritin levels were examined. Burned patients with amikacin prescription were divided into Group1 (89 patients; serum-ferritin >150) and Group2 (92 patients, serum-ferritin <150). Their hearing thresholds and red-blood-cells indices were compared using t- and paired t-test. In comparing the two groups, thresholds of Group1 were higher than Group2 at all frequencies, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The maximum threshold shift in Group1 was greater than 20 dB and in Group2, it was less than 10 dB, at 8000Hz. Again, this result was statistically and clinically significant (p<0.001). Finally, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV)was higher in Group1 than Group2, and (p=0.001). The results suggest that the level of iron is related to aminoglycoside ototoxicity. More iron can create more ototoxicity, and iron deficiency may inhibit aminoglycoside ototoxicity. An increase in MCV may be due to higher serum ferritin and an indication of more ototoxicity.

  11. Serum Vitamin D levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Rozita, Mohd; Noorul Afidza, Mohamad; Ruslinda, Mustafar; Cader, Rizna; Halim, A. Gafor; Kong, Chiew Tong Norella; Nor Azmi, Kamaruddin; Shah, Shamsul Azhar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hypovitaminosis D is reported to be associated with several medical complications. Recent studies have reported a high worldwide prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in the general population (up to 80 %). This is even higher in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increases with advancing stages of CKD. Objectives: To determine the difference in serum Vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH) D] levels between CKD patients and normal healthy population. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 50 normal volunteers (control) and 50 patients with CKD stages 2-4. Their demographic profiles were recorded and blood samples taken for serum 25(OH) D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and other routine blood tests. Results: All subjects regardless of renal status had hypovitaminosis D (< 30ng/mL). The mean serum 25(OH) D were comparable in the control and CKD groups (15.3 ± 4.2 ng/mL vs 16.1 ± 6.2 ng/mL, p = NS). However, within the Vitamin D deficient group, the CKD group had lower levels of serum 25(OH) D [12.6(3.7) ng/mL vs 11.2(6.5) ng/mL, p = 0.039]. Female gender [OR 22.553; CI 95 % (2.16-235.48); p = 0.009] and diabetic status [OR 6.456; CI 95 % (1.144-36.433); p = 0.035] were independent predictors for 25(OH) D deficiency. Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D deficiency are indeed prevalent and under-recognized. Although the vitamin D levels among the study subjects and their control are equally low, the CKD group had severe degree of vitamin D deficiency. Diabetic status and female gender were independent predictors of low serum 25(OH)D. PMID:26933400

  12. Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels Predict Falls in Older Diabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Cauley, Jane A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Schwartz, Gary G.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and incident falls in older diabetic adults. Design Longitudinal analysis of incident falls over 1 year in a sub-study of diabetic participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants Well-functioning, community-dwelling black and white adults aged 70-79 with diabetes (n = 472). Measurements Measured baseline serum PTH. Self-report of falls over the subsequent 12 months. Baseline physical performance and self-reported demographic, behavioral, and health status measures including kidney function, chronic conditions and medication use. Results 30.3% of participants reported falling over one year of follow-up. The mean ± SD baseline serum PTH was 53.5 ± 30.0 pg/mL in non-fallers and 62.6 ± 46.2 pg/mL in fallers (p = 0.01). For every 1 SD (36 pg/mL) increment in baseline serum PTH, there was approximately a 30% increased likelihood of reporting a fall in the subsequent year after adjusting for age, gender, race, field center, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and winter/spring season (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.59). Further adjustment for kidney function, chronic conditions, medication and supplement use, and physical performance attenuated the association slightly (OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01-1.58)). A trend remained after additional adjustment for reported falls in the previous year. Conclusion Higher serum PTH was associated with incident falls among older, well-functioning diabetic men and women. Further investigation aimed at understanding the underlying mechanism for the association between serum PTH and falls is needed. PMID:19016936

  13. Serum Levels of Acylcarnitines Are Altered in Prediabetic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Manuel; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    Objective The role of mitochondrial function in the complex pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not yet completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of short-, medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines as markers of mitochondrial function in volunteers with normal, impaired or diabetic glucose control. Methods Based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, 1019 studied subjects were divided into a group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 636), isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG; n = 184), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 87) or type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 112). Serum concentrations of free carnitine and 24 acylcarnitines were measured by mass spectrometry. Results Serum levels of acetylcarnitine (C2), propionylcarnitine (C3), octanoylcarnitine (C8), malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH), hexanoylcarnitine (C6), octenoylcarnitine (C8:1), decanoylcarnitine (C10), decenoylcarnitine (C10:1), dodecanoylcarnitine (C12), tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), tetradecadienylcarnitine (C14:2), hydroxytetradecanoylcarnitine (C14OH), hydroxyhexadecanoylcarnitine (C16OH) and octadecenoylcarnitine (C18:1) were significantly different among the groups (all p<0.05 adjusted for age, gender and BMI). Between the prediabetic states C14:1, C14:2 and C18:1 showed significantly higher serum concentrations in persons with IGT (p<0.05). Compared to T2D the IFG and the IGT subjects showed lower serum concentrations of malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH) (p<0.05). Conclusion Alterations in serum concentrations of several acylcarnitines, in particular tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), tetradecadienylcarnitine (C14:2), octadecenoylcarnitine (C18:1) and malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH) are associated not only with T2D but also with prediabetic states. PMID:24358186

  14. Effects of Topical Anesthetics on Behavior, Plasma Corticosterone, and Blood Glucose Levels after Tail Biopsy of C57BL/6NHSD Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Emily S; Johnson, Robert A; French, DeAnne C; Boivin, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Tail biopsy is a common procedure that is performed to obtain genetic material for determining genotype of transgenic mice. The use of anesthetics or analgesics is recommended, although identifying safe and effective drugs for this purpose has been challenging. We evaluated the effects of topical 2.5% lidocaine–2.5% prilocaine cream applied to the distal tail tip at 5 or 60 min before biopsy, immersion of the tail tip for 10 seconds in ice-cold 70% ethanol just prior to biopsy, and immersion of the tail tip in 0.5% bupivacaine for 30 s after biopsy. Mice were 7, 11, or 15 d old at the time of tail biopsy. Acute behavioral responses, plasma corticosterone, and blood glucose were measured after biopsy, and body weight and performance in elevated plus maze and open-field tests after weaning. Ice-cold ethanol prior to biopsy prevented acute behavioral responses to biopsy, and both ice-cold ethanol and bupivacaine prevented elevations in corticosterone and blood glucose after biopsy. Tail biopsy with or without anesthesia did not affect body weight or performance on elevated plus maze or open-field tests. We recommend the use of ice-cold ethanol for topical anesthesia prior to tail biopsy in mice 7 to 15 d old. PMID:27423152

  15. Serum irisin levels and thyroid function--newly discovered association.

    PubMed

    Ruchala, Marek; Zybek, Ariadna; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina

    2014-10-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered adipo-myokin, which is reported to have a significant influence on the body metabolism and thermogenesis. Other influencing factors on metabolic state are thyroid hormones, which increase heat production and control the energy balance. Due to numerous similarities in action it seems imperative to explore these substances' potential mutual influence on the body. The aim of the study is to provide the first ever, according to our knowledge, evaluation of serum irisin concentrations in patients with thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with creatine kinase (CK) levels - a serum marker of muscle damage. The studied group consisted of 20 patients with newly diagnosed thyroid disorder - hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Venous blood samples were analyzed for irisin, thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and CK serum concentrations. Patients' body mass index (BMI), body weight and muscle mass were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Median serum irisin levels were lower in hypothyroid (117.30ng/ml) than hyperthyroid (161.95ng/ml) patients with a borderline statistical significance (p=0.0726). The negative correlation between irisin and TSH levels was demonstrated (r=-0.4924, p=0.0230), as well as the positive correlation between irisin and FT4 levels (r=0.4833, p=0.0360). The CK level was negatively correlated with irisin, FT4 and FT3 concentrations (r=-0.7272, p=0.0140; r=-0.9636, p=<0.0001; r=-0.8838, p=0.0007, respectively). The study demonstrates that irisin concentrations may vary according to the thyrometabolic state, which potentially could be related to the degree of muscle damage.

  16. Serum "uracil+uridine" levels in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Parry, T E; Blackmore, J A

    1976-12-01

    The serum "uracil+uridine" level, expressed as uracil, has been measured in 21 cases of vitamin B12 deficiency, in which the serum folate was normal, and compared with the level in 97 normal subjects. The level in the vitamin B12 deficient group (11.9 mumol/1). was significantly lower than in the controls (15.7 mumol/1., P less than 0.005). Nine of the former were complicated by stystemic illness but the clinical and haematological features in the remaining 12 were consistent with the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in relapse. The serum uracil level in this group was even lower (10.21 mumol/1., P less than 0.01). This finding is unexpected in view of the generally accepted indirect role of vitamine B12 in the methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate to deoxythymidine monophosphate. Reasons are given for not accepting these results as reflecting the main biochemical lesion in vitamin B12 deficiency. Although they do not give direct support to an impairment in the methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate, they do not exclude it as they test only one possible metabolic pathway and moreover they could represent the result of more than one action of vitamin B12 on uracil metabolism. They do show, however, that some aspect of uracil metabolism other than methylation is affected in vitamin B12 deficiency in man.

  17. Serum nesfatin-1 levels in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Gungunes, A; Ozbek, M; Ginis, Z; Sahin, M; Demirci, T; Cakir Ozkaya, E; Karbek, B; Sayki Arslan, M; Ozturk Unsal, I; Tutal Akkaya, E; Ucan, B; Gultuna Ozguclu, S; Cakal, E; Topaloglu, O; Delibasi, T

    2014-09-01

    Nesfatin-1 was recently discovered anorexigenic peptide in the brain which is derived from nucleobindin-2. Central and peripheral administration of nesfatin-1, inhibits food intake, dose-dependently. Hyperthyroid patients have increased appetite and food intake with a craving for carbohydrate-rich food, at the beginning of disease, but the physiological mechanisms underlying this behavior is not known exactly. In this study, we investigated whether nesfatin-1 is involved in the regulation of appetite and body weight in hyperthyroidism, or not. A total of 70 patients with subclinical (35) and overt hyperthyroidism (35) compared with 35 control patients. Serum nesfatin-1 level was measured from all samples by commercial ELISA kit. Serum nesfatin-1 levels were similar between three groups (P=0.293). After adjusting for age and body mass index, nesfatin-1 levels in control group was not different from subclinical and overt hyperthyroid group, respectively (P=0.567 and P=0.519). These data showed that serum nesfatin-1 levels do not significant change in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  18. Acute ethanol intake attenuates inflammatory cytokines after brain injury in rats: a possible role for corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Zehava; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2002-03-01

    It has been reported that acute ethanol intoxication exerts dose-dependent effects, both beneficial and detrimental, on the outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI), although the mechanism(s) has not been determined. Given that pro-inflammatory cytokines are either neuroprotective or neurotoxic, depending on their tissue levels, ethanol-induced alterations in brain cytokine production may be involved in determining the recovery after TBI. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of acute ethanol pretreatments (producing blood alcohol concentrations of 100+/-16 mg/dL, and 220+/-10 mg/dL, considered low and intoxicating doses, respectively) on interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in discrete brain regions. In addition, serum corticosterone levels were also examined because the hormone is a modulator of cytokine production, its secretion is stimulated by ethanol, and it has been associated with the severity of post-injury neurologic dysfunction. The data presented in this report demonstrate that moderate cortical impact brain injury elicits a marked increase in IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the injured cortex as well as in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the injury. Ethanol pretreatment lowered cytokine levels in the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus in a dose-dependent manner after TBI compared to the untreated injured rats. Serum corticosterone levels were markedly increased in the injured rats, and were further augmented in the ethanol-pretreated injured animals in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that ethanol-induced decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine production may be linked to increased circulating corticosterone, both of which may contribute to the outcome of brain injury.

  19. Serum procalcitonin levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Mustafa; Oktay, Esin; Tarhan, Emine F; Aslan, Ozgur; Oflazoglu, Utku; Koseoglu, Mehmet H

    2016-05-01

    Procalcitonin is a marker of bacterial and fungal infection and sepsis. The present study evaluated the relationship between serum procalcitonin levels and disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A total of 61 patients who met the 1984 New York criteria for AS were studied. Twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited to this study as a control group. Disease activity was assessed by the Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). The functional status of patients was evaluated by the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI). Spinal mobility was measured by the Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum procalcitonin levels were measured. Thirty patients were on anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment and 31 patients were on conventional treatment. Seventeen (28%) of the AS patients were active (BASDAI > 4) and 44 (72%) of the AS patients were in remission. The median ESR was 14 (34-6) mm/h and 4 (7-2) mm/h (P < 0.001) for the patient and control groups, respectively. The median CRP level was 0.91 (2.72-0.37) mg/dL and 0.15 (0.25-0.07) mg/dL in the patient and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Median BASDAI, BASFI and BASMI scores for all AS patients were 3.6 (5.25-2.29), 2.5 (4.22-0.91) and 3 (5-1), respectively. Serum procalcitonin levels were normal (< 0.05 ng/mL) for all patients and controls. Serum procalcitonin levels were not high in AS patients and controls, and the levels were independent of disease activity and medications. If bacterial or fungal infection is suspected in an AS patient, serum procalcitonin level may be useful for diagnosis. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Use of serum progesterone levels to detect pregnancy in elk

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.J.; Wolfe, M.L.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the realibility of serum progesterone assays as a means for detecting pregnancy in elk (Cervus elaphus). The elk were trapped during February through April in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. Blood samples were set to Bio-Science Laboratories for projesterone analysis by radioimmunoassay. Levels of progesteron were highly variable within the pregnant and nonpregnant elk. (RJC)

  1. Serum TAG 72 levels in different human carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Correale, M; Abbate, I; Gargano, G; Garrubba, M; Muncipinto, A; Addabbo, L; Colangelo, D

    1991-01-01

    Since December 1988, we have measured the TAG 72 serum levels in 326 patients with different carcinomas, especially breast, gastrointestinal and ovarian, using a RIA kit. With a cut-off value of 5 U/mL, a specificity of 100% in the controls and an overall sensitivity of 22% in the neoplastic patients was obtained, with the highest positivities in ovarian (63%) and gastric (58%) carcinomas. Therefore, TAG 72 can be associated with other tumor markers for these latter neoplasms.

  2. Periodontal status and serum biomarkers levels in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vandilson P; Libério, Silvana A; Lopes, Fernanda F; Thomaz, Erika B F A; Guerra, Rosane N M; Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Antonio L A

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association between periodontal status and serum biomarkers levels in haemodialysis patients. This cross-sectional study included 96 haemodialysis patients. The periodontal evaluation was realized using clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival bleeding index (GBI), visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival index (GI). Biochemical and haematological data - serum albumin, phosphorus, creatinine, transferrin, ferritin, iron, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, potassium and haemoglobin - were collected from the medical records. The subject was diagnosed with periodontitis if he/she had at least two inter-proximal sites in different teeth with CAL ≥4 mm and/or at least two inter-proximal sites in separate teeth with PD ≥5 mm. The study population consisted of 45 men and 51 women, with mean time under haemodialysis of 45.6 ± 33.1 months. Periodontitis was observed in 59.4% of the subjects. The periodontitis group had albumin (p = 0.021) and phosphorus (p = 0.024) serum levels lower than the no periodontitis group. Thus, there was a positive association of periodontitis with hypoalbuminaemia (OR = 9.10, p = 0.006) and a negative association with hyperphosphataemia (OR = 0.21, p = 0.010). These findings suggest that periodontitis is associated with albumin and phosphorus serum levels in haemodialysis patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease.

  4. Serum Adiponectin Levels in Advanced-Stage Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Erica; Cancello, Raffaella; Cavanna, Ferruccio; Maestrini, Sabrina; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Liuzzi, Antonio; Pezzoli, Gianni; Barichella, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) experience body weight loss and reductions in the most common cardiovascular risk factors. At present, the pathogenetic mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin, which possesses antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, are associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to determine adiponectin serum concentrations in PD patients. Thirty PD patients underwent a full nutritional status assessment, including the determination of adiponectin serum concentrations. Mean ± SD adiponectin concentrations were 9.59 ± 5.9 μg/mL (interquartile range: 5.92–12.9 μg/mL). In PD patients, adiponectin serum levels were similar to those in normal-weight, healthy, young subjects and significantly higher than that in an aged-matched group of morbidly obese subjects. Further studies are warranted to establish the role of adiponectin in the management of PD patients. PMID:21766000

  5. [Serum homocysteine levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Stoĭkova, V; Ivanov, S; Mazneĭkova, V; Tsoncheva, A

    2005-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most common and severe pregnancy complications, which ethiology remains unclear. It is certain that endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development of preeclampsia. Homocysteine is an important independent cardiovascular risk factor, which might induce the endothelial dysfunction observed in preeclampsia. 26 pregnant women--14 with preeclampsia (group 1) and 12 healthy term pregnant controls (group 2) were enrolled in the study between December 2003 and August 2004. Six of the women in this group had a superimposed preeclampsia. The mean homocysteine level in the first group was 11,04 mol/l, while in the control group it was 6,24 micromol/l (p < 0.05). The women with a severe preeclampsia had a significantly higher serum homocysteine levels than those with mild form (F = 0.025). Seven of the patients (50%) gave birth before 34th weeks of gestation. The study finds a link between the serum homocysteine as an endothelial dysfunction marker and the development of preeclampsia and a relation between the severity of preeclampsia and the degree of the elevation of the serum homocysteine levels.

  6. Elevated serum galectin-9 levels in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Rina; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Oka, Tomonori; Nakao, Momoko; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Suga, Hiraku; Morimura, Sohshi; Kai, Hiromichi; Asano, Yoshihide; Tada, Yayoi; Kadono, Takafumi; Sato, Shinichi; Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    Galectin-9 is a member of the galectin family that has a wide spectrum of biological functions. Among them, galectin-9 has been known mainly as a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils. In addition, galectin-9 alters the T-cell balance by negatively regulating T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, resulting in Th2 polarization. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin allergic disease characterized by peripheral eosinophilia, mast cell activation and predominance of Th2 cells. To investigate possible roles of galectin-9 in AD, we measured serum galectin-9 levels in AD patients and investigated galectin-9 expression in lesional skin by immunohistochemistry. Serum galectin-9 levels in patients with AD were significantly higher than those in healthy controls and correlated with the Eczema Area and Severity Index. Serum galectin-9 levels were decreased after treatment, accompanied by improvement of skin lesions. Immunohistochemical study revealed that galectin-9 was expressed on epidermal keratinocytes and mast cells in lesional skin of AD. Our results suggest that elevated galectin-9 expression is associated with progression of AD and that galectin-9 could be a therapeutic target in AD. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gorar, Suheyla; Culha, Cavit; Uc, Ziynet Alphan; Dellal, Fatma Dilek; Serter, Rustu; Aral, Sema; Aral, Yalcin

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to measure serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy subjects. A total of 37 women were evaluated. Serum levels FGF21, glucose, lipid profile, hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, oestradiol, testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin and insulin) were determined in 24 PCOS (15 subjects of PCOS BMI < 25 kg/m2, 9 subjects of PCOS BMI ≥ kg/m2) and 13 control group (BMI < 25 kg/m2). Serum FGF21 levels were higher in the PCOS group [99.5 (173.7) pg/ml] than in the control group [52.0 (88.0) pg/ml]. LH and T are significantly higher in PCOS cases (respectively; p < 0.05, p < 0.01). A positive correlation was found between FGF21 and luteinising hormone and testosterone (respectively; r = 0.43 p = 0.007, r = 0.38, p = 0.02). Multivariate discriminant analysis showed that BMI, triglyceride, HOMA-IR, fasting glucose with rise of FGF21 were found significant in PCOS. Our study indicates that FGF21 in cases with PCOS exhibit an increase along with the increase of BMI and also has a positive correlation with LH and T. Further studies are required to clarify the aetiology and effects of FGF21 in women with PCOS.

  8. Serum cotinine levels and diabetes mellitus in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Elbaz, Hosam A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure evident by serum cotinine level, and diabetes mellitus in never smokers. Previous studies suggest that active tobacco cigarette smoking is associated with diabetes mellitus risk. However it is not clear if the low-level "background" ETS exposure is associated with diabetes among never smokers. We present evidence from five independent replications based on the US nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted 2003-12. Our exposure of interest is ETS exposure among never smokers, measured by serum cotinine levels (ng/mL), and our main outcome is diabetes mellitus assessed via self-reported physician-diagnosis, current use of insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic medications, plasma fasting glucose levels ≥126mg/dL or glycohemoglobin levels ≥6.5%. The conceptual model encompassed age, sex, ethnic self-identification, education, poverty-income ratio, alcohol drinking, total cholesterol and body mass index. In never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with diabetes mellitus (the meta-analytic summary estimate is 1.2, 95% CI=1.1, 1.2). This association was not evident among never smokers with cotinine levels below 3ng/mL. These replications help sustain evidence of ETS-diabetes mellitus association, which might be explained by shared psychosocial characteristics. Prospective studies with appropriate biomarkers are needed to further investigate this association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum heme oxygenase-1 levels in patients with primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Ayse Nur; Laloglu, Esra; Ozkaya, Alev Lazoglu; Yilmaz, Emsal Pınar Topdagi

    2017-04-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea effects the life-quality of women negatively. The aim of this study was to evaluate heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) activity together with malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. A total of 28 nulliparous women with the diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. On the first day of menstruation, all patients underwent ultrasound examination to exclude pelvic pathology and the visual analogue scale was applied to patients. Patient's visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, age, body mass index (BMI), menstrual cycle length (day), length of bleeding (day) were recorded. In the same day, fasting blood samples were taken from each patient for biochemical analysis. Serum MDA, NO and HO1 levels were found to be higher in women with primary dysmenorrhea compared to healthy controls (p = 0.012, p = 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively). There were no correlation among serum levels of HO1, NO and MDA, age, BMI, cycle length, pain score and menses duration in both groups. In Pearson's correlation analysis, positive correlation was found between HO1 levels with the NO levels (r = 0.316, p < 0.05) and VAS scores (r = 0.520, p < 0.01). Also, positive correlation was found between MDA levels and VAS scores (r = 0.327, p < 0.05). Serum HO1, NO and MDA levels increase in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Antioxidant support might be helpful to reduce pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea.

  10. Serum CD14 levels in polytraumatized and severely burned patients.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, C; Schütt, C; Obertacke, U; Joka, T; Müller, F E; Knöller, J; Köller, M; König, W; Schönfeld, W

    1991-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that the CD14 molecule which is expressed on monocytes and macrophages serves as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bound to LPS-binding protein (LBP) and thus mediates LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. Here we report that CD14 is found as a soluble (s) molecule in serum. In healthy volunteers sCD14 levels (mean +/- s.e.m.) were 3.7 +/- 0.05 micrograms/ml (n = 30, 25-50 years of age) as determined by ELISA (detection limit 20 ng/ml serum) using two monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich technique. In polytraumatized patients (n = 16) significantly decreased levels (1.7 +/- 0.3) were detected immediately after the trauma, which increased to 4.9 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml within the first 6 days post trauma. sCD14 remained elevated during the first 14 days post trauma in patients with the most severe injuries (injury severity score greater than 45 points), whereas a return to normal levels was observed in patients with an injury score of less than 45 points. In addition, the levels of the high-density lipoproteins that partially inactivate free endotoxin are significantly decreased post trauma. No correlation between parameters of inflammation (C3a and neopterin levels, leucocyte counts, amount of band cells), liver function and sCD14 levels was established. Comparable to polytraumatized patients, increased sCD14 serum levels were observed in five patients with burn trauma (burned area greater than 35%) within the second week post trauma when clinical signs of septicaemia were evident. PMID:1713813

  11. Serum Levels of Oxylipins in Achilles Tendinopathy: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Nording, Malin L.; Gaida, Jamie E.; Forsgren, Sture; Alfredson, Håkan; Fowler, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Linoleic acid-derived oxidation products are found in experimental pain models. However, little is known about the levels of such oxylipins in human pain. In consequence, in the present study, we have undertaken a lipidomic profiling of oxylipins in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy and controls. Methodology/Principal findings A total of 34 oxylipins were analysed in the serum samples. At a significance level of P<0.00147 (<0.05/34), two linoleic acid-derived oxylipins, 13-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic (13-HODE) and 12(13)-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DiHOME) were present at significantly higher levels in the Achilles tendinopathy samples. This difference remained significant when the dataset was controlled for age, gender and body-mass index. In contrast, 0/21 of the arachidonic acid- and 0/4 of the dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahenaenoic acid-derived oxylipins were higher in the patient samples at this level of significance. The area under the Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve for 12,13-DiHOME was 0.91 (P<0.0001). Levels of four N-acylethanolamines were also analysed and found not to be significantly different between the controls and the patients at the level of P<0.0125 (<0.05/4). Conclusions/Significance It is concluded from this exploratory study that abnormal levels of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins are seen in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Given the ability of two of these, 9- and 13-HODE to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, it is possible that these changes may contribute to the symptoms seen in Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:25875933

  12. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.D.; Corll, C.B.; Porter, J.R.

    1989-06-01

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone.

  13. Mammographic density and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D, which influences cellular proliferation and breast tissue characteristics, has been inversely correlated with breast cancer risk. Dietary vitamin D intake has been associated with lower mammographic density (MD), a strong intermediate marker of breast cancer risk. Findings We examined the relationship between MD and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], an integrated measure of vitamin D status from dietary sources and sunlight exposure, in a multi-ethnic cohort of women undergoing screening mammography. We recruited women age 40–60 years without a history of breast cancer at the time of their routine screening mammogram, and conducted in-person interviews and collected blood specimens. We enrolled 195 women from 2007–2008, 120 gave blood, and 114 were evaluable, including 25% white, 41% African American, 18% African Caribbean, and 16% Hispanic. We digitized mammograms and calculated percent density, dense area, and non-dense area on cranial-caudal images. We measured serum 25(OH)D in batched, archived specimens. Median serum 25(OH)D was 22 ng/ml (range, 8–66 ng/ml). In univariable analysis, higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with white race, higher educational level, ever breast feeding, and blood draw during the summer. After adjusting for body mass index and other confounders, we found no association between serum 25(OH)D and different measures of MD. However, when stratified by season, 25(OH)D was inversely associated with dense area during July-December (p = 0.034). Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that circulating vitamin D, a potentially modifiable breast cancer risk factor, is not associated with MD; the seasonal effects we observed need to be replicated in larger cohorts. PMID:24742098

  14. Novel Locus FER Is Associated With Serum HMW Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Menzaghi, Claudia; Salvemini, Lucia; De Bonis, Concetta; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Hu, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is a predominant isoform of circulating adiponectin and has been related to type 2 diabetes. Previous linkage studies suggest that different genetic components might be involved in determining HMW and total adiponectin levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum HMW adiponectin levels in individuals of European ancestry drawn from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (N = 1,591). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the GWAS analysis were replicated in an independent cohort of Europeans (N = 626). We examined the associations of the identified variations with diabetes risk and metabolic syndrome. RESULTS We identified a novel locus near the FER gene (5q21) at a genome-wide significance level, best represented by SNP rs10447248 (P = 4.69 × 10−8). We also confirmed that variations near the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus (3q27) were related to serum HMW adiponectin levels. In addition, we found that FER SNP rs10447248 was related to HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.009); ADIPOQ variation was associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.04), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04), and a metabolic syndrome score (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that different loci may be involved in regulation of circulating HMW adiponectin levels and provide novel insight into the mechanisms that affect HMW adiponectin homeostasis. PMID:21700879

  15. Long-term survival effect of corticosterone manipulation in Black-legged kittiwakes.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Aurélie; Angelier, Frédéric; Welcker, Jorg; Moe, Børge; Clément-Chastel, Céline; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bech, Claus; Chastel, Olivier

    2010-06-01

    The secretion of corticosterone in response to stress is thought to be an adaptive mechanism, which promotes immediate survival at the expense of current reproduction. However, at the individual level, the hypothesis of a corticosterone-related survival appears to be complex. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by combining for the first time an experimental manipulation of corticosterone levels and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) models. To do so, we increased corticosterone levels of chick-rearing Black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) via subcutaneous implants. Then, we monitored the long-term survival of kittiwakes over the 2 consecutive years. Corticosterone-implanted birds showed a significantly lower apparent annual survival than sham-implanted ones (46.9% vs 77.8%). This result is supported by the well-known deleterious effects of elevated corticosterone levels on cognitive and immune functions. Alternately and in the light of recent studies, our experimental manipulation may have down-regulated the endogenous secretion of corticosterone through a prolonged negative feedback. If so, the corticosterone-implanted kittiwakes may have failed to trigger an appropriate stress response during subsequent life-threatening perturbations, hence being unable to adjust their behavior and physiology toward immediate survival. This study highlights the complex long-term consequences of corticosterone manipulation on fitness in free-living vertebrates.

  16. Feather corticosterone levels are related to age and future body condition, but not to subsequent fitness, in a declining migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Boves, Than J.; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Rushing, Clark S.; Buehler, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In migratory species, breeding and non-breeding locations are geographically separate, yet the effects of conditions from one stage may carry over to affect a subsequent stage. Ideally, to understand the mechanisms and implications of ‘carry-over effects’, one would need to follow individuals throughout the year, quantify potential environmental causal factors and physiological mediators during multiple life-history stages, and measure downstream fitness. Owing to current limitations of tracking technology, this is impossible for small, long-distance migrants, so indirect methods to characterize carry-over effects are required. Corticosterone (CORT) is a suspected physiological mediator of carry-over effects, but when collected from blood it provides only a physiological snapshot at that point in time. When extracted from feathers, however, feather corticosterone (CORTf) provides a measure of responses to stressors from previous, and longer, time periods. We collected feathers grown during two life-history stages (post-breeding and subsequent wintering) from individuals of two age classes of a rapidly declining migratory songbird, the cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea), on their breeding grounds and quantified CORTf concentrations. We then monitored reproduction and survival of individuals and analysed relationships among CORTf and age, body condition and future fitness. Compared with older males, second-year males had higher CORTf concentrations during both stages. When controlling for age and year, body condition at capture was positively related to CORTf concentrations from winter (especially for older birds). However, we found no relationships between CORTf and fitness (as defined by reproduction and survival). Thus, elevated CORT may represent a beneficial physiological response (e.g. hyperphagia prior to migration), particularly for certain life-history stages, and may mediate the condition in which individuals transition between stages. But for those

  17. Vascular Responsiveness in Adrenalectomized Rats with Corticosterone Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Kaship, Kapil; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    To determine under resting, unstressed conditions the circulating glucocorticoid concentrations that best maintain sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle and baroreceptor responses to vasoactive agents, rats with vascular cannulas were sham-adrenalectomized (sham) or adrenalectomized (ADRX) and provided with four levels of corticosterone replacement (-100 mg fused pellets of corticosterone: cholesterol 0, 20, 40, and 80% implanted subcutaneously at the time of adrenal surgery). Changes in vascular and baroreflex responses were determined after intravenous injection of varying doses of phenylephrine and nitroglycerin with measurement of arterial blood pressure and heart rate in the conscious, chronically cannulated rats. Vascular sensitivity was decreased, and resting arterial blood pressure tended to be decreased in the adrenalectomized rats; both were restored to normal with levels of corticosterone (40%), which also maintained body weight gain, thymus weight, and plasma corticosteroid binding globulin concentrations at normal values. The baroreflex curve generated from the sham group was different from the curves generated from the ADRX+O, 20, and 40% groups, but not different from that of the ADRX+80% group, suggesting that the baroreflex is maintained by higher levels of corticosterone than are necessary for the maintenance of the other variables. These data demonstrate that physiological levels of corticosterone (40% pellet) restore vascular responsiveness, body weight, thymus weight, and transcortin levels to normal in ADRX rats, whereas higher levels (80% pellet) are necessary for restoration of the baroreflex.

  18. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  19. The human fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone, rather than cortisol, in response to intra-partum stressors.

    PubMed

    Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Edwards, Heather E; Hancock, Trina M

    2013-01-01

    Fetal stress is relevant to newborn outcomes. Corticosterone is rarely quantified in human clinical endocrinology and is found at much lower concentrations than cortisol. However, fetal corticosterone is a candidate hormone as a fetal stress signal. Test the hypothesis that preferential fetal corticosterone synthesis occurs in response to fetal intra-partum stress. Cross-sectional comparison of paired serum corticosteroid concentrations in umbilical artery and vein from 300 women providing consent at admission to a General Hospital Labor and Delivery unit. Pre-term and multiple births were excluded, leaving 265 healthy deliveries. Corticosterone and cortisol concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS for umbilical cord venous (V) and arterial (A) samples and used to calculate fetal synthesis (A-V) and proportional fetal synthesis ([A-V]/V). Chart-derived criteria stratified samples by type of delivery, maternal regional analgesia, augmentation of contractions, and clinical rationale for emergent Caesarian delivery. Cortisol concentrations were higher than corticosterone concentrations; however, the fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone (148% vs 49% proportional increase for cortisol) and differentially secretes corticosterone as fetal stress increases. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is elevated after passage through the birth canal relative to Caesarian deliveries. For vaginal deliveries, augmentation of contractions does not affect corticosteroid concentrations whereas maternal regional analgesia decreases venous (maternal) concentrations and increases fetal synthesis. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is also elevated after C-section indicated by cephalopelvic disproportion after labor, whereas cortisol is not. The full-term fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone in response to fetal stress during delivery. Fetal corticosterone could serve as a biomarker of fetal stress.

  20. The Human Fetus Preferentially Secretes Corticosterone, Rather than Cortisol, in Response to Intra-Partum Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E.; Edwards, Heather E.; Hancock, Trina M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Fetal stress is relevant to newborn outcomes. Corticosterone is rarely quantified in human clinical endocrinology and is found at much lower concentrations than cortisol. However, fetal corticosterone is a candidate hormone as a fetal stress signal. Objective Test the hypothesis that preferential fetal corticosterone synthesis occurs in response to fetal intra-partum stress. Design Cross-sectional comparison of paired serum corticosteroid concentrations in umbilical artery and vein from 300 women providing consent at admission to a General Hospital Labor and Delivery unit. Pre-term and multiple births were excluded, leaving 265 healthy deliveries. Main Outcome Measures Corticosterone and cortisol concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS for umbilical cord venous (V) and arterial (A) samples and used to calculate fetal synthesis (A−V) and proportional fetal synthesis ([A−V]/V). Chart-derived criteria stratified samples by type of delivery, maternal regional analgesia, augmentation of contractions, and clinical rationale for emergent Caesarian delivery. Results Cortisol concentrations were higher than corticosterone concentrations; however, the fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone (148% vs 49% proportional increase for cortisol) and differentially secretes corticosterone as fetal stress increases. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is elevated after passage through the birth canal relative to Caesarian deliveries. For vaginal deliveries, augmentation of contractions does not affect corticosteroid concentrations whereas maternal regional analgesia decreases venous (maternal) concentrations and increases fetal synthesis. Fetal corticosterone synthesis is also elevated after C-section indicated by cephalopelvic disproportion after labor, whereas cortisol is not. Conclusions The full-term fetus preferentially secretes corticosterone in response to fetal stress during delivery. Fetal corticosterone could serve as a biomarker of fetal stress. PMID:23798989

  1. Piperine reverses the effects of corticosterone on behavior and hippocampal BDNF expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Huang, Zhen; Zhong, Xiao-Ming; Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po

    2014-07-01

    A mouse model of depression has been recently developed by exogenous corticosterone administration. The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) and long pepper (Piper longum Linn.), in corticosterone-induced depression in mice. The results showed that 3-weeks corticosterone injections caused depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test. Moreover, it was found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein and mRNA levels in the hippocampus were significantly decreased in corticosterone-treated mice. Treating the animals with piperine significantly suppressed behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. The results suggest that piperine produces an antidepressant-like effect in corticosterone-treated mice, which is possibly mediated by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the hippocampus.

  2. Differential responses of cortisol and corticosterone to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys talarum).

    PubMed

    Vera, Federico; Zenuto, Roxana Rita; Antenucci, Carlos Daniel

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the responses of cortisol, corticosterone, and blood glucose to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in males and females of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum and addressed interannual variations in the plasma levels of both hormones. The most important results indicate that: (1) cortisol positively responds to the ACTH signal but corticosterone does not, even though corticosterone levels were higher than cortisol concentrations, (2) plasma corticosterone concentrations in free-living animals were 20 times higher compared to values reported for the same population during previous annual periods and, as cortisol levels were similar, this resulted in much lower cortisol/corticosterone ratios, (3) cortisol and corticosterone differentiated in their relative proportions in plasma in free-living males and females. These results indicate that cortisol and corticosterone are differentially regulated in our study species and emphasize that a remarkable temporal variation in the relative proportions of these hormones may occur in natural populations. Therefore, the conclusions regarding the presence of cortisol and corticosterone in plasma of wild animals may differ substantially depending on the moment when the study is conducted. Recent data indicate that cortisol and corticosterone are not interchangeable hormones in species of free-living vertebrates. We suggest that, in addition to the classical roles of glucocorticoids (GCs), it is crucial that other physiological functions be kept in mind when interpreting GC data from wild species.

  3. Sex-specific developmental plasticity in response to yolk corticosterone in an oviparous lizard.

    PubMed

    Uller, Tobias; Hollander, Johan; Astheimer, Lee; Olsson, Mats

    2009-04-01

    Corticosterone exposure during prenatal development as a result of maternal upregulation of circulating hormone levels has been shown to have effects on offspring development in mammals. Corticosterone has also been documented in egg yolk in oviparous vertebrates, but the extent to which this influences phenotypic development is less studied. We show that maternal corticosterone is transferred to egg yolk in an oviparous lizard (the mallee dragon, Ctenophorus fordi Storr), with significant variation among clutches in hormone levels. Experimental elevation of yolk corticosterone did not affect hatching success, incubation period or offspring sex ratio. However, corticosterone did have a sex-specific effect on skeletal growth during embryonic development. Male embryos exposed to relatively high levels of corticosterone were smaller on average than control males at hatching whereas females from hormone-treated eggs were larger on average than control females. The data thus suggest that males are not just more sensitive to the detrimental effects of corticosterone but rather that the sexes may have opposite responses to corticosterone during development. Positive selection on body size at hatching for both sexes in this species further suggests that increased corticosterone in egg yolk may have sex-specific fitness consequences, with potential implications for sex allocation and the evolution of hormone-mediated maternal effects.

  4. Acromegalic gigantism with low serum level of growth hormone and elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, R; Yoshida, T; Sakane, N; Yasuda, T; Umekawa, T; Kondo, M; Shimatsu, A; Hizuka, N; Sano, T

    1995-03-01

    In a case of acromegalic gigantism with hyperprolactinemia is reported, the basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 ng/ml. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood sampling showed non-pulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocriptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide with bromocriptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. In this case, non-pulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism.

  5. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  6. Serum Leptin Levels in Women with Immunological Recurrent Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Saeed; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh; Arefi, Soheila; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Idali, Farah; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Savadi Shiraz, Elham; Moshref Behzad, Narges; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent abortion (RA) may be a consequence of aberrant expression of immunological factors during pregnancy. Although the relative importance of immunological factors in human reproduction remains controversial, substantial evidence suggests that autoantibodies contribute to reproductive failure. Production of such antibodies is under the control of cytokines; and leptin, besides its role in reproductive success, has a profound effect on directing the cytokine profile toward Th1 (cellular) pattern. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess serum leptin levels in women with immunological recurrent abortion. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 250 women who attended Avicenna Infertility Clinic with RA were screened for known causes of abortion from July to December 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Eighty-one patients with normal karyotypes and hormonal profile with normal ovaries and uterus and no signs of infection were categorized as patients with immunological (IRA, n = 39) or unexplained (URA, n = 42) recurrent abortion based on presence or absence of autoantibodies. After blood sampling, levels of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), lupus anti-coagulant antibody (LACAb), anti-phospholipid antibody (APA), anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thrombin III antibody (ATIIIAb) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Results In IRA group, 9 (23.1%), 24 (61.5%), 25(64.1%) and 1 (2.6%) women were above the normal cut-off point for ANA, TgAbs, TPOAbs and AT-III Abs, respectively. IRA patients had normal values of LACAbs, APA and ACA. With normal level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), IRA and URA groups had similar serum leptin levels (23.7 ± 13.2 ng/ml vs. 22.7 ± 12.5 ng/ml, respectively). Serum leptin concentrations showed a positive correlation with weight

  7. Tributyltin exposure alters cytokine levels in mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Shanieek; Pellom, Samuel T; Shanker, Anil; Whalen, Margaret M

    2016-11-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a toxic environmental contaminant, has been widely utilized for various industrial, agricultural and household purposes. Its usage has led to a global contamination and its bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and terrestrial mammals. Previous studies suggest that TBT has debilitating effects on the overall immune function of animals, rendering them more vulnerable to diseases. TBT (at concentrations that have been detected in human blood) alters secretion of inflammatory cytokines from human lymphocytes ex vivo. Thus, it is important to determine if specified levels of TBT can alter levels of cytokines in an in vivo system. Mice were exposed to biologically relevant concentrations of TBT (200, 100 or 25 nM final concentrations). The quantitative determination of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL2, IL5, IL7, IL12βp40, IL13, IL15, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP), MIP2 and regulated on activation normal T-cell-expressed and secreted (RANTES) was performed in mouse sera by MAGPIX analysis and Western blot. Results indicated alterations (both decreases and increases) in several cytokines. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL5, IL12βp40 and IL-15 were altered as were the chemokines MIP-1 and RANTES and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13. Increases in IFNγ and TNFα were seen in the serum of mice exposed to TBT for less than 24 h. Levels of IL1β, IL-12 βp40, IL-5 and IL-15 were also modulated in mouse serum, depending on the specific experiment and exposure level. IL-2 was consistently decreased in mouse serum when animals were exposed to TBT. There were also TBT-induced increases in MIP-1β, RANTES and IL-13. These results from human and murine samples clearly suggest that TBT exposures modulate the secretion inflammatory cytokines.

  8. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in psoriatic patients*

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Manuela Ferrasso; Azevedo, Paula de Oliveira; Tanaka, Anber Ancel; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Martins, Luis Eduardo Agner Machado

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis. We compared serum levels of vitamin D of 20 psoriasis patients and 20 controls. The median vitamin D level was 22.80 ± 4.60 ng/ml; the median in the cases was 23.55 ± 7.6 ng/ml, and in controls 22.35 ± 3.10 ng/ml (p = 0.73). Only 2 cases and 4 controls had sufficient levels of vitamin D, although without statistical significance between the groups (p = 0.608). Levels were lower in women with psoriasis compared with those in male patients (20.85 ± 6.70 x 25.35 ± 2.90 ng/ml, p = 0.03), a finding that was not observed among controls. PMID:26131882

  9. Serum leptin levels in overweight children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Henedina; Santos, Cristina; Carvalho, Susana

    2009-04-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. Our aim was to determine the relationship between serum leptin and clinical and biochemical features in overweight children and adolescents. Overweight children and adolescents followed in this Unit with serum leptin ascertained were included. Clinical, biochemical and abdominal ultrasound data were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed by t test, chi2, Pearson's correlation and linear regression. One outlier of serum leptin was excluded to perform correlation and regression. Serum leptin was determined in 357 patients. At the first visit, the mean age was 9.5 (sd 3.2) years and mean BMI z-score was 1.72 (sd 1.34) (girls 1.71 (sd 1.16); boys 1.72 (sd 1.11)). Serum leptin levels were significantly related to: sex (mean: girls 48.0 ng/ml, boys 34.4 ng/ml; P = 0.003); Tanner stage (mean: I-II 37.0 ng/ml, III-V 45.2 ng/ml; P = 0.035); systolic blood pressure (mean: normal 41.3 ng/ml, high 44.0 ng/ml; P = 0.009); BMI z-score (r 0.136; P = 0.010); C-peptide (r 0.17; P = 0.002); insulin (r 0.34; P < 0.001); homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r 0.25; P < 0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (r - 0.12; P = 0.023). In the multivariate analysis (with leptin as the dependent variable and sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score, systolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, C-peptide, insulin and HOMA-IR as independent variables), sex and BMI were determinant factors. The present study in overweight children and adolescents showed that being female and greater BMI were significantly and independently associated with increased serum leptin. In this large cohort other associations with leptin described in the literature can be discharged.

  10. Serum leptin levels, hormone levels, and hot flashes in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Carolyn; Cochran, Chrissy J; Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R; Flaws, Jodi A; Zacur, Howard

    2010-08-01

    To examine the associations between serum leptin levels, sex steroid hormone levels, and hot flashes in normal weight and obese midlife women. Cross-sectional study. University clinic. 201 Caucasian, nonsmoking women aged 45 to 54 years with a body mass index of <25 kg/m2 or >or=30 kg/m2. Questionnaire, fasting blood samples. Serum leptin and sex steroid hormone levels. Correlation and regression models were performed to examine associations between leptin levels, hormone levels, and hot flashes. Leptin levels were associated with BMI, with "ever experiencing hot flashes" (questionnaire), with hot flashes within the last 30 days, and with duration of hot flashes (>1 year, P=.03). Leptin was positively correlated with testosterone, free testosterone index, and free estrogen index and inversely associated with levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. In women with a body mass index>or=30 kg/m2, leptin levels no longer correlated with testosterone levels. Serum leptin levels are associated with the occurrence and duration of hot flashes in midlife women; however, no correlation was found between leptin and serum estradiol. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel and sensitive radioreceptor assay for serum melatonin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenn, C.; Niles, L. )

    1991-01-01

    A simple and sensitive radioreceptor assay (RRA) has been developed to measure melatonin levels in serum. The assay is based on competition between 2-({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin (({sup 125}I)MEL) and melatonin for binding to high-affinity binding sites in chick forebrain. To measure the amount of melatonin present in a serum sample, it was extracted with dichloromethane and added to the assay medium. The percentage inhibition of radioligand binding in the presence of the extracted serum was determined and compared to the percent displacement by known amounts of melatonin in a standard curve. There was little or no cross-reactivity with other structurally related compounds. The sensitivity of the assay is {approximately}1.5pg/0.15 mL and the intra- and inter-assay variations are approximately 8%. Since the RRA results are comparable to that of an established radioimmunoassay (RIA), it provides a sensitive and rapid alternative to the more time consuming RIA.

  12. Rapid separation of serum does not avoid artificially higher matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels in serum versus plasma.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Raquel F; Demacq, Caroline; Jung, Klaus; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2007-01-01

    To examine whether the time between blood drawing and centrifugation (TBDC) affects the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 levels in serum and in plasma samples, and to assess whether there is correlation between MMP-9 and MMP-2 levels in serum and plasma samples. Serum and plasma samples (N=8) were separated from venous blood collected into citrate, heparin, and EDTA tubes, which were either centrifuged immediately or after 5, 10, 20, or 30 min after blood drawing. We assessed the correlation between MMP-9/MMP-2 in serum and citrate, heparin, and plasma samples (N=20), which were assayed for gelatine zymography of MMP-2 and MMP-9. MMPs are released by platelets or leukocytes during platelet activation or sampling process, thus leading to artificially higher MMP-9 levels in serum compared with citrate, heparin, or EDTA plasma samples, independently of TBDC. Citrate and heparin plasma samples had the lowest Pro-MMP-9 and MMP-9 levels, which correlated with each other. Pro-MMP-9 levels in serum correlated with Pro-MMP-9 levels in EDTA or citrate plasma, but not with heparin plasma. While no significant correlations were found between MMP-9 levels in serum and those found in plasma samples, the total MMP-9 levels (Pro-MMP-9+MMP-9) in serum and in plasma samples correlated with each other. No significant differences were found in pro-MMP-2 levels. These results suggest that the circulating levels of MMP-9 should be assessed in citrate or heparin plasma samples, but not in serum samples because of artificially higher MMP-9 levels in serum, independently of TBDC, and because they do not correlate with the MMP-9 levels in plasma samples.

  13. Corticosterone predicts nocturnal restlessness in a long-distance migrant.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Klinner, Thomas; Stöwe, Mareike

    2014-07-01

    The decision made by migrating birds to stop refueling and to depart from stopover depends on cues from innate rhythms, intrinsic factors such as fuel reserves, and extrinsic factors such as weather conditions. The physiological mechanism behind this decision, however, is largely unexplored. The transition from refueling to flight involves an increase in both locomotion and energetic demands. Because, at baseline levels, corticosterone stimulates locomotion and is involved in the mobilization of energy, this hormone could encourage departure of migrants. We collected field data on baseline corticosterone, migratory restlessness, and actual departure in northern wheatears at stopover. Additionally, in refueling long-term captive conspecifics, we measured migratory restlessness while simultaneously collecting droppings to determine glucocorticoid metabolite (GCM) levels. We found that migratory restlessness at stopover was positively correlated with corticosterone level. Similarly, in refueling long-term captive birds, migratory restlessness was positively correlated with concurrently measured GCM levels in droppings. To our best knowledge, our study is the first to simultaneously measure a hormonal signal and migratory restlessness. In conclusion, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, by increasing locomotor activity, baseline corticosterone is involved in the regulation of departure of migrants at stopover. Future studies could reveal how corticosterone is up-regulated in migrants that are ready to depart.

  14. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population.

  15. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Centeno, Norberto Ortego

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case–control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l−1 (12–101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l−1 (2.31–100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l−1 (22.1–48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l−1 (17.3–36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l−1 (26.5–77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  16. Serum soluble fas ligand levels in familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Ceri, Mevlut; Unverdi, Selman; Senes, Mehmet; Altay, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Yucel, Dogan; Duranay, Murat

    2013-07-01

    Fas/FasL system plays an important role in the regulation of cell life and death, and circulating levels of sFasL have been shown to increase in some inflammatory conditions. However, there is no sufficient information about the levels of sFasL in patients with FMF. This study was designed to evaluate the serum sFasL levels in patients with FMF during attack and attack-free periods. Twenty-five FMF patients in attack and forty-four in free-attack period, and 20 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Participants with any chronic diseases were excluded. Blood samples were obtained within the first 24 h of the attack period and between febrile attacks, and levels of WBC, ESR, Fibrinogen, hsCRP and sFasL were determined. The levels of traditional acute phase reactants during the attack were significantly higher than the attack-free and controls (p < 0.05). The serum sFasL levels in the FMF study groups did not differ from the control group (0.70 ± 0.08 vs. 0.73 ± 0.12; 0.70 ± 0.08 vs. 0.83 ± 0.14; 0.73 ± 0.12 vs. 0.83 ± 0.14, respectively, p > 0.05). Moreover, the sFasL levels during the attack were not significantly different from those in attack-free patients (0.70 ± 0.08 vs. 0.83 ± 0.14, p > 0.05). In this study, we demonstrated that serum sFasL levels were not markedly affected in FMF and cannot be used as a supportive marker to differentiate attacks from attack-free periods. However, further studies are needed to determine its usefulness as a marker in clinical practice.

  17. Serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and Graves' disease phenotype.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carmen Sorina; Sirbu, Anca Elena; Betivoiu, Minodora Andreea; Florea, Suzana; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Fica, Simona Vasilica

    2017-02-01

    We investigated, at diagnosis, the relationship between serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and the main characteristics of Graves' disease: hyperthyroidism severity, goiter size, presence of active Graves' ophthalmopathy, antithyroid antibodies status, and titer. This prospective study included 80 newly diagnosed Graves' disease patients. The main parameters measured at diagnosis: thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, total triiodothyronine, thyroglobulin, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, immunoglobulin G4. In Graves' disease patients, serum immunoglobulin G4 levels were higher than in general population (p = 0.028) and higher in men compared to women (p = 0.002). Only one female patient with intense hypoechoic goiter, high anti-thyroglobulin antibody, and antithyroid peroxidase antibody titers had an elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 level at diagnosis. Patients with immunoglobulin G4 levels above the 75th percentile (>237.52 mg/dl, N = 20) were younger at Graves' ophthalmopathy onset (p < 0.001), had higher antithyroid peroxidase antibody (p = 0.01), and anti-thyroglobulin antibody levels (p = 0.006) and required shorter duration of the first methimazole treatment cycle (p = 0.041) than patients with immunoglobulin G4 below the 75th percentile. At diagnosis, patients with immunoglobulin G4 levels above the 90th percentile (>286.28 mg/dl, N = 8) had lower total triiodothyronine values (p = 0.001) than patients with IgG below the 90th percentile. No significant correlations were found between smoking status (p = 0.58), goiter size (p = 0.50), the presence of ophthalmopathy (p = 0.42) or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody titers (p = 0.45) and the mean value of immunoglobulin G4 levels at diagnosis. Our data suggest that Graves' disease patients with elevated immunoglobulin G4 levels at

  18. [Total serum IgE levels in children with enterobiasis.].

    PubMed

    Delıalıoğlu, Nuran; Aslan, Gönül; Oztürk, Candan; Camdevıren, Handan; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2005-01-01

    Enterobiasis is a helminthic disease which is very common especially in children. The IgE response has been associated with helminth infections and allergic diseases. Comparison of levels of total serum IgE of 36 children infected with Enterobius vermicularis and of 25 healthy children between 7 and 12 years of age was carried out The mean value of IgE in enterobiasis in children was 363.79+/-397.06 IU/ml (medium+/-SD) and 177.14+/-224.64 IU/ml (medium+/-SD) in the control group and it was found that there was no significant statistical difference (p=0.163).

  19. Pentoxifylline decreases serum level of adhesion molecules in atherosclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Allah Abadi, Ghazaleh; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels.

  20. Serum Apelin 13 Levels in Patients With Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Selimoglu Şen, Hadice; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Abakay, Özlem; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Yilmaz, Süreyya; Taylan, Mahsuk; Abakay, Abdurrahman; Tanrikulu, Abdullah Çetin

    2016-09-01

    Expression and peptide immunoreactivity of apelin messenger RNA have been described in a variety of tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue, brain, kidney, liver, cardiovascular system, and lungs. This study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of the endogenous apelin in the pathophysiological events that occur in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). In total, 53 patients with PE and 35 healthy volunteers were included the study. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care university hospital and among patients diagnosed as having PE. The control group consisted of healthy volunteers who applied to hospital for a routine checkup examination. Serum apelin 13 levels were measured in both the groups and their results were compared. The median ages were 57 and 53 years, and female-male ratios were 30/23 and 20/15, in the PE and control groups, respectively. The mean serum apelin 13 levels were found to be significantly higher in the PE group (76.94 ± 10.70 ng/mL) than in the control group (50.01 ± 7.13 ng/mL; P < .001). This study demonstrated that apelin 13 levels are elevated in patients with PE. These results suggest that apelin may be a novel biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in patients with acute PE in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Røen, Bent Tore; Opstad, Aase Mari; Haavind, Anniken; Tønsager, Janne

    2013-06-01

    Ricinine is an alkaloid present in the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) that can be used as a biomarker for ricin poisoning. Serial ricinine levels are reported in the serum and urine of a patient suffering from intentional ricin intoxication. The patient was brought to the hospital 4 h after injection and oral intake of a castor bean extract, but died 38 h later, despite intensive medical care. Ricinine was isolated from the samples by solid-phase extraction and quantitatively determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ricinine level in serum declined from 33 to 23 ng/mL between 10 and 29 h post-exposure. Three urine samples collected from 12 to 41 h after ricin intoxication showed ricinine concentrations in the range of 20-58 ng/mL. The creatinine corrected values (21-30 µg/g) indicated a concentration-time profile with a maximum ricinine level in urine between 12 and 29 h after exposure.

  2. Corticosterone mediates the inhibitory effect of restraint stress on the migration of mesenchymal stem cell to carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrotic liver by downregulating CXCR4/7 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lv, Chuan; Yang, Xue; Han, Zhipeng; Zhang, Shuili; Zhang, Jianwei; Zong, Chen; Gao, Lu; Li, Li; Zhao, Qiudong; Li, Rong; Yang, Yang; Yu, Fenghai; Li, Xiaoning; Zhang, Ping; Wei, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a great potential in therapeutic applications. The low efficiency of MSC recruitment and homing to sites of diseased organ tissue, however, remains a major hurdle in their application for treatment of diseases. Stress is commonly associated with various diseases. At the present time, little information is available about the effect of stress on MSC function. Here, we employed a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse liver fibrosis model to investigate whether constraint stress affects the migration of MSCs to fibrotic liver. MSC homing to the fibrotic liver was significantly inhibited in mice with restraint stress. Restraint stress induced an elevation of corticosterone level in the serum. Blocking glucocorticoid signaling with either corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (MET) or glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 attenuated restraint stress-induced inhibition of MSCs migration. The serum concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) increased in mice treated with CCl4. Restraint stress had no influence on expression of SDF-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the fibrotic liver. Culture with the serum of CCl4-treated mice or SDF-1 promoted MSC migration, which was suppressed by corticosterone. Exposure of MSCs to corticosterone decreased their expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7). These results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of corticosterone on MSC migration might be mediated via decreasing the expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in MSCs. Interventions targeting the interaction between corticosterone and its receptor improve migration and homing of MSCs in hosts receiving transplantation of these cells.

  3. Serum Vitamin D Levels Not Associated with Atopic Dermatitis Severity.

    PubMed

    Robl, Renata; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Lima, Monica Nunes; Carvalho, Vânia Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) in a Brazilian population. This was a cross-sectional study of patients younger than 14 years of age seen from April to November 2013. All patients fulfilled the Hanifin and Rajka Diagnostic Criteria for AD diagnosis. Disease severity was determined using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index and classified as mild (<25), moderate (25-50), or severe (>50). Serum vitamin D levels were classified as sufficient (≥30 ng/mL), insufficient (29-21 ng/mL), or deficient (≤20 ng/mL). A total of 105 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mild AD was diagnosed in 58 (55.2%) children, moderate in 24 (22.8%), and severe in 23 (21.9%). Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 45 individuals (42.9%). Of these, 24 (53.3%) had mild AD, 13 (28.9%) moderate, and 8 (17.7%) severe. Insufficient vitamin D levels were found in 45 (42.9%) individuals; 24 (53.3%) had mild AD, 9 (20.0%) moderate, and 12 (26.7%) severe. Of the 15 individuals (14.2%) with sufficient vitamin D levels, 10 (60.7%) had mild AD, 2 (13.3%) moderate, and 3 (20.0%) severe. The mean vitamin D level was 22.1 ± 7.3 ng/mL in individuals with mild AD, 20.8 ± 6.5 ng/mL in those with moderate AD, and 21.9 ± 9.3 ng/mL in those with severe AD. Variables such as sex, age, skin phototype, season of the year, and bacterial infection were not significantly associated with vitamin D levels. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were deficient or insufficient in 85% of the children, but serum vitamin D concentrations were not significantly related to AD severity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Osho Dynamic Meditation's Effect on Serum Cortisol Level.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Anuj; Mittal, Ashish; Seth, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic meditation is one of the most popular active meditation, introduced by an Indian mystic Osho in 1970. This one hour meditation consists of five stages: Deep fast chaotic breathing, catharsis, using a mantra "Hoo", silence, and dancing. A previous study observed that Osho dynamic meditation causes decrease in several psychopathological variables such as aggressive behaviour, anxiety and depression. However, it is not objectively established that the dynamic meditation has an anti-stress effect. To find out the effect of Osho dynamic meditation on the serum cortisol levels (cortisol is an indicator of stress) and therefore to observe whether it has any anti-stress effect. An experimental study was planned doing the dynamic meditation empty stomach in morning at 6 to 7 am every day for 21 days from 1(st) March 2015 to 21(st) March 2015 at Lucknow. Twenty healthy volunteers between 20 to 50 years (14 males and 6 females) participated in the study. Serum cortisol level was estimated from the blood samples collected in the morning one day prior (baseline) and post-meditation on the 21(st) day of the study. The difference between mean cortisol levels of the baseline and post-meditation groups were tested for significance by applying the paired t-test. Sixteen volunteers out of the 20 completed the study while four dropped out due to their health and personal reasons. The serum cortisol levels were decreased in all the 16 participants on 21(st) day as compared to the baseline levels and the decline in the mean cortisol level was highly significant (p<0.001). The results of the study showed a significant reduction in plasma cortisol levels when the participants were tested after 21 days of meditation; it can be concluded that the Osho dynamic meditation produces anti-stress effects. The mechanism of action could primarily be attributed to the release of repressed emotions and psychological inhibitions and traumas. Thus, dynamic meditation could be recommended for

  5. Osho Dynamic Meditation’s Effect on Serum Cortisol Level

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Anuj; Mittal, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dynamic meditation is one of the most popular active meditation, introduced by an Indian mystic Osho in 1970. This one hour meditation consists of five stages: Deep fast chaotic breathing, catharsis, using a mantra "Hoo", silence, and dancing. A previous study observed that Osho dynamic meditation causes decrease in several psychopathological variables such as aggressive behaviour, anxiety and depression. However, it is not objectively established that the dynamic meditation has an anti-stress effect. Aim To find out the effect of Osho dynamic meditation on the serum cortisol levels (cortisol is an indicator of stress) and therefore to observe whether it has any anti-stress effect. Materials and Methods An experimental study was planned doing the dynamic meditation empty stomach in morning at 6 to 7 am every day for 21 days from 1st March 2015 to 21st March 2015 at Lucknow. Twenty healthy volunteers between 20 to 50 years (14 males and 6 females) participated in the study. Serum cortisol level was estimated from the blood samples collected in the morning one day prior (baseline) and post-meditation on the 21st day of the study. The difference between mean cortisol levels of the baseline and post-meditation groups were tested for significance by applying the paired t-test. Results Sixteen volunteers out of the 20 completed the study while four dropped out due to their health and personal reasons. The serum cortisol levels were decreased in all the 16 participants on 21st day as compared to the baseline levels and the decline in the mean cortisol level was highly significant (p<0.001). Conclusion The results of the study showed a significant reduction in plasma cortisol levels when the participants were tested after 21 days of meditation; it can be concluded that the Osho dynamic meditation produces anti-stress effects. The mechanism of action could primarily be attributed to the release of repressed emotions and psychological inhibitions and traumas

  6. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Martinho, Vitor Augusto Melão; Antoneli, Célia Beatriz Gianotti; Marcussi, Ludmilla Altino de Lima; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma patients, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma. PMID:25628199

  7. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  8. The effect of serum oncotic pressure on serum cholesterol levels: a study in "normal" and nephrotic subjects.

    PubMed

    Conwill, D E; Granger, D N; Cook, B H; Johnson, B B; Taylor, A E

    1977-04-01

    Clinical data in neprtotic and nonnephrotic subjects were examined to help delineate the mechanism of hypercholesterolemia in nephrotic syndrome. Analyses of the relationship between total serum cholesterol and serum albumin levels and between total serum cholesterol and calculated serum oncotic pressure in 500 nonnephrotic individuals revealed strong positive correlations (r = 0.9714, p less than 0.001 and r = 0.9720, p less than 0.001, respectively). Serum beta-lipoprotein concentration was found to bear an inverse relationship to measured serum oncotic pressure in 13 nephrotic patients (r = -0.8192, p less than 0.01). Our results lend support to the thesis that serum oncotic pressure is the major governing factor in hypercholesterolemia in nephrotic syndrome.

  9. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2) above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders.

  10. Six different cytokines that share GP130 as a receptor subunit, induce serum amyloid A and potentiate the induction of interleukin-6 and the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by interleukin-1.

    PubMed

    Benigni, F; Fantuzzi, G; Sacco, S; Sironi, M; Pozzi, P; Dinarello, C A; Sipe, J D; Poli, V; Cappelletti, M; Paonessa, G; Pennica, D; Panayotatos, N; Ghezzi, P

    1996-03-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) potentiate the elevation of serum corticosterone induced by suboptimal doses of interleukin-1 (IL-1). CNTF also potentiates IL-1-induced serum IL-6. Here, we report that four other cytokines (leukemia inhibitory factor [LIF], oncostatin M [OSM], interleukin-11 and cardiotrophin-1) also potentiated the elevation of serum corticosterone and IL-6 levels induced by IL-1. Furthermore, all the six cytokines studied induced the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A when administered alone. Because these cytokines differ both in structure and in function, but share gp130 as a subunit of their receptors, these results indicate that signaling through gp130 mediates potentiation of IL-1 activities. The potentiation of IL-1-induced serum corticosterone levels is not a consequence of the increased serum IL-6 observed after IL-1 administration. In fact, in IL-6 deficient mice, IL-1 increased serum corticosterone to a level comparable to that observed in wild-type mice. Thus, either endogenous IL-6 does not mediate IL-1-induced corticosterone increase, or its role may be fulfilled by other cytokines. To the extent that gp130-dependent cytokines may serve this role, they may be important feedback regulators of inflammation through the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the potentiation of acute-phase protein synthesis.

  11. Association Between Serum B12 and Serum Homocysteine Levels in Diabetic Patients on Metformin.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Twinkal R; Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Hitesh

    2016-04-01

    Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and metformin both can lower serum B12 (s.B12). Raised serum Homocysteine (s.Hcy) is considered as an early marker of B12 deficiency. The study aimed to check whether homocysteine levels are more sensitive indicator of s. B12 deficiency or not among diabetics using metformin. Mean s.B12 and s.Hcy levels of 30 cases (diabetics on metformin <5years) were compared with 30 diabetic controls not on metformin and 31 nondiabetic controls and statistically analysed by ANOVA and post-hoc tests. No significant differences in either s.B12 mean or s.Hcy mean were found between cases and diabetic controls. s.B12 mean did not differ significantly but s.Hcy mean was significantly higher among nondiabetics as compared to diabetic control. s. B12 level of Nondiabetic group was in borderline category while mean s. B12 levels of cases and diabetic control groups was in normal category but nearer to the lower cut off. Mean s.Hcy values in all the groups were high. Pearson correlation showed strong association between s.B12 and s.Hcy in all the groups. Additionally equation based on linear regression was derived to calculate either of the s.B12 or s.Hcy. On Receiver Operative Characteristic (ROC) curve, area under curve value was 0.842 for the value of s.Hcy. In this study neither metformin nor T2DM could be identified as a cause for s.B12 lowering and raised s.Hcy in the scenario of low normal levels of s.B12 (<300pmol/L). If B12 deficiency recognized early using s. Hcy, consequences due to B12 deficiency can be prevented or delayed among nondiabetics as well as among diabetics and metformin users.

  12. The association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linlin; Cao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the development of hemodialysis (HD). This study aims to detect the potential association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in HD. A total of 485 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The created restriction site polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methods were used to investigate ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism. Our data suggested that there were significant differences in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between HD patients and healthy controls. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a) for genotype AA were different from genotype GG in HD patients and healthy controls. Our findings support that the ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism might influence the development of HD and could be a risk factor for assessing HD.

  13. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  14. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Roscino, Maria Teresa; Minoia, Giuseppe; Trisolini, Carmelinda; Spedicato, Massimo; Mutinati, Maddalena; Pantaleo, Marianna; Jirillo, Felicita; Sciorsci, Raffaele L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the serum concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the different phases of the estrous cycle in the bitch, in order to establish their physiological values. 56 healthy mixed-breed bitches were enrolled at this purpose and divided into 4 groups, standing on the different phases of the estrus cycle. Blood samples were collected in all groups and serum ROS concentrations were determined. Proestral concentrations were statistically higher than anestral ones, and statistically lower than those found in estrus (p<0.001). The highest concentrations of ROS were detected at estrus, that is, in the peri-ovulatory period. This sharp increase in ROS concentrations is related to the acute inflammatory process underlying ovulation and to the increase in immune and metabolic activities, cytological changes and myometrial contractility promoted by the high levels of estrogens. In diestrus, the mean concentration of ROS decreases. This reduction did not show any statistically significant difference with the mean value observed in proestrus. In this phase, in fact, the high concentrations of progesterone, exerting an antioxidant and immunodepressive effect, justify the lower mean concentration of ROS detected. In anestrus, the lowest concentrations of ROS were observed, for the reduced metabolic and endocrine activity occurring in this phase of the estrous cycle. In conclusion our results establish the physiologic levels of ROS during the estrous cycle in the bitch and reflect the endocrine morphologic and metabolic changes occurring during it.

  15. Mercury correlates with altered corticosterone but not testosterone or estradiol concentrations in common loons.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Melinda D; Evers, David C; Kenow, Kevin P; Meyer, Michael W; Pokras, Mark; Romero, L Michael

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the relation between environmental mercury exposure and corticosterone concentrations in free-living adult common loons (Gavia immer). We determined blood and feather mercury concentrations and compared them to testosterone, estradiol, and stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations. Although neither testosterone nor estradiol correlated with Hg levels, there was a robust positive relation between blood Hg and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations in males, but not in females. The lack of an effect in females may have been due to overall less contamination in females. There were no significant correlations between feather Hg and stress-induced corticosterone in either sex. To help determine whether Hg had a causal effect on corticosterone, we investigated the impact of experimental Hg intake on the corticosterone stress response in captive juvenile loons. Juveniles were subjected to three different feeding regimes: 0, 0.4 and 1.2μg Hg (as MeHgCL)/g wet weight (ww) fish. We then measured baseline and 30min post-solitary confinement stressor corticosterone concentrations. The Hg fed chicks exhibited a decreased ability to mount a stress response. From these data, we conclude that Hg contamination does appear to alter the corticosterone response to stress, but not in a consistent predictable pattern. Regardless of the direction of change, however, exposure to mercury contamination and the resulting impact on the corticosterone stress response in common loons may substantially impact health, fitness and survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mercury correlates with altered corticosterone but not testosterone or estradiol concentrations in common loons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franceshini, Melinda D.; Evers, David C.; Kenow, Kevin P.; Meyer, Michael W.; Pokras, Mark; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relation between environmental mercury exposure and corticosterone concentrations in free-living adult common loons (Gavia immer). We determined blood and feather mercury concentrations and compared them to testosterone, estradiol, and stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations. Although neither testosterone nor estradiol correlated with Hg levels, there was a robust positive relation between blood Hg and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations in males, but not in females. The lack of an effect in females may have been due to overall less contamination in females. There were no significant correlations between feather Hg and stress-induced corticosterone in either sex. To help determine whether Hg had a causal effect on corticosterone, we investigated the impact of experimental Hg intake on the corticosterone stress response in captive juvenile loons. Juveniles were subjected to three different feeding regimes: 0, 0.4 and 1.2 μg Hg (as MeHgCL)/g wet weight (ww) fish. We then measured baseline and 30 min post-solitary confinement stressor corticosterone concentrations. The Hg fed chicks exhibited a decreased ability to mount a stress response. From these data, we conclude that Hg contamination does appear to alter the corticosterone response to stress, but not in a consistent predictable pattern. Regardless of the direction of change, however, exposure to mercury contamination and the resulting impact on the corticosterone stress response in common loons may substantially impact health, fitness and survival.

  17. Yolk and albumen corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid by white versus brown caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Navara, K J; Pinson, S E

    2010-07-01

    Maternal stress in birds can have permanent transgenerational effects through the transmission of stress hormones to offspring via the egg yolk. Previous studies have shown that White Leghorn hens show a heightened response to stress compared with Hy-Line Brown hens, producing significantly more corticosterone and displaying longer bouts of tonic immobility after handling, whereas baseline levels of corticosterone are similar between the strains. We tested the hypothesis that higher stress responsiveness would correspond to chronic accumulation and thus higher concentrations of corticosterone in egg yolks after exposure to stressors associated with routine maintenance. Eggs were collected from white and brown hens that were undisturbed except for daily feeding and routine egg collections. Corticosterone was quantified in plasma, egg yolks, and albumen and compared between strains. We predicted that corticosterone concentrations in yolk would be higher in eggs from white versus brown hens but that albumen corticosterone would not differ between strains due to the short term of albumen deposition. As predicted, yolk corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in eggs produced by white hens, approximately twice those found in eggs laid by brown hens. Plasma and albumen concentrations of corticosterone were similar between groups. These results suggest that offspring hatching from eggs laid by White Leghorn hens are exposed to significantly more corticosterone through concentration in the egg yolk, which could permanently imprint offspring physiology and behavior.

  18. Corticosterone regulates multiple colour traits in Lacerta [Zootoca] vivipara males.

    PubMed

    San-Jose, L M; Fitze, P S

    2013-12-01

    Ornamental colours usually evolve as honest signals of quality, which is supported by the fact that they frequently depend on individual condition. It has generally been suggested that some, but not all types of ornamental colours are condition dependent, indicating that different evolutionary mechanisms underlie the evolution of multiple types of ornamental colours even when these are exhibited by the same species. Stress hormones, which negatively affect condition, have been shown to affect colour traits based on different pigments and structures, suggesting that they mediate condition dependence of multiple ornament types both among and within individuals. However, studies investigating effects of stress hormones on different ornament types within individuals are lacking, and thus, evidence for this hypothesis is scant. Here, we investigated whether corticosterone mediates condition dependence of multiple ornaments by manipulating corticosterone levels and body condition (via food availability) using a two-factorial design and by assessing their effect on multiple colour traits in male common lizards. Corticosterone negatively affected ventral melanin- and carotenoid-based coloration, whereas food availability did not affect coloration, despite its significant effect on body condition. The corticosterone effect on melanin- and carotenoid-based coloration demonstrates the condition dependence of both ornaments. Moreover, corticosterone affected ventral coloration and had no effect on the nonsexually selected dorsal coloration, showing specific effects of corticosterone on ornamental ventral colours. This suggests that corticosterone simultaneously mediates condition dependence of multiple colour traits and that it therefore accounts for covariation among them, which may influence their evolution via correlational selection. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Lower serum uric acid level predicts mortality in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sun Moon; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the impact of serum uric acid (SUA) on mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. A total of 4132 adult patients on dialysis were enrolled prospectively between August 2008 and September 2014. Among them, we included 1738 patients who maintained dialysis for at least 3 months and had available SUA in the database. We categorized the time averaged-SUA (TA-SUA) into 5 groups: <5.5, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.4, and ≥8.5 mg/dL. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality according to SUA group. The mean TA-SUA level was slightly higher in men than in women. Patients with lower TA-SUA level tended to have lower body mass index (BMI), phosphorus, serum albumin level, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM), and higher proportion of malnourishment on the subjective global assessment (SGA). During a median follow-up of 43.9 months, 206 patients died. Patients with the highest SUA had a similar risk to the middle 3 TA-SUA groups, but the lowest TA-SUA group had a significantly elevated HR for mortality. The lowest TA-SUA group was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.720; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–2.937; P = 0.047) even after adjusting for demographic, comorbid, nutritional covariables, and medication use that could affect SUA levels. This association was prominent in patients with well nourishment on the SGA, a preserved serum albumin level, a higher BMI, and concomitant DM although these parameters had no significant interaction in the TA-SUA-mortality relationship except DM. In conclusion, a lower TA-SUA level <5.5 mg/dL predicted all-cause mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. PMID:27310949

  20. Serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular disease: the Gordian knot

    PubMed Central

    Tugores, Antonio; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is defined as serum uric acid level of more than 7 mg/dL and blood levels of uric acid are causally associated with gout, as implicated by evidence from randomized clinical trials using urate lowering therapies. Uric acid as a cardiovascular risk factor often accompanies metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, chronic renal disease, and obesity. Despite the association of hyperuricemia with cardiovascular risk factors, it has remained controversial as to whether uric acid is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. To settle this issue, and in the absence of large randomized controlled trials, Mendelian randomization analysis in which the exposure is defined based on the presence or absence of a specific allele that influences a risk factor of interest have tried to shed light on this. PMID:28066631

  1. Serum Levels of Progranulin Do Not Reflect Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Carlo; Gillardon, Frank; Deuschle, Christian; Dubois, Evelyn; Hobert, Markus A; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Krüger, Stefanie; Biskup, Saskia; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Hruscha, Michael; Kaeser, Stephan A; Heutink, Peter; Maetzler, Walter; Synofzik, Matthis

    2016-01-01

    Altered progranulin levels play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), even in the absence of GRN mutations. Increasing progranulin levels could hereby provide a novel treatment strategy. However, knowledge on progranulin regulation in neurodegenerative diseases remains limited. We here demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid progranulin levels do not correlate with its serum levels in AD, FTD and ALS, indicating a differential regulation of its central and peripheral levels in neurodegeneration. Blood progranulin levels thus do not reliably predict central nervous progranulin levels and their response to future progranulin-increasing therapeutics.

  2. Serum leptin levels in women with uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Dingiloglu, Bihter Senem; Gungor, Tayfun; Ozdal, Bulent; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Bilge, Umit; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of leptin in women with uterine myoma. In this study, 38 women with myoma uteri and 30 normal women who applied to the Dr Zekai Tahir Burak Woman Health Research and Education Hospital's gynecology clinic were enrolled. Uterine leiomyomas were proved by pathology postoperatively. In all subjects, FSH, LH, E2, prolactin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, fasting glucose, CA125, and leptin were examined, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Data were analyzed by Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test. Although leptin level was higher in the myomatic women (5.73 +/- 4.08 ng/mL) than in the normal women, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.303). Also, no statistical difference in the ratios of leptin/BMI was found in both groups. A significant correlation was found between high E2 level and myoma uteri (p = 0.021). Hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in the myomatic women (p = 0.044). When we compared the leptin levels according to BMI, leptin levels were higher in patients who had BMI > 30 (p = 0.02). We did not find any significant difference in serum leptin levels between the two groups. But leptin may have an indirect role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma. So further research is needed to reveal the role of leptin in myoma uteri pathogenesis.

  3. The comparison of the effects of acute swimming stress on plasma corticosterone and leptin concentration in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Zareian, Parvin; Karimi, Mohammad Vahid; Dorneyani, Gita

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute swimming stress on plasma corticosterone and leptin levels in female and male rats. Thirty- seven adult male (n=20) and female (n=20) Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g weight) were used. The leptin and corticosterone levels were measured following swimming stress (10 minutes) or no stress. Plasma leptin and corticosterone were measured by ELISA system. The plasma leptin and corticosterone levels were significantly increased in female and male rats by swimming stress. Plasma leptin level was not correlated significantly with plasma corticosterone in all groups. There were no sex differences in leptin level among stressed and non stressed rats. The results suggest that changes in plasma leptin level could not be associated with stimulation of corticosterone secretion from adrenal glands and leptin secretion is not sex dependent.

  4. Effect of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serum sclerostin has been inversely associated with serum 25OHD concentration, but the effect of supplementation with vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin is unknown. This study was done to determine whether supplementation altered serum sclerostin levels in healthy older adults. We measured s...

  5. Association between serum pepsinogen A and C levels, serum gastrin concentrations and Helicobacter pylori antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kullich, W; Pöllmann, G; Czerwenka, C; Klein, G

    1999-01-01

    Pepsinogen A and C as well as gastrin were measured in the serum of 117 patients with rheumatic diseases. Moreover, the patients were divided up in groups by aids of a semiquantitative, rapid enzyme immunoassay for detection of Helicobacter pylori: 20 patients without H. pylori antibodies (AB) negative, 18 positive + (= weak AB-titre), 21 positive +2 (medium AB-titre), and 58 positive +3 (high AB-titre). The semiquantitative determinations of H. pylori-AB correlated with pepsinogen A, C and gastrin. Patients with H. pylori-AB positive +3 showed significantly higher values of pepsinogen C (p < or = 0.01) as well as pepsinogen A and gastrin (p < or = 0.05) than H. pylori-AB negative patients. Significantly increased levels of pepsinogen A (> 150 ng/ml) and C (> 25 ng/ml) were found to occur in 39% and 100% of patients with high H. pylori-AB titres. The measurement of serum pepsinogen C concentrations may provide additional diagnostic information of the extent of mucosal lesions in patients with positive H. pylori-AB titres treated with antirheumatic drugs. Our findings suggest that the semi-quantitative classification of positive AB-results can be useful in cases determining H. pylori infection and mucosal irritation if other investigations are not available.

  6. Serum lipoprotein (a) levels in patients with arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Serban, Corina; Nicola, T; Mateescu, Rodica; Noveanu, Lavinia; Susan, Lelia; Pacurari, Alina; Caraba, A; Romoşan, I; Cristescu, A

    2010-01-01

    Lp(a) is capable of deleteriously altering the balance between the procoagulant and anticoagulant, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory, and vasorelaxing and vasoconstricting properties of the endothelium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum concentration of Lp(a) and the main parameters of lipid profile in three groups of subjects: a control group that included 16 healthy subjects, 20 patients with arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia and 20 patients with arterial hypertension without dyslipidemia. Using B-mode ultrasonography, we evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and flow mediated vasodilation (FMD) on brachial artery. We found significant higher Lp(a) concentrations in hypertensive patients with dislipidemia (70 +/- 55.95 mg/dL, p < 0.001) and in hypertensive patients without dislipidemia (69 +/- 52.33 mg/dL, p < 0.001), comparative with the control group (19 +/- 14.64 mg/dL). In hypertensive patients with dislipidemia we found a strong negative correlation between Lp(a) and carotid IMT (R2 = -0.75, p < 0.001) and a moderate negative correlation between Lp(a) and FMD (R2 = -0.38, p < 0.001). Lp(a) level wasn't correlated with the main parameters of lipid profile. These results indicated that serum Lp(a) values could play an important role in essential hypertension pathogenesis and could be considered as an individual risk factor in hypertensive patients.

  7. Cytokine Levels in the Serum of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Giulio; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years) with young children and children (1–6 and 7–17 years). We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging. PMID:23533306

  8. Cytokine levels in the serum of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Giulio; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years) with young children and children (1-6 and 7-17 years). We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging.

  9. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in early spontaneous pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Hou, W; Yan, X-t; Bai, C-m; Zhang, X-w; Hui, L-y; Yu, X-w

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy have been associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in childbearing aged women and pregnancy loss (PL) in the first trimester. Subjects/Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Plasma was collected from 60 nulliparous women with singleton at 7–9 weeks of gestation (30 with viable gestation and 30 with PL) and 60 non-gravid childbearing aged women (30 with a successful pregnancy history, and 30 with one or more spontaneous first-trimester PL history). Quantitation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase (CYP27B1) was assayed. Results: By pregnancy/non-gravid, normal pregnant women had higher 25(OH)D (49.32 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (82.00 pg/ml) than PL women (34.49 μg/l and 37.87 pg/ml, both P<0.01); the non-gravid women with a successful pregnancy history also had higher 25(OH)D (39.56 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (39.04 pg/ml) than women with PL history (12.30 μg/l and 12.35 pg/ml, both P<0.01). The 96.7% of non-gravid women with PL history and 43.3% of PL women had serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 μg/l. There was a strong association between low vitamin D levels and PL (odds ratio 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.2–2.4, P<0.001). The regression analyses showed that PL was significantly inversely correlated with 25(OH)D (P<0.01) and CYP27B1 levels (P<0.01). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency associated with PL in the first trimester of pregnancy. Decreased serum vitamin D levels among childbearing aged women with the failed clinical pregnancies history may predispose to increased risk for PL. PMID:27222154

  10. Corticosterone in drinking water: altered kinetics of a single oral dose of corticosterone and concentrations of plasma sodium, albumin, globulin, and total protein.

    PubMed

    Pung, Thitiya; Zimmerman, Kurt; Klein, Bradley; Ehrich, Marion

    2003-10-01

    Effects of chronic exposure to corticosterone in drinking water on corticosterone kinetics, blood chemistry, and concentrations of catecholamines in parts of brain were studied in Long-Evans rats. Rats were randomly grouped into 3 x 2 treatments (n=4), with three treatments of drinking water (tap water, or 2.5% ethanol, or 400 microg/mL of corticosterone in 2.5% ethanol) for 28 days and two treatments of gavage with a single dose of either corn oil or corticosterone 20 mg/kg on day 28. Blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480, and 720 min after dosing to determine plasma corticosterone concentrations. Blood samples were collected for clinical pathology on day 42. Hippocampus, cerebral cortex, caudate-putamen, and pons were examined to determine concentrations of catecholamines and activities of esterases. Concentrations of plasma corticosterone before gavage of the corticosterone-drinking rats (47.61 +/- 1.13 ng/mL) were lower than the water (418.47 +/- 1.13 ng/mL) or the ethanol rats (383.71 +/- 1.13 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Plasma corticosterone rose to peak concentrations by 15 min after gavage in all three groups of drinking rats. Corticosterone-drinking rats had concentrations of plasma corticosterone that returned to basal levels slower than water- and ethanol-drinking rats. Plasma sodium and chloride concentrations were lower in the corticosterone-drinking rats than the water-drinking rats (P < 0.01). Plasma albumin, globulin, and total protein were highest in the corticosterone-drinking rats when compared to the other groups of drinking rats (P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively). Corticosterone in drinking water did not affect activities of brain neurotoxic esterase, carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase, or concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites. A single oral dose of corticosterone reduced neurotoxic esterase activity in the cerebral cortex (P < 0.05) and increased norepinephrine concentrations in the hippocampus

  11. [Evaluation of serum creatinine level in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuting; Zhu, Wenjia; Cui, Fang; Yang, Fei; Huang, Xusheng

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the serum creatinine (SCr) level in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) and to explore the relationship between the SCr level and the clinical characteristics. A total of 80 patients with sALS, 80 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and 80 patients with tension-type headache (TTH) were enrolled in the study. The SCr levels were compared among the three groups. The association between the SCr level and the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R), the forced vital capacity (FVC) percentage of predicted (FVC%pred), the site of symptom onset, the duration of disease and the rate of disease progression was evaluated in the sALS group. The SCr level was significantly decreased in the sALS group than the other two groups [(60.86 ± 16.80) µmol/L vs (70.05 ± 12.79) µmol/L and (66.97 ± 14.14) µmol/L, P < 0.01].In the sALS group, the SCr level was positively correlated with the ALSFRS-R (r = 0.315, P = 0.005), while no correlation was found between the SCr level and the FVC%pred, the site of symptom onset, the duration of disease and the rate of disease progression (all P > 0.05). The SCr level is an important biochemical index in the patients with sALS and might play an important role in monitoring the disease progression.

  12. Significance of serum cardiac troponin I levels in pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Gonca; Dogan, Omer Tamer; Berk, Serdar; Ozsahin, Sefa Levent; Akkurt, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Background Some biomarkers can be helpful in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) and determining of severity and prognosis of the disease. In this study, we aimed to analyze the elevated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels and its association with electrocardiography (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings in patients with PE. Methods Totally 106 patients with suspected PE were included in the study. PE was confirmed in 63 of them, whereas it was excluded in the remaining 43 patients. Levels of cTnI were measured in all patients before the prescription of the anticoagulation therapy. Results High cTnI levels were found in 50.8% of patients with PE, and in 11.6% of patients without PE (P<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the test for the diagnosis of PE were 50.7%, 88.3% respectively. ECG findings were similar in PE patients having either elevated or normal cTnI levels. Approximately 75% of the PE patients with high cTnI had normal ECG findings; the most common pathological changes seen in ECG were S1Q3T3 pattern (~31%). TTE findings were not found to be distinguishing in the patients with suspected PE and high cTnI levels. Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) was the most common echocardiographic finding (~74%) in patients with PE and elevated cTnI levels. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between TTE findings in PE patients with increased and normal cTnI levels. Conclusions In patients presenting with clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features suggesting pulmonary embolism, increased serum cTnI levels endorse the diagnosis of severe PE. PMID:23205283

  13. Neonatal feed restriction modulates circulating levels of corticosterone and expression of glucocorticoid receptor and heat shock protein 70 in aged Japanese quail exposed to acute heat stress.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, A F; Zulkifli, I; Omar, A R; Raha, A R

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of neonatal feed restriction on plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, and heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 expression in aged male Japanese quail subjected to acute heat stress. Equal numbers of chicks were subjected to either ad libitum feeding (AL) or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). At 21 (young) and 270 (aged) d of age, birds were exposed to 43 ± 1°C for 1 h. Blood and hippocampus samples were collected to determine CORT and Hsp 70 and GR expressions before heat stress and following 1 h of heat stress, 1 h of post-heat stress recovery, and 2 h of post-heat stress recovery. With the use of real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassay, we examined the hippocampal expression of GR and Hsp 70 and CORT. The GR expression of the young birds increased following heat stress and remained consistent throughout the period of recovery. Conversely, no significant changes were noted on GR expression of aged birds. Although both young and aged birds had similar CORT before and during heat stress, the latter exhibited greater values following 1 and 2 h of recovery. Within the young group, feeding regimens had no significant effect on Hsp 70 expression. However, neonatal feed restriction improved Hsp 70 expression in aged birds. Neonatal feed restriction, compared with the AL group, resulted in higher CORT on d 21 but the converse was noted on d 270. Neonatal feed restriction appears to set a robust reactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response allowing the development of adaptive, healthy, and resilient phenotypes in aged quail as measured by a higher hippocampal Hsp 70 expression along with lower CORT.

  14. Reduced serum levels of adiponectin in tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Renan B; Duarte, Halina; Rocha, Natália P; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory mediators have been studied in tension type headache (TTH) pathophysiology; however, their role is not yet well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate adiponectin (ADP) and its association with clinical parameters and psychiatric comorbidities in TTH patients. This was a cross sectional study including TTH patients and controls. Beck Depression (BDI) and Anxiety (BAI) Inventories, and Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) were recorded. Serum levels of ADP were measured by ELISA. Forty-eight TTH patients and forty-eight controls without headache were enrolled in the study. ADP levels were significantly lower among patients with TTH [31.1 (20.4-69.20) versus 37.8 (24.9-71.4) ng/mL (P=0.008)]. ADP levels were not influenced by BDI and BAI scores, body mass index (BMI), or HIT-6. ADP levels were reduced in TTH, independently of psychiatric comorbidities, BMI, and headache impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum free fatty acids level in senile cataract.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong; Rong, Shengzhong; Zhang, Yannan; Sha, Qian; Liang, Meihua; Zhang, Xuefei; Li, Miaojing; Pan, Hongzhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the levels of free fatty acids between senile cataract patients and normal controls. Fifty consecutive patients with newly diagnosed senile cataract and 50 age- and gender-matched controls were evaluated. Subjects/patients were randomized according to selection criteria. The levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in serum were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixteen fatty acids from 14:0 to 24:1 were identified. The values were compared between cataract and control groups by parametric independent sample test and Mann-Whitney U tests. A significant decrease was observed in arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6, ARA), cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), tetracosanoic acid (C24: 0), cis-7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6, DPA), total n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), total n-6 LC-PUFAs, total fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and nonessential fatty acid levels in patients with senile cataract in comparison with healthy persons (p < 0.05). The levels of FFA including DPA, tetracosanoic acid, ARA, and DHA were significantly lower in the senile cataract group compared to that in the normal controls. FFA may be helpful in preventing senile cataract.

  16. CKD patients: the dilemma of serum PTH levels.

    PubMed

    Pontoriero, Giuseppe; Cozzolino, Mario; Locatelli, Francesco; Brancaccio, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Recent observational studies of patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) not undergoing dialysis have shown that even slight increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, regardless of the serum levels of calcium and phosphorus and vitamin D therapy. These studies suggest paying particular attention to monitoring PTH levels from the early stages of CKD, and preventing any mineral metabolism disorders that may trigger the excessive synthesis and secretion of PTH. However, it is not easy to determine when an appropriate response becomes maladaptive and requires the pharmacological suppression of the parathyroid gland because the gland's adaptive response can vary widely from one person to another. Furthermore, PTH levels are not always a good predictor of bone turnover and current PTH assays have various methodological limitations. Treating the early mineral metabolism abnormalities of CKD may help prevent the cardiovascular complications whose frequency, costs and mortality have a profound effect on society as a whole. For this reason, there is great interest in establishing adequate target ranges for PTH at different stages of CKD, and determining the most appropriate strategies for reaching them.

  17. Immature ovarian teratoma with hyponatremia and low serum vasopressin level.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Takei, Yuji; Saga, Yasushi; Machida, Shizuo; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hyponatremia is often caused by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Hypersecretion of vasopressin from malignant tumors can be considered a cause of SIADH. Most of these ectopic productions of vasopressin are complications of small cell lung cancer. Cases concomitant with ovarian tumors are very rare, and a specific causative substance from the ovary is often unknown. A 16-year-old woman was diagnosed with an ovarian tumor. She developed hyponatremia that was resistant to medical treatment, but immediately improved after surgical resection of the tumor. Her diagnosis was SIADH caused by an ovarian tumor; however, her serum vasopressin level was normal. It is possible that a vasopressin-like substance causing SIADH was secreted by either nervous system tissue within an immature teratoma or small cell lung cancer. We should be cautious when SIADH is a complication of an ovarian tumor.

  18. Corticosterone responses in birds: individual variation and repeatability in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelisadeliae) and other species, and the use of power analysis to determine sample sizes.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, John F; Barrett, D Paul; Candy, E Jane; Potter, Murray A

    2009-09-01

    Plasma corticosterone concentrations increase when birds experience a stressor, and in this study we quantified variation in corticosterone responses for the first time in a species of free-living bird. Adelie penguins (Pygoscelisadeliae) nesting at Cape Bird on Ross Island in Antarctica were sampled on three occasions. Penguins with relatively low or high corticosterone responses on the first occasion had consistently low or high responses, as previously found for great tits and chickens. A model for birds is proposed in which birds with low corticosterone responses and proactive personalities are likely to be more successful (have greater fitness) in constant or predictable conditions, whilst birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be more successful in changing or unpredictable conditions. There is thus no linear relationship between the size of a corticosterone response and fitness. Whilst the absolute magnitude of corticosterone responses varies markedly across species of birds, coefficients of variation are similar. Individual corticosterone responses are generally repeatable, with significant statistical repeatabilities for 30 min corticosterone concentrations and integrated corticosterone concentrations in the Adelie penguin, great tit and chicken. Coefficients of variation in corticosterone responses between birds and power analyses were used to provide a rule of thumb for determining differences between groups of birds in mean corticosterone concentrations to enable statistical analyses to have acceptable levels of statistical power for given sample sizes. It is suggested that power analyses and this rule of thumb be adopted in future investigations of corticosterone responses in birds.

  19. Serum tissue factor levels correlate with inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Daniel; Racadot, Evelyne

    2006-07-01

    Tissue factor, the main initiator of blood coagulation, is released into the bloodstream when vessel damage occurs. Vessel damage may occur in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). To measure tissue factor levels in patients with AS and to look for correlations between tissue factor levels and established clinical and laboratory markers for disease activity. We compared patients who met modified New York criteria for AS to healthy untreated controls. Serum tissue factor was assayed using an ELISA. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G) were recorded, as well as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and IgA level. ANOVA and t-tests were performed. P values<0.05 were considered significant. We included 28 patients with AS (mean age, 42 years; and mean disease duration, 14 years), who had never received immunomodulating or vascular medications, and 22 same-age healthy controls. In the patients, tissue factor levels were significantly higher (32.6+/-33.6 vs. 9.5+/-11.5 pg/ml, P=0.003); they correlated with the ESR (P=0.018), CRP (P<0.0001), and IgA (P=0.023), but not with the clinical variables (BASDAI, BASFI, and BAS-G; P>0.05). In this preliminary study in patients with AS, tissue factor levels were high and correlated with laboratory tests for inflammation. Tissue factor elevation may be a cause or a consequence of AS inflammation that promotes the occurrence of vascular events.

  20. Serum YKL-40 and MDA levels in Behcet disease.

    PubMed

    Bilen, Handan; Altinkaynak, Konca; Sebin, Engin; Aksoy, Hulya; Akcay, Fatih

    2016-10-01

    To measure plasma levels of chitinase-3-like 1 protein and its association with malondialdehyde in Behcet's disease patients. The case-control study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University Erzurum, Turkey, from October 2012 to March 2014, and comprised patients with Behcet's disease and healthy subjects. The patients were divided into two groups, as active and inactive, based on the classification of phases of activity in Behcet's disease. Differences between groups were analysed. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 79 participants, 51(64.56%) were patients and 28(35.44%) were controls. The mean age of the first group was 29.45±7.82 years and the second group was 32.21±9.61 years. Among patients, 37(72.55%) were categorised as "active" and 14(27.45%) as "inactive". Median serum Chitinase-3-like 1 protein and malondialdehyde levels were 37.57 ng/mL (interquartilerange: 13.7-293.0 ng/mL) in patients and 26.25 ng/mL (interquartile range: 17.0-44.7 ng/mL) in controls. There was no significant correlation between Chitinase-3-like 1 protein and malondialdehyde (p>0.05). Chitinase-3-like 1 protein might be associated with Behcet's disease. Elevated malondialdehyde levels were not only the cause of inflammation but also indicator of oxidative stress in Behcet's disease.

  1. Serum levels of S-100B after recreational scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Stavrinou, L C; Kalamatianos, T; Stavrinou, P; Papasilekas, T; Psachoulia, C; Tzavara, C; Stranjalis, G

    2011-12-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a sport of increasing popularity. Previous studies indicating subtle brain injury in asymptomatic divers imply a cumulative effect of minor neural insults in association with diving for professional and/or recreational purposes, over the long-term. This is the first study to investigate putative neural tissue burden during recreational scuba diving by measuring circulating levels of S-100B, a sensitive biomarker of brain injury. 5 male divers performed 3 consecutive dives under conservative recreational diving settings (maximum depth 15 m, duration of dive 56 min, ascend rate 1.15 m/min) with an interval of 12 h between each session. Although a small increase in serum S-100B levels after each dive was apparent, this increase did not quite reach statistical significance (p=0.057). Moreover, no abnormal S-100B values were recorded (mean baseline: 0.06 μg/L, mean post-dive: 0.086 μg/L) and no effect of the 3 consecutive dives on changes in S-100B levels was detected. These results suggest that under the experimental conditions tested, diving does not seem to have a discernible and/or cumulative impact on central nervous system integrity. The extent to which variable diving settings and practices as well as individual susceptibility factors underlie putative neural tissue burden in asymptomatic divers, remains to be established.

  2. Stable cystatin C serum levels confirm normal renal function in patients with dronedarone-associated increase in serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Duncker, David; Oswald, Hanno; Gardiwal, Ajmal; Lüsebrink, Ulrich; König, Thorben; Schreyer, Hendrik; Klein, Gunnar

    2013-03-01

    Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic drug for patients with nonpermanent atrial fibrillation (AF). A relatively consistent finding in all trials studying dronedarone was a moderate but significant elevation of serum creatinine. Since dronedarone competes for the same organic cation transporter in the distal renal tubule with creatinine, serum creatinine and its derived estimated glomerular filtration rate might not reflect true renal function in patients on dronedarone. We therefore investigated alternative markers for renal function in these patients. We prospectively included 20 patients with nonpermanent AF in whom dronedarone 400 mg twice daily was started. Patients had normal renal function and serum creatinine; serum cystatin C and creatinine clearance were measured before treatment and 10 and 90 days after treatment started. Mean serum creatinine level for all 20 patients at baseline (day 0) was 84.55 ± 12.14 and 87.8 ± 17.59 µmol/L on day 10. This slight increase in all patients was not significant. Patients were now divided into the predefined groups of "increased creatinine" (increase in serum creatinine level > 1 standard deviation) and "not increased creatinine." Patients with increased creatinine levels (n = 5) showed a significant elevation of serum creatinine levels from day 0 to day 10 (82.4 ± 9.18 to 104.4 ± 12.74 µmol/L; P = .003), whereas change in serum creatinine levels in the not increased creatinine group (n = 15) was not significant. Serum cystatin C levels remained stable in both of these groups (increased creatinine group: 0.76 ± 0.08 to 0.78 ± 0.08 mg/L; P = .65; not increased creatinine group: 0.77 ± 0.108 to 0.77 ± 0.107 mg/L; P = .906). In conclusion, cystatin C represents an easily available and reliable biomarker for estimation of true renal function in patients on dronedarone treatment.

  3. Influence of the rearing system on yolk corticosterone concentration in captive Greater Rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Della Costa, Natalia S; Marin, Raul H; Busso, Juan M; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2016-05-01

    Many environmental conditions elevate plasma corticosterone in laying birds, leading to elevated hormone accumulation in the egg. We investigated whether maternal yolk corticosterone levels in Greater Rheas differ between fresh eggs collected from an intensive (IRS) and a semi-extensive (SRS) rearing system. After HPLC validation, yolk corticosterone was measured using a corticosterone (125) I radio-immunoassay kit. Results (mean ± SE) showed that eggs collected from the IRS exhibited a significantly higher corticosterone concentration than eggs from SRS (89.88 ± 8.93 vs. 45.41 ± 5.48 ng/g yolk, respectively). Our findings suggest that rearing conditions under an intensive scheme (e.g., small pens with bare ground, no direct foraging and handling) might be perceived as more stressful for Greater Rhea females than semi-extensive rearing conditions (e.g., low animal density distributed in extensive areas and direct foraging), which would result in the transfer of higher yolk corticosterone levels. A better understanding of environmental conditions and female traits that affect yolk corticosterone deposition provides a background for future studies concerning the roles of maternal corticosterone on offspring development. Zoo Biol. 35:246-250, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Reduced serum hepcidin levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Domenico; Pasino, Michela; Goodnough, Julia B.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Guido, Maria; Castagna, Annalisa; Busti, Fabiana; Campostrini, Natascia; Martinelli, Nicola; Vantini, Italo; Corrocher, Roberto; Ganz, Tomas; Fattovich, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) often have increased liver iron, a condition associated with reduced sustained response to antiviral therapy, more rapid progression to cirrhosis, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The hepatic hormone hepcidin is the major regulator of iron metabolism and inhibits iron absorption and recycling from erythrophagocytosis. Hepcidin decrease is a possible pathophysiological mechanism of iron overload in CHC, but studies in humans have been hampered so far by the lack of reliable quantitative assays for the 25-amino acid bioactive peptide in serum (s-hepcidin). Methods Using a recently validated immunoassay, we measured s-hepcidin levels in 81 untreated CHC patients and 57 controls with rigorous definition of normal iron status. All CHC patients underwent liver biopsy with histological iron score. Results S-hepcidin was significantly lower in CHC patients than in controls (geometric means with 95% confidence intervals: 33.7, 21.5–52.9 vs. 90.9, 76.1–108.4 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.001). In CHC patients, s-hepcidin significantly correlated with serum ferritin and histological total iron score, but not with s-interleukin-6. After stratification for ferritin quartiles, s-hepcidin increased significantly across quartiles in both controls and CHC patients (chi for trend, p < 0.001). However, in CHC patients, s-hepcidin was significantly lower than in controls for each corresponding quartile (analysis of variance, p < 0.001). Conclusions These results, together with very recent studies in animal and cellular models, indicate that although hepcidin regulation by iron stores is maintained in CHC, the suppression of this hormone by hepatitis C virus is likely an important factor in liver iron accumulation in this condition. PMID:19729219

  5. Serum prolidase level in ankylosing spondylitis: low serum levels as a new potential gold standard biomarker for disease activity.

    PubMed

    Baspinar, Sevgi; Kırnap, Mehmet; Baspınar, Osman; Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Kocer, Derya

    2016-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that mainly affects the sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton. The aim of this study was to assess serum prolidase level (SPL) and its association with disease activity in patients with AS. This prospective study included 75 AS patients. Thirty age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. AS patients were considered as active if BASDAI score was ≥4 or inactive if BASDAI score was <4. There were 34 AS patients in the active group and 41 AS patients in the inactive group. Anti-TNF-monoclonal antibody treatment was started in patients in the active group. These active patients were reassessed 6 months later. BASDAI, ASDAS, visual analogue scale, short-form-general health survey questionnaire, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and SPL were measured in all AS patients before and after treatment. The SPL was significantly lower in inactive AS patients than in control group, and also, SPL was significantly lower in active AS patients than in inactive patients. All activity parameters were successful in separating active and inactive AS patients. However, the only parameter that could distinguish active patients from inactive patients was prolidase. The optimum cutoff point of SPL to identify patients with active AS was 23.13 ng/mL with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 100 %. Serum prolidase level was successful in measuring disease activity and had as high sensitivity and specificity as BASDAI and was superior to other activity parameters.

  6. Serum fetuin-A concentrations are positively associated with serum VEGF levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongwei; Ju, Huixiang; Sun, Mingzhong; Chen, Hongmei; Ji, Hongbin; Jiang, Dongmei; Ji, Yuqiao; Ji, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Fetuin-A was considered to be involved in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, higher vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is associated with diabetes and its vascular complications, but the mechanisms leading to higher VEGF levels are still not clear. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data to show the associations between fetuin-A and VEGF in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. We recruited 345 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In this study, there was a significant positive correlation between serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels (r=0.223, P<0.001), and the correlation remained significant even after adjustment for other confounding factors in the multivariate regression model (β=0.151, P=0.006). Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) stratified analysis showed that the degree of association of high concentrations of fetuin-A with high levels of VEGF is higher than that with low levels of VEGF (odds ratio of M-H [ORM-H], 2.938; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.896-4.553). In addition, this study showed that both fetuin-A and VEGF were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP). These data suggested that serum fetuin-A concentrations were positively associated with serum VEGF levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  7. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2017-10-12

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P < 0.001) and showed a strong decreasing trend with increasing PM2.5 concentrations in all subjects (Ptrend  < 0.001) as well as in exposed subjects only (Ptrend  = 0.001). Levels of IL-8 and MIP-1β were significantly lower in workers in the highest exposure tertile of PM2.5 (>397 µg/m(3) ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Correlation between ovarian chocolate cyst and serum carbohydrate antigen 125 level and the effect of ultrasound-guided interventional sclerotherapy on serum carbohydrate antigen 125 level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Ming; Cai, Huai-Qiu; Dong, Xiao-Qiu; Fan, Qiu-Lan; Wang, Lu-Lu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the correlation between ovarian chocolate cysts and serum carbohydrate antigen (CA)-125 levels and to demonstrate the effect of ultrasound-guided interventional sclerotherapy (UGIS) on serum CA-125 levels. Based on the serum CA-125 level, as determined by chemiluminescence detection prior to UGIS, 105 patients with ovarian chocolate cysts were divided into the normal group (CA-125 ≤ 35 U/mL, 45 patients) and the abnormal group (35 U/mL < CA-125 ≤ 200 U/mL, 60 patients). There were six clinical indicators including age, disease duration, dysmenorrhea history, child-bearing history, abortion history and surgical history. The ultrasonography characteristics were cyst diameter, cyst wall thickness and the side on which the cyst occurred. The correlations between serum CA-125 levels pretreatment and the clinical indicators and ultrasonography characteristics was analyzed. The serum CA-125 levels pretreatment, 3 months post-treatment and 6 months post-treatment were compared. The pretreatment serum CA-125 levels of the 105 patients positively correlated with disease duration (r = 0.3932, P = 0.0040), dysmenorrhea history (r = 0.2351, P = 0.0111), cyst diameter (r = 0.3415, P < 0.0001) and cyst wall thickness (r = 0.4263, P < 0.0001). Compared with the pretreatment level, the mean serum CA-125 level in the abnormal group at 3 months post-treatment was significantly lower (P < 0.01), and at 6 months post-treatment, the mean serum CA-125 level had decreased to a normal level (P < 0.01). UGIS significantly decreased abnormal serum CA-125 levels in patients with ovarian chocolate cysts. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. [Optimal vancomycin serum level in Staphylococcus aureus infections?].

    PubMed

    Bingen, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Nebbad, B

    2006-09-01

    Vancomycin is the cornerstone of therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus in both community and nosocomial-acquired infections. Because vancomycin is a concentration-independent or time-dependant antibiotic, most clinicians have abandoned the routine practice of determining peak serum concentrations to rely solely on monitoring serum concentrations. The so-called therapeutic range most often quoted for vancomycin was assessed for through serum concentrations of 5-10 mg/l. But prolonged exposure to serum concentration close to the MIC is associated with the emergence of resistance. More recent guidelines recommended vancomycin in concentrations of 15-20 mg/l for the treatment of severe Staphylococcus infections or in situations where vancomycin penetration is poor. However, because of the great variability of vancomycin MIC(S) (0,12-4 mg/l) of susceptible Staphylococcus strains, guidelines should recommend through serum concentrations of 5-10 times the MIC.

  10. Changes in serum NGF levels after the exercise load in dogs: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    ANDO, Izumi; KARASAWA, Kaoru; MATSUDA, Hiroshi; TANAKA, Akane

    2016-01-01

    Serum nerve growth factor (NGF) levels are increased by the external stress in mice, humans and horses; however, similar variations have been unclear in dogs. Since dogs are usually subjected to conditions of work, exercise and activity as important partners of humans, we measured serum NGF levels post-exercise and compared them with serum cortisol levels, as a biomarker of physical stress. Serum cortisol levels were immediately elevated post-exercise and returned to basal levels within 1 hr. On the other hand, serum NGF levels were significantly increased 1 hr post-exercise and gradually returned to basal levels. Further research is necessary; nevertheless, we have demonstrated for the first time that serum NGF levels respond to exercise stress in dogs. PMID:27452735

  11. Effects of Aroclor 1254 reg sign on hydrocortisone levels in adult Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.C.K.; Tryphonas, H.; Jordan, N.; Brien, R.; Karpinski, K.R.; Arnold, D.L. )

    1989-11-01

    Researchers, using female Sprague Dawley rats, reported the effects of chronic (5-7 months) oral dosing with Aroclor 1254{reg sign} (Polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB) on the serum levels of corticosterone, the principle glucocorticoid in rats. Their findings indicated that corticosterone levels were significantly depressed at dose levels of 479 {mu}g/kg bw/day and above. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of PCB on the hydrocortisone levels in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum. In the monkey the controlling hormone is hydrocortisone which is identical to that of humans.

  12. Determination of corticosterone concentrations in egg albumen: a non-invasive indicator of stress in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Downing, J A; Bryden, W L

    2008-10-20

    Measurement of plasma corticosterone is difficult because the handling associated with blood sampling from birds is stressful. The use of non-invasive means of measuring stress could help to alleviate this problem. It was considered that the accumulation of plasma corticosterone into the egg albumen could provide a non-invasive indicator of stress in laying hens. The present study examined the relationship between plasma and egg albumen corticosterone concentrations and then determined what affect exposing hens to known stressors had on egg albumen corticosterone concentrations. Laying hens were given subcutaneous injections of either 0, 5, or 10 mg of corticosterone suspended in peanut oil and then the concentrations of corticosterone in the plasma and egg albumen determined. Also, groups of hens were handled, exposed to high ambient temperature and moved to new cages, all events known to be stress provoking, and then the concentrations of corticosterone in albumen determined. The injections increased plasma corticosterone concentrations substantially and these were directly related to the concentrations measured in the egg albumen. When hens were exposed to the various stressors, the level of corticosterone in the egg albumen increased. The corticosterone concentrations found in the egg albumen can provide a convenient non-invasive means of measuring stress in laying hens and other birds.

  13. Clinical factors associated with serum copper levels and potential effect of sevelamer in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ikee, Ryota; Tsunoda, Masataka; Sasaki, Naomi; Sato, Naritsugu; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2013-06-01

    Copper is an essential mineral nutrient for humans. Serum copper levels of hemodialysis patients are higher than those of healthy subjects, but it remains to be elucidated whether increased serum copper may have harmful effects. In addition, a recent in vitro study has shown that sevelamer can adsorb copper. In the present study, we searched for clinical factors associated with serum copper levels in hemodialysis patients. This cross-sectional study included patients undergoing hemodialysis for more than 6 months. In these patients, we statistically tested associations between serum copper levels and other parameters, including nutritional markers, lipid profiles, oxidative stress, inflammation, and sevelamer administration. Among 48 patients (male/female = 28:20, age 71 ± 10 years, hemodialysis duration 84 ± 72 months), sevelamer hydrochloride was administered in 39 patients (81.3 %). In univariate analysis, serum copper levels showed significant positive correlations with serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and malondialdehyde modified-LDL and negative correlations with plasma total homocysteine levels and the administered dose of sevelamer. In multivariate analysis, serum levels of LDL-cholesterol and hs-CRP were found to be independent determinants of serum copper levels. We found that serum copper levels were independently associated with dyslipidemia and inflammation in hemodialysis patients, but the pathogenic roles of copper remain to be elucidated. In addition, potential effect of sevelamer on serum copper levels should be examined in appropriately designed studies.

  14. Serum total and bone alkaline phosphatase levels and their correlation with serum minerals over the lifespan of sheep.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristina P; Azevedo, Jorge T; Silva, Amélia M; Viegas, Carlos A; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E; Dias, Isabel R

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its bone isoform (BALP) levels during the ageing and in different physiologic states of sheep, in order to expand the knowledge about the variation of these biomarkers over the sheep lifespan. Ninety female sheep were divided into nine groups of various ages and physiological states (dry, lactation and pregnancy). Serum ALP, BALP and mineral levels were determined by commercial immunoassay, molecular absorbance spectrophotometry and chemical luminescence for BALP determination. Serum ALP and BALP decreased as sheep aged, and no statistically signif