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Sample records for serum glucose levels

  1. Fasting Serum Glucose Level in Postmenopausal Bangladeshi Women.

    PubMed

    Tajkia, T; Nessa, A; Mia, M R; Das, R K; Sufrin, S; Zannat, M R; Naznin, R; Khanam, A; Akter, R; Nasreen, S

    2016-07-01

    The study was done to find out the causes that changes the fasting serum glucose level in postmenopausal women. This was descriptive type of cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year from July 2014 to June 2015 in the department of physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Women of reproductive age (25-45 years) and clinically diagnosed 100 menopausal women (45-70 years) were included for this study. Convenience type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of fasting serum glucose was done by GOD-PAP method. Data were expressed as mean±SD and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test. The mean±SD of serum glucose in menopausal women were significant at 1% level of probability than women of reproductive age. This study revealed that postmenopausal women showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose level. Fasting blood sugar level between the study & control group were 7.69±2.37 and 4.59±0.73 and the difference was statistically significant. PMID:27612883

  2. Serum Glucose Level in First and Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zannat, M R; Nessa, A; Hossain, M M; Das, R K; Asrin, M; Sufrin, S; Islam, M T; Tajkia, T; Nasreen, S

    2016-04-01

    In the present study serum glucose were estimated in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and third trimester of pregnancy to observe the frequency of hyperglycemia during pregnancy and to assess the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study was a cross sectional study, carried out in the Department of Physiology of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. For this purpose, total 300 women with age ranged from 18 to 35 years were selected and divided into 100 healthy non pregnant women as control group and 200 normal pregnant women as study group. Study group was further divided into 100 pregnant women in first trimester of pregnancy and 100 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosed case of type I and type II diabetes, hypothyroidism, cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, antipsychotic drug users, regular steroid users were excluded from this study. Serum glucose was evaluated by the glucose-oxidase principle by GOD-PAP method in women with 1st trimester of pregnancy, 3rd trimester of pregnancy and in non pregnant women. Statistical analysis of data was done by unpaired student's t test. The results showed that the serum glucose levels increased significantly in third trimester and the value is not significant in first trimester. The increasing frequency of serum glucose level in third trimester may predispose the women to hyperglycemia of pregnancy or gestational diabetes mellitus.

  3. Serum Glucose Level in First and Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zannat, M R; Nessa, A; Hossain, M M; Das, R K; Asrin, M; Sufrin, S; Islam, M T; Tajkia, T; Nasreen, S

    2016-04-01

    In the present study serum glucose were estimated in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and third trimester of pregnancy to observe the frequency of hyperglycemia during pregnancy and to assess the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study was a cross sectional study, carried out in the Department of Physiology of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. For this purpose, total 300 women with age ranged from 18 to 35 years were selected and divided into 100 healthy non pregnant women as control group and 200 normal pregnant women as study group. Study group was further divided into 100 pregnant women in first trimester of pregnancy and 100 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosed case of type I and type II diabetes, hypothyroidism, cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, antipsychotic drug users, regular steroid users were excluded from this study. Serum glucose was evaluated by the glucose-oxidase principle by GOD-PAP method in women with 1st trimester of pregnancy, 3rd trimester of pregnancy and in non pregnant women. Statistical analysis of data was done by unpaired student's t test. The results showed that the serum glucose levels increased significantly in third trimester and the value is not significant in first trimester. The increasing frequency of serum glucose level in third trimester may predispose the women to hyperglycemia of pregnancy or gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27277349

  4. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    PubMed

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value <0.001) for obese group of BMI. There was no significant difference of glycosylated hemoglobin level between control and study groups. But there was positive correlation within each group. Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The

  5. Protective effect of berberine on serum glucose levels in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Wei-Han; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2012-03-01

    Among the active components in traditional anti-diabetic herbal plants, berberine which is an isoquinoline alkaloid exhibits promising potential for its potent anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effects. However, the berberine effect on serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects still remains unknown. This study investigated berberine's effects on serum glucose levels using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop T1D. The NOD mice were randomly divided into four groups, administered water with 50, 150, and 500 mg berberine/kg bw, respectively, through 14 weeks. ICR mice were also selected as a species control group to compare with the NOD mice. Changes in body weight, oral glucose challenge, and serum glucose levels were determined to identify the protective effect of berberine on T1D. After the 14-week oral supplementation, berberine decreased fasting serum glucose levels in NOD mice close to the levels in normal ICR mice in a dose dependent manner. Serum berberine levels showed a significantly (P<0.05) negative and non-linear correlation with fasting glucose levels in berberine-administered NOD mice. Our results suggested that berberine supplemented at appropriate doses for 14 weeks did not cause toxic side effects, but improved hyperglycemia in NOD mice.

  6. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    PubMed

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  7. SERUM LEPTIN, ATHEROGENIC LIPIDS AND GLUCOSE LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH SKIN TAGS

    PubMed Central

    Gorpelioglu, Canan; Erdal, Emel; Ardicoglu, Yasemin; Adam, Bahattin; Sarifakioglu, Evren

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between serum leptin, atherogenic lipid and glucose levels in patients with skin tags and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A total of 58 patients, with at least three skin tags, aged 24 to 85 years, and 31 healthy controls aged 30 to 70 years, were examined in the present study. The subjects in all the groups were selected with statistically similar Body Mass Index (BMI). Fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, serum lipids including triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), HbA1c, and leptin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, serum LDL level was calculated using Friedewald's formula. Results: There was no significant difference in age, sex, BMI, HbA1c, triglyceride, HDL and leptin levels between the groups. Skin tags group showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL, when compared with the healthy controls groups (P < 0.01). In addition, regression analysis showed that leptin level was positively correlated to serum triglyceride level (r = 0.265, P = 0.044). Conclusion: Total cholesterol and LDL serum levels should be controlled in patients with skin tags. On the other hand, glucose, leptin and HbA1c serum levels may not be as important as is being considered in recent times. PMID:20049263

  8. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  9. Decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with Chuvash polycythemia: a role for HIF in glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    McClain, Donald A; Abuelgasim, Khadega A; Nouraie, Mehdi; Salomon-Andonie, Juan; Niu, Xiaomei; Miasnikova, Galina; Polyakova, Lydia A; Sergueeva, Adelina; Okhotin, Daniel J; Cherqaoui, Rabia; Okhotin, David; Cox, James E; Swierczek, Sabina; Song, Jihyun; Simon, M Celeste; Huang, Jingyu; Simcox, Judith A; Yoon, Donghoon; Prchal, Josef T; Gordeuk, Victor R

    2013-01-01

    In Chuvash polycythemia, a homozygous 598C>T mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) leads to an R200W substitution in VHL protein, impaired degradation of α-subunits of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, and augmented hypoxic responses during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia of high altitude is associated with decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Other investigators reported that HIF-1 promotes cellular glucose uptake by increased expression of GLUT1 and increased glycolysis by increased expression of enzymes such as PDK. On the other hand, inactivation of Vhl in murine liver leads to hypoglycemia associated with a HIF-2-related decrease in the expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme genes Pepck, G6pc, and Glut2. We therefore hypothesized that glucose concentrations are decreased in individuals with Chuvash polycythemia. We found that 88 Chuvash VHL ( R200W ) homozygotes had lower random glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels than 52 Chuvash subjects with wild-type VHL alleles. Serum metabolomics revealed higher glycerol and citrate levels in the VHL ( R200W ) homozygotes. We expanded these observations in VHL ( R200W ) homozygote mice and found that they had lower fasting glucose values and lower glucose excursions than wild-type control mice but no change in fasting insulin concentrations. Hepatic expression of Glut2 and G6pc, but not Pdk2, was decreased, and skeletal muscle expression of Glut1, Pdk1, and Pdk4 was increased. These results suggest that both decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased skeletal uptake and glycolysis contribute to the decreased glucose concentrations. Further study is needed to determine whether pharmacologically manipulating HIF expression might be beneficial for treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:23015148

  10. Inverse relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu-qi; Ma, Xiao-jing; Hao, Ya-ping; Pan, Xiao-ping; Xu, Yi-ting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yu-qian; Jia, Wei-ping

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Osteocalcin is involved in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models and humans. In this study we investigated the relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women. Methods: A total of 733 postmenopausal women (age range: 41–78 years) with normal blood glucose levels were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Women taking lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Serum osteocalcin levels were assessed using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The degree of NAFLD progression for each subject was assessed through ultrasonography. The fatty liver index (FLI) of each subject was calculated to quantify the degree of liver steatosis. Results: The median level of serum osteocalcin for all subjects enrolled was 21.99 ng/mL (interquartile range: 17.84–26.55 ng/mL). Subjects with NAFLD had significantly lower serum osteocalcin levels (18.39 ng/mL; range: 16.03–23.64 ng/mL) compared with those without NAFLD (22.31 ng/mL; range: 18.55–27.06 ng/mL; P<0.01). Serum osteocalcin levels decreased with incre¬mental changes in the FLI value divided by the quartile (P-value for trend<0.01). The serum osteocalcin levels showed a negative correlation with the FLI values, even after adjusting for confounding factors (standardized β=−0.124; P<0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis identified an individual's serum osteocalcin level as an independent risk factor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 0.951; 95% confidence interval: 0.911–0.992; P=0.02). Conclusion: Serum osteocalcin levels are inversely correlated with NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels. PMID:26567728

  11. Effect of altered eating pattern on serum fructosamine: total protein ratio and plasma glucose level.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, S L; Cheah, S H; Husain, R; Duncan, M T

    1989-05-01

    The effect of alteration of eating pattern during Ramadan on body mass index (BMI), serum fructosamine: total protein ratio (F/TP), and glucose level in 18 healthy male Asiatic Moslems were studied. The results showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.025) in F/TP at the second week of Ramadan in 11 subjects who experienced continuous decrease in BMI throughout Ramadan. The remaining 7 subjects showed no significant changes in BMI and F/TP. No evidence of hypoglycaemia was observed in the subjects during the study. Serum fructosamine: total protein ratio in subjects with altered eating pattern preferably should be interpreted along with the change in body mass index.

  12. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  13. Colorimetric visualization of glucose at the submicromole level in serum by a homogenous silver nanoprism-glucose oxidase system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yunsheng; Ye, Jingjing; Tan, Kanghui; Wang, Jiajing; Yang, Guang

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we design a homogeneous system consisting of Ag nanoprisms and glucose oxidase (GOx) for simple, sensitive, and low-cost colorimetric sensing of glucose in serum. The unmodified Ag nanoprisms and GOx are first mixed with each other. Glucose is then added in the homogeneous mixture. Finally, the nanoplates are etched from triangle to round by H2O2 produced by the enzymatic oxidation, which leads to a more than 120 nm blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band of the Ag nanoplates. This large wavelength shift can be used not only for visual detection (from blue to mauve) of glucose by naked eyes but for reliable and convenient glucose quantification in the range from 2.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4) M. The detection limit is as low as 2.0 × 10(-7) M, because the used Ag nanoprisms possess (1) highly reactive edges/tips and (2) strongly tip sharpness and aspect ratio dependent SPR absorption. Owing to ultrahigh sensitivity, only 10-20 μL of serum is enough for a one-time determination. The proposed glucose sensor has great potential in the applications of point-of-care diagnostics, especially for third-world countries where high-tech diagnostics aids are inaccessible to the bulk of the population. PMID:23706061

  14. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  15. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raul M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  16. Alcohol Intake and Serum Glucose Levels from the Perspective of a Mendelian Randomization Design: The KCPS-II Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that alcohol intake is associated with increased fasting serum glucose (FSG), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to assess the causal effect of alcohol intake on FSG in a middle-aged Korean population. Methods Clinical data including FSG and alcohol intake were collected from 156,386 Koreans aged 20 years or older who took part in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) Biobank Cohort. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs671 in ALDH2 was genotyped among 2,993 men and 1,374 women in 2016. This was a randomly selected subcohort of KCPS-II Biobank participants. Results Alcohol consumption was positively associated with FSG level in men, but not in women. The rs671 major G allele was associated with increased alcohol intake (F-statistic = 302.62) and an increase in FSG in men. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, alcohol intake increased FSG by 1.78 mg/dL per alcohol unit (10 g ethanol) per day (95% CI: 0.97–2.59) in men. The associations became stronger when we excluded heavy drinkers and the elderly. However, in women, no significant association between rs671 and alcohol or serum glucose was found. Conclusion Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we suggest a causal relationship between alcohol intake and FSG among Korean men. Moreover, we found that the ALDH2 variant rs671 was not associated with FSG among Korean women. PMID:27632197

  17. Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

  18. Serum Glucose and Malondialdehyde Levels in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats Supplemented with Methanolic Extract of Tacazzea Apiculata

    PubMed Central

    Gwarzo, M. Y.; Ahmadu, J. H.; Ahmad, M. B.; Dikko, A. U. A.

    2014-01-01

    Tacazzea apiculata is used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of wide range of diseases. The current work investigated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties of Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus. Five groups (n=10) of rats were fed on commercial diet. The rats were divided into Group 1 (NUT) as non-diabetic and untreated, group 2 (NDT) as non-diabetic and treated, group 3 (DT) diabetic and treated. Group 4 (DUT) as diabetic and untreated. Group five (CP) were diabetic treated with Chlorpropamide, a drug used in the management of diabetic mellitus, with no known antioxidant property. Diabetic induction was done by intra-peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg b. wt with alloxan. Fasting blood glucose was estimated seven days after induction to determine the severity of glucose elevation among the induced groups. Methanolic extract of T. apiculata leaf was administered to alloxan induced diabetic and non-diabetic control rats at 100mg/kg body weight for four weeks and blood glucose estimated on weekly basis. Malondialdehyde level was also estimated in the sera of the rats. Blood glucose level was monitored for additional 2 weeks post treatment. The results indicated that the extracts possess significant hypoglycemic effect on the diabetic rats (DT) having the mean glucose of (95.2 ± 9.12 mg/dl) compared to the diabetic untreated control group (DUT) with a mean glucose of (238.91 ± 4.42 mg/dl, p<0.05). The effect was sustained even on withdrawal of the extracts for two weeks. This was accompanied by a progressive increase in weight among all treated diabetic rats and non diabetic treated (DT and NDT) compared with diabetic untreated control rat (DUT) (p<0.05). A raised level in malondialdehyde was also observed among the diabetic rat prior to treatment and significantly decreased after the treatment. In conclusion the research demonstrated the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of methanolic leaf extract of T

  19. Increased Serum Levels of Anti-Carbamylated 78-kDa Glucose-Regulated Protein Antibody in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Lai, Pei-Hsuan; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Koo, Malcolm; Lu, Ming-Chi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and titer of anti-carbamylated 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (anti-CarGRP78) antibody in serum from controls, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). Thirty-three RA patients, 20 SLE patients, 20 pSS patients, and 20 controls were enrolled from our outpatient clinic. GRP78 was cloned and carbamylated. Serum titers of anti- cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP), anti-GRP78, and anti-CarGRP78 were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No differences in serum titers of anti-GRP78 antibody in patients with RA, SLE, or pSS compared with the controls were observed. Serum levels of anti-carGRP78 antibody in patients with RA, but not SLE or pSS, were significantly higher compared with the controls (OD405 0.15 ± 0.08 versus 0.11 ± 0.03, p = 0.033). There was a positive correlation between the serum levels of anti-GRP78 antibody, but not anti-CarGRP78 antibody, with the levels of anti-CCP antibody in patients with RA. Both anti-GRP78 and anti-carGRP78 antibodies failed to correlate with C-reactive protein levels in patients with RA. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of anti-CarGRP78 antibody in patients with RA. In addition, the serum titer of anti-CarGRP78 antibody was significantly elevated in patients with RA compared with the controls. Anti-CarGRP78 antibody could also be detected in patients with SLE or pSS. PMID:27618024

  20. Increased Serum Levels of Anti-Carbamylated 78-kDa Glucose-Regulated Protein Antibody in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Lai, Pei-Hsuan; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Koo, Malcolm; Lu, Ming-Chi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and titer of anti-carbamylated 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (anti-CarGRP78) antibody in serum from controls, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). Thirty-three RA patients, 20 SLE patients, 20 pSS patients, and 20 controls were enrolled from our outpatient clinic. GRP78 was cloned and carbamylated. Serum titers of anti- cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP), anti-GRP78, and anti-CarGRP78 were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No differences in serum titers of anti-GRP78 antibody in patients with RA, SLE, or pSS compared with the controls were observed. Serum levels of anti-carGRP78 antibody in patients with RA, but not SLE or pSS, were significantly higher compared with the controls (OD405 0.15 ± 0.08 versus 0.11 ± 0.03, p = 0.033). There was a positive correlation between the serum levels of anti-GRP78 antibody, but not anti-CarGRP78 antibody, with the levels of anti-CCP antibody in patients with RA. Both anti-GRP78 and anti-carGRP78 antibodies failed to correlate with C-reactive protein levels in patients with RA. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of anti-CarGRP78 antibody in patients with RA. In addition, the serum titer of anti-CarGRP78 antibody was significantly elevated in patients with RA compared with the controls. Anti-CarGRP78 antibody could also be detected in patients with SLE or pSS. PMID:27618024

  1. Serum glucose level at hospital admission correlates with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in nondiabetic, acute coronary patients: the Hellenic Heart Failure Study.

    PubMed

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Pitsavos, Christos; Aggelopoulos, Panagiotis; Skoumas, John; Tsiamis, Eleftherios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the relation between serum glucose levels at hospital admission and left ventricular systolic function in nondiabetic patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Of the 1000 ACS patients who were consecutively enrolled during 2007-2008, 583 (63 +/- 13 years, 20% females) nondiabetic patients were studied in this work. Of these, 254 presented left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <40%). Biochemical measurements and detailed medical information were recorded in all participants. Patients having glucose levels at hospital admission in the highest tertile (>155 mg/dl) had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (40% vs 45%, P = 0.003), were older (66 +/- 11 vs 61 +/- 13, P = 0.004) and less physically active (49% vs 63%, P = 0.02), had higher troponin (14.7 +/- 39.7 vs 5.6 +/- 13.5, P = 0.03), higher brain natriuretic peptide (510.39 +/- 932.33 vs 213.4 +/- 301.14, P = 0.008), higher C-RP (42.26 +/- 55.26 vs 26.46 +/- 38.18, P = 0.04), lower creatinine clearance levels (68 +/- 33 vs.81 +/- 31, P = 0.009), higher white blood cell count (13 416 +/- 16 420 vs 9310 +/- 3020, P = 0.001), and lower body mass index (26.8 +/- 4 vs 27.2 +/- 4.4, P = 0.07), compared to those in the lowest tertile (<114 mg/dl). The multiadjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that a 10 mg/dl difference in glucose levels was independently associated with 8% (95% confidence interval 2%-14%) higher likelihood of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Low glucose concentrations at hospital admission in nondiabetic post-ACS patients is a predictor for the appearance of left ventricular dysfunction, and could be a target marker for risk stratification.

  2. Effect of chromium-enriched yeast on fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin and serum lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin.

    PubMed

    Racek, Jaroslav; Sindberg, C D; Moesgaard, S; Mainz, Josef; Fabry, Jaroslav; Müller, Luděk; Rácová, Katarína

    2013-10-01

    Chromium is required for a normal insulin function, and low levels have been linked with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to follow the effect of chromium supplementation on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) on insulin therapy. Eleven randomly selected patients with DM2 on insulin therapy were supplemented with a daily dose of 100 μg chromium yeast for the first supplementation period of 2 weeks. In the second supplementation period, the chromium dose was doubled and continued for the next 6 weeks. The third phase was a 6-week washout period. After each period, the levels of FPG and HbA1c were compared with the corresponding values at the end of the previous period. Serum triglycerides, total HDL and LDL cholesterol values after supplementation were compared with the baseline values. FPG decreased significantly after the first period of chromium supplementation (p < 0.001), and a tendency to a further reduction was observed after the second supplementation period. Similarly, HbA1c decreased significantly in both periods (p < 0.02 and p < 0.002, respectively). Eight weeks after withdrawal of chromium supplementation, both FPG and HbA1c levels returned to their pre-intervention values. The serum lipid concentrations were not significantly influenced by chromium supplementation. Chromium supplementation could be beneficial in patients with DM2 treated with insulin, most likely due to lowered insulin resistance leading to improved glucose tolerance. This finding needs to be confirmed in a larger study.

  3. Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre- and early pubertal children.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R

    2012-12-01

    Laminins are glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) in the laminin alpha5 (LAMA5) gene with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, studies in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether rs659822 and/or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric traits and metabolic phenotypes in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7-12 yr of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (P = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (P = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life. PMID:27625828

  4. Common variants in the LAMA5 gene associate with fasting plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in a cohort of pre- and early pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Maria; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Wiener, Howard; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are glycoproteins found in basement membranes where they play a vital role in tissue architecture and cell behavior. Previously, we reported the association of two polymorphisms (rs659822 and rs944895) in the laminin alpha5 (LAMA5) gene with anthropometric traits, fasting lipid profile, and glucose levels in pre-menopausal women and elderly subjects. Furthermore, studies in mice showed that Lama5 is involved in organogenesis and placental function during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether rs659822 and/or rs944895 are associated with inter-individual variability in birth weight as well as anthropometric traits and metabolic phenotypes in children. Two hundred and eighty nine healthy children aged 7–12 yr of European, Hispanic, and African-American ancestry were studied. Co-dominant models adjusted for genetic admixture, age, gender, and stages of puberty were used to test for the association of the polymorphisms with each trait. Our analysis showed significant associations of rs659822 with fasting plasma glucose levels (P = 0.0004) and of rs944895 with fasting serum triglycerides (P = 0.004) after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Our results corroborate our previous findings that genetic variants in LAMA5 contribute to variation in metabolic phenotypes and provide evidence that this may occur early in life.

  5. The Independent and Joint Association of Blood Pressure, Serum Total Homocysteine, and Fasting Serum Glucose Levels With Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Chinese Hypertensive Adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Ningling; Yu, Tao; Fan, Fangfang; Zheng, Meili; Qian, Geng; Wang, Binyan; Wang, Yu; Tang, Genfu; Li, Jianping; Qin, Xianhui; Hou, Fanfan; Xu, Xiping; Yang, Xinchun; Chen, Yundai; Wang, Xiaobin; Huo, Yong

    2016-09-28

    This study aimed to investigate the independent and joint association of blood pressure (BP), homocysteine (Hcy), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, a measure of arterial stiffness) in Chinese hypertensive adults.The analyses included 3967 participants whose BP, Hcy, FBG, and baPWV were measured along with other covariates. Systolic BP (SBP) was analyzed as 3 categories (SBP < 160 mmHg; 160 to 179 mmHg; ≥ 180 mmHg); Hcy as 3 categories (< 10 μmol/L; 10 to 14.9 μmol/L; ≥ 15.0 μmol/L) and FBG: normal (FBG < 5.6 mmol/L), impaired (5.6 mmol/L ≤ FBG < 7.0 mmol/L), and diabetes mellitus (FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L). We performed linear regression analyses to evaluate their associations with baPWV with adjustment for covariables.When analyzed individually, BP, Hcy, and FBG were each associated with baPWV. When BP and FBG were analyzed jointly, the highest baPWV value (mean ± SD: 2227 ± 466 cm/s) was observed in participants with FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and SBP ≥ 180 mmHg (β = 432.5, P < 0.001), and the lowest baPWV value (mean ± SD: 1692 ± 289 cm/s) was seen in participants with NFG and SBP < 160 mmHg. When Hcy and FBG were analyzed jointly, the highest baPWV value (2072 ± 480 cm/s) was observed in participants with FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and Hcy ≥ 15.0 μmol/L (β = 167.6, P < 0.001), while the lowest baPWV value (mean ± SD: 1773 ± 334 cm/s) was observed in participants with NFG and Hcy < 10 μmol/L.In Chinese hypertensive adults, SBP, Hcy, and FBG are individually and jointly associated with baPWV.Our findings underscore the importance of identifying individuals with multiple risk factors of baPWV including high SBP, FBG, and Hcy.

  6. Secular trends in serum lipid levels of a Middle Eastern adult population; 10 years follow up in Tehran lipid and glucose study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine trends in the population levels of serum lipids among a Middle-Eastern adult population with high prevalence of dyslipidemia. Methods A population-based cohort of adult Iranian participants, aged ≥20 years underwent four consecutive examinations between 1999–2001 and 2008–2011. Trends in age and multivariate-adjusted mean lipid levels were calculated using generalized estimating equations. Results At each of the 4 assessments, there were significant decreases in levels of total cholesterol (TC) (multivariate-adjusted means, 5.21 vs. 4.88 mmol/L in men; 5.42 vs. 5.07 mmol/L in women), triglycerides (TGs) (2.11 vs. 1.94 mmol/L in men; 1.88 vs. 1.74 mmol/L in women), and an increase in HDL-C level in both genders (0.95 vs. 1.058 mmol/L in men; 1.103 vs. 1.246 mmol/L in women) in multivariate analyses (all Ps <0.001); however, body mass index (BMI) significantly increased simultaneously (25.92 vs. 27.45 kg/m2 in men; 27.76 vs. 30.02 kg/m2 in women) (P < 0.001). There were significant (P < 0.001) increases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels only among men (5.35 vs. 5.73 mmol/L). Results did not change after excluding participants that had cardiovascular disease or used lipid lowering drugs during follow-up. There were significant decreases in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, low HDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia (all Ps <0.001) during follow-up. Furthermore, the consumption of lipid lowering drugs significantly increased (P <0.001). Conclusion During a 10 years follow-up, favorable trends were observed in the population levels of TC, triglycerides, HDL-C, which could not be fully accounted for by the increase observed in the consumption of lipid lowering drugs. These favorable trends were counterbalanced by the progressive increase in general obesity and FPG level. PMID:24456699

  7. Higher serum uric acid level increases risk of prehypertension in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, but not pre-diabetes and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-H; Wu, J-S; Sun, Z-J; Lu, F-H; Chang, C-S; Chang, C-J; Yang, Y-C

    2016-08-01

    Although the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and prehypertension has been reported in previous studies, it is unknown whether their relationship is similar in subjects with diabetes, pre-diabetes and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). This study thus aimed to investigate the relationship between SUA and prehypertension in subjects with different glycemic status, including NGT, pre-diabetes and diabetes. A total of 12 010 participants were included after excluding subjects with blood pressure ⩾140/90 mm Hg, history of hypertension, leukaemia, lymphoma, hypothyroidism, medication for hypertension and hyperuricemia and missing data. Subjects were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles (male Q1: ⩽345.0, Q2: 345.0-392.6, Q3: 392.6-440.2, Q4: ⩾440.2 μmol l(-1) and female Q1: ⩽249.8, Q2: 249.8-285.5, Q3: 285.5-333.1, Q4: ⩾333.1 μmol l(-1)). Diabetes, pre-diabetes and NGT were assessed according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Normotension and prehypertension were defined according to the JNC-7 (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) criteria. The SUA was significantly higher in prehypertensive subjects as compared with normotensive subjects. SUA, as a continuous variable, was positively associated with prehypertension in subjects with NGT but not pre-diabetes and diabetes. Besides, NGT subjects with the highest quartile of SUA exhibited a higher risk of prehypertension after adjustment for other confounding factors. In pre-diabetes and diabetes groups, none of SUA quartiles was significantly related to prehypertension. SUA was significantly associated with an increased risk of prehypertension in subjects with NGT but insignificantly in subjects with pre-diabetes and diabetes. PMID:26911534

  8. Serum Prolactin Level of Subfertile Women.

    PubMed

    Anwary, S A; Fatima, P; Alfazzaman, M; Mahzabin, Z; Rahman, M M; Bari, N

    2016-01-01

    Subfertility is a major reproductive health problem all over the world as well as Bangladesh, and the problem is increasing day by day. This study was done to estimate the serum prolactin concentration in primary and secondary subfertile women. Laboratory investigation included serum prolactin level, as well as LH, FSH, TSH blood glucose (2 hours after 75 gm glucose load) of 50 women who attended infertility unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2009 and February 2010. In most cases, common age group 26-30 years (52%), primary subfertility (74%), duration of marriage >5 years (60%), trying to conceive duration ≤5 years (54%), BMI >25 kg/m² (60%), menstrual cycle regular (58%), history of abortion absent (90%), and history of menstrual regulation absent (94%). Common investigation findings was normal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 1.0-10.0 mIU/ml in 82%, normal serum luteinizing hormone (LH) 1.0-10.0 mIU/ml in 50%, normal serum prolactin 1.9-25.0 ng/ml in 36%, normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.4-4.0 μIU/ml in 56%, and normal blood glucose level (2 hours after breakfast) (<7.8 mmol/) in 66% women. Ultrasonographic finding of lower abdomen was normal in 14% women. Common finding of semen analysis husbands of the study women was normozoospermia in 88% cases. Serum prolactin concentration may have role to play in subfertility of women.

  9. Effect of exogenous leptin on serum levels of lipids, glucose, renal and hepatic variables in both genders of obese and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Ghasemi, Mohsen; Zendehbad, Bamdad; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Golshan, Alireza; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Al-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin exerts various effects on appetite and body weight. Disruption of the obesity gene is precedent to fatness. Insulin or glucose elevates leptin, but streptozotocin reduces it. However, controversial data exist for the effects of leptin on diabetes and leptin level in each gender. Leptin can damage the kidney function but little evidence exists for its hepatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable sex-dependent differences in blood sugar levels, lipid profile, and renal and hepatic biochemical factors in the obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after leptin administration. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, namely obese and diabetic rats. Each group was further divided into male and female subgroups. Extra fat and carbohydrate was added to the diet to induce obesity. Furthermore, streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, IP) was injected to induce diabetes. The treatment groups received leptin (0.1 mg/kg SC) for 10 days, and then, blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus for laboratory evaluations. Results: Leptin resulted in a significant weight loss in both sexes (P<0.001), food intake reduction in male rats (P<0.05), LDL reduction in female rats (obese (P<0.05) and diabetic (P<0.001)), and glucose level decline in the female diabetic rats (P<0.001). However, total protein concentration, LFT (liver function tests), urea and creatinin concentrations among different groups did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: Leptin caused some discrepant results, especially regarding the LDL and glucose levels in diabetic female rats. PMID:26949493

  10. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  11. A Potential Issue with Screening Prediabetes or Diabetes Using Serum Glucose: A Delay in Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Goo; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Park, Sung Woo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fasting serum glucose level with the fasting plasma glucose level for diagnosing hyperglycemic states in real-life clinical situations. Additionally, we investigated a usual delay in sample processing and how such delays can impact the diagnosis of hyperglycemic states. Among 1,254 participants who had normoglycemia or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) assessed by the fasting serum glucose level, 20.9% were newly diagnosed with diabetes based on the plasma fasting glucose level. Of the participants with normoglycemia, 62.1% and 14.2% were newly diagnosed with IFG and diabetes, respectively, according to the plasma fasting glucose level. In our clinical laboratory for performing health examinations, the time delay from blood sampling to glycemic testing averaged 78±52 minutes. These findings show that the ordinary time delay for sample processing of the serum glucose for screening hyperglycemic states may be an important reason for these diagnoses to be underestimated in Korea. PMID:27766249

  12. TCA Cycle Turnover And Serum Glucose Sources By Automated Bayesian Analysis Of NMR Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, Matthew E.; Burgess, Shawn; Jeffrey, F. Mark; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig; Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2004-04-21

    Changes in sources of serum glucose are indicative of a variety of pathological metabolic states. It is possible to measure the sources of serum glucose by the administration of deuterated water to a subject followed by analysis of the 2H enrichment levels in glucose extracted from plasma from a single blood draw by 2H NMR. Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations of the posterior probability densities may then be used to evaluate the contribution of glycogenolysis, glycerol, and the Kreb's cycle to serum glucose. Experiments with simulated NMR spectra show that in spectra with a S/N of 20 to 1, the resulting metabolic information may be evaluated with an accuracy of about 4 percent.

  13. TCA Cycle Turnover And Serum Glucose Sources By Automated Bayesian Analysis Of NMR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Matthew E.; Burgess, Shawn; Jeffrey, F. Mark; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig; Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2004-04-01

    Changes in sources of serum glucose are indicative of a variety of pathological metabolic states. It is possible to measure the sources of serum glucose by the administration of deuterated water to a subject followed by analysis of the 2H enrichment levels in glucose extracted from plasma from a single blood draw by 2H NMR. Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations of the posterior probability densities may then be used to evaluate the contribution of glycogenolysis, glycerol, and the Kreb's cycle to serum glucose. Experiments with simulated NMR spectra show that in spectra with a S/N of 20 to 1, the resulting metabolic information may be evaluated with an accuracy of about 4 percent.

  14. Neural control of blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Niijima, A

    1986-01-01

    All of the experimental results described above can be categorized as follows: the relationship between glucose levels and pancreatic and adrenal nerve activities; innervations of the liver and their role in the regulation of blood glucose level; central integration of blood glucose level; glucose-sensitive afferent nerve fibers in the liver and regulation of blood glucose; oral and intestinal inputs involved in reflex control of blood glucose level. We showed that an increase in blood glucose content produced an increase in the activity of the pancreatic branch of the vagus nerve, whereas it induced a decrease in the activity of the adrenal nerve. It was also shown that a decrease in blood glucose activated the sympatho-adrenal system and suppressed the vago-pancreatic system. It seems rational that these responses are involved in the maintenance of blood glucose level. Studies on the innervation of the liver led us to a conclusion that sympathetic innervation of the liver might play a role in eliciting a prompt hyperglycemic response through liberation of norepinephrine from the nerve terminals, and that the vagal innervation synergically worked with the humoral factor (insulin) for glycogen synthesis in the hyperglycemic condition. The glucose-sensitive afferents from the liver seem to initiate a reflex control of blood glucose level. The gustatory information on EIR response, reported by STEFFENS, is supported by the electrophysiological observations. MEI's reports also indicated the importance of information from the intestinal glucoreceptors in the reflex control of insulin secretion. The role of integrative functions of the hypothalamus and brainstem through neuronal networks on neural control of blood glucose levels is also evident. A schematic diagram of the nervous networks involved in the regulation of the blood glucose levels is shown in Fig. 3. PMID:3550186

  15. Central injection of CDP-choline suppresses serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyici, Sinem; Basaran, Nesrin Filiz; Cavun, Sinan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-10-01

    In this study we aimed to test central administration of CDP-choline on serum ghrelin, leptin, glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol CDP-choline and saline were administered to male Wistar-Albino rats. For the measurement of serum leptin and ghrelin levels, blood samples were obtained baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min following i.c.v. CDP-choline injection. Equimolar doses of i.c.v. choline (1.0 µmol) and cytidine (1.0 µmol) were administered and measurements were repeated throughout the second round of the experiment. Atropine (10 µg) and mecamylamine (50 µg) were injected intracerebroventricularly prior to CDP-choline and measurements repeated in the third round of the experiment. After 1 µmol CDP-choline injection, serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 60 min (P=0.025), whereas serum leptin levels were increased at 60 and 120 min (P=0.012 and P=0.017 respectively). CDP-choline injections also induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum glucose and corticosterone levels. The effect of choline on serum leptin and ghrelin levels was similar with CDP-choline while no effect was seen with cytidine. Suppression of serum ghrelin levels was eliminated through mecamylamine pretreatment while a rise in leptin was prevented by both atropine and mecamylamine pretreatments. In conclusion; centrally injected CDP-choline suppressed serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels. The observed effects following receptor antagonist treatment suggest that nicotinic receptors play a role in suppression of serum ghrelin levels,whereas nicotinic and muscarinic receptors both play a part in the increase of serum leptin levels.

  16. [Serum sclerostin levels and metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-06-01

    Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.

  17. Effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on glucose-induced human serum albumin glycation.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Hagerman, A E

    2015-01-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in plant-based foods and beverages such as green tea. Although EGCg can eliminate carbonyl species produced by glucose autoxidation and thus can inhibit protein glycation, it is also reported to be a pro-oxidant that stimulates protein glycation in vitro. To better understand the balance between antioxidant and pro-oxidant features of EGCg, we evaluated EGCg-mediated bioactivities in a human serum albumin (HSA)/glucose model by varying three different parameters (glucose level, EGCg concentration, and time of exposure to EGCg). Measurements of glycation-induced fluorescence, protein carbonyls, and electrophoretic mobility showed that the level of HSA glycation was positively related to the glucose level over the range 10-100 mM during a 21-day incubation at 37°C and pH: 7.4. Under mild glycemic pressure (10 mM), long exposure to EGCg enhanced HSA glycation, while brief exposure to low concentrations of EGCg did not. Under high glycemic pressure (100 mM glucose), long exposure to EGCg inhibited glycation. For the first time we showed that brief exposure to EGCg reversed glycation-induced fluorescence, indicating a restorative effect. In conclusion, our research identified glucose level, EGCg concentration, and time of exposure as critical factors dictating EGCg bioactivities in HSA glycation. EGCg did not affect HSA glycation under normal physiological conditions but had a potential therapeutic effect on HSA severely damaged by glycation.

  18. Glucose-induced serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase activation in oncofetal fibronectin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Zia A.; Barbin, Yousef P.; Farhangkhoee, Hana; Beier, Norbert; Scholz, Wolfgang; Chakrabarti, Subrata . E-mail: subrata.chakrabarti@fmd.uwo.ca

    2005-04-01

    Preferential expression of oncofetal extra domain-B fibronectin (EDB{sup +} FN), a proposed angiogenic marker, has been shown in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. High levels of glucose also increase EDB{sup +} FN expression in endothelial cells (ECs) via transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). The present study was aimed at elucidating the role of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK-1) in glucose-induced EDB{sup +} FN expression. Using human macro- and microvascular ECs, we show that high levels of glucose, TGF-{beta}1, and ET-1 increase the EDB{sup +} FN expression via SGK-1 alteration at the mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Inhibition of TGF-{beta}1 and ET-1 prevented glucose-induced SGK-1 activation and the EDB{sup +} FN expression. Furthermore, using siRNA-mediated SGK-1 gene silencing, we show that glucose-induced EDB{sup +} FN expression can be completely prevented. These findings provide first evidence of glucose-induced SGK-1 activation in altered EDB{sup +} FN expression and provide novel avenues for therapeutic modalities.

  19. Correlation of hemoglobin A1C level with surgical outcomes: Can tight perioperative glucose control reduce infection and cardiac events?

    PubMed

    Shaw, Palma; Saleem, Taimur; Gahtan, Vivian

    2014-12-01

    "Optimal" control of serum glucose levels is an important principle in the successful management of diabetes mellitus. Conversely, poorly controlled serum glucose levels are associated with negative sequelae, including accelerated progression of cardiovascular disease, increased mortality, and increased perioperative complications. The importance of glycemic control as a part of appropriate perioperative management is reviewed and target values are recommended. PMID:26073825

  20. Fructosamine: An Alternative to Serum Glucose Measurement in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    DePerno, Christopher S; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2015-10-01

    We determined the relationship between fructosamine and serum glucose in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested during two seasonally stressful periods for deer in coastal North Carolina, US: July 2008 represented the postparturition and lactation period, and March 2009 represented the late winter and pre-green-up period. Serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations were similar between time periods but were uncorrelated within each season. However, when serum glucose was separated into high and low categories based on the median blood glucose score within each time period, we detected statistically significant differences between July and March for serum glucose. Fructosamine was more stable than serum glucose for evaluating the white-tailed deer physiologic condition.

  1. Fructosamine: An Alternative to Serum Glucose Measurement in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    DePerno, Christopher S; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2015-10-01

    We determined the relationship between fructosamine and serum glucose in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested during two seasonally stressful periods for deer in coastal North Carolina, US: July 2008 represented the postparturition and lactation period, and March 2009 represented the late winter and pre-green-up period. Serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations were similar between time periods but were uncorrelated within each season. However, when serum glucose was separated into high and low categories based on the median blood glucose score within each time period, we detected statistically significant differences between July and March for serum glucose. Fructosamine was more stable than serum glucose for evaluating the white-tailed deer physiologic condition. PMID:26251990

  2. Selection of the most informative near infrared spectroscopy wavebands for continuous glucose monitoring in human serum.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Saeys, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    By controlling the blood glucose levels of diabetics permanent diabetes-related problems such as blindness and loss of limbs can be delayed or even avoided. Therefore, many researchers have aimed at the development of a non-invasive sensor to monitor the blood glucose level continuously. As non-invasive measurements through the skin, the ear lobe or the gums have proven to be either unreliable or impractical, attention has recently shifted to minimally invasive sensors which measure the glucose content in serum or interstitial fluid. Thanks to the development of on-chip spectrometers minimally invasive, implantable devices are coming within reach. However, this technology does not allow to acquire a large number of wavelengths over a broad range. Therefore, the most informative combination of a limited number of variables should be selected. In this study, Interval PLS (iPLS), Variable Importance in Projection (VIP), Uninformative Variable Elimination (UVE), Bootstrap-PLS coefficients, Moving window, CorXyPLS, Interval Random Frog-PLS and combinations of these methods were used in order to address the question whether the short wave band (800-1500 nm), first overtone band (1500-1800 nm), the combination band (2050-2300 nm) or a combination of them is the most informative region for glucose measurements and which wavebands should be measured within these wavelength ranges. The three different data sets employed focus on the determination of (1) glucose in aqueous solutions over the 1-30 mM range in presence of urea and sodium D-lactate, (2) glucose in aqueous solutions over the 2-16 mM range in presence of icodextrin and urea and (3) glucose in human serum samples. The best results for the first, second and third data sets were obtained by selecting 40, 130 and 20 variables resulting in a PLS model with an RMSEP of 0.56, 0.59 and 1.5mM, respectively. It was found that the first overtone band is most informative for aqueous solutions, while for glucose measurement of

  3. Diet-induced obesity impairs hypothalamic glucose sensing but not glucose hypothalamic extracellular levels, as measured by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, I S; Zemdegs, J C S; de Souza, A P; Watanabe, R L H; Telles, M M; Nascimento, C M O; Oyama, L M; Ribeiro, E B

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Glucose from the diet may signal metabolic status to hypothalamic sites controlling energy homeostasis. Disruption of this mechanism may contribute to obesity but its relevance has not been established. The present experiments aimed at evaluating whether obesity induced by chronic high-fat intake affects the ability of hypothalamic glucose to control feeding. We hypothesized that glucose transport to the hypothalamus as well as glucose sensing and signaling could be impaired by high-fat feeding. Subjects/methods: Female Wistar rats were studied after 8 weeks on either control or high-lard diet. Daily food intake was measured after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) glucose. Glycemia and glucose content of medial hypothalamus microdialysates were measured in response to interperitoneal (i.p.) glucose or meal intake after an overnight fast. The effect of refeeding on whole hypothalamus levels of glucose transporter proteins (GLUT) 1, 2 and 4, AMPK and phosphorylated AMPK levels was determined by immunoblotting. Results: High-fat rats had higher body weight and fat content and serum leptin than control rats, but normal insulin levels and glucose tolerance. I.c.v. glucose inhibited food intake in control but failed to do so in high-fat rats. Either i.p. glucose or refeeding significantly increased glucose hypothalamic microdialysate levels in the control rats. These levels showed exacerbated increases in the high-fat rats. GLUT1 and 4 levels were not affected by refeeding. GLUT2 levels decreased and phosphor-AMPK levels increased in the high-fat rats but not in the controls. Conclusions: The findings suggest that, in the high-fat rats, a defective glucose sensing by decreased GLUT2 levels contributed to an inappropriate activation of AMPK after refeeding, despite increased extracellular glucose levels. These derangements were probably involved in the abolition of hypophagia in response to i.c.v. glucose. It is proposed that ‘glucose resistance

  4. Smoking, alcohol drinking and serum carotenoids levels.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Ito, Y; Sasaki, R; Ohtani, M; Hamajima, N; Asano, A

    1987-10-01

    Serum carotenoids concentrations in healthy inhabitants, aged 40-79 years, of a community were measured. The results are as follows. 1. The alpha- and beta-carotene and lycopene levels in serum were significantly higher in females than males. The alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations tended to increase with advancing age, this being especially marked for serum beta-carotene levels in males. However, beta-carotene levels were high in females throughout the age range of 50-69 years. There was no significant change in serum level of lycopene with age. 2. There was no significant difference in intake frequency of foods containing large amounts of carotenoids among the groups with or without smoking and drinking, as serum alpha- and beta-carotene levels were closely associated with intake frequency of green-yellow vegetables. 3. Regular alcohol drinkers or current smokers showed lower serum beta-carotene concentrations, and the effect of alcohol drinking on serum carotene level seemed to be larger than that of smoking. A synergistic lowering action of smoking and drinking on serum beta-carotene level was suggested. Among the alcohol drinkers, the more cigarettes consumed per day, the lower the serum beta-carotene level was, but this was not the case among the non-drinkers. Ex-smokers showed intermediate values between current smokers and non-smokers. The results suggest that alcohol drinking and smoking habit might be associated with lower serum beta-carotene level, which in turn may be related to excess incidence of cancer among smokers or drinkers.

  5. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Megumi; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Omori, Akina; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level. Methods Canagliflozin (100 mg/day) was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39) for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. Results At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008), though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7%) out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044), HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044) and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041) but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables. Conclusions Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2. Trial Registration UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151 PMID:27124282

  6. Assessment of metabolic status in young Japanese females using postprandial glucose and insulin levels.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Masae; Sasaki, Megumi; Katsuda, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Kana; Takaya, Chiaki; Umeda, Minako; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-05-01

    Lifestyle-related diseases develop through the accumulation of undesirable lifestyle habits both prior to the onset of disease as well as during normal healthy life. Accordingly, early detection of, and intervention in, metabolic disorders is desirable, but is hampered by the lack of an established evaluation index for young individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of a biomarker of health in young female subjects. The subjects were young healthy Japanese females in whom energy expenditure was measured for a period of 210 min after a test meal. In addition, Δplasma glucose and Δserum insulin were calculated from the fasting and 30 min values. ΔPlasma glucose and Δserum insulin levels varied widely compared to fasting levels. Both the area under the curve of carbohydrate oxidation rate and serum free fatty acid levels were higher in individuals in the high Δplasma glucose group. Moreover, Δplasma glucose was higher in individuals in the high Δserum insulin group than in the low Δserum insulin group. We conclude that nutritional balanced liquid loading test using Δplasma glucose and Δserum insulin as the evaluation index is useful for the detection of primary metabolic disorders in young females.

  7. Influence of hemorrhage on adrenal secretion, blood glucose and serum insulin in the awake pig.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, L C; Curtin, R; Sapira, J D

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to quantitate the adrenal medullary and cortical response to hemorrhage in awake animals bled at different rates and to relate these responses to simultaneous changes in blood glucose and serum insulin. A series of awake pigs were bled either slowly or rapidly of 30% of their calculated blood volume. Infusions of exogenous epinephrine were performed in an additional series of unbled animals and infusions of epinephrine plus hydrocortisone were similarly performed in an additonal series. Increase in blood glucose and epinephrine secretion rate following hemorrhage were found to be significantly dependent upon the rate of initial hemorrhage. Cortisol secretion was found to rise significantly during and following hemorrhage in both rapidly and slowly bled animals. Serum insulin levels remained at baseline levels during shock, despite the presence of significant hyperglycemia. In unbled animals infused with epinephrine at rates comparable to those measured in shock, elevations in blood glucose were markedly lower, shifting to the right of the dose-response curve during hemorrhage. Simultaneous infusions of cortisol and epinephrine resulted in a dose-response curve which did not differ significantly from that following infusion of epinephrine alone. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1247317

  8. Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in combination with a glucose load in humans.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Otto, Baerbel; Garcia, Ada L; Wagner, Karen; Mueller, Corinna; Weickert, Martin O; Heldwein, Walter; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-07-01

    Dietary fibre consumption is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. In contrast, dietary polyphenols have been suggested to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on glucose and insulin metabolism. Recently, we reported that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (carob fibre) resulted in lower postprandial acylated ghrelin levels after a liquid meal challenge test compared with a control meal without supplementation. The effects may, however, differ when a different food matrix is used. Thus, we investigated the effects of carob fibre on glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses in healthy humans in combination with a glucose load. In a randomized single-blind cross-over study involving twenty healthy subjects (aged 22-62 years), plasma glucose, total and acylated ghrelin, and serum insulin were repeatedly assessed before and after the ingestion of 200 ml water with 50 g glucose and 0, 5, 10 or 20 g carob fibre over a period of 180 min. The intake of 5 and 10 g carob fibre increased the plasma glucose by 47 % and 64 % (P < 0.001), and serum insulin by 19.9 and 24.8 % (P < 0.001), compared with the control. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations did not change significantly after the consumption of carob-enriched glucose solution. Total ghrelin decreased only after 10 g carob fibre (P < 0.001) compared with control. In conclusion, we showed that polyphenol-rich carob fibre, administered within a water-glucose solution, increases postprandial glucose and insulin responses, suggesting a deterioration in glycaemic control.

  9. Relationship of serum adiponectin and resistin to glucose intolerance and fat topography in south-Asians

    PubMed Central

    Wasim, Hanif; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Chetty, Raja; McTernan, Phillip G; Barnett, A H; Kumar, Sudhesh

    2006-01-01

    Objectives South-Asians have lower adiponectin levels compared to Caucasians. It was not clear however, if this intrinsic feature is related to aspects of glucose metabolism. This study aims to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and adipocytokine in South-Asian subjects by measuring serum adipocytokines, adiposity, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance levels. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 150 South-Asians (80 males, 70 females) were included, 60 had NGT (Control group, Age 51.33 ± 11.5, BMI 27 ± 2.3), 60 had IGT (Age 57.7 ± 12.5, BMI 27.2 ± 2.7), 30 had type 2 DM (Age 49.5 ± 10.9, BMI 28 ± 1.7). Measures of adiposity, adipocytokines and other metabolic parameters were determined. Parameters were measured using the following: a) Plasma glucose by glucose oxidase method b) CRP by immunoturbidimetric method (Roche/Hitachi analyser) c) insulin by Medgenix INS-ELISA immunoenzymetric assay by Biosource (Belgium) d) Leptin, Adiponectin by radioimmunoassay kits by Linco Research (St. Charles MO) e) Resistin by immunoassay kits by Phoenix Pharmaceuticals INC (530 Harbor Boulevard, Belmont CA 94002, USA). Results Adiponectin concentrations were highest in NGT, decreased in IGT and lowest in DMT2, (both p < 0.01). Leptin was significantly higher in DMT2 than IGT and NGT p = 0.02 and 0.04 respectively. There was a significant positive relationships between log adiponectin and 2-hr insulin values, p = 0.028 and history of hypertensions and a ischemic heart disease p = 0.008 with R = 0.65. There was a significant inverse correlation between log adiponectin and resistin, p < 0.01. Conclusion Resistin levels had an inverse correlation with adiponectin levels, indicating an inverse relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and adiponectin. Adiponectin levels were related to glucose tolerance. PMID:16669997

  10. Clinical importance of thrombomodulin serum levels.

    PubMed

    Califano, F; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P; Campana, E; Parlapiano, C; Alegiani, F; Vincentelli, G M; Turchetti, P

    2000-01-01

    Thrombomodulin is a glycoprotein that can bind to thrombin and activate protein C, thus mitigating the effects of cytokines produced by inflammatory and immunological processes. The molecule exerts a protective function on endothelial cells. Thrombomodulin is cleaved to its soluble form by neutrophil elastase and by other substances produced during acute and chronic inflammatory responses, immunologic reactions and complement activation. ELISA technique yields normal serum levels of 3.1 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; in males these levels are higher; TM levels also rise during menopause. Other circumstances associated with an increase of serum TM levels are smoking, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), cardiac surgery, atherosclerosis, ARDS, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cerebral and myocardial infarction, and multiple sclerosis. Serum levels of TM represent an useful prognostic index, because they are associated with an increase in mortality rate, or however a progression of the underlying pathological condition. PMID:11558626

  11. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P<0.05). Also, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of the T. terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women. PMID:27516681

  12. Multicommuted flow system for the determination of glucose in animal blood serum exploiting enzymatic reaction and chemiluminescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Cherrine K.; Martelli, Patrícia B.; Lima, José L. F. C.; Saraiva, Maria Lúcia M. F. S.

    2003-01-01

    An automatic flow procedure based on multicommutation dedicated for the determination of glucose in animal blood serum using glucose oxidase with chemiluminescence detection is described. The flow manifold consisted of a set of three-way solenoid valves assembled to implement multicommutation. A microcomputer furnished with an electronic interface and software written in Quick BASIC 4.5 controlled the manifold and performed data acquisition. Glucose oxidase was immobilized on porous silica beads (glass aminopropyl) and packed in a minicolumn (15 × 5 mm). The procedure was based on the enzymatic degradation of glucose, producing hydrogen peroxide, which oxidized luminol in the presence of hexacyanoferrate(III), causing the chemiluminescence. The system was tested by analysing a set of serum animal samples without previous treatment. Results were in agreement with those obtained with the conventional method (LABTEST Kit) at the 95% confidence level. The detection limit and variation coefficient were estimated as 12.0 mg l−1 (99.7% confidence level) and 3.5% (n = 20), respectively. The sampling rate was about 60 determinations h−1 with sample concentrations ranging from 50 to 600 mg l−1 glucose. The consumptions of serum sample, hexacyanoferrate(III) and luminol were 46 μl, 10.0 mg and 0.2 mg/determination, respectively. PMID:18924619

  13. How does whisky lower serum urate level?

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Nakanishi, Takeo; Fukazawa, Miki; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-05-01

    Clinical studies have shown that moderate whisky consumption increased renal excretion of urate into urine and decreased serum urate level, but the mechanism involved has not been established. Because renal reabsorption influences serum urate level, the effects of the whisky congeners on urate transporters, urate transporter 1 (URAT1), and voltage-driven urate transporter (URATv1) involved in reabsorptive transport of urate were examined. In transporter-expressing Xenopus oocytes, 12-year-old and 18-year-old whisky congeners inhibited urate uptake by URAT1 with IC50 values of 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively, while urate uptake by URATv1 was inhibited only at 1 mg/mL. Decreased serum urate level after whisky consumption may be mainly due to inhibition of URAT1 by the congeners.

  14. Carbon dot based non enzymatic approach for the detection and estimation of glucose in blood serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanti Krishna, A.; Nair, Priya A.; Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we generated a simple, reliable and selective approach based on carbon dots (CDs) and 4-cyanophenylboronic acid (CPBA) for blood glucose sensing. The methodology relies on the quenching of the emission of CDs by CPBA followed by its recovery by glucose. The system consisting of CDs and CPBA was characterised by Fourier transform infra red spectrum, transmissions electron microscopic, dynamic light scattering instrument, UV–visible and fluorescence techniques. The response of the probe, CD-BA in presence of different concentrations of glucose was assessed. Linear range was obtained for glucose concentrations ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Interferences by other saccharides and various biomolecules coexisting in blood serum were negligible. The chemo sensor thus developed has been successfully used for the estimation of glucose in human blood serum. The system being sensitive, efficient and easy to perform is a promising platform for blood glucose sensing.

  15. Carbon dot based non enzymatic approach for the detection and estimation of glucose in blood serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanti Krishna, A.; Nair, Priya A.; Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we generated a simple, reliable and selective approach based on carbon dots (CDs) and 4-cyanophenylboronic acid (CPBA) for blood glucose sensing. The methodology relies on the quenching of the emission of CDs by CPBA followed by its recovery by glucose. The system consisting of CDs and CPBA was characterised by Fourier transform infra red spectrum, transmissions electron microscopic, dynamic light scattering instrument, UV-visible and fluorescence techniques. The response of the probe, CD-BA in presence of different concentrations of glucose was assessed. Linear range was obtained for glucose concentrations ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Interferences by other saccharides and various biomolecules coexisting in blood serum were negligible. The chemo sensor thus developed has been successfully used for the estimation of glucose in human blood serum. The system being sensitive, efficient and easy to perform is a promising platform for blood glucose sensing.

  16. Exercise Increases Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Almeda-Valdés, Paloma; Meza-Arana, Clara Elena; Brito-Córdova, Griselda; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J.; Mehta, Roopa; Oseguera-Moguel, Jorge; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) increases glucose uptake. It is unknown if FGF21 serum levels are affected by exercise. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a comparative longitudinal study. Anthropometric and biochemical evaluation were carried out before and after a bout of exercise and repeated after two weeks of daily supervised exercise. The study sample was composed of 60 sedentary young healthy women. The mean age was 24±3.7 years old, and the mean BMI was 21.4±7.0 kg/m2. The anthropometric characteristics did not change after two weeks of exercise. FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of exercise (276.8 ng/l (142.8–568.6) vs. (460.8 (298.2–742.1), p<0.0001)). The delta (final–basal) log of serum FGF21, adjusted for BMI, showed a significant positive correlation with basal glucose (r = 0.23, p = 0.04), mean maximal heart rate (MHR) (r = 0.54, p<0.0001), mean METs (r = 0.40, p = 0.002), delta plasma epinephrine (r = 0.53, p<0.0001) and delta plasma FFAs (r = 0.35, p = 0.006). A stepwise linear regression model showed that glucose, MHR, METs, FFAs, and epinephrine, were factors independently associated with the increment in FGF21 after the exercise program (F = 4.32; r2 = 0.64, p<0.0001). Conclusions Serum FGF21 levels significantly increased after two weeks of physical activity. This increment correlated positively with clinical parameters related to the adrenergic and lipolytic response to exercise. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01512368 PMID:22701542

  17. Effect of fish oil intake on glucose levels in rat prefrontal cortex, as measured by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain glucose sensing may contribute to energy homeostasis control. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in the hedonic component of feeding control. As high-fat diets may disrupt energy homeostasis, we evaluated in male Wistar rats whether intake of high-fat fish-oil diet modified cortical glucose extracellular levels and the feeding induced by intracerebroventricular glucose or PFC glucoprivation. Methods Glucose levels in PFC microdialysates were measured before and after a 30-min meal. Food intake was measured in animals receiving intracerebroventricular glucose followed, 30-min. later, by 2-deoxy-D-glucose injected into the PFC. Results The fish-oil group showed normal body weight and serum insulin while fat pads weight and glucose levels were increased. Baseline PFC glucose and 30-min. carbohydrates intake were similar between the groups. Feeding-induced PFC glucose levels increased earlier and more pronouncedly in fish-oil than in control rats. Intracerebroventricular glucose inhibited feeding consistently in the control but not in the fish-oil group. Local PFC glucoprivation with 2-DG attenuated glucose-induced hypophagia. Conclusions The present experiments have shown that, following food intake, more glucose reached the prefrontal cortex of the rats fed the high-fat fish-oil diet than of the rats fed the control diet. However, when administered directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle, glucose was able to consistently inhibit feeding only in the control rats. The findings indicate that, an impairment of glucose transport into the brain does not contribute to the disturbances induced by the high-fat fish-oil feeding. PMID:24369745

  18. Employing FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase within a glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell operating in human serum.

    PubMed

    Milton, Ross D; Lim, Koun; Hickey, David P; Minteer, Shelley D

    2015-12-01

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) is emerging as an oxygen-insensitive alternative to glucose oxidase (GOx) as the biocatalyst for bioelectrodes and bioanodes in glucose sensing and glucose enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs). Glucose EFCs, which utilize oxygen as the oxidant and final electron acceptor, have the added benefit of being able to be implanted within living hosts. These can then produce electrical energy from physiological glucose concentrations and power internal or external devices. EFCs were prepared with FAD-GDH and bilirubin oxidase (BOx) to evaluate the suitability of FAD-GDH within an implantable setting. Maximum current and power densities of 186.6±7.1 μA cm(-2) and 39.5±1.3 μW cm(-2) were observed when operating in human serum at 21 °C, which increased to 285.7±31.3 μA cm(-2) and 57.5±5.4 μW cm(-2) at 37 °C. Although good stability was observed with continual near-optimal operation of the EFCs in human serum at 21 °C for 24 h, device failure was observed between 13-14 h when continually operated at 37 °C.

  19. Measurements of serum glucose using the luciferin/Luciferase system and a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Idahl, L.A.; Sandstroem, P.E.; Sehlin, J.

    1986-05-15

    A single-step assay for serum glucose measurements is described. The assay is based on the phosphorylation of D-glucose by glucokinase and the measurement of ATP consumption by firefly luciferase. The luminescence is recorded in an ordinary liquid scintillation spectrometer. The use of stable reagents and a stable final signal (light emission) makes it possible to analyze a large number of samples in each assay run. The assay is of particular value when repeated serum glucose determinations are performed on samples from small laboratory animals.

  20. Serum ferritin levels in hemoglobin H disease.

    PubMed

    Galanello, R; Melis, M A; Paglietti, E; Cornacchia, G; de Virgiliis, S; Cao, A

    1983-01-01

    This study shows that hemoglobin H disease patients aged between 0.5 and 44 years, usually (27 out of 30) have normal serum ferritin levels according to age. This reconfirms that in this disease there are usually normal iron stores. However, in a few patients (3 out of 30) increased levels were found. This may be due to inappropriate iron medication, transfusions or associated idiopathic hereditary hemocromatosis gene.

  1. Evaluation of the serum fructosamine test to monitor plasma glucose concentration in the transition dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Sorondo, María L; Cirio, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    The usefulness of the serum fructosamine (Fser) to monitor the retrospective glucose concentrations in transitional dairy cows (n=17) was evaluated. In weekly blood samples (3 weeks before to 5 weeks after calving) concentrations of plasma glucose and serum fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta OHB) and total proteins were determined. The observed Fser concentrations (271+/-55 mean value, range 152-423 mumol/l) were within the range reported in the literature, and showed a progressive and significant decrease after calving. Mean plasma glucose concentration was 60.6+/-5.0 (range 39.9-82.2) mg/dl increasing from week 3 before calving to the week of calving and then decreasing during the next 5 weeks of lactation. This decrease was coincident with inverse relationships between plasma glucose and milk yield (P=0.03) and serum beta OHB (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis performed between serum fructosamine and (a) plasma glucose concentration of the same sampling and (b) plasma glucose concentration of 1, 2 and 3 weeks preceding the sampling, did not show significant and systematizing positive correlations. Persistent hypoproteinaemias that could affect the fructosamine concentrations were not found: mean value and range of serum proteins was 6.3+/-1.0 and 4.8-7.8 g/dl, respectively, and no correlation was found between serum proteins and Fser (P=0.26). Results did not support the possibility of retrospective monitoring of the plasma glucose concentration by serum fructosamine in dairy cows in the transition period.

  2. How High Glucose Levels Affect Tendon Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-01-01

    Among the many factors playing a role in tendon disease, unregulated biochemical reactions between glucose and the collagen extracellular matrix are coming increasingly into focus. We have shown that formation of advanced glycation end-products that cross-link the collagen extracellular matrix can drastically affect cellular level mechanical properties of the matrix, and in turn affect cell-level biomechanical stimuli during physiological loading of the tissue. We suggest that these may adversely affect tendon cell response to matrix damage, as well as the quality of the consequent repair. If such mechanical feedback loops are altered, the ability of tendon cells to maintain tissue in a functional, healthy state may be compromised. Although key foundational elements of biochemical, biomechanical, and biological understanding are now in place, the full extent of how these aspects interact, including the precise mechanisms by which advanced glycation end-products pathologically disrupt connective tissue homeostasis and damage repair, are only beginning to be adequately appreciated. PMID:27535261

  3. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in the dams on d 21 postpartum. There was no evidence of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

  4. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  5. Natural estrous cycle in normal and diabetic bitches. Basal serum total lipids and cholesterol. Serum triglycerides profiles during glucose and insulin tests.

    PubMed

    Renauld, A; Gomez, N V; Scaramal, J D; Garrido, D; Wanke, M M

    1998-01-01

    All mean basal serum, total, cholesterol and lipids (L) levels in both fasted, normal bitches and in bitches with natural diabetes mellitus (DM) at anestrous (A) and during estrous cycle were measured. Mean serum, total triglycerides (TG) concentration in these animals at the same sex, stages, fasted and during intravenous glucose (IVGTT) and insulin (ITT) tolerance tests, were studied. In normal and in diabetic bitches serum cholesterol mean basal level differed significantly; the occurrence of estrous cycles (either phase) failed to affect these levels; DM and estrous cycle did not interact significantly. As for L, the influences of group and phase of estrous cycle on this variable significantly interacted. DM raised the mean basal level of this variable, in the normal group, "sex seasons" occurrence did not affect it whereas in the diabetic animals "in seasons" (either phase) it was above as compared with that found in respective controls at A. Estrogenic and luteal phases (EP, LP) did not differ in this concern. DM raised the mean serum TG levels in the bitches in the fasting condition and also during both tests; sex cycles action is variable. During IVGTT and ITT, the mean serum TG levels were influenced by sex stages and also by time elapsed either from glucose or insulin load. Thus, in the normal group, sex cycling did not vary significantly the TG profile during IVGTT. In the normal bitches "in season" (either phase), serum TG profile at the end of ITT increased more intensely than in the dogs at sex rest. During IVGTT, in the diabetic bitches, this profile was below base line from 15 min after glucose load till the test was over. DM intensely increased the serum TG response to insulin load in the bitches at A whereas such response was moderately decreasing at the end of ITT in the diabetic bitches at LP. All these results are discussed on the bases of the current knowledge on action of endocrine and metabolic products on these variables in normal animals

  6. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes.

  7. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. PMID:26452867

  8. GDF-15 and Hepcidin Levels in Nonanemic Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Altinova, Alev Eroglu; Akturk, Mujde; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Arslan, Emre; Ors Sendogan, Damla; Yetkin, Ilhan; Toruner, Fusun Balos

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15) has been suggested as one of the regulators of hepcidin, an important regulatory peptide for iron deposition. Current data is conflicting about the relationship between hepcidin and disorders of glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate serum hepcidin and GDF-15 concentrations and their associations with each other, in nonanemic subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in comparison with the nonanemic subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods. Thirty-seven subjects with IGT and 32 control subjects with NGT, who were age-, gender-, and body mass index- (BMI-) matched, were included in the study. Results. Serum GDF-15 levels were significantly higher in IGT compared to NGT. There were no differences in hepcidin, interleukin-6, and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels between the groups. We found a positive correlation between GDF-15 and hepcidin levels. There were also positive correlations between GDF-15 and age, uric acid, creatinine, and area under the curve for glucose (AUC-G). Hepcidin was correlated positively with ferritin levels. In the multiple regression analysis, GDF-15 concentrations were independently associated with age, uric acid, and AUC-G. Conclusions. Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased GDF-15 levels even in the absence of anemia, but the levels of hepcidin are not significantly altered in prediabetic state.

  9. GDF-15 and Hepcidin Levels in Nonanemic Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Altinova, Alev Eroglu; Akturk, Mujde; Gulbahar, Ozlem; Arslan, Emre; Ors Sendogan, Damla; Yetkin, Ilhan; Toruner, Fusun Balos

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15) has been suggested as one of the regulators of hepcidin, an important regulatory peptide for iron deposition. Current data is conflicting about the relationship between hepcidin and disorders of glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate serum hepcidin and GDF-15 concentrations and their associations with each other, in nonanemic subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in comparison with the nonanemic subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods. Thirty-seven subjects with IGT and 32 control subjects with NGT, who were age-, gender-, and body mass index- (BMI-) matched, were included in the study. Results. Serum GDF-15 levels were significantly higher in IGT compared to NGT. There were no differences in hepcidin, interleukin-6, and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels between the groups. We found a positive correlation between GDF-15 and hepcidin levels. There were also positive correlations between GDF-15 and age, uric acid, creatinine, and area under the curve for glucose (AUC-G). Hepcidin was correlated positively with ferritin levels. In the multiple regression analysis, GDF-15 concentrations were independently associated with age, uric acid, and AUC-G. Conclusions. Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased GDF-15 levels even in the absence of anemia, but the levels of hepcidin are not significantly altered in prediabetic state. PMID:27642607

  10. The relationship between fasting serum glucose and cerebral glucose metabolism in late-life depression and normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Christopher M.; Workman, Clifford I.; Lyman, Christopher H.; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol R.; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence exists for late-life depression (LLD) as both a prodrome of and risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Impaired peripheral glucose metabolism may explain the association between depression and AD given the connection between type 2 diabetes mellitus with both depression and AD. Positron emission tomography (PET) measures of cerebral glucose metabolism are sensitive to detecting changes in neural circuitry in LLD and AD. Fasting serum glucose (FSG) in non-diabetic young (YC; n=20) and elderly controls (EC; n=12) and LLD patients (n=16) was correlated with PET scans of cerebral glucose metabolism on a voxel-wise basis. The negative correlations were more extensive in EC versus YC and in LLD patients versus EC. Increased FSG correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in LLD patients to a greater extent than in EC in heteromodal association cortices involved in mood symptoms and cognitive deficits observed in LLD and dementia. Negative correlations in YC were observed in sensory and motor regions. Understanding the neurobiological consequences of diabetes and associated conditions will have substantial public health significance given that this is a modifiable risk factor for which prevention strategies could have an important impact on lowering dementia risk. PMID:24650451

  11. Effect of cyproheptadine on serum leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Calka, Omer; Metin, Ahmet; Dülger, Haluk; Erkoç, Reha

    2005-01-01

    Leptin is a 167 amino acid protein encoded by the obesity gene that is synthesized in adipose tissue and interacts with receptors in the hypothalamus linked to the regulation of appetite and metabolism. It is known to suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. Cyproheptadine is a piperidine antihistamine that increases appetite through its antiserotonergic effect on 5-HT2 receptors in the brain. Although both leptin and cyproheptadine are effective in controlling appetite, their interaction has not been addressed in clinical studies. This study evaluated serum leptin concentrations in patients who received cyproheptadine to treat a variety of disorders. Sixteen patients aged 7 to 71 years (mean, 26.25 years) were given cyproheptadine 2 to 6 mg/day for a minimum of 7 days. Body weight was measured and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 1 week of treatment. Serum leptin levels were determined by leptin radioimmunoassay. The mean body weight at baseline (52.59 kg) did not differ significantly from that at 1 week after treatment (52.84 kg; P > .05), but the mean leptin level after 1 week of treatment with cyproheptadine (3.14 ng/mL) was 14.2% higher than that at baseline (2.75 ng/mL; P < .05). This increase may suggest that both leptin and cyproheptadine may affect appetite via similar receptors and that cyproheptadine does not impair leptin activity through these receptors. Further study will be necessary to clarify this relationship.

  12. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  13. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.

  14. Effects of iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside on fasting blood glucose level and glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Pranakhon, Ratree; Aromdee, Chantana; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the biological activities of agar wood (Aquilaria sinensis Lour., Thymelaeaceae), is anti-hyperglycemic activity. The methanolic extract (ME) was proven to possess the fasting blood glucose activity in rat and glucose uptake transportation by rat adipocytes. Objective: To determine the decreasing fasting blood glucose level of constituents affordable for in vivo test. If the test was positive, the mechanism which is positive to the ME, glucose transportation, will be performed. Materials and Methods: The ME was separated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods. Mice was used as an animal model (in vivo), and rat adipocytes were used for the glucose transportation activity (in vitro). Result: Iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside (IPG) was the main constituent, 3.17%, and tested for the activities. Insulin and the ME were used as positive controls. The ME, IPG and insulin lowered blood glucose levels by 40.3, 46.4 and 41.5%, respectively, and enhanced glucose uptake by 152, 153, and 183%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that IPG is active in lowering fasting blood glucose with potency comparable to that of insulin. PMID:25709215

  15. Effect of hydroxyethyl starch on blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Soo Bin; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a commonly used resuscitation fluid, has the property to induce hyperglycemia as it contains large ethyl starch, which can be metabolized to produce glucose. We evaluated the effect of 6% HES-130 on the blood glucose levels in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery under spinal anesthesia. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo elective lower limb surgery were enrolled. Fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups according to the type of the main intravascular fluid used before spinal anesthesia (Group LR: lactated Ringer's solution, n = 30 vs. Group HES: 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4, n = 28). Blood glucose levels were measured at the following time points: 0 (baseline), 20 min (T1), 1 h (T2), 2 h (T3), 4 h (T4), and 6 h (T6). Results Mean blood glucose levels at T5 in the LR group and T4, T5 in the HES group, increased significantly compared to baseline. There were no significant changes in the serial differences of mean blood glucose levels from baseline between the two groups. Conclusions Administration of 6% HES-130 increased blood glucose levels within the physiologic limits, but the degree of glucose increase was not greater than that caused by administration of lactated Ringer's solution. In conclusion, we did not find evidence that 6% HES-130 induces hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients. PMID:27482311

  16. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  17. Lactate and glucose concentrations in brain interstitial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum during experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Romero, L; Täuber, M G; Fournier, M A; Tureen, J H

    1992-09-01

    Metabolic abnormalities during bacterial meningitis include hypoglycorrhachia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate accumulation. The mechanisms by which these alterations occur within the central nervous system (CNS) are still incompletely delineated. To determine the evolution of these changes and establish the locus of abnormal metabolism during meningitis, glucose and lactate concentrations in brain interstitial fluid, CSF, and serum were measured simultaneously and sequentially during experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits. Interstitial fluid samples were obtained from the frontal cortex and hippocampus by using in situ brain microdialysis, and serum and CSF were directly sampled. There was an increase of CSF lactate concentration, accompanied by increased local production of lactate in the brain, and a decrease of CSF-to-serum glucose ratio that was paralleled by a decrease in cortical glucose concentration. Brain microdialysate lactate concentration was not affected by either systemic lactic acidosis or artificially elevated CSF lactate concentration. These data support the hypothesis that the brain is a locus for anaerobic glycolysis during meningitis, resulting in increased lactate production and perhaps contributing to decreased tissue glucose concentration.

  18. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  19. Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPARγ, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  20. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  1. Relationship of serum homocysteine level with nutritional status and HbA1c level in elderly inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng-Fang; Cui, Chun-Li; Wu, Ping; Xie, Nan-Zi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for vascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the serum total homocysteine (tHcy) level and nutritional status in elderly inpatients and determine the relationship between tHcy level and nutritional status. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Tongji hospital, and 142 subjects were consecutively recruited. Fasting blood was collected, and the liver and kidney function, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma protein, lipid profile, folic acid, vitamin B12 and serum total tHcy were measured. Anthropometric measurements, grip strength and the shortened MNA form (MNA-SF) were used to assess the nutritional status. Results: Undernutrition was common in this population. Based on MNA-SF scores, 34.2% of subjects were at risk of malnutrition, and malnourished subjects accounted for 4.9%. The mean tHcy was 14.10±5.46 μmol/l, and the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was 32.4% (46/142). Hyperhomocysteinemia was a risk factor of cerebral infarction (RR=1.636, 95% CI: 1.169-2.288); Serum tHcy was negatively correlated with serum folic acid, vitamin B12 and MNA-SF score (r=-0.348,P=0.000; r=-0.236, P=0.005; r=-0.208, P=0.014), and positively with BMI within normal range (18.5-23.9; r=0.232, P=0.044). Serum tHcy was negatively correlated with HbA1c, (r=-0.196, P=0.021) and positively with serum creatinine (r=0.327, P=0.000), but unrelated to fasting blood glucose (r=-0.098, P=0.250). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed serum folic acid, serum creatinine, MNA-SF score and HbA1c were independent determinants of serum tHcy. Conclusion: Elderly subjects have higher serum tHcy level. Compromised renal function, poor nutritional status and lower blood glucose are likely to influence the serum tHcy level. PMID:24179571

  2. Cotinine levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Unculu, Serap; Karnak, Demet; Cağlayan, Osman; Göçmen, Julide Sedef; Kayacan, Oya

    2010-09-01

    Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cotinine levels and serum cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers with various pulmonary diseases and to investigate whether these levels are affected by passive smoking. Serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels were measured in 27 patients. BAL cotinine levels were measured using a sensitive ELISA kit produced to measure cotinine in saliva. Plates were read by microuant (BioTek, USA) micro plate reader. All patient serum cotinine levels were detectable except for one nonsmoker patient. However, BAL fluid cotinine levels were measurable in only 6 patients (two of them were nonsmokers). A significant positive correlation was seen between serum and BAL fluid cotinine levels (r = 0.726; p = 0.000). Serum cotinine levels were significantly higher in present smokers than non-smokers (21.0 +/- 16.01; 5.35 +/- 7.65; p = 0.004). However, there were no significant differences in BAL fluid cotinine levels between smokers and nonsmokers. Passive smoking can increase nicotine metabolites in serum and other body fluids, including BAL fluid. Since BAL fluid and serum cotinine levels were well correlated, there is no need to use invasive procedures, such as bronchoscopy and expensive, time consuming BAL fluid analyses. Serum cotinine levels can give a rough idea of smoking status. BAL fluid cotinine meaurements should be done for only scientific reasons. PMID:21073047

  3. Oligosaccharide and creatine supplementation on glucose and urea nitrogen in blood and serum creatine kinase in basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Daling

    2005-01-01

    The effects of oligosaccharide and creatine (Cr) supplementation on glucose, lactic acid and urea nitrogen levels in blood and activity of serum creatine kinase (CK) were explored. Twenty CUBA male athletes were divided into 4 groups: group A (supplementation of Cr alone), group B (supplementation of oligosaccharide), group C (supplementation of oligosaccharide and Cr) and group D (placebo control group). By using orthogonal L4 table (2(3)), the experiment was performed. There were factors including oligosaccharide (carbohydrate, CHO), Cr and their correlation. Each factor had two levels: supplementation and no-supplementation. The results showed that the supplementation of CHO or Cr alone, combined supplementation of CHO and Cr could significantly reduce the glucose, urea nitrogen levels in blood and serum CK activity after competition in the athletes. Moreover, the effects of combined supplementation of CHO and Cr were more satisfactory. It was concluded that supplementation of CHO and Cr could promote the recovery of physical performance and athletic abilities after athletics in basketball athletes.

  4. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Kiral, Eylem; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-03-17

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia.

  5. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Kiral, Eylem; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia. PMID:27103976

  6. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that become dysregulated with age. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study used data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2012 to 2013, to assess curry consumption frequency as well as blood glucose and blood lipid levels. The levels of blood glucose and lipids were subdivided by age, sex, and body mass index, and compared according to the curry consumption level. The estimates in each subgroup were further adjusted for potential confounding factors, including the diagnosis of diseases, physical activity, and smoking. RESULTS After adjusting for the above confounding factors, the blood glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the moderate curry consumption group compared to the low curry consumption group, both in older (> 45) male and younger (30 to 44) female overweight individuals who have high blood glucose and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that curcumin consumption, in an ordinary diet, can have health-beneficial effects, including being helpful in maintaining blood glucose and triglyceride levels that become dysregulated with age. The results should be further confirmed in future studies. PMID:27087906

  7. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K11: The determination of glucose in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Michael J.; Sniegoski, Lorna T.; Parris, Reenie M.; May, Willie E.; Heo, Gwi Suk; Henrion, Andre

    2003-01-01

    A Key Comparison on the determination of glucose in human serum organized by the Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance (CCQM) was carried out in 2001. To address the measurement traceability needs of the clinical chemistry community, the CCQM is undertaking Key Comparisons to document the capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) that provide measurement services in this area. This Key Comparison, along with two others recently completed, CCQM-K6 and CCQM-K12, determination of total cholesterol and creatinine, respectively, in serum, will provide a basis for evaluating the capabilities of NMIs for the determination of well-defined, organic substances of similar molecular weights and concentrations in human serum. Participants in CCQM-K11 included: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [USA], Coordinating Laboratory; Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) [S Korea]; and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) [Germany]. A frozen human serum material was analysed by each of the participants using ID-GC/MS-based methods. Agreement of results among the participants was good, with a relative range of <1%, yielding a Key Comparison Reference Value of 0.7762 +/- 0.0088 mg/g. These results were in accordance with the good agreement found for two serum materials in a pilot study (CCQM-P8) involving the same participants. In conclusion, three NMIs have demonstrated their ability to make reference measurements of glucose in serum using isotope dilution-based methods that, when executed properly, provide measurements that are precise, accurate and SI traceable. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Postmenopausal vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun Jung

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the serum ferritin status between the postmenopausal vegetarians and non-vegetarians and to identify the relation of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in postmenopausal women. The two study groups consisted of postmenopausal vegetarians (n=59) who maintained a vegetarian diet for over 20 years and age-matched non-vegetarian controls (n=48). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum metabolic syndrome-related parameters, and serum ferritin level between the two groups were compared. The vegetarians exhibited significantly lower weight (p<0.01), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), percentage of body fat (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.01), SBP (p<0.001), DBP (p<0.001), and fasting glucose (p<0.05). According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for MetS applying Korean guidelines for waist circumference, the prevalence of MetS was lower in vegetarians (33.9 %) than in non-vegetarians (47.9 %). Vegetarians had significantly lower serum level of ferritin (p<0.01) than non-vegetarians. In the correlation analysis, serum ferritin was positively related to fasting glucose (r=0.264, p<0.01), triglycerides (r=0.232, p<0.05), and the NCEP score (r=0.214, p<0.05) and negatively related to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r=-0.225, p<0.05) after adjusting for BMI, lifestyle, and dietary factors (animal protein, animal fat, and dietary fiber intake). In conclusion, postmenopausal vegetarians had lower MetS presence and a lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk of MetS in postmenopausal women.

  9. Time-dependent effects of starvation on serum, pituitary and hypothalamic leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Vujovic, P; Lakic, I; Laketa, D; Jasnic, N; Djurasevic, S F; Cvijic, G; Djordjevic, J

    2011-01-01

    Leptin is produced by white adipose tissue and other cell types and is involved in both short- and long-term appetite control. Here we studied effects of starvation on serum, pituitary and hypothalamic levels of leptin during 72 h period. Each of the starved groups was sacrificed simultaneously with the group of ad libitum fed animals. The progression of the discrete starvation response phases was monitored by testing the blood glucose, free fatty acid, urea and corticosterone levels. Starvation caused biphasic increase in corticosterone and free fatty acid levels, and significant but transient decrease in urea and glucose levels. Starvation also abolished diurnal rhythm of changes in leptin concentrations in serum and hypothalamic and pituitary tissues. Only 6 h starving period was sufficient to lock serum leptin at low levels, whereas 12 h were needed to silence leptin production/secretion in hypothalamus for the whole examined period. In contrast, leptin production by pituitary tissues of starved animals required 24 h to reach minimum, followed by full recovery by the end of starvation period. These results indicate the tissue specific pattern of leptin release and suggest that the locally produced leptin could activate its receptor in pituitary cells independently of serum levels of this hormone.

  10. Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Levels are Associated With Concomitant Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Korean Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangsu; Kim, Do Hoon; Nam, Hyo Yun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies suggested that serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general population. We aimed to investigate the relationship between serum GGT levels and CVD risk factors in Korean hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011 to 2012. The analysis included 1541 hypertensive participants. Study participants were divided into groups according to tertiles of serum GGT with cutoff points of 20 and 35 U/L. Serum GGT levels were positively associated with the components of MetS (P value < 0.05, except for systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). After adjusting for possible confounders, serum GGT levels were associated with an increased risk of MetS, high waist circumference, high triglyceride level, fasting plasma glucose, DM, and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P = 0.001). In hypertensive patients, serum GGT levels are positively associated with major cardiovascular risk factors such as MetS, DM, and urinary albumin excretion. PMID:26683926

  11. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Candace A.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Stoner, Julie; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carabin, Hélène; Cowan, Linda; Goodman, Jean R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n = 110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n = 72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression. Results Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3 μg/l, β = −18.3, 95% CI: −35.4, −1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3 μg/l, β = −17.3, 95% CI: −34.1, −0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates. Conclusion Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25726127

  12. Serum leptin levels as a marker for a syndrome X-like condition in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Banks, William A; Altmann, Jeanne; Sapolsky, Robert M; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Morley, John E

    2003-03-01

    We measured serum leptin levels in two groupings of wild male baboons, one with access to abundant quantities of food from gardens and garbage dumps near human habitations (Garbage; n = 11) and one without access (No Garbage; n = 10). A Garbage subgroup had high leptin levels (Garbage HL), whereas the rest of the Garbage group had low leptin levels (Garbage LL) similar to those in the No Garbage group. The Garbage HL individuals were obese, with higher mass, body mass index, and leptin to mass ratios; were insulin to resistant, with elevations in serum insulin, glucose, and insulin to glucose ratios; and were hyperlipidemic. This syndrome X-like condition occurred only in the Garbage HL subset. The Garbage LL subset did not differ from the No Garbage individuals in mass, body mass index, leptin to mass ratio, insulin, glucose, or insulin to glucose ratios. The highest cholesterol levels, however, occurred in the Garbage LL individuals, suggesting that susceptibility to hyperlipidemia is distinguishable from susceptibility to obesity and insulin resistance. The differences were not explained by age or social status. These results show that a subgroup of wild baboons is susceptible to developing obesity and insulin resistance and that this susceptibility is not related to age or social rank.

  13. Serum Triglyceride Levels Independently Contribute to the Estimation of Visceral Fat Amount Among Nondiabetic Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chiao-Yu; Huang, Hsien-Liang; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Lee, Long-Teng; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Tseng, Fen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Determining the visceral fat amount is important in the risk stratification for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and obesity-related disorders. The area-based measurement of visceral fat area (VFA) via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an accurate but expensive and time-consuming method for estimating visceral fat amount. The aim of our study was to identify a practical predictive parameter for visceral obesity in clinical settings. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 51 nondiabetic obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 27 kg/m2) adults in Taiwan (21 men and 30 women, mean age 35.6 ± 9.2 years, mean BMI 33.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2). VFA was quantified by a single-slice MRI image. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters including fasting plasma glucose, serum level of alanine aminotransferase, and lipid profiles were measured. The associations between different variables and VFA were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Increases in BMI, waist circumference, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and triglycerides (TGs), and decreased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were correlated with larger VFA. After adjustment for age, sex, and anthropometric indices, only serum TG level remained as an independent correlate of VFA. Besides demographic and anthropometric indices, adding TG level may explain a greater variance of VFA. In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, male sex, age, waist circumference, and serum TG level remained significant predictors of VFA. In a subgroup analysis among subjects with BMI ≥30 kg/m2, similar results were demonstrated and serum TG level remained as significant independent correlates of VFA in all of the predictive models. Among nondiabetic obese adults, serum TG level was positively associated with VFA. The combination of sex, age, anthropometric indices, and serum TG level may be used to estimate VFA in clinical settings. PMID:26061332

  14. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  15. Diabetes in Relation to Serum Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in Adult Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Codru, Neculai; Schymura, Maria J.; Negoita, Serban; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that diabetes, a condition whose incidence is increasing, is associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides. Objectives We investigated the potential association between diabetes and serum levels of PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex in a cross-sectional study of an adult Native-American (Mohawk) population. Methods Through a standardized questionnaire we collected demographic, medical, and lifestyle information from 352 adults, ≥30 years of age. We collected fasting serum samples that were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, DDE, HCB, and mirex along with fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Participants who had fasting-glucose values > 125 mg/dL and/or who were taking antidiabetic medication were defined as persons with diabetes. We conducted logistic regression to assess the potential association between organochlorine serum levels and diabetes, while controlling for the potential confounding variables of age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, sex, and serum lipid levels. Organochlorine serum levels were categorized in tertiles, and the lowest tertile was used as the reference category. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 20.2%. The odds ratio (OR) of having diabetes for participants in the highest tertile of total PCB concentration compared with the lowest tertile was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–10.6). The corresponding ORs for DDE and HCB were even higher. Elevated serum mirex was not associated with diabetes. After adjustment for other analytes, the OR for HCB remained significant, whereas ORs for PCBs and DDE remained elevated but not statistically significant. In contrast, after adjustment for other analytes, the OR for mirex became statistically significant and indicated an inverse association. Conclusions In this study of adult Native Americans, elevated serum PCBs, DDE, and HCB were positively associated with

  16. Cancer risk in relation to serum copper levels.

    PubMed

    Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R

    1989-08-01

    A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.

  17. Middle infrared, quantum cascade laser optoelectronic absorption system for monitoring glucose in serum.

    PubMed

    Martin, W Blake; Mirov, Sergey; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna

    2005-07-01

    Advances in middle infrared technology are leading researchers beyond the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and to the quantum cascade laser. While most research focuses on gas-phase detection, recent research explores its use for condensed-phase matter studies. This work investigates its use for monitoring biologically relevant samples of glucose in serum. Samples with physiological glucose concentrations were monitored with a laser at 1036 cm-1. A 0.992 R2 linearity value was observed. In addition, using another laser at 1194 cm-1 as a measure of the background spectroscopic characteristics, a linearity of 0.998 R2 was observed. The average predictive standard errors of the mean (SEM) were 32.5 and 24.7 mg/dL, respectively, for each method. Quantum cascade lasers could be used to develop middle infrared devices for uses beyond the confines of the laboratory.

  18. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED.

  19. Silica-dispersed glucose oxidase for glucose sensing: in vitro testing in serum and blood and the effect of condensation pH

    PubMed Central

    Harris, James M.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Reichert, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using glucose oxidase (GOx) dispersed in a silica matrix for glucose monitoring in whole blood, and then to assess whether the flexibility of silica sol-gel chemistry could be exploited to enhance glucose sensor performance and stability. Silica-dispersed GOx was deployed on platinized platinum (Pt) wire to form a Clark-type amperometric glucose sensor. Sensors were calibrated using buffered glucose standard solutions, and then tested against glucose spiked human serum and whole blood. All serum and whole blood measurements met the minimum FDA requirement of falling within the “A+B region” of a Clark Error Grid. To our knowledge this is the first report of using silica-dispersed GOx to measure glucose in whole blood. The effect of condensation pH on sensor performance was assessed by dispersing GOx in silica condensed at pH 3, 7 and 12, and then testing the sensor response against glucose calibration standards. The pH 12 silica sensors had statistically faster response time, and higher sensor sensitivity compared to pH 7, pH 3 silica and glutaraldehyde crosslinked sensors. Membranes of the pH 12 silica had statistically higher glucose diffusion coefficient than did the pH 7 and 3 sensors. GOx dispersed in pH 12 silica also had the longest half life. We hypothesize that the gel-like pH 12 silica gels provided reduced barriers to glucose diffusion, and the more aqueous microenvironment provided greater stability for the enzyme. PMID:23024461

  20. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition.

  1. Serum ghrelin levels in acromegaly: effects of surgical and long-acting octreotide therapy.

    PubMed

    Freda, Pamela U; Reyes, Carlos M; Conwell, Irene M; Sundeen, Robert E; Wardlaw, Sharon L

    2003-05-01

    The orexigenic peptide, ghrelin, is regulated by acute and chronic nutritional state. Although exogenously administered ghrelin stimulates pituitary GH secretion, little is known about the role of ghrelin in endogenous GH secretion or how high GH and IGF-I levels in acromegaly could affect ghrelin secretion and vice versa. Therefore, we evaluated fasting and post oral glucose tolerance test serum ghrelin levels in 19 patients with active acromegaly at baseline and after either surgery in 9 of these or administration of long-acting octreotide (Sandostatin LAR) in the other 10 patients. After surgical cure, fasting ghrelin rose from 312 +/- 56 pg/ml to 548 +/- 97 pg/ml (P = 0.013). Fasting serum ghrelin levels were higher in all patients after surgery and ranged between 112% and 349% of presurgery levels. Ghrelin levels fell significantly during long-acting octreotide therapy from 447 +/- 34 pg/ml to 206 +/- 15 pg/ml (P < 0.0001); ghrelin levels on octreotide ranged between 26% and 70% of baseline levels. Serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly during the oral glucose tolerance test in both groups. Pretherapy ghrelin levels correlated negatively with serum insulin levels (r = -0.494; P = 0.03) and insulin resistance as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment score (r = -0.573; P = 0.01). In patients without diabetes mellitus, serum insulin levels in the surgical group were 19.7 +/- 5.4 microU/ml before surgery and fell to 9.7 +/- 0.93 microU/ml after surgery (P = 0.05); levels in the octreotide group were 13.9 +/- 2.8 microU/ml before and fell to 11.2 +/- 2.8 microU/ml on octreotide (P = 0.03). Pretherapy ghrelin levels did not correlate with weight or body mass index, but after therapy in the surgery group ghrelin correlated negatively with weight (r = -0.823, P = 0.012) as has been demonstrated by others in healthy subjects. Ghrelin secretion is dysregulated in active acromegaly; lowered serum levels of ghrelin in active acromegaly rise along with

  2. Daily walking decreases casual glucose level among pregnant women in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ayako; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Kusaka, Momoko; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and the number of steps walked daily, as evaluated by accelerometer, among Japanese women in the second trimester of pregnancy. This longitudinal study was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, from August 2012 to January 2013. Healthy pregnant women at 14 to 18 gestational weeks were recruited. Participants wore accelerometers on the waist for 4 weeks. Casual glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were compared between two groups based on whether participants habitually walked ≥ 6,000 steps/day or < 6,000 steps/day. Fifty-one pregnant women were included in the present study; data from 35 were analyzed. There were 22 women in the group that habitually walked ≥ 6,000 steps/day and 13 in the group habitually walking < 6,000 steps/day. Although the median serum casual glucose level at the end of the investigation was 90.0 mg/dL in the group walking < 6,000 steps/day, the level in the group walking ≥ 6000 steps/day was 83.5 mg/dL (p = 0.01). HbA1c levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Our results suggest that walking as a daily habitual physical activity is effective for controlling casual glucose levels in the second trimester of pregnancy. PMID:27594297

  3. Relationships between serum serotonin and serum lipid levels, and aggression in horses.

    PubMed

    Meral, Y; Cakiroğlu, D; Sancak, A A; Cýftcý, G; Karabacak, A

    2007-01-01

    Levels of serum serotonin and serum lipids--triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein, were determined in normal horses and horses diagnosed with aggression on the basis of a questionnaire survey. Blood serotonin levels in aggressive horses were found to be significantly lower than in non-aggressive horses (P < 0.01), but no association was found with respect to blood lipids. PMID:17252934

  4. [Increased serum PIVKA-II levels in hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, M; Takeda, K; Ohara, E; Nishimori, Y; Hisahara, T; Nishida, M; Sugiura, T

    2001-11-01

    PIVKA-II has been practically used as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma. On the other hand, increased serum PIVKA-II concentration was reported in a Japanese patient who had hyperthyroidism without liver diseases. To evaluate whether thyroid hormone is related with serum PIVKA-II, we examined serum PIVKA-II concentrations in patients with various thyroid diseases. Eight patients with Hashimoto disease, 24 patients with Graves' disease, and 8 healthy subjects were studied. There was no significant difference of serum PIVKA-II levels among the three groups. However, serum PIVKA-II concentrations(mean +/- SD mAU/ml) in hyperthyroidism(37 +/- 27) were significantly higher than those in hypothyroidism(16 +/- 9) and normal controls(12 +/- 4) (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). When hyperthyroid patients were treated by antithyroid drug or isotope, serum PIVKA-II concentrations decreased in accordance with the decrease of serum FT4 concentrations. Our data indicate that serum PIVKA-II concentration was increased in patients with hyperthyroidism, but further in vivo studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism related to increased serum PIVKA-II by thyroid hormone.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide displacing DNA from nanoceria: mechanism and detection of glucose in serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Biwu; Sun, Ziyi; Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Liu, Juewen

    2015-01-28

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a key molecule in biology. As a byproduct of many enzymatic reactions, H2O2 is also a popular biosensor target. Recently, interfacing H2O2 with inorganic nanoparticles has produced a number of nanozymes showing peroxidase or catalase activities. CeO2 nanoparticle (nanoceria) is a classical nanozyme. Herein, a fluorescently labeled DNA is used as a probe, and H2O2 can readily displace adsorbed DNA from nanoceria, resulting in over 20-fold fluorescence enhancement. The displacement mechanism instead of oxidative DNA cleavage is confirmed by denaturing gel electrophoresis and surface group pKa measurement. This system can sensitively detect H2O2 down to 130 nM (4.4 parts-per-billion). When coupled with glucose oxidase, glucose is detected down to 8.9 μM in buffer. Detection in serum is also achieved with results comparable with that from a commercial glucose meter. With an understanding of the ligand role of H2O2, new applications in rational materials design, sensor development, and drug delivery can be further exploited. PMID:25574932

  6. Conjugation of bovine serum albumin and glucose under combined high pressure and heat.

    PubMed

    Buckow, Roman; Wendorff, Johannes; Hemar, Yacine

    2011-04-27

    The effect of combined heat and pressure on the Maillard reaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glucose was investigated. The effects in the range of 60-132 °C and at 0.1-600 MPa on the lysine availability of BSA were investigated at isothermal/isobaric conditions. The kinetic results showed that the protein-sugar conjugation rate increased with increasing temperature, whereas it decreased with increasing pressure. The reaction followed 1.4th order kinetics at most conditions investigated. A mathematical model describing BSA-glucose conjugation kinetics as a function of pressure and temperature is proposed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to verify BSA-glucose conjugation and to identify the glucosylated sites. These indicated that the application of combined high pressure and high temperature resulted in significant differences in the progression of the Maillard reaction as compared to heat treatments at atmospheric pressure. PMID:21395313

  7. Establishment of enzyme immunoassay for measuring serum sultopride levels.

    PubMed

    Someya, T; Shimoda, K; Muratake, T; Nakajima, E; Shirai, A; Funaoka, H; Yashiki, T; Ishii, H; Sunahara, N; Takahashi, S

    2001-06-01

    Measurement of serum sultopride levels was performed using an enzyme immunoassay. Little or no cross-reactivity with metabolites of sultopride and other drugs was found. The results of reproducibility, recovery, and dilution testing were all good enough for clinical use. A comparison between the measurement values of this method (y) with that of high-performance liquid chromatography (x) showed high correlation (n = 211, r = 0.991, p < 0.0001, y = 0.99x + 107.5). In a comparison between the sultopride dose and serum levels in 161 patients, interindividual differences were large (19 times for same doses), implying that the serum level cannot be predicted from the dosage. The method was found to be reliable for serum level measurements of sultopride and useful for monitoring compliance and assessing the optimal dose.

  8. A simple UV spectrophotometric method for theophylline serum level determination.

    PubMed

    Plavsić, F

    1978-09-15

    A brief, simple and unexpensive UV spectrophotometric method for theophylline serum level determination is described. Charcoal extraction was performed for theophylline isolation from biological fluids. Coefficients of variation and recovery are similar to other parallel methods.

  9. Serum Biopterin and Neopterin Levels as Predictors of Empty Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hamuro, Akihiro; Tachibana, Daisuke; Misugi, Takuya; Katayama, Hiroko; Ozaki, Koji; Fujino, Yuji; Yoshihiro, Nakamura; Shintaku, Haruo; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study measured serum and follicular fluid (FF) levels of biopterin, neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in patients receiving mild ovarian stimulation for oocyte retrieval. PATIENTS AND METHODS Infertile patients who underwent ovarian stimulation were divided into the following: Group 1, no oocyte retrieval (n = 12), and Group 2, retrieval of more than four oocytes (n = 13). Median total gonadotropin dose in both groups was 150 IU. Biopterin and neopterin levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. VEGF and M-CSF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Compared to Group 2, serum and FF levels of neopterin and VEGF and serum levels of M-CSF were significantly increased, and serum and FF levels of biopterin were significantly decreased in Group 1 (P < 0.05 each). CONCLUSION Biopterin and neopterin levels showed similar differences in FF and serum of patients with empty follicles. Decreased biopterin and increased neopterin in serum could predict poor oocyte retrieval. PMID:26568687

  10. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minfang; Shao, Xinghua; Chang, Xinbei; Fan, Zhuping; Cao, Qin; Mou, Shan; Wang, Qin; Yan, Yucheng; Desir, Gary; Ni, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity–2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages. Conclusion Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest

  11. Serum vitamin c and iron levels in oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, R; Nair, Preeti P; Singh, Manika; Singh, Manishi; Singh, MP; Jain, Arpit

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this study Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) were estimated. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in OSMF individuals. Serum Iron content can be a predictor for the progression of this condition. OSMF is basically a disorder of collagen metabolism where Vitamin C gets utilized in conversion of proline into hydroxyproline, this hydroxylation reaction requires ferrous Iron and Vitamin C. Many studies regarding micronutrients and other antioxidants levels have been emphasized, but very few studies are done on the Serum levels of Vitamin C and its correlation with Iron in OSMF patients. Methods: Thirty five OSMF patients and 50 deleterious habit free healthy individuals (controls) were selected. Two ml of venous blood was collected from each individual. Vitamin C level in serum was estimated by 2-4 dinitrophenylhydrazine method and Iron estimated by Tripyridyl method. Results: The level of Serum Vitamin-C and Iron was significantly decreased in OSMF patients when compared to controls which were statistically significant. Conclusion: On the basis of these observations, it seems possible that the chemical, thermal and/or mechanical factors associated with the use of areca nut may act in conjunction with the Vitamin C and Iron deficiency leading to the development of OSMF. Therapeutic substitution of vitamin C and Iron may be recommended in the management of OSMF PMID:25565730

  12. A reusable robust radio frequency biosensor using microwave resonator by integrated passive device technology for quantitative detection of glucose level.

    PubMed

    Kim, N Y; Dhakal, R; Adhikari, K K; Kim, E S; Wang, C

    2015-05-15

    A reusable robust radio frequency (RF) biosensor with a rectangular meandered line (RML) resonator on a gallium arsenide substrate by integrated passive device (IPD) technology was designed, fabricated and tested to enable the real-time identification of the glucose level in human serum. The air-bridge structure fabricated by an IPD technology was applied to the RML resonator to improve its sensitivity by increasing the magnitude of the return loss (S21). The resonance behaviour, based on S21 characteristics of the biosensor, was analysed at 9.20 GHz with human serum containing different glucose concentration ranging from 148-268 mg dl(-1), 105-225 mg dl(-1) and at a deionised (D) water glucose concentration in the range of 25- 500 mg dl(-1) for seven different samples. A calibration analysis was performed for the human serum from two different subjects and for D-glucose at a response time of 60 s; the reproducibility, the minimum shift in resonance frequency and the long-term stability of the signal were investigated. The feature characteristics based on the resonance concept after the use of serum as an analyte are modelled as an inductor, capacitor and resistor. The findings support the development of resonance-based sensing with an excellent sensitivity of 1.08 MHz per 1 mg dl(-1), a detection limit of 8.01 mg dl(-1), and a limit of quantisation of 24.30 mg dl(-1).

  13. Glucose availability and glycolytic metabolism dictate glycosphingolipid levels.

    PubMed

    Stathem, Morgan; Marimuthu, Subathra; O'Neal, Julie; Rathmell, Jeffrey C; Chesney, Jason A; Beverly, Levi J; Siskind, Leah J

    2015-01-01

    Cancer therapeutics has seen an emergence and re-emergence of two metabolic fields in recent years, those of bioactive sphingolipids and glycolytic metabolism. Anaerobic glycolysis and its implications in cancer have been at the forefront of cancer research for over 90 years. More recently, the role of sphingolipids in cancer cell metabolism has gained recognition, notably ceramide's essential role in programmed cell death and the role of the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) in chemotherapeutic resistance. Despite this knowledge, a direct link between these two fields has yet to be definitively drawn. Herein, we show that in a model of highly glycolytic cells, generation of the glycosphingolipid (GSL) glucosylceramide (GlcCer) by GCS was elevated in response to increased glucose availability, while glucose deprivation diminished GSL levels. This effect was likely substrate dependent, independent of both GCS levels and activity. Conversely, leukemia cells with elevated GSLs showed a significant change in GCS activity, but no change in glucose uptake or GCS expression. In a leukemia cell line with elevated GlcCer, treatment with inhibitors of glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) significantly decreased GlcCer levels. When combined with pre-clinical inhibitor ABT-263, this effect was augmented and production of pro-apoptotic sphingolipid ceramide increased. Taken together, we have shown that there exists a definitive link between glucose metabolism and GSL production, laying the groundwork for connecting two distinct yet essential metabolic fields in cancer research. Furthermore, we have proposed a novel combination therapeutic option targeting two metabolic vulnerabilities for the treatment of leukemia.

  14. Serum hormone levels in men with severe acne.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, H; Niimura, M

    1992-07-01

    In order to evaluate the hormonal milieu in young men with severe acne, we measured serum estradiol (E2), total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in sixteen male patients aged 20-30 years with severe acne, including twelve cases of nodular-cystic acne, and in seventeen age-matched normal controls. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of T, FT, DHT, DHEA-S, or SHBG between the patients and the controls, but serum E2 was significantly higher in the patient population. Thus, the hemodynamics of serum androgens in male patients with acne do not seem to differ significantly from that of normal controls. Elevated E2 levels might affect the inflammatory response of acne vulgaris through the release of thymic hormones, as reported in the literature. PMID:1401498

  15. Serum Uric Acid Level among Acute Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, M; Das, S N; Haque, M F; Shikha, S S; Bhuiyan, A S; Saha, P L; Das, B R; Chowdhury, M; Jahan, M K; Rahman, M M

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed as well as developing countries like Bangladesh. Elevated serum uric acid levels may predict an increased risk for cerebro-vascular (CV) events including stroke. Aim of the study was to measure the serum uric acid level among stroke patients and determine the relationship between serum uric acid level and stroke. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to measure serum uric acid level among 102 stroke patients in a period of one year by using non-probability sampling procedure. Finally, collected data were analyzed using SPSS software Version 17.0. It was observed that the mean age of patients was 60.87±8.05 years, of them 80(78.43%) patients were male and the rest 22(21.57%) were female. About 66(64.70%) of respondents were in age group 60 years and above, while 36(35.30%) were in age group 59 years and below. At least 23(22.55%) of stroke patients had elevated serum uric acid with a mean serum uric acid level of 5.18mg/dl and standard deviation 1.26mg/dl. About 23(27.38%) patients in ischemic stroke had elevated serum uric acid whereas 18(100%) patients in hemorrhagic stroke had normal uric acid level. Uric acid level was elevated in ischemic stroke than haemorrhagic stroke patients (p<0.001). High uric acid level may be considered as a risk factor in patients with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27277350

  16. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  17. Serum copper and zinc levels in melanoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.L.; Spitler, L.E.; McNeill, K.L.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    Serum copper levels (SCL) and serum zinc levels (SZL) were evaluated in malignant melanoma patients at various clinical stages. Copper levels were generally found to be elevated, reflecting the degree and extent of tumor activity. Zinc levels and, hence, SCL:SZL ratios did not reflect tumor activity. SCL appeared to prognosticate disease progression in that all patients whose values never declined below 150 ..mu..g/100 ml died during the course of the study. However, not all patients who died from tumor metastases displayed persistent elevations of SCL. Patients receiving BCG immunotherapy appeared to have higher SCL than untreated patients.

  18. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  19. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01).

  20. The role of serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Karagün, Ebru; Baysak, Sevim; Erden, Gönül; Aktaş, Habibullah; Ekiz, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitiligo is a common acquired pigmentary skin disorder. Vitamin D is responsible for skin pigmentation, increases tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis, and exhibits immunoregulatory functions. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and alopecia areata. Few reports have evaluated serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo patients, and their results are conflicting. Aim To evaluate serum vitamin D levels of vitiligo patients and compare the results with controls. Material and methods In total, 50 vitiligo patients and 47 controls were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D levels were measured from blood samples. Group comparisons were performed using appropriate statistical methods. Results The patients had lower serum vitamin D levels than the controls, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.570). Conclusions It remains unknown whether vitamin D deficiency causes vitiligo. Larger controlled studies are required to prove whether low circulating vitamin D is a causative factor in vitiligo.

  1. Serum adiponectin levels in diabetes, obesity and gender in Punjabi subjects from Faisalabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Najam, Syeda Sadia; Awan, Fazli Rabbi; Baig, Shahid Mahmood

    2014-10-01

    Adiponectin has been associated with common metabolic disorders. The current study was conducted to measure and compare levels of adiponectin with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gender in Punjabi subjects from Faisalabad, Pakistan. Serum adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) along with measurements of some clinically important analytes (fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides) as well as body mass index (BMI) in 80 subjects. The main results were significantly (p < 0.003) decreased serum adiponectin level in T2DM patients (n = 40) compared to non-diabetic controls (n = 40). In obese subjects, (n = 40) also, there was a decrease, but it was not significant. Adiponectin levels in the subgroups of diabetic and obese patients were also observed, but no significant gender-based differences were found.

  2. Effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Adele; Kashi, Zahra; Daneshpour, Ezzatossadat; Akha, Ozra; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cabergoline is a long-acting agonist of dopamine, which has a high affinity to dopamine receptors (type 2). Treatment using a dopaminergic agonist reduces hypothalamic stimulation that increases during liver gluconeogenesis, lipids synthesis, and insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: This study was a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 DM. The patients received treatments of a placebo (control group; n = 20) or cabergoline 0.5 mg (cabergoline group; n = 20) using the sequential method, once per week for 3 months, while using previously prescribed glucose-lowering drugs. All tests, such as levels of fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-prandial glucose, complete lipid profile, prolactin, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance were measured at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Results: The fasting blood sugar levels were significantly different between placebo and cabergoline groups after 3 months of treatment (P = 0.004). The prolactin levels were significantly different from beginning of the treatment to 6 months later (P = 0.001). In the cabergoline group, there was a significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels after 3 months (P = 0.003). Overall, 65%and 45% patients in the cabergoline and control groups, respectively, responded to treatment (HbA1C<7%). Conclusion: Cabergoline may be useful as a long-acting antidiabetic agent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27749534

  3. Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Dyslipidemia in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferritin is associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance in adults. We aimed to study the association between serum ferritin levels and dyslipidemia in adolescents, because dyslipidemia is considered an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the young. Methods We analyzed 1,879 subjects (1,026 boys and 853 girls) from the 2009–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Subjects were categorized into quartiles according to their lipid parameters, which were classified according to age and gender. Those in the highest quartile groups for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride concentrations were diagnosed as having dyslipidemia. Those in the lowest quartile for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were diagnosed with abnormal levels. Results In boys, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly correlated with serum ferritin levels. In both boys and girls, serum ferritin levels were negatively associated with HDL-C values, even after adjusting for all covariates. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride concentrations in girls. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with major dyslipidemia parameters, more prominently in boys than in girls, and this association represents a cardiometabolic risk factor. PMID:27070153

  4. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  5. Serum adipokine levels modified by donepezil treatment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pákáski, Magdolna; Fehér, Agnes; Juhász, Anna; Drótos, Gergely; Fazekas, Orsike Csilla; Kovács, János; Janka, Zoltán; Kálmán, János

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter enhancement therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) is a clinically proven approach for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Donepezil is one of the three currently approved AChEIs for treating AD symptoms delaying the decline in cognitive function. In addition to cholinergic hypofunction, there are several factors in AD pathogenesis. For example, adipocytokines released from adipose tissue are also thought to play a role in the progress of dementia. Adipokines, i.e., leptin and adiponectin, are involved in the modulation of certain cognitive functions in the brain. The goal of our study was to elucidate effects of donepezil therapy on the serum levels of certain adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin in AD patients. Clinically diagnosed mild-to-moderate AD patients (n = 26) were involved in this open-labeled, single-center, prospective self-control study. ApoE polymorphism, serum adiponectin, leptin, LDL, HDL, triglyceride levels, and BMI were determined before and at 12 and 24 weeks intervals of donepezil treatment, respectively. Twenty-four weeks of donepezil treatment induced a linear decrease of serum leptin levels (p = 0.013) and a linear elevation of serum adiponectin levels (p = 0.007). BMI (p < 0.001) and abdominal circumference (p = 0.017) were significantly lower at 24 weeks as compared to control values. None of the other examined metabolic parameters were changed during the treatment period. This previously unrecognized serum adipokine regulating potential of donepezil may be relevant in its therapeutic, disease modifying effect in AD by transferring protective (by increasing serum adiponectin levels) and detrimental (by decreasing serum leptin levels) effects onto the neurodegenerative process at the same time.

  6. Serum Leptin and Insulin Hormone Level in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baban, Rayah S.; Ali, Noor M.; Al-Moayed, Hala A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure serum leptin and insulin levels in women with recurrent pregnancy loss using modified methods of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and to examine their influence on recurrent loss at different pregnancy trimesters. Methods A case control study was conducted from, 1 September 2008 to 30 December 2009 in the Obstetric and Gynecological Department-Al-Khadimiya Teaching Hospital. HPLC technique with new modified method was used to estimate serum leptin and insulin hormones in samples of women with recurrent pregnancy loss (patients group, n=64) and healthy pregnant women at the end of the third gestational trimester as a control group (n=51). Results Both serum leptin and insulin levels were high in women with pregnancy loss in their three trimesters. A significant correlation was found between age (r=0.535, p<0.018) and serum total leptin in women with RPL during the first trimester. Also, a highly significant correlation was found between serum total leptin and insulin in women with RPL during the first, second and third trimesters (r=0.894, r=0.931, and r =0.995) respectively. The number of women who lost their pregnancy during the first trimester was higher than those losing during other trimesters. Conclusion It can be concluded that recurrent pregnancy loss in women at different trimester is associated with endocrine abnormalities where serum leptin and insulin levels increase in a different way compared with normal healthy pregnant women. PMID:22043338

  7. Serum leptin concentrations are not related to dietary patterns but are related to sex, age, body mass index, serum triacylglycerol, serum insulin, and plasma glucose in the US population

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R; McCarthy, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Background Leptin is known to play a role in food intake regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between serum leptin concentrations and dietary patterns and demographic, lifestyle, and health factors in the US population. Methods Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994 were used to study the association between fasting serum leptin and dietary patterns, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, age, energy and alcohol intakes, body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose, serum triacylglycerol, and serum insulin in 4009 individuals. Factor analysis was used to derive three principle factors and these were labeled as Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat, Western, and Mixed dietary patterns. Results Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat (8.5 fg/L) and Mixed patterns (8.0 fg/L) compared to Western pattern (6.29 fg/L) (P < 0.0001). When analysis was adjusted for confounding variables, no significant association was observed between serum leptin and dietary patterns (P = 0.22). Multivariate adjusted serum leptin concentrations were significantly associated with sex (higher in women than in men; β = -1.052; P < 0.0001), age (direct relation, β = 0.006, P < 0.0001), BMI, (direct relation, β = 0.082, P < 0.0001), fasting plasma glucose (inverse relation, β = -0.024, P = 0.0146), serum triacylglycerol (direct relation, β = 0.034, P = 0.0022), and serum insulin (direct relation, β = 0.003, P < 0.0001) but not with race-ethnicity (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.20), energy intake (P = 0.42), and alcohol intake (P = 0.73). Conclusion In this study, serum leptin was not independently associated with dietary patterns. Sex, age, BMI, serum triacylglycerol, plasma glucose, and serum insulin are independent predictors of serum leptin concentrations. PMID:19144201

  8. Serum homocysteine level in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Başkan, Bedriye Mermerci; Sivas, Filiz; Aktekin, Lale Akbulut; Doğan, Yasemin Pekin; Ozoran, Kürşat; Bodur, Hatice

    2009-10-01

    In this study serum homocystein (Hcy) level was measured and its relationship with disease activity criteria and treatment protocols was investigated in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Ninety-two AS patients and 58 healthy individuals were recruited. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum C-reactive protein were determined. Bath AS disease activity index and Bath AS functional index were calculated. Serum Hcy levels >15 micromol/l were considered as hyperhomocysteinemia. The mean serum homocysteine levels were 14.40 and 12.60 micromol/l in patients with AS and the control group, respectively, and the difference between two groups was significant. While there was no significant difference between the sulfasalazine (SSZ) group with 14.25 micromol/l mean Hcy level and the methotrexate (MTX)/SSZ group with 16.05 micromol/l, there was a statistically significant difference between the Hcy levels of these two groups and Hcy level of 12.15 micromol/l of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs group, and 12.60 micromol/l Hcy level of the control group. Mean serum Hcy level was 13.65 micromol/l in patients with active AS and 14.60 micromol/l in patients with inactive AS, and there was no significant difference between the groups. In our study serum Hcy level was found to be significantly higher in patients with AS than in healthy control subjects. Especially for the AS patients receiving MTX and SSZ treatment without folic acid supplementation, addition of folic acid to their therapy may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease which in turn decreases the mortality in these patients, but further prospective studies are needed for supporting these results. PMID:19288264

  9. Serum copper levels in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huhti, E; Poukkula, A; Uksila, E

    1980-01-01

    An increased mean serum copper level was found in 149 patients with lung cancer when compared with 19 healthy people and 23 patients with non-malignant lung diseases. The level seemed to reflect the stage of disease, with asymptomatic patients showing the lowest values, and patients with metastatic symptoms the highest. In spite of significant differences between the groups of subjects the scatter in the values was large. Hence serum copper determinations can be of only limited importance for differential diagnosis or in assessing the clinical stage of cancer. No differences in copper levels were found between the groups of patients with different histological types of lung cancer.

  10. Changes in Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose in Non Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome after Mixed Meals of Different Composition

    PubMed Central

    Branchi, Adriana; Torri, Adriana; Berra, Cristina; Colombo, Emanuela; Sommariva, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the postprandial changes in serum lipoproteins and blood glucose and to verify whether different nutrient composition of the meal elicits different response in patients with (MetS+) and without (MetS−) metabolic syndrome. Research Design and Methods. 50 MetS+ patients and 50 age- and sex-matched MetS− consumed a regular lunch chosen among those more similar to their usual diet. Blood was drawn in the morning after 12-hour fasting and 2 and 4:30 hours after the meal. Results. Serum triglycerides increased more in MetS+ (35%, 4:30 hours after the meal) than in MetS− (29%), HDL-cholesterol decreased 2 hours after the meal in both groups (−4% and −5%, resp.). Blood sugar similarly increased in both groups (19%, 2 hours after the meal in MetS+ and 17% in MetS−) and plasma insulin increased more and remained high longer in MetS+ (73.5 and 52.3 μU/mL, 2 and 4:30 hours after the meal) than in MetS− (46.7 and 21.6 μU/mL). Difference in nutrient composition of the meal (carbohydrate 57%, fat 28% versus carbohydrate 45%, fat 35%) was not associated with differences in postprandial levels of triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, glucose, and insulin within each group. Conclusions. As compared with MetS−, MetS+ patients show a greater hypertriglyceridemic and hyperinsulinemic response to a regular lunch whatever the carbohydrate or fat content of the meal. PMID:22474578

  11. Serum Bile Acids Are Higher in Humans With Prior Gastric Bypass: Potential Contribution to Improved Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M.; Bianco, Antonio C.; Bernier, Raquel; Larsen, P. Reed; Holst, Jens J.; Badman, Michael K.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Mun, Edward C.; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Auwerx, Johan; Goldfine, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 ± 4.84 µmol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 ± 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 ± 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids were all significantly higher in GB compared to Ov (P < 0.05). Total bile acids were inversely correlated with 2-h post-meal glucose (r = −0.59, P < 0.003) and fasting triglycerides (r = −0.40, P = 0.05), and positively correlated with adiponectin (r = −0.48, P < 0.02) and peak glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (r = 0.58, P < 0.003). Total bile acids strongly correlated inversely with thyrotropic hormone (TSH) (r = −0.57, P = 0.004). Together, our data suggest that altered bile acid levels and composition may contribute to improved glucose and lipid metabolism in patients who have had GB. PMID:19360006

  12. Functionalized graphene oxide for clinical glucose biosensing in urine and serum samples.

    PubMed

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Seo, Yeong-Tai; Shin, Hyunkyung; Yun, Kyusik; Lee, Min-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A novel clinical glucose biosensor fabricated using functionalized metalloid-polymer (silver-silica coated with polyethylene glycol) hybrid nanoparticles on the surface of a graphene oxide nanosheet is reported. The cyclic voltammetric response of glucose oxidase modification on the surface of a functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a surface-confined reaction and an effective redox potential near zero volts, with a wide linearity of 0.1-20 mM and a sensitivity of 7.66 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a better electrocatalytic response toward oxidation of H(2)O(2) and reduction of oxygen. The practical applicability of the functionalized graphene oxide electrode was demonstrated by measuring the peak current against multiple urine and serum samples from diabetic patients. This new hybrid nanoarchitecture combining a three-dimensional metalloid-polymer hybrid and two-dimensional graphene oxide provided a thin solid laminate on the electrode surface. The easy fabrication process and retention of bioactive immobilized enzymes on the functionalized graphene oxide electrode could potentially be extended to detection of other biomolecules, and have broad applications in electrochemical biosensing. PMID:23269871

  13. Functionalized graphene oxide for clinical glucose biosensing in urine and serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Seo, Yeong-Tai; Shin, Hyunkyung; Yun, Kyusik; Lee, Min-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A novel clinical glucose biosensor fabricated using functionalized metalloid-polymer (silver-silica coated with polyethylene glycol) hybrid nanoparticles on the surface of a graphene oxide nanosheet is reported. The cyclic voltammetric response of glucose oxidase modification on the surface of a functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a surface-confined reaction and an effective redox potential near zero volts, with a wide linearity of 0.1–20 mM and a sensitivity of 7.66 μA mM−1 cm−2. The functionalized graphene oxide electrode showed a better electrocatalytic response toward oxidation of H2O2 and reduction of oxygen. The practical applicability of the functionalized graphene oxide electrode was demonstrated by measuring the peak current against multiple urine and serum samples from diabetic patients. This new hybrid nanoarchitecture combining a three-dimensional metalloid-polymer hybrid and two-dimensional graphene oxide provided a thin solid laminate on the electrode surface. The easy fabrication process and retention of bioactive immobilized enzymes on the functionalized graphene oxide electrode could potentially be extended to detection of other biomolecules, and have broad applications in electrochemical biosensing. PMID:23269871

  14. Serum Reactive Oxygen Metabolite Levels Predict Severe Exacerbations of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Keitaro; Watanabe, Masato; Sada, Mitsuru; Inui, Toshiya; Nakamura, Masuo; Honda, Kojiro; Wada, Hiroo; Mikami, Yu; Matsuzaki, Hirotaka; Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Hikari; Kogane, Toshiyuki; Kohyama, Tadashi; Takizawa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are intimately linked to chronic airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of BA. However, the role of ROS in the management of BA patients is not yet clear. We attempted to determine the role of ROS as a biomarker in the clinical setting of BA. Subjects and Methods We enrolled patients with BA from 2013 through 2015 and studied the degrees of asthma control, anti-asthma treatment, pulmonary function test results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels, and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Results We recruited 110 patients with BA. Serum ROM levels correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count (rs = 0.273, p = 0.004), neutrophil count (rs = 0.235, p = 0.014), CRP (rs = 0.403, p < 0.001), and IL-6 (rs = 0.339, p < 0.001). Serum ROM levels and IL-8 and CRP levels negatively correlated with %FEV1 (rs = -0.240, p = 0.012, rs = -0.362, p < 0.001, rs = -0.197, p = 0.039, respectively). Serum ROM levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced severe exacerbation within 3 months than in patients who did not (339 [302–381] vs. 376 [352–414] CARR U, p < 0.025). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis showed that ROM levels correlated significantly with the occurrence of severe exacerbation (area under the curve: 0.699, 95% CI: 0.597–0.801, p = 0.025). Conclusions Serum levels of ROM were significantly associated with the degrees of airway obstruction, WBC counts, neutrophil counts, IL-6, and severe exacerbations. This biomarker may be useful in predicting severe exacerbations of BA. PMID:27776186

  15. Predictors of fasting serum insulin and glucose and the risk of pancreatic cancer in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Meinhold, Cari L.; Gonzalez, Amy Berrington de; Demetrius, Albanes; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Taylor, Philip R.; Jarmo, Virtamo; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives A history of type 2 diabetes is one of few consistent risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Potentially modifiable factors related to fasting insulin and glucose concentrations may influence pancreatic cancer risk. Methods Multiple linear regression models were used to identify anthropometric, clinical, behavioral, and dietary factors associated with fasting insulin and glucose in a subcohort of non-diabetics in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (n=366). Hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated among the larger cohort (n=27,035). Results During follow-up (median 16.1 years), 305 participants developed pancreatic cancer. Fasting insulin and/or glucose were positively associated with body mass index (BMI), height, and dietary total and saturated fat and inversely associated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and dietary available carbohydrates, sucrose, and alcohol. Comparing highest to lowest quintiles, total fat (HR=1.54, 95% CI 1.05–2.25, p-trend=0.01) and saturated fat (HR=1.38, 95% CI 0.97–1.98, p-trend=0.06) were positively associated and available carbohydrates (HR=0.63, 95% CI 0.44–0.90, p-trend=0.01), particularly sucrose (HR=0.62, 95% CI 0.43–0.89, p-trend=0.09) were inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. BMI, HDL, height, and alcohol were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Conclusion Dietary fat is associated with higher fasting insulin concentrations and may increase pancreatic cancer risk in smokers. PMID:19083105

  16. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among

  17. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. Results With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was −0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, −0.33 to −0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when “body mass index”, “consumption of meat or fish”, “self-rated health”, “presence of medical conditions”, “hyperlipidemia”, or “respiratory disease “was included in the model. Conclusion Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways. PMID:27276092

  18. Evaluation of serum immunoglobulin E levels in bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Thirunavukkarasu; Roopakala, Mysore Subrahmanyam; Silvia, Chickballapur Rayappa Wilma Delphine; Chandrashekara, Srikantaiah; Rao, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immunoglobulin E and associated cellular responses are responsible for allergic airway diseases. A hypersensitivity reaction initiated by immunologic mechanisms, mediated by IgE antibodies occurs in allergic asthma Aim: To estimate and compare serum IgE levels in mild, moderate, and severe asthmatics and in normal subjects and to obtain a mathematical model describing the relationship between serum IgE levels and severity of asthma. Materials and Methods: A stratified sample of 60 patients within age group of 18-60 years and 31 male and 29 female asthmatic patients and 13 healthy controls within 18-60 years were included in this study and classified according to GINA classification. Serum IgE levels were estimated by using ELISA kit. Results: Mean IgE levels ranged from 151.95 IU/ml in normal subjects to 1045.32 IU/ml in severe asthmatics. The model developed was 27% efficient. Conclusion: Serum Immunoglobulin E levels were high in asthmatics as compared to normal subjects. On an average, the levels increased as the severity of asthma increased. However, there was no statistically significant correlation since the variability in each level of asthma was very large PMID:20931031

  19. Serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Yin, You; Xiao, Chun-Lan; Mao, Rong-Jie; Shi, Bo-Hai; Jie, Yong; Wang, Zuo-Wei

    2015-09-30

    The aim of study was to evaluate the association between serum DHEAS levels and depression with a case-control study together with a meta-analysis. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was performed to measure the serum DHEAS levels of all participants before and after treatment. Depression Patients were divided into mild depression and severe depression based on Hamilton depression scale (HAMD24) and received 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and citalopram (20mg/d) for 8 weeks. Case-control studies related to our study theme were enrolled for meta-analysis and Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) was used for statistical analysis. After treatment, DHEAS levels in depression patients were significantly increased, while before and after treatment, DHEAS levels were all lower in depression patients than in controls (all P<0.001); further analysis on age revealed that DHEAS levels were decreased with the rising of age. Meta-analysis results suggested that serum DHEAS levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in healthy controls compared to depression patients (SMD=0.777, 95%CI=0.156-1.399, P=0.014). In conclusion, our study suggests that serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression and it decreased with the rising of age. PMID:26205628

  20. Human monocytes and macrophages undergo M1-type inflammatory polarization in response to high levels of glucose.

    PubMed

    Torres-Castro, Israel; Arroyo-Camarena, Úrsula D; Martínez-Reyes, Camilo P; Gómez-Arauz, Angélica Y; Dueñas-Andrade, Yareth; Hernández-Ruiz, Joselín; Béjar, Yadira L; Zaga-Clavellina, Verónica; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Terrazas, Luis I; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Escobedo, Galileo

    2016-08-01

    Emerging data suggest that elevated glucose may promote inflammatory activation of monocytic lineage cells with the ability to injure vascular endothelial tissue of diabetic patients, however evidence in primary human monocytes and macrophages is still insufficient. We investigated the effect of high glucose concentration on the inflammatory capacity of human macrophages in vitro and examined whether similar responses were detectable in circulating monocytes from prediabetic patients. Primary monocytes were isolated from healthy blood donors and differentiated into macrophages. Differentiated macrophages were exposed to normal levels of glucose (NG), high glucose (HG) or high mannitol as osmotic pressure control (OP) for three days. Using PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry, we found that HG macrophages showed overexpression of CD11c and inducible nitric oxide synthase as well as down-regulation of arginase-1 and interleukin (IL)-10 with respect to NG and OP macrophages. Consistent with in vitro results, circulating monocytes from hyperglycemic patients exhibited higher levels of CD11c and lower expression of CD206 than monocytes from normoglycemic controls. In subjects with hyperglycemia, elevation in CD11c(+) monocytes was associated with increased obesity, insulin resistance, and triglyceridemia as well as low serum IL-10. Our data suggest that human monocytes and macrophages undergo M1-like inflammatory polarization when exposed to high levels of glucose on in vitro culture conditions and in patients with hyperglycemia. These results demonstrate that excess glucose has direct effects on macrophage activation though the molecular mechanisms mediating such a response remain to be elucidated. PMID:27269375

  1. Influence of Serum and Glucose Additives on Survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Aerosolized from the Freeze-Dried State.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A

    1994-06-01

    Serum and/or glucose added to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae suspensions before freeze-drying significantly increased survival rates of bacteria in aerosols. Aerosols with predictable numbers of viable bacteria can be made as required in an aerosol infection model. Sucrose supplementation of impinger fluids increased recovery of viable A. pleuropneumoniae.

  2. Hypoglycemic effects of three Iranian edible plants; jujube, barberry and saffron: Correlation with serum adiponectin level.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Mina; Asghari, Somaye; Zohoori, Elham; Karamian, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    One of the most common disorders of the endocrine system is diabetes mellitus. This disease is associated with dyslipidemia. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that secreted by adipocytes and has an important role in regulating of glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. This study was designed to investigate the changes in serum level of adiponectin in diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extracts of three medicinal plants; jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and saffron (Crocus sativus) in comparison with quercetin. Streptozotocin -induced diabetic male rats were gavaged with specified doses of the extracts (25 and 100mg/kg) for two weeks. At the end of treatment period, fasting blood specimens were collected. The levels of adiponectin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), total Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C were measured. Statistical analysis showed that serum levels of triglyceride and VLDL decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all treated groups. FBS level in all treated groups, decreased significantly and reach to normoglycemic level (P<0.05). Except Jujube, other plant extracts had no effect on cholesterol. Jujube in two doses (25 and 100mg/kg) could increased significantly HDL-C (P<0.05) with no effect on total cholesterol and LDL-C. Serum adiponectin level increased in all treated groups. These beneficial effects of C. sativus, B. vulgaris and Z. jujube extracts and quercetin in diabetic rats may be associated with increase in adiponectin level.

  3. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement.

  4. A Human Serum-Based Enzyme-Free Continuous Glucose Monitoring Technique Using a Needle-Type Bio-Layer Interference Sensor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongmin; Paek, Sung-Ho; Oh, Sangwoo; Seo, Sungkyu; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes is continually increasing, and by 2030, it is expected to have increased by 69% and 20% in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively. Therefore, glucose sensors are likely to remain in high demand in medical device markets. For the current study, we developed a needle-type bio-layer interference (BLI) sensor that can continuously monitor glucose levels. Using dialysis procedures, we were able to obtain hypoglycemic samples from commercial human serum. These dialysis-derived samples, alongside samples of normal human serum were used to evaluate the utility of the sensor for the detection of the clinical interest range of glucose concentrations (70-200 mg/dL), revealing high system performance for a wide glycemic state range (45-500 mg/dL). Reversibility and reproducibility were also tested over a range of time spans. Combined with existing BLI system technology, this sensor holds great promise for use as a wearable online continuous glucose monitoring system for patients in a hospital setting. PMID:27669267

  5. Piceatannol lowers the blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Uchida-Maruki, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryouichi; Kurita, Ikuko; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds contained a high amount of piceatannol (3,5,3',4'-trans-tetrahydroxystilbene), a natural analog of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene). Resveratrol has been proposed as a potential anti-metabolic disorder compound, by its activation of sirtuin and AMP-activated protein kinase. Many reports show that resveratrol ameliorates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether piceatannol also affects diet-induced obesity. We explored the effect of piceatannol on high fat diet-fed mice. The results showed that piceatannol did not affect high fat diet-induced body weight gain or visceral fat gain in mice. However, piceatannol did reduce fasting blood glucose levels. Furthermore, to explore the potential of passion fruit seed extract containing piceatannol as a functional food, passion fruit seed extract was administered in a genetic diabetic mouse model (db/db mice). Single administration of passion fruit seed extract, as well as piceatannol reduced the blood glucose levels of these db/db mice. These results suggest that piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract may have potential application in the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25832644

  6. Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPARγ, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24746837

  7. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on serum element levels in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangchu; Ma, Shirong; Ren, Dongqing; Li, Yurong; Ding, Guirong; Liu, Junye; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guozhen

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) was a potentially harmful factor to the human body, and a biological dosimetry to evaluate effects of EMP is necessary. Little is known about effects of EMP on concentration of macro and trace elements in serum so far. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 50-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 100-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 200-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 40), and the sham-exposed group (n = 20). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after EMP exposure at different electric field intensities. Compared with the sham-exposed groups, the concentration of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in rat serum was not changed significantly within 48 h after 200 pulses of EMP exposure at electric field intensity of 50, 100, and 200 kV/m although the K level was decreased and the Ca level was increased with the electric field intensity of EMP increasing. In addition, there was a tendency that the Zn level was decreased with the time going on within 48 h after EMP exposure. Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect the concentration of macro and trace elements in rat serum. There was no time-effect or dose-effect relationship between EMP exposure and serum element levels. The macro and trace elements in serum are not suitable endpoints of biological dosimetry of EMP.

  8. High Serum Irisin Level as an Independent Predictor of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Ji Hye; Ahn, Song Vogue; Choi, Jung Hye; Koh, Sang Baek; Chung, Choon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, has been suggested to regulate energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. However, it remains unclear whether circulating irisin plays a role in the development of DM in human. We investigated the possible association between circulating irisin levels and incident DM in a 2.6-year longitudinal study of a population-based cohort comprised of rural Korean subjects. We conducted a longitudinal study within the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population (KoGES-ARIRANG) study from November 2005 to January 2008. Cases (n=85) were patients with incident DM during the follow-up period and controls (n = 85) were matched to incident DM cases based on sex and age at baseline. The relative risk of serum irisin/adiponectin level for incident DM was analyzed using conditional logistic regression analysis. Baseline irisin_ENREF_1 levels were significantly higher in subjects who developed DM than in subjects who did not. The serum irisin level was positively associated with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and postprandial glucose. Irisin was negatively associated with adiponectin (R = –0.189, P = 0.014). After adjustment for potential confounders, including body mass index, the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for incident DM increased in a graded manner as the serum irisin level increased (Quartile 1 vs Quartile 2 vs Quartile 3 vs Quartile 4 = 1 vs 0.80 [0.28–2.35] vs 3.33 [1.11–10.00] vs 4.10 [1.35–12.44], respectively), whereas the odds ratios for incident DM decreased in a graded manner as the serum adiponectin level increased. High serum irisin was independently associated with the development of DM, indicating that irisin may be a useful predictor of DM in Korean adults. PMID:27281072

  9. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  10. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  11. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    SciTech Connect

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 ..mu..U/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 ..mu..U/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 ..mu..Um1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 ..mu..U/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy.

  12. Serum YKL-40 levels are altered in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Tuten, Abdullah; Kucur, Mine; Imamoglu, Metehan; Oncul, Mahmut; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Sofiyeva, Nigar; Ozturk, Zeynep; Kaya, Baris; Oral, Engin

    2014-05-01

    Endometriosis is traditionally defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in ectopic locations, especially the pelvic peritoneum, ovaries and rectovaginal septum. YKL-40, a new biomarker of inflammation, is secreted by activated macrophages and neutrophils in different tissues with inflammation. Serum concentrations of YKL-40 are elevated in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation. We aimed to investigate the possible association between serum YKL-40 levels and endometriosis. A total number of 88 women were recruited for this case-control study. About 53 patients with surgically proven endometriosis were included, while 35 patients without endometriosis comprised the control group. Patients were classified as having minimal, mild, moderate and severe disease in accordance with the severity. Two new groups were formed by combining patients with minimal and mild disease (Stage 1-2) and with moderate and severe disease (Stage 3-4). Serum YKL-40 levels were statistically higher in the endometriotic group compared to control group (p:0.001). YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in Stage 3-4 group compared to Stage 1-2 group (p values 0.001) as well. Correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between serum YKL-40 levels and the stage of the disease. YKL-40 may be utilized as a marker for determining the severity of endometriosis.

  13. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on glucose tolerance, insulin levels, and insulin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Zenobi, P D; Graf, S; Ursprung, H; Froesch, E R

    1992-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin interact with related receptors to lower plasma glucose and to exert mitogenic effects. Recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) was recently shown to decrease serum levels of insulin and C-peptide in fasted normal subjects without affecting plasma glucose levels. In this study we have investigated in six healthy volunteers the responses of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels to intravenous rhIGF-I infusions (7 and 14 micrograms/kg.h) during standard oral glucose tolerance tests (oGTT) and meal tolerance tests (MTT), respectively. Glucose tolerance remained unchanged during the rhIGF-I infusions in the face of lowered insulin and C-peptide levels. The decreased insulin/glucose-ratio presumably is caused by an enhanced tissue sensitivity to insulin. The lowered area under the insulin curve during oGTT and MTT as a result of the administration of rhIGF-I were related to the fasting insulin levels during saline infusion (oGTT: r = 0.825, P less than 0.05; MTT: r = 0.895, P less than 0.02). RhIGF-I, however, did not alter the ratio between C-peptide and insulin, suggesting that the metabolic clearance of endogenous insulin remained unchanged. In conclusion, rhIGF-I increased glucose disposal and directly suppressed insulin secretion. RhIGF-I probably increased insulin sensitivity as a result of decreased insulin levels and suppressed growth hormone secretion. RhIGF-I, therefore, may be therapeutically useful in insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. PMID:1601998

  14. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA).Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period.After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05).Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  15. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period. After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05). Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  16. Effect of feeding Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea diet on [correction] kidney functions and glucose levels in streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S P; Vats, V

    2003-03-01

    Purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of daily oral feeding 15% of powdered leaves of Murraya koeingii (MK) (commonly called as Curry patta) and 10% powder of seeds of Brassica juncea (BJ) (commonly called as Rai) for 60 days on serum glucose concentrations and kidney functions in streptozotocin (STZ; 100mg/kg) diabetic rats. Serum glucose levels, body weight, urine volume, serum creatinine, and urinary albumin (UAE) levels were monitored on day 0, 10, 25, 40, and 70 of the experiment. After 60 days of STZ administration, urine volume per day and UAE levels were significantly higher (P<0.0005) in diabetic controls (DC) as compared to normal controls (NC). Although feeding of the MK/BJ showed a trend towards improvement in most of the parameters, results were not statistically different from the DC except in serum creatinine values in BJ-fed rats on day 70. Thus, these plants can be best utilized by promoting them as preferable food adjuvants for diabetic patients.

  17. Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels in Normal-Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Young; Lee, Ji-Ah; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Chung, Hyewon

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Serum levels of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a vascular inflammatory marker, may predict the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at greater risk for type 2 diabetes and CVD. The aim of this study was to compare hsCRP levels between normal weight women with PCOS and controls with a normal menstrual cycle and to determine the factors associated with serum hsCRP levels. Methods Thirty-nine lean PCOS patients and 24 healthy, regular cycling women were enrolled in this study. We performed anthropometric measurements, fat computed tomography (CT), and blood sampling to determine blood chemistry and levels of hsCRP, gonadotropins, testosterone, and sex-hormone binding globulin. We also conducted 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity. Results Serum hsCRP concentrations were higher in women with PCOS than in women with regular mensturation. However, this difference was no longer significant after adjusting for body mass index (BMI). hsCRP levels were correlated with waist circumference (r=0.46, p<0.01), BMI (r=0.46, p<0.01), visceral fat area (r=0.45, p<0.01), and systolic (r=0.42, p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.39, p<0.05). hsCRP also tended to be negatively associated with insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) (r=-0.31, p=0.07). A multiple regression analysis revealed that BMI (β=0.29, p<0.05), systolic blood pressure (β=0.39, p<0.01), and IMGU (β=-0.31, p<0.05) predicted serum hsCRP levels in women with PCOS. Conclusions PCOS by itself does not seem to be associated with increased hsCRP levels, whereas known CVD risk factors affect serum hsCRP levels in PCOS. PMID:19949734

  18. Determination of drug levels in human serum by circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Gortázar, P; Roën, A; Vázquez, J T

    1998-01-01

    A study of the applicability of circular dichroism (CD) for the determination of drug levels in human serum is described and a new method for the quantitative determination of optically active absorbing drugs having Cotton effects at wavelengths about 250 nm in human serum and/or plasma is proposed. The principal advantages of this method are speed, economy, and simplicity, no derivatization or chromatographic separation steps being needed. The validity of the CD determination was confirmed by analysis of variance, beta-lactam antibiotics being chosen as model drugs. In addition, the validation studies performed confirm the accuracy and precision of the proposed method. For beta-lactam antibiotics lacking Cotton effects above 250 nm, an alternative method based on the extraction of the drug from serum is considered.

  19. Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Patients With Candiduria

    PubMed Central

    Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314

  20. Short-term overcrowding of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua: effects on serum-mediated antibacterial activity and transcription of glucose transport and antioxidant defense related genes.

    PubMed

    Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Brinchmann, Monica F; Kiron, Viswanath

    2008-12-01

    Serum-mediated control of Listonella anguillarum and transcriptional profiles of selected glucose transport and antioxidant defense genes, following short-term overcrowding in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua were determined. Fish were subjected to overcrowding by reducing the water level in the tank for 1 h and this was repeated thrice over a 12 h period. Blood samples were collected before overcrowding (initial group) and at 2, 24 and 72 h post-crowding. The sera from fish obtained at 2 h post-crowding caused a significant reduction in L. anguillarum counts compared to the initial samples. There was a transcriptional upregulation of the glucose transport-4 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes at 2 h after crowding. Gene transcripts of the antioxidant enzymes, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), catalase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase also significantly increased at 2 h post-crowding, but thereafter they returned to their pre-crowding levels with the exception of Cu/Zn SOD that remained significantly higher than the initial group until 72 h. Thus, short-term overcrowding of Atlantic cod leads to a transient enhancement of in vitro serum antibacterial activity and enhanced transcriptional activity of glucose transport and antioxidant defense genes.

  1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are inversely associated with systemic inflammation in severe obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Bellia, Alfonso; Garcovich, Caterina; D'Adamo, Monica; Lombardo, Mauro; Tesauro, Manfredi; Donadel, Giulia; Gentileschi, Paolo; Lauro, Davide; Federici, Massimo; Lauro, Renato; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Obesity is frequently characterized by a reduced vitamin D bioavailability, as well as insulin-resistance and a chronic inflammatory response. We tested the hypothesis of an independent relationship between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and several circulating inflammatory markers in a cohort of severely obese individuals. Cross-sectional study was carried out among obese patients undergoing a clinical evaluation before bariatric surgery in our University Hospital. Serum 25(OH)D, fasting and post load glucose and insulin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin, adiponectin and lipid profile were collected. Insulin-resistance was assessed by insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Total body fat (FAT kg), total percent body fat (FAT%) and truncal fat mass (TrFAT) were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 147 obese subjects (89 women, 37.8 ± 7.1 years) with mean body mass index (BMI) of 43.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2) were enrolled. Patients in the lowest tertile of 25(OH)D were significantly more obese with a higher amount of TrFAT, more insulin-resistant, and had higher levels of fasting and post-challenge glucose (p < 0.05 for all). In a multivariate regression analysis, serum 25(OH)D was inversely related to significant levels of hs CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α after accounting for age, gender, season of recruitment, BMI, FAT kg and TrFAT (p < 0.01 for all). In extremely obese subjects, 25(OH)D serum concentrations are inversely associated with several biomarkers of systemic inflammation, regardless of the total quantity of fat mass. PMID:21437585

  2. Effect of Acute Surgical Stress on Serum Ghrelin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kontoravdis, Nikolaos; Vassilikostas, George; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Pappas, Apostolos; Seretis, Charalampos; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Koronakis, Nikolaos; Chrysikos, John; Karanikas, George; Manouras, Ioannis; Legakis, Ioanis; Voros, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is an appetite hormone that influences the gastrointestinal function and regulates energy metabolism. Growing evidence also suggests that this hormone plays a central role in immune modulation. Each surgical operation is followed by a series of inflammatory and metabolic changes that constitute the stress response. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of stress during different types of abdominal surgery in ghrelin serum levels. Methods An overall of 25 patients were prospectively allocated in two groups based on the type of surgical operation. Group A (n = 10) patients were scheduled to undergo cholecystectomy, whereas Group B (n = 15) patients underwent colectomy. Serum ghrelin concentrations were evaluated in each patient preoperatively, after the induction of general anesthesia and tracheal intubation, one and five hours after the beginning of surgery and the morning of the first and second postoperative day. Results In both groups serum ghrelin concentrations reached their peak level at 24 hr (Group A: 8.4 ± 3.4 ng/mL; Group B: 7.4 ± 1.8 ng/mL) and these values were significantly higher than those in the preoperative period (Group A: 5.0 ±1.5 ng/mL; Group B: 4.8 ± 0.6 ng/mL) (P < 0.05). Forty eight hours after surgery the levels of ghrelin returned to their preoperative status. Patients’ gender, age, ASA score and type of surgical procedure did not influence the serum ghrelin levels. Conclusions Serum ghrelin concentration appears to elevate in response to surgical stress. Future studies are needed to improve comprehension of the mechanisms underlying responses of this hormone to acute surgical stress and to evaluate their possible clinical implications.

  3. Serum leptin levels in girls with precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, A; Basciani, F; Trotta, D; De Simone, M; Morgese, G; Chiarelli, F

    2003-04-01

    Few data are available regarding leptin levels in children with different pubertal stages or with precocious puberty (PP). The aim of this study was to assess the changes in serum leptin levels in patients with PP. We studied 20 girls with PP, with Tanner stage II-III; the age at the beginning of pubertal signs ranged from 4.2 to 7.1 yr; all the girls had an advantaged bone age. Controls were subdivided in two groups: group 1: 20 pre-pubertal girls with the same chronological age of the patients, without any signs of pubertal development (Tanner stage I); group 2: 20 additional girls with the same bone age, pubertal stage and body mass index (BMI) of the girls with PP. Serum leptin levels in females with PP are similar to those found in subjects with normal puberty (9.0 +/- 0.8 vs 9.1 +/- 0.9 ng/ml; ns) and different from subjects with the same chronological age without activation of puberty (5.6 +/- 0.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In all groups leptin levels correlated significantly with BMI (girls with PP: r = 0.5 1, p < 0.02; control group 1 girls: r = 0.71; p < 0.0001; control group 2 girls: r = 0.49; p < 0.02), there was no significant relationship between leptin and activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our results indicate that the serum leptin levels in the girls with PP are not significantly different from levels in healthy girls at a similar stage of pubertal development, suggesting that the relationship between serum leptin levels and BMI is also present in this pathological situation.

  4. Exposure assessment: Serum levels of TCDD in Seveso, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, L.L.; Patterson, D.G. Jr.; Smith, S.J.; Sampson, E.J.; Gerthoux, P.M.; Brambilla, P.; Mocarelli, P.

    1999-02-01

    Accurate exposure assessment is an important step in both risk assessment and epidemiologic studies involving potential human exposure to environmental toxicants. Various methods have been used to assess human exposure. These methods include models based on one`s temporal and spatial nearness to the source, environmental levels of toxicant, and biological measures. The authors believe that the latter measure is the ``gold standard.`` In this article they present the serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in residents of the contaminated zones in Seveso, Italy, in 1976, and delineate these data by age and gender. Some of these serum levels are among the highest ever reported and thus this population serves as a benchmark for comparison of human exposure and potential adverse health effects. One such potential population is that population consuming potentially contaminated fish.

  5. The role of serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Karagün, Ebru; Baysak, Sevim; Erden, Gönül; Aktaş, Habibullah; Ekiz, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitiligo is a common acquired pigmentary skin disorder. Vitamin D is responsible for skin pigmentation, increases tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis, and exhibits immunoregulatory functions. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and alopecia areata. Few reports have evaluated serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo patients, and their results are conflicting. Aim To evaluate serum vitamin D levels of vitiligo patients and compare the results with controls. Material and methods In total, 50 vitiligo patients and 47 controls were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D levels were measured from blood samples. Group comparisons were performed using appropriate statistical methods. Results The patients had lower serum vitamin D levels than the controls, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.570). Conclusions It remains unknown whether vitamin D deficiency causes vitiligo. Larger controlled studies are required to prove whether low circulating vitamin D is a causative factor in vitiligo. PMID:27605903

  6. Serum levels of TWEAK in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Özlem; Sivrikaya, Abdullah; Toker, Aysun; Ünlü, Ali; Altınyazar, Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. However, studies conducted on the relationship of TWEAK and psoriasis patients are limited. In this study, we aimed to explore the serum levels of TWEAK and investigated whether TWEAK levels are associated with clinical variables and expression of other well-known psoriasis-related cytokines including IL-6, IL-23 and TNF-α. Forty-five patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 43 controls were enrolled in this study. The severity of psoriasis was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Serum levels of cytokines were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The mean TWEAK, IL-6, IL-23, and TN-α levels were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in control subjects. However, there were no significant correlations between the psoriasis severity, the illness duration and serum cytokine levels. This study shows that TWEAK may be associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis, like TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-23.

  7. Serum immunoglobulin levels and humoral immune competence in coalworkers

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.D.; Boyd, J.E.; Collins, H.P.; Davis, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were measured in 788 coalworkers and 121 nonmining controls for comparison with the radiological category of pneumoconiosis after taking into account age and smoking habit. In addition a simple assessment of humoral immune competence was made by estimating the titre of serum antibody against the common gut commensal Escherichia coli. Smoking was found to depress serum IgA and IgM while levels of IgG and IgA increased slightly with age. Men with radiological signs of coalworkers pneumoconiosis (CWP) had significantly raised levels of IgA and IgG with increasing pneumoconiosis category. Even coalworkers with less than category 1 simple pneumoconiosis had raised levels of IgA, suggesting that increased production of this immunoglobulin occurs before radiologically identifiable pathological changes have occurred in the lung tissue. No association between reduced humoral immune competence and radiological category of pneumoconiosis was found. Whether high Ig levels in men exposed to coal dust are merely a passive response to dusted lung tissue or whether they indicate that an immunological process is important in the development of pneumoconiotic lesions remains uncertain.

  8. Quantitative assessment of preoperative serum thyrotropin level and thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is the major growth factor for thyrocytes, but the pathogenic role of serum TSH in thyroid cancer (TC) is unknown. The association between TSH level and the development of thyroid cancer has been widely evaluated recently. However, the results remain conflicting. To develop an understanding of the relationship between TSH exposure and thyroid cancer, a meta-analysis of 56 studies involving 20227 thyroid cancer cases and 50003 controls with benign thyroid nodule was performed. Overall, significantly increased TSH level was observed in thyroid cancer patients compared with controls (RoM: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.32–1.56, P < 10−5). The pooled analyses also revealed that higher serum TSH level were significantly associated with the size of TC nodule and malignancy as well as lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, significantly increased THS levels were observed preferentially for papillary thyroid cancer when stratified by histological type of tumors. However, the diagnostic value of TSH level for TC might be limited. These results suggest that higher serum TSH concentration is associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. PMID:27166998

  9. Serum copper levels in different stages of carcinoma cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Dwivedi, S; Singh, G; Bajpai, M

    1990-01-01

    Copper is a normal constituent of the diet and is present in all living matter. It is an important trace metal required for different metabolic processes. Detecting alterations in serum copper has an important role in the early detection and diagnosis of malignancy. Serum copper estimation was conducted on 95 women aged 32-60 using the P.P. Doxidase method. 62 women of varying age and parity had different stages of carcinoma cervix uteri and comprised the study group, while the control group was comprised of 33 non-pregnant women of different ages and parity. Approximately 40% of women in both groups were aged 41-45 years. In the control group, the mean serum copper level of reproductive age women was 118.3 ug% and 111.2 ug% among women of menopausal age. A linear progressive increase of serum copper levels was found in the study group with increasing stages of cervical malignancy. The mean values of stages I, II, III, and IV were 162.2 ug%, 190.64 ug%, 201.78 ug%, and 220.8 ug%, respectively.

  10. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. Methods The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. Results The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Conclusions Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy. PMID:23173843

  11. Serum cyclosporin levels, hepatic drug metabolism and renal tubulotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C; Gavin, M P; Whiting, P H; Burke, M D; Macintyre, F; Thomson, A W; Simpson, J G

    1984-09-15

    The present study was designed to examine inter-relationships between serum cyclosporin (CsA) levels, hepatic drug metabolising enzyme activity and CsA induced nephrotoxicity. CsA (25 mg/kg p.o.) was administered daily to male Sprague-Dawley rats: groups of animals were killed on days 0, 4, 7, 10 and 14 and thereafter at weekly intervals over the 7-week course of the experiment. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated by measuring tubular enzymuria and by light microscopy and serum CsA levels (parent drug plus certain metabolites) were determined by radioimmunoassay. The hepatic microsomal mono-oxygenase enzyme system was monitored by measurement of cytochrome P-450, aminopyrine N-demethylase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. Nephrotoxicity appeared within 4 days of starting treatment and continued for 4 weeks. Between weeks 4 and 6 there was a period of complete remission followed by the return of renal damage. Aminopyrine N-demethylase activity fell during the first 4 weeks. During the period of remission, however, N-demethylase activity rose to a point significantly higher than pretreatment values and serum CsA levels fell to their lowest concentration. With relapse, hepatic N-demethylase activity again fell below normal and serum drug levels rose to their pre-remission values. From the third week onward, changes in NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity paralleled those in N-demethylase activity. The hepatic microsomal concentration of cytochrome P-450 did not, however, change significantly during the 7-week period of CsA treatment. Our results suggest that the spontaneous remission of CsA-induced nephrotoxicity is due to a reduction in circulating drug levels caused by increased hepatic CsA metabolism.

  12. The association of serum trans-nonachlor levels with atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mangum, Lee C; Mangum, Lauren H; Chambers, Janice E; Ross, Matthew K; Meek, Edward C; Wills, Robert W; Crow, J Allen

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a strong association between exposure to environmental contaminants, including organochlorine (OC) insecticides or their metabolites, and development of pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, in which oxidative stress plays a significant etiological role. Biomarkers of systemic oxidative stress have the potential to link production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are formed as a result of exposure to xenobiotic toxicants, and underlying pathophysiological states. Measurement of F2-isoprostane concentrations in body fluids is the most accurate and sensitive method currently available for assessing in vivo steady-state oxidative stress levels. In the current study, urinary concentrations of F2-isoprostanes and serum levels of persistent OC compounds p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), trans-nonachlor (a component of the technical chlordane mixture), and oxychlordane (a chlordane metabolite) were quantified in a cross-sectional study sample and the association of these factors with a clinical diagnosis of atherosclerosis determined. Urinary isoprostane levels were not associated with atherosclerosis or serum concentrations of OC compounds in this study sample. However, occurrence of atherosclerosis was found to be associated with serum trans-nonachlor levels. DDE and oxychlordane were not associated with atherosclerosis. This finding supports current evidence that exposure to environmental factors is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, in addition to other known risk factors. PMID:26953872

  13. Serum glucose, serum free fatty acids and adipose tissue lipids after fatal hypothermia of cold acclimatized, reserpine or propranolol treated guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, J; Huttunen, P; Vapaatalo, H

    1976-03-24

    Surviving ability in frost (-20 degree C) was studied in cold acclimatized guinea-pigs given either reserpine, propranolol or saline. Survival time, rectal temperature at death, serum glucose, serum FFA and triglycerides in the interscapular adipose tissue were determined. Rectal temperature was highest in the reserpine group, in the same animals that endured the frost the shortest time. The survival time had decreased by about a half of that in the controls. Propranolol treatment decreased the living time only slightly. The fact that serum glucose remained high in the reserpine treated animals was obviously related to the short survival time. In the propranolol group glucose values were somewhat higher than in the control group (saline-animals). Reserpine seemed to have inhibited the release of FFA in the warm-acclimatized animals as interpreted from the low serum values. On the other hand, FFA were rather high in the cold-acclimatized reserpine animals. The blocking effect of reserpine reflected also in the higher contents of triglycerides in the adipose tissue both in cold-acclimatized and warm-acclimatized animals. Propranolol prevented slightly the depletion of the triglycerides. Amount of total lipids in the adipose tissue was lower in the cold-acclimatized animals than in the warm-acclimatized ones because of the change of the type of the adipocytes from unilocular to multilocular. The results corroborated the importance of FFA for longer survival in severe cold. Sensitization to reserpine seems to develop during cold-acclimatization. It calls attention to a possible hazard of reserpine treatment in cold environment. PMID:961065

  14. Energetic domains and conformational analysis of human serum albumin upon co-incubation with sodium benzoate and glucose.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, F; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Bohlooli, M; Habibi-Rezaei, M; Hadi Alijanvand, H; Amanlou, M; Sheibani, N; Saboury, A A; Ahmad, F

    2014-01-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB), a powerful inhibitor of microbial growth, is one of the most commonly used food preservative. Here, we determined the effects of SB on human serum albumin (HSA) structure in the presence or absence of glucose after 35 days of incubation under physiological conditions. The biochemical, biophysical, and molecular approaches including free amine content assay (TNBSA assay), fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and molecular docking and LIGPLOT studies were utilized for structural studies. The TNBSA results indicated that SB has the ability to bind Lys residues in HSA through covalent bonds. The docking and LIGPLOT studies also determined another specific site via hydrophobic interactions. The CD results showed more structural helicity for HSA incubated with SB, while HSA incubated with glucose had the least, and HSA incubated with glucose + SB had medium helicity. Fluorescence spectrophotometry results demonstrated partial unfolding of HSA incubated with SB in the presence or absence of glucose, while maximum partial unfolding was observed in HSA incubated with glucose. These results were confirmed by DSC and its deconvoluted thermograms. The DSC results also showed significant changes in HSA energetic structural domains due to HSA incubation with SB in the presence or absence of glucose. Together, our studies showed the formation of three different intermediates and indicate that biomolecular investigation are effective in providing new insight into safety determinations especially in health-related conditions including diabetes.

  15. Potassium sorbate as an AGE activator for human serum albumin in the presence and absence of glucose.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, F; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Bohlooli, M; Hadi Alijanvand, H; Salami, M; Maghami, P; Saboury, A A; Farhadi, M; Yousefi, R; Habibi-Rezaei, M; Sheibani, N

    2013-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the predominant intermediates of glycation process, and mediate oxidative stress and complications of diabetes. Potassium sorbate (PS) as a widespread preservative is an oxidative agent and used in different dairy and drug products, which can readily enter biological matrices. Here we studied the PS interference with glycation of human serum albumin (HSA) in the presence of glucose (Glc) using various techniques. These included TNBSA assay, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Th T assay, and atomic force microscopy. Our results indicated that HSA glycation was accelerated in the presence of PS. Furthermore, PS produced AGEs in the absence of glucose. Secondary and tertiary structural changes were also observed in HSA incubated with glucose in the presence or absence of PS through beta-sheet inducing effects. Th T assay demonstrated the role of PS in HSA fibril formation in the presence or absence of glucose. Atomic force microscopy determined different amyloid fibril formation in HSA incubated with PS in the presence or absence of glucose. Together our results indicated that PS has a stimulatory effect on glycation and fibrillation of HSA in the presence or absence of glucose, and could exacerbate complication of diabetes. PMID:24001567

  16. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Prevents Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Osteoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Berlier, J L; Kharroubi, I; Zhang, J; Dalla Valle, A; Rigutto, S; Mathieu, M; Gangji, V; Rasschaert, J

    2015-12-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) are able to differentiate into cells of connective tissue lineages, including bone and cartilage. They are therefore considered as a promising tool for the treatment of bone degenerative diseases. One of the major issues in regenerative cell therapy is the biosafety of fetal bovine serum used for cell culture. Therefore, the development of a culture medium devoid of serum but preserving hBMSC viability will be of clinical value. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) has an anti-apoptotic action in insulin-producing cells. Interestingly, GIP also exerts beneficial effects on bone turnover by acting on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. We therefore evaluated the ability of GIP to prevent cell death in osteoblastic cells cultured in serum-free conditions. In hBMSC and SaOS-2 cells, activation of the GIP receptor increased intracellular cAMP levels. Serum deprivation induced apoptosis in SaOS-2 and hBMSC that was reduced by 30 and 50 %, respectively, in the presence of GIP. The protective effect of GIP involves activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway and inhibition of caspases 3/7 activation. These findings demonstrate that GIP exerts a protective action against apoptosis in hBMSC and suggest a novel approach to preserve viability of hBMSC cultured in the absence of serum. PMID:26254594

  17. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease.

  18. Use of serum progesterone levels to detect pregnancy in elk

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.J.; Wolfe, M.L.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the realibility of serum progesterone assays as a means for detecting pregnancy in elk (Cervus elaphus). The elk were trapped during February through April in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. Blood samples were set to Bio-Science Laboratories for projesterone analysis by radioimmunoassay. Levels of progesteron were highly variable within the pregnant and nonpregnant elk. (RJC)

  19. Serum endocan levels in women with restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Kenan; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet A; Halac, Gulistan; Kilic, Elif; Ayhan, Siddika; Ozaras, Nihal; Yildiz, Kemal; Yildiz, Rabia S; Zorlu, Mehmet; Karatoprak, Cumali; Cakirca, Mustafa; Kiskac, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    Background Endocan is a recently introduced marker of endothelial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to compare serum endocan levels in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and control subjects in order to elucidate whether RLS is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Methods A total of 31 drug naïve female patients with RLS and 31 age- and BMI-matched women were included in the study. Patients with pathological or physiological conditions or with a history of medication use that could potentially influence endothelial functions were excluded, as well as those with alcohol or drug abuse history. The two groups were compared with routine blood tests and serum endocan levels. Results Patients with RLS had lower serum endocan levels than the controls (P=0.037). There was a negative bivariate correlation between RLS severity score and serum endocan levels (r=−0.406, P=0.023). While white blood cell count was significantly higher in RLS group, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, vitamin B12, transferrin saturation rate, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower. Creatininemia and diastolic blood pressure were also marginally insignificantly lower in RLS group. Due to the presence of differences between two groups in these variables, a linear regression analysis was performed that showed a positive association between endocan and creatininemia (β=0.310, P=0.022), and a negative association between endocan and RLS (β=−0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion The results of this study seem to suggest that patients with RLS may have better endothelial functions when compared with the general population and that these patients may be better protected against atherosclerosis. PMID:26640378

  20. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements. PMID:26742967

  1. Role of admission serum albumin levels in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Limaye, Kaustubh; Yang, Ju Dong; Hinduja, Archana

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels have been reported to be an independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality in multiple disease conditions. The aim of our study was to identify the impact of low serum albumin levels on mortality and outcomes at discharge in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed our prospective database of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage from January 2010 to December 2011. Patients were dichotomized into two groups based on their serum albumin levels upon admission. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin levels ≤3.4 g/dl. The two groups were compared using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and t test for continuous variables. Poor outcome was defined as death or discharge to a long-term nursing facility (modified Rankin Score 4-6). Out of 97 patients admitted with intracerebral hemorrhage, 90 met our inclusion criteria (42 had normal levels and 48 had hypoalbuminemia). The baseline characteristics, risk factors, etiology, location and volume of intracerebral hemorrhage, admission blood glucose, white cell count, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and complications were similar between both groups. Although admission hypoalbuminemia did not impact in-hospital mortality (28 vs 24 %, p = 0.635), there was a significant increase in poor outcomes at discharge (59 vs 31 %, p = 0.009) (OR 1.8; 95 % CI; 1.2-2.8). Similar to other diseases, hypoalbuminemia was associated with poor functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. This will need to be confirmed in larger prospective studies before adopting therapeutic and preventive strategies in future. PMID:26133948

  2. Serum Amylase Levels in Relation to Islet β Cell Function in Patients with Early Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Lei; Su, Jian-bin; Zhang, Xiu-lin; Huang, Hai-yan; Zhao, Li-hua; Xu, Feng; Chen, Tong; Wang, Xue-qin; Wu, Gang; Wang, Xiao-hua

    2016-01-01

    Objective The insulin-pancreatic acinar axis may play a major role in pancreatic function. Amylase is an exocrine enzyme that is produced by pancreatic acinar cells, and low serum amylase levels may be associated with endocrine diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We hypothesized that low serum amylase levels may be associated with impaired islet β cell function in type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the serum amylase levels and islet β cell function in patients with early type 2 diabetes. Methods The cross-sectional study recruited 2327 patients with a mean of 1.71±1.62 years since their diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and all participants were treated with lifestyle intervention alone. Serum amylase levels, the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and metabolic risk factors were examined in all participants. The insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, ISIMatsuda) and insulin secretion index (ratio of total area-under-the-insulin-curve to glucose-curve, AUCins/glu) were derived from the OGTT. Integrated islet β cell function was assessed by the Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 (ISSI-2) (ISIMatsuda multiplied by AUCins/glu). Results Serum amylase levels in the normal range were significantly correlated with ISIMatsuda, AUCins/glu and ISSI-2 (r = 0.203, 0.246 and 0.413, respectively, p<0.001). The association of the serum amylase levels with ISSI-2 (adjusted r = 0.363, p<0.001) was closer than the association with ISIMatsuda (adjusted r = 0.191, p<0.001) and AUCins/glu (adjusted r = 0.174, p<0.001) after adjusting for the anthropometric indices, time since the diagnosis of diabetes, lipid profiles, uric acid levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c levels, smoking and drinking using the partial correlation test. After adjusting for these metabolic risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis with the amylase levels as the dependent variable, ISSI-2 was the major independent contributor to

  3. Fresh pomegranate juice ameliorates insulin resistance, enhances β-cell function, and decreases fasting serum glucose in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Banihani, S A; Makahleh, S M; El-Akawi, Z; Al-Fashtaki, R A; Khabour, O F; Gharibeh, M Y; Saadah, N A; Al-Hashimi, F H; Al-Khasieb, N J

    2014-10-01

    Although the effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) on type 2 diabetic (T2D) conditions have been reported, a clinical study focusing on the short-term effects on different diabetic variables is still needed. We hypothesized that PJ consumption by T2D patients could reduce their insulin-resistant state and decrease their fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels, 3 hours after juice ingestion. This study demonstrated the direct effect of fresh PJ on FSG and insulin levels in T2D patients. Blood samples from 85 participants with type 2 diabetes were collected after a 12-hour fast, then 1 and 3 hours after administration of 1.5 mL of PJ, per kg body weight. Serum glucose was measured based on standard methods using the BS-200 Chemistry Analyzer (Shenzhen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics Co Ltd, Shenzhen, China). Commercially available immunoassay kits were used to measure human insulin. Generally, the results demonstrated decreased FSG, increased β-cell function, and decreased insulin resistance among T2D participants, 3 hours after PJ administration (P < .05). This hypoglycemic response depended on initial FSG levels, as participants with lower FSG levels (7.1-8.7 mmol/L) demonstrated a greater hypoglycemic response (P < .05) compared with those who had higher FSG levels (8.8-15.8 mmol/L). The effect of PJ was also not affected by the sex of the patient and was less potent in elderly patients. In conclusion, this work offers some encouragement for T2D patients regarding PJ consumption as an additional contribution to control glucose levels.

  4. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women.

  5. Serum Levels of Oxylipins in Achilles Tendinopathy: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Nording, Malin L.; Gaida, Jamie E.; Forsgren, Sture; Alfredson, Håkan; Fowler, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Linoleic acid-derived oxidation products are found in experimental pain models. However, little is known about the levels of such oxylipins in human pain. In consequence, in the present study, we have undertaken a lipidomic profiling of oxylipins in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy and controls. Methodology/Principal findings A total of 34 oxylipins were analysed in the serum samples. At a significance level of P<0.00147 (<0.05/34), two linoleic acid-derived oxylipins, 13-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic (13-HODE) and 12(13)-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DiHOME) were present at significantly higher levels in the Achilles tendinopathy samples. This difference remained significant when the dataset was controlled for age, gender and body-mass index. In contrast, 0/21 of the arachidonic acid- and 0/4 of the dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahenaenoic acid-derived oxylipins were higher in the patient samples at this level of significance. The area under the Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve for 12,13-DiHOME was 0.91 (P<0.0001). Levels of four N-acylethanolamines were also analysed and found not to be significantly different between the controls and the patients at the level of P<0.0125 (<0.05/4). Conclusions/Significance It is concluded from this exploratory study that abnormal levels of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins are seen in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Given the ability of two of these, 9- and 13-HODE to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, it is possible that these changes may contribute to the symptoms seen in Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:25875933

  6. Protective Effect of Diospyros kaki against Glucose-Oxygen-Serum Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury.

    PubMed

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Torabi, Shaghayegh; Askari, Vahid R; Asadpour, Elham; Sadeghnia, Hamid R

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Recent interests have been focused on natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents as potentially useful neuroprotective agents. Diospyros kaki (persimmon) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects. However, its effects on ischemic damage have not been evaluated. Here, we used an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia and studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of peel (PeHE) and fruit pulp (PuHE) of persimmon on cell viability and markers of oxidative damage mainly intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD) in PC12 cells. GOSD for 6 h produced significant cell death which was accompanied by increased levels of ROS. Pretreatment with different concentrations of PeHE and PuHE (0-500 μg/mL) for 2 and 24 h markedly restored these changes only at high concentrations. However, no significant differences were seen in the protection against ischemic insult between different extracts and the time of exposure. The experimental results suggest that persimmon protects the PC12 cells from GOSD-induced injury via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of persimmon for managing cerebral ischemic and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26941791

  7. Protective Effect of Diospyros kaki against Glucose-Oxygen-Serum Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury.

    PubMed

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Torabi, Shaghayegh; Askari, Vahid R; Asadpour, Elham; Sadeghnia, Hamid R

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Recent interests have been focused on natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents as potentially useful neuroprotective agents. Diospyros kaki (persimmon) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects. However, its effects on ischemic damage have not been evaluated. Here, we used an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia and studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of peel (PeHE) and fruit pulp (PuHE) of persimmon on cell viability and markers of oxidative damage mainly intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD) in PC12 cells. GOSD for 6 h produced significant cell death which was accompanied by increased levels of ROS. Pretreatment with different concentrations of PeHE and PuHE (0-500 μg/mL) for 2 and 24 h markedly restored these changes only at high concentrations. However, no significant differences were seen in the protection against ischemic insult between different extracts and the time of exposure. The experimental results suggest that persimmon protects the PC12 cells from GOSD-induced injury via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of persimmon for managing cerebral ischemic and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Protective Effect of Diospyros kaki against Glucose-Oxygen-Serum Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury

    PubMed Central

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Torabi, Shaghayegh; Askari, Vahid R.; Asadpour, Elham; Sadeghnia, Hamid R.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Recent interests have been focused on natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents as potentially useful neuroprotective agents. Diospyros kaki (persimmon) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antineoplastic effects. However, its effects on ischemic damage have not been evaluated. Here, we used an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia and studied the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of peel (PeHE) and fruit pulp (PuHE) of persimmon on cell viability and markers of oxidative damage mainly intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glucose-oxygen-serum deprivation (GOSD) in PC12 cells. GOSD for 6 h produced significant cell death which was accompanied by increased levels of ROS. Pretreatment with different concentrations of PeHE and PuHE (0–500 μg/mL) for 2 and 24 h markedly restored these changes only at high concentrations. However, no significant differences were seen in the protection against ischemic insult between different extracts and the time of exposure. The experimental results suggest that persimmon protects the PC12 cells from GOSD-induced injury via antioxidant mechanisms. Our findings might raise the possibility of potential therapeutic application of persimmon for managing cerebral ischemic and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26941791

  9. Kinetics of glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin by glucose, fructose and ribose and its prevention by food components.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Galiniak, Sabina; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-11-17

    The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of the glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein by three sugars: glucose, fructose and ribose, using fluorometric measurements of the content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), protein-bound fructosamine, dityrosine, N'-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, tryptophan, the content of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyl groups, as well as thiol groups. Moreover, the levels of glycoalbumin and AGEs were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on the kinetic results, the optimal incubation time for studies of the modification of the glycoxidation rate by additives was chosen, and the effects of 25 compounds of natural origin on the glycoxidation of BSA induced by various sugars were examined. The same compounds were found to have different effects on glycoxidation induced by various sugars, which suggests caution in extrapolation from experiments based on one sugar to other sugars. From among the compounds tested, the most effective inhibitors of glycoxidation were: polyphenols, pyridoxine and 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid.

  10. Diabetes in Relation to Serum Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Chlorinated Pesticides in Adult Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Codru, Neculai; Schymura, Maria J.; Negoita, Serban; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that diabetes, a condition whose incidence is increasing, is associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides. Objectives We investigated the potential association between diabetes and serum levels of PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex in a cross-sectional study of an adult Native-American (Mohawk) population. Methods Through a standardized questionnaire we collected demographic, medical, and lifestyle information from 352 adults, ≥30 years of age. We collected fasting serum samples that were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, DDE, HCB, and mirex along with fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Participants who had fasting-glucose values > 125 mg/dL and/or who were taking antidiabetic medication were defined as persons with diabetes. We conducted logistic regression to assess the potential association between organochlorine serum levels and diabetes, while controlling for the potential confounding variables of age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, sex, and serum lipid levels. Organochlorine serum levels were categorized in tertiles, and the lowest tertile was used as the reference category. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 20.2%. The odds ratio (OR) of having diabetes for participants in the highest tertile of total PCB concentration compared with the lowest tertile was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–10.6). The corresponding ORs for DDE and HCB were even higher. Elevated serum mirex was not associated with diabetes. After adjustment for other analytes, the OR for HCB remained significant, whereas ORs for PCBs and DDE remained elevated but not statistically significant. In contrast, after adjustment for other analytes, the OR for mirex became statistically significant and indicated an inverse association. Conclusions In this study of adult Native Americans, elevated serum PCBs, DDE, and HCB were positively associated with

  11. Blood glucose levels in diabetic patients following corticosteroid injections into the hand and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Jeffrey G.; London, Daniel A.; Boyer, Martin I.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantify diabetic patients’ change in blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injection for common hand diseases and to assess which patient-level risk factors may predict an increase in blood glucose levels. Methods Patients were recruited for this case-crossover study in the clinic of fellowship-trained hand surgeons at a tertiary care center. Patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 receiving a corticosteroid injection recorded their morning fasting blood glucose levels for 14 days after their injection. Fasting glucose levels on days 1–7 after injection qualified as “case” data with levels on days 10–14 providing control data. A mixed model with a priori contrasts were used to compare post-injection blood glucose levels to baseline levels. A linear regression model was used to determine patient predictors of a post-injection rise in blood glucose levels. Results Forty of 67 patients (60%) recruited for the study returned completed blood glucose logs. There was a significant increase in fasting blood glucose levels following injection limited to post-injection days 1 and 2. Among patient risk factors in our linear regression model, type 1 diabetes and use of insulin each predicted a post-injection increase in blood glucose levels from baseline while higher HbA1c levels did not predict increases. Discussion Corticosteroid injections in the hand transiently increase blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Patients with type 1 diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetics are more likely to experience this transient rise in blood glucose levels. Level of Evidence Therapeutic Level III PMID:24679910

  12. Sugarcoated isolation: evidence that social avoidance is linked to higher basal glucose levels and higher consumption of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Coan, James A.; Reizer, Abira; Gross, Elizabeth B.; Dahan, Dana; Wegener, Meredyth A.; Carel, Rafael; Cloninger, Claude R.; Zohar, Ada H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream and consume more sugar-rich food, reflecting strategies to draw more on personal resources when threatened. Methods: In Study 1 (N = 60), we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data. In Study 2 (N = 285), we collected measures of fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations from older adults of mixed gender, using a measure of attachment style different from Study 1. In Study 3 (N = 108), we examined the link between trait-like attachment avoidance, manipulation of an asocial state, and consumption of sugar-rich food. In Study 4 (N = 115), we examined whether manipulating the social network will moderate the effect of attachment avoidance on consumption of sugar-rich food. Results: In Study 1, fasting blood glucose levels corresponded with higher attachment avoidance scores after statistically adjusting for time of assessment and interpersonal anxiety. For Study 2, fasting blood glucose continued to correspond with higher adult attachment avoidance even after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety, stress indices, age, gender, social support and body mass. In Study 3, people high in attachment avoidance consume more sugar-rich food, especially when reminded of asocial tendencies. Study 4 indicated that after facing a stressful task in the presence of others, avoidant people gather more sugar-rich food than more socially oriented people. Conclusion: Results are consistent with the suggestion that socially avoidant individuals upwardly adjust their basal glucose levels and consume more glucose-rich food with the expectation of increased personal effort because of limited access to social resources. Further investigation of this link is warranted

  13. Effect of 2 month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Spicer, Darcy; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Yang, Chung S.; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2013-01-01

    There have been no controlled intervention studies to investigate the effects of green tea on circulating hormone levels, an established breast cancer risk factor. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the effect of the main green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), taken in a green tea extract, Polyphenon E (PPE). Postmenopausal women (n=103) were randomized into three arms: placebo, 400 mg EGCG as PPE, or 800 mg EGCG as PPE as capsules per day for 2 months. Urinary tea catechin and serum estrogen, androgen, lipid, glucose-related markers, adiponectin, and growth factor levels were measured at baseline and at the end of months 1 and 2 of intervention. Based on urinary tea catechin concentrations, compliance was excellent. Supplementation with PPE did not produce consistent patterns of changes in estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), or testosterone (T) levels. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly in both PPE groups but was unchanged in the placebo group; the change in LDL-cholesterol differed between the placebo and PPE groups (P=0.02). Glucose and insulin levels decreased nonsignificantly in the PPE groups but increased in the placebo group; statistically significant differences in changes in glucose (P=0.008) and insulin (P=0.01) were found. In summary, green tea (400 and 800 mg EGCG as PPE; ~5–10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers. PMID:22246619

  14. Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Spicer, Darcy; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Yang, Chung S; Pike, Malcolm C

    2012-03-01

    There have been no controlled intervention studies to investigate the effects of green tea on circulating hormone levels, an established breast cancer risk factor. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the effect of the main green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), taken in a green tea extract, polyphenon E (PPE). Postmenopausal women (n = 103) were randomized into three arms: placebo, 400-mg EGCG as PPE, or 800-mg EGCG as PPE as capsules per day for 2 months. Urinary tea catechin and serum estrogen, androgen, lipid, glucose-related markers, adiponectin, and growth factor levels were measured at baseline and at the end of months 1 and 2 of intervention. On the basis of urinary tea catechin concentrations, compliance was excellent. Supplementation with PPE did not produce consistent patterns of changes in estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), or testosterone (T) levels. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly in both PPE groups but was unchanged in the placebo group; the change in LDL-cholesterol differed between the placebo and PPE groups (P = 0.02). Glucose and insulin levels decreased nonsignificantly in the PPE groups but increased in the placebo group; statistically significant differences in changes in glucose (P = 0.008) and insulin (P = 0.01) were found. In summary, green tea (400- and 800-mg EGCG as PPE; ∼5-10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers.

  15. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 serum levels in ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hefler, L; Tempfer, C; Heinze, G; Mayerhofer, K; Breitenecker, G; Leodolter, S; Reinthaller, A; Kainz, C

    1999-01-01

    The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 is an important mediator of monocyte infiltration in various solid tumours of epithelial origin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of MCP-1 in the natural history of ovarian cancer and to determine its value as differentiation marker and prognostic marker regarding disease free and overall survival. This retrospective study comprises 86 patients with ovarian cancer, 48 with primary ovarian cancer and 38 with recurrent ovarian cancer, 67 patients with benign ovarian cysts and 42 healthy women. Median serum levels in patients with primary ovarian cancer, recurrent ovarian cancer, benign ovarian cysts and in healthy women were 535.6 (range 129.6–1200) pg ml–1, 427.3 (range 193.4–1101) pg ml–1, 371.2 (range 222–986.8) pg ml–1 and 318.7 (range 241.3–681.4) pg ml–1 respectively (Mann–Whitney U-test, P < 0.001). Univariate logistic regression models revealed a significant influence of MCP-1 serum levels on the odds of presenting with primary ovarian cancer versus benign cysts and versus healthy women respectively (univariate logistic regression, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 respectively). In a multivariate logistic regression model considering MCP-1 and CA 125 serum levels simultaneously, both MCP-1 and CA 125 revealed statistical significance on the odds of presenting with primary ovarian cancer versus benign cysts (multivariate logistic regression, P = 0.05 and P < 0.001 respectively). In ovarian cancer patients, MCP-1 serum levels showed a statistically significant correlation with histological grade (Mann–Whitney U-test, P = 0.02) and age at the time of diagnosis (Mann–Whitney U-test, P = 0.03). Elevated MCP-1 serum levels prior to therapy were not associated with disease-free and overall survival (log-rank test, P = 0.2 and P = 0.7 respectively). In summary these data indicate that MCP-1 might play a functional role in the natural history of ovarian cancer and might serve as

  16. Serum apelin levels in patients with thyroid dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gürel, Ali; Doğantekin, Akif; Özkan, Yusuf; Aydın, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Adipocytes are not only for energy storage, but are also functionally active cells, producing biologically active peptides called adipocytokines. Adipocytokines control nutrition, thermogenesis, immunity, thyroid and reproductive hormones, and neuroendocrine functions. One of the most important new members of this family is apelin. In patients with thyroid dysfunctions, there are usually changes in weight, thermogenesis and adipose tissue lipolysis. Here, we investigated the serum apelin levels in different thyroid hormone states. Our study group consisted of the following patients: 32 thyrotoxicosis, 32 subclinical hyperthyroidism, 31 hypothyroidism, 34 subclinical hypothyroidism and 31 healthy control cases. In addition to routine blood tests, serum free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4), TSH and apelin levels were measured, and the body mass index (BMI) was recorded. In terms of the demographic characteristics, age and BMI, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P>0.05). The mean serum apelin levels of the groups were as follows: thyrotoxicosis group, 4.6±1.9 ng/ml; subclinical hyperthyroidism group, 3.7±1.9 ng/ml; hypothyroid group, 4.8±2.5 ng/ml; subclinical hypothyroidism group, 4.3±2.2 ng/mL; and control group, 3.4±1.4 ng/ml, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of the mean apelin levels between the groups (P>0.05). The hypothyroid group had the highest and the control group had the lowest mean apelin levels. As a result, the apelin levels were higher in both the patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, in comparison with the normal population, but without statistical significance. PMID:26629164

  17. Excessive erythrocytosis, chronic mountain sickness, and serum cobalt levels.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Pando, Jacqueline; Tapia, Rosario; Swenson, Erik R; Prchal, Josef; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Hurtado, Abdias; Johnson, Richard J

    2002-02-01

    In a subset of high-altitude dwellers, the appropriate erythrocytotic response becomes excessive and can result in chronic mountain sickness. We studied men with (study group) and without excessive erythrocytosis (packed-cell volume >65%) living in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m), and compared them with controls living in Lima, Peru (at sea-level). Toxic serum cobalt concentrations were detected in 11 of 21 (52%) study participants with excessive erythrocytosis, but were undetectable in high altitude or sea-level controls. In the mining community of Cerro de Pasco, cobalt toxicity might be an important contributor to excessive erythrocytosis.

  18. Excessive erythrocytosis, chronic mountain sickness, and serum cobalt levels.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Pando, Jacqueline; Tapia, Rosario; Swenson, Erik R; Prchal, Josef; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Hurtado, Abdias; Johnson, Richard J

    2002-02-01

    In a subset of high-altitude dwellers, the appropriate erythrocytotic response becomes excessive and can result in chronic mountain sickness. We studied men with (study group) and without excessive erythrocytosis (packed-cell volume >65%) living in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m), and compared them with controls living in Lima, Peru (at sea-level). Toxic serum cobalt concentrations were detected in 11 of 21 (52%) study participants with excessive erythrocytosis, but were undetectable in high altitude or sea-level controls. In the mining community of Cerro de Pasco, cobalt toxicity might be an important contributor to excessive erythrocytosis. PMID:11844517

  19. Serum fluoride level and fluoride content of enameloid.

    PubMed

    Prostak, K S; Seifert, P; Skobe, Z

    1991-09-01

    We investigated diverse groups of fish species to determine whether the fluorine (F) contents of the dental hard tissues were related to baseline serum F levels. Serum samples, enameloid, dentin, ganoid/enamel, and bone were analyzed for F by either electron microprobe or wet chemistry. Species were categorized into two groups based on the F content of the enameloid. One group contained greater than 2.6 wt% F in enameloid, whereas the other group had less than 0.45 wt% F in enameloid. The dentin and bone from all species (or, in skates, the cartilage), as well as the ganoid/enamel layer of a Holostean fish (alligator gar), showed consistently low F content. In those species whose teeth developed in sequential rows, the F content of enameloid increased with progressive tooth development. The serum F levels of all fish were below 0.05 microgram F/mL (2.63 mumol/L) and were not significantly related to the F content of the enameloid. The results substantiate the idea that F incorporation into enameloid is related to fish phylogeny, not food or habitat. It is suggested that specialized outer dental epithelial cell configurations may facilitate the incorporation of F into enameloid. PMID:1918576

  20. Serum fluoride level and fluoride content of enameloid.

    PubMed

    Prostak, K S; Seifert, P; Skobe, Z

    1991-09-01

    We investigated diverse groups of fish species to determine whether the fluorine (F) contents of the dental hard tissues were related to baseline serum F levels. Serum samples, enameloid, dentin, ganoid/enamel, and bone were analyzed for F by either electron microprobe or wet chemistry. Species were categorized into two groups based on the F content of the enameloid. One group contained greater than 2.6 wt% F in enameloid, whereas the other group had less than 0.45 wt% F in enameloid. The dentin and bone from all species (or, in skates, the cartilage), as well as the ganoid/enamel layer of a Holostean fish (alligator gar), showed consistently low F content. In those species whose teeth developed in sequential rows, the F content of enameloid increased with progressive tooth development. The serum F levels of all fish were below 0.05 microgram F/mL (2.63 mumol/L) and were not significantly related to the F content of the enameloid. The results substantiate the idea that F incorporation into enameloid is related to fish phylogeny, not food or habitat. It is suggested that specialized outer dental epithelial cell configurations may facilitate the incorporation of F into enameloid.

  1. Maternal Serum Magnesium Level and Low Birth Weight Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammadreza; Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf; Farhat, Ahmadshah; Valaee, Laya; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Faal, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of study was to compare the serum level of magnesium in mothers having low birth weight with those having normal birth weight neonates. Methods: In a case-control study, women who delivered low birth weight neonate (cases), compared with normal birth weight (controls) in serum concentration of magnesium. Blood samples collected within 24 h after delivery. Concentration of magnesium assessed by standard atomic absorption spectro-photometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to control of potential confounding variables. Results: A total of 116 mothers (67 cases and 49 control) were studied. Mothers in two groups did not differ in age, body mass index, and socioeconomic or demographic factors. Maternal magnesium concentration did not differ between two groups 0.86 ± 0.11 m.mol/l versus 0.94 ± 0.22 m.mol/l respectively (P = 0.09). Conclusion: There is no significant difference between serum magnesium levels of low birth weight infants’ mother and normal weight infants’ mother. PMID:24498506

  2. Acromegalic gigantism with low serum level of growth hormone and elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, R; Yoshida, T; Sakane, N; Yasuda, T; Umekawa, T; Kondo, M; Shimatsu, A; Hizuka, N; Sano, T

    1995-03-01

    In a case of acromegalic gigantism with hyperprolactinemia is reported, the basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 ng/ml. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood sampling showed non-pulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocriptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide with bromocriptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. In this case, non-pulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism. PMID:7787324

  3. Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Larijani, Bagher; Akhoondzadeh, Shahin; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Dastpak, Arezoo; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Rezai, Afsaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Emami, Tara

    2005-11-14

    Psyllium is a bulk-forming laxative and is high in both fiber and mucilage. The beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the management of type II diabetes, has not been totally demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma-lowering effects of 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium husk fiber, as an adjunct to dietary and drug therapy on lipid and glucose levels, in patients with type II diabetes. Patients were randomly selected from an outpatient clinic of primary care to participate in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which Plantago ovata Forsk., or placebo was given in combination with their anti-diabetic drugs. Forty-nine subjects were included in the study that were given diet counseling before the study and then followed for 8 weeks in the treatment period. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS) was measured every 2 weeks, and total plasma cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also measured at the beginning and ending of the study. The test products (psyllium or placebo) were supplied to subjects in identically labeled foil packets containing a 5.1g dose of product, to consume two doses per day, half an hour before breakfast and dinner. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to treatment was reported in either. Better gastric tolerance to metformin was recorded in the psyllium group. FBS, and HbA1c, showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), whereas HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) following psyllium treatment. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly decreased (p<0.05). Our results show that 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium for persons with type II diabetes is safe, well tolerated, and improves glycemic control.

  4. Testosterone substitution normalizes elevated serum leptin levels in hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Jockenhövel, F; Blum, W F; Vogel, E; Englaro, P; Müller-Wieland, D; Reinwein, D; Rascher, W; Krone, W

    1997-08-01

    The ob gene product leptin (OB) is a feedback signal from the adipocyte to the hypothalamus and is involved in regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in rodents. A major determinant of serum OB levels is fat mass. Several studies suggest that men have lower OB levels than women even after adjustment for percent body fat. We, therefore, investigated the influence of testosterone (T) substitution in hypogonadal men on serum OB levels. Hypogonadal men with T levels of 3.6 nmol/L or less and off substitution therapy for at least 3 months were assigned to two treatment groups: testosterone enanthate (TE; 250 mg, i.m., every 21 days; n = 10) or a single s.c. implantation of 1200 mg crystalline T (TPEL; n = 12). Blood samples for determination of T, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), sex hormone-binding globulin, and 17 beta-estradiol were obtained before therapy and then every 21 days until day 189 and at follow-up visits on days 246 and 300. Serum OB levels were assessed on days 0, 42, 84, 126, 168, and 300. OB levels were referred to a normal range for men based on the analysis of OB levels in 393 adult men. Substitution with T led to a large rise in T and DHT in both groups compared to baseline values (average T, days 21-189: TE, 14.33 +/- 2.63 nmol/L; TPEL, 24.98 +/- 1.64; average DHT, days 21-189: TE, 4.20 +/- 0.57 nmol/L; TPEL, 5.11 +/- 0.56; P < or = 0.05). Concomitantly, 17 beta-estradiol increased in both groups, and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were significantly decreased. At baseline, serum OB levels in hypogonadal men were 3-fold elevated compared to those in normal men (12.39 +/- 2.93 micrograms/L vs. 4.28 +/- 0.52; P < 0.01) and not different between groups (TE, 13.7 +/- 5.6; TPEL, 11.3 +/- 2.9 micrograms/L). This elevation was retained after adjustment for body mass index in the normal control group [TE, 1.45 +/- 0.51 SD score (P < 0.0001); TPEL, 0.98 +/- 0.35 SD score (P < 0.0008)]. During T substitution serum OB was completely

  5. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  6. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-01

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

  7. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  8. The effect of physical activity on serum IL-6 and vaspin levels in late elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hye-Ryun; Ha, Chang-Duk; Jin, Young-Yun; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates the effects of physical activity on serum IL-6 and vaspin in late elementary school children. [Methods] Those who (n = 220) completed the 7-day physical activity monitoring underwent a second round of measurements including body fat, serum glucose and insulin, and serum IL-6 and vaspin. One way ANOVAs followed by LSD post hoc tests were used to test for significant differences in dependent variables across incremental physical activity levels at p=0.05. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors for serum IL-6 and vaspin levels at p=0.05. [Results] The results showed significant inverse linear trends for body fat parameters across incremental physical activity levels (from low to high); the lower the body fat, the higher the physical activity levels. On the other hand, there were no significant linear trends for insulin resistance markers or dietary intake across incremental physical activity levels. Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors for individual variations in serum IL-6 and vaspin in the study population. We found that body mass index (p=0.002) and low- and moderate-intensity physical activities (p=0.002 and p=0.0045, respectively) were significant determinants of serum IL-6. In addition, low- and moderate-intensity physical activities (p=0.01 & p=0.022, respectively) were significant determinants of serum vaspin levels in this study population. [Conclusion] In summary, the findings of the current study suggest that promotion of physical activity along with a healthy diet should be key components of lifestyle interventions to improve serum cytokine profiles associated with insulin resistance syndrome in late elementary school children. PMID:26244128

  9. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in psoriatic patients*

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Manuela Ferrasso; Azevedo, Paula de Oliveira; Tanaka, Anber Ancel; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Martins, Luis Eduardo Agner Machado

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis. We compared serum levels of vitamin D of 20 psoriasis patients and 20 controls. The median vitamin D level was 22.80 ± 4.60 ng/ml; the median in the cases was 23.55 ± 7.6 ng/ml, and in controls 22.35 ± 3.10 ng/ml (p = 0.73). Only 2 cases and 4 controls had sufficient levels of vitamin D, although without statistical significance between the groups (p = 0.608). Levels were lower in women with psoriasis compared with those in male patients (20.85 ± 6.70 x 25.35 ± 2.90 ng/ml, p = 0.03), a finding that was not observed among controls. PMID:26131882

  10. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  11. A novel and sensitive radioreceptor assay for serum melatonin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenn, C.; Niles, L. )

    1991-01-01

    A simple and sensitive radioreceptor assay (RRA) has been developed to measure melatonin levels in serum. The assay is based on competition between 2-({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin (({sup 125}I)MEL) and melatonin for binding to high-affinity binding sites in chick forebrain. To measure the amount of melatonin present in a serum sample, it was extracted with dichloromethane and added to the assay medium. The percentage inhibition of radioligand binding in the presence of the extracted serum was determined and compared to the percent displacement by known amounts of melatonin in a standard curve. There was little or no cross-reactivity with other structurally related compounds. The sensitivity of the assay is {approximately}1.5pg/0.15 mL and the intra- and inter-assay variations are approximately 8%. Since the RRA results are comparable to that of an established radioimmunoassay (RIA), it provides a sensitive and rapid alternative to the more time consuming RIA.

  12. Effect of regular and decaffeinated coffee on serum gastrin levels.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, F; DeFrancesco, A; Andriulli, A; Piantino, P; Arrigoni, A; Massarenti, P; Balzola, F

    1986-04-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that the noncaffeine gastric acid stimulant effect of coffee might be by way of serum gastrin release. After 10 healthy volunteers drank 50 ml of coffee solution corresponding to one cup of home-made regular coffee containing 10 g of sugar and 240 mg/100 ml of caffeine, serum total gastrin levels peaked at 10 min and returned to basal values within 30 min; the response was of little significance (1.24 times the median basal value). Drinking 100 ml of sugared water (as control) resulted in occasional random elevations of serum gastrin which were not statistically significant. Drinking 100 ml of regular or decaffeinated coffee resulted in a prompt and lasting elevation of total gastrin; mean integrated outputs after regular or decaffeinated coffee were, respectively, 2.3 and 1.7 times the values in the control test. Regular and decaffeinated coffees share a strong gastrin-releasing property. Neither distension, osmolarity, calcium, nor amino acid content of the coffee solution can account for this property, which should be ascribed to some other unidentified ingredient. This property is at least partially lost during the process of caffeine removal. PMID:3745848

  13. Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Barrett, B J; Brownscombe, L M; Ethier, J; Greenberg, D E; Kanani, S D; Levin, A; Toffelmire, E B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of earlier referral to a nephrologist of patients with elevated levels of serum creatinine include identifying and treating reversible causes of renal failure, slowing the rate of decline associated with progressive renal insufficiency, managing the coexisting conditions associated with chronic renal failure and facilitating efficient entry into dialysis programs for all patients who might benefit. METHODS: A subcommittee of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, which included representatives from family practice and internal medicine, conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1966 to 1998 using the key words referral and consultation, dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney diseases. Where published evidence was lacking, conclusions were reached by consensus. GUIDELINES: Earlier referral to nephrologists of patients with elevated creatinine levels is expected to lead to better health care outcomes and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system. All patients with newly discovered renal insufficiency (as evidenced by serum creatinine elevated to a level above the upper limit of the normal range of that laboratory, adjusted for age and height in children) must undergo investigations to determine the potential reversibility of disease, to evaluate the prognosis and to optimize planning of care. All patients with an established, progressive increase in serum creatinine level should be followed with a nephrologist. Adequate preparation for dialysis or transplantation (or both) requires at least 12 months of relatively frequent contact with a renal care team. Nephrologists should provide consultation in a timely manner for any patient with an elevated serum creatinine level. In addition, they should provide advice about what aspects of the condition require particularly urgent or emergency assessment. SPONSORS: This clinical practice guideline has been endorsed by the Canadian

  14. Identification and characterization of CTRP9, a novel secreted glycoprotein, from adipose tissue that reduces serum glucose in mice and forms heterotrimers with adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Wong, G William; Krawczyk, Sarah A; Kitidis-Mitrokostas, Claire; Ge, Guangtao; Spooner, Eric; Hug, Christopher; Gimeno, Ruth; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin is a major insulin-sensitizing, multimeric hormone derived from adipose tissue that acts on muscle and liver to regulate whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we describe a novel and highly conserved paralog of adiponectin designated as C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 9. Of all the CTRP paralogs, CTRP9 shows the highest degree of amino acid identity to adiponectin in its globular C1q domain. CTRP9 is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and females expresses higher levels of the transcript than males. Moreover, its expression levels in ob/ob mice changed in an age-dependent manner, with significant up-regulation in younger mice. CTRP9 is a secreted glycoprotein with multiple post-translational modifications in its collagen domain that include hydroxylated prolines and hydroxylated and glycosylated lysines. It is secreted as multimers (predominantly trimers) from transfected cells and circulates in the mouse serum with levels varying according to sex and metabolic state of mice. Furthermore, CTRP9 and adiponectin can be secreted as heterooligomers when cotransfected into mammalian cells, and in vivo, adiponectin/CTRP9 complexes can be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from the serum of adiponectin and CTRP9 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that adiponectin and CTRP9 associate via their globular C1q domain, and this interaction does not require their conserved N-terminal cysteines or their collagen domains. Furthermore, we show that adiponectin and CTRP9 form heterotrimers. In cultured myotubes, CTRP9 specifically activates AMPK, Akt, and p44/42 MAPK signaling pathways. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of CTRP9 in obese (ob/ob) mice significantly lowered serum glucose levels. Collectively, these results suggest that CTRP9 is a novel adipokine, and further study of CTRP9 will yield novel mechanistic insights into its physiological and metabolic function.

  15. Determination of serum glucose by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a candidate reference measurement procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Chuanbao; Zhao, Haijian; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Jiangtao; Zhou, Weiyan; Yan, Ying; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Mo; Chen, Wenxiang

    2016-10-01

    Accurate and precise glucose measurements are requisite for ensuring appropriate diagnosis and management of diseases related to hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. It is necessary to have a higher order method to provide an accuracy base to which routine methods can be compared. We developed and evaluated a highly reliable measurement procedure based on isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID LC-MS/MS) with a simple one-step derivatization. An appropriate amount of serum was accurately weighed and spiked with an isotope-labeled internal standard. After protein precipitation, the supernatant was reacted with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone for chemical structural transformation. The glucose derivatives were analyzed with LC-MS/MS in positive electrospray ionization mode. The within-run and total CVs ranged from 0.28 to 0.42 % and from 0.42 to 0.76 %, respectively, for a concentration range of 1.691 to 15.676 mmol/L. A regression comparison of the presented method to an existing RMP based on ID GC-MS showed agreement with no statistical difference (Y = 0.9985X-0.008; 95 % CI for the slope, 0.9966 to 1.001; 95 % CI for the intercept, -0.012 to 0.019). The structural analogs of glucose with a molecular mass of 180 were tested, and no significant interference effect was found. The limit of quantification was estimated to 0.8 ng glucose in absolute amount. This method is accurate, simple, and can serve as a candidate reference measurement procedure (RMP) in the establishment of a serum glucose reference system. PMID:27481169

  16. Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-06-01

    Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P < .05) and glucose (P < .001) concentrations with a concomitant increase in insulin levels (P < .05). P. granatum decreased LPO in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissues (P < .01, P < .001, and P < .05, respectively) and serum glucose concentration (P < .01). M. paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. PMID:18598183

  17. Measurement of betacellulin levels in bovine serum, colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Bastian, S E; Dunbar, A J; Priebe, I K; Owens, P C; Goddard, C

    2001-01-01

    Betacellulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, was originally isolated and identified from the conditioned medium from a murine pancreatic beta-cell carcinoma cell line. Recently, we isolated bovine betacellulin from a growth factor enriched cheese whey extract, but there is no information on the presence of betacellulin in other biological fluids. We have cloned the cDNA for bovine betacellulin, produced recombinant betacellulin and shown that it has a similar potency to the purified native molecule in stimulating the proliferation of Balb/c3T3 fibroblasts. We have produced a polyclonal antiserum to bovine betacellulin which did not cross-react with EGF or transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha). The antibody was used in a homologous RIA that was able to detect betacellulin in pooled bovine colostrum sampled during the first 3 days after calving (2.30+/-0.11 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=6), in bovine milk soluble fraction (1.93+/-0.64 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=5) and in bovine cheese whey (2.59+/-0.16 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=3). The betacellulin concentration in foetal bovine serum (FBS) (3.68+/-0.59 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=6) greatly exceeded that of betacellulin in serum from male calves 1 and 5 weeks of age (0.53+/-0.15 ng/ml and 0.70+/- 0.09 ng/ml respectively; mean+/-s.e.m.; n=9). Betacellulin measured in the serum of these same animals when aged between 27 and 43 weeks was below the detection limits of the RIA. Sera from 10 out of 36 unmated heifers contained betacellulin levels within the detection limits of the assay (0.433+/-0.06 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=10). The presence of betacellulin in bovine colostrum and milk suggests that it plays a role in the growth and development of the neonate and/or mammary gland function. The results also show that betacellulin is undetectable in the castrated adult male circulation. Additionally, although present in very low amounts, serum betacellulin could be under hormonal regulation in the female, since

  18. Glucose Levels in Culture Medium Determine Cell Death Mode in MPP+-treated Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, So-Young

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) causes caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cells. Here, we specifically examined whether change of glucose concentration in culture medium may play a role for determining cell death modes of DA neurons following MPP+ treatment. By incubating MN9D cells in medium containing varying concentrations of glucose (5~35 mM), we found that cells underwent a distinct cell death as determined by morphological and biochemical criteria. At 5~10 mM glucose concentration (low glucose levels), MPP+ induced typical of the apoptotic dell death accompanied with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation as well as cell shrinkage. In contrast, MN9D cells cultivated in medium containing more than 17.5 mM (high glucose levels) did not demonstrate any of these changes. Subsequently, we observed that MPP+ at low glucose levels but not high glucose levels led to ROS generation and subsequent JNK activation. Therefore, MPP+-induced cell death only at low glucose levels was significantly ameliorated following co-treatment with ROS scavenger, caspase inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. We basically confirmed the quite similar pattern of cell death in primary cultures of DA neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that a biochemically distinct cell death mode is recruited by MPP+ depending on extracellular glucose levels. PMID:26412968

  19. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    PubMed

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  20. Low serum total nitrite and nitrate levels in severe leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthatase activity and disease severity in leptospirosis is unclear. Nitric oxide is converted to nitrites and nitrates, thus nitrite and nitrate levels (NOx) in serum are considered surrogate markers for nitric oxide. NOx are excreted through the kidneys, and elimination is diminished in renal impairment. We assessed the correlation of NOx with disease severity in patients with leptospirosis, compared with healthy controls and non-leptospirosis fever patients. Methods All patients admitted over a two-month period to the National Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka with a clinical picture suggestive of leptospirosis were included. Leptospirosis was confirmed by the microscopic agglutination test (titre≥400). Severe leptospirosis was defined by the presence of two or more of the following criteria: jaundice (bilirubin> 51.3 μmol/l), oliguria (urine output < 400 ml/day), serum creatinine> 133 μmol/l or blood urea > 25.5 mmol/l, or the presence of organ dysfunction. Non-leptospirosis fever patients and healthy volunteers were used as control groups. NOx levels were measured using a modified Griess reaction. Results Forty patients were confirmed as having leptospirosis and 26 of them had severe disease. NOx levels were significantly higher in confirmed leptospirosis patients compared to healthy controls, MAT equivocal patients and non-leptospirosis fever patients (p<0.001). NOx concentrations were also significantly higher in patients with severe compared to mild leptospirosis (p<0.001). Once NOx levels were corrected for renal function, by using the ratio NOx/creatinine, NOx levels were actually significantly lower in patients with severe disease compared to other patients, and values were similar to those of healthy controls. Conclusions We postulate that high NOx levels may be protective against severe leptospirosis, and that finding low NOx levels (when corrected for renal function) in patients with

  1. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  2. Soluble ICAM-1 serum levels in patients with intermediate uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Klok, A.; Luyendijk, L.; Zaal, M.; Rothova, A.; Kijlstra, A.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To investigate whether serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) can serve as a marker of the presence of systemic disease in intermediate uveitis.
METHODS—In a multicentre study sICAM-1 serum levels were measured in 61 patients with idiopathic intermediate uveitis, controls included 56 uveitis patients with a systemic disease (26 sarcoid associated uveitis and 30 HLA-B27 positive acute anterior uveitis), 58 uveitis patients without systemic disease (30 toxoplasma chorioretinitis and 28 Fuchs' hetrochromic cyclitis), and 21 normal controls. The clinical records of the patients with intermediate uveitis were analysed for disease characteristics at the time of blood sampling and for a relation with the development of a systemic disease after a mean follow up of 4.5 years. 
RESULTS—Increased serum levels of sICAM-1 were found in 34 out of 61 patients with intermediate uveitis and were significantly different when compared with toxoplasmosis, Fuchs' cyclitis, and healthy controls (p<0.001). Elevated sICAM-1 levels were also found in 18 out of 26 patients with sarcoid uveitis and in 11 out of 30 patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis. Raised sICAM-1 levels in the intermediate uveitis group were significantly associated with active ocular disease (p<0.01) and the presence of vitreous exudates (p<0.05). Increased levels of sICAM-1 correlated with interleukin 8 levels (IL-8) (tested in a previous study in the same group of intermediate uveitis patients) in patients with active systemic involvement. Follow up of the patients showed that an established or suspected systemic disease was found more often in the 21 intermediate uveitis patients with increased sICAM-1 and IL-8 levels compared with the other 40 patients with intermediate uveitis (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—The measurement of both sICAM-1 and IL-8 can be used as a marker for ocular disease activity and for a predisposition of developing an

  3. Correlation between Serum Lipid Levels and Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate in Chinese Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caixia; Ye, Zengchun; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Qiong; Lou, Tanqi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dyslipidemia is often detected in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previous studies of the relationship between lipid profiles and kidney function have yielded variable results. We aimed to investigate the correlation between serum lipid levels and kidney function evaluated by measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) in Chinese patients with CKD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2036 Chinese CKD patients who had mGFR. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between different serum lipid levels and mGFR, while logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between CKD stages and the risk of different types of dyslipidemia. Results The mean age was 55 years and the mean mGFR was 63 mL/min/1.73m2. After adjusting for some confounders (age, gender, body mass index, a history of diabetes, fasting glucose, a history of hypertension, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking status, hemoglobin, serum potassium, serum albumin, and serum uric acid), serum triglyceride level showed a negative correlation with mGFR (β = -0.006, P = 0.006) in linear regression analysis, and CKD stages were positively related to the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratios were 1.329, 1.868, 2.514 and P were 0.046, < 0.001, < 0.001 for CKD stage 2, 3, 4/5, respectively) in logistic regression anlysis. Conclusions Serum triglyceride level is independently association with mGFR. Patients with reduced kidney function are more likely to have higher serum triglyceride levels. Further longitudinal, multicenter and well-conducted studies are needed to provide more evidence. PMID:27695128

  4. Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Røen, Bent Tore; Opstad, Aase Mari; Haavind, Anniken; Tønsager, Janne

    2013-06-01

    Ricinine is an alkaloid present in the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) that can be used as a biomarker for ricin poisoning. Serial ricinine levels are reported in the serum and urine of a patient suffering from intentional ricin intoxication. The patient was brought to the hospital 4 h after injection and oral intake of a castor bean extract, but died 38 h later, despite intensive medical care. Ricinine was isolated from the samples by solid-phase extraction and quantitatively determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ricinine level in serum declined from 33 to 23 ng/mL between 10 and 29 h post-exposure. Three urine samples collected from 12 to 41 h after ricin intoxication showed ricinine concentrations in the range of 20-58 ng/mL. The creatinine corrected values (21-30 µg/g) indicated a concentration-time profile with a maximum ricinine level in urine between 12 and 29 h after exposure.

  5. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding. PMID:27503800

  6. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding. PMID:27503800

  7. Association Between Serum B12 and Serum Homocysteine Levels in Diabetic Patients on Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and metformin both can lower serum B12 (s.B12). Raised serum Homocysteine (s.Hcy) is considered as an early marker of B12 deficiency. Aim The study aimed to check whether homocysteine levels are more sensitive indicator of s. B12 deficiency or not among diabetics using metformin. Materials and Methods Mean s.B12 and s.Hcy levels of 30 cases (diabetics on metformin <5years) were compared with 30 diabetic controls not on metformin and 31 nondiabetic controls and statistically analysed by ANOVA and post-hoc tests. Results No significant differences in either s.B12 mean or s.Hcy mean were found between cases and diabetic controls. s.B12 mean did not differ significantly but s.Hcy mean was significantly higher among nondiabetics as compared to diabetic control. s. B12 level of Nondiabetic group was in borderline category while mean s. B12 levels of cases and diabetic control groups was in normal category but nearer to the lower cut off. Mean s.Hcy values in all the groups were high. Pearson correlation showed strong association between s.B12 and s.Hcy in all the groups. Additionally equation based on linear regression was derived to calculate either of the s.B12 or s.Hcy. On Receiver Operative Characteristic (ROC) curve, area under curve value was 0.842 for the value of s.Hcy. Conclusion In this study neither metformin nor T2DM could be identified as a cause for s.B12 lowering and raised s.Hcy in the scenario of low normal levels of s.B12 (<300pmol/L). If B12 deficiency recognized early using s. Hcy, consequences due to B12 deficiency can be prevented or delayed among nondiabetics as well as among diabetics and metformin users. PMID:27190787

  8. The association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linlin; Cao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the development of hemodialysis (HD). This study aims to detect the potential association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in HD. A total of 485 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The created restriction site polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methods were used to investigate ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism. Our data suggested that there were significant differences in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between HD patients and healthy controls. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a) for genotype AA were different from genotype GG in HD patients and healthy controls. Our findings support that the ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism might influence the development of HD and could be a risk factor for assessing HD.

  9. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Martinho, Vitor Augusto Melão; Antoneli, Célia Beatriz Gianotti; Marcussi, Ludmilla Altino de Lima; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma patients, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma. PMID:25628199

  10. Effects of gliclazide add on metformin on serum omentin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Alrubai, Haidar F.; Suliaman, Sammar M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Omentin is a newly identified adipokine that has beneficial influence against cardiovascular disorders. Hence, considering the impact of anti-diabetic drug on omentin levels may provide an adjuvant strategy to protect diabetic patients against valuable clinical hazards. Aim of the Study: To investigate the influence of metformin alone or in combination with gliclazide on the level of serum omentin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and Methods: A total of 70 newly diagnosed patients with T2DM were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind prospective study, and divided into two equal groups based on treatment regimen in which Group 1 treated with metformin (1000 mg) and Group 2 treated with metformin (1000 mg) plus gliclazide (80 mg). Blood glucose levels, HbA1C, insulin levels, and serum omentin-1 were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Result: Use of gliclazide as an add-on therapy to metformin in patients with T2DM result in better glycemic control evidenced by significant reductions in the levels of blood glucose levels and HbA1C and much more improvement in insulin sensitivity evidenced by significant decreased in insulin resistance index, whereas it has adverse impact on serum omentin-1 levels evidenced by significant decrement in omentin-1 level in comparison to their pretreatment levels among Group 2 patients. Conclusions: Adding of gliclazide to metformin in treatment of patients with T2DM might extend the therapeutic action of metformin in regarding much better controlling of glycemic indices, but, at the same time, it might attenuate the cardioprotective effects of metformin by its adverse influence on serum omentin-1 levels. PMID:27042415

  11. Association of Renal Manifestations with Serum Uric Acid in Korean Adults with Normal Uric Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported that hyperuricemia is associated with the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidences also suggest that hyperuricemia may have a pathogenic role in the progression of renal disease. Paradoxically, uric acid is also widely accepted to have antioxidant activity in experimental studies. We aimed to investigate the association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and uric acid in healthy individuals with a normal serum level of uric acid. We examined renal function determined by GFR and uric acid in 3,376 subjects (1,896 men; 1,480 women; aged 20-80 yr) who underwent medical examinations at Gangnam Severance Hospital from November 2006 to June 2007. Determinants for renal function and uric acid levels were also investigated. In both men and women, GFR was negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, uric acid, log transformed C reactive protein, and log transformed triglycerides. In multivariate regression analysis, total uric acid was found to be an independent factor associated with estimated GFR in both men and women. This result suggests that uric acid appears to contribute to renal impairment in subjects with normal serum level of uric acid. PMID:21165292

  12. The relationship between maternal serum iron and zinc levels and their nutritional intakes in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Safary, Kolsum; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Lamyian, Minoor; Goshtasebi, Azita; Goshtasbi, Azita; Alian-Moghaddam, Narges

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal iron/zinc serum levels and their nutritional intake in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes. The maternal serum zinc/iron levels were measured in 1,033 healthy singleton pregnant women aged 20-35 between 14 and 20 weeks of gestation, within two groups: namely, normal and gestational diabetes, and participants were followed up to 24-28 weeks of gestation. Food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutritional intakes of iron/zinc. The main outcome was gestational diabetes screened with the 50-g glucose challenge test and diagnosed with oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Gestational diabetes occurred in 72 (6.96 %) of 1,033 women in study. There was a statistical relationship between early pregnancy maternal serum iron and gestational diabetes, mean (SD), 143.8 (48.7) vs. 112.5 (83.5) μg/dl, P value of <0.0001. There was no statistical significant difference in zinc levels and iron/zinc nutritional intake between groups. The results remained unchanged after using regression model for adjustment of potential risk factors with an adjusted OR of 1.006 (95 % CI 1.002 to 1.009; P = 0.001) for early pregnancy maternal serum iron to cause gestational diabetes. The receiver-operator characteristic curve identified that a maternal serum iron above 100 μg/dl in early pregnancy is the optimum cutoff value for predicting gestational diabetes, which showed a sensitivity and specificity of 80.6 and 50.7 %, respectively. In conclusion, high maternal serum iron in early pregnancy could increase the risk of gestational diabetes. Also, it could be used as a sensitive and specific predictor for gestational diabetes.

  13. Interleukin-6 genotypes and serum levels in Chinese Hui population

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shu-Ping; Liang, Shu; Pan, Min; Sun, Rong-Liang; Chen, Chu; Luan, Hong; Jiang, Min-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in different physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, and circulating levels of IL-6 differ greatly between individuals. The Chinese Hui is one of the largest ethnic minorities, little is known about the distribution of IL-6 genetic variations and their effects on serum levels in Hui population. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of -174G/C (rs1800795), -597G/A (rs1800797), and -634C/G (rs1800796) polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene promoter region and their association with IL-6 serum levels in the Ningxia Hui population. A total of 96 Hui subjects, (57 men and 39 women; mean age 49.65 ± 19.73 years) unrelated nationality residents in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region were enrolled. Genotyping of the three polymorphisms were performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) combined with gel electrophoresis and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The -174G/C (97.92% GG, 2.08% GC, and 0% CC) and -597G/A (98.96% GG, 1.04% GA, and 0% AA) polymorphisms were rare. The frequencies of -634C/G genotypes CC, CG, and GG were found to be 54.17%, 40.62%, and 5.21%, respectively in total studied subjects, the derived allele frequencies for the C and G alleles were 74.48% and 25.52%. Increased IL-6 levels were correlated with the IL-6 -634G allele carriers (CG+GG genotypes). The results suggest that IL-6 -174G/C and -597G/A are rare but -634C/G is common in the Ningxia Hui population, and the -634G allele is associated with circulating levels of IL-6. PMID:25356148

  14. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (p<0.01-0.0001). Fatal diabetic ketoacidosis cases had evidently high glucose levels at each site; whereas in the non-diabetic group, blood glucose level was higher in fatal alcohol abuse, saltwater drowning, electrocution, cerebrovascular disease and sudden cardiac death due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition.

  15. The serum insulin and plasma glucose responses to milk and fruit products in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Gannon, M C; Nuttall, F Q; Krezowski, P A; Billington, C J; Parker, S

    1986-11-01

    The plasma glucose and serum insulin responses were determined in untreated Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients following the ingestion of foods containing sucrose, glucose, fructose or lactose in portions that contained 50 g of carbohydrate. The results were compared to those obtained following the ingestion of pure fructose, sucrose, glucose + fructose and lactose. The objectives were to determine 1) if the glucose response to naturally occurring foods could be explained by the known carbohydrate content, and 2) whether the insulin response could be explained by the glucose response. The glucose response was essentially the same whether the carbohydrate was given as a pure substance, or in the form of a naturally occurring food. The glucose response to each type of carbohydrate was that expected from the known metabolism of the constituent monosaccharides. The glucose areas following the ingestion of the foods were: Study 1: glucose 11.7, orange juice 7.3, sucrose 5.2, glucose + fructose 6.3, and fructose 0.7 mmol X h/l; Study 2: glucose 14.6, orange juice 7.3, apples 5.5, and apple juice 4.7 mmol X h/l; Study 3: glucose 12.6, ice cream 8.1, milk 3.7, and lactose 4.1 mmol X h/l. The insulin response was greater than could be explained by the glucose response for all meals except apples. Milk was a particularly potent insulin secretagogue; the observed insulin response was approximately 5-fold greater than would be anticipated from the glucose response. In summary, the plasma glucose response to ingestion of fruits and milk products can be predicted from the constituent carbohydrate present. The serum insulin response cannot.

  16. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Natalia E; Garcés, María F; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I; González-Clavijo, Angélica M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-02-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease.

  17. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  18. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  19. The serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin level and the diet of a Japanese population: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    PubMed

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Eiichi; Okada, Kyoko; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The elevated serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) level is related to osteoporosis. In Japan, vitamin K intake is lower, and the incidence of hip fractures noticeably higher in northern Kyushu than in other areas. The study was done to determine the serum ucOC levels in a Japanese population and its association with diet and glucose metabolism. The data of 3,658 healthy adults aged 40-69 (1,373 men and 2,285 women) who lived in northern Kyushu area were analyzed. The data included anthropometric measurements and a self-reported personal interview on daily intake of foods. The serum ucOC level of each participant was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Glycohemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, and serum insulin concentrations were measured. The median serum ucOC level of the women (4.65 ng/mL) was significantly higher than that of the men (3.04 ng/mL) (P = 0.0021). The age-specific ucOC levels of the men decreased significantly with age. In contrast, the ucOC levels of the women aged ≥50 were elevated, but the levels varied markedly within the other age groups. For both men and women, multivariate analysis identified a daily diet rich in vitamin K and HbA1c level as independently having a significant, negative relationship to serum ucOC level. Our study indicates that the serum ucOC decreases with age in men, increases postmenopausally in women, and correlates inversely with dietary consumption of certain foods and with fasting glucose and HbA1c level.

  20. Lower serum uric acid level predicts mortality in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sun Moon; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the impact of serum uric acid (SUA) on mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. A total of 4132 adult patients on dialysis were enrolled prospectively between August 2008 and September 2014. Among them, we included 1738 patients who maintained dialysis for at least 3 months and had available SUA in the database. We categorized the time averaged-SUA (TA-SUA) into 5 groups: <5.5, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.4, and ≥8.5 mg/dL. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality according to SUA group. The mean TA-SUA level was slightly higher in men than in women. Patients with lower TA-SUA level tended to have lower body mass index (BMI), phosphorus, serum albumin level, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM), and higher proportion of malnourishment on the subjective global assessment (SGA). During a median follow-up of 43.9 months, 206 patients died. Patients with the highest SUA had a similar risk to the middle 3 TA-SUA groups, but the lowest TA-SUA group had a significantly elevated HR for mortality. The lowest TA-SUA group was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.720; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–2.937; P = 0.047) even after adjusting for demographic, comorbid, nutritional covariables, and medication use that could affect SUA levels. This association was prominent in patients with well nourishment on the SGA, a preserved serum albumin level, a higher BMI, and concomitant DM although these parameters had no significant interaction in the TA-SUA-mortality relationship except DM. In conclusion, a lower TA-SUA level <5.5 mg/dL predicted all-cause mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. PMID:27310949

  1. Serum levels of pancreatic enzymes in lean and obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Kondo, T; Hayakawa, T; Shibata, T; Sato, Y; Toda, Y

    1988-05-01

    Serum amylase and trypsin, but not lipase, were significantly lower in obese subjects than in lean subjects. Serum amylase and trypsin, but not lipase, had significant inverse correlation with body weight. Low serum amylase was associated with low protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes per kg body weight, whereas low serum trypsin was associated with low carbohydrate intake per kg body weight. Low serum pancreatic enzymes readily increased with diet therapy. It is assumed that lowered serum pancreatic enzymes in obese subjects are somehow related to their diet intake. The mechanism through which pancreatic enzymes in the blood reflect the composition of food is unclear.

  2. Levels of some serum enzymes in patients with schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Salah, L A; Kheireldin, A A; Mansour, M M; Hussein, F

    1976-12-01

    The effect of active schistosomiasis on the activity of some serum enzymes of hepatic origin has been studied in 46 male Egyptian patients with S. mansoni infections. These enzymes included total lactic dehydrogenase and its isoenzymes, 5'nucleotidase, B-glucuronidase, ornithine carbamyl transferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase. Samples were collected on admission, a week after the end of treatment and one month later. B-glucuronidase showed no change whereas ornithine carbamyl transferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and 5'-nucleotidase showed elevated levels throughout the study. Total LDH was not significantly different on admission but increased significantly after treatment and returned to normal at follow up. Of the five LDH isoenzymes only LDH4 showed elevated levels. The significance of these findings in relation to conventional liver function tests is discussed. PMID:1011323

  3. Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. Methods This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. Results A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P < 0.01). The rate of successful glucose control (blood glucose level < 150 mg/dl maintained for 6 days or longer) decreased with increase in blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P < 0.01). The blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions High blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control. PMID:22494810

  4. Sources of folate and serum folate levels in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Jessica E; Greene, Geoffrey W; Caldwell, Marjorie

    2007-03-01

    This study examined dietary folate intake in 173 older adults. A subsample (n=128) also provided data about folic acid from vitamin/mineral supplements and serum folate. Subjects were community-dwelling men and women 60 years of age and older. Overall, this sample had healthful dietary patterns with adequate dietary folate. Mean dietary intake converted to dietary folate equivalents (DFE) was 464 microg DFE/day. However, 20% (n=36) had inadequate and 2% (n=3) had high dietary DFE (>1,000 microg DFE/day). A subsample (n=128) completed a dietary supplement questionnaire and biochemical assessment of folate. Adding folic acid from vitamin/mineral supplements to dietary folate (total DFE), intake increased to 766 microg DFE/day; 13% (n=16) had inadequate, 75% (n=95) had adequate, and 13% (n=13) had high total DFE. No subject with low total DFE reported supplement use, but 94% (n=39) with high total DFE intake did so. In the subsample, all subjects had acceptable serum folate levels (mean serum folate=28.0+/-13.8 ng/mL [63.5+/-31.3 nmol/L]). In conclusion, vitamin/mineral supplements should be included in nutrition assessment of older adults. Older adults may be at risk for inadequate folate intake if their energy intake is low, they do not take a vitamin/mineral supplement, or are not consuming fortified cereals. However, older adults may be at risk for excess folic acid intake if they consume both a supplement and fortified cereals.

  5. Association between serum pepsinogen A and C levels, serum gastrin concentrations and Helicobacter pylori antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kullich, W; Pöllmann, G; Czerwenka, C; Klein, G

    1999-01-01

    Pepsinogen A and C as well as gastrin were measured in the serum of 117 patients with rheumatic diseases. Moreover, the patients were divided up in groups by aids of a semiquantitative, rapid enzyme immunoassay for detection of Helicobacter pylori: 20 patients without H. pylori antibodies (AB) negative, 18 positive + (= weak AB-titre), 21 positive +2 (medium AB-titre), and 58 positive +3 (high AB-titre). The semiquantitative determinations of H. pylori-AB correlated with pepsinogen A, C and gastrin. Patients with H. pylori-AB positive +3 showed significantly higher values of pepsinogen C (p < or = 0.01) as well as pepsinogen A and gastrin (p < or = 0.05) than H. pylori-AB negative patients. Significantly increased levels of pepsinogen A (> 150 ng/ml) and C (> 25 ng/ml) were found to occur in 39% and 100% of patients with high H. pylori-AB titres. The measurement of serum pepsinogen C concentrations may provide additional diagnostic information of the extent of mucosal lesions in patients with positive H. pylori-AB titres treated with antirheumatic drugs. Our findings suggest that the semi-quantitative classification of positive AB-results can be useful in cases determining H. pylori infection and mucosal irritation if other investigations are not available.

  6. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  7. Proteins altered by elevated levels of palmitate or glucose implicated in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sol, E-ri M; Hovsepyan, Meri; Bergsten, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by aberrant insulin secretory patterns, where elevated insulin levels at non-stimulatory basal conditions and reduced hormonal levels at stimulatory conditions are major components. To delineate mechanisms responsible for these alterations we cultured INS-1E cells for 48 hours at 20 mM glucose in absence or presence of 0.5 mM palmitate, when stimulatory secretion of insulin was reduced or basal secretion was elevated, respectively. Results After culture, cells were protein profiled by SELDI-TOF-MS and 2D-PAGE. Differentially expressed proteins were discovered and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Complimentary protein profiles were obtained by the two approaches with SELDI-TOF-MS being more efficient in separating proteins in the low molecular range and 2D-PAGE in the high molecular range. Identified proteins included alpha glucosidase, calmodulin, gars, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, lon peptidase, nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, proteasome p45, rab2, pyruvate kinase and t-complex protein. The observed glucose-induced differential protein expression pattern indicates enhanced glucose metabolism, defense against reactive oxygen species, enhanced protein translation, folding and degradation and decreased insulin granular formation and trafficking. Palmitate-induced changes could be related to altered exocytosis. Conclusion The identified altered proteins indicate mechanism important for altered β-cell function in T2DM. PMID:19607692

  8. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  9. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  10. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism.

  11. Serum galactomannan levels in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Okuturlar, Yildiz; Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ener, Beyza; Serin, Sibel Ocak; Kazak, Esra; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozkan, Hasan Atilla; Akalin, Halis; Gunaldi, Meral; Ali, Ridvan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: In this study, the sensitivity-specificity of galactomannan-enzyme immunoassay (GM-EIA) with a cut-off value of 0.5 for a single, two, or three consecutive positivity in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancy was investigated. Methods: IPA was classified as “proven,” “probable,” or “possible” as described in the guidelines prepared by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group.” Serum samples were collected from the patients twice a week throughout their hospitalization. A total of 1,385 serum samples, with an average of 8.3 samples per episode, were examined. Results: Based on the 165 febrile episodes in 106 patients, 80 (48.5%) were classified as IPA (4 proven, 11 probable, 65 possible) and 85 (51.5%) as non-IPA. The sensitivity/ specificity was 100%/27.1% for a single proven/probable IPA with the cut of value of GM-EIA ≥ 0.5, 86.7%/71.8% for two consecutive positive results, and 73.3%/85.9% for three consecutive positive results. Conclusions: With the galactomannan levels measured twice a week, consecutive sensitivity decreased and specificity increased. Therefore, an increase may be obtained in sensitivity-specificity by more frequent monitoring of GM-EIA starting from the first day of positivity is detected. PMID:26552466

  12. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there were significant differences in blood glucose levels between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Passive static stretching of the skeletal muscles may be an alternative to exercise to help regulate blood glucose levels in diabetes patients. PMID:26157241

  13. [Serum uric acid levels and risk of developing preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Corominas, Ana I; Balconi, Silvia M; Palermo, Mario; Maskin, Bernardo; Damiano, Alicia E

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that preeclampsia is associated to high uric acid levels, but the clinical assessment of this relationship is still under consideration. Our research was to evaluate if periodic doses of uric acid during pregnancy might help to identify a high risk group prior to the onset of preeclampsia. We conducted a retrospective investigation in 79 primary gestates with normal blood pressure and 79 women with preeclampsia who were assisted at Hospital Nacional Posadas during 2010. Serum uric acid levels, creatininemia, uremia, and proteinuria data from the clinical records of the pregnant women were considered. Uric acid levels were similar in both groups during the first half of gestation. However, as of the 20th week, uric acid increased 1.5-times in preeclamptic women with no changes in creatinine and urea, confirming that these patients had no renal complications. Furthermore, we noted that higher levels of uric acid correlated with low birth weight. We also observed that pregnant women with a family history of hypertension were more likely to develop this condition. Moreover, we did not find a direct relationship with the fetal sex or the appearance of clinical symptoms. The analytical evidence suggests that changes in uric acid concentrations may be due to metabolic alterations at the initial stages of preeclampsia. Therefore, we propose that monitoring levels of uric acid during pregnancy might contribute to the early control of this condition.

  14. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in early spontaneous pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Hou, W; Yan, X-t; Bai, C-m; Zhang, X-w; Hui, L-y; Yu, X-w

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy have been associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in childbearing aged women and pregnancy loss (PL) in the first trimester. Subjects/Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Plasma was collected from 60 nulliparous women with singleton at 7–9 weeks of gestation (30 with viable gestation and 30 with PL) and 60 non-gravid childbearing aged women (30 with a successful pregnancy history, and 30 with one or more spontaneous first-trimester PL history). Quantitation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase (CYP27B1) was assayed. Results: By pregnancy/non-gravid, normal pregnant women had higher 25(OH)D (49.32 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (82.00 pg/ml) than PL women (34.49 μg/l and 37.87 pg/ml, both P<0.01); the non-gravid women with a successful pregnancy history also had higher 25(OH)D (39.56 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (39.04 pg/ml) than women with PL history (12.30 μg/l and 12.35 pg/ml, both P<0.01). The 96.7% of non-gravid women with PL history and 43.3% of PL women had serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 μg/l. There was a strong association between low vitamin D levels and PL (odds ratio 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.2–2.4, P<0.001). The regression analyses showed that PL was significantly inversely correlated with 25(OH)D (P<0.01) and CYP27B1 levels (P<0.01). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency associated with PL in the first trimester of pregnancy. Decreased serum vitamin D levels among childbearing aged women with the failed clinical pregnancies history may predispose to increased risk for PL. PMID:27222154

  15. Serum FGF23 levels may not be associated with serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with Fanconi syndrome–induced hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Shunsuke; Fujii, Hideki; Kono, Keiji; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakai, Kentaro; Nishi, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is regulated by sustained phosphate supplementation and restriction. However, few studies have investigated FGF23 levels in patients with Fanconi syndrome. Therefore, we evaluated intact and C-terminal FGF23 and FGF23-associated parameters in four patients with Fanconi syndrome. Serum intact and C-terminal FGF23 levels were extremely low. Although serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels improved to or above the normal range within 1 year of treatment with oral phosphate and calcitriol, serum FGF23 levels remained low. Serum FGF23 levels in patients with Fanconi syndrome might be regulated by novel factors other than serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. PMID:27679714

  16. Serum FGF23 levels may not be associated with serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with Fanconi syndrome-induced hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shunsuke; Fujii, Hideki; Kono, Keiji; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakai, Kentaro; Nishi, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is regulated by sustained phosphate supplementation and restriction. However, few studies have investigated FGF23 levels in patients with Fanconi syndrome. Therefore, we evaluated intact and C-terminal FGF23 and FGF23-associated parameters in four patients with Fanconi syndrome. Serum intact and C-terminal FGF23 levels were extremely low. Although serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels improved to or above the normal range within 1 year of treatment with oral phosphate and calcitriol, serum FGF23 levels remained low. Serum FGF23 levels in patients with Fanconi syndrome might be regulated by novel factors other than serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. PMID:27679714

  17. Serum FGF23 levels may not be associated with serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with Fanconi syndrome–induced hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Shunsuke; Fujii, Hideki; Kono, Keiji; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakai, Kentaro; Nishi, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is regulated by sustained phosphate supplementation and restriction. However, few studies have investigated FGF23 levels in patients with Fanconi syndrome. Therefore, we evaluated intact and C-terminal FGF23 and FGF23-associated parameters in four patients with Fanconi syndrome. Serum intact and C-terminal FGF23 levels were extremely low. Although serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels improved to or above the normal range within 1 year of treatment with oral phosphate and calcitriol, serum FGF23 levels remained low. Serum FGF23 levels in patients with Fanconi syndrome might be regulated by novel factors other than serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels.

  18. Effectiveness of traditional Malaysian vegetables (ulam) in modulating blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Bachok, Mohd Faez; Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Ulam refers to a group of traditional Malaysian plants commonly consumed as a part of a meal, either in the raw form or after a short blanching process. Many types of ulam are thought to possess blood glucose-lowering properties, but relatively little is known on the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. This review aims to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. A literature review was conducted using multiple databases with no time restriction. Eleven studies were retrieved based on a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. In these 11 studies, only Momordica charantia, locally known as "peria katak", was extensively studied, followed by Centella asiatica, locally known as "daun pegaga", and Alternanthera sessilis, locally known as "kermak putih". Of the 11 studies, 9 evaluated the effectiveness of M. charantia on blood glucose parameters, and 7 of which showed significant improvement in at least one parameter of blood glucose concentration. The remaining 2 studies reported nonsignificant improvements in blood glucose parameters, despite having high-quality study design according to Jadad scale. None of the studies related to C. asiatica and A. sessilis showed significant improvement in blood glucose-related parameters. Current clinical evidence does not support the popular claim that ulam has glucose-lowering effects, not even for M. charantia. Hence, further clinical investigation is needed to verify the glucose modulation effect of M. charantia, C. asiatica, and A. sessilis.

  19. Effectiveness of traditional Malaysian vegetables (ulam) in modulating blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Bachok, Mohd Faez; Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Ulam refers to a group of traditional Malaysian plants commonly consumed as a part of a meal, either in the raw form or after a short blanching process. Many types of ulam are thought to possess blood glucose-lowering properties, but relatively little is known on the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. This review aims to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. A literature review was conducted using multiple databases with no time restriction. Eleven studies were retrieved based on a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. In these 11 studies, only Momordica charantia, locally known as "peria katak", was extensively studied, followed by Centella asiatica, locally known as "daun pegaga", and Alternanthera sessilis, locally known as "kermak putih". Of the 11 studies, 9 evaluated the effectiveness of M. charantia on blood glucose parameters, and 7 of which showed significant improvement in at least one parameter of blood glucose concentration. The remaining 2 studies reported nonsignificant improvements in blood glucose parameters, despite having high-quality study design according to Jadad scale. None of the studies related to C. asiatica and A. sessilis showed significant improvement in blood glucose-related parameters. Current clinical evidence does not support the popular claim that ulam has glucose-lowering effects, not even for M. charantia. Hence, further clinical investigation is needed to verify the glucose modulation effect of M. charantia, C. asiatica, and A. sessilis. PMID:25164446

  20. Measurement of Physiologic Glucose Levels Using Raman Spectroscopy in a Rabbit Aqueous Humor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, J.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Borchert, M.

    1998-01-01

    We have elecited a reliable glucose signature in mammalian physiological ranges using near infrared Raman laser excitation at 785 nm and multivariate analysis. In a recent series of experiments we measured glucose levels in an artificial aqueous humor in the range from 0.5 to 13X normal values.

  1. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  2. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. Material/Methods We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. Results There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. Conclusions Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185

  3. Association of Tumor Growth Factor-β and Interferon-γ Serum Levels With Insulin Resistance in Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sotoodeh Jahromi, Abdolreza; Sanie, Mohammad Sadegh; Yusefi, Alireza; Zabetian, Hassan; Zareian, Parvin; Hakimelahi, Hossein; Madani, Abdolhossien; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2015-09-28

    Pregnancy is related to change in glucose metabolism and insulin production. The aim of our study was to determine the association of serum IFN-γ and TGF- β levels with insulin resistance during normal pregnancy. This cross sectional study was carried out on 97 healthy pregnant (in different trimesters) and 28 healthy non-pregnant women. Serum TGF-β and IFN- γ level were measured by ELISA method. Pregnant women had high level TGF-β and low level IFN-γ as compared non-pregnant women. Maternal serum TGF-β concentration significantly increased in third trimester as compared first and second trimester of pregnancy. Maternal serum IFN-γ concentration significantly decreased in third trimester as compared first and second trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women exhibited higher score of HOMA IR as compared non-pregnant women. There were association between gestational age with body mass index (r=0.28, P=0.005), TGF-β (r=0.45, P<0.001) and IFN-γ (r=-0.50, P<0.001). There was significant association between Insulin resistance and TGF-β (r=0.17, p=0.05). Our findings suggest that changes in maternal cytokine level in healthy pregnant women were anti-inflammatory. Furthermore, Tumor Growth Factor-β appears has a role in induction insulin resistance in healthy pregnant women. However, further studies needed to evaluate role of different cytokines on insulin resistance in normal pregnancy.

  4. Vitamin D supplementation and serum levels of magnesium and selenium in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: gender dimorphic changes.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman S; Yakout, Sobhy M; Alokail, Majed S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on circulating levels of magnesium and selenium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 126 adult Saudi patients (55 men and 71 women, mean age 53.6±10.7 years) with controlled T2DM were randomly recruited for the study. All subjects were given vitamin D3 tablets (2000 IU/day) for six months. Follow-up mean concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH) vitamin D] significantly increased in both men (34.1±12.4 to 57.8±17.0 nmol/L) and women (35.7±13.5 to 60.1±18.5 nmol/L, p<0.001), while levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) decreased significantly in both men (1.6±0.17 to 0.96±0.10 pmol/L, p=0.003) and women (1.6±0.17 to 1.0±0.14 pmol/L, p=0.02). In addition, there was a significant increase in serum levels of selenium and magnesium in men and women (p-values<0.001 and 0.04, respectively) after follow-up. In women, a significant correlation was observed between delta change (variables at six months-variable at baseline) of serum magnesium versus high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (r=0.36, p=0.006) and fasting glucose (r=-0.33, p=0.01). In men, there was a significant correlation between serum selenium and triglycerides (r=0.32, p=0.04). Vitamin D supplementation improves serum concentrations of magnesium and selenium in a gender-dependent manner, which in turn could affect several cardiometabolic parameters such as glucose and lipids.

  5. The Effects of Oxygen Level and Glucose Concentration on the Metabolism of Porcine TMJ Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cisewski, Sarah E.; Zhang, Lixia; Kuo, Jonathan; Wright, Gregory J.; Wu, Yongren; Kern, Michael J.; Yao, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the combined effect of oxygen level and glucose concentration on cell viability, ATP production, and matrix synthesis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc cells. Design TMJ disc cells were isolated from pigs aged 6-8 months and cultured in a monolayer. Cell cultures were preconditioned for 48 hours with 0, 1.5, 5, or 25mM glucose DMEM under 1%, 5%, 10%, or 21% O2 level, respectively. The cell viability was measured using the WST-1 assay. ATP production was determined using the Luciferin-Luciferase assay. Collagen and proteoglycan synthesis were determined by measuring the incorporation of [2, 3-3H]proline and [35S]sulfate into the cells, respectively. Results TMJ disc cell viability significantly decreased (P<0.0001) without glucose. With glucose present, decreased oxygen levels significantly increased viability (P<0.0001), while a decrease in glucose concentration significantly decreased viability (P<0.0001). With glucose present, decreasing oxygen levels significantly reduced ATP production (P<0.0001) and matrix synthesis (P<0.0001). A decreased glucose concentration significantly decreased collagen synthesis (P<0.0001). The interaction between glucose and oxygen was significant in regards to cell viability (P<0.0001), ATP production (P=0.00015), and collagen (P=0.0002) and proteoglycan synthesis (P<0.0001). Conclusions Although both glucose and oxygen are important, glucose is the limiting nutrient for TMJ disc cell survival. At low oxygen levels, the production of ATP, collagen, and proteoglycan are severely inhibited. These results suggest that steeper nutrient gradients may exist in the TMJ disc and it may be vulnerable to pathological events that impede nutrient supply. PMID:26033165

  6. Serum levels of S-100B after recreational scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Stavrinou, L C; Kalamatianos, T; Stavrinou, P; Papasilekas, T; Psachoulia, C; Tzavara, C; Stranjalis, G

    2011-12-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a sport of increasing popularity. Previous studies indicating subtle brain injury in asymptomatic divers imply a cumulative effect of minor neural insults in association with diving for professional and/or recreational purposes, over the long-term. This is the first study to investigate putative neural tissue burden during recreational scuba diving by measuring circulating levels of S-100B, a sensitive biomarker of brain injury. 5 male divers performed 3 consecutive dives under conservative recreational diving settings (maximum depth 15 m, duration of dive 56 min, ascend rate 1.15 m/min) with an interval of 12 h between each session. Although a small increase in serum S-100B levels after each dive was apparent, this increase did not quite reach statistical significance (p=0.057). Moreover, no abnormal S-100B values were recorded (mean baseline: 0.06 μg/L, mean post-dive: 0.086 μg/L) and no effect of the 3 consecutive dives on changes in S-100B levels was detected. These results suggest that under the experimental conditions tested, diving does not seem to have a discernible and/or cumulative impact on central nervous system integrity. The extent to which variable diving settings and practices as well as individual susceptibility factors underlie putative neural tissue burden in asymptomatic divers, remains to be established.

  7. Using meta-differential evolution to enhance a calculation of a continuous blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Koutny, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new model of glucose dynamics. The model calculates blood glucose level as a function of transcapillary glucose transport. In previous studies, we validated the model with animal experiments. We used analytical method to determine model parameters. In this study, we validate the model with subjects with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we combine the analytic method with meta-differential evolution. To validate the model with human patients, we obtained a data set of type 1 diabetes study that was coordinated by Jaeb Center for Health Research. We calculated a continuous blood glucose level from continuously measured interstitial fluid glucose level. We used 6 different scenarios to ensure robust validation of the calculation. Over 96% of calculated blood glucose levels fit A+B zones of the Clarke Error Grid. No data set required any correction of model parameters during the time course of measuring. We successfully verified the possibility of calculating a continuous blood glucose level of subjects with type 1 diabetes. This study signals a successful transition of our research from an animal experiment to a human patient. Researchers can test our model with their data on-line at https://diabetes.zcu.cz. PMID:27393799

  8. Sourdough-leavened bread improves postprandial glucose and insulin plasma levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Mario; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Sanna, Manuela; Cherchi, Sara; Dettori, Mariella; Manca, Elena; Farris, Giovanni Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Sourdough bread has been reported to improve glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. In this study postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were evaluated in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had a meal containing sourdough bread leavened with lactobacilli, in comparison to a reference meal containing bread leavened with baker yeast. Sixteen IGT subjects (age range 52-75, average BMI 29.9 +/- 4.2 kg/ m2) were randomly given a meal containing sourdough bread (A) and a meal containing the reference bread (B) in two separate occasions at the beginning of the study and after 7 days. Sourdough bread was leavened for 8 h using a starter containing autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several bacilli able to produce a significant amount of D-and L-lactic acid, whereas the reference bread was leavened for 2 h with commercial baker yeast containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured at time 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. In IGT subjects sourdough bread induced a significantly lower plasma glucose response at 30 minutes (p = 0.048) and a smaller incremental area under curve (AUC) delta 0-30 and delta 0-60 min (p = 0.020 and 0.018 respectively) in comparison to the bread leavened with baker yeast. Plasma insulin response to this type of bread showed lower values at 30 min (p = 0.045) and a smaller AUC delta 0-30 min (p = 0.018). This study shows that in subjects with IGT glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after the consumption of sourdough bread are lower than after the bread leavened with baker yeast. This effect is likely due to the lactic acid produced during dough leavening as well as the reduced availability of simple carbohydrates. Thus, sour-dough bread may potentially be of benefit in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism.

  9. [Glucose absorption in the rat small intestine in vivo after various levels of local substrate load].

    PubMed

    Gruzdkov, A A; Gromova, L V

    2013-05-01

    In order to evaluate relative roles of various mechanisms of glucose transport in the small intestine at high substrate loads in chronic experiments on rats, we investigated kinetics of glucose absorption in isolated part (-20 cm) of the intestine after its perfusion for 6 and 14 days during 1.5 h per day with 125 mM glucose solution (gr. 1--increased substrate load) or during 45-60 min per day with 25 mM glucose solution (gr. 2--reduced substrate load). The results of the experiments were analyzed by means of mathematical simulation. It was found that in the rats of gr. 1 the regular substrate load was more effective in maintaining a high level of glucose absorption in the isolated part of the intestine. Adaptation of glucose absorption to the increased local glucose load occurs due to enhancement of the secondary active transport via SGLT1. This component in many times exceeds the "unsaturated" component of glucose absorption, which is mainly determined by the facilitated diffusion via GLUT2, both at high and low glucose concentrations in the intestinal lumen.

  10. Comparison of Serum Adipocytokine Levels according to Metabolic Health and Obesity Status

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Jeon, Won Seon; Han, Ki Joong; Lee, Shin Yeoung; Kim, Nam Hee; Chae, Hyun Beom; Jang, Choel Min; Yoo, Kyung Mo; Park, Hae Jung; Lee, Min Kyung; Park, Se Eun; Oh, Hyung Geun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic health is an emerging concept that is highly correlated with various metabolic complications, and adipocytokines have been causally linked to a wide range of metabolic diseases. Thus, this study compared serum adipocytokine levels according to metabolic health and obesity status. Methods Four hundred and fifty-six nondiabetic subjects (mean age, 40.5 years) were categorized into four groups according to metabolic health and obesity status: metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUHNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO). Being metabolically healthy was defined as the presence of fewer than two of the following five metabolic abnormalities: high blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and being in the highest decile of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index. Obesity status was assessed using body mass index (BMI), with obesity defined as a BMI higher than 25 kg/m2. Levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) were also evaluated. Results Of the 456 subjects, 247 (54.2%) were in the MHNO group, 66 (14.5%) were in the MHO group, 66 (14.5%) were in the MUHNO group, and 77 (16.9%) were in the MUHO group. There were no significant differences in IL-6 or MCP-1 levels among the groups, but levels of TNF-α and A-FABP were significantly higher in the MUHNO group compared to the MHNO group. Conclusion High TNF-α and A-FABP levels are significantly associated with metabolically unhealthiness in nonobese Korean individuals. PMID:25325281

  11. Serum lipid levels and cognitive change in late life

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Chandra A.; Gatz, Margaret; Prince, Jonathan A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the importance of lipids and lipoproteins on longitudinal cognitive performance and cognitive health in late life and to consider moderating factors such as age and sex which may clarify conflicting prior evidence. Design A 16-year prospective cohort study of health and cognitive aging. Participants 819 adults from the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), 50 years and older at the first cognitive testing, including 21 twin pairs discordant for dementia. Measurements Up to five occasions of cognitive measurements encompassing verbal, spatial, memory and perceptual speed domains across a 16-year span. Baseline serum lipids and lipoproteins including HDL, apoA1, apoB, total serum cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results The effect of lipids on cognitive change was most evident prior to age 65. In women higher HDL and lower apoB and triglycerides predicted better maintenance of cognitive abilities over age, particularly verbal ability and perceptual speed. Lipid values were less predictive of cognitive trajectories in men and, where observed, were in the contrary direction: i.e., higher total cholesterol and apoB values predicted better perceptual speed performance though faster rates of decline. In twin pairs discordant for dementia, higher total cholesterol and apoB levels were observed in the twin who subsequently developed dementia. Conclusions Elevated lipids may constitute a more important risk factor for cognitive health before age 65 than after. Findings for women are consistent with clinical recommendations, while for men the findings correspond with earlier age-associated shifts in lipid profiles and the importance of lipid homeostasis to cognitive health. PMID:20398119

  12. Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Modulate Cytoplasmic Glucose and Glycogen Levels but Not Glucose Transport across the Membrane in Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Muhič, Marko; Vardjan, Nina; Chowdhury, Helena H; Zorec, Robert; Kreft, Marko

    2015-04-24

    Astrocytes contain glycogen, an energy buffer, which can bridge local short term energy requirements in the brain. Glycogen levels reflect a dynamic equilibrium between glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis. Many factors that include hormones and neuropeptides, such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) likely modulate glycogen stores in astrocytes, but detailed mechanisms at the cellular level are sparse. We used a glucose nanosensor based on Förster resonance energy transfer to monitor cytosolic glucose concentration with high temporal resolution and a cytochemical approach to determine glycogen stores in single cells. The results show that after glucose depletion, glycogen stores are replenished. Insulin and IGF-1 boost the process of glycogen formation. Although astrocytes appear to express glucose transporter GLUT4, glucose entry across the astrocyte plasma membrane is not affected by insulin. Stimulation of cells with insulin and IGF-1 decreased cytosolic glucose concentration, likely because of elevated glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis.

  13. Glucose deprivation increases hydrogen peroxide level in immunostimulated rat primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Woong; Shin, Chan Young; Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Choi, Min Sik; Lee, Woo Jong; Han, Byoung Hee; Kim, Won-Ki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Ko, Kwang Ho

    2004-03-01

    Activated astrocytes produce a large amount of bioactive molecules, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Astrocytes are in general resistant to those reactive species. However, we previously reported that immunostimulated astrocytes became highly vulnerable to metabolic insults, such as glucose deprivation. In this study, we investigated whether H(2)O(2) production was associated with the increased vulnerability. Glucose deprivation for up to 8 hr did not change the intracellular level of H(2)O(2) in astrocytes. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-gamma for 48 hr evoked astroglial H(2)O(2) production; however, no apparent death or injury was observed in immunostimulated astrocytes. Glucose deprivation after 48 hr of immunostimulation markedly increased H(2)O(2) level, depleted adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and enhanced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The ATP depletion and LDH release were in part prevented by catalase, mannitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The enhanced level of H(2)O(2) in glucose-deprived immunostimulated astrocytes appeared to be secondary to the depletion of reduced glutathione. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)bebzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, reduced H(2)O(2) level and LDH release in glucose-deprived immunostimulated astrocytes. H(2)O(2), either endogenously produced or exogenously added, depolarized mitochondrial transmembrane potential in glucose-deprived astrocytes, leading to their ATP depletion and death. The present results strongly indicate that glucose deprivation causes deterioration of immunostimulated astrocytes by increasing the intracellular concentration of H(2)O(2).

  14. Serum interleukin-15 levels in cancer patients with cachexia.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Pedro L; Hernanz-Macías, Ángel; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Grande-Aragón, Cristina; Feliu-Batlle, Jaime; Castro-Carpeño, Javier; Martínez-Muñoz, Isabel; Zurita-Rosa, Laura; Villarino-Sanz, Marta; Prados-Sánchez, Concepción; Sánchez García-Girón, Joaquín

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has important anabolic effects on muscle protein metabolism through a decrease in the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. The role of IL-15 in human cancer cachexia is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between interleukin-15 (IL-15) in cancer patients with cachexia at diagnosis of malignancy and 8 weeks later. An observational study of 21 cancer patients (with and without cachexia) and 8 healthy subjects was conducted. Body composition was measured by leg-to-leg impedance. Serum IL-15 levels were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks. Baseline IL-15 values were similar in cancer patients and in healthy subjects. Cancer patients with lower baseline levels of IL-15 (<2 pg/ml) had significantly higher fat mass (%) along the study. Eighteen patients completed the study: five patients showed an increase of 3.7 kg at the end of the study (5.4% of body weight) and showed a mean increase of IL-15 of 1.32 pg/ml (121%) at 4 weeks and 2.32 pg/ml (197%) at 8 weeks, as compared with mean decrease of -4.1 kg (-5.3%) and -0.09 pg/ml (-2.5%) and 0.6 pg/ml (40.8%) in the 13 patients who lost weight (P=0.001 and P=0.022, respectively). Changes of IL-15 at 4 and 8 weeks were directly associated with changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass and muscle mass (P<0.05), and indirectly associated with percentage of weight loss (P<0.05). In summary, although the results indicate that IL-15 does not have a role in cancer cachexia pathogenesis, the association during evolution between serum IL-15 and changes in weight and muscle mass suggests a possible role of IL-15 as a marker of the body composition response in cancer patients who are losing weight at the time of diagnosis. PMID:22825570

  15. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  16. Delaying time to first nocturnal void may have beneficial effects on reducing blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Juul, Kristian Vinter; Jessen, Niels; Bliwise, Donald L; van der Meulen, Egbert; Nørgaard, Jens Peter

    2016-09-01

    Experimental studies disrupting sleep and epidemiologic studies of short sleep durations indicate the importance of deeper and longer sleep for cardiometabolic health. We examined the potential beneficial effects of lengthening the first uninterrupted sleep period (FUSP) on blood glucose. Long-term data (≥3 months of treatment) were derived from three clinical trials, testing low-dose (10-100 µg) melt formulations of desmopressin in 841 male and female nocturia patients (90 % of which had nocturnal polyuria). We performed post hoc multiple regression with non-fasting blood glucose as dependent variable and the following potential covariates/factors: time-averaged change of FUSP since baseline, age, gender, race, ethnicity, baseline glucose, baseline weight, change in weight, patient metabolic status (normal, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes), dose, follow-up interval, and time of random glucose sampling. Increases in FUSP resulted in statistically significant reductions in blood glucose (p = 0.0131), even after controlling for all remaining covariates. Per hour increase in time to first void was associated with glucose decreases of 1.6 mg/dL. This association was more pronounced in patients with increased baseline glucose levels (test of baseline glucose by FUSP change interaction: p < 0.0001). Next to FUSP change, other statistically significant confounding factors/covariates also associated with glucose changes were gender, ethnicity, metabolic subgroup, and baseline glucose. These analyses indicate that delaying time to first void may have beneficial effects on reducing blood glucose in nocturia patients. These data are among the first to suggest that improving sleep may have salutary effects on a cardiometabolic measure. PMID:27003433

  17. Fraction SX of maitake mushroom favorably influences blood glucose levels and blood pressure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Fu, Jia; Perricone, Nicholas V; Bagchi, Debasis; Kaylor, Mark; Zhuang, Cun

    2012-10-01

    We assessed whether fraction SX derived from maitake mushroom could play a beneficial role in the treatment of a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes by decreasing circulating glucose levels and lowering blood pressure (BP). We injected 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (i.p.) into 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) to produce a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes. SD were divided into four groups of 12 SD. A control group ate straight pulverized rat chow. To three treatment groups, we added into the pulverized rat chow: gliclazide (10 mg/kg), pioglitazone (10-30 mg/kg), or maitake SX (2.5 g/kg). In addition to measuring BW, circulating glucose level, and BP, the following procedures were also carried out: insulin challenge (insulin sensitivity), losartan challenge (renin-angiotensin system activity), Nw-nitro-L arginine-methyl ester hydrochloride (LNAME) challenge (nitric oxide [NO] system activity), and evaluation of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. All treatments compared with control generally decreased circulating glucose levels, but only the maitake SX consistently enhanced measured insulin sensitivity. We found that maitake SX could significantly lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) in diabetic SD. In general, only SD receiving maitake SX, not the two drugs, showed decreased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and increased NO system activity compared with control under the conditions examined. Our results suggest that maitake SX may be useful for treating perturbations in glucose-insulin metabolism and elevated BP in type-1 diabetes.

  18. The effects of food deprivation and incentive motivation on blood glucose levels and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Green, M W; Elliman, N A; Rogers, P J

    1997-11-01

    The current study investigated the relationships between blood glucose levels, mild food deprivation, sympathetic arousal, and cognitive processing efficiency. Subjects (n = 82) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, comprising combined manipulations of food deprivation and incentive motivation. Baseline and mid-session measurements of blood glucose, blood pressure and pulse rate were taken. Subjects completed a number of measures of cognitive processing efficiency and self report measures of affective and somatic state. Although glucose levels were lowered following food deprivation, there was no significant detrimental effect of food deprivation on task performance. However, improved recognition memory processing times were associated with deprivation. Incentive motivation was associated with faster simple reaction times and higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant relationships between glucose levels and task performance, further supporting the hypothesis that the brain is relatively invulnerable to short food deprivation. PMID:9399371

  19. A survey of cognitive functioning at difference glucose levels in diabetic persons.

    PubMed

    Holmes, C S; Hayford, J T; Gonzalez, J L; Weydert, J A

    1983-01-01

    Cognitive functioning was assessed in diabetic patients during hypoglycemia (60 mg/dl), euglycemia/control (110 mg/dl), and hyperglycemia (300 mg/dl). Blood glucose levels were set and maintained to within 4% of targeted levels by an artificial insulin/glucose infusion system (Biostator). Attention and fine motor skills, assessed by visual reaction time, was slowed at altered glucose levels. Performance was less impaired during hyperglycemia than hypoglycemia when a longer interstimulus interval was used, although it was still slower than normal. The time required to solve simple addition problems was increased during hypoglycemia, although reading comprehension was not affected. The possibility that some automatic brain skills are disrupted at altered glucose concentrations is discussed, while associative or inferential skills may be less affected.

  20. A study of serum zinc, selenium and copper levels in carcinoma of esophagus patients.

    PubMed

    Goyal, M M; Kalwar, A K; Vyas, R K; Bhati, A

    2006-03-01

    The association of serum trace elements like selenium, zinc and copper has been found in different types of cancer. This study was conducted to see the serum level of these three trace elements in cancer esophagus patients. Biopsy confirmed cancer esophagus, 24 patients (12 males, 12 females, mean age 54.5±11.65 year with 23 healthy subjects (16 males, 7 females, mean age 44 ±13.82 years) were included in this study. Both control and study group patients were of same socio-economic status and dietary habits. Serum zinc and copper level were estimated using standard absorption spectrometer technique and serum selenium by Hydride generation method.We observed significant low serum levels of zinc and selenium while high level of serum copper in carcinoma esophagus patients, as compared with normal healthy controls. This shows an association of serum selenium zinc and copper with cancer esophagus.

  1. High fasting serum insulin level due to autoantibody interference in insulin immunoassay discloses autoimmune insulin syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Sault, Corinne; Renard, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Insulin-antibodies are a cause of misleading results in insulin immunoassays. They may also mediate deleterious blood glucose variations. A patient presented with overtiredness, recurrent episodes of sweating, dizziness and fainting fits. A fasting serum insulin assay performed on a Modular platform (Modular analytic E170, Roche Diagnostic, Meylan, France) showed a highly elevated value of 194.7 mIU/L, whereas on the same sample glucose and C-peptide levels were normal. Other immunometric insulin assays were performed, as well as antibodies anti-insulin radiobinding assay (RBA) and gel filtration chromatography (GFC). While complementary insulin assays yielded closer to normal fasting levels, the free insulin concentration assessed after PEG precipitation was 14.0 mIU/L and the RBA was positive. GFC revealed that most of the insulin was complexed with a 150 kDa molecule, corresponding to an immunoglobulin G (IgG). A high fasting serum insulin level in a patient with neuroglucopenic symptoms was related to a high insulin-antibody level, suggesting an insulin autoimmune syndrome. PMID:27492703

  2. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss. PMID:27601860

  3. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss. PMID:27601860

  4. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss.

  5. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Rongtao; Zhou, Lin; Li, Zuohong; Li, Qing; Qi, Zhiming; Zhang, Junyong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG), and bone mineral density (BMD), making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis. Materials and methods A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years) were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Results The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001), and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001). People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that no association was found among total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, postprandial blood glucose and BMD. Conclusion The present study further confirmed that factors such as age, sex, weight, BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes are significant predictors of osteoporosis in the Chinese people

  6. Serum Level of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Is Independently Associated with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenhui; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been described as a metabolic hormone critical for glucose and lipid metabolism. Previously, high levels of FGF21 were observed in patients with coronary heart disease and non-acute myocardial infarction (non-AMI). In this study, we investigated the changes in FGF21 levels in Chinese patients with AMI. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA to measure circulating FGF21 levels in 55 AMI patients and 45 non-AMI control patients on the 1st day after syndrome onset. All patients were followed-up within 30 days. FGF21 levels in AMI patients were significantly higher than those in non-AMI controls (0.25 (0.16–0.34) vs. 0.14 (0.11–0.20) ng/mL, P < 0.001). FGF21 levels reached the maximum within approximately 24 h after the onset of AMI and remained at high for 7 days, and the FGF21 level (OR: 16.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65–108.05; P = 0.003) was identified as an independent factor associated with the presence of AMI. On the 7th day, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in the patients who subsequently developed re-infarction within 30 days than in the patients who did not develop re-infarction (with vs. without re-infarction: 0.45 (0.22–0.64) vs. 0.21 (0.15–0.29) ng/mL, P = 0.014). Conclusions/Significance The level of serum FGF21 is independently associated with the presence of AMI in Chinese patients. High FGF21 levels might be related to the incidence of re-infarction within 30 days after onset. PMID:26091256

  7. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27432092

  8. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Serum Cytokine Levels in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Karen M.; Pier, Jennifer; Wesgate, Sarah C.; Weis, Emily; Love, Tanzy; Evans, Katie; Chhibber, Ashwani

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated morbidity in children. Alterations in immune responses may explain this relationship, but have not been well-studied in children. Our objective was to determine the association between SHS exposure and serum cytokine levels in healthy children. Methods We recruited 1–6 year old patients undergoing routine procedures. A parent interview assessed medical history and SHS exposure. Children with asthma were excluded. Blood was collected under anesthesia. We used Luminex to test for a panel of cytokines; cotinine was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children were categorized as no, intermediate, or high exposure. A mixed-effects model was fit to determine differences in cytokines by exposure level. Results Of the 40 children recruited, 65% (N=26) had SHS exposure; 16 intermediate, and 10 high. There were no differences by demographics. In bivariate analyses, children exposed to SHS had lower concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, and IFN- γ than those with no exposure. In the mixed-effects model, children with any SHS exposure had significantly lower concentrations of IL-1β (0.554 pg/mL vs. 0.249 pg/mL) and IFN- γ (4.193 pg/mL vs. 0.816 pg/mL), and children with high exposure had significantly lower mean concentrations of IL-4 (8.141 pg/mL vs. 0.135 pg/mL) than children with no exposure. Conclusions This study suggests that SHS exposure decreases expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines in SHS exposed children, including IFN-γ. Further research to describe the acute and chronic effects of SHS on the immune systems of children is needed. PMID:22805115

  9. D-Xylose as a sugar complement regulates blood glucose levels by suppressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats and by enhancing glucose uptake in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunju; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Sangwon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more frequently diagnosed and is characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. D-Xylose, a sucrase inhibitor, may be useful as a functional sugar complement to inhibit increases in blood glucose levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of D-xylose both in vitro and stretpozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NA)-induced models in vivo. MATERIALS/METHODS Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: (i) normal control; (ii) diabetic control; (iii) diabetic rats supplemented with a diet where 5% of the total sucrose content in the diet was replaced with D-xylose; and (iv) diabetic rats supplemented with a diet where 10% of the total sucrose content in the diet was replaced with D-xylose. These groups were maintained for two weeks. The effects of D-xylose on blood glucose levels were examined using oral glucose tolerance test, insulin secretion assays, histology of liver and pancreas tissues, and analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) expression in liver tissues of a STZ-NA-induced experimental rat model. Levels of glucose uptake and insulin secretion by differentiated C2C12 muscle cells and INS-1 pancreatic β-cells were analyzed. RESULTS In vivo, D-xylose supplementation significantly reduced fasting serum glucose levels (P < 0.05), it slightly reduced the area under the glucose curve, and increased insulin levels compared to the diabetic controls. D-Xylose supplementation enhanced the regeneration of pancreas tissue and improved the arrangement of hepatocytes compared to the diabetic controls. Lower levels of PEPCK were detected in the liver tissues of D-xylose-supplemented rats (P < 0.05). In vitro, both 2-NBDG uptake by C2C12 cells and insulin secretion by INS-1 cells were increased with D-xylose supplementation in a dose-dependent manner compared to treatment with glucose alone. CONCLUSIONS In this study, D-xylose exerted anti-diabetic effects in vivo by

  10. The Association between Concentrations of Green Tea and Blood Glucose Levels.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukino, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to examine whether habitual green tea consumption is associated with blood glucose levels and other biomarkers of glucose metabolism. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35 male volunteers, 23-63 years old and residing in Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan. Biochemical data were measured and we conducted a questionnaire survey on health, lifestyle, and nutrition, as well as frequency of consumption and concentrations (1%, 2%, and 3%) of green tea. Men who consumed a 3% concentration of green tea showed lower mean values of fasting blood glucose and fructosamine than those who consumed a 1% concentration. Fasting blood glucose levels were found to be significantly associated with green tea concentration (beta = -0.14, p = 0.03). However, green tea consumption frequency showed no significant differences in mean levels of blood glucose, fructosamine and hemoglobin A(1c.) In conclusion, our findings suggest that the consumption of green tea at a high concentration has the potential to reduce blood glucose levels.

  11. High serum zinc and serum testosterone levels were associated with excessive erythrocytosis in men at high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Tapia, Vilma; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2011-12-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a lack of adaptation to altitude characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE), is a health problem associated with life at high altitude. The erythropoietic process is regulated by both erythropoietin and testosterone. Zinc (Zn) is known to be related with testosterone and hemoglobin levels; meanwhile, nitric oxide was also associated with adaptation to high altitude. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of hemoglobin and CMS score with serum levels of zinc, total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), bioavailable testosterone (BAT), hemoglobin, and nitric oxide in men at high altitude with or without EE. Men residing in Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, were divided into three groups: (1) low altitude, (2) high altitude without EE (hemoglobin < 21 g/dl), and (3) high altitude with EE (hemoglobin ≥ 21 g/dl). Adjusted multivariable regression models showed that serum testosterone (total or free) and Zn levels were independently correlated with increased hemoglobin levels. Similarly, hemoglobin was positively related with signs/symptoms of CMS; however, both increased the serum Zn and the nitric oxide levels correlated with reduced risk for signs/symptoms of CMS. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels and Zn levels were associated with EE, and low scores of signs/symptoms of CMS were associated with higher Zn and nitric oxide levels.

  12. Acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea improves postprandial glucose status and increases serum thioredoxin concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaki; Miyashita, Masashi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Bae, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Wakisaka, Takuya; Matsui, Yuji; Takeshita, Masao; Yasunaga, Koichi

    2014-11-14

    Elevated postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress increase the risks of type 2 diabetes and CVD. Green tea catechin possesses antidiabetic properties and antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we examined the acute and continuous effects of ingestion of catechin-rich green tea on postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress in healthy postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned into the placebo (P, n 11) or green tea (GT, n 11) group. The GT group consumed a catechin-rich green tea (catechins 615 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. The P group consumed a placebo (catechins 92 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. At baseline and after 4 weeks, participants of each group consumed their designated beverages with breakfast and consumed lunch 3 h after breakfast. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2, 4 and 6 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose concentrations were 3 % lower in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, P< 0·05). Serum concentrations of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites increased after meals (P< 0·05), but no effect of catechin-rich green tea intake was observed. Conversely, serum postprandial thioredoxin concentrations were 5 % higher in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, P< 0·05). These findings indicate that an acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea has beneficial effects on postprandial glucose and redox homeostasis in postmenopausal women.

  13. Increased serum levels of sortilin are associated with depression and correlated with BDNF and VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Buttenschøn, H N; Demontis, D; Kaas, M; Elfving, B; Mølgaard, S; Gustafsen, C; Kaerlev, L; Petersen, C M; Børglum, A D; Mors, O; Glerup, S

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors have been investigated in relation to depression. The aim of the present study was to widen this focus to sortilin, a receptor involved in neurotrophic signalling. The serum sortilin level was investigated in 152 individuals with depression and 216 control individuals, and eight genetic markers located within the SORT1 gene were successfully analysed for association with depression. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. All the individuals returned a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Sortilin levels were measured by immunoassay, and potential determinants of the serum sortilin level were assessed by generalized linear models. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in previous studies. We identified a significant increase of serum sortilin levels in depressed individuals compared with controls (P=0.0002) and significant positive correlation between serum sortilin levels and the corresponding levels of BDNF and VEGF. None of the genotyped SNPs were associated with depression. Additional analyses showed that the serum sortilin level was influenced by several other factors. Alcohol intake and body mass index, as well as depression, serum BDNF and serum VEGF were identified as predictors of serum sortilin levels in our final multivariate model. In conclusion, the results suggest a role of circulating sortilin in depression which may relate to altered activity of neurotrophic factors. PMID:26556286

  14. Serum Sclerostin Levels Negatively Correlate with Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Free Estrogen Index in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Faryal S.; Padhi, I. Desmond; Raisz, Lawrence G.; Lorenzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sclerostin is a negative regulator of bone formation. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare serum sclerostin levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and evaluate its relationship to estrogen, TH, bone turnover, and bone mass. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of healthy community-dwelling pre- and postmenopausal women. Intervention(s): There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We compared serum sclerostin levels in pre- and postmenopausal women and correlated sclerostin levels with female sex hormones, calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density. Results: Premenopausal women were 26.8 yr old, and postmenopausal women were 56.8 yr old. Postmenopausal women had lower values for estradiol (30 ± 23 vs. 10 ± 4 pg/ml; P < 0.001), estrone (61 ± 24 vs. 29 ± 10 pg/ml; P <0.001), and free estrogen index (FEI) (6 ± 4 vs. 3 ± 2 pmol/nmol; P = 0.008) and significantly lower bone mineral density at all sites compared to premenopausal women, with no significant differences in levels of PTH, 25-hydroxy or 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels. Postmenopausal women had significantly higher serum sclerostin levels (1.16 ± 0.38 ng/ml vs. 0.48 ± 0.15 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Because most of the premenopausal women were on oral contraceptives, subsequent analyses were limited to postmenopausal women. There were significant negative correlations between sclerostin and FEI and sclerostin and PTH in this group. Using multiple regression analysis, both FEI (β = −0.629; P = 0.002) and PTH (β = −0.554; P = 0.004) were found to be independent predictors of sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that serum sclerostin levels are regulated by both estrogens and PTH in postmenopausal women. These findings need to be explored further in larger prospective studies. PMID:20156921

  15. A clinical evaluation of the Cobas Fara clinical chemistry analyzer for some routine serum enzymes and glucose.

    PubMed

    Moses, G C; Lightle, G O; Tuckerman, J F; Henderson, A R

    1987-11-01

    The authors evaluated the Cobas FARA centrifugal analyzer with respect to pipetting precision and accuracy, instrument temperature, spectrophotometric response, and analytic performance for the assay of five serum enzymes and glucose. Spectrophotometric response, temperature response, pipetting precision, and accuracy were satisfactory. However, sufficient time must be allowed for cuvet contents to reach a stable temperature before measurements are made. Total day-to-day imprecision (within plus between run) was less than 5% (coefficient of variation) for aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST; Enzyme Commission classification number [EC] EC 2.6.1.1; and ALT; EC 2.6.1.2); alkaline phosphatase (AP; EC 3.1.3.1); gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC 2.3.1.2); lactate dehydrogenase (LD; EC 1.1.1.17); creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.1); and glucose assays. Results compare well with those obtained with other current clinical chemistry analyzers; correlation coefficients were greater than 0.993. Sample-to-sample carryover was negligible, and method linearity was satisfactory for all tests.

  16. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  17. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation.

  18. Dietary factors associated with high serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal women with the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V), 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Se Young

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Serum ferritin levels are significantly increased after menopause and greatly affect women's health. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary and non-dietary factors associated with high ferritin levels in postmenopausal women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Among adult women in 2010-2012, qualified postmenopausal women (n = 3880) were separated into quartiles of serum ferritin. The variable differences among the quartiles of ferritin were determined using either procsurvey chi-square test (χ2-test) among categorical variables, or GLM (Generalized Linear Model) among continuous variables. The odds ratio for high ferritin in relation to dietary factors was also determined using procsurvery logistic analysis. RESULTS Age, obesity, drinking habit, and blood glucose levels were found to be significant indicators of high serum ferritin level after adjusting for all confounding factors. Among the food groups, grain, milk, vegetable, and seaweed intakes were significantly associated with high ferritin levels, but after adjusting for all confounding factors, only grains and vegetables remained significant factors. Among the nutrient groups, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C intake were significant factors, but after adjustment, none of the nutrient groups analyzed were associated with a high risk of ferritin. CONCLUSION Age, obesity, drinking habit, and glucose levels, as well as inadequate intakes of grains and vegetables, were found to be significantly associated with high serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:26865920

  19. [Serum ghrelin, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.].

    PubMed

    Deveci, Yasemin; Deveci, Figen; Ilhan, Nevin; Karaca, Ilgın; Turgut, Teyfik; Muz, Mehmet Hamdi

    2010-01-01

    It is determined that endocrine factors can play role on cachexia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). High levels of ghrelin is reported in cachectic COPD cases but its' relation couldn't shown statistically. In our study, it is aimed to detect serum ghrelin levels in COPD, its' relation with proinflammatory cytokines and whether serum ghrelin is associated with cachexia. Sixty stable COPD patients and 15 healthy volunteers were included in the study. COPD patients were divided into two groups, cachectic and normal weight, according to their body mass index. Spirometric assessments were performed and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ghrelin levels were measured in all cases. When COPD patients were compared with control group; serum ghrelin levels were statistically lower, TNF-a and IL-6 levels were statistically higher in COPD group. For cachectic COPD patients; serum ghrelin levels were statistically lower and IL-6 levels were statistically higher, compared with normal weight COPD patients. Although, serum TNF-a levels were higher for cachectic COPD patients; these levels were not significant. Positive correlation between serum ghrelin levels and body mass index was detected in patients with COPD. As a result; it is thought that increased proinflammatory cytokines and decreased serum active ghrelin levels may contribute to the development of weight loss.

  20. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN) in Early Breast Cancer (BCa).

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Argellati, Francesca; Di Meglio, Antonio; Zanardi, Elisa; Zinoli, Linda; Comite, Paola; Mussap, Michele; Boccardo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005), adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status (p = 0.02). No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05) and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03). Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients.

  1. Effects of individual glucose levels on the neuronal correlates of emotions

    PubMed Central

    Schöpf, Veronika; Fischmeister, Florian Ph. S.; Windischberger, Christian; Gerstl, Florian; Wolzt, Michael; Karlsson, Karl Æ.; Moser, Ewald

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to directly assess the effect of changes in blood glucose levels on the psychological processing of emotionally charged material. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate the effect of blood glucose levels on three categories of visually presented emotional stimuli. Seventeen healthy young subjects participated in this study (eight females; nine males; body weight, 69.3 ± 14.9 kg; BMI, 22 ± 2.7; age, 24 ± 3 years), consisting of two functional MRI sessions: (1) after an overnight fast under resting conditions (before glucose administration); (2) after reaching the hyperglycemic state (after glucose administration). During each session, subjects were presented with visual stimuli featuring funny, neutral, and sad content. Single-subject ratings of the stimuli were used to verify the selection of stimuli for each category and were covariates for the fMRI analysis. Analysis of the interaction effect of the two sessions (eu- and hyperglycemia), and the emotional categories accounting for the single-subject glucose differences, revealed a single activation cluster in the hypothalamus. Analysis of the activation profile of the left amygdala corresponded to the three emotional conditions, and this profile was obtained for both sessions regardless of glucose level. Our results indicate that, in a hyperglycemic state, the hypothalamus can no longer respond to emotions. This study offers novel insight for the understanding of disease-related behavior associated with dysregulation of glucose and glucose availability, potentially offering improved diagnostic and novel therapeutic strategies in the future. PMID:23734117

  2. Serum copper and zinc levels in patients with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, C A; Hwang, J L; Kuo, T L; Hsieh, C Y; Huang, S C

    1990-08-01

    The serum copper (SCL) and zinc (SZL) levels were measured in 99 patients with cervical cancer and 50 patients with uterine myoma as controls. The mean SCL in the control group was 109.4 +/- 17.4 micrograms/ml as compared to 117.1 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl and was not significant (NS) in 17 carcinoma in situ (CIS) patients, 142.3 +/- 14.2 micrograms/dl in 30 stage I patients (p less than 0.001), 159.0 +/- 16.6 micrograms/dl in 22 stage II patients (p less than 0.001), 171.6 +/- 25.7 micrograms/dl in 10 stage III or IV patients (p less than 0.001), and 166.2 +/- 32.2 micrograms/dl in 20 recurrent patients (p less than 0.001). The SCL returned to control level 2 weeks after surgical treatment for the stage I and II patients (mean 110.6 +/- 19.6 and 108.7 +/- 20.4 micrograms/dl, respectively, p less than 0.001). The SZL was 97.2 +/- 15.8 micrograms/dl in control patients and only showed a significant decrease in stage III or IV and recurrent patients (67.2 +/- 16.6 and 70.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms/dl, respectively). Concerning the copper/zinc ratio, the control group was 1.13 +/- 0.07 as compared to 1.17 +/- 0.07 in CIS (p = 0.06), 1.51 +/- 0.24 in stage I (p less than 0.001), 1.85 +/- 0.37 in stage II (p less than 0.001), 2.66 +/- 0.61 in stage III or IV (p less than 0.001), and 2.50 +/- 0.75 in recurrent patients (p less than 0.001). Taking mean +/- 2.5 SD of the control values as cut off points, the percentages of the recurrent patients with abnormal SCL, SZL, and a Cu/Zn ratio were 65, 30 and 90%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, K.

    1986-12-01

    In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level and serum albumin and total bilirubin with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn.

  4. Relationships of metabolic hormones and serum glucose to growth and reproductive development in performance-tested Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M G; Enns, R M; Hallford, D M; Keisler, D H; Obeidat, B S; Morrison, C D; Hernandez, J A; Bryant, W D; Flores, R; Lopez, R; Narro, L

    2002-03-01

    Understanding mechanisms that regulate growth and reproduction are important for improving selection strategies in cattle. In this study, Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls (n = 7 per breed) of similar age were selected from a group of 65 weanlings. Bulls were evaluated after weaning (i.e., approximately 6 mo of age) for 112 d for serum concentrations of metabolic hormones and glucose, growth, and reproductive traits. Performance data and blood sera were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, and 112. Sera were also collected in periods from d 50 to 59 (56D) and 103 to 112 (112D). Angus bulls were heavier (P < 0.05) throughout the study than Brahman bulls and were heavier than Brangus bulls on d 56, 84, and 112. Initial and final BW for Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls were 292.7, 260.6, and 230.4 and 468.3, 435.6, and 350.7 +/- 12 kg, respectively. Conversely, Brahman bulls had greater hip height (P < 0.05) than Brangus, and Brangus were taller (P < 0.05) than Angus. Angus bulls had the greatest (P < 0.05) scrotal circumference (SC) and Brahman bulls the least. Mean SC across days was 31.5, 29.7, and 25.0 +/- 0.6 cm for the three respective breeds. Serum testosterone was greater (P < 0.01) in Angus and Brangus bulls (10.0 and 8.9 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) than in Brahman bulls (4.0 +/- 1.4 ng/mL) throughout the study. After d 112, 100, 86, and 57% of the Angus, Brangus, and Brahman bulls passed a breeding soundness exam (P = 0.51). Serum concentrations of IGF-I and leptin were greater (P < or = 0.06) in Angus bulls on d 56, 84, and 112 than in Brangus and Brahman bulls. Serum concentrations of GH (P < 0.08) and glucose (P < 0.03) were greater in Brangus bulls than in Angus or Brahman bulls throughout the study. Prediction analyses suggested that serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict (P < or = 0.08) BW and SC (R2 > 0.82) in the 56D and 112D periods among these breeds. Leptin was also useful in predicting (P < or = 0.09) serum concentrations of GH and testosterone in

  5. Protective effect of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on serum/glucose deprivation-induced DNA damage in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Beheshteh; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Safarpour Kapurchal, Elham; Parsaee, Heydar; Nasri, Sima; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The discovery and development of natural products with potent antioxidant properties has been one of the most interesting and promising approaches in the search for treatment of CNS injuries. The most significant consequence of the oxidative stress is thought to be the DNA modifications, which can become permanent via the formation of mutations and other types of genomic instability resulting cellular dysfunction. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has served as an excellent in vitro model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia and for the development of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seeds and thymoquinone (TQ), its most abundant constituent, have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and anti-neoplastic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in this study we investigated genoprotective effects of N. sativa and TQ on DNA damage of PC12 cells under SGD condition. Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin, and 100 µg/ml streptomycin. Initially cells were pretreated with different concentrations of N. sativa extract (NSE), (10, 50, 250 µg/ml) and TQ (1, 5, 10 µg/ml) for 6 h and then deprived of serum/glucose (SGD) for 18 h. The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate the effect of these compounds on DNA damage following ischemic insult. The amount of DNA in the comet tail (% tail DNA) was measured as an indicator of DNA damage. Results: A significant increase in the % tail DNA was seen in nuclei of cells following SGD induced DNA damage (p<0.001). In the control groups, no significant difference was found in the % tail DNA between NSE- or TQ-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated PC12 cells (p>0.05). NSE and TQ pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage following ischemic insult (p<0.001). This suppression of DNA

  6. Effect of sulfonylureas administered centrally on the blood glucose level in immobilization stress model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-05-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level. PMID:25954123

  7. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  8. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  9. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    He, Binfeng; Li, Hongli; Hu, Mingdong; Dong, Weijie; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Yao, Wei; Guo, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, baseline serum levels of MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, while SOD and IL-10 levels were lower in HADAS subjects compared with controls (p < 0.05). It is interesting that serum levels of IL-17A were clearly interrelated with HADAS incidence and severity (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that combined serum IL-17A and IL-10 levels were a better predictor of HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS. PMID:27190491

  10. Comparisons of serum sclerostin levels among patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, primary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Kaji, H; Imanishi, Y; Sugimoto, T; Seino, S

    2011-07-01

    Wnt-β-catenin signaling is important for bone formation. Sclerostin inhibits bone formation mainly by suppressing this signal, and several studies suggest that the suppression of sclerostin expression contributes to the bone anabolic action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We therefore examined serum sclerostin levels using enzyme-linked immunosolvent assay in 18 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, 9 postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and 7 patients with osteomalacia. Serum levels of sclerostin were significantly lower in the group with pHPT, compared with those with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, serum sclerostin levels were significantly lower in the group with tumor-induced osteomalacia, but not in the group with osteomalacia without tumor, compared with those with postmenopausal osteoporosis. In patients with pHPT, serum sclerostin levels were significantly and negatively correlated to serum calcium and PTH levels. In patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels of sclerostin levels were significantly and positively related to serum calcium and creatinine levels. In conclusion, we showed that serum sclerostin levels are decreased presumably through endogenous PTH elevation in postmenopausal women with pHPT, compared with the patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  11. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome.

    PubMed

    He, Binfeng; Li, Hongli; Hu, Mingdong; Dong, Weijie; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Yao, Wei; Guo, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, baseline serum levels of MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, while SOD and IL-10 levels were lower in HADAS subjects compared with controls (p < 0.05). It is interesting that serum levels of IL-17A were clearly interrelated with HADAS incidence and severity (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that combined serum IL-17A and IL-10 levels were a better predictor of HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS.

  12. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun; Zhang, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients. PMID:27597973

  13. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients.

  14. Predictive Significance of Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Chang, Yanli; Xu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate serum VEGF expression in gastric cancer patients and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. We also examined the serum VEGF levels in GC patients having received surgery or chemotherapy treatment to assess its predictive and prognostic value as a biomarker. We enrolled 154 GC patients having not received neoadjuvant treatment and 100 healthy controls. In the treatment groups, 13 surgery patients and 15 chemotherapy patients were investigated. 42 chemotherapy patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were recruited as well. The serum VEGF was examined by ELISA. Serum VEGF level was remarkably upregulated in GC group compared with healthy group (p < 0.001). The serum VEGF level of GC group was significantly correlated with tumor cells differentiation degree, clinical stages, tumor infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size. The serum VEGF level of the 1 to 3 days after operation group was much lower than that of the preoperative group (p < 0.001) and the 7 days after operation group (p < 0.001). By contrast, serum VEGF level was decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.001). Importantly, serum VEGF level in PD+SD group was significantly higher compared to the PR+CR group (p = 0.011). Therefore, serum VEGF was a valuable biomarker in clinically monitoring the condition of GC patients. PMID:27597973

  15. Highly sensitive colorimetric detection of glucose in a serum based on DNA-embeded Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Fei; Hou, Xiangshu; Xu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    Glucose is a key energy substance in diverse biology and closely related to the life activities of the organism. To develop a simple and sensitive method for glucose detection is extremely urgent but still remains a key challenge. Herein, we report a colorimetric glucose sensor in a homogeneous system based on DNA-embedded core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles. In this assay, a glucose substrate was first catalytically oxidized by glucose oxidase to produce H2O2 which would further oxidize and gradually etch the outer silver shell of Au@Ag nanoparticles. Afterwards, the solution color changed from yellow to red and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Au@Ag nanoparticles declined and red-shifted from 430 to 516 nm. Compared with previous silver-based glucose colorimetric detection strategies, the distinctive SPR band change is superior to the color variation, which is critical to the high sensitivity of this assay. Benefiting from the outstanding optical property, robust stability and well-dispersion of the core-shell Au@AgNPs hybrid, this colorimetric assay obtained a detection limit of glucose as low as 10 nM, which is at least a 10-fold improvement over other AgNPs-based procedures. Moreover, this optical biosensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in fetal bovine serum.

  16. T3 supplementation affects ventilatory timing & glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus model.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Stephen S; Weltman, Nathen Y; Gerdes, A Martin; Schlenker, Evelyn H

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can affect ventilation, metabolism, and fasting blood glucose levels. Hypothyroidism may be a comorbidity of T2DM. In this study T2DM was induced in 20 female Sprague Dawley rats using Streptozotocin (STZ) and Nicotinamide (N). One of experimental STZ/N groups (N=10 per group) was treated with a low dose of triiodothyronine (T3). Blood glucose levels, metabolism and ventilation (in air and in response to hypoxia) were measured in the 3 groups. STZ/N-treated rats increased fasting blood glucose compared to control rats eight days and 2 months post-STZ/N injections indicating stable induction of T2DM state. Treatments had no effects on ventilation, metabolism or body weight. After one month of T3 supplementation, there were no physiological indications of hyperthyroidism, but T3 supplementation altered ventilatory timing and decreased blood glucose levels compared to STZ/N rats. These results suggest that low levels of T3 supplementation could offer modest effects on blood glucose and ventilatory timing in this T2M model.

  17. A case of low serum insulin levels in a patient with insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ding-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Summary Insulinomas are the most common cause of hypoglycemia resulting from endogenous hyperinsulinism. Traditionally, inappropriately elevated levels of insulin in the face of hypoglycemia are the key to diagnosis. However, contradictory levels of insulin and C-peptide do not necessarily exclude the diagnosis. A 50-year-old female was brought to our emergency department because of conscious disturbance on the previous night. She had no history of diabetes mellitus, and was not using any medications or alcohol. Laboratory data showed low sugar, a significantly low insulin level, and elevated C-peptide. After admission, she had multiple episodes of spontaneous hypoglycemia after overnight fasts without discomfort. It was considered that a neuroendocrine tumor was the source of her hypoglycemia. CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 1.1cm hypervascular nodule in the pancreatic tail. Elective laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was incorporated into her treatment course. A 1.2×1.0cm homogenous well-encapsulated tumor was resected. We monitored her glucose levels in the outpatient clinic every month for a period of six months. She did not have another episode of spontaneous hypoglycemia. Learning points Insulinoma causes endogenous hypoglycemia – it cannot be ruled out in patients presenting with hypoglycemia and low insulin levels; history and imaging studies should be done for further assessmentA 24-h fast test has the same clinical significance as that of 72-h fast testC-peptide is a useful biochemical marker in addition to serum insulin, which can be used to diagnose insulinomasCT scan is used to measure the tumor size and localize the tumor. However, definitive diagnosis is only achieved through histopathologic evaluation of diseased tissue PMID:27555915

  18. Aqueous extract of tamarind seeds selectively increases glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets' intracellular calcium levels and stimulates β-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sole, Sushant Shivdas; Srinivasan, B P

    2012-08-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. has been in use for a long time in Asian food and traditional medicine for different diseases including diabetes and obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms of these effects have not been fully understood. In view of the multidimensional activity of tamarind seeds due to their having high levels of polyphenols and flavonoids, we hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of aqueous tamarind seed extract (TSE) might increase glucose uptake through improvement in the expression of genes of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) 1c messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver. Daily oral administration of TSE to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (90 mg/kg intraperitoneally) type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses (120 and 240 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks showed positive correlation with intracellular calcium and insulin release in isolated islets of Langerhans. Tamarind seed extract supplementation significantly improved the GLUT-2 protein and SREBP-1c mRNA expression in the liver and GLUT-4 protein and mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats. The elevated levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), glycosylated hemoglobin level (hemoglobin (A1c)) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) decreased after TSE administration. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that TSE abrogated STZ-induced apoptosis and increased β-cell neogenesis, indicating its effect on islets and β-cell mass. In conclusion, it was found that the antidiabetic effect of TSE on STZ-induced diabetes resulted from complex mechanisms of β-cell neogenesis, calcium handling, GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and SREBP-1c. These findings show the scope for formulating a new herbal drug for diabetes therapy.

  19. Aqueous extract of tamarind seeds selectively increases glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets' intracellular calcium levels and stimulates β-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sole, Sushant Shivdas; Srinivasan, B P

    2012-08-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. has been in use for a long time in Asian food and traditional medicine for different diseases including diabetes and obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms of these effects have not been fully understood. In view of the multidimensional activity of tamarind seeds due to their having high levels of polyphenols and flavonoids, we hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of aqueous tamarind seed extract (TSE) might increase glucose uptake through improvement in the expression of genes of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) 1c messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver. Daily oral administration of TSE to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (90 mg/kg intraperitoneally) type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses (120 and 240 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks showed positive correlation with intracellular calcium and insulin release in isolated islets of Langerhans. Tamarind seed extract supplementation significantly improved the GLUT-2 protein and SREBP-1c mRNA expression in the liver and GLUT-4 protein and mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats. The elevated levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), glycosylated hemoglobin level (hemoglobin (A1c)) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) decreased after TSE administration. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that TSE abrogated STZ-induced apoptosis and increased β-cell neogenesis, indicating its effect on islets and β-cell mass. In conclusion, it was found that the antidiabetic effect of TSE on STZ-induced diabetes resulted from complex mechanisms of β-cell neogenesis, calcium handling, GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and SREBP-1c. These findings show the scope for formulating a new herbal drug for diabetes therapy. PMID:22935346

  20. Magnesium deficiency increases serum fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Kajita, Yasutaka; Miwa, Misao

    2013-01-01

    A magnesium (Mg)-deficient diet results in decreased serum phosphorus (P) levels and increased urinary P excretion; however, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are unclear. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a potent regulator of P homeostasis. To determine the mechanisms responsible for the change in serum levels and urinary excretion of P with Mg deficiency, the present study examined the effects of Mg deficiency on serum FGF-23 levels. Male rats were randomized by weight into two groups and fed a control diet (Mg concentration: 0.05%) or a Mg-deficient diet (Mg concentration: Mg-free) for 21 days. Serum P levels in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet were significantly lower than in rats fed the control diet. Furthermore, urinary P excretion was significantly higher in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet compared to rats fed the control diet. Conversely, the tubular reabsorption rate of P was significantly lower in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet than in the controls. Serum FGF-23 levels in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet were significantly higher than those in animals fed the control diet. The results from the present study indicate that 1) Mg deficiency increases serum FGF-23 levels; and 2) Mg deficiency causes increased urinary P excretion via inhibition of renal P reabsorption, resulting in a lowering of serum P levels. Moreover, we suggest that the high serum FGF-23 levels induced by Mg deficiency contribute to the decrease in renal P reabsorption.

  1. Association of testosterone and BDNF serum levels with craving during alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Lenz, Bernd; Opfermann, Birgitt; Gröschl, Michael; Janke, Eva; Stange, Katrin; Groh, Adrian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show associations between testosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) serum levels. BDNF and testosterone have been independently reported to influence alcohol consumption. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF contributing to alcohol dependence. Regarding possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF and the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA), we included cortisol serum levels in our research. We investigated testosterone and BDNF serum levels in a sample of 99 male alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them to a healthy male control group (n = 17). The testosterone serum levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in the patients' group than in the control group and decreased significantly during alcohol withdrawal (p < 0.001). The decrease of testosterone serum levels during alcohol withdrawal (days 1-7) was significantly associated with the BDNF serum levels (day 1: p = 0.008). In a subgroup of patients showing high cortisol serum levels (putatively mirroring high HPA activity), we found a significant association of BDNF and testosterone as well as with alcohol craving measured by the Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Our data suggest a possible association of BDNF and testosterone serum levels, which may be relevant for the symptomatology of alcohol dependence. Further studies are needed to clarify our results. PMID:27514572

  2. Glucosamine attenuates increases of intraabdominal fat, serum leptin levels, and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Cornelio; Racotta, Radu; Quevedo, Lucía

    2010-11-01

    The levels of circulating nonesterified fatty acids increase during obesity and contribute to insulin resistance by inhibiting insulin-stimulated glucose transport and phosphorylation in human muscles. In cells, glucose-6-phosphate is primarily used in glycogenesis and glycolysis; only 1% to 3% is converted to glucosamine-6-phosphate, which enters the hexosamine-biosynthesis pathway. The major end product of this pathway, uridine-5'-diphosphate-N-acetyl-glucosamine, which is increased by exogenous glucosamine (GlcN) administration, mediates insulin resistance. We hypothesized that the administration of GlcN to rats receiving a high-fat (HF) diet may potentiate the effects of an HF diet on glucose tolerance and other metabolic variables. To evaluate this relationship, 2 groups of rats were fed with a control or HF diet; and another 2 groups received glucosamine hydrochloride at a dose of 500 mg/kg dissolved in drinking water for 21 weeks. Metabolic variables related to insulin resistance were then measured. The levels of blood glucose and serum insulin were higher in a glucose tolerance test in the HF group as compared with the control group. Rats receiving GlcN had reduced liver glycogen and only slightly worsened glucose tolerance as compared with control rats, although this did not induce insulin resistance as evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment. Glucosamine administration was able to partially or completely inhibit some effects of the HF diet by reducing fat depot weight and serum leptin levels, thus resulting in a smaller increase in the insulinemic response to a glucose injection and lower postabsorptive glycemia.

  3. Influence of exercise on serum levels of myoglobin measured by radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Sabriá, M; Ruibal, A; Rey, C; Foz, M; Domenech, F M

    1983-01-01

    To determine the influence of exercise on serum levels of myoglobin, serum levels of this protein were determined by RIA in 90 healthy men, divided as follows: (1) Basal control (no exercise) 25 cases; (2) Moderate exercise (after subject had been working for 12 h in Medicine Emergency Service) 19 cases, and (3) Intensive exercise: (a) football professional (45-min match) 10 cases; (b) football amateur (45-min match) 10 cases; (c) basketball professional (45-min match) 10 cases, and (d) basketball professional (90-min training) 16 cases. Our results led us to the following conclusions. (1) Moderate exercise, such as the usual daily work, does not modify myoglobin levels; (2) Myoglobin serum levels after exercise increase in nearly all individuals. They are higher in untrained people; (3) There seems to be a correlation between exercise intensity and increase of myoglobin serum levels, and (4) The detection of serum myoglobin by RIA may have a wide field of application for sport medicine.

  4. Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A.

    2012-02-01

    Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules

  5. Biochemical and diagnostic classification and serum drug levels: relation to antidepressive effect of imipramine.

    PubMed

    Møller, S E; Reisby, N; Elley, J; Krautwald, O; Ortmann, J; Larsen, O B

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between clinical effect of imipramine (IP) in 39 depressed patients and biochemical distinction, serum drug levels, and diagnostic classification was investigated retrospectively. Based on pretreatment plasma ratios of tryptophan and tyrosine to competing amino acids, which reflect the availability of the precursor amino acids to the brain, the patient sample was separated in two halfparts. The one group with low net availability of tryptophan and tyrosine improved significantly more than the other group with comparable mean serum drug levels. In the former group there was no association between clinical improvement and serum drug levels, whereas in the latter group the patients with serum IP plus desipramine (DMI) above 180 ng/ml improved significantly more than patients with lower levels. There was an indication that a serum ratio of IP:DMI below 0.2 was associated with a poor response. Patients classified as nonendogenous depressives by means of the Newcastle II scale showed about the same response pattern as endogenous depressives with comparable plasma amino acid profiles and serum drug levels. Based on amino acid patterns and serum drug levels only half of the patients received an optimal therapy on the applied schematic dosage schedule. Thus, biochemical classification rather than diagnostic may be a useful remedy for the adjustment of serum IP plus DMI to appropriate levels in individual depressives. PMID:4047380

  6. Analytical model for real time, noninvasive estimation of blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Adhyapak, Anoop; Sidley, Matthew; Venkataraman, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical model to estimate blood glucose level from measurements made non-invasively and in real time by an antenna strapped to a patient's wrist. Some promising success has been shown by the RIT ETA Lab research group that an antenna's resonant frequency can track, in real time, changes in glucose concentration. Based on an in-vitro study of blood samples of diabetic patients, the paper presents a modified Cole-Cole model that incorporates a factor to represent the change in glucose level. A calibration technique using the input impedance technique is discussed and the results show a good estimation as compared to the glucose meter readings. An alternate calibration methodology has been developed that is based on the shift in the antenna resonant frequency using an equivalent circuit model containing a shunt capacitor to represent the shift in resonant frequency with changing glucose levels. Work under progress is the optimization of the technique with a larger sample of patients.

  7. Blood glucose levels in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Billemont, B; Medioni, J; Taillade, L; Helley, D; Meric, J B; Rixe, O; Oudard, S

    2008-01-01

    Sunitinib, a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, extends survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Between October 2005 and March 2007, we retrospectively reviewed blood glucose level variations associated with sunitinib therapy in patients treated for mRCC. Nineteen of the patients had type II diabetes. All 19 patients had a decrease in blood glucose level (mean 1.77 mmol l−1) after 4 weeks of treatment. This was followed by re-elevation in the 2-week rest period. After two cycles of sunitinib administration, two patients had stopped blood glucose-lowering drugs whereas five other patients had normalised their blood glucose level. On the basis of pre-clinical data, we hypothesise that several mechanisms could be involved in this process, such as capillary regression of pancreatic islets, IGF-1 modulation through HIF1-α or NF-κB activation. In addition, a decrease of glucose uptake in the context of concomitant gastrointestinal toxicity cannot be excluded. Glycaemic control should be carefully evaluated in diabetic patients treated with sunitinib, and routine monitoring is warranted. PMID:18841151

  8. Serum Uric Acid Levels were Dynamically Coupled with Hemoglobin A1c in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fengjiang; Chang, Baocheng; Yang, Xilin; Wang, Yaogang; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to decipher the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and normal subjects. A total of 2,250 unrelated T2DM patients and 4,420 Han Chinese subjects from a physical examination population were recruited for this study. In T2DM patients SUA levels were negatively correlated with HbA1c (rs = −0.109, P = 0.000) and 2 h plasma glucose levels (rs = −0.178, P = 0.000). In the physical examination population, SUA levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c (rs = −0.175, P = 0.000) and FPG (rs = −0.131, P = 0.009) in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c (rs = 0.040, P = 0.012) and FPG (rs = 0.084, P = 0.000) in normal-glucose subjects. Multivariate analyses showed that HbA1c was significantly negatively associated with HUA both in T2DM patients (OR = 0.872, 95% CI: 0.790~0.963) and in the physical examination T2DM patients (OR = 0.722, 95% CI: 0.539~0.968). Genetic association studies in T2DM patients showed that alleles of two glucose-uric acid transporter genes, ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were significantly associated with SUA levels (P < 0.05). SUA level is inversely correlated with HbA1c in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c in normal-glucose subjects. The reverse transporting of uric acid and glucose in renal tubules might be accounted for these associations. PMID:27328642

  9. Can we use serum gamma-glutamyl transferase levels to predict early mortality in stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Akinci, Emine; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Gümüş, Haluk; Akilli, Nazire belgin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a marker for alcohol consumption and hepatobiliary diseases. There are reports on the prognostic role of GGT in coronary artery diseases and stroke. The aim of our study was to identify the potential differences in GGT levels in different types of stroke, and to evaluate the correlation between GGT and 30-day mortality. Method: Patients diagnosed with stroke in emergency department between 01.01.2010 and 30.12.2012 was included in the study. Imaging techniques were used to distinguish between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Ischemic strokes were further classified as either atherosclerotic/lacunar or embolic. Parameters including age, gender, vital signs (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), comorbid diseases (HT, DM, CAD, smoking and alcohol consumption), used medications, previous history of stroke, NIHSS score at the time of admission to emergency department, laboratory parameters (glucose, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, platelet, total cholesterol, creatinine) and duration of hospitalization were recorded. Death records were obtained from patients’ medical records. Results: One thousand eighty six patients were included in the study. GGT levels were not significantly different between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes (p=0.435). On the other hand, GGT levels in embolic strokes were significantly higher compared to atherosclerotic/lacunar strokes (p=0.001). GGT levels [median 24.50 (16.00-43.00)] in Intensive Care Unit patients were significantly higher compared to GGT level [22.00 (15.00-34.25)] in admitted to service beds patients (p=0.015). Median GGT level of deceased patients was 24.00 (16.00-41.25) and median GGT level of alive patients was 22.00 (15.00-35.00). GGT level of deceased patients was significantly higher compared to GGT levels of alive patients (p=0.048). Conclusion: There was no difference in GGT levels between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes; however, GGT levels in embolic

  10. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  11. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  12. Reduced Serum Level of Interleukin-10 is Associated with Cerebral Infarction: A Case-Control and Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yifei; Yang, Haiqing; Diao, Zengyan; Li, Yi; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2016-05-01

    IL-10 expression limits inflammation and restricts the size of CNS damage from stroke. In this study, we examined the correlation between cerebral infarction (CI) and serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) using a combination of case-control study and meta-analysis of published data, with an aim of understanding the relevance of serum IL-10 levels to CI development. This study enrolled a total of 169 CI patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University between May 2011 and November 2014. During the same period, a group of 145 individuals were recruited at the same hospital as healthy controls after thorough physical examination. Serum IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SPSS 19.0 (IBM, 2010, Chicago, IL, USA) and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) software were used for data analysis. Serum levels of IL-10 (pg/mL) were significantly lower in CI patients when compared to healthy controls (15.36 ± 3.21 vs. 21.64 ± 5.17, t = 13.12, P < 0.001). In addition, patients with large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), cardioembolic infarct (CEI), and lacunar infarct (LAC) displayed drastically reduced serum levels of IL-10 (pg/mL) compared to healthy controls (LAAS 14.77 ± 5.21, CEI 15.25 ± 5.10, LAC 16.58 ± 4.92, all P < 0.001). Interestingly, no significant differences were observed in the serum IL-10 levels when pair-wise comparisons were made between these three clinical subtypes of CI (all P > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that, with the exception of triglyceride (TG) and uric acid (UA) levels (both P > 0.05), the other seven parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), creatinine (Cr), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), strongly correlated with CI development (all P < 0.05). Meta-analysis of pooled data from nine case-control studies revealed an inverse correlation between

  13. [Level of blood serum lipids in rats treated with detergents].

    PubMed

    Szymaniec, J; Trzeciak, H I; Machalska, H; Turczyński, B

    1977-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally once per week for 12 weeks with following detergents: Olbrotol-18 (nonionic detergent), a product of etheric condensation of 18 moles of ethylene oxide to 1 mole of the mixture of olein alcohol and cetyl alkohol in ratio 1:1, in a dose of 10 mg/kg; SBO (anionic detergent), sodium 2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate, in a dose of 10 mg/kg and Sterinol (cationic detergent), benzalkonium bromide, in a dose of 0.6 mg/kg. The control rats were injected with 0.9% saline solution. The content of total cholesterol, beta-lipoproteins and total lipids in serum were estimated. The increase of total cholesterol and the decrease of beta-lipoproteins content in serum of rats after all used detergents were observed as compared with the control. The increase of total lipid content only after long-term treatment with Olbrotol-18 was found. It is concluded that long term intraperitoneal treatment with detergents changes similarly the contents of total cholesterol and of beta-lipoproteins in blood serum of rats.

  14. Association Between Serum Levels of Vitamin D and the Risk of Post-Stroke Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaowen; Ren, Wenwei; Cheng, Jianhua; Zhu, Beilei; Jin, Qianqian; Wang, Liping; Chen, Cao; Zhu, Lin; Chang, Yaling; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; Lv, Dezhao; Shao, Bei; Zhang, Shunkai; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low levels of serum vitamin D are common in patients with mood disorders and stroke. It has been shown that low levels of serum vitamin D indicate a risk of depression in post-stroke subjects. Our aim was to determine the relationship between vitamin D and post-stroke anxiety (PSA). A consecutive series of 226 first acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited and followed up for 1 month. Serum levels of vitamin D were measured within 24 hours of admission. Patients with significant clinical symptoms of anxiety and a Hamilton anxiety scale score >7 were diagnosed as having PSA. In addition, 100 healthy subjects were recruited as controls and underwent measurements of serum vitamin D. A total of 60 patients (26.55%) showed anxiety at 1 month. Both PSA patients and non-PSA patients had lower serum levels of vitamin D than healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between PSA and serum levels of vitamin D. Low serum levels of vitamin D (≤38.48 nmol/L) were independently associated with the development of PSA (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.21–5.13, P = 0.01). Serum vitamin D status is related to the occurrence of anxiety in post-stroke patients and may be an independent risk factor of PSA after 1 month. PMID:27149477

  15. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis.

  16. Circulating MicroRNA-150 Serum Levels Predict Survival in Patients with Critical Illness and Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Vargas Cardenas, David; Vucur, Mihael; Scholten, David; Frey, Norbert; Koch, Alexander; Trautwein, Christian; Tacke, Frank; Luedde, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Down-regulation of miR-150 was recently linked to inflammation and bacterial infection. Furthermore, reduced serum levels of miR-150 were reported from a small cohort of patients with sepsis. We thus aimed at evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic value of miR-150 serum levels in patients with critically illness and sepsis. Methods miR-150 serum levels were analyzed in a cohort of 223 critically ill patients of which 138 fulfilled sepsis criteria and compared to 76 healthy controls. Results were correlated with clinical data and extensive sets of routine and experimental biomarkers. Results Measurements of miR-150 serum concentrations revealed only slightly reduced miR-150 serum levels in critically ill patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore miR-150 levels did not significantly differ in critically ill patients with our without sepsis, indicating that miR-150 serum levels are not suitable for diagnostic establishment of sepsis. However, serum levels of miR-150 correlated with hepatic or renal dysfunction. Low miR-150 serum levels were associated with an unfavorable prognosis of patients, since low miR-150 serum levels predicted mortality with high diagnostic accuracy compared with established clinical scores and biomarkers. Conclusion Reduced miR-150 serum concentrations are associated with an unfavorable outcome in patients with critical illness, independent of the presence of sepsis. Besides a possible pathogenic role of miR-150 in critical illness, our study indicates a potential use of circulating miRNAs as a prognostic rather than diagnostic marker in critically ill patients. PMID:23372743

  17. Protective Effect of Punica granatum L. against Serum/Glucose Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury

    PubMed Central

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Afkhami Goli, Amir; Asadpour, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    The discovery and development of natural products with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties have been one of the most interesting and promising approaches in the search for the treatment of many neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has served as an excellent in vitro model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia and for the development of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies suggested that pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) or its active constituents exert pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, in this study we investigated the possible protective effects of different extracts of pomegranate against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Initially, the cells were pretreated with different concentrations of pulp hydroalcoholic extract (PHE), pulp aqueous extract (PAE) and pomegranate juice (PJ) for 2 h and then deprived of serum/glucose (SGD) for 6 and 12 h. SGD caused a significant reduction in cell viability (measured by the MTT assay) after 6 and 12 h, as compared with control cells (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with PHE, PAE, and PJ significantly and concentration-dependently increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6 and 12 h. A significant increase in DNA damage (measured by the comet assay) was seen in nuclei of cells following SGD for 12 h (P < 0.001). In control groups, no significant difference was seen in DNA damage between PHE, PAE, and PJ-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated PC12 cells (P > 0.05). PHE, PAE, and PJ pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage following ischemic insult (P < 0.001). This suppression of DNA damage by PHE, PAE and PJ was found to be concentration dependent. These data indicate that there is a cytoprotective property in PHE, PAE, and PJ under SGD condition in PC12 cells

  18. Changes in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels induced by bradykinin in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Damas, Jacques; Hallet, Claude; Lefebvre, Pierre J

    2001-01-01

    The influence of bradykinin (BK) on blood glucose and plasma insulin levels was investigated in anaesthetized rats. Blood glucose level was dose-dependently increased by intravenous infusion of BK. This effect of BK was enhanced by captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK), a kinin B1 receptor agonist, did not modify blood glucose levels while the effect of BK was inhibited by Hoe-140, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist. The effect of BK was reduced by the NO-synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. The effect of BK was suppressed by the association of propranolol with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine. It was also reduced by hexamethonium, a ganglion-blocking drug. In adrenalectomized rats, the infusion of BK slightly decreased blood glucose levels. The hyperglycaemic effect of adrenaline was suppressed by propranolol associated with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine, but it was not modified by L-NAME. Infusion of BK did not modify plasma insulin levels. However, after phentolamine and propranolol, BK induced a transient 2 fold rise in plasma insulin levels. The release of insulin was dose-dependent and inhibited by Hoe-140. We conclude that infusion of BK induces, via a stimulation of B2 receptors, the release of NO and of prostanoids. The latter agents activate through a reflex pathway the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. This release increases blood glucose levels and reduces plasma insulin levels. After adrenoceptor inhibition, BK induces a secretion of insulin, via the stimulation of B2 receptors. PMID:11704652

  19. Melatonin Signaling Controls the Daily Rhythm in Blood Glucose Levels Independent of Peripheral Clocks.

    PubMed

    Owino, Sharon; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Baba, Kenkichi; Tosini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is rhythmically secreted by both the pineal gland and retina in a circadian fashion, with its peak synthesis occurring during the night. Once synthesized, melatonin exerts its effects by binding to two specific G-protein coupled receptors-melatonin receptor type 1(MT1) and melatonin receptor type 2(MT2). Recent studies suggest the involvement of MT1 and MT2 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis; however the ability of melatonin signaling to impart timing cues on glucose metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report that the removal of MT1 or MT2 in mice abolishes the daily rhythm in blood glucose levels. Interestingly, removal of melatonin receptors produced small effects on the rhythmic expression patterns of clock genes within skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the loss of the daily rhythm in blood glucose observed in MT1(-/-) and MT2(-/-) mice does not occur as a consequence of 'disrupted' clocks within insulin sensitive tissues. Finally our results highlight a diurnal contribution of melatonin receptor signaling in the daily regulation of blood glucose levels.

  20. Serum DJ-1 level is positively associated with improvements in some aspects of metabolic syndrome in Japanese women through lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takuya; Murao, Sato; Kozuka, Miyuki; Shimizu, Mari; Suzuki, Junko; Kubo, Chizuru; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Musashi, Manabu; Minegishi, Yukiko; Momose, Izumi; Matsushita, Mami; Shirahata, Aki; Furukawa, Naomi; Kobayashi, Ryoko; Umezawa, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Megumi; Moriya, Kiyoshi; Saito, Masayuki; Makita, Akira; Ohkubo, Iwao; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2014-10-01

    DJ-1 is a protein that is associated with Parkinson disease and cancer, and the reduction of DJ-1 function and expression is also thought to be a cause of diabetes and hypertension. However, little is known about the association between the plasma concentration of DJ-1 and risk of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that a lifestyle intervention would increase serum DJ-1 and that up-regulated DJ-1 functions will result in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. The objective of our study is to examine whether the level of serum DJ-1 is associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to reveal the association between DJ-1 and metabolic syndrome, this study investigated lifestyle intervention in a control group (n = 37) and intervention group (n = 45). The results showed that body mass index, body fat ratio, waist-hip ratio, waist circumference, blood pressure, and plasma glucose level were improved in the intervention group, as compared with those in the control group. Furthermore, serum levels of DJ-1 were increased in the intervention group, when compared with those in the control group. These results suggest that serum DJ-1 is increased by lifestyle intervention and that increased serum DJ-1 prevents metabolic syndrome. Thus, the level of serum DJ-1 will become one of the indexes for the risk of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Effects of phenytoin and lamotrigine treatment on serum BDNF levels in offsprings of epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Soysal, Handan; Doğan, Zümrüt; Kamışlı, Özden

    2016-04-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is to promote and modulate neuronal responses across neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Therefore, abnormal BDNF signaling may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Low BDNF levels have been reported in brains and serums of patients with psychotic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antiepileptic drugs on BDNF in developing rats. Pregnant rats were treated with phenytoin (PHT), lamotrigine (LTG) and folic acid for long-term, all through their gestational periods. Experimental epilepsy (EE) model was applied in pregnant rats. Epileptic seizures were determined with electroencephalography. After birth, serum BDNF levels were measured in 136 newborn rats on postnatal day (PND) 21 and postnatal day 38. In postnatal day 21, serum BDNF levels of experimental epilepsy group were significantly lower compared with PHT group. This decrease is statistically significant. Serum BDNF levels increased in the group LTG. This increase compared with LTG+EE group was statistically significant. In the folic acid (FA) group, levels of serum BDNF decreased statistically significantly compared to the PHT group. On postnatal day 38, no significant differences were found among the groups for serum BDNF levels. We concluded that, the passed seizures during pregnancy adversely affect fetal brain development, lowering of serum BDNF levels. PHT use during pregnancy prevents seizure-induced injury by increasing the levels of BDNF. About the increase level of BDNF, LTG is much less effective than PHT, the positive effect of folic acid on serum BDNF levels was not observed. LTG increase in BDNF is much less effective than PHT, folic acid did not show a positive effect on serum BDNF levels. Epilepsy affects fetal brain development during gestation in pregnant rats, therefore anti-epileptic therapy should be continued during pregnancy. PMID:26706181

  2. Serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won-Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum selenium levels are lower in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. However, there is no data about the difference in serum selenium levels depending on the severity of lung diseases. We aimed to identify the factors associated with low serum selenium levels in critically ill patients with respiratory diseases. Methods A prospective study was performed in 83 patients with respiratory diseases who had admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. We obtained systemic inflammatory markers, nutritional indicators and prognostic factors as the explanatory variables for the outcome of low serum selenium levels. Results Serum selenium levels on admission were lower by 28% in the ICU group as compared with the general ward group (70.0±26.4 and 97.9±20.8 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Low serum selenium levels had a correlation with malnutrition represented by decreases in levels of lymphocyte (R2=0.107, P=0.005) and albumin (R2=0.174, P<0.001). In addition, low serum selenium levels were associated with an increase in baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (R2=0.059, P=0.041) and APACHE II scores (R2=0.209, P<0.001). Lower albumin levels (P=0.032) and higher APACHE II scores (P=0.046) showed a significant correlation with lower serum selenium levels on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Low serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases have a significant correlation with poor nutritional status and prognosis on admission.

  3. Serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won-Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum selenium levels are lower in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. However, there is no data about the difference in serum selenium levels depending on the severity of lung diseases. We aimed to identify the factors associated with low serum selenium levels in critically ill patients with respiratory diseases. Methods A prospective study was performed in 83 patients with respiratory diseases who had admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. We obtained systemic inflammatory markers, nutritional indicators and prognostic factors as the explanatory variables for the outcome of low serum selenium levels. Results Serum selenium levels on admission were lower by 28% in the ICU group as compared with the general ward group (70.0±26.4 and 97.9±20.8 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Low serum selenium levels had a correlation with malnutrition represented by decreases in levels of lymphocyte (R2=0.107, P=0.005) and albumin (R2=0.174, P<0.001). In addition, low serum selenium levels were associated with an increase in baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (R2=0.059, P=0.041) and APACHE II scores (R2=0.209, P<0.001). Lower albumin levels (P=0.032) and higher APACHE II scores (P=0.046) showed a significant correlation with lower serum selenium levels on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Low serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases have a significant correlation with poor nutritional status and prognosis on admission. PMID:27621861

  4. Effects of isotretinoin on serum vitamin E levels in patients with acne.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, Aysun Şikar; Güzel, Savaş; Bulca, Songül; Demirsoy, Evren Odyakmaz; Bayramgürler, Dilek; Bilen, Nilgün; Kıran, Rebiay

    2013-03-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that using retinoids with vitamin E leads to improvements of some side effects due to isotretinoin. However, vitamin E blood levels have not been reported previously in patients with acne treated with isotretinoin. We aimed to investigate the serum vitamin E levels before and after isotretinoin therapy in patients with acne. A total of 70 patients treated with isotretinoin for acne in our dermatology department were included in this study. The serum vitamin E levels were measured as baseline before isotretinoin treatment. All patients received 0.6-0.8 mg/kg/d isotretinoin. The treatment was finished within 5-7 months while ensuring that the cumulative dose was 120 mg/kg. Serum vitamin E levels were measured again in the last month of treatment. The mean serum vitamin E levels before and after treatment were compared. Forty-six patients completed the study. It was detected that the mean serum vitamin E level was 20.22 mg/dl before isotretinoin treatment. In the last month of treatment, the mean serum vitamin E level was 16.24 mg/dl. Serum vitamin E levels decreased in all patients except three. The mean serum vitamin E level after treatment was statistically decreased in comparison with the mean serum vitamin E level before treatment. Our results showed that vitamin E levels decreased during isotretinoin treatment. We considered that some of the side effects due to isotretinoin treatment might be related to this, and supplementation vitamin E may be useful during isotretinoin treatment.

  5. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  6. The relationship between serum ferritin levels and electrocardiogram characteristics in acutely ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Laudanski, Krzysztof; Ali, Huma; Himmel, Andrew; Godula, Kasia; Stettmeier, Mary; Calvocoressi, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias are common comorbidities among acutely ill patients admitted to hospitals. An abnormal iron metabolism may contribute to the abnormalities in the conduction and propagation of action potentials through myocardium. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum indexes of iron metabolism correlate with electrocardiogram (ECG) changes. METHODS: In the present retrospective, pilot chart review, serum levels of iron, ferritin, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and total iron-binding capacity in 77 hospitalized patients with acute illness were correlated with ECG variables. RESULTS: The serum ferritin level correlated strongly (r=0.49) with QT/QTs interval. There were three subjects with QT prolongation (longer than 450 ms) within the high serum ferritin (576 ng/mL or greater) group versus subjects with low ferritin. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum ferritin level and serum iron level contributed to the variance in the QT/QTs prolongation. No other correlation between the studied serum markers and ECG characteristics were found. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that serum ferritin and iron levels affect the QT interval in a variety of medical conditions, possibly contributing to the emergence of fatal cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:20098576

  7. PPAR-α Agonist Fenofibrate Decreased Serum Irisin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaomeng; Gao, Xia; Jia, Yumei; Zhang, Heng; Pan, Qingrong; Yao, Zhi; Yang, Ning; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Irisin is related to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. The physiologic effects of irisin are partially mediated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). We investigated the effect of fenofibrate, a PPAR-α agonist, on serum irisin in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This study evaluated cross-sectional and interventional studies of 25 type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia (group A) and 40 controls (group B). Group A was treated with fenofibrate (200 mg/day) for 8 weeks. Serum irisin and clinical characteristics were examined. Serum irisin was significantly higher in group A compared with group B (45.15 ± 10.48 versus 35.38 ± 9.97 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and correlated with body mass index (r = 0.314, P = 0.011), fasting blood glucose (r = 0.399, P = 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.256, P = 0.040), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.247, P = 0.047). In multiple regression analysis after controlling for confounders, only fasting blood glucose (β = 5.615, P < 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 19.483, P < 0.001) were independently related to serum irisin. After 8 weeks of fenofibrate treatment, serum irisin significantly decreased in group A compared with baseline (45.15 ± 10.48 versus 38.74 ± 12.54 ng/ml, P = 0.011). Conclusively, fenofibrate decreased serum irisin in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia, indicating that PPAR-α agonists may protect against metabolic disorders by improving irisin resistance. PMID:26693220

  8. Increased serum levels of interleukin-8 in polyarteritis nodosa and Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Freire, Alzírton de Lira; Bertolo, Manoel Barros; de Pinho, Antônio José; Samara, Adil Muhib; Fernandes, Sandra Regina Muchinechi

    2004-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Behçet's disease (BD) and polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is not yet well established. Endothelial cells have been shown to express chemokines that are involved in inflammatory processes. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils. We evaluated serum IL-8 levels in patients with PAN and BD. We measured serum IL-8 levels in 21 patients with BD and 16 with PAN. Sera from 30 age-matched healthy blood donors were used as normal controls. Serum IL-8 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean serum IL-8 level of the active BD (1522.31 pg/ml) and that of the active PAN (654.8 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that of the normal controls (40.39 pg/ml, P <0.05). There was no difference in mean serum IL-8 levels between patients with inactive disease and normal controls. We found higher serum levels of IL-8 in those patients with more severe disease. These results suggest that IL-8 may play a role in the pathogenesis of PAN and/or BD. Our study also suggests a possible relation between serum IL-8 levels and the severity of these diseases.

  9. The Relationship between Serum Zinc Level and Preeclampsia: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Shen, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2015-09-15

    The association between serum zinc level and preeclampsia (PE) remains controversial. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for relevant available articles. The articles were limited to those in English from January 1990 to April 2015. Observational studies evaluating the association between serum zinc level and PE were included. The I² was used to assess heterogeneity and the random effect model (REM) was adopted as the pooling method. The pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the association between serum zinc level and PE. Seventeen observational studies were included. Compared with healthy pregnancy controls, PE patients have lower serum zinc level in 14 studies about total PE (SMD (95% CI): -0.587 (-0.963, -0.212), Z = 3.06, p for Z = 0.002; I² = 88.4%, p for I² < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, a lower serum zinc level in PE patients compared with healthy pregnancy controls was observed in studies conducted in Asia, studies with zinc level measured in serum, and studies involving fasting participants. The SMD did not differ significantly between studies with healthy pregnancy controls matched by individual age (yes or no), and by individual gestational age (yes or no), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that serum zinc level in PE patients is significantly lower than that in healthy pregnancy controls. A moderate amount of zinc supplementation during pregnancy is advocated to reduce the incidence of PE.

  10. Ultrasound-triggered regulation of blood glucose levels using injectable nano-network.

    PubMed

    Di, Jin; Price, Jennifer; Gu, Xiao; Jiang, Xiaoning; Jing, Yun; Gu, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    The integration of an injectable insulin-encapsulated nano-network with a focused ultrasound system (FUS) can remotely regulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo. A single subcutaneous injection of the nano-network with intermittent FUS administration facilitates reduction of the blood glucose levels in type 1 diabetic mice for up to 10 d. PMID:24255016

  11. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0–10) was reduced to zero, but the elevated insulin requirements continued for 4 weeks after the injection. This finding suggests that steroid injections for shoulder pain in diabetics may not always be as safe as previously thought. We propose that medical practitioners advise their patients to monitor their glucose levels more carefully after such injections and that caution is exercised when considering administrating these injections to those who have poorly controlled blood glucose levels preinjection to avoid ketoacidosis. PMID:25199186

  12. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  13. Serum immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate levels in children living along major roads

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, Masayuki; Adachi, Motoaki

    1996-11-01

    To assess the effects of automobile exhaust on human health, we determined serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate in 185 schoolchildren who lived in a district that contained major roads. Serum immunoglobulin E levels were elevated in children who had asthma or wheezing, but levels did no t differ with respect to distance of their homes from the major roads. Serum hyaluronate levels were higher in children who lived less than 50 m from the roadside, compared with children who resided a greater distance from roads. The difference, however, was significant only in a subgroup of children in whom immunoglobulin E levels exceeded 250 IU/ml. Our results suggest that serum hyaluronate levels in children reflect the effects of traffic-related air pollution. Children with high immunoglobulin E levels appeared to be particularly susceptible to the effects of automobile exhaust. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Nigerian propolis improves blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein levels in rat models of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oladayo, Mustafa Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to our previous studies, propolis of Nigerian origin showed some evidence of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in addition to its ability to ameliorate oxidative-stress-induced organ dysfunction. This study was carried out to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Nigerian propolis (EENP) improves glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations in rats that have alloxan diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced with alloxan (110 mg/kg). Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 5); Group 1 was non-diabetic receiving normal saline and Group 2 was diabetic but also received only normal saline. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were diabetic receiving 200 mg/kg propolis, 300 mg/kg propolis, and 150 mg/kg metformin, respectively, for 42 days. Results: Hyperglycemia, elevated serum level of VLDL, elevated plasma level of HbA1c, and decreased levels of HDL were observed in the diabetic untreated animals. Nigerian propolis decreased blood glucose level and serum level of VLDL but elevated HDL level. These changes were significant (P < 0.05). The levels of plasma HbA1c were also reduced in the propolis-treated groups, and the reduction was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Nigerian propolis contains compounds exhibiting hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and HbA1c reducing activities. PMID:27366348

  15. Evaluation of the effects of various factors on the serum triglyceride level in young adults.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, R; Miyoshi, T; Imaki, M; Nakamura, T

    1994-06-01

    The life style of young adults has been receiving attention with a view to its improvement to preventing coronary heart diseases (CHD) in later life. In this study, for determining the influence of different life styles on the serum triglyceride level, we carried out surveys and laboratory studies on the relationships of the nutritional intake, physical activity, and cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption of young adults with their serum triglyceride levels. The nutritional survey indicated a significant correlation between the serum triglyceride level and carbohydrate intake (p < 0.01). In the survey of physical activity, a significant inverse correlation was found between the energy expenditure per kg body weight and the serum triglyceride level (p < 0.05). No significant relationship was found of smoking or drinking with the serum triglyceride level. The body mass index was found to have effects on both the serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Of the factors examined, carbohydrate intake and energy expenditure per kg body weight had the greatest effects on the serum triglyceride level. Considering the trend for young people to consume large quantities of carbonated drinks, in which most of carbohydrate is sucrose, we tested the affect of a high carbohydrate diet on one group of subjects and found that it caused a significant increase in the serum triglyceride level (p < 0.05). Another group for whom a mild exercise regimen was prescribed showed slight, but not significant decrease in the serum triglyceride level. These results suggest that at least optimal nutrition and physical activity including weight control during adolescence are important for preventing CHD. PMID:7940529

  16. Serum copper and zinc levels in Thai patients with various diseases.

    PubMed

    Songchitsomboon, S; Komindr, S; Komindr, A; Kulapongse, S; Puchaiwatananon, O; Udomsubpayakul, U

    1999-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the possible alteration of serum Cu and Zn levels in 118 medical inpatients (53 women and 65 men) in Ramathibodi Hospital. Patients were classified according to their main clinical diseases: pulmonary (n = 12), renal (14), infectious (30), malignant (9), cardiovascular (22), GI & hepatic (13) and hematological (18) diseases. Significantly increased serum Cu concentrations were found in patients with pulmonary, malignant, cardiovascular and infectious diseases; moreover, 75, 75, 50 and 37 per cent of these diseases, respectively, had serum levels greater than the normal mean + 2SD (23.6 mumol/L). Besides, 5 per cent of patients (3 in renal, 1 in infectious and 2 in GI & hepatic diseases) had low serum Cu levels suggestive of Cu depletion. By contrast, significantly decreased serum Zn concentrations were found in patients with GI & hepatic, infectious, renal, cardiovascular and malignant diseases. Serum Zn levels below the normal mean - 2SD (8.1 mumol/L) were presented in 46, 37, 29, 23 and 22 per cent of cases, respectively. It was found that serum Cu/Zn ratio in our patients not only with cancer but also with other diseases were statistically significant from the normal group. Hence, the use of serum Cu/Zn ratios as markers for the diagnosis of cancer or for staging tumors must be interpreted cautiously.

  17. Apolipoprotein A1/C3/A5 haplotypes and serum lipid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein (Apo) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association between the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels ...

  18. Impact of Heat Shock Protein A 12B Overexpression on Spinal Astrocyte Survival Against Oxygen-Glucose-Serum Deprivation/Restoration in Primary Cultured Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xun; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Li-Bin; Cheng, Jing-Ming; Yang, Tao; Fan, Ke-Xia; Li, Yun-Ming; Liu, En-Yu; Cheng, Lin; Huang, Hai-Dong; Gu, Jian-Wen; Kuang, Yong-Qin

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein A 12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the heat shock protein 70 family. Preclinical evidence indicates that HSPA12B helps protect the brain from ischemic injury, although its specific function remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HSPA12B overexpression can protect astrocytes from oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGD/R) injury. We analyzed the effects of HSPA12B overexpression on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and spinal astrocyte survival. After ischemia-reperfusion injury, we found that HSPA12B overexpression decreased spinal cord water content and infarct volume. MTT assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression increased astrocyte survival after OGD/R treatment. Flow cytometry results showed a marked inhibition of OGD/R-induced astrocyte apoptosis. Western blot assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression significantly increased regulatory protein B-cell lymphocyte 2 (Bcl-2) levels, whereas it decreased expression of the Bax protein, which forms a heterodimer with Bcl-2. Measurements of the level of activation of caspase-3 by Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay kit showed that HSPA12B overexpression markedly inhibited caspase-3 activation. Notably, we demonstrated that the effects of HSPA12B on spinal astrocyte survival depended on activation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway. These findings indicate that HSPA12B protects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and may represent a potential treatment target. PMID:27179807

  19. Serum Bisphenol A Level in Boys with Cryptorchidism: A Step to Male Infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Komarowska, Marta Diana; Hermanowicz, Adam; Czyzewska, Urszula; Milewski, Robert; Matuszczak, Ewa; Miltyk, Wojciech; Debek, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital birth defect in boys and affects about 2–4% full-term male neonates. Its etiology is multifactorial. Purpose. To evaluate the serum bisphenol A (BPA) levels in boys with cryptorchidism and healthy boys and to assess the risk of environmental exposure to BPA using the authors' questionnaire. The data were acquired from a study on boys with cryptorchidism (n = 98) and a control group (n = 57). Prior to surgery, all patients had BPA serum levels evaluated. The size, position, rigidity of the testis, and abnormality of the epididymis of the undescended testis were assessed. Parents also completed a questionnaire on the risks of exposure to BPA in everyday life. Results. The testes in both groups were similar in size. The turgor of the undescended testis in the group of boys with cryptorchidism was decreased. Free serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The conjugated serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). Total serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Serum total BPA level was related with a positive answer about problems with conception (p < 0.02). Conclusion. Our study indicated that high serum BPA was associated with cryptorchidism. PMID:26491444

  20. An exploratory study of serum creatinine levels in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueping; Guo, Xiaoyan; Huang, Rui; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yongping; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2014-10-01

    The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unknown, but existing data argue for a role of creatinine in ALS pathophysiology. Our aim is to clarify the correlation between serum creatinine and ALS in Chinese population. A total of 512 sporadic ALS (SALS) patients and 501 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS-R) was used to assess the motor functional status of SALS patients. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in SALS patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Patients with the second, the third and highest quartiles of creatinine levels had a significantly lower presence of ALS compared to those with the lowest quartile (p for trend <0.001). However, decreased presence of ALS was not found in the highest quartiles compared with the lowest quartiles in females. Sporadic ALS patients with different site of onset have similar serum creatinine levels, but underweight patients presented lower levels of serum creatinine. Patients with low serum creatinine levels are more likely to have severe motor impairment and low body mass index (BMI) values. This study demonstrates that SALS patients have lower serum creatinine levels than well-matched controls. Higher levels of serum creatinine are less likely to be associated with the presence of ALS in Chinese populations. Low serum creatinine levels may be related to severe motor impairment in SALS patients, after adjusting the confounding factor-BMI. However, serum creatinine has no deleterious impact on survival in ALS.

  1. Serum and hair zinc levels in breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiujuan; Tang, Jing; Xie, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between serum/hair zinc levels and breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent. To compare the serum and hair zinc levels in women with breast cancer and controls, we conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Embase to identify relevant studies with publication dates up through November 2014. Based on a random effects model, summary standard mean differences (SMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the serum and hair zinc levels in women with breast cancer and controls. Fourteen studies that investigated serum zinc levels and seven studies that assessed hair zinc levels were included. Our study observed no difference in serum zinc levels between breast cancer cases and controls (SMD (95%CI): −0.65[−1.42,0.13]). However, we determined that hair zinc levels were lower in women with breast cancer compared with those of controls (SMD (95%CI): −1.99[−3.46, −0.52]). In conclusion, this study was the first to provide evidence that hair zinc levels in female breast cancer patients are lower than in controls; however, there was no significant difference in serum zinc levels between female breast cancer patients and controls. PMID:26179508

  2. [Effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Huang, Lianzhen; Hu, Jianping; Li, Tao

    2002-08-01

    To observe the effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats, according to serum TG, TC level, 40 male Wistar rats are divided into four groups (normal control group, high fat control group, silkworm pupa oil group and silkworm pupa oil + VE group). The rats are fed different diets and six weeks later, serum lipids level and platelet function are measured. The results show that (1) Compared with high fat control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C level, AI value, Platelet aggregability, plasma TXB2 level and T/P ratio decrease significantly while HDL-C level and 6-k-PGF1 level increase in silkworm pupa oil group; (2) Serum TC, LDL-C level, T/P ratio and platelet aggregability are significantly lower in silkworm pupa oil + VE group than in silkworm pupa oil group. It is suggested that silkworm pupa oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid can reduce serum lipids level and inhibit platelet aggregation, which is more effective with the supplementation with VE.

  3. Relationship of the serum procalcitonin level with the severity of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuhiro; Endo, Shigeatsu; Kasai, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Onodera, Makoto; Imai, Satoko; Takahashi, Gaku; Miyata, Michiko; Kitamura, Michihiko; Wakabayashi, Go

    2004-01-01

    The procalcitonin (PCT) level in the blood was determined in cases of acute pancreatitis. The PCT level was found to show a significant correlation with the severity of acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, the PCT level was significantly higher in the cases which developed MODS than in those which did not. The PCT level was significantly higher in the patients who eventually died than in those who survived. A significant correlation was observed between the serum PCT level and the serum tumor necrosis factor alpha level. Thus, PCT level was found to be a reliable indicator of the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  4. Monitoring of glucose levels in mouse blood with noninvasive optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, H.; Ahmed, E.; Ikram, M.

    2014-02-01

    We report the quantification/monitoring of glucose levels in a blood sample using optical diffuse reflectance (ODR) underlying variations in optical parameters with a white light source (at peak wavelength ˜600 nm and range 450-850 nm) and in blood in vivo using M-mode optical coherence tomography (OCT) in terms of the translational diffusion coefficient (DT). In the ODR experiments, we have investigated two types of mono-dispersive particles, i.e. polystyrene microspheres (PMSs) with diameters of 1.4 μm (variable concentrations) and 2.6 μm (fixed concentration) in a water phantom by observing changes in the reduced scattering coefficient. We believe that these differences in optical properties will be helpful for the understanding and optimal use of laser applications in blood glucometry without piercing the skin. In the OCT experiments, this idea of glucose monitoring was applied on an in vivo normal mouse without injection of glucose intravenously to provide the threshold levels by envisioning/identifying a blood vessel by speckle variance (SV-OCT) using a dorsal skinfold mouse windows chamber model. We report an average value of translation decorrelation time τT = 41.18 ± 1.92 ms and DT = 8.90 × 10-14 m2 s-1 underlying the dynamic light scattering (DLS). Our results have a potential application in the quantification of higher glucose levels in vivo administrated intravenously.

  5. The effect of dietary starch level on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Gilham, Matthew S; Upton, Sarah; Colyer, Alison; Butterwick, Richard; Miller, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    A charge made against feeding dry foods to cats is that the high carbohydrate (i.e. starch) content results in high blood glucose levels which over time may have detrimental health effects. The present study determined the post-meal concentrations of plasma glucose and insulin in adult cats (seven males and four females) and dogs (Labrador retrievers; four males and five females) fed dry diets with low-starch (LS), moderate-starch (MS) or high-starch (HS) levels. In a cross-over design with at least 7 d between the test meals, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured following a single meal of a LS, MS and HS diet (209 kJ/kg bodyweight). Only the HS diet resulted in significant post-meal increases in plasma glucose concentration in cats and dogs although the time-course profiles were different between the species. In cats, plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased above the pre-meal concentration from 11 h until 19 h after the meal, while in dogs, a significant increase above baseline was seen only at the 7 h time point. Plasma insulin was significantly elevated in dogs 4-8 h following the MS diet and 2-8 h after the HS diet. In cats, plasma insulin was significantly greater than baseline from 3-7 and 11-17 h after the HS diet. The time lag (approximately 11 h) between eating the HS diet and the subsequent prolonged elevation of plasma glucose concentration seen in cats may reflect metabolic adaptations that result in a slower digestive and absorptive capacity for complex carbohydrate. PMID:22005401

  6. Changes in glucose, insulin, and growth hormone levels associated with bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Leach, C. S.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and growth hormone (HGH) resulting from exposure to 56 d of bedrest were determined in five healthy young male subjects. Changes in the daily levels of these factors for each subject were expressed as the mean of six blood samples per 24-h period. The level of HGH dropped after 10 d of bedrest, then showed a 1.5-fold increase at 20 d and subsequently decreased gradually reaching levels of 2.5 mg/ml/24 h, well below pre-bedrest controls of 4.2 mg/ml/24 h, by the 54th d. In spite of a marked increase in the daily plasma insulin levels during the first 30 d of bedrest, glucose levels remained unchanged. Beyond 30 d of bedrest, insulin began decreasing toward pre-bedrest levels and glucose followed with a similar reduction to below the control levels of 75 mg/100 ml/24 h on day 54. The daily mean changes reflect a change in the amplitude of the diurnal variation. The daily peak in plasma insulin shifted progressively to the late evening during the bedrest period.

  7. Seasonal changes in serum free fatty acid level in the migratory Canada goose.

    PubMed

    John, T M; George, J C

    1977-12-01

    The changes in the serum level of free fatty acids (FFA) in the migratory Canada goose (Branta canadensis interior) breeding in Ft. Churchill (Manitoba, Canada) and wintering in Swan Lake (Missouri, U.S.A.), were studied during the different periods of its yearly life cycle. The lowest serum FFA level was noted during the spring premigratory phase (early March) at Swan Lake, and the highest during moult (early August) at Ft. Churchill. Serum FFA level during the spring postmigratory period (early May at Ft. Churchill) was significantly higher than that during the spring premigratory period and the breeding period (early at Ft. Churchill). No signigicant difference in FFA levels was noted between the fall premigratory (early September at Ft. Churchill) and the fall postmigratory (mid-October at Swan Lake) periods. The significance of the seasonal variations in serum FFA level is discussed in relation to the cyclic physiological events taking place in the bird. PMID:79367

  8. A comparison of African and European serum levels of immunoglobulin E

    PubMed Central

    Houba, V.; Rowe, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    The mean level of serum IgE in Nigerian blood donors is significantly higher than those in expatriates living in Nigeria and in Swiss blood donors. The examination of serum IgE levels (by the radioactive single radial diffusion technique) in Nigerian patients with different diseases, in asthmatic children with matched controls in Ghana, and in subjects from malarious and non-malarious areas of Tanzania indicates that high IgE levels in Africans may not be due to malaria, vesical schistosomiasis, or onchocerciasis infections. A marked difference, however, was found between African subjects with positive and negative findings of stool parasites; they had higher and lower mean levels of serum IgE, respectively. It seems that, in an African population where the serum IgE levels are raised for other reasons, a rise in IgE in association with allergic conditions such as asthma may not be apparent. PMID:4216407

  9. The effect of 6-aminonicotinamide on the levels of brain amino acids and glucose, and their labeling with 14C after injection of (U-14C) glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitonde, M.K.; Lewis, L.P.; Evans, G.; Clapp, A.

    1981-10-01

    The brains of rats paralysed at 4 hr after the administration of 6-aminonicotinamide were found to contain decreased levels of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyrate. The glucose content of the brain of the treated rats was several fold higher than in controls. The incorporation of 14C into brain amino acids at 30 min after the injection of (U-14C)glucose was decreased by 16%: this was attributed to mainly decreased labeling of glutamate and associated amino acids. The results are discussed in the light of previous findings that the administration of 6-aminonicotinamide resulted in the blockade of the direct oxidation of glucose by the pentose phosphate pathway.

  10. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H

    2008-12-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  11. Relationship between serum levels of triglycerides and vascular inflammation, measured as COX-2, in arteries from diabetic patients: a translational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a common feature in the majority of cardiovascular disease, including Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Levels of pro-inflammatory markers have been found in increasing levels in serum from diabetic patients (DP). Moreover, levels of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are increased in coronary arteries from DP. Methods Through a cross-sectional design, patients who underwent CABG were recruited. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were cultured and COX-2 was measured by western blot. Biochemical and clinical data were collected from the medical record and by blood testing. COX-2 expression was analyzed in internal mammary artery cross-sections by confocal microscopy. Eventually, PGI2 and PGE2 were assessed from VSMC conditioned media by ELISA. Results Only a high glucose concentration, but a physiological concentration of triglycerides exposure of cultured human VSMC derived from non-diabetic patients increased COX-2 expression .Diabetic patients showed increasing serum levels of glucose, Hb1ac and triglycerides. The bivariate analysis of the variables showed that triglycerides was positively correlated with the expression of COX-2 in internal mammary arteries from patients (r2 = 0.214, P < 0.04). Conclusions We conclude that is not the glucose blood levels but the triglicerydes leves what increases the expression of COX-2 in arteries from DP. PMID:23642086

  12. Assessment of serum prolactin levels in acute myocardial infarction: The role of pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Awad, Mohamed S.; Alrifai, Sinan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyperprolactinemia may reflect neuroendocrine stress reaction against acute coronary syndromes. Aim: The aim of the present study was evaluation of the serum prolactin level in the acute myocardial infarction (MI) regarding the current pharmacotherapy in management of MI. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional clinical based study. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional clinical study involved all patients with acute MI in a coronary care unit, a total number of 44 patients (45% males and 55% females) with age ranged from 40 to 75 years. A full history for modifiable risk factors and current therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel and or metformin, all patients are nonsmokers. The anthropometric measurements; for estimations of body mass index (kg/m2), electrocardiography was obtained. Fasting blood samples were taken in the morning from all patients and the sera used for estimations of routine investigation and determination of ischemic cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and serum prolactin level. Results: This study shows a significant increase in the serum prolactin in acute MI as compared with the control. In acute MI serum cTnI elevation was correlated with serum prolactin increments. In metformin-treated group, there was a lowest prolactin serum level. Conclusions: Serum prolactin level increased in acute MI, and positively correlated with cardiac troponin level and reflects underlying cardiovascular complications. PMID:26904472

  13. Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on serum levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Başak, Pinar Y; Vural, Huseyin; Kazanoglu, Oya O; Erturan, Ijlal; Buyukbayram, Halil I

    2014-12-01

    H1-receptor inhibiting drugs, namely loratadine and cetirizine, were frequently used in treatment of chronic urticaria. Urticarial weal and flare reactions, a neurogenic reflex due to neuropeptides, were reported to be more effectively inhibited by cetirizine than loratadine. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments on serum levels of selected neuropeptides in chronic urticaria. Treatment groups of either systemic loratadine or cetirizine (10 mg/d), consisting of 16 and 22 patients, respectively, were included. Serum levels of stem cell factor (SCF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor (NGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected before and after one week of treatment with antihistamines. Serum NPY and VIP levels were significantly decreased when compared before and after treatment with antihistamines (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). SCF and NGF values were also decreased after antihistamine treatment (P < 0.05). Post-treatment levels of CGRP were significantly higher compared with pretreatment values, while no significant difference was detected between pre and post treatment levels of SP. Cetirizine was significantly more effective than loratadine on lowering serum levels of SCF among the other neuropeptides. Systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments in patients with chronic urticaria precisely caused variations in serum levels of neuropeptides. The predominant effect of cetirizine compared to loratadine on reducing serum SCF levels might be explained with anti-inflammatory properties of cetirizine.

  14. Decreased Serum Level of miR-146a as Sign of Chronic Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baldeón R., Lucy; Weigelt, Karin; de Wit, Harm; Ozcan, Behiye; van Oudenaren, Adri; Sempértegui, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric; Grosse, Laura; Freire, Wilma; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Leenen, Pieter J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that chronic inflammation is an important determinant in insulin resistance and in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). MicroRNAs constitute a newly discovered system of cell regulation and in particular two microRNAs (miR-146a and miR-155) have been described as regulators and biomarkers of inflammation. Aim To determine a putative association between the levels of miR-146a and miR-155 in serum of T2D patients, clinical parameters and serological indicators of inflammation. Methods We performed quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) of microRNAs from serum (56 Ecuadorian T2D ambulatory patients and 40 non-diabetic controls). In addition, we evaluated T2D-related serum cytokines.chemokines and growth factors using a commercially available multi-analyte cytometric bead array system. We correlated outcomes to clinical parameters, including BMI, HbA1c and lipid state. Results The Ecuadorian non-diabetic controls appeared as overweight (BMI>25: patients 85%, controls 82.5%) and as dyslipidemic (hypercholesterolemia: patients 60.7%, controls 67.5%) as the patients. The serum levels of miR-146a were significantly reduced in T2D patients as compared to these non-diabetic, but obese/dyslipidemic control group (mean patients 0.61, mean controls set at 1; p = 0.042), those of miR-155 were normal. The serum levels of both microRNAs correlated to each other (r = 0.478; p<0.001) and to leptin levels. The microRNAs did not correlate to BMI, glycemia and dyslipidemia. From the tested cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, we found IL-8 and HGF significantly raised in T2D patients versus non-diabetic controls (p = 0.011 and 0.023 respectively). Conclusions This study shows decreased serum anti-inflammatory miR-146a, increased pro-inflammatory IL-8 and increased HGF (a vascular/insular repair factor) as discriminating markers of failure of glucose control occurring on the background of obesity and dyslipidemia. PMID:25500583

  15. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA p< 0.02). In the case of patients treated with M. vulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment.

  16. Ambient glucose levels qualify the potency of insulin myogenic actions by regulating SIRT1 and FoxO3a in C2C12 myocytes.

    PubMed

    Nedachi, Taku; Kadotani, Akito; Ariga, Miyako; Katagiri, Hideki; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Nutrition availability is one of the major environmental signals influencing cell fate, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, often functioning in concert with other humoral factors, including insulin. Herein, we show that low-serum-induced differentiation of C(2)C(12) myocytes is significantly hampered under low glucose (LG; 5 mM) compared with high glucose (HG; 22.5 mM) conditions, concurrently with nuclear accumulation of SIRT1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, and FoxO3a, both of which are implicated in the negative regulation of myogenesis. Intriguingly, insulin appears to exert opposite actions, depending on glucose availability, with regard to the regulation of SIRT1 and FoxO3a abundance, which apparently contributes to modulating the potency of insulin's myogenic action. Namely, insulin exerts a potent myogenic effect in the presence of sufficient glucose, whereas insulin is unable to exert its myogenic action under LG conditions, since insulin evokes massive upregulation of both SIRT1 and FoxO3a in the absence of sufficient ambient glucose. In addition, the hampered differentiation state under LG is significantly restored by sirtinol, a SIRT1 inhibitor, whereas insulin abolished this sirtinol-dependent restoration, indicating that insulin can function as a negative as well as a positive myogenic factor depending on glucose availability. Taken together, our data reveal the importance of ambient glucose levels in the regulation of myogenesis and also in the determination of insulin's myogenic potency, which is achieved, at least in part, through regulation of the cellular contents and localization of SIRT1 and FoxO3a in differentiating C(2)C(12) myocytes.

  17. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  18. Serum and Synovial Fluid Levels of CCL18 are Correlated with Radiographic Grading of Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yun; Chen, Juwu; Yang, Guohui

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). CCL18, a member of the chemokines family, is observed in synovial fluid (SF) of OA patients. The aim of this study was to determine the association between CCL18 levels in serum and SF with radiographic knee OA. Material/Methods This study was conducted in a population of 308 patients with knee OA. The radiological knee OA was graded by the Kellgren-Lawrence grading system. Results Serum levels of CCL18 in knee OA patients were markedly higher than those in healthy controls. Serum and SF levels of CCL18 increased with the severity of KL grades and were correlated with disease severity. Conclusions The CCL18 levels in serum and SF are correlated with the severity of OA. PMID:25794928

  19. SERUM PROLACTIN LEVEL AND SEVERITY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN PATIENTS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Tamhane, Manoj

    2000-01-01

    Serum prolactin level was measured in 20 male and 11 female drug naive patients of schizophrenia Subsequently, these patients were treated with antipsychotics and ECTs. The severity of psychopathology at the baseline rind subsquent improvement at the end of 3 weeks and 6 weeks was assessed on modifies brief asychiatric rating scale (BPRS). Contrary to the expectations, a two fold increase in serum prolactin level was observed in drug naive male and female patients of schizophrenia The difference was found to be statictically significant in males No correlation was observed between the baseline serum prolactin level and the severity of baseline psychopathology and subsequent improvement in psychopathology at the end of 3 weeks and 6 weeks From the present study it seems that baseline serum prolactine level in drug naive patients of schizophrenia may not be a reliable indicator of psychopathology and prognosis. PMID:21407907

  20. Copper, zinc, and magnesium tissue and serum levels in patients with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Altintas, A; Vardar, M A; Gönlüsen, F; Atay, Y; Evrüke, C; Arpaci, A; Aridogan, N

    1995-01-01

    Serum and cervical tissue copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 65 women with cervical carcinoma and compared with levels in 30 healthy women. The patients mean serum Cu level (184.8 +/- 12.3 mugr/dl) was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05). However, in relation to the control group, the differences in Mg, Zn and Cu levels in cancerous tissues of patients with cervical carcinoma were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference between FIGO Stage I and IIA patients according to their serum and tissue concentrations of these trace elements. We concluded that serum and tissue copper, zinc and magnesium determinations have no use in cervical carcinoma management.

  1. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  2. Association of chronic pesticide exposure with serum cholinesterase levels and pulmonary functions.

    PubMed

    Sutoluk, Zeynel; Kekec, Zeynep; Daglioglu, Nebile; Hant, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on the analysis of serum cholinesterase levels and the pulmonary function tests in seasonal farm workers who were chronically exposed to pesticides, mostly organophosphorus, in comparison with non-farm workers in the farming areas of Cukurova region, Turkey. Serum cholinesterase levels and pulmonary function tests using spyrometer in 50 male seasonal farm workers (study group) were compared to 50 male non-farm workers (control group) in this cross-sectional study. The mean serum cholinesterase enzyme level in the farm worker group (7095.5 ± 1699.4 U/L) was significantly lower than those of the control group (9716.4 ± 1484.4 U/L) (p < .001). There was no significant difference between pulmonary function tests of 2 groups (p > .05). These results show that chronic environmental organophosphorus exposure caused a decrease in the serum cholinesterase enzyme levels in farm workers, emphasizing the importance of primary prevention. PMID:24484366

  3. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, p<0.001). Sleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation.

  4. Serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor decreased in chronic ketamine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ni; Zhang, Minling; Xu, Ke; Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Wang, Daping; Liu, Yuping; Ning, Yuping; Deng, Xuefeng; He, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a group of chronic ketamine abusers in comparison to healthy controls. Methods Eighty-one ketamine abusers who were hospitalized for the treatment of ketamine dependence and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Serum VEGF level was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results Serum level of VEGF was significantly lower in chronic ketamine abusers compared to healthy controls (64.6 ± 42.1 vs. 92.4 ± 59.4 pg/ml, F = 7.243, p = 0.008). Conclusions Serum level of VEGF decreased in chronic ketamine abusers compared to healthy controls. PMID:26003336

  5. Serum Lectin-Like Oxidized-Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 and Adiponectin Levels Are Associated With Coronary Artery Disease Accompanied With Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Zhao, Zhenyu; Guo, Lanyan; Li, Fei; Deng, Xu; Deng, Hai; Xia, Ke; Yang, Tianlun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major public health problem for developed and developing countries and is the single leading cause of death worldwide. Objectives: There is very few evidence regarding changes of both serum Lectin-like oxidized-low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and adiponectin in patients with CAD accompanied with metabolic syndrome (MS). Here we aimed to evaluate serum levels of LOX-1 and adiponectin in patients with CAD accompanied with MS. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with coronary artery disease without metabolic syndrome, 30 patients with coronary artery disease and metabolic syndrome, 30 ones with metabolic syndrome and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled. For all subjects, a questionnaire was filled to collect data, and peripheral blood samples were collected aseptically from the antecubital vein to measure serum Lectin-like oxidized-low density lipoprotein receptor-1 and adiponectin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Serum LOX-1 level was highest in CAD + MS group; the difference between control and disease groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Adiponectin level had the lowest value in CAD + MS group; the difference between control and disease groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum Lectin-like oxidized-low density lipoprotein receptor-1and adiponectin in patients with different ages and gender. Serum LOX-1 level was changed negatively and linearly (R2 = 0.721) correlated with adiponectin level in different groups. Conclusions: Patient with CAD and MS had higher risk than those with only CAD because of lipid and glucose metabolism abnormalities. Combination measurements of serum LOX-1 and adiponectin levels may be helpful to evaluate the severity of CAD together with MS. PMID:25389471

  6. Reduced serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klein, G L; Horst, R L; Norman, A W; Ament, M E; Slatopolsky, E; Coburn, J W

    1981-05-01

    Painful bone disease, characterized by patchy osteomalacia and inactive bone, can develop in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition for more than 3 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1 alpha, 25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in seven adults and five children treated with parenteral nutrition for 9 to 60 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D were markedly reduced, while levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were normal. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normal or slightly increased, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels were normal or low. Renal function was normal or minimally reduced. Skeletal symptoms disappeared and serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D levels rose to normal in one patient when nutrient infusions were discontinued for 6 weeks. Removal of calcium from the nutrient solution for 2 to 4 days was associated with no change in serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D in two patients. The cause of the reduction in serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D and its role in the pathogenesis of bone disease in these patients remain uncertain. PMID:6786151

  7. Serum VEGF levels are related to the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Andriana I; Zakynthinos, Epaminondas; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Kiropoulos, Theodoros; Koutsokera, Angela; Ziogas, Athanasios; Koutroumpas, Athanasios; Sakkas, Lazaros; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Daniil, Zoe D

    2009-01-01

    Background The association between systemic sclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is well recognized. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported to play an important role in pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between systolic pulmonary artery pressure, clinical and functional manifestations of the disease and serum VEGF levels in systemic sclerosis. Methods Serum VEGF levels were measured in 40 patients with systemic sclerosis and 13 control subjects. All patients underwent clinical examination, pulmonary function tests and echocardiography. Results Serum VEGF levels were higher in systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP ≥ 35 mmHg than in those with sPAP < 35 mmHg (352 (266, 462 pg/ml)) vs (240 (201, 275 pg/ml)) (p < 0.01), while they did not differ between systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP < 35 mmHg and controls. Serum VEGF levels correlated to systolic pulmonary artery pressure, to diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and to MRC dyspnea score. In multiple linear regression analysis, serum VEGF levels, MRC dyspnea score, and DLCO were independent predictors of systolic pulmonary artery pressure. Conclusion Serum VEGF levels are increased in systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP ≥ 35 mmHg. The correlation between VEGF levels and systolic pulmonary artery pressure may suggest a possible role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of PAH in systemic sclerosis. PMID:19426547

  8. Changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Weber, Martha; Valdes, Eduardo V; Neiffer, Donald; Fontenot, Diedre; Fleming, Gregory; Stetter, Mark

    2010-09-01

    A combination of low serum calcium (Ca), high serum phosphorus (P), and low serum magnesium (Mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (Taurotragus oryx), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). These mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. Underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable carbohydrates was suspected to be contributing to the mineral deficiencies, and diet changes that decreased the amount of starch fed were implemented in 2003. Serum chemistry values from before and after the diet change were compared. The most notable improvement after the diet change was a decrease in mean serum P. Statistically significant decreases in mean serum P were observed for the kudu (102.1-66.4 ppm), eland (73.3-58.4 ppm), and bongo (92.1-64.2 ppm; P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, mean serum P levels also decreased for nyala (99.3-86.8 ppm) and giraffe (82.6-68.7 ppm). Significant increases in mean serum Mg were also observed for kudu (15.9-17.9 ppm) and eland (17.1-19.7 ppm). A trend toward increased serum Mg was also observed in nyala, bongo, and giraffe after the diet change. No significant changes in mean serum Ca were observed in any of the five species evaluated, and Ca was within normal ranges for domestic ruminants. The mean Ca:P ratio increased to greater than one in every species after the diet change, with kudu, eland, and bongo showing a statistically significant change. The results of this study indicate that the diet change had a generally positive effect on serum P and Mg levels. PMID:20945636

  9. Xerostomia and salivary levels of glucose and urea in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ivanovski, K; Naumovski, V; Kostadinova, M; Pesevska, S; Drijanska, K; Filipce, V

    2012-01-01

    Examination of the composition of saliva in patients with diabetes may be useful for understanding why oral manifestations occur and how they should be treated. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of severity of xerostomia, salivary concentrations of glucose and urea in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes, and to determine the correlation between xerostomia and salivary glucose levels. For the realization of this goal, the study included 60 patients of both sexes aged 30-70 years. The sample was divided into two groups. The first, experimental, group consisted of 30 patients who had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The control group consisted of 30 subjects who were not suffering from diabetes. To determine the degree of severity of xerostomia among all respondents a questionnaire recommended by Carda was used. From all patients in both the control and experimental group, total saliva was collected for 10 minutes for biochemical analysis in accordance with the recommendations of Navazesh. Salivary glucose was determined by using the enzymatic method with a hexokinase (mmol/l), and salivary urea by using the kinetic method with urease and glutamate dehydrogenase (mmol/l). Varying degrees of xerostomia were noticed in 80% of the experimental group and only 10% of the control group. In diabetics, we found significantly higher levels of urea (2.36 mmol/l) and glucose (0.022 mmol/l) in the saliva compared with the values of these parameters (1.48 mmol/l, 0017 mmol/l) in the control group. Based on these results, we concluded that diabetes is a disease that causes xerostomia and there is a significant correlation between the degree of xerostomia and the salivary level of glucose.

  10. Stimulation of calcitonin secretory capacity by increased serum levels of testosterone in men treated with tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Schopman, W; Slager, E; Hackeng, W H; Mulder, H

    1987-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sex steroids, including both oestrogen and testosterone, influence calcitonin secretion. However, a negative effect of gonadotrophins on calcitonin has not been excluded. Twelve men with infertility and low-normal serum levels of testosterone were studied before and during tamoxifen therapy. Increases in the serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone and calcitonin were observed after treatment. Our findings suggest that testosterone has a direct influence on calcitonin secretion. PMID:3123401

  11. Acute Cholecystitis with Significantly Elevated Levels of Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Shuji; Banshodani, Masataka; Nishihara, Masahiro; Nambu, Junko; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Shimamoto, Fumio; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Sugino, Keizo; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), a marker of malignant tumors, is generally slightly elevated in benign conditions. We report a case of acute cholecystitis with a significantly elevated level of serum CA 19-9 based on positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) findings. A 65-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and fever. A CT image revealed an enlarged gallbladder without tumor shadows. The C-reactive protein (CRP) level was elevated to 7.66 mg/dl. Moreover, the serum CA 19-9 level was significantly elevated to 19,392 U/ml. We started antibiotic treatment, because we suspected acute cholecystitis, but still, we could not ignore the possible presence of malignant tumors. After 11 days of antibiotic treatment, serum CRP and CA 19-9 levels decreased to 0.11 mg/dl and 1,049 U/ml, respectively. There was an accumulation of fluorine 18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (maximum standardized uptake value, 9.3) without tumor shadows in the liver, near the gallbladder, on the PET-CT examination. We considered the possibility that the inflammation had spread from the gallbladder to the liver, made a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, and performed a cholecystectomy 33 days after treatment initiation. The serum CA 19-9 level decreased to 45 U/ml after the surgery. One year after the surgery, the patient was alive, and the serum CA 19-9 level was 34 U/ml. Acute cholecystitis with a significantly high elevation of the serum CA 19-9 level is rare. In such cases, it is important to confirm the change in the serum CA 19-9 level over time after antibiotic treatment and perform imaging studies to distinguish between inflammation and malignancy. PMID:27721726

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels in cocaine-dependent patients during early abstinence.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Roncero, Carlos; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco Jose; Gonzalvo, Begoña; Grau-Lopez, Lara; Ribases, Marta; Rodriguez-Cintas, Laia; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep-Antoni; Casas, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Preclinical studies indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in neuroplastic changes underlying enduring cocaine-seeking following withdrawal. However, little is known about temporal changes in serum BDNF levels or the involvement of BDNF in craving and abstinence in early-abstinent cocaine-dependent patients. Twenty-three cocaine-dependent individuals (aged 33.65 ± 6.85 years) completed a two-week detoxification program at an inpatient facility. Two serum samples were collected for each patient at baseline and at the end of the protocol. Serum samples were also collected for 46 healthy controls (aged 35.52 ± 9.37 years). Demographic, consumption and clinical data were recorded for all patients. Significantly lower serum BDNF levels (p<.0001) were observed for cocaine-dependent patients at baseline compared to healthy controls. Serum BDNF levels increased significantly across 12 days of early abstinence (p=.030). Baseline BDNF levels correlated with craving (p=.034). Post-detoxification BDNF levels correlated with craving (p=.018), loss of control (p<.000), abstinence measures (p=0.031), depression (p=0.036), and anxiety (p=0.036). Post-detoxification BDNF levels also had predictive value for the loss of control measure of craving. Chronic cocaine use is associated with decreased serum BDNF. A progressive increase in serum BDNF levels during early abstinence correlates with cocaine craving and abstinence symptoms and may reflect increasing BDNF levels in different brain regions. These findings suggest that serum BDNF may be a biomarker for cocaine addiction. PMID:23021567

  13. CA19-9 serum levels predict micrometastases in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Potrc, Stojan; Mis, Katarina; Plankl, Mojca; Mars, Tomaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We explored the prognostic value of the up-regulated carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) in node-negative patients with gastric cancer as a surrogate marker for micrometastases. Patients and methods Micrometastases were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for a subgroup of 30 node-negative patients. This group was used to determine the cut-off for preoperative CA19-9 serum levels as a surrogate marker for micrometastases. Then 187 node-negative T1 to T4 patients were selected to validate the predictive value of this CA19-9 threshold. Results Patients with micrometastases had significantly higher preoperative CA19-9 serum levels compared to patients without micrometastases (p = 0.046). CA19-9 serum levels were significantly correlated with tumour site, tumour diameter, and perineural invasion. Although not reaching significance, subgroup analysis showed better five-year survival rates for patients with CA19-9 serum levels below the threshold, compared to patients with CA19-9 serum levels above the cut-off. The cumulative survival for T2 to T4 node-negative patients was significantly better with CA19-9 serum levels below the cut-off (p = 0.04). Conclusions Preoperative CA19-9 serum levels can be used to predict higher risk for haematogenous spread and micrometastases in node-negative patients. However, CA19-9 serum levels lack the necessary sensitivity and specificity to reliably predict micrometastases. PMID:27247553

  14. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Results: Serum leptin (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.0001) levels and BMI (P < 0.001) of HD patients were significantly lower, while CRP levels were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.0001). HD patients consumed the lower daily servings of the food groups compared to the control subjects (P < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation between serum levels of leptin and albumin and BMI was demonstrated. No significant correlations were identified between leptin level, CRP level, and other variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that low levels of leptin may be a contributory factor for malnutrition in HD patients. Further studies are required to ascertain the significance of leptin levels in relation to nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26430525

  15. Preoperative Low Serum Bicarbonate Levels Predict Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Young; Park, Jung Tak; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Ryu, Geun Woo; Lee, Sul A; Park, Seohyun; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Although lower than normal serum bicarbonate levels are known to be associated with consecutive renal function deterioration in patients with chronic kidney injury, it is not well-known whether preoperative low serum bicarbonate levels are associated with the development of AKI in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Therefore, the clinical implication of preoperative serum bicarbonate levels on AKI occurrence after cardiac surgery was investigated. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at Yonsei University Health System from January 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on preoperative serum bicarbonate levels, which represented group 1 (below normal levels) <23 mEq/L; group 2 (normal levels) 23 to 24 mEq/L; and group 3 (elevated levels) >24 mEq/L. The primary outcome was the predicated incidence of AKI 48 hours after cardiac surgery. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Among 875 patients, 228 (26.1%) developed AKI within 48 hours after cardiac surgery. The incidence of AKI was higher in group 1 (40.9%) than in group 2 (26.5%) and group 3 (19.5%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the duration of postoperative stay in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU) was longer for AKI patients and for those in the low-preoperative-serum-bicarbonate-level groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low preoperative serum bicarbonate levels were significantly associated with AKI even after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, operation type, preoperative hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, low serum bicarbonate levels were associated with higher incidence of AKI and prolonged ICU stay. Further studies are needed to clarify whether strict correction of bicarbonate levels close to normal limits may have a protective

  16. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  17. Relationship between serum leptin level and laboratory and anthropometric indices of malnutrition in patients on hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahamadi, F.; Bosorgmehr, R.; Razeghi, E.

    2008-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major problem and one of the risk factors for mortality in hemodialysis patients. There is no single index in evaluation of nutritional status in these patients, so leptin can be used as one of the parameters. In this study, the correlation between serum leptin with biochemical and anthropometric parameters of nutrition has been evaluated. This cross-sectional study has been performed on 60 hemodialysis patients (32 males and 28 females) in 2006. The patients on hemodialysis for under 1 year and who has a history of consumption of lipid lowering agents or glucocorticoids, or an infectious or inflammatory disease were excluded. Malnutrition laboratory parameters and serum leptin were measured before hemodialysis. Serum leptin was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with direct dbc kit and malnutrition laboratory parameters measured with standard laboratory methods, patients anthropometric parameters evaluated after hemodialysis. The mean age of patients was 47.5 ± 16.1 years and the range of serum leptin level was 0.6-64.8 ng/ml. Mean serum leptin level were 22.64 ± 19.54 ng/ml in females and 16.74 ± 20.16 ng/ml in males on hemodialysis and in spite of higher level of leptin in females there was not any statistically significant difference between females and males serum leptin. Absolute value of correlation coefficient between serum leptin and anthropometric parameters and most laboratory parameters was < 0.25 (except ferritin, iron, phosphorous in males and total protein, hemoglobin, urea, and creatinin in females which was between 0.25 and 0.50). Our results suggest that the increased serum leptin level does not have a major role in diagnosis of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients and there is a poor correlation between malnutrition parameters and serum leptin level. PMID:20142915

  18. Efficacy of inpatient treatment for atopic dermatitis evaluated by changes in serum cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hidetsugu; Suzuki, Taku; Saotome, Atsuko; Sode, Eri; Mukai, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    When dealing with patients with severe atopic dermatitis (AD), inpatient treatment is useful for alleviating skin symptoms in short periods of time. We previously found that many severe AD patients had low serum cortisol levels at admission. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of inpatient treatment in 29 adults with AD through comparisons of serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at admission with those at the time of discharge. Serum cortisol and plasma ACTH levels were significantly higher at discharge. On the other hand, serum TARC and serum LDH were significantly lower at discharge. We examined whether the suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical function that was seen at admission was attributable to disturbed circadian rhythms due to sleep disorders by analyzing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical function in relation to the presence/absence of sleep disorders, serum cortisol levels and daily urinary free cortisol. Of the 17 patients with low serum cortisol levels upon admission, 15 (88.2%) had sleep disorders upon admission. However, the daily urinary free cortisol increased significantly from 8.0 ± 5.5 μg/day (at admission) to 18.5 ± 17.2 μg/day (at discharge). These results suggested that the suppression of endocrine function seen at admission was not attributable to disturbed circadian rhythms due to sleep disorders but represented true suppression of the endocrine system. These results indicated that inpatient care was useful for treating patients with severe AD, enabling efficient improvement of the skin condition and recovery from suppressed endocrine function.

  19. Association between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Xu, Cheng-Fu; Wan, Xing-Yong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Xu, Gen-Yun; Li, You-Ming

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among subjects who presented for a health examination at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. FLD was diagnosed based on an ultrasonography examination. Serum AFP levels were measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 9800 subjects enrolled, 2601 were diagnosed with FLD. Subjects with FLD had higher serum AFP levels than those without the disease. Subjects with high serum AFP levels had a higher prevalence of FLD, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Univariate logistic analysis showed that elevated serum AFP levels were associated with an increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.057, 95%CI: 1.031-1.084). However, after adjusting for covariates, AFP no longer remained significantly associated with the risk factors for FLD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum AFP levels are significantly associated with FLD and that AFP acts as a cofactor, but not as an independent factor, for FLD. PMID:25206293

  20. Increased CD28 serum levels are not associated with specific clinical activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel J L; Gámez-Nava, Jorge I; Salazar-Páramo, Mario; Munoz-Valle, José F; González-López, Laura; Llamas-Covarrubias, Mara A; Gutiérrez-Urena, Sergio R; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid P

    2011-10-01

    CD28 is one of the main activator receptors involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis, and its expression and serum levels are significantly higher in patients with SLE and other autoimmune diseases than in healthy controls (HC). However, it is unknown whether this increase is associated with specific organ damage. Therefore, our objective was to measure the CD28 levels in serum from SLE and HC groups to confirm the CD28 serum levels increase, as reported previously, and to determine whether this increase was associated with specific organ activity and the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Forty SLE patients and 40 matched HC were included, and the age, disease duration, SLEDAI and Mexican SLEDAI were recorded for the SLE group. CD28 serum levels were measured by ELISA. There was a statistically significant increase in the CD28 serum levels of SLE patients compared to controls (p = 0.039); however, we did not find any significant correlation with disease activity indices or organ involvement, although we found a significant but low correlation with C3. Our results and a review of the literature suggest that the increase in CD28 serum levels may be the result of CD28 gene overexpression, which could be related to the decrease in CD28+ T cells, T-cell hyporesponsiveness and immune impairment that occurs in SLE.

  1. Serum BAFF and APRIL levels in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zi-Zhen; Zhao, Bing-Bing; Xiong, Hong; Wei, Bei-Wen; Wang, Ye-Fei

    2015-10-01

    B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) play crucial roles in B cell development, survival, and antibody production. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an acquired autoimmune disease that occurs when antibodies target autologous red blood cells. Here, we analyzed the serum levels of BAFF and APRIL and their respective clinical associations in patients with AIHA. Serum BAFF and APRIL levels in patients with AIHA were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in healthy individuals. Serum BAFF and APRIL levels were significantly augmented in patients with lower hemoglobin levels (hemoglobin was <8 g/dL) and higher LDH activity (LDH > 480 IU/mL). Glucocorticoid treatment dramatically reduced serum levels of BAFF and APRIL. Thus, serum BAFF and APRIL levels may reflect the clinical activity of this disease. Our results indicate that analysis of serum concentrations of BAFF and APRIL potentially represents a useful tool for the assessment of AIHA disease activity and progression.

  2. Serum Levels of TNF-α and IL-6 Are Associated With Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Yanyun; Ding, Xiaoyan; Duan, Bide; Li, Lei; Wang, Xietong

    2016-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are proinflammatory cytokines and known to be involved in many pathological processes. However, the association between serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and to investigate their potential correlation with PIH. In this study, the serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in pregnant women who developed PIH and normal pregnant women were measured. We found that the serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly increased in the patients with PIH compared to the normal pregnant women. In addition, elevated TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were associated with pathological complications. Moreover, in a hypoxia-induced PIH mice model, animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher TNF-α and IL-6 levels when compared to control, and serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were positively correlated with right ventricular systolic blood pressure. Furthermore, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were decreased when the PIH mice were treated with remodulin compared to control group. In conclusion, our results suggested that high serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels are associated with PIH, and TNF-α and IL-6 might be potential predictors in the prognosis of PIH.

  3. Is the serum ferritin level a considerable predictor for hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Mehrpour, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhagic Transformation (HT) of Ischemic Stroke (IS) is a detrimental complication. This study investigated the association between serum ferritin level and HT in patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery. Methods: Thirty patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. They were divided into two groups based on the serum ferritin level, lower or greater than 164.1ng/ml at the first 24 hours after admission. To investigate the incidence of HT in the two groups, we observed them for two weeks. Results: During the two- week observation, the incidence of HT was two persons (13.3%) in the group with the serum ferritin level of lower than 164.1ng/ml, and eight persons (53.3%) in the other group. This difference was statistically significant between the two groups (p=0.02). The relative risk of HT was 4 (95% CI: 1.012- 15.8) in the patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery and the serum ferritin level greater than 164.1ng/ml. Conclusion: This study revealed that the serum ferritin level greater than 164.1ng/ml in the first 24 hours after admission is a reasonably important predictor for HT of IS. Conducting studies on factors affecting the serum ferritin level are suggested. PMID:27493907

  4. Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Levels as Indicators of Asthma Severity

    PubMed Central

    Malapati, Brahma Reddy; Gokani, Ruchi; Patel, Bhavita; Chatriwala, Mitul

    2016-01-01

    Background. Serum magnesium levels affect the concentration of circulating vitamin D in blood and subsequently it affects the immunity; thus it plays significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, in adults, is less studied and hypomagnesemia along with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in asthmatic individuals, which causes frequent asthma attacks, respiratory infections, severe exacerbations, and poor response to bronchodilators. Objective. To detect the magnitude of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and serum magnesium levels among asthmatic patients and to correlate them with the severity of asthma. Materials and Methods. This is a cross-sectional case-control study which includes 60 patients of chronic stable asthma and 60 healthy controls. After taking clinical history and systemic examination, pulmonary function test was done. Serum levels of magnesium, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D], and calcium were measured in all the subjects. Results. Significant correlation was found between vitamin D deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and asthma severity. Serum calcium levels were unaffected by that. Conclusion. Vitamin D and serum magnesium deficiency are highly prevalent in patients with asthma. Increased asthma severity, frequency of attacks, and exacerbation are associated with lower levels of one or both. Serum 25(OH)D and magnesium levels may serve as important markers of asthma severity.

  5. The five glucose-6-phosphatase paralogous genes are differentially regulated by insulin alone or combined with high level of amino acids and/or glucose in trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lucie, Marandel; Weiwei, Dai; Stéphane, Panserat; Sandrine, Skiba-Cassy

    2016-04-01

    A recent analysis of the newly sequenced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome suggested that duplicated gluconeogenic g6pc paralogues, fixed in this genome after the salmonid-specific 4th whole genome duplication, may have a role in the setting up of the glucose-intolerant phenotype in this carnivorous species. This should be due to the sub- or neo-functionalization of their regulation. In the present short communication we thus addressed the question of the regulation of these genes by insulin, hormone involved in the glucose homeostasis, and its interaction with glucose and amino acids in vitro. The stimulation of trout hepatocytes with insulin revealed an atypical up-regulation of g6pcb2 ohnologues and confirmed the sub- or neo-functionalization of the five g6pc genes at least at the regulatory level. Intriguingly, when hepatocytes were cultured with high levels of glucose and/or AAs in presence of insulin, most of the g6pc paralogues were up-regulated. It strongly suggested a cross-talk between insulin and nutrients for the regulation of these genes. Moreover these results strengthened the idea that g6pc duplicated genes may significantly contribute to the setting up of the glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout via their atypical regulation by insulin alone or in interaction with nutrients. These findings open new perspectives to better understand in vivo glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet.

  6. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  7. Glucose sensing by means of silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstaele, Ronny; Ryckeboer, Eva; Hattasan, Nannicha; De Koninck, Yannick; Muneeb, Muhammad; Verstuyft, Steven; Delbeke, Danaë; Bogaerts, Wim; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes is a fast growing metabolic disease, where the patients suffer from disordered glucose blood levels. Monitoring the blood glucose values in combination with extra insulin injection is currently the only therapy to keep the glucose concentration in diabetic patients under control, minimizing the long-term effects of elevated glucose concentrations and improving quality of life of the diabetic patients. Implantable sensors allow continuous glucose monitoring, offering the most reliable data to control the glucose levels. Infrared absorption spectrometers offer a non-chemical measurement method to determine the small glucose concentrations in blood serum. In this work, a spectrometer platform based on silicon photonics is presented, allowing the realization of very small glucose sensors suitable for building implantable sensors. A proof-of-concept of a spectrometer with integrated evanescent sample interface is presented, and the route towards a fully implantable spectrometer is discussed.

  8. Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pei-Li; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, combined therapy using herbs and synthetic drugs has become a feasible therapeutic intervention against some diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with fenofibrate (FF), a chemical drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and the aqueous extract of Schisandrae Fructus (SF, a Chinese herb) pulp (AqSF-P) or an SF-related synthetic analog, bicyclol (BY), on serum/hepatic lipid levels and liver status in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL) mice. Methods Male mice obtained from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) were fed on a normal diet (ND) or high cholesterol/bile salt (0.5%/0.15%, w/w) diet (HCBD) containing FF (0.03% or 0.1%, w/w) with or without AqSF-P (0.3%−9.0%, based on crude herbal material, w/w) or BY (0.025%, w/w) for 10 days. Then serum lipid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, as well as hepatic triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and glucose levels, were measured. Results Oral supplementation with FF significantly reduced serum and hepatic TG, TC, and hepatic glucose levels (approximately 79%) in mice fed with ND or HCBD. FF supplementation combined with AqSF-P or BY increased FF-induced reduction in hepatic TC and TG contents in ND-fed mice (up to 67%) and in HCBD-fed mice (up to 54%), when compared with FF supplementation alone. Hepatic glucose-lowering effect of FF was enhanced (up to 19%) by AqSF-P cosupplementation in both normal and HCL mice. FF supplementation enhanced the excretion of fecal TC (by 75%) in mice fed with HCBD. Fecal TC contents were increased by 14%/9% in the combination therapy with FF and AqSF-P in ND-/HCBD-fed mice. Serum ALT activity was elevated by 45% in HCBD-fed mice. FF caused a significant increase in ALT activity by 198% and 120% in normal and HCL mice, respectively. BY markedly attenuated the ALT activity by 54% in mice fed with ND supplemented with 0.1% FF and by 42% in mice fed with HCBD supplemented with 0.03% FF

  9. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor level as a prognostic indicator in gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, B.; Chung, K. H.; Kato, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Inui, A.; Arimoto, Y.; Maeda, K.; Onoda, N.; Sawada, T.; Sowa, M.

    1998-01-01

    T lymphocytes, activated by interleukin 2 during an anti-tumour response, release soluble interleukin 2 receptors (sIL-2R) into the bloodstream. We analysed the prognostic value of the serum sIL-2R level in gastric cancer. Serum concentration of sIL-2R in 96 gastric cancer patients and 100 healthy control subjects' was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All survivors were followed for more than 50 months. Serum sIL-2R level was considered with respect to prognosis, clinicopathological factors, other tumour markers and peripheral blood cell count. Stage III and IV patients had significantly higher sIL-2R levels than lower stage patients and control subjects. Stage III and IV gastric cancer patients were divided into 'high' and 'low' slL-2R groups based upon the control subjects' serum sIL-2R mean value plus one standard deviation. The high group had a significantly worse prognosis than the low group, although clinicopathological features and treatments were similar. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the serum sIL-2R level is an independent indicator. The sIL-2R level did not correlate with carbohydrate antigen 19-9, however it did correlate with carcinoembryonic antigen (r = 0.22) and with numbers of peripheral blood monocytes (r = 0.54). In conclusion, serum sIL-2R may predict the outcome of gastric cancer patients with stage III or IV disease. PMID:9667652

  10. Serum sclerostin levels in renal cell carcinoma patients with bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wibmer, C.; Amrein, K.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A.; Gilg, M. M.; Berghold, A.; Hutterer, G. C.; Maurer-Ertl, W.; Gerger, A.; Leithner, A.; Pichler, M.; Szkandera, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sclerostin has been proposed as a potent inhibitor of bone formation. Sclerostin antibodies are under clinical development to treat osteoporosis and metastatic bone disease. Serum sclerostin level is elevated in multiple myeloma, an osteolytic malignancy, where it might serve as predictive marker for the use of sclerostin-directed antibodies. As renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients often present with osteolytic metastases, we aimed to investigate serum sclerostin levels in RCC patients. Our study included 53 RCC patients (19 with bone metastases, 25 with visceral metastases and 9 with localized disease) and 53 age- and gender-matched non-osteoporotic controls. Frozen serum samples were subjected to sclerostin quantitative sandwich ELISA. The mean serum sclerostin levels of RCC patients and controls were 45.8 pmol/l and 45.1 pmol/l, respectively (p = 0.86). Analysis of variance showed no difference between the subgroups of RCC patients with regard to visceral or bone metastases or localized disease (p = 0.22). There was no significant association between eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) and serum sclerostin levels in RCC patients (r = 0.05; p = 0.74) and controls (r = 0.06; p = 0.68). Our results indicate that serum sclerostin levels appear not to be a valuable biomarker to assess the occurrence of bone metastases in RCC patients. PMID:27666393

  11. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis. PMID:27651883

  12. Serum Malondialdehyde Levels in Patients with Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction Are Associated with Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Abreu-González, Pedro; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Riaño-Ruiz, Marta; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Malondialdehyde (MDA) is an end-product formed during lipid peroxidation, due to degradation of cellular membrane phospholipids. MDA is released into extracellular space and finally into the blood; it has been used as an effective biomarker of lipid oxidation. High circulating levels of MDA have been previously described in patients with ischemic stoke than in controls, and an association between circulating MDA levels and neurological functional outcome in patients with ischemic stoke. However, an association between serum MDA levels and mortality in patients with ischemic stroke has not been previously reported, and that was the objective of this study. Methods Observational, prospective and multicenter study performed in six Intensive Care Units. We included patients with severe malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) defined as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. We measured serum MDA levels in 50 patients with severe MMCAI at the time of diagnosis and in 100 healthy subjects. Mortality at 30 days was the end point of the study. Results We found that patients with severe MMCAI showed higher serum MDA levels than healthy subjects (p<0.001). We found higher serum MDA levels (p<0.001) in non-surviving MMCAI patients (n=26) than in survivors (n=24). The area under the curve for prediction of 30-day mortality for serum MDA levels was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.63-0.88; p<0.001). Serum MDA levels >2.27 nmol/mL were associated with 30-day mortality (OR=7.23; 95% CI=1.84-28.73; p=0.005) controlling for GCS and age on multiple binomial logistic regression analysis. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that serum malondialdehyde levels in patients with MMCAI are associated with early mortality. PMID:25933254

  13. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis. PMID:27651883

  14. Changes in Serum Levels of Myokines and Wnt-Antagonists after an Ultramarathon Race

    PubMed Central

    Kerschan-Schindl, Katharina; Thalmann, Markus M.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Tsironi, Maria; Föger-Samwald, Ursula; Meinhart, Johann; Skenderi, Katerina; Pietschmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular physical activities have a positive effect on the muscular skeletal system but overstrenuous exercise may be different. Transiently suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption after participation in a 246-km ultradistance race has been demonstrated. Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze effects of the Spartathlon race on novel musculoskeletal markers. Methods Venous blood samples were obtained before and immediately after the race from 19 participants of the Spartathlon. From 9 runners who were available 3 days after the start blood was drawn for a third time. Serum levels of myostatin, an inhibitor of myogenic differentiation, and its opponent follistatin as well as sclerostin and dickkopf-1, both of them inhibitors of the wnt signaling pathway, and markers of bone turnover were determined. Results Serum levels of myostatin were significantly higher after the race. Serum follistatin only showed a transient increase. Sclerostin levels did not significantly differ before and after the race, whereas dickkopf-1 levels were significantly decreased. At follow-up a decrement of sclerostin and dickkopf-1 levels was seen. Serum cathepsin K levels did not change. Conclusion The increase of serum levels of myostatin appears to reflect muscle catabolic processes induced by overstrenuous exercise. After the short-term uncoupling of bone turnover participation in an ultradistance race seems to initiate a long-term positive effect on bone indicated by the low-level inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26147574

  15. Total serum immunoglobulin M levels are affected by immunomodulators in seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Cuesta, A; Meseguer, J; Esteban, M A

    2004-10-01

    Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a major component of the teleost humoral immune system. Despite the significance of IgM levels as an immune parameter, there are relatively few studies on changes induced in its total levels in serum. This study examines the effects of several immunomodulators (vitamin A, chitin, yeast cells or levamisole, which act as immunostimulants, and crowding, hypoxia or anaesthetics, which act as stressors) upon the total serum IgM levels of non-immunized gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Total serum IgM levels of fish fed with the assayed immunostimulant-supplemented diets were statistically higher than those in fish fed a non-supplemented diet, especially in the case of levamisole. On the other hand, serum IgM levels of fish subjected to different stressors were not affected by crowding, hypoxia or certain anaesthetics. However, benzocaine and a narcotic dose of 2-phenoxyethanol provoked a great reduction, while quinaldine sulphate increased IgM levels to a significant degree. These results show how the seric IgM levels can be differently affected by some immunomodulators and the important role they may play in the regulation of total circulating IgM levels in seabream. The possibility of using total serum IgM for assessing immunostimulation, disease diagnosis and stress symptoms during fish farming is discussed.

  16. Serum Insulin Levels Are Reduced by Intravenous Ghrelin Administration but Do Not Correlate with Alcohol Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Giovenco, Danielle E.; Lee, Mary R.; Zywiak, William H.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports a role for appetite-regulating pathways like ghrelin, insulin, and leptin in alcoholism. We previously reported that intravenous (i.v.) exogenous ghrelin increases alcohol craving. We also reported i.v. ghrelin reduces endogenous serum leptin, whose levels, in turn, negatively correlated with alcohol craving. Exogenous ghrelin administration decreases insulin secretion both in vitro and in vivo experiments. This study tested the hypothesis that i.v. ghrelin may also decrease endogenous serum insulin levels in alcoholic individuals. Additionally, we explored possible correlations between serum insulin and alcohol craving, since a correlation between insulin and alcohol craving was previously reported. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study (n=43). Non-treatment-seeking, alcohol-dependent, heavy drinkers were randomized to receive i.v. ghrelin or placebo, followed by an alcohol cue-reactivity procedure. Results: There was a main effect for i.v. ghrelin, compared to placebo in reducing serum insulin (P<.05). There was also a time effect (P<.001) but not ghrelin x time interaction (P>.05). We did not find a correlation between the reduction of serum insulin and alcohol craving (P>.05). The change in serum insulin was consistent with a parallel reduction in serum connective-peptide in the ghrelin group compared with placebo, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=.076). No similar effects were found for other glucose-regulating hormones analyzed i.e. glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and gastric inhibitory peptide (Ps>.05). Conclusions: These findings indicate i.v. ghrelin administration has an effect on reducing serum insulin in alcohol-dependent individuals; however, the reduction of insulin did not correlate with changes in alcohol cue-elicited craving. We speculate that, unlike for leptin, the interactions between ghrelin and insulin relationship are limited at

  17. Serum Activin A and Follistatin Levels in Gestational Diabetes and the Association of the Activin A-Follistatin System with Anthropometric Parameters in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Näf, Silvia; Escote, Xavier; Ballesteros, Mónica; Yañez, Rosa Elena; Simón-Muela, Inmaculada; Gil, Pilar; Albaiges, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Context The Activin A-Follistatin system has emerged as an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism with possible repercussions on fetal growth. Objective To analyze circulating activin A, follistatin and follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3) levels and their relationship with glucose metabolism in pregnant women and their influence on fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. Design and methods A prospective cohort was studied comprising 207 pregnant women, 129 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 78 with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their offspring. Activin A, follistatin and FSTL3 levels were measured in maternal serum collected in the early third trimester of pregnancy. Serial fetal ultrasounds were performed during the third trimester to evaluate fetal growth. Neonatal anthropometry was measured to assess neonatal adiposity. Results Serum follistatin levels were significantly lower in GDM than in NGT pregnant women (8.21±2.32 ng/mL vs 9.22±3.41, P = 0.012) whereas serum FSTL3 and activin A levels were comparable between the two groups. Serum follistatin concentrations were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and positively with ultrasound growth parameters such as fractional thigh volume estimation in the middle of the third trimester and percent fat mass at birth. Also, in the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis serum follistatin levels were negatively associated with HOMA-IR (β = −0.199, P = 0.008) and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (β = −0.138, P = 0.049). Likewise, fractional thigh volume estimation in the middle of third trimester and percent fat mass at birth were positively determined by serum follistatin levels (β = 0.214, P = 0.005 and β = 0.231, P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Circulating follistatin levels are reduced in GDM compared with NGT pregnant women and they are positively associated with fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. These data suggest a role of the Activin

  18. Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (P< .001) and serum total antioxidant capacity (P< .05) and increased activity of catalase (P< .001), superoxide dismutase (P< .001), and glutathione peroxidase (P< .05) compared with the control intervention, with no significant differences between grape juices (P< .05). The intake of juices did not affect significantly the concentrations of glucose or uric acid. Grape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans. PMID:27440535

  19. Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (P< .001) and serum total antioxidant capacity (P< .05) and increased activity of catalase (P< .001), superoxide dismutase (P< .001), and glutathione peroxidase (P< .05) compared with the control intervention, with no significant differences between grape juices (P< .05). The intake of juices did not affect significantly the concentrations of glucose or uric acid. Grape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans.

  20. [Sequential changes of serum steroid levels in puerperium].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Y; Kimura, T; Yanaihara, T; Nakayama, T

    1983-10-01

    To examine daily changes in blood hormone levels during the postpartum period, twenty steroids including free and conjugated pregnenolone (P5), 16 alpha OH-P5(16P5), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), 16 alpha OH-DHA(16DHA), estrone(E1), estradiol(E2), estriol(E3), estetrol(E4) and free progesterone(P4), 16 alpha OH - P4(16P4), 20 alpha-dihydro-P4(20P4) and cortisol(F) were measured simultaneously by RIA. Seven patients who delivered a healthy child vaginally were selected for this study. The steroid levels in maternal blood were measured daily until the 7th post partum day and were compared to those at delivery. Levels of free and conjugated E1, E2, P5, free E3 and 16P4 dropped rapidly within 24 hours and reached approximately 10% of those at delivery. Conjugated E2, E4, 16P5, and P4, 20P4 levels also dropped after delivery to less than 17% of those at delivery within 72 hours. However, the levels of these steroids were maintained at more than 20% of those at delivery until the 7th postpartum day. These results provide further information on the significance of the steroids in maternal blood during pregnancy. PMID:6226753

  1. Comparison of Serum Cortisol and Testosterone Levels in Acute and Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natung, Tanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the levels of serum cortisol and testosterone in acute and chronic central serous chorio-retinopathy (CSC). Methods Serum cortisol and testosterone levels in 30 patients with either acute or chronic CSC were evaluated using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results The mean age was 42.43 ± 6.37 years (range, 32 to 56 years). The mean 8:00 to 9.00 a.m. serum cortisol level was 12.61 ± 4.74 µg/dL (range, 6.58 to 27.42 µg/dL). The mean serum testosterone level was 5.88 ± 1.57 ng/dL (range, 2.81 to 9.94 ng/dL). The mean visual acuity was 20 / 65.07 ± 40.56 (range, 20 / 25 to 20 / 200). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean levels of serum cortisol and testosterone between the acute and chronic cases (p > 0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference in the mean presenting visual acuity in the two groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions All except one patient in the acute group had normal levels of serum cortisol. Testosterone levels were within the normal range in both the acute and chronic cases of CSC. There is unlikely to be any statistically significant difference in the mean levels of serum cortisol and testosterone between the acute and chronic cases, but there may be a statistically significant difference in the mean presenting visual acuity in these groups. PMID:26635454

  2. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS.

  3. Plasma Lactate Levels Increase during Hyperinsulinemic Euglycemic Clamp and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Feven; Fite, Alemu; Daboul, Nour; Al-Janabi, Wissam; Msallaty, Zaher; Caruso, Michael; Lewis, Monique K; Yi, Zhengping; Diamond, Michael P; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi; Seyoum, Berhane

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), is an early indicator that heralds the occurrence of T2D. It is imperative to understand the metabolic changes that occur at the cellular level in the early stages of insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of circulating lactate levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HIEC) study in normal nondiabetic subjects. Lactate and glycerol were determined every 30 minutes during OGTT and HIEC on 22 participants. Lactate progressively increased throughout the HIEC study period (P < 0.001). Participants with BMI < 30 had significantly higher mean M-values compared to those with BMI ≥ 30 at baseline (P < 0.05). This trend also continued throughout the OGTT. In addition, those with impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT) had significantly higher mean lactate levels compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that lactate increased during HIEC study, which is a state of hyperinsulinemia similar to the metabolic milieu seen during the early stages in the development of T2D. PMID:25961050

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant status, oxidative stress and serum trace mineral levels associated with Babesia ovis parasitemia in sheep.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Malekinejad, Hassan; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Arjmand, Jafar; Golabi, Mostafa; Hajipour, Naser

    2014-09-15

    Ovine babesiosis is a fatal disease characterized by severe progressive hemolytic anemia. In order to clarify the causal mechanisms implicated in anemia, this study was aimed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative stress in sheep suffering from ovine babesiosis. Babesia infection was confirmed both with Giemsa's staining blood smears and semi-nested PCR amplified region of 18S rRNA gene. Thirty-eight Iranian sheep, naturally infected with Babesia spp., were considered as the infected group and divided into four subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-2%, 2-3% and >3%), and the same number non-infected animals were selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, activities of antioxidant enzymes including erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), median corpuscular fragility (MCF), and serum concentrations of some trace minerals (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium) were measured. In addition, as an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. The results revealed a significant decrease (P<0.01) in RBC count, packed cell volume (PCV) and Hb concentration as well as the activities of erythrocyte GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, G6PD, TAC, MCF and serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and Se in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased (P<0.01) levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility as well as serum concentration of iron were recorded in the infected animals. Overall, the observed remarkable decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities, median corpuscular fragility and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation associated with the notable increase in parasitemia indicate high exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage in Babesia infected sheep. These results indicate that the disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms in ovine

  5. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired “t” test. Results: Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P < 0.001). The sialic acid to fucose ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P < 0.01). However, comparison with histological grading, habits, gender, and age group did not show any significant result. Conclusion: The mean serum sialic acid and fucose levels showed an increasing trend from controls to malignant group and their corresponding ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients. PMID:26759796

  6. Decreased levels of serum oxytocin in pediatric patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Oda, Yasunori; Ishima, Tamaki; Kurata, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Junpei; Kamata, Yu; Kimura, Hiroshi; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Komatsu, Hideki; Ishikawa, Masatomo; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Shiina, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Shiraishi, Tetsuya; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-08-30

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are highly comorbid, and both disorders share executive function deficits. Accumulating evidence suggests that ASD patients have significantly lower peripheral oxytocin (OXT) levels compared with their normal counterparts, and that the repetitive behavior seen in ASD is related to abnormalities in the OXT system. In this study, we investigated whether serum levels of OXT are altered in pediatric patients with ADHD. We measured serum OXT levels: drug naive ADHD (n=23), medicated ADHD (n=13), and age- and sex- matched, neurotypical controls (n=22). Patients were evaluated using the ADHD-RS. Serum levels of OXT in total subjects with ADHD were significantly decreased compared with those of neurotypical controls, and serum levels of OXT in drug naive ADHD patients were significantly lower than those in medicated ADHD patients. Interestingly, there was a significant negative correlation between serum OXT levels and ADHD-RS total scores, as well as ADHD-RS inattentive scores in all ADHD patients. In conclusion, this study suggests that decreased levels of OXT may play a role in the pathophysiology of patients with ADHD and its inherent inattentiveness.

  7. An Optical Method for Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Level Assessment during Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmar, Jana; Uhlin, Fredrik; Fernström, Anders; Luman, Merike; Jankowski, Joachim; Fridolin, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Survival among hemodialysis patients is disturbingly low, partly because vascular calcification (VC) and cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent. Elevated serum phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) levels play an essential role in the formation of VC events. The purpose of the current study was to reveal optical monitoring possibilities of serum P and Ca values during dialysis. Twenty-eight patients from Tallinn (Estonia) and Linköping (Sweden) were included in the study. The serum levels of Ca and P on the basis of optical information, i.e., absorbance and fluorescence of the spent dialysate (optical method) were assessed. Obtained levels were compared in means and SD. The mean serum level of Ca was 2.54 ± 0.21 and 2.53 ± 0.19 mmol/L; P levels varied between 1.08 ± 0.51 and 1.08 ± 0.48 mmol/L, measured in the laboratory and estimated by the optical method respectively. The levels achieved were not significantly different (p = 0.5). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between the two methods varied from −0.19 to 0.19 for Ca and from −0.37 to 0.37 in the case of P. In conclusion, optical monitoring of the spent dialysate for assessing the serum levels of Ca and P during dialysis seems to be feasible and could offer valuable and continuous information to medical staff. PMID:25734785

  8. Suspected Interaction of Cranberry Juice Extracts and Tacrolimus Serum Levels: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Jones

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 inhibition through fruit supplement interactions often results in increased serum levels of calcineurin inhibitors, including tacrolimus. Cranberry extract is a supplement often used for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are common in renal allograft recipients. To our knowledge, a decrease in serum levels of tacrolimus as a result of cranberry extract interaction is unreported. A 40-year-old renal transplant patient taking cranberry extract capsules for her recurrent cystitis presented asymptomatically with low serum levels of tacrolimus. Dose increase had little effect on the level, and cessation of the cranberry extract returned levels to desired range. Cranberry extracts are an adjunctive therapy used in the management of recurrent UTIs. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive agent, is metabolized intestinally by isoenzymes of the P450 cytochrome. Cranberry extracts may alter this metabolism and lead to sub-therapeutic serum levels of tacrolimus. This interaction is heretofore unreported. Cranberry extracts should be carefully monitored in allograft recipients due to interactions with serum tacrolimus levels. PMID:27335715

  9. Decreased levels of serum oxytocin in pediatric patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Oda, Yasunori; Ishima, Tamaki; Kurata, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Junpei; Kamata, Yu; Kimura, Hiroshi; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Komatsu, Hideki; Ishikawa, Masatomo; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Shiina, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Shiraishi, Tetsuya; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-08-30

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are highly comorbid, and both disorders share executive function deficits. Accumulating evidence suggests that ASD patients have significantly lower peripheral oxytocin (OXT) levels compared with their normal counterparts, and that the repetitive behavior seen in ASD is related to abnormalities in the OXT system. In this study, we investigated whether serum levels of OXT are altered in pediatric patients with ADHD. We measured serum OXT levels: drug naive ADHD (n=23), medicated ADHD (n=13), and age- and sex- matched, neurotypical controls (n=22). Patients were evaluated using the ADHD-RS. Serum levels of OXT in total subjects with ADHD were significantly decreased compared with those of neurotypical controls, and serum levels of OXT in drug naive ADHD patients were significantly lower than those in medicated ADHD patients. Interestingly, there was a significant negative correlation between serum OXT levels and ADHD-RS total scores, as well as ADHD-RS inattentive scores in all ADHD patients. In conclusion, this study suggests that decreased levels of OXT may play a role in the pathophysiology of patients with ADHD and its inherent inattentiveness. PMID:26168929

  10. Correlation of serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations in patients with actinic prurigo*

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Lievanos-Estrada, Zahide; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Hojyo-Tomoka, Maria Teresa; Dominguez-Soto, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis, the pathophysiology of which has been hypothesized to involve subtype IV type b (Th2) hypersensitive response, whereby IL4, IL5, and IL13 are secreted and mediate the production of B cells, IgE, and IgG4. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of serum IgE levels and the clinical severity of injuries. METHODS: This case-control study comprised patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of actinic prurigo, as well as clinically healthy subjects, from whom 3cc of peripheral blood was taken for immunoassay. Cases were classified by lesion severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, and chi-square test was performed. RESULTS: We included 21 actinic prurigo patients and 21 subjects without disease; 11 patients with actinic prurigo had elevated serum IgE levels, and 10 had low serum levels. Six actinic prurigo (AP) patients with elevated serum levels of IgE had moderate injuries, 4 had severe injuries, and 1 had minor injuries. Eight out of 10 patients with normal IgE levels presented with minor injuries in the clinical evaluation. The 21 controls did not have increased serum IgE levels. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IgE levels are associated with moderate to severe clinical lesions, suggesting that actinic prurigo entails a type IV subtype b hypersensitivity response in which Th2 cells predominate. PMID:26982774

  11. Russell's viper venom levels in serum of snake bite victims in Burma.

    PubMed

    Khin Ohn Lwin; Aye Aye Myint; Tun, P e; Theingie Nwe; Min Naing

    1984-01-01

    Serum levels of venom antigen were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 38 Russel's viper bite victims before and after administration of 40 ml of monovalent liquid antivenom. Initial serum levels ranged from one with less than 10.0 ng to 290 ng/ml and in one case a level of 75 ng/ml was detected 27 hours after the bite. Serum venom levels after liquid monospecific antivenom therapy indicated that venom clearance was similar in each case to the natural clearance of venom in the absence of antivenom therapy. In one case a venom level of 11.5 ng/ml was detected 66 hours after liquid antivenom therapy whereas in two fatal cases, serum venom levels of 95 ng/ml and 185 ng/ml were detected after the same interval. Failure of complete neutralization of venom is probably the result of loss of potency of antivenom during improper storage. The amount of venom excreted in the urine was not related to initial serum levels. PMID:6464103

  12. Serum Spot 14 concentration is negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chi, Yu-Chao; Han, Der-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spot 14 (S14) is a protein involved in fatty acid synthesis and was shown to be induced by thyroid hormone in rat liver. However, the presence of S14 in human serum and its relations with thyroid function status have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum S14 concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism and to evaluate the associations between serum