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Sample records for serum mineral levels

  1. Genome-wide association study of serum minerals levels in children of different ethnic background.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao; Li, Jin; Guo, Yiran; Wei, Zhi; Mentch, Frank D; Hou, Cuiping; Zhao, Yan; Qiu, Haijun; Kim, Cecilia; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride and phosphorus are the major dietary minerals involved in various biological functions and are commonly measured in the blood serum. Sufficient mineral intake is especially important for children due to their rapid growth. Currently, the genetic mechanisms influencing serum mineral levels are poorly understood, especially for children. We carried out a genome-wide association (GWA) study on 5,602 European-American children and 4,706 African-American children who had mineral measures available in their electronic medical records (EMR). While no locus met the criteria for genome-wide significant association, our results demonstrated a nominal association of total serum calcium levels with a missense variant in the calcium -sensing receptor (CASR) gene on 3q13 (rs1801725, P = 1.96 × 10(-3)) in the African-American pediatric cohort, a locus previously reported in Caucasians. We also confirmed the association result in our pediatric European-American cohort (P = 1.38 × 10(-4)). We further replicated two other loci associated with serum calcium levels in the European-American cohort (rs780094, GCKR, P = 4.26 × 10(-3); rs10491003, GATA3, P = 0.02). In addition, we replicated a previously reported locus on 1q21, demonstrating association of serum magnesium levels with MUC1 (rs4072037, P = 2.04 × 10(-6)). Moreover, in an extended gene-based association analysis we uncovered evidence for association of calcium levels with the previously reported gene locus DGKD in both European-American children and African-American children. Taken together, our results support a role for CASR and DGKD mediated calcium regulation in both African-American and European-American children, and corroborate the association of calcium levels with GCKR and GATA3, and the association of magnesium levels with MUC1 in the European-American children.

  2. Serum total and bone alkaline phosphatase levels and their correlation with serum minerals over the lifespan of sheep.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristina P; Azevedo, Jorge T; Silva, Amélia M; Viegas, Carlos A; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E; Dias, Isabel R

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its bone isoform (BALP) levels during the ageing and in different physiologic states of sheep, in order to expand the knowledge about the variation of these biomarkers over the sheep lifespan. Ninety female sheep were divided into nine groups of various ages and physiological states (dry, lactation and pregnancy). Serum ALP, BALP and mineral levels were determined by commercial immunoassay, molecular absorbance spectrophotometry and chemical luminescence for BALP determination. Serum ALP and BALP decreased as sheep aged, and no statistically significant differences were obtained between ewes in different physiologic states. The continuous decline of serum BALP concentration along the sheep lifespan, namely in mature and old sheep, is a sign of decreasing bone turnover associated with ageing. Serum calcium concentrations increased slightly until 2 years of age and then showed a tenuous but statistically significant decrease in mature sheep, while serum phosphorus maintained an uninterrupted decrease as sheep matured. The knowledge of serum values of bone biomarkers throughout the sheep lifespan may be useful in preclinical orthopaedic research studies and for animal science studies using sheep.

  3. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kamineni, Vasundhara; Latha, Akkenapally Prasanna; Ramathulasi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted with the objective of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in postmenopausal women (PMW), to detect osteopenia or osteoporosis in PMW and to establish a correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and bone mineral density (BMD). Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy PMW were selected, and a prospective observational study was conducted to correlate the BMD with serum 25(OH)D levels. Their laboratory investigations along with serum 25(OH)D levels were done. Their BMD was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and neck of femur; T-scores were derived. Correlation analysis was done to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMD. Results: The proportion of osteoporosis at the hip was 31.9% in deficient group, 16.1% in insufficient, and 18.2% in sufficient group and at lumbar spine, it was 27.7%, 16.1%, and 22.7%, respectively. Forty-seven percent of PMW had deficient (<20 ng/ml) serum 25(OH)D levels and 31% had insufficiency. T-score at hip in deficient group was −2.05 ± 0.25, and in an insufficient group, it was −1.79 ± 0.13; T-score at lumbar spine was −1.92 ± 0.12 and −1.79 ± 0.12, respectively, but both were not statistically significant. Osteoporosis was seen in 24%, osteopenia in 55% at hip level and 23% and 59% respectively at lumbar spine. There was no association between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMD neither at hip nor at lumbar spine (P = 0.51 and P = 0.79 respectively). Conclusion: In this study, among our cohort of patients there was no correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMD. However, Vitamin D deficiency coexists with low BMD. Vitamin D insufficiency is a common risk factor for osteoporosis associated with increased bone remodeling and low bone mass. PMID:28096639

  4. Dietary intake and serum and hair concentrations of minerals and their relationship with serum lipids and glucose levels in hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2011-02-01

    Inadequate minerals intake, as well as disruption of some metabolic processes in which microelements are cofactors, are suggested to lead to the development of hypertension. The role of minerals in the pathogenesis of hypertension still remains to be explained. In the present study, we sought to determine associations between serum and hair mineral concentrations and serum lipids and glucose levels. Forty obese hypertensive subjects with insulin resistance and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited in the study. Blood pressure, BMI, and insulin resistance were recorded in all subjects. Levels of lipids, glucose, sodium and potassium, iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in serum. Iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in hair. Dietary intake of the analyzed minerals was estimated. We found distinctly higher concentrations of serum iron and serum and hair calcium as well as markedly lower levels of hair zinc in the hypertensive subjects. The study group manifested also significantly lower daily intake of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We observed a relationship between the concentrations of iron, zinc, and copper in serum and hair and high and low range of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose serum levels in the studied patients. Moreover, this study demonstrated significant correlation between serum and hair concentrations of selected minerals and their dietary intake and levels of serum lipids and glucose and blood pressure in the study and the control groups. The obtained results seem to indicate the association between lipid and glucose metabolism and iron, copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations in blood and hair of hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

  5. Serum and Hair Mineral Levels in Children with Failure to Thrive According to the Type of Feeding Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated serum and hair mineral and trace element levels as well as levels of other nutritional factors affecting growth and appetite in young children with non-organic failure to thrive (NOFTT) based on the presence or types of feeding difficulty (FD). Between August 2012 and July 2015, 136 children less than 6 years of age with NOFTT were included. FD was diagnosed based on Wolfson criteria and divided into subtypes according to Chatoor's classification. Clinical data were reviewed, and serum and hair mineral levels were measured. Of all assessed serum and hair minerals, only hair sulfur contents differed significantly between subjects with and without infantile anorexia (39,392 ± 2211 vs. 40,332 ± 2551 μg/g, P = 0.034). There were no differences in serum and hair mineral levels between children with and without sensory food aversion. Hair copper contents were significantly lower in children with FD of reciprocity (12.3 ± 6.0 vs. 22.4 ± 25.1 μg/g, P = 0.049). While hair zinc contents were also lower, the difference was not statistically significant (49.2 ± 26.8 vs. 70.6 ± 41.0 μg/g, P = 0.055). Only hair manganese contents were significantly lower in children with posttraumatic FD (0.12 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.73 μg/g, P = 0.037). In conclusion, there were no differences in most serum and hair mineral levels in children with NOFTT, except for relatively lower hair levels of sulfur, copper and possibly zinc, and manganese in infantile anorexia, reciprocity, and posttraumatic types of FD, respectively.

  6. High Levels of Serum DPP-4 Activity Are Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase 4/CD26 (DPP-4) is a widely expressed cell surface serine protease. DPP-4 inhibitors, one of common anti-diabetic agents play a protective role in bone metabolism in recent studies. A soluble form of DPP-4 is found in serum, and exhibits DPP-4 enzymatic activity. However, the physiological role of serum or soluble DPP-4 and its relationship with DPP-4 enzymatic function remain poorly understood. The aims of current study were to determine the association between serum DPP-4 activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Methods We recruited data and serum samples from 124 consecutive healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. We divided study subjects into obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) postmenopausal women and examined the correlation between serum DPP-4 activity and clinical variables in each groups. Results A total of 124 postmenopausal women was enrolled, with a mean age of 59.9±7.1 years. The mean BMI of the study patients was 24.4±2.8 kg/m2. Regarding bone turnover markers, serum DPP-4 activity was positively correlated with serum calcium concentrations, intact parathyroid hormone, and serum C-telopeptide levels in all of the study subjects. However, there was no association between serum DPP-4 activity and BMD in the spine or femoral neck in all of the study subjects. Serum DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated (R=−0.288, P=0.038) with BMD of the spine in obese postmenopausal women. Conclusion This study demonstrated for the first time that serum soluble DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated with BMD in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26676330

  7. The level of major proteins and minerals in the blood serum of chickens fed diets with pure cellulose.

    PubMed

    Bogusławska-Tryk, Monika; Szymeczko, Roman; Piotrowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of total protein and its fractions as well as the concentration of selected mineral components in the blood serum of male broiler chickens Cobb 500 fed diets with different cellulose content. Blood samples were collected for examination from the birds' pterygoid canal veins on their 42 day of age. There was no influence of cellulose preparation on the content of total protein and its fractions: albumins, alfa1-, alfa2-, beta-, gamma-globulins, albumin to globulin ratio, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride and iron concentrations in blood serum. The highest calcium concentration (P < 0.05) was detected in the blood serum of males fed a diet with the highest cellulose content (0.75-0.95%). Simultaneously, a tendency of increased calcium content was observed along with an increased amount of pure cellulose in diets. The lowest magnesium level (P < 0.05) was observed in the blood of birds fed diets with the lowest amount of cellulose (0.25-0.45%). The magnesium level in the blood of birds fed a diet with higher amounts of cellulose did not considerably differ from the control group. Results from the current study suggest that introduction of a limited amount of pure cellulose into the diet of broiler chickens does not affect total protein concentration and protein fractions but can influence the mineral content in the blood serum.

  8. Serum Bone Markers Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Teoman; Taspınar, Ozgur; Akbal, Yildiz; Peru, Celaleddin; Guler, Mustafa; Uysal, Omer; Yakıcıer, M. Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure bone mineral density, serum and urinary bone turnover parameters, and to evaluate the influence of demographic and genetic factors on these parameters in FMF patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven attack-free patients who were diagnosed with FMF (in accordance with Tel Hashomer criteria) were recruited at outpatient rheumatology clinics. We investigated whether there were any differences between the FMF patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur bone mineral density (BMD), standard deviation scores (Z scores and T scores) and bone markers. [Results] In terms of the median values of lumbar BMD (p = 0.21), lumbar T (p = 0.098) and Z (p = 0.109) scores, femoral neck BMD, femoral T and Z scores and total femur BMD, T (p = 0.788) and Z scores, there were no significant differences. [Conclusion] In our study, no statistically significant differences were found between FMF patients and a control group in terms of osteoporosis. The 25-OH vitamin D was found to be significantly lower in FMF patients than in the control group. PMID:25276036

  9. Relation between bone mineral density and IL-17 serum levels in Serbian patients with early Rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dimic, Aleksandar; Milenkovic, Sasa; Krtinic, Dane; Aleksic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Different cytokines play important role in the processes that cause articular destruction and extra-articular manifestations in RA. The contribution of cytokines representing the Th1 (INF-γ), Th2 (IL-4) and IL-17A to the pathogenesis of early RA and bone mineral density (BMD) loss in still poorly understood. Serum samples of 38 early RA patients were evaluated for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and for the tested cytokines (IL-17A, IL-4 and INF-γ). BMD was evaluated by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Disease activity score (DAS28) calculation was assessed for all patients. Control serum samples were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers. The levels of tested cytokines were significantly higher (IL-17A, p<0.001; INF-γ, P<0.001; IL-4, P<0.01) in patients with early RA, compared to the healthy controls. In early RA patients, strong correlation of serum IL-17A was found with DAS28, ESR and CRP. Also, a significant negative correlation was found between serum INF-γ levels and the DAS28 score. Significantly positive correlation of BMD values and CRP, DAS28 IL-17A were also demonstrated. DXA analysis revealed that the most common site for osteoporosis was the lumbar spine followed by the femoral neck. BMD values significantly correlated with CRP, DAS28 score and IL-17A serum levels. The mean serum IL-17A levels, in patients with early RA, corresponded with disease activity, severity and BMD loss, indicating the potential usefulness of serum IL-17A in defining the disease activity and bone remodeling. PMID:28352685

  10. Relationship between serum leptin levels and bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farokhlagha; Salari, Sina; Maziar, Sima; Esfahanian, Fateme; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Ranjbarnovin, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the protein product of the obesity gene, which is produced in fat tissue. It was originally thought to be involved only in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. We aimed to investigate the relationship of serum leptin levels with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients on hemodialysis (HD). This study included 72 patients (43 males and 29 females), whose mean age was 55.1 ± 11.4 years, mean body mass index was 23.13 ± 2.75 kg/m 2 and mean duration on HD was 5 ± 3.4 years. The BMD values were calculated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Blood samples were taken for leptin, intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and albumin. The leptin levels were higher in females than in males (22.3 ± 19.6 vs 20.8 ± 23), but this difference was not significant. The serum leptin level had a strong positive correlation with Ca levels in the female patients (r = 0.659 and P = 0.01) and a negative correlation with albumin levels (r = -0.461 and P = 0.01). No correlation was found with age, BMI, duration on dialysis, BMD and serum levels of PTH, BAP and P for the entire patient group or either gender separately. The serum leptin level was significantly lower in females with PTH >300 pg/mL when compared with patients with PTH = 100-300 pg/mL (86 ± 85 vs 47 ± 48) (P = 0.011).Women with BAP <300 IU/L had significantly higher serum leptin than those with BAP 300-600 IU/L (P = 0.024). Women with Ca <8.5 mg/dL had significantly lower serum leptin levels compared with those with Ca levels of 8.5-10.5 mg/dL (P = 0.011). There was no significant difference between the two genders among variables such as age, BMI, duration on dialysis, serum leptin, I-PTH, Ca, P, BAP, albumin and BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine.

  11. Serum Preadipocyte Factor 1 Levels Are Not Associated with Bone Mineral Density among Healthy Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon Sung; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Background Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes or osteoblasts through closely regulated lineage-control processes. However, adipocyte precursor cells release preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1), which inhibits the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into mature adipocytes and osteoblasts. Previous studies have also reported an inverse association between Pref-1 levels and bone mineral density (BMD) among patients with anorexia nervosa. Methods In this retrospective study, we examined the correlations between Pref-1 levels and BMD among 124 healthy postmenopausal women (>50 years old). The patients had provided information regarding their clinical characteristics, and underwent blood testing and serum Pref-1 testing. Results The subjects' mean age was 59.9±7.1 years and the median time since menopause onset was 9.1 years. A history of osteoporotic fracture was identified in 23 subjects (19%). Serum Pref-1 levels were not significantly correlated with BMD values at the lumbar spine (R2=0.038, P=0.109), femur neck (R2=0.017, P=0.869), and total hip (R2=0.041, P=0.09), and multivariate analyses with adjustment for age and body mass index also did not detect any significant correlations. Subgroup analyses according to a history of fracture also did not detect significant associations between Pref-1 levels and BMD values. Conclusion In our study population, it does not appear that serum Pref-1 levels are significantly associated with BMD values and osteoporosis. PMID:28256115

  12. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  13. Relationship of serum elastin peptide level to single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide in French coal miners

    PubMed Central

    Frette, C.; Jacob, M. P.; Wei, S. M.; Bertrand, J. P.; Laurent, P.; Kauffmann, F.; Pham, Q. T.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical and epidemiological studies have given discordant results on the usefulness of the level of circulating elastin peptide (EP), a potential marker of both elastin destruction (a key phenomenon in pulmonary emphysema) and neosynthesis, for assessing structural changes in the lung extracellular matrix. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between levels of EP and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO and KCO) in coal miners. METHODS: The study population comprised 227 working coal miners aged 34-50 years consisting of 75 miners heavily exposed to underground coal dust with pulmonary radiographs classified as 0/1 or 1/0 by the International Labour Office classification, 75 exposed miners with radiographs classified as normal (0/0), and 77 miners slightly exposed to coal dust with normal radiographs. The subjects answered a standardised questionnaire and performed spirometric tests and a carbon monoxide (CO) transfer test. RESULTS: No association was observed between EP levels and % predicted FEV1 (or FEV1/FVC). The level of EP increased significantly with decreased % predicted TLCO (r = -0.20). Miners in the lowest % predicted KCO quintile had higher EP levels than the rest (3.28 (1.37) vs 2.47 (1.16)). A significantly lower EP level was observed in miners with radiographs classified as 1/0 or 0/1, especially in those with round opacities, compared with miners with a normal radiograph, and in current smokers compared with the rest. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the level of EP may reflect some remodelling activity in emphysema and lung fibrosis. 


 PMID:9516897

  14. [Serum sclerostin levels and metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-06-01

    Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.

  15. Functional autonomy, bone mineral density (BMD) and serum osteocalcin levels in older female participants of an aquatic exercise program (AAG).

    PubMed

    Pernambuco, Carlos Soares; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Di Masi, Fabrizio; Monteiro, Paola Karynne Pinheiro; Dantas, Estelio H M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) -p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, p<0.001; rising from a chair and moving around the house (RCMH) -p<0.001 and autonomy index (AI) -p=0.007, with more favorable results observed in the AAG when compared to the CG. The AAG achieved the best results for BMD; however, no inter or intragroup statistical differences were recorded for total femur -p=0.975 and lumbar L(2)-L(4)p=0.597. For serum osteocalcin, intra and intergroup statistical differences of p=0.042 and p=0.027 were observed in the AAG, respectively. This demonstrates that an eight-month aquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women.

  16. Evaluation of bone mineral density, bone metabolism, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of the NFκB ligand serum levels during treatment with infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vis, M; Havaardsholm, E A; Haugeberg, G; Uhlig, T; Voskuyl, A E; van de Stadt, R J; Dijkmans, B A C; Woolf, A D; Kvien, T K; Lems, W F

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether treatment with anti‐tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α prevents loss of bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine and hip (generalised) and in the hands (local) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and to study the changes in markers of bone metabolism, including receptor activator of the NFκB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), during anti‐TNF treatment. Patients and methods 102 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, who were treated with infliximab during 1 year, were included in this open cohort study. The BMD of the spine and hip (dual x ray absorptiometry ) and hands dual x ray radiogrammetry was measured before the start of treatment and after 1 year. Changes in osteocalcin formation, β‐isomerised carboxy terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β‐CTx, resorption), RANKL and OPG were determined at 0, 14, 30 and 46 weeks. Results The BMD of the spine and hip was unchanged during treatment with infliximab, whereas BMD of the hand decreased significantly by 0.8% (p<0.01). The BMD of the hip in patients with a good European League Against Rheumatism response showed a favourable change compared with patients not achieving such a response. Serum β‐CTx and RANKL were both considerably decreased compared with baseline at all time points. The decrease in β‐CTx was associated with the decrease in Disease Activity Score of 28 joints and C reactive protein during the 0–14 weeks interval. Conclusion In patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab, spine and hip bone loss is arrested, whereas metacarpal cortical hand bone loss is not stopped. The outcome of the study also supports a relationship between clinical response, in terms of reduced inflammatory activity, and changes in bone loss of the spine, hip and hands. PMID:16606653

  17. Carbamazepine and serum sodium levels.

    PubMed

    Kalff, R; Houtkooper, M A; Meyer, J W; Goedhart, D M; Augusteijn, R; Meinardi, H

    1984-06-01

    Serum sodium levels of 674 epileptic patients were tabulated according to the following categories: less than 135 mmol/L, hyponatremia (28 patients); 135-145 mmol/L, normonatremia (530 patients); greater than 145 mmol/L, hypernatremia (116 patients). One hundred one patients were treated with antiepileptics without carbamazepine (CBZ), 113 with CBZ monotherapy, and 460 with CBZ plus other antiepileptic drugs. Twenty-three patients could be followed up after the first detection of a serum sodium level of less than 135 mg/L. Ten patients were consistently hyponatremic (greater than 50% of the follow-up measurements were less than 135 mg/L), whereas the remaining 13 were occasionally hyponatremic. The following facts could be derived from the study: (1) The hyponatremic group was significantly older compared with the other groups. (2) In patients not treated with CBZ, no hyponatremia was seen. Only two patients on CBZ monotherapy showed hyponatremia. (3) The combination of CBZ, valproic acid, especially in high dosages, and barbiturates seemed to lead to hyponatremia. (4) The excretion of antidiuretic hormone, measured in 12 patients, was subnormal (less than 25 ng/24 h) in seven hyponatremic patients and in three normonatremic patients and normal (25-250 ng/24 h) in two other normonatremic patients. (5) Cyclic AMP, measured in five hyponatremic patients, was normal. (6) In all patients the hyponatremia was slight and did not cause any clinical symptoms. Special treatment was not required.

  18. Some blood minerals and hormones in cows fed variable mineral levels and ionic balance.

    PubMed

    Romo, G A; Kellems, R O; Powell, K; Wallentine, M V

    1991-09-01

    Eighty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to eight treatments in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design to examine changes in serum parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, Ca, P, Mg, K, and Cl under two levels of dietary Ca and P with two anion-cation balances. Factor levels were low and high Ca (51 vs. 115 g/d), P (38 vs. 52 g/d), and cationic:anionic balance (23 vs. -8 meq). Cows were offered a TMR and an experimental mineral supplement to adjust mineral and anion-cation levels. Caudal vein blood samples were collected every 2 d from d -10 to +10 from calving. Serum K was lower for low Ca and high P compared with high Ca and low P treatments. Neither hormones nor the minerals examined in serum showed treatment effects. Cows of higher parity consumed less supplement and had lower serum Ca and P. All serum variables except calcitonin showed day to day variations. Both Ca and P decreased around parturition, whereas parathyroid hormone and Mg increased. Anionic diets did not differ from cationic diets regarding serum parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, Ca, P, Mg, K, Cl, or Na.

  19. Mineral Levels in Thalassaemia Major Patients Using Different Iron Chelators.

    PubMed

    Genc, Gizem Esra; Ozturk, Zeynep; Gumuslu, Saadet; Kupesiz, Alphan

    2016-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the levels of minerals in chronically transfused thalassaemic patients living in Antalya, Turkey and to determine mineral levels in groups using different iron chelators. Three iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox have been used to remove iron from patients' tissues. There were contradictory results in the literature about minerals including selenium, zinc, copper, and magnesium in thalassaemia major patients. Blood samples from the 60 thalassaemia major patients (the deferoxamine group, n = 19; the deferiprone group, n = 20 and the deferasirox group, n = 21) and the controls (n = 20) were collected. Levels of selenium, zinc, copper, magnesium, and iron were measured, and all of them except iron showed no significant difference between the controls and the patients regardless of chelator type. Serum copper levels in the deferasirox group were lower than those in the control and deferoxamine groups, and serum magnesium levels in the deferasirox group were higher than those in the control, deferoxamine and deferiprone groups. Iron levels in the patient groups were higher than those in the control group, and iron levels showed a significant correlation with selenium and magnesium levels. Different values of minerals in thalassaemia major patients may be the result of different dietary intake, chelator type, or regional differences in where patients live. That is why minerals may be measured in thalassaemia major patients at intervals, and deficient minerals should be replaced. Being careful about levels of copper and magnesium in thalassaemia major patients using deferasirox seems to be beneficial.

  20. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  1. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P < 0.05). In subgroup analysis, an inverse association between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  2. Measurement of feline serum interleukin-5 level.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ayumi; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Kadoya, Michiyo; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2007-08-01

    A bioassay was developed to measure feline interleukin-5 (IL-5). Human IL-5 receptor alpha chain transfected murine Ba/F3 cells (Ba/F3-IL-5R) showed feline IL-5-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. IL-5 levels in serum samples from 54 cats with suspected allergic dermatitis and from 11 control cats could be successfully measured using Ba/F3-IL-5R cells. The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood was not correlated with serum IL-5 level.

  3. [Serum immunoglobulin E level in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Denchev, K; Radkov, M; Lipcheva, N

    1976-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin E level was determined in 50 patients with bronchial asthma, treated in the out-patients department and clinical conditions at the Faculty Hospital--Varna. The quantitative determination of immunoglobulin E was carried out by radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini with monospecific anti-IgE globulin serum from Behringswerke (GFR). A considerable elevation of immunoglobulin E in the patients' sera was found, at an average of 394 IU (control 124 IU). A discrepancy in serum immunoglobulin E level was established with the different clinical forms of asthma. The highest are the values with infectious-allergic astmha-424 IU. High are the values both in the treated and not-treated with corticosteroids, without an essential difference between the two patient groups. Some of the rest immunoglobulins showed also an elevationppIgG 2620 mg% and IgA 366 mg%.

  4. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake.

  5. Elevated serum MDA and depleted non-enzymatic antioxidants, macro-minerals and trace elements are associated with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Manjurul Islam; Hasan, Maimuna; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Sarwar, Md Shahid; Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Uddin, S M Naim; Rahaman, Md Zahedur; Banik, Sujan; Hussain, Md Saddam; Yokota, Kazushige; Hasnat, Abul

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and neurobiological factors are considered to be the major causes of mood and mental disorders. However, over the past few years, increased levels of serum malondialdehyde and altered levels of various non-enzymatic antioxidants and essential minerals involved in abnormal functional activity have been identified as major contributing factors to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of the serum lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidants (vitamin A, E and C), macro-minerals (calcium, potassium and sodium) and trace elements (zinc, iron and selenium) in patients with bipolar disorder and to explore their role in disease progression. This is a prospective case-control study that evaluated 55 patients with bipolar disorder and 55 healthy volunteers matched by age and sex. Serum MDA levels were determined by UV spectrophotometry as a marker of lipid peroxidation. RP-HPLC was employed to investigate the serum vitamin A and E concentrations, whereas UV spectrophotometry was used to quantify levels of vitamin C. Serum macro-minerals and trace elements were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Statistical analysis was performed with independent sample t-tests and Pearson's correlation test. We found significantly higher concentrations of MDA (p<0.05) and significantly lower concentrations of antioxidants (vitamin A, E and C) (p<0.05) in the patient group compared with control group. Regarding trace elements and macro-minerals, lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron, selenium, sodium and potassium were found in the patient group compared with control subjects (p<0.05). Our study suggests that high serum MDA concentrations and low serum concentrations of antioxidants, macro-minerals and trace elements are strongly associated with bipolar disorder.

  6. Serum fucose level in malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Sawke, N G; Sawke, G K

    2010-01-01

    We review the present knowledge of serum fucose with special attention to its relation with various malignant diseases. We summarize the role of serum fucose as a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker when used singly or in combination. The purpose of this review is to provide an expert opinion on the practical and applied aspect of serum fucose level in clinical practice and research settings. Our review is based on information from published research studies, library books, and electronic searches through Medline and PubMed. The available published data were used as the basis for recommendations. Each of the subsections concludes to provide information to assist the clinicians and the research scientists make informed decisions.

  7. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum iron and bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Imel, Erik A; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n=994), age 20-55years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (p<0.001). Serum iron (p<0.0001) and intact FGF23 (p<0.01) were higher in white women. C-terminal FGF23 did not differ between races. Phosphorus correlated with intact FGF23 (white women, r=0.120, p<0.0001; black women r=0.163, p<0.01). However, phosphorus correlated with C-terminal FGF23 only in black women (r=0.157, p<0.01). Intact FGF23 did not correlate with iron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=-0.134, p<0.0001; black women r=-0.188, p<0.01), having a steeper slope at iron <50mcg/dl than ≥50mcg/dl. Longitudinal changes in iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.076, p<0.01) in white women; femur neck BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=-0.119, p<0.0001) in black women. Both relationships were eliminated in weight-adjusted models. BMD did not correlate with FGF23. Serum iron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important in

  8. Serum gastrin level in early childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Sann, L; Chayvialle, A P; Bremond, A; Lambert, R

    1975-01-01

    Serum gastrin concentration was measured in newborns and infants with no gastrointestinal disorders, in the fasting state and after food stimulation. Mean fasting concentration in 14 newborns aged 1 to 12 days (130 . 4 pg/ml +/- 11 . 4 SE) was significantly higher than the mean value in 23 infants aged 1.5 to 22 months (101.4 +/- 6.6 pg/ml). Ingestion of the usual milk meal resulted in a definite rise of the serum gastrin level in the 5 subjects tested (3 newborns and 2 infants). The mean fasting serum gastrin level in 6 babies with hiatus hernia and gastro-oesophageal reflux was found to be no different from the corresponding value in 8 age-matched controls. However, a conspicuously raised fasting gastrin concentration was observed in one infant with lower oesophageal dyskinesia. The results indicate that the release of gastrin and the reactivity of the hormone-producing sites to food stimulation in early life are similar to those in adult humans. No defect of gastrin release was shown in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux. PMID:1244175

  9. Effect of pre-calving zeolite, magnesium and phosphorus supplementation on periparturient serum mineral concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Anders; Pallesen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Rolf J; Thilsing, Trine

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether supplementing dry cow rations with phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) would interfere with the beneficial effect of zeolite supplementation on the periparturient blood calcium (Ca) concentration in dairy cattle. Three groups (A-C) of 10 Danish Jersey cows were each given the following daily supplements from 2 weeks before the expected date of calving until actual calving: group A: zeolite, monoammonium phosphate, standard dry cow mineral and vitamin mix, containing 61g magnesium phosphate; group B: zeolite, standard mineral and vitamin mix without the magnesium phosphate and group C: standard mineral and vitamin mix, monoammonium phosphate. All cows in group B had an apparently less variable serum calcium concentration around calving with no cases of milk fever and no subclinical hypocalcaemia or hypomagnesaemia recorded. In contrast, a parturient drop in blood Ca was seen in group A as well as group C. In group A, one cow was hypocalcaemic at calving, and developed milk fever. In group C, 12 blood samples, representing six cows, were hypocalcaemic, and three of these cows were treated for milk fever. All groups remained normomagnesaemic and there were no significant differences in blood Mg across groups. In conclusion, the combined P and Mg supplementation in addition to zeolite supplementation did not increase the serum Mg level (forage Mg 16.9g/day; 0.21% of DM). Combined P and Mg supplementation reduced the zeolite-induced hypophosphataemia but also reduced the stabilising effect of zeolite on parturient serum Ca.

  10. Effect of cyproheptadine on serum leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Calka, Omer; Metin, Ahmet; Dülger, Haluk; Erkoç, Reha

    2005-01-01

    Leptin is a 167 amino acid protein encoded by the obesity gene that is synthesized in adipose tissue and interacts with receptors in the hypothalamus linked to the regulation of appetite and metabolism. It is known to suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. Cyproheptadine is a piperidine antihistamine that increases appetite through its antiserotonergic effect on 5-HT2 receptors in the brain. Although both leptin and cyproheptadine are effective in controlling appetite, their interaction has not been addressed in clinical studies. This study evaluated serum leptin concentrations in patients who received cyproheptadine to treat a variety of disorders. Sixteen patients aged 7 to 71 years (mean, 26.25 years) were given cyproheptadine 2 to 6 mg/day for a minimum of 7 days. Body weight was measured and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 1 week of treatment. Serum leptin levels were determined by leptin radioimmunoassay. The mean body weight at baseline (52.59 kg) did not differ significantly from that at 1 week after treatment (52.84 kg; P > .05), but the mean leptin level after 1 week of treatment with cyproheptadine (3.14 ng/mL) was 14.2% higher than that at baseline (2.75 ng/mL; P < .05). This increase may suggest that both leptin and cyproheptadine may affect appetite via similar receptors and that cyproheptadine does not impair leptin activity through these receptors. Further study will be necessary to clarify this relationship.

  11. The effect of different dietary sodium levels on blood mineral concentrations and tibia mineralization in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, J; Lichtorowicz, K; Zduńczyk, Z; Juśkiewicz, J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary levels of sodium in diets with and without sodium chloride on mineral metabolism, including blood electrolyte levels and tibia mineralization parameters, in young turkeys (to six weeks of age). The influence of diets with a low (L), medium (M) and high (H) sodium content, at 0.34, 1.34 and 2.82 g/kg respectively, was compared. The content of chloride and potassium in turkey diets (1.7 - 5.9 and 11 g/kg, respectively) was above the recommended levels. The sodium-deficient diet L decreased the serum concentrations of sodium, chloride and phosphorus, and it increased the serum levels of calcium and magnesium in turkeys, compared with groups M and H. Relative to group L, different dietary sodium levels in groups M and H contributed to a similar increase in the body weights of birds (1.06 vs. 1.46 and 1.44 kg, p < 0.001) and in the absolute (4.60 vs. 6.83 and 6.62 g, p < 0.001) and relative tibia weight (0.42 vs. 0.46 and 0.46% body weight, p = 0.031). No significant differences were found between groups with respect to the content of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibia dry matter. Supplemental sodium increased the bone density index (from 50.6 to 68.4 and 66.3 mg/mm in groups L, M and H, respectively, p < 0.001), the maximum bending moment (from 5.27 to 7.40 and 7.33 N/mm, p = 0.002) and the minimum breaking strength of tibia (from 0.136 to 0.191 and 0.189, p = 0.002). In conclusion, our study indicates that the applied dietary treatment with a moderate sodium level (1.34 g/kg) resulted in a rate of bird growth and tibia mineralization similar to those observed with the treatment with much higher Na content (2.82 g/kg).

  12. CKD patients: the dilemma of serum PTH levels.

    PubMed

    Pontoriero, Giuseppe; Cozzolino, Mario; Locatelli, Francesco; Brancaccio, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Recent observational studies of patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) not undergoing dialysis have shown that even slight increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, regardless of the serum levels of calcium and phosphorus and vitamin D therapy. These studies suggest paying particular attention to monitoring PTH levels from the early stages of CKD, and preventing any mineral metabolism disorders that may trigger the excessive synthesis and secretion of PTH. However, it is not easy to determine when an appropriate response becomes maladaptive and requires the pharmacological suppression of the parathyroid gland because the gland's adaptive response can vary widely from one person to another. Furthermore, PTH levels are not always a good predictor of bone turnover and current PTH assays have various methodological limitations. Treating the early mineral metabolism abnormalities of CKD may help prevent the cardiovascular complications whose frequency, costs and mortality have a profound effect on society as a whole. For this reason, there is great interest in establishing adequate target ranges for PTH at different stages of CKD, and determining the most appropriate strategies for reaching them.

  13. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  14. Serum leptin, bone mineral density and the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Linjuan; Pan, Zhanpeng; Zeng, Yanjun

    2015-11-16

    Previously reported fracture rates in patients with spinal cord injury range from 1% to 20%. However, the exact role of spinal cord injury in bone metabolism has not yet been clarified. In order to investigate the effects of serum leptin and bone mineral density on the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury, 15 male SCI patients and 15 matched controls were involved in our study. The outcome indicated that at 4 and 8 weeks after bone fracture, callus production in patients with spinal cord injury was lower than that in controls. Besides, bone mineral density was significantly reduced at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, it was found that at each time point, patients with spinal cord injury had significantly higher serum leptin levels than controls and no association was found between serum leptin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae. Moreover, bone mineral density was positively correlated with bone formation in both of the groups. These findings suggest that in early phases i.e. week 4 and 8, fracture healing was impaired in patients with spinal cord injury and that various factors participated in the complicated healing process, such as hormonal and mechanical factors.

  15. Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

  16. Serum zinc levels in corticosteroid-treated asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ellul-Micallef, R.; Galdes, A.; Fenech, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Serum zinc levels have been measured in twenty-four asthmatic patients, of whom sixteen were on long term corticosteroid therapy. They were carefully screened to exclude any concomitant disease. The non-steroid-treated asthmatics had normal serum zinc levels which ranged from 89 to 138 μg/ml. The corticosteroid-treated patients had a mean serum zinc level of 64 ± 9 μg/100 ml; this was significantly lower than normal (P = < 0·001). PMID:1264936

  17. Elevated levels of serum creatine kinase induced by hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, I; Jonas, M; Thaler, M; Grossman, E

    1997-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase levels are one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial injury. Noncardiac causes such as muscular and brain damage may also be associated with elevated serum creatine kinase levels. Hyponatremia may induce increased serum creatine kinase in association with rhabdomyolysis or with hypothyroidism. A patient is described where three episodes of hyponatraemia not associated with rhabdomyolysis or hypothyroidism induced transient elevations of serum creatine kinase levels. The association between hyponatraemia and elevated creatine kinase levels should be emphasized to prevent erroneous diagnosis of myocardial injury.

  18. Serum Sclerostin Levels Negatively Correlate with Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Free Estrogen Index in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Faryal S.; Padhi, I. Desmond; Raisz, Lawrence G.; Lorenzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sclerostin is a negative regulator of bone formation. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare serum sclerostin levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and evaluate its relationship to estrogen, TH, bone turnover, and bone mass. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of healthy community-dwelling pre- and postmenopausal women. Intervention(s): There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We compared serum sclerostin levels in pre- and postmenopausal women and correlated sclerostin levels with female sex hormones, calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density. Results: Premenopausal women were 26.8 yr old, and postmenopausal women were 56.8 yr old. Postmenopausal women had lower values for estradiol (30 ± 23 vs. 10 ± 4 pg/ml; P < 0.001), estrone (61 ± 24 vs. 29 ± 10 pg/ml; P <0.001), and free estrogen index (FEI) (6 ± 4 vs. 3 ± 2 pmol/nmol; P = 0.008) and significantly lower bone mineral density at all sites compared to premenopausal women, with no significant differences in levels of PTH, 25-hydroxy or 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels. Postmenopausal women had significantly higher serum sclerostin levels (1.16 ± 0.38 ng/ml vs. 0.48 ± 0.15 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Because most of the premenopausal women were on oral contraceptives, subsequent analyses were limited to postmenopausal women. There were significant negative correlations between sclerostin and FEI and sclerostin and PTH in this group. Using multiple regression analysis, both FEI (β = −0.629; P = 0.002) and PTH (β = −0.554; P = 0.004) were found to be independent predictors of sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that serum sclerostin levels are regulated by both estrogens and PTH in postmenopausal women. These findings need to be explored further in larger prospective studies. PMID:20156921

  19. Serum mineral status and climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women before and after Yoga therapy, an ongoing study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alok; Archana, E.; Pai, Akshatha; Nayak, Gayathry; Shenoy, Revathi P.; Rao, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many women report an increased level of anxiety, irritability and mood swings during their perimenopausal state. Studies show that physically active people can reduce their anxiety and depression by practicing yoga. Serum minerals such as calcium, copper and magnesium and the ferro-oxidase, ceruloplasmin play an important role in the body during the perimenopausal period. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the serum mineral status, anthropometric parameters and climacteric symptoms in perimenopausal women before and after yoga intervention. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 subjects with perimenopausal symptoms, aged between 40 and 60 years (49.43 ± 6.15) were included in the study. Yoga intervention was given on a daily basis (45 min duration) for 12 weeks. The climacteric symptoms were assessed by Greene's climacteric scale and biochemical parameters were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Results: A significant decrease in the waist hip ratio (P < 0.036) and body mass index (P < 0.036) was observed after yoga intervention. Systolic (P < 0.064) and diastolic (P < 0.082) blood pressure (BP) showed marginal decrease after yoga therapy. Climacteric symptoms improved significantly (P < 0.001) after yoga intervention. A significant increase (P < 0.001) in serum calcium and copper and a marked decrease in serum magnesium (P < 0.05) and ceruloplasmin (P < 0.028) levels was observed, post yoga therapy. Serum magnesium negatively correlated (r = −0.467, P < 0.035) with systolic BP after yoga intervention. Conclusion: The overall changes observed in the mineral status and climacteric symptoms suggest that yoga therapy protocol can be effectively used to improve the quality of life in perimenopausal women. PMID:24381464

  20. Serum Potassium Levels in Sigmoid Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Keles, M. Sait; Aydinli, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the serum potassium concentrations in patients with sigmoid volvulus (SV), which is a rare large bowel obstruction. Materials and Methods: The records of 86 patients with SV were reviewed retrospectively, while the records of 41 patients diagnosed with obstructive rectosigmoid cancer (ORC) were considered as the control group and as such, served as a source for comparison. Results: The analysis revealed a mean serum potassium concentration of 3.9 ± 0.6 mEq/L for the patients with SV, while the mean potassium concentration was 3.9 ± 0.5 mEq/L for the patients diagnosed with ORC (t:0.1, P>0.05). The number of hypokalemic and hyperkalemic patients identified in this study sample were 11 versus 5 patients and 1 versus 0 patients, respectively for the SV and ORC groups (x2 = 0.1 and 0.5, respectively with a P>0.05). Conclusions: No cause-and-effect relationship was observed between the serum potassium concentrations and SV. The serum potassium concentration is not pathognomonic for SV. PMID:25610090

  1. Correlation between serum leptin and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghorban-Sabbagh, Mahin; Nazemian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Massih; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi; Ahmadi-Simab, Saeedeh; Javidi-Dasht-Bayaz, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For diagnosing of specific types of bone lesions in hemodialysis (HD) patients, it is necessary to conduct a bone biopsy as the gold standard method. However, it is an invasive procedure. While different markers have been suggested as alternative methods, none of them has been selected. The frequency of hip fractures is 80 fold in HD patients who have two-fold mortality as compared with general population. Objectives: Recently, serum leptin has been suggested as a bone density marker. This study tries to confirm this proposal. Patients and Methods: In this study about 104 HD patients (53.8% male and 46.2% female) were enrolled. The average age was 38.28±7.89 years. Serum leptin, bone alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorus and bone mineral density (BMD) (at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) were assessed. Results: Analysis by polynomial regression revealed no correlation between BMD Z-score at two points and serum leptin level. According to the thresholds of 25 ng/mL and 18-24 ng/mL in some studies, we detected 25 ng/mL as the threshold in our patients. Under this threshold, the leptin effect on bone mass was negative, and above the threshold of 25 ng/mL, we found leptin had positive effect on bone mass. Conclusion: In this investigation, we found, leptin has a bimodal effect on bone mass. Cortical bones assessment may be a better option for assessment. PMID:27689105

  2. Central injection of CDP-choline suppresses serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyici, Sinem; Basaran, Nesrin Filiz; Cavun, Sinan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-10-05

    In this study we aimed to test central administration of CDP-choline on serum ghrelin, leptin, glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol CDP-choline and saline were administered to male Wistar-Albino rats. For the measurement of serum leptin and ghrelin levels, blood samples were obtained baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min following i.c.v. CDP-choline injection. Equimolar doses of i.c.v. choline (1.0 µmol) and cytidine (1.0 µmol) were administered and measurements were repeated throughout the second round of the experiment. Atropine (10 µg) and mecamylamine (50 µg) were injected intracerebroventricularly prior to CDP-choline and measurements repeated in the third round of the experiment. After 1 µmol CDP-choline injection, serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 60 min (P=0.025), whereas serum leptin levels were increased at 60 and 120 min (P=0.012 and P=0.017 respectively). CDP-choline injections also induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum glucose and corticosterone levels. The effect of choline on serum leptin and ghrelin levels was similar with CDP-choline while no effect was seen with cytidine. Suppression of serum ghrelin levels was eliminated through mecamylamine pretreatment while a rise in leptin was prevented by both atropine and mecamylamine pretreatments. In conclusion; centrally injected CDP-choline suppressed serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels. The observed effects following receptor antagonist treatment suggest that nicotinic receptors play a role in suppression of serum ghrelin levels,whereas nicotinic and muscarinic receptors both play a part in the increase of serum leptin levels.

  3. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  4. Are serum zinc and copper levels related to semen quality?

    PubMed

    Yuyan, Li; Junqing, Wu; Wei, Yuan; Weijin, Zhou; Ersheng, Gao

    2008-04-01

    Low serum zinc levels are harmful to semen quality in Chinese men. In this study, eligible men aged 20-59 years old-excluding those who had ever had urinary or genital disease, tuberculosis, or occupational heavy metal contact-were examined for semen quality and serum zinc and copper concentrations. Progressive motility showed differences among the five copper groups, but multiple logistic analyses did not show that higher or lower serum copper levels had a significant effect on sperm quality. When serum zinc concentration was low, the risk of asthenozoospermia was higher. The ratio of Cu/Zn was higher in the progressive motility abnormal group than in the normal group.

  5. Rice lines with high leaf mineral nutrient levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K), and sometimes other mineral nutrients are often applied as fertilizer, in addition to Nitrogen, to help achieve high yields in Texas rice production. For some mineral nutrients, total levels in soil would be sufficient to support the desired rice crop growth, but th...

  6. Digestive efficiency mediated by serum calcium predicts bone mineral density in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Jarcho, Michael R; Power, Michael L; Layne-Colon, Donna G; Tardif, Suzette D

    2013-02-01

    Two health problems have plagued captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies for nearly as long as those colonies have existed: marmoset wasting syndrome and metabolic bone disease. While marmoset wasting syndrome is explicitly linked to nutrient malabsorption, we propose metabolic bone disease is also linked to nutrient malabsorption, although indirectly. If animals experience negative nutrient balance chronically, critical nutrients may be taken from mineral stores such as the skeleton, thus leaving those stores depleted. We indirectly tested this prediction through an initial investigation of digestive efficiency, as measured by apparent energy digestibility, and serum parameters known to play a part in metabolic bone mineral density of captive common marmoset monkeys. In our initial study on 12 clinically healthy animals, we found a wide range of digestive efficiencies, and subjects with lower digestive efficiency had lower serum vitamin D despite having higher food intakes. A second experiment on 23 subjects including several with suspected bone disease was undertaken to measure digestive and serum parameters, with the addition of a measure of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral density was positively associated with apparent digestibility of energy, vitamin D, and serum calcium. Further, digestive efficiency was found to predict bone mineral density when mediated by serum calcium. These data indicate that a poor ability to digest and absorb nutrients leads to calcium and vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D absorption may be particularly critical for indoor-housed animals, as opposed to animals in a more natural setting, because vitamin D that would otherwise be synthesized via exposure to sunlight must be absorbed from their diet. If malabsorption persists, metabolic bone disease is a possible consequence in common marmosets. These findings support our hypothesis that both wasting syndrome and metabolic bone

  7. Serum Hepcidin Levels in Childhood-Onset Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Seham F.; Akeel, Nagwa E.; Abdalhady, Mohamed A.; Elhewala, Ahmed A.; Ali, Al Shymaa A.; Amin, Ezzat K.; Sarhan, Dina T.; Almalky, Mohamed A.A.; Elhindawy, Eman M.; Salam, Mohamed M.A.; Soliman, Attia A.; Abdellatif, Sawsan H.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elsamad, Nahla A.; Hashem, Mustafa I.A.; Aziz, Khalid A.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.; Arafat, Manal S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Despite the growing evidence of iron imbalance in childhood-onset ischemic stroke, serum hepcidin level in those patients has not yet been researched. In this study, we aimed to estimate serum (hepcidin) level in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and to investigate whether subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium, which is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) derivative, could modulate serum hepcidin level in those patients. This was a case–control study included 60 (AIS) cases, and 100 healthy children with comparable age and gender as control group. For all subjects’ serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]) levels were assessed by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method). Iron parameters including (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were also measured. The patients were subdivided according to treatment with an LMWH derivative into 2 groups and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and 1 week after stroke onset for all cases. We found that AIS cases had higher serum iron, ferritin, and IL6 levels compared to the control group (all P < 0.01). Serum hepcidin was significantly higher in AIS cases (median, 36[15–73]ng/mL) compared to the control group (median, 24[10–41]ng/mL; P < 0.01). On the 1st day of AIS diagnosis, serum hepcidin levels were similar in both stroke subgroups (P > 0.05). However, on the 7th day of diagnosis serum hepcidin level decreased significantly in AIS cases treated with LMWH (group 1) (median, 36 vs 21 ng/mL; P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in serum hepcidin level in AIS cases not treated with LMWH (group 2) (P > 0.05). Serum hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and IL6 (r = 0.375, P < 0

  8. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED.

  9. Association between Serum Magnesium Levels and Depression in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Kai; Luan, Xiaoqian; Liu, Zhihua; Cai, Yan; Wang, Qiongzhang; Zhu, Beilei; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common psychiatric complication of stroke that is associated with a poor outcome in stroke patients. Our aim was to assess the association between the serum magnesium levels and the presence of PSD in Chinese patients. Two hundred nine stroke patients were included in the study. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 17-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at 3 months after stroke. Based on the depressive symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in line with the DSM-IV criteria for PSD. Serum magnesium levels were evaluated using the dimethyl aniline blue colorimetric method at admission. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Further, 120 normal subjects were recruited, and their serum magnesium levels were also measured as control. At 3 months, fifty-nine patients (28.2%) were diagnosed as PSD. The serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in both PSD patients and non-PSD patients than in normal subjects (p < 0.001). Indeed, patients with PSD showed lower serum magnesium levels (p < 0.001) than did non-PSD patients at admission. In the multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential variables, we found that an increased risk of PSD was associated with serum magnesium levels ≤ 0.84mmol/L (OR 2.614, 95% CI 1.178-5.798, p=0.018). Low serum magnesium levels at admission were found to be associated with the presence of PSD at 3 months after stroke. PMID:28053818

  10. Failure of pyridoxine to suppress raised serum prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    de Waal, J M; Steyn, A F; Harms, J H; Slabber, C F; Pannall, P R

    1978-02-25

    Pyridoxine has been reported as having an antilactogenic effect, presumably by suppressing prolactin secretion. We have measured serum prolactin levels during pyridoxine administration in two groups of hyperprolactinaemic subjects. In normal postpartum women, the postdelivery fall in serum prolactin levels did not differ significantly in treated and control subjects. In patients with chlorpromazine-induced hyperprolactinaemia and galactorrhoea, pyridoxine did not reduce the elevated levels. In neither group was milk production suppressed.

  11. A serum metabolomics-based profile in low bone mineral density postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Takeshi; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sato, Yuiko; Koboyashi, Tami; Katsuyama, Eri; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Miyamoto, Hiroya; Mori, Tomoaki; Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Morita, Mayu; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Tando, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Kana; Tsuji, Takashi; Funayama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2017-02-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized as a metabolic disorder of bone tissue, and various metabolic markers are now available to support its diagnosis and evaluate treatment effects. Substances produced as end products of metabolomic activities are the correlated factors to the biological or metabolic status, and thus, metabolites are considered highly sensitive markers of particular pathological states, including osteoporosis. Here we undertook comprehensive serum metabolomics analysis in postmenopausal women with or without low bone mineral density (low BMD vs controls) for the first time using capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry. Among the metabolites tested, 57 were detected in sera. Levels of hydroxyproline, Gly-Gly and cystine, differed significantly between groups, with Gly-Gly and cystine significantly lower in the low BMD group and hydroxyproline, a reported marker of osteoporosis, significantly higher. Levels of TRACP5b, a bone resorption marker, were significantly higher in the low BMD group, supporting the study's validity. Taken together, our findings represent novel metabolomic profiling in low BMD in postmenopausal women.

  12. Serum hepcidin concentrations correlate with serum iron level and outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Wen-Yao; Zhao, Ting; Zhong, Qi; Zhou, Kai; Meng, Zhao-You; Wang, Yan-Chun; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fang, Huang; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2015-10-01

    Iron plays a detrimental role in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage, while hepcidin is the most important iron-regulated hormone. Here, we investigate the association between serum hepcidin and serum iron, outcome in patients with ICH. Serum samples of 81 cases with ICH were obtained on consecutive days to detect the levels of hepcidin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) was measured at admission and on days 7 and 30, and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was evaluated at 3 months after ICH. Additionally, the correlations of serum hepcidin with serum iron and the mRS score were analyzed by a generalized linear model. Higher serum hepcidin levels were detected in patients with poor outcomes (P < 0.001), and the mRS score increased by a mean of 1.135 points (95% CI 1.021-1.247, P < 0.001) for every serum hepcidin quartile after adjusting for other prognostic variables. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum hepcidin was negatively correlated with serum iron (r = -0.5301, P < 0.001), and a significantly lower concentration of serum iron was found in patients with poor outcomes (P = 0.007). Additionally, serum hepcidin was independently correlated with mRS scores of ICH patients (OR 1.115, 95% CI 0.995-1.249, P = 0.021). Our results suggest that serum hepcidin is closely related to the outcome of patients with ICH and may be a biological marker for outcome prediction.

  13. Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ≤ 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders.

  14. Serum IL-9 levels and sublingual immunotherapy: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Th9 is a new T cell subset characterized by IL-9 production. It has been reported that serum IL-9 levels are related with symptom severity in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). This study is aimed at investigating whether serum IL-9 may be modulated by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in patients with persistent AR due to Parietaria allergy. Twenty-one AR patients (9 males, median age 41 years) successfully treated with SLIT and 52 AR patients (25 males, median age 34 years) treated only with drugs were evaluated during the pollen season. Serum IL-9 was dosed in all patients. SLIT-treated patients showed significantly lower serum IL-9 levels than untreated AR patients (p <0.0001). In conclusion, this preliminary study shows that a single pre-seasonal SLIT course might modulate serum IL-9.

  15. Serum & cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels in children with acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, A; Rusia, U; Anand, N K; Sood, S K

    1989-06-01

    Serum and CSF ferritin were estimated in 35 consecutive patients of acute leukaemia at the time of admission and on induction of remission. Serum ferritin levels were significantly raised in 94 per cent patients of acute leukaemia. The mean (+/- SD) serum ferritin (314.36 +/- 158.4 micrograms/1) was significantly higher when compared with control values (P less than 0.001). Remission induction resulted in significant fall in serum ferritin values to a mean of 149 (+/- 98.7) micrograms/l (P less than 0.05). Serum ferritin is thus of value in assessing the state of remission and is a sensitive indicator of the leukaemic cell mass and the state of activity of the disease. CSF ferritin levels in acute leukaemia were comparable to normal control values. CSF ferritin did not reflect CNS involvement in acute leukaemia and therefore its value as a tumour marker of CNS infiltration is doubtful.

  16. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  17. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  18. [Mineral content of blood serum in greenland seal pups during the period of adaptation to the captivity].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    2003-01-01

    Results of investigation of mineral levels in the harp seal pups blood serum in connection with adaptation to the captivity are presented. The contents of copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, cobalt, manganese, sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus in the first 18 day of animals keeping in the oceanarium were determined. The causes of the revealed differences in changes of the contents of single elements during the observation term, and also question on duration of fading stress alterations and stabilization of biochemical parameters of marine mammals blood are discussed.

  19. Serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ohyoshi, Yukimi; Makino, Takamitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Wakana; Fukushima, Satoshi; Inoue, Yuji; Ihn, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Microvascular damage is one of the primary pathologic components of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Serological abnormalities of angiogenic and angiostatic factors in SSc have previously been described. Like these factors, the plasma levels of leptin were significantly elevated in patients with SSc in comparison to normal controls. However, leptin receptor has not been examined in patients with SSc. The current study used sandwich ELISA to evaluate the serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with SSc. Serum samples were obtained from 36 patients with SSc. Samples were also obtained from 12 healthy control subjects and 10 patients with scleroderma spectrum disorder (SSD) who did not fulfill the criteria for SSc but who had the potential to develop SSc. Mean serum leptin receptor levels were significantly higher in patients with SSD than in patients with SSc (255.7 ng/mL vs. 184.6 ng/mL, p < 0.05 according to a Mann-Whitney test). There were no statistically significant differences between healthy control subjects and patients with SSc. Clinical parameters were evaluated, and the frequency of esophageal reflux was significantly lower in patients with elevated serum leptin receptor levels than in those with reduced levels (6.3% vs. 35.3%, p < 0.05). In summary, these results suggest that the serum levels of leptin receptor are a clinically useful marker of SSD, and measurement of serum leptin receptor over time in patients with SSD may lead to early detection of SSc. PMID:25343103

  20. The determination of serum concentrations of osteocalcin in growing pigs and its relationship to end-measures of bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Carter, S D; Cromwell, G L; Combs, T R; Colombo, G; Fanti, P

    1996-11-01

    Osteocalcin, a 49-amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein produced by the osteoblast, has been shown in laboratory animals to be a better marker of bone turnover than alkaline phosphatase. To determine serum osteocalcin levels in growing pigs, we isolated pure porcine osteocalcin and developed a double-antibody RIA. To evaluate the effects of dietary Ca and P levels on serum osteocalcin, 36 individually penned crossbred pigs (19.5 kg initial BW) were fed fortified corn-soybean meal diets (.95% lysine) containing four levels of Ca (.42, .66, .90, 1.14%) and P (.35, .55, .75, .95%) in a 30-d test. Increasing dietary Ca and P improved body weight gain quadratically (P < .02). Most bone traits improved quadratically (P < .05) with increasing Ca and P. Pigs were bled on d 0, 10, 20, and 30 to determine serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and osteocalcin. Osteocalcin decreased (P < .02) linearly with increasing Ca and P on d 10, 20, and 30. However, this effect was much more pronounced on d 20 and 30. Alkaline phosphatase decreased with the first incremental increase in dietary Ca and P, but was not affected by higher levels on any day measured. Osteocalcin was inversely correlated with growth rate (r = -.54, P < .01), bone strength (r = -.57, P < .01), metacarpal ash (r = -.29, P < .10), femur ash (r = -.60, P < .01), and femur ash weight (r = -.65, P < .01). Similar results were found for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Alkaline phosphatase was not correlated with performance or most bone traits on d 30. Based on this model, these results suggest that serum osteocalcin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are better predictors of bone mineralization and(or) turnover in pigs than serum alkaline phosphatase.

  1. Serum iron and ferritin level in idiopathic Parkinson.

    PubMed

    Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Farid, Gholnar Abbasi; Talebi, Mahnaz; Pashapou, Ali; Majidi, Jafar; Goldust, Mohamad

    2012-11-15

    Parkinson disease is a prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disorder, especially in western countries and among the elderly. This study aimed at evaluating serum iron and ferritin in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. In this case-control study, 50 patients with clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson disease (case group) were evaluated during a 12 month period. Fifty healthy persons (control group) recruited as well. Serum iron and ferritin levels were measured by biochemical and quantitative luminance methods, respectively in the case and control group. Fifty patients, 28 males and 22 females with the mean age of 64.53 +/- 10.18 (40-84) years and 50 controls were enrolled. Serum iron levels were 70.22 +/- 25.18 mg dL(-1) and 67.62 +/- 39.53 mg dL(-1) in case and control group, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were 129.79 +/- 137.67 ng dL(-1) and 109.87 +/- 154.71 ng dL(-1) in case and control group, respectively. There was no significant difference between different grades of Parkinson disease considering the serum level of iron or ferritin. The current study showed that generally there is no significant difference between the patients with the idiopathic Parkinson disease and healthy controls in terms of serum iron and ferritin levels. The same results were attributable to different grades of the disease.

  2. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  3. Serum uric acid is associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density in healthy Chinese males older than 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jing; Chen, Weijun; Feng, Xinhui; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Zhenxing; He, Li; Ye, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate the association of serum uric acid (UA) levels with bone mineral density (BMD) at all skeletal sites in healthy Chinese males >50 years of age. Methods A cross-sectional study of 385 Chinese males >50 years of age who underwent health checkup in Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University in Shanghai, China, was conducted. Clinical and bone characteristics were compared in different UA tertiles (UA1: UA <4.7 mg/dL, UA2: 4.7 mg/dL ≤ UA <6 mg/dL and UA3: UA ≥6 mg/dL). Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to study the correlation of UA with BMD at various skeletal sites. Results Serum UA levels were positively associated with higher BMD and T-values at the lumbar spine, but not at other skeletal sites, after adjusting for multiple confounding factors. Lumbar spine BMD; the T- and Z-values at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck; as well as intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels are higher in the highest tertile of UA than in the second tertile of UA. Conclusion Our results provide epidemiological evidence in Chinese Han males aged >50 years that serum UA levels are positively correlated with lumbar spine BMD and T-values, suggesting that UA may exert protective effect on bone density at the lumbar spine in Chinese males >50 years of age. PMID:28280317

  4. Serum copper and zinc levels in melanoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.L.; Spitler, L.E.; McNeill, K.L.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    Serum copper levels (SCL) and serum zinc levels (SZL) were evaluated in malignant melanoma patients at various clinical stages. Copper levels were generally found to be elevated, reflecting the degree and extent of tumor activity. Zinc levels and, hence, SCL:SZL ratios did not reflect tumor activity. SCL appeared to prognosticate disease progression in that all patients whose values never declined below 150 ..mu..g/100 ml died during the course of the study. However, not all patients who died from tumor metastases displayed persistent elevations of SCL. Patients receiving BCG immunotherapy appeared to have higher SCL than untreated patients.

  5. Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Dyslipidemia in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferritin is associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance in adults. We aimed to study the association between serum ferritin levels and dyslipidemia in adolescents, because dyslipidemia is considered an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the young. Methods We analyzed 1,879 subjects (1,026 boys and 853 girls) from the 2009–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Subjects were categorized into quartiles according to their lipid parameters, which were classified according to age and gender. Those in the highest quartile groups for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride concentrations were diagnosed as having dyslipidemia. Those in the lowest quartile for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were diagnosed with abnormal levels. Results In boys, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly correlated with serum ferritin levels. In both boys and girls, serum ferritin levels were negatively associated with HDL-C values, even after adjusting for all covariates. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride concentrations in girls. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with major dyslipidemia parameters, more prominently in boys than in girls, and this association represents a cardiometabolic risk factor. PMID:27070153

  6. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  7. Tissue and serum sialidase levels in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, H; Süer, S; Güngör, Z; Baloglu, H; Kökoglu, E

    1999-02-08

    Breast cancer is both one of the most common and one of the most treatable of all human malignancies. It has been suggested by various investigators that sialic acid increases in the sera of cancerous patients. In cancer patients, an increase in the levels of serum sialic acid may also be due to an increase in the activity of serum or tissue sialidase. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the concentration of sialidase in serum and breast tissue could be used as a tumor marker in breast cancer. In this study; serum sialidase levels in 26 patient with breast cancer and 31 controls were found to be 77.04+/-25.07 U/l and 55.56+/-7.50 U/l, respectively. The mean tissue sialidase levels in 26 breast cancer patients and 13 controls were 39.76+/-17.03 U/g protein and 14.30+/-7.09 U/g protein, respectively. Serum and tissue sialidase levels in breast cancer were significantly higher than those found in the control group (P < 0.001). The mean serum and tissue sialidase levels in 14 Grade I-II and 12 Grade III breast cancer patients were found to be 67.73+/-11.87 U/l and 33.41+/-12.17 U/g protein and 87.89+/-31.94 U/l and 47.17+/-19.30 U/g protein, respectively. Also we found a significant difference between the levels of serum and tissue sialidase in Grade I-II and III (P < 0.05).

  8. Serum anti - TPO levels in benign and malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Sabitha; Suneetha; Mohanty, Shruti; Rao, Pragna

    2009-07-01

    Breast cancer is a hormone dependent neoplasm. Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the association of anti - TPO levels in patients having complaints of a lump in breast. Serum samples and Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples were collected from 31 female patients with a lump in breast between the age group of 20-75 years. 31 age matched normal healthy controls were also examined for the same parameters. Serum samples were analyzed for its anti - TPO levels. FNAC reports confirmed patients as having duct cell carcinoma. They had raised serum anti - TPO levels compared to controls. FNAC results of others (n=26) were reported as fibroadenoma whose anti - TPO levels were less than the controls.

  9. Sexual hormone serum levels and temporomandibular disorders. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Landi, Nicola; Lombardi, Ilaria; Manfredini, Daniele; Casarosa, Elena; Biondi, Katya; Gabbanini, Massimo; Bosco, Mario

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sexual hormones in a young adult population affected by articular forms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), measuring 17beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels. In the study, we included 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I group II diagnosis of disk displacement and/or group III diagnosis of arthralgia, osteoarthritis or osteoarhrosis, and 32 healthy controls. In female patients, blood samples were collected in follicular and luteal phases of the same menstrual cycle, while only one blood sample was drawn in male patients. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were determined using a radioimmunoassay and the comparison between the two groups was performed using a t test. Regarding estradiol, our results showed significantly higher serum levels in patients affected by TMD than in healthy controls, both in males (p < 0.01) and in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in females (p < 0.05), while no difference was found for progesterone serum levels. Considering the multifactorial etiology of TMD and the hypothesis that some joint tissues (e.g., bone, cartilage, collagen, proteins) could be a target for sexual hormones, these data suggest that high serum estrogen levels might be implicated in the physiopathology of TMD.

  10. Serum leptin levels may be correlated with cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun-Bin; Yao, Xian-Li; Sun, Ping-Ge; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xing; Liu, Jun-Qi; Li, Yi-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background: To investigate the relation between serum leptin levels and cerebral infarction (CI) by meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Scientific literature databases were searched for studies published in Chinese and English. After retrieving relevant articles through database searches and screening using predefined selection criteria, high-quality studies related to our research topic were selected for inclusion in this meta-analysis. All statistical analyses were conducted using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey, USA). Results: The study results revealed that serum leptin levels were significantly higher in CI patients as compared to normal controls. The outcomes of subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the serum leptin levels in CI patients were significantly higher than normal controls in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Further, subgroup analysis based on the detection method indicated that the serum leptin levels in CI patients were significantly higher compared with normal controls when measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) but enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based measurements did not show such statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis results suggest that serum leptin levels in CI patients may be closely correlated with CI risks. PMID:27904550

  11. Serum Reactive Oxygen Metabolite Levels Predict Severe Exacerbations of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Keitaro; Watanabe, Masato; Sada, Mitsuru; Inui, Toshiya; Nakamura, Masuo; Honda, Kojiro; Wada, Hiroo; Mikami, Yu; Matsuzaki, Hirotaka; Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Hikari; Kogane, Toshiyuki; Kohyama, Tadashi; Takizawa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are intimately linked to chronic airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of BA. However, the role of ROS in the management of BA patients is not yet clear. We attempted to determine the role of ROS as a biomarker in the clinical setting of BA. Subjects and Methods We enrolled patients with BA from 2013 through 2015 and studied the degrees of asthma control, anti-asthma treatment, pulmonary function test results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels, and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Results We recruited 110 patients with BA. Serum ROM levels correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count (rs = 0.273, p = 0.004), neutrophil count (rs = 0.235, p = 0.014), CRP (rs = 0.403, p < 0.001), and IL-6 (rs = 0.339, p < 0.001). Serum ROM levels and IL-8 and CRP levels negatively correlated with %FEV1 (rs = -0.240, p = 0.012, rs = -0.362, p < 0.001, rs = -0.197, p = 0.039, respectively). Serum ROM levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced severe exacerbation within 3 months than in patients who did not (339 [302–381] vs. 376 [352–414] CARR U, p < 0.025). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis showed that ROM levels correlated significantly with the occurrence of severe exacerbation (area under the curve: 0.699, 95% CI: 0.597–0.801, p = 0.025). Conclusions Serum levels of ROM were significantly associated with the degrees of airway obstruction, WBC counts, neutrophil counts, IL-6, and severe exacerbations. This biomarker may be useful in predicting severe exacerbations of BA. PMID:27776186

  12. Association of Serum Osteoprotegerin Levels with Bone Loss in Chronic Kidney Disease: Insights from the KNOW-CKD Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Han, Seung Hyeok; Choi, Kyu Hun; Lee, Joongyub; Chae, Dong Wan; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Ahn, Curie; Kim, Soo Wan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin, a potent osteoclast activation inhibitor, decreases bone resorption and positively affects bone mineral density. This study examined the association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, a condition associated with increased risk of mineral and bone disorders. The bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; serum osteoprotegerin levels were measured at baseline for 1,423 patients enrolled in the prospective KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Patients aged ≥50 years and with a T-score ≤ –2.5 were diagnosed as having osteoporosis. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated independent association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine (B: –0.489, 95% confidence interval [CI]: –0.883 to –0.095, P = 0.015), and total hip (B: –0.349, 95% CI: –0.672 to –0.027, P = 0.027). However, bone mineral density of the femur neck was not associated with serum osteoprotegerin levels in women. After adjustments, no independent association was found between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone mineral density in men. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, serum osteoprotegerin levels were associated with increased risk of osteoporosis in women (odds ratio [OR]: 4.72, 95% CI: 1.35 to 16.52, P = 0.015), but not in men (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.04 to 1.31, P = 0.095). To summarize, in female patients with chronic kidney disease, increased serum osteoprotegerin levels were independently associated with decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and total hip, and with increased risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, the measurement of serum osteoprotegerin concentration might be useful as a surrogate marker for determining bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, especially for women, although not so

  13. Serum Selenium Levels in Euthyroid Nodular Thyroid Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sakız, Davut; Kaya, Ahmet; Kulaksizoglu, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    The thyroid gland is susceptible to nodulation. The mechanism responsible for the growth of only some follicular cells, which results in nodule formation, is not yet clear. Selenium deficiency may be a risk factor in the development of thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between selenium levels in patients with euthyroid nodular thyroid disease. Seventy patients with a solitary euthyroid thyroid nodule, 70 patients with more than one euthyroid nodule, and 60 healthy patients without thyroid nodules were included in the study. Venous serum samples were stored at -80°C and analyzed the same day using spectrometry. The selenium levels of patients with multiple thyroid nodules, solitary nodules, and patients without nodules were 57.3 ± 14.8 μg/L; 58.8 ± 15.1 μg/L; and 57.6 ± 13.3 μg/L, respectively. The mean serum selenium level of all patients included in the study was 57.9 ± 14.4 μg/L. Although serum selenium levels were slightly higher in men, a statistically significant difference was not observed. In our study, a significant relationship between serum selenium levels and nodular thyroid disease was not seen. Our study was undertaken in an iodine sufficient region. Mean serum selenium levels were lower compared with many other studies, which may be associated with the low selenium content of the soil. Nodular thyroid disease shows multifactorial features. When our study is considered together with previous studies, serum selenium levels may considered to be effective on structural thyroid diseases if combined with additional factors such as severe iodine deficiency. Further studies are required to assess the role of selenium in thyroid nodule formation.

  14. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace elements in response to supervised aerobic training in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Muaz H

    2016-01-01

    Background Life style and physical activity play a pivotal role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism for better bone metabolism and improvement of physical disorders is not clear yet. Trace minerals such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn are essential precursors for most vital biological process, especially those of bone health. Objective The main target of this study was evaluating the effective role of supervised aerobic exercise for 1 hour/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks in the functions of trace elements in bone health through measuring bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis (T-score), bone markers, and trace element concentrations in healthy subjects aged 30–60 years with age average of 41.2±4.9. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (47 males, 53 females; age range 30–60 years) were recruited for this study. Based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan analysis, the participants were classified into three groups: normal (n=30), osteopenic (n=40), and osteoporotic (n=30). Following, 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), BMD, T-score, and trace elements such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results Significant improvement in serum BAP level, T-score, and BMD were observed in all participants following 12 weeks of moderate exercise. Participants with osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in serum Ca and Mn, along with decrease in serum Cu and Zn levels following 12 weeks of aerobic training. In control group, the improvements in serum trace elements and body mass index were significantly linked with the enhancement in the levels of BAP, BMD hip, and BMD spine. These results supported the preventive effects of moderate exercise in healthy subjects against osteoporosis. In both sexes, the changes in serum trace elements significantly correlated (P<0.05) with the improvement in BAP, BMD hip, BMD spine, and body mass index in all groups

  15. Evaluation of serum immunoglobulin E levels in bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Thirunavukkarasu; Roopakala, Mysore Subrahmanyam; Silvia, Chickballapur Rayappa Wilma Delphine; Chandrashekara, Srikantaiah; Rao, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immunoglobulin E and associated cellular responses are responsible for allergic airway diseases. A hypersensitivity reaction initiated by immunologic mechanisms, mediated by IgE antibodies occurs in allergic asthma Aim: To estimate and compare serum IgE levels in mild, moderate, and severe asthmatics and in normal subjects and to obtain a mathematical model describing the relationship between serum IgE levels and severity of asthma. Materials and Methods: A stratified sample of 60 patients within age group of 18-60 years and 31 male and 29 female asthmatic patients and 13 healthy controls within 18-60 years were included in this study and classified according to GINA classification. Serum IgE levels were estimated by using ELISA kit. Results: Mean IgE levels ranged from 151.95 IU/ml in normal subjects to 1045.32 IU/ml in severe asthmatics. The model developed was 27% efficient. Conclusion: Serum Immunoglobulin E levels were high in asthmatics as compared to normal subjects. On an average, the levels increased as the severity of asthma increased. However, there was no statistically significant correlation since the variability in each level of asthma was very large PMID:20931031

  16. Measuring Serum Level of Ionized Magnesium in Patients with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    ASSARZADEGAN, Farhad; ASADOLLAHI, Mostafa; DERAKHSHANFAR, Hojjat; KASHEFIZADEH, Azam; ARYANI, Omid; KHORSHIDI, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Objective Migraine is known as one of the most disabling types of headache. Among the variety of theories to explain mechanism of migraine, role of serum magnesium is of great importance. Serum magnesium, as a pathogenesis factor, was considerably lower in patients with migraine. We established this study to see if serum ionized magnesium, not its total serum level, was different in migraineurs from normal individuals. Materials & Methods In this case control study, all participants were recruited from Neurology Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Ninety-six people were entered in the study, 48 for each of case and control groups. The two groups were matched by age and sex. Migrainous patients were selected according to the criteria of International Headache Society. Various characteristics of headache were recorded based on patients’ report. Controls had no history of migraine or any significant chronic headaches. Serum ionized magnesium level was measured in both of the case and control groups and the results were compared to each other. P value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Results Case group consisted of 13 males, 35 females, and control group included 14 males, as well as 34 females. Mean age was 33.47± 10.32 yr for case and 30.45 ±7.12 yr for control group. Twenty-eight patients described the intensity of their headaches as moderate; 15 patients had severe and the 5 remainders had only mild headaches. Mean serum level of ionized Mg was 1.16± 0.08 in case group and 1.13± 0.11 in control group of no significant difference (P >0.05). Conclusion Serum ionized magnesium, which is the active form of this ion, was not significantly different in migraineurs and those without migraine. This may propose a revision regarding pathogenesis of migraine and question the role of magnesium in this type of headache. PMID:26401148

  17. Serum Copper and Zinc Levels Among Iranian Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, Zahra; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Abdollahi, Kourosh; Shojaei, Shahla; Moradi, Mostafa; Malekzadeh, Mahyar

    2016-04-01

    Alterations of trace element concentrations adversely affect biological processes and could promote carcinogenesis. Only a few studies have investigated the degree of changes in copper and zinc levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to compare the serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in patients with CRC from Iran with those of healthy subjects. Cu and Zn concentrations in the serum of 119 cancer patients and 128 healthy individuals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. We found a significant decrease in the total mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in CRC patients as compared with the control group (137.5 ± 122.38 vs. 160.68 ± 45.12 μg/dl and 81.04 ± 52.05 vs. 141.64 ± 51.75, respectively). However, the serum Cu/Zn ratio in the patient group was significantly higher than that measured in the control group (p = 0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean values of serum Cu and Zn concentrations between young (<60 years) and elderly (≥60 years) patients. However, the Cu/Zn ratio in <60-year cases was significantly higher than that in ≥60-year age group (p < 0.05). In addition, mean serum Cu level in normal weight patients was significantly higher than that in overweight/obese cases (132.31 ± 87.43 vs. 103.81 ± 53.72 μg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.05). There was no difference in mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in patients stratified by the site, stage, or differentiation grade of tumors. Our findings suggest that imbalance in Cu and Zn trace element level is associated with CRC and might play an important role in cancer development among Iranian patients.

  18. Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Serum Vitamin D with Low Energy Hip and Distal Radius Fractures: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Tahririan, Mohammad Ali; Motififard, Mehdi; Omidian, Ali; Aghdam, Hossein Akbari; Esmaeali, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between serum vitamin D and the status of bone mineral density in patients with low-energy hip and distal radius fracture. Methods: This retrospective case-control study was performed between January 2013 and January 2014. Participants aged 55 years or older were divided to case group including 85 patients with low-energy hip fracture and 83 patients with low-energy distal radius fractures, and 82 subjects as a matched control group. Bone mineral density was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum sample was obtained to check vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and protein. Results: Study subjects for final evaluation consisted of 78 in hip and distal radius fracture groups and 80 in control group. There were no significant differences in the mean serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase between the three groups. The overall mean serum level of vitamin D3 was significantly different among the three groups. Similar results were observed with hip and spine t-score between the groups. Conclusion: There is not only a direct relation between serum vitamin D and the risk of low energy hip and distal radius fractures, but also a significant relation between low bone density in hip and spine area with low serum calcium was observed. PMID:28271083

  19. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides β-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. β-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood.

  20. Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Renee M; Nyland, Jennifer F; Silva, Ines A; Ventura, Ana Maria; de Souza, Jose Maria; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2010-05-01

    Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of auto-antibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (antinuclear auto-antibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (antinucleolar auto-antibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socio-economic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations.

  1. Mercury exposure, serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies, and serum cytokine levels in mining populations in Amazonian Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M.; Nyland, Jennifer F.; Silva, Ines A.; Ventura, Ana Maria; Souza, Jose Maria de; Silbergeld, Ellen K.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an immunotoxic substance that has been shown to induce autoimmune disease in rodent models, characterized by lymphoproliferation, overproduction of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgE), and high circulating levels of autoantibodies directed at antigens located in the nucleus (anti-nuclear autoantibodies, or ANA) or the nucleolus (anti-nucleolar autoantibodies, or ANoA). We have reported elevated levels of ANA and ANoA in human populations exposed to mercury in artisanal gold mining, though other confounding variables that may also modulate ANA/ANoA levels were not well-controlled. The goal of this study is to specifically test whether occupational and environmental conditions (other than mercury exposure) that are associated with artisanal gold mining affect the prevalence of markers of autoimmune dysfunction. We measured ANA, ANoA, and cytokine concentrations in serum and compared results from mercury-exposed artisanal gold miners to those from diamond and emerald miners working under similar conditions and with similar socioeconomic status and risks of infectious disease. Mercury-exposed gold miners had higher prevalence of detectable ANA and ANoA and higher titers of ANA and ANoA as compared to diamond and emerald miners with no occupational mercury exposure. Also, mercury-exposed gold-miners with detectable ANA or ANoA in serum had significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in serum as compared to the diamond and emerald miners. This study provides further evidence that mercury exposure may lead to autoimmune dysfunction and systemic inflammation in affected populations. PMID:20176347

  2. Has westernization influenced serum cholesterol levels in Bougainvillian males?

    PubMed

    Iser, D J; Avera, K

    1993-12-01

    This study was performed to see if there was any difference in cholesterol levels between three socioeconomic groups of Bougainvillian males, each with different levels of exposure to western influences. Serum cholesterol levels were measured in 50 subjects from each of 1) village people leading a traditional lifestyle, 2) town dwellers exposed to western influences, and 3) mine workers who regularly dined in the company mess. Mean cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the mine workers (5.3 +/- SD 0.9 mmol/l) and the town dwellers (4.8 +/- SD 0.8 mmol/l) than in the village people (3.7 +/- SD 1.0 mmol/l). There was a positive correlation between serum cholesterol level and age in two groups, the town dwellers and the village people, even though the latter group had a low mean cholesterol level. There was a significant correlation between body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol level for the entire group as well as the town dwellers and mine workers. The higher mean cholesterol levels in the mine workers and town dwellers than in the village people may reflect a difference in lifestyle, particularly in diet, between these groups, and may represent an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease.

  3. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    SciTech Connect

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 ..mu..U/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 ..mu..U/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 ..mu..Um1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 ..mu..U/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy.

  4. Serum transaminase levels after experimental paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, M F; Fulker, M J; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J; Losowsky, M S

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between serum transaminase levels and the extent of paracetamol-induced liver necrosis has been investigated in the rat. Three methods of histological quantitation were used to assess of necrosis--arbitrary grading, point counting, and the image-analysis computer. Highly significant correlations were obtained between the three methods and all were found to be reproducible. A close correlation was found between the extent of hepatic necrosis and the serum ASAT and ALAT 24 hours after a large dose (4 g/kg) of paracetamol. Likewise, the mean grade of necrosis correlated reasonably well with the serum enzyme levels in the recovery phase at 36 and 72 hours, although the transaminase level for a given degree of necrosis was considerably lower at 72 hours than at 24 hours. These findings suggest that serum transaminase levels gives a reliable indication of the severity of hepatic necrosis if the time of ingestion of the paracetamol is known and taken into account. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:1205274

  5. Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

    PubMed

    Kellum, John A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Shaw, Andrew D; Clermont, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist.

  6. Serum hyaluronic acid levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Turan, Yasemin; Cerrahoglu, Lale; Isbilen, Banu

    2008-05-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate serum hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and the relationship between clinical parameters in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Approximately 30 patients with AS and 30 healthy individuals were recruited in this study consecutively. Cross-sectional study was planned, and demographic, clinical, functional, radiological, and laboratory data of patients were evaluated. Disease activity, functional status, and quality of life were assessed, respectively, with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Short-Form 36 (SF-36). Mander Enthesis Index (MEI) was used for evaluation of enthesis involvement. We examined serum concentrations of HA (ng/ml) in patients with AS and controls. The mean ages of patients and control group were 38.3 (SD=10.8) and 42.7 (SD=10.6) years, respectively. The mean of serum HA levels in AS patients was 40.4 (SD=34.8) ng/ml and in controls was 24.9 (SD=20.2). There was significant difference of HA levels between two groups (p=0.04). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between HA level and distance of hand-floor (r=0.444, p=0.014), modified lumbar Schober's (r= -0.413, p=0.023), distance of chin to chest (r=0.436, p=0.016), right sacroiliit grade (r=0.601, p<0.001), left sacroiliit grade (r=0.610, p<0.001), C reactive protein level (r=0.404, p=0.027), albumin (r= -0.464, p=0.010), C3 (p=0.449, p=0.013), and IgA levels (r=0.369, p=0.045). However, there was no significant correlation between HA levels with MEI, BASFI, BASDAI, and SF-36 (p >or= 0.05). Serum HA level was significantly higher in AS patients than controls. However, there was no significant correlation between serum HA level and disease-specific measures as BASFI and BASDAI; it had significant relation with spinal mobility limitation, sacroiliitis, and laboratory parameters related with acute inflammation. The serum HA level may be a potential biomarker of axial

  7. Serum ghrelin levels in patients with Behcet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Ilker; Demir, Betül; Cicek, Demet; Dertlioğlu, Selma Bakar; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozturk, Savas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Behcet’s disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Aim To measure serum ghrelin levels in BD patients and healthy controls and to investigate its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Material and methods Thirty BD patients and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Ghrelin levels were measured in blood samples using ELISA. Results The mean serum ghrelin level in BD patients (28.57 ±14.04) was significantly lower compared to healthy controls (40.72 ±23.21) (p = 0.01). The mean serum ghrelin level in BD patients who had MetS (24.18 ±12.73) was lower compared to BD patients who did not have MetS (30.77 ±14.45), but this difference was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions Ghrelin levels were lower in BD patients compared to healthy controls. There was no association between reduced ghrelin levels and MetS; however, there was a negative correlation between ghrelin levels and disease activity. PMID:28035223

  8. Measurement of human serum IgD levels.

    PubMed

    Overed-Sayer, Catherine L; Mosedale, David E; Goodall, Margaret; Grainger, David J

    2009-04-01

    This unit describes an ELISA for the quantitative measurement of IgD levels in human serum. The ELISA is highly specific and sensitive, with a minimum detectable concentration of 30 pg/ml and more than 10,000-fold specificity for IgD over all other human immunoglobulins. Linear dilution characteristics enable measurement of IgD concentrations ranging over 5 orders of magnitude. These factors are vital for the IgD assay, since IgD makes up only a small proportion of the total immunoglobulins present in normal sera, and IgD serum concentrations are known to vary widely between individuals.

  9. Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Patients With Candiduria

    PubMed Central

    Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314

  10. Salivary and serum immunoglobulin levels in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2003-02-01

    The salivary and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G, M and A (IgG, IgM and IgA), and the salivary concentrations of albumin were measured by ELISA in 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 32 healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis had significantly higher salivary concentrations of IgG, IgM and albumin, and higher serum concentrations of IgG, IgM and IgA, but significantly lower salivary concentrations of IgA than the healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis were treated with either methylprednisolone, sodium aurothiomalate, metronidazole and spiramycin, or oral hygiene products. After three months of treatment, the cats receiving methylprednisolone had a significant reduction in serum IgG levels compared to the cats treated with sodium aurothiomalate or metronidazole and spiramycin, but after six months of treatment there were no significant differences between the groups. Before the treatments, the levels of oral inflammation were not correlated significantly with any of the serum or salivary immunoglobulin levels. However, the changes in oral inflammation were correlated significantly with the changes in the salivary IgM concentration after three and six months of treatment, and with the change in the salivary IgA concentration after six months of treatment.

  11. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    PubMed

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ateş, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were p<0.05. Serum Ca levels were not significantly different between all groups on days 45 and 75. Serum P level was significantly higher in the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in

  12. [Serum phosphate level and the prognosis of dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takayuki

    2009-02-01

    U-shaped relationship was observed between serum phosphate and mortality in dialysis patients. The connection between high serum phosphate and mortality can be explained partially by the contribution of phosphate to vascular calcification and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Epidemiological study about the prior history of hip fracture in Japan revealed that high serum phosphate was associated with lower prevalence of prior fracture by univariate analysis. However, this association was eliminated by including many nutritional variables in multivariate analysis. This analysis also showed that severe hypophosphatemia less than 3 mg/dL was independently associated with high prevalence, implying the connection of malnutrition with bone health. Epidemiological data regarding incident fracture is also needed to know the factors really contributing to bone fragility. There is no way other than to determine target ranges of serum phosphate using observational studies, since interventional trial with hard outcome was practically impossible. The focus of observational studies will move on, in future, to the association between mortality and the methods to decrease serum phosphate level.

  13. [Serum IgD levels in various dermatoses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Guilhou, J J; Lhie, E; Robinet-Lévy, M; Malbos, S; Meynadier, J

    1980-01-01

    Serum IgD levels were determined by radial immunodiffusion among 349 patients with various dermatoses and 40 normal blood donnors. An increase of serum concentrations was found in atopic patients 62,5 p. 100 of which had levels over 50 mg/1 compared to 20 p. 100 in controls. No correlation was found between IgD and IgE levels in these patients. An increase (but statistically not significant) was also found in chronic urticaria whereas levels were normal in acute urticaria. No difference was found in contact dermatitis nor in psoriasis. High levels occurred in most of patients with primo-secondary syphilis and in acne pustulosa, whereas low IgD levels were found in most patients with malignant proliferative diseases (mycosis fongoide, malignant melanoma, carcinoma). However, the number of patients tested in these groups is too small to allow definitive conclusions. In our experience, determination of serum IgD values is not very useful for diagnosis in dermatologic patients.

  14. Pyoderma gangrenosum with increased levels of serum cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kozono, Kana; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Satoko; Itoh, Eriko; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-12-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented after an episode of accidental trauma with a painful ulcer on her scalp which rapidly enlarged in size, accompanied by central necrosis and undermining ulceration. The patient's past history was negative for underlying systemic disease, although she had had a similar post-traumatic intractable leg ulcer 3 years prior, which was unresponsive to surgical management but successfully treated with systemic steroids. A biopsied specimen from the scalp showed marked neutrophilic infiltrates in the dermis, compatible with a diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). The large ulcerative lesion responded very well to oral steroid therapy, showing rapid epithelialization. Serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated prior to treatment, with decrease to normal levels after treatment. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels were within normal limits. The significance and pathogenic role of cytokine burst in PG is reviewed and discussed.

  15. Serum levels of TWEAK in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Özlem; Sivrikaya, Abdullah; Toker, Aysun; Ünlü, Ali; Altınyazar, Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. However, studies conducted on the relationship of TWEAK and psoriasis patients are limited. In this study, we aimed to explore the serum levels of TWEAK and investigated whether TWEAK levels are associated with clinical variables and expression of other well-known psoriasis-related cytokines including IL-6, IL-23 and TNF-α. Forty-five patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 43 controls were enrolled in this study. The severity of psoriasis was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Serum levels of cytokines were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The mean TWEAK, IL-6, IL-23, and TN-α levels were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in control subjects. However, there were no significant correlations between the psoriasis severity, the illness duration and serum cytokine levels. This study shows that TWEAK may be associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis, like TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-23.

  16. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pankaj; Tiwari, S. P.; Sahu, Tarini; Naik, Surendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm) and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%). Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180), were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05) interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05) increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05) increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05) interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05) however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration and

  17. Serum Vitamin D levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Rozita, Mohd; Noorul Afidza, Mohamad; Ruslinda, Mustafar; Cader, Rizna; Halim, A. Gafor; Kong, Chiew Tong Norella; Nor Azmi, Kamaruddin; Shah, Shamsul Azhar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hypovitaminosis D is reported to be associated with several medical complications. Recent studies have reported a high worldwide prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in the general population (up to 80 %). This is even higher in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increases with advancing stages of CKD. Objectives: To determine the difference in serum Vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH) D] levels between CKD patients and normal healthy population. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 50 normal volunteers (control) and 50 patients with CKD stages 2-4. Their demographic profiles were recorded and blood samples taken for serum 25(OH) D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and other routine blood tests. Results: All subjects regardless of renal status had hypovitaminosis D (< 30ng/mL). The mean serum 25(OH) D were comparable in the control and CKD groups (15.3 ± 4.2 ng/mL vs 16.1 ± 6.2 ng/mL, p = NS). However, within the Vitamin D deficient group, the CKD group had lower levels of serum 25(OH) D [12.6(3.7) ng/mL vs 11.2(6.5) ng/mL, p = 0.039]. Female gender [OR 22.553; CI 95 % (2.16-235.48); p = 0.009] and diabetic status [OR 6.456; CI 95 % (1.144-36.433); p = 0.035] were independent predictors for 25(OH) D deficiency. Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D deficiency are indeed prevalent and under-recognized. Although the vitamin D levels among the study subjects and their control are equally low, the CKD group had severe degree of vitamin D deficiency. Diabetic status and female gender were independent predictors of low serum 25(OH)D. PMID:26933400

  18. Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels Predict Falls in Older Diabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Cauley, Jane A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Schwartz, Gary G.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and incident falls in older diabetic adults. Design Longitudinal analysis of incident falls over 1 year in a sub-study of diabetic participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants Well-functioning, community-dwelling black and white adults aged 70-79 with diabetes (n = 472). Measurements Measured baseline serum PTH. Self-report of falls over the subsequent 12 months. Baseline physical performance and self-reported demographic, behavioral, and health status measures including kidney function, chronic conditions and medication use. Results 30.3% of participants reported falling over one year of follow-up. The mean ± SD baseline serum PTH was 53.5 ± 30.0 pg/mL in non-fallers and 62.6 ± 46.2 pg/mL in fallers (p = 0.01). For every 1 SD (36 pg/mL) increment in baseline serum PTH, there was approximately a 30% increased likelihood of reporting a fall in the subsequent year after adjusting for age, gender, race, field center, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and winter/spring season (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.59). Further adjustment for kidney function, chronic conditions, medication and supplement use, and physical performance attenuated the association slightly (OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01-1.58)). A trend remained after additional adjustment for reported falls in the previous year. Conclusion Higher serum PTH was associated with incident falls among older, well-functioning diabetic men and women. Further investigation aimed at understanding the underlying mechanism for the association between serum PTH and falls is needed. PMID:19016936

  19. Serum Levels of Acylcarnitines Are Altered in Prediabetic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Manuel; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    Objective The role of mitochondrial function in the complex pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not yet completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of short-, medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines as markers of mitochondrial function in volunteers with normal, impaired or diabetic glucose control. Methods Based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, 1019 studied subjects were divided into a group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 636), isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG; n = 184), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 87) or type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 112). Serum concentrations of free carnitine and 24 acylcarnitines were measured by mass spectrometry. Results Serum levels of acetylcarnitine (C2), propionylcarnitine (C3), octanoylcarnitine (C8), malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH), hexanoylcarnitine (C6), octenoylcarnitine (C8:1), decanoylcarnitine (C10), decenoylcarnitine (C10:1), dodecanoylcarnitine (C12), tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), tetradecadienylcarnitine (C14:2), hydroxytetradecanoylcarnitine (C14OH), hydroxyhexadecanoylcarnitine (C16OH) and octadecenoylcarnitine (C18:1) were significantly different among the groups (all p<0.05 adjusted for age, gender and BMI). Between the prediabetic states C14:1, C14:2 and C18:1 showed significantly higher serum concentrations in persons with IGT (p<0.05). Compared to T2D the IFG and the IGT subjects showed lower serum concentrations of malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH) (p<0.05). Conclusion Alterations in serum concentrations of several acylcarnitines, in particular tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), tetradecadienylcarnitine (C14:2), octadecenoylcarnitine (C18:1) and malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH) are associated not only with T2D but also with prediabetic states. PMID:24358186

  20. Serum irisin levels and thyroid function--newly discovered association.

    PubMed

    Ruchala, Marek; Zybek, Ariadna; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina

    2014-10-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered adipo-myokin, which is reported to have a significant influence on the body metabolism and thermogenesis. Other influencing factors on metabolic state are thyroid hormones, which increase heat production and control the energy balance. Due to numerous similarities in action it seems imperative to explore these substances' potential mutual influence on the body. The aim of the study is to provide the first ever, according to our knowledge, evaluation of serum irisin concentrations in patients with thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with creatine kinase (CK) levels - a serum marker of muscle damage. The studied group consisted of 20 patients with newly diagnosed thyroid disorder - hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Venous blood samples were analyzed for irisin, thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and CK serum concentrations. Patients' body mass index (BMI), body weight and muscle mass were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Median serum irisin levels were lower in hypothyroid (117.30ng/ml) than hyperthyroid (161.95ng/ml) patients with a borderline statistical significance (p=0.0726). The negative correlation between irisin and TSH levels was demonstrated (r=-0.4924, p=0.0230), as well as the positive correlation between irisin and FT4 levels (r=0.4833, p=0.0360). The CK level was negatively correlated with irisin, FT4 and FT3 concentrations (r=-0.7272, p=0.0140; r=-0.9636, p=<0.0001; r=-0.8838, p=0.0007, respectively). The study demonstrates that irisin concentrations may vary according to the thyrometabolic state, which potentially could be related to the degree of muscle damage.

  1. Serum "uracil+uridine" levels in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Parry, T E; Blackmore, J A

    1976-12-01

    The serum "uracil+uridine" level, expressed as uracil, has been measured in 21 cases of vitamin B12 deficiency, in which the serum folate was normal, and compared with the level in 97 normal subjects. The level in the vitamin B12 deficient group (11.9 mumol/1). was significantly lower than in the controls (15.7 mumol/1., P less than 0.005). Nine of the former were complicated by stystemic illness but the clinical and haematological features in the remaining 12 were consistent with the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in relapse. The serum uracil level in this group was even lower (10.21 mumol/1., P less than 0.01). This finding is unexpected in view of the generally accepted indirect role of vitamine B12 in the methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate to deoxythymidine monophosphate. Reasons are given for not accepting these results as reflecting the main biochemical lesion in vitamin B12 deficiency. Although they do not give direct support to an impairment in the methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate, they do not exclude it as they test only one possible metabolic pathway and moreover they could represent the result of more than one action of vitamin B12 on uracil metabolism. They do show, however, that some aspect of uracil metabolism other than methylation is affected in vitamin B12 deficiency in man.

  2. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p < 0.001). Age- and gender adjusted mean (95% CI) levels were 93 (86, 99) pmol/l in Pakistanis and 123 (120, 126) pmol/l in Norwegians, p < 0.001. The difference persisted after controlling for body mass index. There was a positive relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and s-1,25(OH)2D in both groups. S-Ca2+ was higher in Pakistanis; age-adjusted mean (95% CI) levels were 1.28 (1.27, 1.28) mmol/l in Pakistanis and 1.26 (1.26, 1.26) mmol/l in Norwegians, p < 0.001. In both groups, s-Ca2+ was inversely correlated to serum intact parathyroid hormone levels (s-iPTH). For any s-iPTH, s-Ca2+ was higher in Pakistanis, also when controlling for age. Conclusion Community-dwelling Pakistanis in Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  3. Effect of prepartum dietary calcium on intake and serum and urinary mineral concentrations of cows.

    PubMed

    Chan, P S; West, J W; Bernard, J K

    2006-02-01

    Nine multiparous and 12 primiparous cows were fed diets containing an anionic salt supplement and moderate Ca (0.99%) or high Ca (1.50%) concentrations for 21 d prepartum to determine the effects of dietary Ca concentration on serum and urine electrolytes and on postpartum intake and milk yield. Blood samples were collected during 21 to 1 d prepartum, 0 to 2 d postpartum, and 3 to 21 d postpartum. Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) for prepartum diets was approximately -6 mEq/100 g of dry matter (Na + K - Cl - S). Immediately postpartum, cows were fed diets with positive DCAD with greater than 1.00% Ca concentration. Mean serum Ca concentrations 21 to 1 d prepartum, 0 to 2 d postpartum, and 3 to 21 d postpartum were 9.62, 8.41, and 9.38 mg/dL. There were no treatment effects on serum Ca concentration. Mean serum Ca concentration was higher for primiparous than multiparous cows (9.34 vs. 8.93 mg/dL) for the trial and at calving (8.77 vs. 8.13 mg/dL). Mean serum HCO(3)(-) and urinary pH, respectively, were 20.32 mEq/L and 5.67 prepartum, 25.82 mEq/L and 7.62 at calving, and 26.08 mEq/L and 8.25 postpartum. No differences due to treatment were observed for serum and urinary concentrations of HCO(3)(-), pH, Mg, Na, K, and Cl. Milk yield was similar for 0.99 and 1.50% Ca treatments (22.8 and 20.7 kg/d). Diets containing 0.99 or 1.5% Ca maintained serum Ca at adequate levels around parturition and resulted in similar dry matter intake and postpartum milk yield.

  4. Serum TAG 72 levels in different human carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Correale, M; Abbate, I; Gargano, G; Garrubba, M; Muncipinto, A; Addabbo, L; Colangelo, D

    1991-01-01

    Since December 1988, we have measured the TAG 72 serum levels in 326 patients with different carcinomas, especially breast, gastrointestinal and ovarian, using a RIA kit. With a cut-off value of 5 U/mL, a specificity of 100% in the controls and an overall sensitivity of 22% in the neoplastic patients was obtained, with the highest positivities in ovarian (63%) and gastric (58%) carcinomas. Therefore, TAG 72 can be associated with other tumor markers for these latter neoplasms.

  5. Use of serum progesterone levels to detect pregnancy in elk

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.J.; Wolfe, M.L.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the realibility of serum progesterone assays as a means for detecting pregnancy in elk (Cervus elaphus). The elk were trapped during February through April in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. Blood samples were set to Bio-Science Laboratories for projesterone analysis by radioimmunoassay. Levels of progesteron were highly variable within the pregnant and nonpregnant elk. (RJC)

  6. [Serum homocysteine levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Stoĭkova, V; Ivanov, S; Mazneĭkova, V; Tsoncheva, A

    2005-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most common and severe pregnancy complications, which ethiology remains unclear. It is certain that endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development of preeclampsia. Homocysteine is an important independent cardiovascular risk factor, which might induce the endothelial dysfunction observed in preeclampsia. 26 pregnant women--14 with preeclampsia (group 1) and 12 healthy term pregnant controls (group 2) were enrolled in the study between December 2003 and August 2004. Six of the women in this group had a superimposed preeclampsia. The mean homocysteine level in the first group was 11,04 mol/l, while in the control group it was 6,24 micromol/l (p < 0.05). The women with a severe preeclampsia had a significantly higher serum homocysteine levels than those with mild form (F = 0.025). Seven of the patients (50%) gave birth before 34th weeks of gestation. The study finds a link between the serum homocysteine as an endothelial dysfunction marker and the development of preeclampsia and a relation between the severity of preeclampsia and the degree of the elevation of the serum homocysteine levels.

  7. Serum CD14 levels in polytraumatized and severely burned patients.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, C; Schütt, C; Obertacke, U; Joka, T; Müller, F E; Knöller, J; Köller, M; König, W; Schönfeld, W

    1991-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that the CD14 molecule which is expressed on monocytes and macrophages serves as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bound to LPS-binding protein (LBP) and thus mediates LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. Here we report that CD14 is found as a soluble (s) molecule in serum. In healthy volunteers sCD14 levels (mean +/- s.e.m.) were 3.7 +/- 0.05 micrograms/ml (n = 30, 25-50 years of age) as determined by ELISA (detection limit 20 ng/ml serum) using two monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich technique. In polytraumatized patients (n = 16) significantly decreased levels (1.7 +/- 0.3) were detected immediately after the trauma, which increased to 4.9 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml within the first 6 days post trauma. sCD14 remained elevated during the first 14 days post trauma in patients with the most severe injuries (injury severity score greater than 45 points), whereas a return to normal levels was observed in patients with an injury score of less than 45 points. In addition, the levels of the high-density lipoproteins that partially inactivate free endotoxin are significantly decreased post trauma. No correlation between parameters of inflammation (C3a and neopterin levels, leucocyte counts, amount of band cells), liver function and sCD14 levels was established. Comparable to polytraumatized patients, increased sCD14 serum levels were observed in five patients with burn trauma (burned area greater than 35%) within the second week post trauma when clinical signs of septicaemia were evident. PMID:1713813

  8. Mineral element levels in wild edible mushrooms from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Honggao; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Shi, Yundong; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2012-06-01

    Ten species of wild edible mushrooms (Boletus griseus, Boletus speciosus, Lactarius hygrophoroides, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Macrocybe gigantea, Melanoleuca arcuata, Morchella deliciosa, Mycena haematopus, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, and Tricholoma matsutake) collected from Yunnan province of China, were analyzed for ten mineral elements (calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc) contents using ICP-AES. The minimum and maximum element contents of mushrooms were determined as milligrams per kilograms dry weight for Ca (38-470), Cr (0.45-6.3), Co (0.29-2.3), Cu (13-58), Fe (22-510), Mg (84-550), Mn (1.4-70), K (1,300-4,600), Na (190-670), and Zn (16-160). The mushrooms species with the highest levels of mineral elements were B. griseus for K and Na, P. ravenelii for Cu, M. deliciosa for Mn, L. giganteus for Cr and Fe, M. gigantea for Ca, Mg and Zn, T. matsutake for Co. These results demonstrate that the mineral element contents in mushrooms are considerably species dependent and affected by environmental factors.

  9. Mammographic density and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D, which influences cellular proliferation and breast tissue characteristics, has been inversely correlated with breast cancer risk. Dietary vitamin D intake has been associated with lower mammographic density (MD), a strong intermediate marker of breast cancer risk. Findings We examined the relationship between MD and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], an integrated measure of vitamin D status from dietary sources and sunlight exposure, in a multi-ethnic cohort of women undergoing screening mammography. We recruited women age 40–60 years without a history of breast cancer at the time of their routine screening mammogram, and conducted in-person interviews and collected blood specimens. We enrolled 195 women from 2007–2008, 120 gave blood, and 114 were evaluable, including 25% white, 41% African American, 18% African Caribbean, and 16% Hispanic. We digitized mammograms and calculated percent density, dense area, and non-dense area on cranial-caudal images. We measured serum 25(OH)D in batched, archived specimens. Median serum 25(OH)D was 22 ng/ml (range, 8–66 ng/ml). In univariable analysis, higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with white race, higher educational level, ever breast feeding, and blood draw during the summer. After adjusting for body mass index and other confounders, we found no association between serum 25(OH)D and different measures of MD. However, when stratified by season, 25(OH)D was inversely associated with dense area during July-December (p = 0.034). Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that circulating vitamin D, a potentially modifiable breast cancer risk factor, is not associated with MD; the seasonal effects we observed need to be replicated in larger cohorts. PMID:24742098

  10. Novel Locus FER Is Associated With Serum HMW Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Menzaghi, Claudia; Salvemini, Lucia; De Bonis, Concetta; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Hu, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is a predominant isoform of circulating adiponectin and has been related to type 2 diabetes. Previous linkage studies suggest that different genetic components might be involved in determining HMW and total adiponectin levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum HMW adiponectin levels in individuals of European ancestry drawn from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (N = 1,591). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the GWAS analysis were replicated in an independent cohort of Europeans (N = 626). We examined the associations of the identified variations with diabetes risk and metabolic syndrome. RESULTS We identified a novel locus near the FER gene (5q21) at a genome-wide significance level, best represented by SNP rs10447248 (P = 4.69 × 10−8). We also confirmed that variations near the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus (3q27) were related to serum HMW adiponectin levels. In addition, we found that FER SNP rs10447248 was related to HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.009); ADIPOQ variation was associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.04), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04), and a metabolic syndrome score (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that different loci may be involved in regulation of circulating HMW adiponectin levels and provide novel insight into the mechanisms that affect HMW adiponectin homeostasis. PMID:21700879

  11. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  12. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  13. Serum Zinc and β D Glucuronidase Enzyme Level in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Pushparani, D S

    2016-01-01

    The exact mechanism by which nutritional deficiency and lysosomal enzyme change, modify periodontal destruction has not yet been precisely defined. The study aimed to determine the serum zinc and β D glucuronidase enzyme level in the selected groups and how its increase or decrease levels are related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with periodontitis when compared to other groups. Six hundred subjects were selected and are categorized into four groups as Group I (control healthy subjects, n=150), Group II (T2DM with periodontitis, n=150), Group III (T2DM without periodontitis, n=150) and Group IV (Non-DM with periodontitis, n=150). The lab investigations included measuring fasting blood glucose, serum zinc and β D- glucuronidase levels. In the results, the level of serum zinc was found to be lesser in group III subjects and the activity of serum β D glucuronidase was found to be elevated nine times in group III (T2DM with periodontitis) and two times elevated in group II (T2DM without periodontitis) and group IV (Non-DM with periodontitis), when compared to control. Zinc has been reported to reduce the stabilization of lysosomal membranes. Periodontitis has been taken as the prime condition in this study and categorized as experimental groups. Perturbations in mineral metabolism are more pronounced in diabetic populations. When the level of zinc is decreased, the structural integrity of lysosomal membrane has been lost and it would have caused for the increased release of β D glucuronidase in T2DM with periodontitis.

  14. Effect of parathyroid hormone on serum magnesium levels: the neglected relationship in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Tang, Bing; Hou, Dawei; Meng, Meijuan; Xiong, Mingxia; Yang, Junwei

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is an important complication in patients with end-stage renal disease. Since recent studies have shown that magnesium (Mg) disturbance plays an important role in CKD-MBD and cardiovascular mortality, the interest on magnesium has grown recently. Although much concern focused on the effect of Mg on parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, however, the influence of PTH on serum Mg levels is nearly unexplored. To evaluate the effect of PTH on serum Mg levels, we first described the relationship between serum Mg and PTH in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Besides, we also monitored the changes of serum Mg concentration after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in 23 patients. In our study, we found that hypermagnesemia (>2.5 mg/dL) occurred in up to 44% of cases and hypomagnesemia did not present. No statistically significant correlations were found between serum Mg levels and PTH (r = -0.143, p = 0.134). Correlation analysis and regression analysis suggested that the derangement of magnesium homeostasis was consistent with the derangement of calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. However, after PTX, serum magnesium levels dropped immediately after the surgery, minimally at the first day and gradually restored from the third day. The changes of serum Mg after surgery was positive correlated with the changes of serum phosphate (r = 0.558, p = 0.003). Taken altogether, our data suggested that the therapeutic strategies to achieve optimum serum magnesium levels in CKD-MBD should take into account the varying stages of disease development since PTH could also influence magnesium metabolism and this problem might be important in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  15. Tributyltin exposure alters cytokine levels in mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Shanieek; Pellom, Samuel T; Shanker, Anil; Whalen, Margaret M

    2016-11-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a toxic environmental contaminant, has been widely utilized for various industrial, agricultural and household purposes. Its usage has led to a global contamination and its bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and terrestrial mammals. Previous studies suggest that TBT has debilitating effects on the overall immune function of animals, rendering them more vulnerable to diseases. TBT (at concentrations that have been detected in human blood) alters secretion of inflammatory cytokines from human lymphocytes ex vivo. Thus, it is important to determine if specified levels of TBT can alter levels of cytokines in an in vivo system. Mice were exposed to biologically relevant concentrations of TBT (200, 100 or 25 nM final concentrations). The quantitative determination of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL2, IL5, IL7, IL12βp40, IL13, IL15, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP), MIP2 and regulated on activation normal T-cell-expressed and secreted (RANTES) was performed in mouse sera by MAGPIX analysis and Western blot. Results indicated alterations (both decreases and increases) in several cytokines. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL5, IL12βp40 and IL-15 were altered as were the chemokines MIP-1 and RANTES and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13. Increases in IFNγ and TNFα were seen in the serum of mice exposed to TBT for less than 24 h. Levels of IL1β, IL-12 βp40, IL-5 and IL-15 were also modulated in mouse serum, depending on the specific experiment and exposure level. IL-2 was consistently decreased in mouse serum when animals were exposed to TBT. There were also TBT-induced increases in MIP-1β, RANTES and IL-13. These results from human and murine samples clearly suggest that TBT exposures modulate the secretion inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in psoriatic patients*

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Manuela Ferrasso; Azevedo, Paula de Oliveira; Tanaka, Anber Ancel; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Martins, Luis Eduardo Agner Machado

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis. We compared serum levels of vitamin D of 20 psoriasis patients and 20 controls. The median vitamin D level was 22.80 ± 4.60 ng/ml; the median in the cases was 23.55 ± 7.6 ng/ml, and in controls 22.35 ± 3.10 ng/ml (p = 0.73). Only 2 cases and 4 controls had sufficient levels of vitamin D, although without statistical significance between the groups (p = 0.608). Levels were lower in women with psoriasis compared with those in male patients (20.85 ± 6.70 x 25.35 ± 2.90 ng/ml, p = 0.03), a finding that was not observed among controls. PMID:26131882

  17. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  18. A novel and sensitive radioreceptor assay for serum melatonin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenn, C.; Niles, L. )

    1991-01-01

    A simple and sensitive radioreceptor assay (RRA) has been developed to measure melatonin levels in serum. The assay is based on competition between 2-({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin (({sup 125}I)MEL) and melatonin for binding to high-affinity binding sites in chick forebrain. To measure the amount of melatonin present in a serum sample, it was extracted with dichloromethane and added to the assay medium. The percentage inhibition of radioligand binding in the presence of the extracted serum was determined and compared to the percent displacement by known amounts of melatonin in a standard curve. There was little or no cross-reactivity with other structurally related compounds. The sensitivity of the assay is {approximately}1.5pg/0.15 mL and the intra- and inter-assay variations are approximately 8%. Since the RRA results are comparable to that of an established radioimmunoassay (RIA), it provides a sensitive and rapid alternative to the more time consuming RIA.

  19. A Study to Assess the Validity of Estimation of Serum Ostase Level in Hyperthyroid and Hypothyroid Cases

    PubMed Central

    Boruah, Polina; Hajong, Ranendra; Nath, Chandan Kumar; Barman, Bhupen; Chutia, Happy; Sarma, Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the more specific assessments of the metabolic status of bone in normal and in disease conditions is the measurement of bone specific alkaline phosphatase or ostase. The measurement of serum ostase has several advantages over the measurements of other bone parameter. Because of its relatively long half-life, in-vivo (1 to 3days), it is relatively unaffected by diurnal variation. Aim To find the correlation of serum ostase level in hyper and hypothyroid cases and also to study the validity of routine estimation of serum ostase in hyper and hypothyroid cases so as to monitor the base level bone health on presentation. Materials and Methods Serum ostase level was studied in 74 patients with disorder of thyroid function. Serum ostase level, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), FT3, FT4 levels were estimated by chemiluminescent technique. The instrument used was Beckman- coulter Access 2. A total of 39 patients were hypothyroid, 31 were hyperthyroid and 4 patients had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Results The serum ostase level was found to be elevated above 40 μg/L in 26 of the cases and above 16 μg/L but below 40μg/L in 5 cases of hyperthyroidism along with decrease in Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Serum ostase level was found to be directly proportional to the serum FT3 level (Normal range of serum ostase is 8-16 μg/L). Conclusion From this study, an inference can be drawn that a routine estimation of serum ostase level in hyperthyroid cases will help in proper monitoring of decrease bone turnover as indicated by increase serum ostase level. Besides, the estimation of serum ostase level in hyperthyroid cases it is found to be valid in this study, which can turn to be an important guiding parameter to the treating physician to formulate necessary protocols and guidelines for prophylaxis, treatment and to monitor the response to therapy in cases of reduced bone turnover related to hyperthyroid state. PMID:27790421

  20. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  1. Effect of dietary calcium level and source on mineral utilisation by piglets fed diets containing exogenous phytase.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, P; Gutzwiller, A

    2016-11-21

    Calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals, closely linked in digestive processes and metabolism. With widespread use of low P diets containing exogenous phytase, the optimal dietary Ca level was verified. The 40-day study evaluated the effects of Ca level (4, 7 and 10 g/kg diet) and Ca source (Ca from CaCO3 and from Lithothamnium calcareum) on mineral utilisation in 72 piglets (7.9 ± 1.0 kg BW) fed an exogenous phytase containing diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg. Measured parameters were growth performance, stomach mineral solubility, bone breaking strength and urinary, serum and bone mineral concentration. The apparent total tract digestibility of minerals was also assessed in the two diets with 7 g Ca/kg, using 12 additional pigs. Regardless of Ca source, increasing dietary Ca impaired feed conversion ratio, increased urinary pH, increased serum and urinary Ca, decreased serum and urinary P, decreased serum Mg and increased urinary Mg, increased serum AP activity, decreased bone Mg increased bone Zn. Bone breaking strength was improved with 7 compared to 4 g Ca/kg. Compared to CaCO3 , Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum increased serum Mg and with, 10 g Ca/kg, it limited body weight gain. The dose response of Ca in a diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg and including exogenous phytase indicated that: (i) a low dietary Ca was beneficial for piglet growth, but was limiting the metabolic use of P; (ii) a high dietary Ca level impaired P utilisation; (iii) the optimal P utilisation and bone breaking strength was obtained with a dietary Ca-to-digestible P ratio of 2.1 to 2.4:1; (iv). Increasing dietary Ca reduced Mg utilisation, but not Zn status, when fed at adequate level. Finally, Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum had similar effects on Ca and P metabolism as CaCO3 , but impaired growth when fed at the highest inclusion level.

  2. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population.

  3. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Centeno, Norberto Ortego

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case–control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l−1 (12–101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l−1 (2.31–100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l−1 (22.1–48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l−1 (17.3–36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l−1 (26.5–77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  4. [Total serum IgE levels in children with enterobiasis.].

    PubMed

    Delıalıoğlu, Nuran; Aslan, Gönül; Oztürk, Candan; Camdevıren, Handan; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2005-01-01

    Enterobiasis is a helminthic disease which is very common especially in children. The IgE response has been associated with helminth infections and allergic diseases. Comparison of levels of total serum IgE of 36 children infected with Enterobius vermicularis and of 25 healthy children between 7 and 12 years of age was carried out The mean value of IgE in enterobiasis in children was 363.79+/-397.06 IU/ml (medium+/-SD) and 177.14+/-224.64 IU/ml (medium+/-SD) in the control group and it was found that there was no significant statistical difference (p=0.163).

  5. Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Røen, Bent Tore; Opstad, Aase Mari; Haavind, Anniken; Tønsager, Janne

    2013-06-01

    Ricinine is an alkaloid present in the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) that can be used as a biomarker for ricin poisoning. Serial ricinine levels are reported in the serum and urine of a patient suffering from intentional ricin intoxication. The patient was brought to the hospital 4 h after injection and oral intake of a castor bean extract, but died 38 h later, despite intensive medical care. Ricinine was isolated from the samples by solid-phase extraction and quantitatively determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ricinine level in serum declined from 33 to 23 ng/mL between 10 and 29 h post-exposure. Three urine samples collected from 12 to 41 h after ricin intoxication showed ricinine concentrations in the range of 20-58 ng/mL. The creatinine corrected values (21-30 µg/g) indicated a concentration-time profile with a maximum ricinine level in urine between 12 and 29 h after exposure.

  6. Isoflavone supplements stimulated the production of serum equol and decreased the serum dihydrotestosterone levels in healthy male volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, M; Fujimoto, K; Chihara, Y; Torimoto, K; Yoneda, T; Tanaka, N; Hirayama, A; Miyanaga, N; Akaza, H; Hirao, Y

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing healthy men with soy isoflavones on the serum levels of sex hormones implicated in prostate cancer development. A total of 28 Japanese healthy volunteers (18 equol producers and 10 equol non-producers) between 30 and 59 years of age were given soy isoflavones (60 mg daily) supplements for 3 months, and the changes in their sex hormone levels were investigated at the baseline and after administration. The serum and urine concentrations of daidzein, genistein, and the levels of equol in the fasting blood samples and 24-h stored urine samples were also measured. All 28 volunteers completed the 3-month supplementation with isoflavone. No changes in the serum levels of estradiol and total testosterone were detected after 3-month supplementation. The serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin significantly increased, and the serum levels of free testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) decreased significantly after 3-month supplementation. Among the 10 equol non-producers, equol became detectable in the serum of two healthy volunteers after 3-month supplementation. This study revealed that short-term administration of soy isoflavones stimulated the production of serum equol and decreased the serum DHT level in Japanese healthy volunteers. These results suggest the possibility of converting equol non-producers to producers by prolonged and consistent soy isoflavones consumption. PMID:19597532

  7. Osho Dynamic Meditation’s Effect on Serum Cortisol Level

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Anuj; Mittal, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dynamic meditation is one of the most popular active meditation, introduced by an Indian mystic Osho in 1970. This one hour meditation consists of five stages: Deep fast chaotic breathing, catharsis, using a mantra "Hoo", silence, and dancing. A previous study observed that Osho dynamic meditation causes decrease in several psychopathological variables such as aggressive behaviour, anxiety and depression. However, it is not objectively established that the dynamic meditation has an anti-stress effect. Aim To find out the effect of Osho dynamic meditation on the serum cortisol levels (cortisol is an indicator of stress) and therefore to observe whether it has any anti-stress effect. Materials and Methods An experimental study was planned doing the dynamic meditation empty stomach in morning at 6 to 7 am every day for 21 days from 1st March 2015 to 21st March 2015 at Lucknow. Twenty healthy volunteers between 20 to 50 years (14 males and 6 females) participated in the study. Serum cortisol level was estimated from the blood samples collected in the morning one day prior (baseline) and post-meditation on the 21st day of the study. The difference between mean cortisol levels of the baseline and post-meditation groups were tested for significance by applying the paired t-test. Results Sixteen volunteers out of the 20 completed the study while four dropped out due to their health and personal reasons. The serum cortisol levels were decreased in all the 16 participants on 21st day as compared to the baseline levels and the decline in the mean cortisol level was highly significant (p<0.001). Conclusion The results of the study showed a significant reduction in plasma cortisol levels when the participants were tested after 21 days of meditation; it can be concluded that the Osho dynamic meditation produces anti-stress effects. The mechanism of action could primarily be attributed to the release of repressed emotions and psychological inhibitions and traumas

  8. Reference intervals for mineral concentrations in whole blood and serum of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California.

    PubMed

    Poppenga, Robert H; Ramsey, Jennifer; Gonzales, Ben J; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-05-01

    Whole blood and serum mineral concentrations were measured in diverse bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) metapopulations in California, and 90% reference intervals were determined. While there were some statistical differences between median concentrations among the different metapopulations, detected values were generally in good agreement with concentrations reported for other bighorn sheep populations and with reference ranges widely accepted for domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Although median whole blood selenium and serum copper concentrations were within adequate ranges reported for domestic sheep, some metapopulations had substantial numbers of individuals whose concentrations would be considered suboptimal for domestic sheep. There are a number of factors that can influence mineral concentrations in wildlife species such as bighorn sheep and that make the establishment of reference ranges challenging. However, the establishment of mineral reference ranges is important for such species, as their health and productivity are increasingly scrutinized and actively managed.

  9. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Martinho, Vitor Augusto Melão; Antoneli, Célia Beatriz Gianotti; Marcussi, Ludmilla Altino de Lima; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma patients, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma. PMID:25628199

  10. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  11. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2) above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders.

  12. Evaluation of Resettin® on serum hormone levels in sedentary males

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparisons of hormones such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E2), and testosterone indicate their impact on metabolism and body composition. While less is known regarding DHT and E2, testosterone is an androgenic metabolic hormone capable of positively regulating a variety of anabolic and androgenic processes in the body. Accordingly, it has been postulated that the age-related reduction in serum testosterone levels leads to reductions in lean muscle mass, bone mineral density, and other physical conditions that impair physical performance and decrease quality of life. Preliminary studies suggest that key ingredients found in Resettin®/MyTosterone™, a natural supplement containing the carotenoid astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis and Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract from Serenoa repens, could positively impact testosterone levels. To investigate the clinical efficacy of Resettin®, the serum profiles of testosterone, E2 and DHT in healthy sedentary males before and after Resettin® treatment were evaluated in a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. Method Twenty healthy, sedentary men between the ages of 21 and 70 were randomized into either an 800 mg/day or 1200 mg/day Resettin®/MyTosterone™ treatment group or lecithin, which was used as the placebo. After a 14-day treatment period, there was a 14-day washout period. After the wash-out period, participants were crossed over within their respective group to either Resettin®/MyTosterone™ or the lecithin placebo for 14 days. Results After 14 days, participants receiving 800 mg per day of Resettin® had significantly reduced baseline-subtracted serum DHT levels in comparison to the placebo control group. While after 14 days, participants receiving 1200 mg per day of Resettin® had significantly reduced baseline-subtracted serum DHT and E2 levels in comparison to the placebo control group. Moreover, participants receiving 1200 mg per day of Resettin® experienced a 38

  13. The association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linlin; Cao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the development of hemodialysis (HD). This study aims to detect the potential association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in HD. A total of 485 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The created restriction site polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methods were used to investigate ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism. Our data suggested that there were significant differences in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between HD patients and healthy controls. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a) for genotype AA were different from genotype GG in HD patients and healthy controls. Our findings support that the ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism might influence the development of HD and could be a risk factor for assessing HD.

  14. Unexpected rates of chromosomal instabilities and alterations of hormone levels in Namibian uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Zaire, R.; Notter, M.; Thiel, E.

    1997-05-01

    A common problem in determining the health consequences of radiation exposure is factoring out other carcinogenic influences. The conditions in Namibia provide a test case for distinguishing the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to uranium from the other environmental factors because of good air quality and the lack of other industries with negative health effects. Present records indicate a much higher prevalence of cancer among male workers in the open-pit uranium mine in Namibia compared with the general population. The objective of the present study was to determine whether long-term exposure to low doses of uranium increases the risk of a biological radiation damage which would lead to malignant diseases and to derive a dose-response model for these miners. To investigate this risk, we measured uranium excretion in urine, neutrophil counts and the serum level of FSH, LH and testosterone and analyzed chromosome aberrations in whole blood cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A representative cohort of 75 non-smoking, HIV-negative miners was compared to a control group of 31 individuals with no occupational history in mining. A sixfold increase in uranium excretion among the miners compared to the controls was recorded (P < 0.001). Furthermore, we determined a significant reduction in testosterone levels (P < 0.008) and neutrophil count (P < 0.0001). Most remarkably, cells with multiple aberrations such as {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} cells were observed for the first time in miners; these cells had previously been found only after short-term high-dose radiation exposure, e.g. from the Hiroshima atomic bomb or the Chernobyl accident. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  16. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Roscino, Maria Teresa; Minoia, Giuseppe; Trisolini, Carmelinda; Spedicato, Massimo; Mutinati, Maddalena; Pantaleo, Marianna; Jirillo, Felicita; Sciorsci, Raffaele L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the serum concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the different phases of the estrous cycle in the bitch, in order to establish their physiological values. 56 healthy mixed-breed bitches were enrolled at this purpose and divided into 4 groups, standing on the different phases of the estrus cycle. Blood samples were collected in all groups and serum ROS concentrations were determined. Proestral concentrations were statistically higher than anestral ones, and statistically lower than those found in estrus (p<0.001). The highest concentrations of ROS were detected at estrus, that is, in the peri-ovulatory period. This sharp increase in ROS concentrations is related to the acute inflammatory process underlying ovulation and to the increase in immune and metabolic activities, cytological changes and myometrial contractility promoted by the high levels of estrogens. In diestrus, the mean concentration of ROS decreases. This reduction did not show any statistically significant difference with the mean value observed in proestrus. In this phase, in fact, the high concentrations of progesterone, exerting an antioxidant and immunodepressive effect, justify the lower mean concentration of ROS detected. In anestrus, the lowest concentrations of ROS were observed, for the reduced metabolic and endocrine activity occurring in this phase of the estrous cycle. In conclusion our results establish the physiologic levels of ROS during the estrous cycle in the bitch and reflect the endocrine morphologic and metabolic changes occurring during it.

  17. Lower serum uric acid level predicts mortality in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sun Moon; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the impact of serum uric acid (SUA) on mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. A total of 4132 adult patients on dialysis were enrolled prospectively between August 2008 and September 2014. Among them, we included 1738 patients who maintained dialysis for at least 3 months and had available SUA in the database. We categorized the time averaged-SUA (TA-SUA) into 5 groups: <5.5, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.4, and ≥8.5 mg/dL. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality according to SUA group. The mean TA-SUA level was slightly higher in men than in women. Patients with lower TA-SUA level tended to have lower body mass index (BMI), phosphorus, serum albumin level, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM), and higher proportion of malnourishment on the subjective global assessment (SGA). During a median follow-up of 43.9 months, 206 patients died. Patients with the highest SUA had a similar risk to the middle 3 TA-SUA groups, but the lowest TA-SUA group had a significantly elevated HR for mortality. The lowest TA-SUA group was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.720; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–2.937; P = 0.047) even after adjusting for demographic, comorbid, nutritional covariables, and medication use that could affect SUA levels. This association was prominent in patients with well nourishment on the SGA, a preserved serum albumin level, a higher BMI, and concomitant DM although these parameters had no significant interaction in the TA-SUA-mortality relationship except DM. In conclusion, a lower TA-SUA level <5.5 mg/dL predicted all-cause mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. PMID:27310949

  18. Serum Levels of Progranulin Do Not Reflect Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Carlo; Gillardon, Frank; Deuschle, Christian; Dubois, Evelyn; Hobert, Markus A; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Krüger, Stefanie; Biskup, Saskia; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Hruscha, Michael; Kaeser, Stephan A; Heutink, Peter; Maetzler, Walter; Synofzik, Matthis

    2016-01-01

    Altered progranulin levels play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), even in the absence of GRN mutations. Increasing progranulin levels could hereby provide a novel treatment strategy. However, knowledge on progranulin regulation in neurodegenerative diseases remains limited. We here demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid progranulin levels do not correlate with its serum levels in AD, FTD and ALS, indicating a differential regulation of its central and peripheral levels in neurodegeneration. Blood progranulin levels thus do not reliably predict central nervous progranulin levels and their response to future progranulin-increasing therapeutics.

  19. Serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular disease: the Gordian knot

    PubMed Central

    Tugores, Antonio; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is defined as serum uric acid level of more than 7 mg/dL and blood levels of uric acid are causally associated with gout, as implicated by evidence from randomized clinical trials using urate lowering therapies. Uric acid as a cardiovascular risk factor often accompanies metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, chronic renal disease, and obesity. Despite the association of hyperuricemia with cardiovascular risk factors, it has remained controversial as to whether uric acid is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. To settle this issue, and in the absence of large randomized controlled trials, Mendelian randomization analysis in which the exposure is defined based on the presence or absence of a specific allele that influences a risk factor of interest have tried to shed light on this. PMID:28066631

  20. Effect of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum sclerostin has been inversely associated with serum 25OHD concentration, but the effect of supplementation with vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin is unknown. This study was done to determine whether supplementation altered serum sclerostin levels in healthy older adults. We measured s...

  1. Vitamin A intake, serum vitamin D and bone mineral density: analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Yang, Sung-Won; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2015-03-10

    The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (<50, 50-75, >75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE) and bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50-75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50-75 nmol/L.

  2. Bone mineral density and serum testosterone in chronically trained, high mileage 40–55 year old male runners

    PubMed Central

    MacKelvie, K; Taunton, J; McKay, H; Khan, K

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To identify physical activity that is beneficial for the maintenance of bone strength with increasing age by examining the relation between bone mineral density (BMD) and chronic endurance training in men. BMD at the proximal femur, its subregions, and the lumbar spine, and serum testosterone were compared between two groups of long distance runners with more than 20 years of training experience and non-athletic controls. Methods—Runners (n = 12) were divided into (a) high volume runners (n = 7), running 64–80 km a week, and (b) very high volume runners (n = 5), running more than 95 km a week, and compared with non-athletic male controls, exercising in non-endurance oriented activities two to four times a week. BMD (g/cm2) at the total proximal femur, femoral neck, trochanteric region, and lumbar spine was measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. Total testosterone (nmol/l) and free testosterone (pmol/l) in serum were measured by radioimmunoassay from single fasting blood samples. Results—Height, weight, and age (range = 40–55 years) were not significantly different between groups. The high volume runners had significantly higher BMD at the total proximal femur (1.09 (0.17) v 0.94 (0.056)), femoral neck (0.91 (0.16) v 0.78 (0.071)), and trochanteric region (0.85 (0.14) v 0.73 (0.053)) than controls (p<0.05). The differences in BMD for the proximal femur between the very high volume runners and the other two groups were not significant. There was no difference in lumbar spine BMD, total testosterone, or free testosterone between groups. However, there was a significant negative correlation between total testosterone (r = -0.73, p<0.01) and free testosterone (r = -0.79, p<0.005) and running volume in the distance runners. Conclusions—Long term distance running with training volumes less than 80 km a week had a positive effect on BMD of the proximal femur. With running volumes greater than 64 km a week, training was inversely related to

  3. Serum galactomannan levels in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Okuturlar, Yildiz; Ozkalemkas, Fahir; Ener, Beyza; Serin, Sibel Ocak; Kazak, Esra; Ozcelik, Tulay; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ozkan, Hasan Atilla; Akalin, Halis; Gunaldi, Meral; Ali, Ridvan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: In this study, the sensitivity-specificity of galactomannan-enzyme immunoassay (GM-EIA) with a cut-off value of 0.5 for a single, two, or three consecutive positivity in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancy was investigated. Methods: IPA was classified as “proven,” “probable,” or “possible” as described in the guidelines prepared by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group.” Serum samples were collected from the patients twice a week throughout their hospitalization. A total of 1,385 serum samples, with an average of 8.3 samples per episode, were examined. Results: Based on the 165 febrile episodes in 106 patients, 80 (48.5%) were classified as IPA (4 proven, 11 probable, 65 possible) and 85 (51.5%) as non-IPA. The sensitivity/ specificity was 100%/27.1% for a single proven/probable IPA with the cut of value of GM-EIA ≥ 0.5, 86.7%/71.8% for two consecutive positive results, and 73.3%/85.9% for three consecutive positive results. Conclusions: With the galactomannan levels measured twice a week, consecutive sensitivity decreased and specificity increased. Therefore, an increase may be obtained in sensitivity-specificity by more frequent monitoring of GM-EIA starting from the first day of positivity is detected. PMID:26552466

  4. Cytokine Levels in the Serum of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Giulio; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years) with young children and children (1–6 and 7–17 years). We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging. PMID:23533306

  5. Cytokine levels in the serum of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Giulio; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years) with young children and children (1-6 and 7-17 years). We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging.

  6. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in early spontaneous pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Hou, W; Yan, X-t; Bai, C-m; Zhang, X-w; Hui, L-y; Yu, X-w

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy have been associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in childbearing aged women and pregnancy loss (PL) in the first trimester. Subjects/Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Plasma was collected from 60 nulliparous women with singleton at 7–9 weeks of gestation (30 with viable gestation and 30 with PL) and 60 non-gravid childbearing aged women (30 with a successful pregnancy history, and 30 with one or more spontaneous first-trimester PL history). Quantitation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase (CYP27B1) was assayed. Results: By pregnancy/non-gravid, normal pregnant women had higher 25(OH)D (49.32 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (82.00 pg/ml) than PL women (34.49 μg/l and 37.87 pg/ml, both P<0.01); the non-gravid women with a successful pregnancy history also had higher 25(OH)D (39.56 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (39.04 pg/ml) than women with PL history (12.30 μg/l and 12.35 pg/ml, both P<0.01). The 96.7% of non-gravid women with PL history and 43.3% of PL women had serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 μg/l. There was a strong association between low vitamin D levels and PL (odds ratio 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.2–2.4, P<0.001). The regression analyses showed that PL was significantly inversely correlated with 25(OH)D (P<0.01) and CYP27B1 levels (P<0.01). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency associated with PL in the first trimester of pregnancy. Decreased serum vitamin D levels among childbearing aged women with the failed clinical pregnancies history may predispose to increased risk for PL. PMID:27222154

  7. Immature ovarian teratoma with hyponatremia and low serum vasopressin level.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Takei, Yuji; Saga, Yasushi; Machida, Shizuo; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hyponatremia is often caused by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Hypersecretion of vasopressin from malignant tumors can be considered a cause of SIADH. Most of these ectopic productions of vasopressin are complications of small cell lung cancer. Cases concomitant with ovarian tumors are very rare, and a specific causative substance from the ovary is often unknown. A 16-year-old woman was diagnosed with an ovarian tumor. She developed hyponatremia that was resistant to medical treatment, but immediately improved after surgical resection of the tumor. Her diagnosis was SIADH caused by an ovarian tumor; however, her serum vasopressin level was normal. It is possible that a vasopressin-like substance causing SIADH was secreted by either nervous system tissue within an immature teratoma or small cell lung cancer. We should be cautious when SIADH is a complication of an ovarian tumor.

  8. Association between Density of Coronary Artery Calcification and Serum Magnesium Levels among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Hamano, Takayuki; Nakano, Chikako; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Matsui, Isao; Kusunoki, Yasuo; Mori, Daisuke; Oka, Tatsufumi; Hashimoto, Nobuhiro; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Horio, Masaru; Sugimoto, Ken; Yamamoto, Koichi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Background The Agatston score, commonly used to quantify coronary artery calcification (CAC), is determined by the plaque area and density. Despite an excellent predictability of the Agatston score for cardiovascular events, the density of CAC has never been studied in patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to analyze the CAC density and its association with serum mineral levels in CKD. Methods We enrolled patients with pre-dialysis CKD who had diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular disease history, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, or smoking history. The average CAC density was calculated by dividing the Agatston score by the total area of CAC. Results The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 109 enrolled patients was 35.7 mL/min/1.73 m2. The correlation of the Agatston score with density was much weaker than that with the total area (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.001; and R2 = 0.99, P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that serum magnesium level was inversely associated with the density, but not with the total area, after adjustment for demographics and clinical factors related to malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome and mineral and bone disorders including fibroblast growth factor 23 (P = 0.006). This inverse association was pronounced among patients with higher serum phosphate levels (P for interaction = 0.02). Conclusion CAC density was inversely associated with serum magnesium levels, particularly in patients with higher serum phosphate levels. PMID:27662624

  9. Analysis of human serum and whole blood for mineral content by ICP-MS and ICP-OES: development of a mineralomics method.

    PubMed

    Harrington, James M; Young, Daniel J; Essader, Amal S; Sumner, Susan J; Levine, Keith E

    2014-07-01

    Minerals are inorganic compounds that are essential to the support of a variety of biological functions. Understanding the range and variability of the content of these minerals in biological samples can provide insight into the relationships between mineral content and the health of individuals. In particular, abnormal mineral content may serve as an indicator of illness. The development of robust, reliable analytical methods for the determination of the mineral content of biological samples is essential to developing biological models for understanding the relationship between minerals and illnesses. This paper describes a method for the analysis of the mineral content of small volumes of serum and whole blood samples from healthy individuals. Interday and intraday precision for the mineral content of the blood (250 μL) and serum (250 μL) samples was measured for eight essential minerals--sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se)--by plasma spectrometric methods and ranged from 0.635 to 10.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for serum and 0.348-5.98% for whole blood. A comparison of the determined ranges for ten serum samples and six whole blood samples provided good agreement with literature reference ranges. The results demonstrate that the digestion and analysis methods can be used to reliably measure the content of these minerals and potentially of other minerals.

  10. Analysis of Human Serum and Whole Blood for Mineral Content by ICP-MS and ICP-OES: Development of a Mineralomics Method

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, James M.; Young, Daniel J.; Essader, Amal S.; Sumner, Susan J.; Levine, Keith E.

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are inorganic compounds that are essential to the support of a variety of biological functions. Understanding the range and variability of the content of these minerals in biological samples can provide insight into the relationships between mineral content and the health of individuals. In particular, abnormal mineral content may serve as an indicator of illness. The development of robust, reliable analytical methods for the determination of the mineral content of biological samples is essential to developing biological models for understanding the relationship between minerals and illnesses. This manuscript describes a method for the analysis of the mineral content of small volumes of serum and whole blood samples from healthy individuals. Interday and intraday precision for the mineral content of the blood (250 μl) and serum (250 μl) samples was measured for eight essential minerals, sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) by plasma spectrometric methods and ranged from 0.635 – 10.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for serum and 0.348 – 5.98% for whole blood. A comparison of the determined ranges for ten serum samples and six whole blood samples provided good agreement with literature reference ranges. The results demonstrate that the digestion and analysis methods can be used to reliably measure the content of these minerals, and potentially to add other minerals. PMID:24917052

  11. Effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation status, serum hormone, metabolite, and mineral concentrations of Japanese quails reared under heat stress (34 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Sari, Mustafa

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate) on lipid peroxidation status measured as MDA and serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), as well as some other serum metabolite and mineral concentrations of Japanese quails reared under heat stress (34 degrees C). One hundred-eighty 10-day-old Japanese quails were randomly assigned to six treatment groups, three replicates of 10 birds each. Using a 2 x 3 factorial design, the birds received two levels of vitamin C (100 and 200 mg/kg of diet) or three levels of vitamin E (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg of diet). Greater dietary vitamin E and vitamin C resulted in a greater serum T3, T4, and TSH (p = 0.001), but lower ACTH (p = 0.001) concentrations. Serum concentrations of T4 and TSH increased to a greater extent by increasing dietary vitamin C when greater vitamin E levels were fed (interaction, p = 0.001). Serum glucose, urea, triglycerides, and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.001), while protein and albumin concentrations increased (p = 0.001) when both dietary vitamin C and vitamin E were increased. Serum activities of SGOT and SGPT were not influenced by dietary vitamin C and vitamin E (p > 0.43). However, serum activity of AP increased (p = 0.001) by increasing both dietary vitamin C and vitamin E. Increasing both dietary vitamin C and vitamin E caused an increase in serum concentrations of Ca, P, K (p = 0.001), Fe, and Zn (p = 0.01) but a decrease in serum concentrations of Na (p = 0.001) and Cu (p = 0.01). Interactions between vitamin C and vitamin E were detected for Ca, P, Na, and K (p = 0.001). Greater dietary vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in a greater serum and liver vitamin E, C, and A (p < or = 0.05), but lower MDA (p = 0.001) concentrations. Results of the present study conclude that supplementing a combination of dietary vitamin C (200 mg

  12. Serum levels of S-100B after recreational scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Stavrinou, L C; Kalamatianos, T; Stavrinou, P; Papasilekas, T; Psachoulia, C; Tzavara, C; Stranjalis, G

    2011-12-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a sport of increasing popularity. Previous studies indicating subtle brain injury in asymptomatic divers imply a cumulative effect of minor neural insults in association with diving for professional and/or recreational purposes, over the long-term. This is the first study to investigate putative neural tissue burden during recreational scuba diving by measuring circulating levels of S-100B, a sensitive biomarker of brain injury. 5 male divers performed 3 consecutive dives under conservative recreational diving settings (maximum depth 15 m, duration of dive 56 min, ascend rate 1.15 m/min) with an interval of 12 h between each session. Although a small increase in serum S-100B levels after each dive was apparent, this increase did not quite reach statistical significance (p=0.057). Moreover, no abnormal S-100B values were recorded (mean baseline: 0.06 μg/L, mean post-dive: 0.086 μg/L) and no effect of the 3 consecutive dives on changes in S-100B levels was detected. These results suggest that under the experimental conditions tested, diving does not seem to have a discernible and/or cumulative impact on central nervous system integrity. The extent to which variable diving settings and practices as well as individual susceptibility factors underlie putative neural tissue burden in asymptomatic divers, remains to be established.

  13. Serum pentosidine levels after 3 years of bisphosphonate treatment in post-menopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Mikio; Ikegami, Shota; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Nakamura, Yukio; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The present study measured changes in plasma pentosidine and bone turnover markers in elderly patients with osteoporosis treated using bisphosphonate. The relationship between pentosidine and bone turnover markers and bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated. This study consisted of post-menopausal osteoporotic women who could be treated using bisphosphonate for 3 years were included in the present analysis. The study population consisted of 58 cases, all women, ranging in age from 53 to 86 years (mean, 67.1 years). Bisphosphonate treatment significantly increased BMD of the lumbar spine to 0.914 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) and BMD of the femoral neck to 0.708 ± 0.086 g/cm(2) after 3 years (p < 0.001 versus baseline). The mean BAP level was 27.3 ± 8.3 U/L in patients at baseline. After bisphosphonate treatment, BAP significantly decreased to 18.1 ± 7.2 U/L at 3 years (p < 0.001). Urinary NTX also decreased after bisphosphonate treatment. After 3 years of treatment, urinary NTX significantly decreased from 50.0 ± 19.0 nmol BCE/mmol Cr to 24.6 ± 10.2 nmol BCE/mmol Cr at 3 years (p < 0.001). Serum pentosidine levels were 0.0413 ± 0.0094 μg/mL at baseline and 0.0413 ± 0.0122 μg/mL after 3 years. They were not significantly changed by bisphosphonate treatment. Serum pentosidine levels were not changed by treatment with bisphosphonates. Thus, serum pentosidine may not be suitable as a marker of bone quality after 3 years of bisphosphonate treatment.

  14. Reduced serum hepcidin levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Domenico; Pasino, Michela; Goodnough, Julia B.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Guido, Maria; Castagna, Annalisa; Busti, Fabiana; Campostrini, Natascia; Martinelli, Nicola; Vantini, Italo; Corrocher, Roberto; Ganz, Tomas; Fattovich, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) often have increased liver iron, a condition associated with reduced sustained response to antiviral therapy, more rapid progression to cirrhosis, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The hepatic hormone hepcidin is the major regulator of iron metabolism and inhibits iron absorption and recycling from erythrophagocytosis. Hepcidin decrease is a possible pathophysiological mechanism of iron overload in CHC, but studies in humans have been hampered so far by the lack of reliable quantitative assays for the 25-amino acid bioactive peptide in serum (s-hepcidin). Methods Using a recently validated immunoassay, we measured s-hepcidin levels in 81 untreated CHC patients and 57 controls with rigorous definition of normal iron status. All CHC patients underwent liver biopsy with histological iron score. Results S-hepcidin was significantly lower in CHC patients than in controls (geometric means with 95% confidence intervals: 33.7, 21.5–52.9 vs. 90.9, 76.1–108.4 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.001). In CHC patients, s-hepcidin significantly correlated with serum ferritin and histological total iron score, but not with s-interleukin-6. After stratification for ferritin quartiles, s-hepcidin increased significantly across quartiles in both controls and CHC patients (chi for trend, p < 0.001). However, in CHC patients, s-hepcidin was significantly lower than in controls for each corresponding quartile (analysis of variance, p < 0.001). Conclusions These results, together with very recent studies in animal and cellular models, indicate that although hepcidin regulation by iron stores is maintained in CHC, the suppression of this hormone by hepatitis C virus is likely an important factor in liver iron accumulation in this condition. PMID:19729219

  15. The role of Dkk1 in bone mass regulation: correlating serum Dkk1 expression with bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Butler, Joseph S; Murray, David W; Hurson, Conor J; O'Brien, Julie; Doran, Peter P; O'Byrne, John M

    2011-03-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a major signaling cascade in bone biology, playing a key role in regulating bone development and remodeling, with aberrations in signaling resulting in disturbances in bone mass. The objectives of our study were to correlate serum Dkk1 expression with bone mineral density (BMD) and assess the potential role of Dkk1 as a serological marker of bone mass. Serum was collected from a cohort of patients (n = 36), 18 patients with a reduced BMD and 18 control patients. Serum Dkk1 expression as quantified by ELISA was correlated with lumbar and femoral t- and z-scores. Serum Dkk1 concentration in the osteoporosis group was significantly higher than control group (941 ± 116 vs. 558 ± 47 pg/ml, p < 0.01). Serum Dkk1 expression was highly correlated with bone mass variables with inverse associations found between serum Dkk1 expression and lumbar t-score (r = -0.34, p = 0.00433), lumbar z-score (r = -0.22, p = 0.1907), femur t-score (r = -0.42, p = 0.0101), and femur z-score (r = -0.43, p = 0.0089). Our data further emphasizes the pivotal role played by Wnt/β-catenin signaling in bone mass regulation. Dkk1, a powerful antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling, may have a role to play as a serological marker for disorders of bone mass, warranting further evaluation.

  16. Changes in serum NGF levels after the exercise load in dogs: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    ANDO, Izumi; KARASAWA, Kaoru; MATSUDA, Hiroshi; TANAKA, Akane

    2016-01-01

    Serum nerve growth factor (NGF) levels are increased by the external stress in mice, humans and horses; however, similar variations have been unclear in dogs. Since dogs are usually subjected to conditions of work, exercise and activity as important partners of humans, we measured serum NGF levels post-exercise and compared them with serum cortisol levels, as a biomarker of physical stress. Serum cortisol levels were immediately elevated post-exercise and returned to basal levels within 1 hr. On the other hand, serum NGF levels were significantly increased 1 hr post-exercise and gradually returned to basal levels. Further research is necessary; nevertheless, we have demonstrated for the first time that serum NGF levels respond to exercise stress in dogs. PMID:27452735

  17. [Optimal vancomycin serum level in Staphylococcus aureus infections?].

    PubMed

    Bingen, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Nebbad, B

    2006-09-01

    Vancomycin is the cornerstone of therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus in both community and nosocomial-acquired infections. Because vancomycin is a concentration-independent or time-dependant antibiotic, most clinicians have abandoned the routine practice of determining peak serum concentrations to rely solely on monitoring serum concentrations. The so-called therapeutic range most often quoted for vancomycin was assessed for through serum concentrations of 5-10 mg/l. But prolonged exposure to serum concentration close to the MIC is associated with the emergence of resistance. More recent guidelines recommended vancomycin in concentrations of 15-20 mg/l for the treatment of severe Staphylococcus infections or in situations where vancomycin penetration is poor. However, because of the great variability of vancomycin MIC(S) (0,12-4 mg/l) of susceptible Staphylococcus strains, guidelines should recommend through serum concentrations of 5-10 times the MIC.

  18. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss. PMID:27601860

  19. Impact of infusion method on amikacin serum levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Simon, N; Décaudin, B; Lannoy, D; Odou, M F; De Broucker, M; Barthélémy, C; Poret, E; Dubreuil, L; Odou, P

    2010-08-01

    Aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibiotics with peak-dependent bactericidal activity, administered by gravity infusion or for more accuracy by electronic pump infusion. The aim of this study was to assess the difference between the two systems and its pharmacokinetic impact. Twenty-four patients hospitalised for community-acquired pulmonary infections received amikacin by IV route over 1 h with a targeted peak concentration of 35 mg/L. They were randomly distributed into two groups, one receiving infusion through a pump system, the other by gravity. Amikacin serum levels were determined at the end of infusion and 24 h later. C(max) values were significantly lower with gravity than pump (40.2 +/- 12.3 vs. 50.6 +/- 17.6 mg/L, respectively; p = 0.04). Elimination half-life time, volume of distribution and clearance did not differ significantly from one group to the other. The percentage of patients who failed to achieve the targeted peak concentration was significantly higher with gravity than pump (41.7% vs. 16.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). Improving infusion flow-rate provides better control over amikacin C(max). This study underlines the fact that infusion device characteristics should be added to the physiopathological information of a patient if we are to make a better estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters.

  20. Specific serum protein levels in women using intrauterine contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, D; Kríz, J; Cídl, K

    1980-01-01

    The report is concerned with the levels of 17 specific serum proteins in 46 women using plastic nonmedicated intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) Dana-Super. Blood samplings were carried out three times: just before the IUCD introduction, 30 and 54 weeks after the insertion of IUCD. The following proteins except haptoglobin were quantitatively determined by radial immunodiffusion: prealbumin, albumin, orosomucoid, alpha 1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin, alpha 2HS-glycoprotein, alpha 2-macroglobulin, hemopexin, C3-component, transferrin, beta 2-glycoprotein I, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD. Moderately increased values were found for alpha 2HS-glycoprotein and beta 2-glycoprotein I in sera taken 30 weeks after the insertion of IUCD. AT the same time the augmentation of alpha 1-antitrypsin was established. This might be evoked by the raised protease activity in biological fluids of genital region. The raise in consequence of IUCD application of transferrin and the decrease of haptoglobin at the first postinsertion examination and the decrease of hemopexin and albumin at the second may be associated with higher menstrual bleeding followed by iron deficiency. All other proteins as well as the acute phase proteins showed only minor if any differences as compared with the corresponding start values. Similarly, there is no evidence of a systemic immunoglobulin response to IUCD use.

  1. Comparisons of Immunoassay and Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Serum Estradiol Levels and Their Influence on Clinical Association Studies in Men

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Maria E.; Tivesten, Åsa; Ryberg, Henrik; Mellström, Dan; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Ljunggren, Östen; Labrie, Fernand; Orwoll, Eric S.; Lee, David M.; Pye, Stephen R.; O'Neill, Terence W.; Finn, Joseph D.; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Boonen, Steven; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E. J.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C. W.; Vandenput, Liesbeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: Immunoassay-based techniques, routinely used to measure serum estradiol (E2), are known to have reduced specificity, especially at lower concentrations, when compared with the gold standard technique of mass spectrometry (MS). Different measurement techniques may be responsible for the conflicting results of associations between serum E2 and clinical phenotypes in men. Objective: Our objective was to compare immunoassay and MS measurements of E2 levels in men and evaluate associations with clinical phenotypes. Design and Setting: Middle-aged and older male subjects participating in the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden study (n = 2599), MrOS US (n = 688), and the European Male Aging Study (n = 2908) were included. Main Outcome Measures: Immunoassay and MS measurements of serum E2 were compared and related to bone mineral density (BMD; measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) and ankle-brachial index. Results: Within each cohort, serum E2 levels obtained by immunoassay and MS correlated moderately (Spearman rank correlation coefficient rS 0.53–0.76). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels associated significantly (albeit to a low extent, rS = 0.29) with immunoassay E2 but not with MS E2 levels. Similar associations of immunoassay E2 and MS E2 were seen with lumbar spine and total hip BMD, independent of serum CRP. However, immunoassay E2, but not MS E2, associated inversely with ankle-brachial index, and this correlation was lost after adjustment for CRP. Conclusions: Our findings suggest interference in the immunoassay E2 analyses, possibly by CRP or a CRP-associated factor. Although associations with BMD remain unaffected, this might imply for a reevaluation of previous association studies between immunoassay E2 levels and inflammation-related outcomes. PMID:23633197

  2. Raised serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase levels in two rheumatoid patients treated with sulphasalazine.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, M; Symmons, D P; Bacon, P A

    1985-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is a rare complication of sulphasalazine therapy in ulcerative colitis. This report describes two rheumatoid patients in whom raised serum levels of liver enzymes occurred soon after starting sulphasalazine treatment for their arthritis. In both cases the serum enzyme levels returned to normal after stopping the drug. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity should be considered in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who develop raised serum levels of liver enzymes while taking sulphasalazine. PMID:2865931

  3. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Pavy, Stephan; Boudaoud, Saida; Seror, Raphaèle; Goupille, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Briot, Karine; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Nithitham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Dougados, Maxime; Roux, Christian; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP) fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors. Methods The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years) suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6%) and 80 healthy controls. Results Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10−9), CRP level (p<0.0001) and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001) were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03), CRP level (p = 0.006), SOST serum level (p = 0.002) and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05). Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels. Conclusions DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels. PMID:26313358

  4. Serum nitric oxide (NO) levels in systemic sclerosis patients: correlation between NO levels and clinical features

    PubMed Central

    TAKAGI, K; KAWAGUCHI, Y; HARA, M; SUGIURA, T; HARIGAI, M; KAMATANI, N

    2003-01-01

    Vascular damage in systemic sclerosis (SSc) may be a factor in the abnormal regulation of several vasoactive agents. It has been well confirmed that plasma endothelin-1, as a vasoconstrictive factor, is elevated in patients with SSc. However, it is still controversial whether the levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), a strong vasodilator, are increased or decreased in SSc patients compared to healthy donors. In this study, we measured the levels of serum NO metabolites in SSc patients and determined the contribution of the excessive production of NO synthase (NOS)-2 by skin fibroblasts to NO synthesis. Serum NO levels of 45 patients with SSc were significantly higher than those of 20 healthy volunteers. In addition, some clinical features of SSc (the extent of skin fibrosis, short disease duration, and the complication of active fibrosing alveolitis) were all correlated positively with the levels of NO metabolites in SSc patients. To evaluate the levels of NOS-2 produced by skin fibroblasts, skin fibroblast cultures were established from SSc patients and healthy volunteers. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that NOS-2 mRNA was spontaneously expressed in cultured fibroblasts derived from SSc patients, but not in those derived from healthy normal controls. Immunohistochemical staining also showed that NOS-2 proteins were detected in SSc fibroblasts but not in normal fibroblasts. The production of NO by cultured fibroblasts was visualized directly by a reagent (DAF-2 DA) used for the fluorescent detection of NO. Cultured SSc fibroblasts were capable of NO synthesis in culture media containing l-arginine, whereas normal fibroblasts (with no expression of NOS-2) did not synthesize detectable NO. These observations indicate that NO production is increased markedly in early-stage diffuse cutaneous SSc patients with active fibrosing alveolitis, and that constitutive NOS-2 expression in SSc fibroblasts may contribute to increased NO production. PMID

  5. Methylation of bone SOST, its mRNA, and serum sclerostin levels correlate strongly with fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Reppe, Sjur; Noer, Agate; Grimholt, Runa M; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Gautvik, Vigdis T; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Berg, Jens Petter; Datta, Harish; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lyle, Robert; Collas, Philippe; Gautvik, Kaare M

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of sclerostin, a glycoprotein secreted by osteocytes, offers a new therapeutic paradigm for treatment of osteoporosis (OP) through its critical role as Wnt/catenin signaling regulator. This study describes the epigenetic regulation of SOST expression in bone biopsies of postmenopausal women. We correlated serum sclerostin to bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, and bone remodeling parameters, and related these findings to epigenetic and genetic disease mechanisms. Serum sclerostin and bone remodeling biomarkers were measured in two postmenopausal groups: healthy (BMD T-score > -1) and established OP (BMD T-score < -2.5, with at least one low-energy fracture). Bone specimens were used to analyze SOST mRNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and DNA methylation changes. The SOST gene promoter region showed increased CpG methylation in OP patients (n = 4) compared to age and body mass index (BMI) balanced controls (n = 4) (80.5% versus 63.2%, p = 0.0001) with replication in independent cohorts (n = 27 and n = 36, respectively). Serum sclerostin and bone SOST mRNA expression correlated positively with age-adjusted and BMI-adjusted total hip BMD (r = 0.47 and r = 0.43, respectively; both p < 0.0005), and inversely to serum bone turnover markers. Five SNPs, one of which replicates in an independent population-based genomewide association study (GWAS), showed association with serum sclerostin or SOST mRNA levels under an additive model (p = 0.0016 to 0.0079). Genetic and epigenetic changes in SOST influence its bone mRNA expression and serum sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women. The observations suggest that increased SOST promoter methylation seen in OP is a compensatory counteracting mechanism, which lowers serum sclerostin concentrations and reduces inhibition of Wnt signaling in an attempt to promote bone formation.

  6. Extra-intestinal calcium handling contributes to normal serum calcium levels when intestinal calcium absorption is suboptimal.

    PubMed

    Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Moermans, Karen; Schoonjans, Luc; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2015-12-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, is a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis, especially through stimulation of intestinal calcium transport. Lack of intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling does however not result in hypocalcemia, because the increased 1,25(OH)2D levels stimulate calcium handling in extra-intestinal tissues. Systemic VDR deficiency, on the other hand, results in hypocalcemia because calcium handling is impaired not only in the intestine, but also in kidney and bone. It remains however unclear whether low intestinal VDR activity, as observed during aging, is sufficient for intestinal calcium transport and for mineral and bone homeostasis. To this end, we generated mice that expressed the Vdr exclusively in the gut, but at reduced levels. We found that ~15% of intestinal VDR expression greatly prevented the Vdr null phenotype in young-adult mice, including the severe hypocalcemia. Serum calcium levels were, however, in the low-normal range, which may be due to the suboptimal intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium loss, insufficient increase in bone resorption and normal calcium incorporation in the bone matrix. In conclusion, our results indicate that low intestinal VDR levels improve intestinal calcium absorption compared to Vdr null mice, but also show that 1,25(OH)2D-mediated fine-tuning of renal calcium reabsorption and bone mineralization and resorption is required to maintain fully normal serum calcium levels.

  7. Effects of thyroid hormone on serum glycated albumin levels: study on non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Koga, M; Murai, J; Saito, H; Matsumoto, S; Kasayama, S

    2009-05-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) is used alongside glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1C)) as an indicator of glycemic control. Although serum GA levels are affected mainly by plasma glucose, they are also influenced by serum albumin metabolism. Thyroid hormone is known to promote albumin catabolism, and it is thus thought to affect serum GA levels. In the present study, the effects of thyroid hormone on serum GA measurements were investigated in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Six patients with untreated hypothyroidism and 17 patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis were investigated. Patients who had anemia or diabetes were excluded. A total of 25 non-diabetic, euthyroid individuals were enrolled as controls. HbA(1C), serum GA, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (T(3)), and free thyroxine (T(4)) levels were measured in all these subjects, and their relationships were examined. Although no intergroup differences were observed for HbA(1C), serum GA was significantly higher among patients with hypothyroidism than controls, and significantly lower among patients with thyrotoxicosis. Serum GA had a significant positive correlation with serum TSH and significant inverse correlations with free T(3) and free T(4). Thyroid hormone levels are inversely associated with serum GA levels. Cautions are necessary when evaluating serum GA levels in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  8. Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Lipid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Bu, So-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Jin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify food sources for major minerals such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K), and to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of these minerals and serum lipids in healthy Korean adults. A total of 132 healthy men and women completed a physical examination and dietary record and provided blood samples for lipid profile analysis. Results showed the following daily average mineral intakes: 373.4 mg of calcium, 806.0 mg of phosphorous, 3685.8 mg of sodium, and 1938.3 mg of potassium. The calcium-to-phosphorus and sodium-to-potassium ratio was about 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. The primary sources for each mineral were: vegetables (24.9%) and fishes (19.0%) for calcium, grains (31.4%) for phosphorus, seasonings (41.6%) and vegetables (27.0%) for sodium, and vegetables (30.6%) and grains (18.5%) for potassium. The correlation analysis, which has been adjusted for age, gender, total food consumption, and energy intake, showed significantly positive correlations between Ca/P and serum HDL cholesterol levels, between Na intake and the level of serum total cholesterol, and between Na/K and the level of serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Our data indicates that the level of mineral consumption partially contributes to serum lipid profiles and that a diet consisting of a low Ca/P ratio and a high Na/K ratio may have negative impacts on lipid metabolism.

  9. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN) in Early Breast Cancer (BCa).

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Argellati, Francesca; Di Meglio, Antonio; Zanardi, Elisa; Zinoli, Linda; Comite, Paola; Mussap, Michele; Boccardo, Francesco

    2015-07-28

    PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005), adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status (p = 0.02). No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05) and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03). Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients.

  10. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN) in Early Breast Cancer (BCa)

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Argellati, Francesca; Di Meglio, Antonio; Zanardi, Elisa; Zinoli, Linda; Comite, Paola; Mussap, Michele; Boccardo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005), adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status (p = 0.02). No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05) and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03). Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients. PMID:26225965

  11. Serum hepcidin level correlates with hyperlipidemia status in patients following allograft renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, D; He, X; Zhou, C

    2014-01-01

    Hepcidin is synthesized and secreted by liver cells and has been reported as one of the hormone molecules that regulates iron homeostasis. To determine whether serum level of hepcidin can be used as a biomarker for the evaluation of chronic inflammatory status, iron level and renal function in patients following allograft renal transplantation, serum levels of hepcidin, interleukin (IL)-6, ferritin, serum iron, and renal functions were measured. Sixty patients were included in the current study and were further separated into groups with or without hyperlipidemia. We found that allogeneic kidney transplant recipients with hyperlipidemia have significantly increased serum levels of hepcidin, IL-6, and ferritin. The increased serum hepcidin is positively correlated with serum IL-6 and ferritin as analyzed by single-factor correlation analysis. Multivariant correlation analysis in all specimens further demonstrated that serum hepcidin negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and positively correlated with serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, serum ferritin, and IL-6. Our study demonstrated that serum level of hepcidin after allogeneic kidney transplantation not only reflects the status of chronic inflammation but can also indicate changes in renal function. Thus, hepcidin has the potential to be used as a promising marker for the detection and monitoring of the status of chronic inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and renal function in patients following allograft renal transplantation.

  12. [Serum cannabinoid levels 24 to 48 hours after cannabis smoking].

    PubMed

    Skopp, Gisela; Richter, Barbara; Pötsch, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Low concentrations of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC in serum samples are often claimed not to result from recent cannabis use. Prediction of time of exposure is difficult, especially if distinctive features of drug use could not be observed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the presence of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC in serum samples as well as to obtain preliminary data on the analyte profile for a time window of 24-48 hours after discontinuation of cannabis smoking. Serum samples from heavy (n = 12, > 1 joint/day), moderate (n = 11, < or = 1 joint/day) and light (n = 6, < 1 joint/week) smokers of cannabis were analyzed for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and free THC-COOH by GC/MS as well as for glucuronidated THC-COOH by LC/MS-MS. The blood samples were collected 24-48 hours after abstaining from cannabis use. Additionally, 8 specimens were obtained from persons after discontinuation of the drug for more than 48 hours. During collection of the blood samples, distinctive effects due to drug use could not be observed. For heavy users of cannabis, THC was detectable in 8 samples, and in 5 cases both biologically active compounds, THC and 11-hydroxy-THC, were present (1.3-6.4 ng THC/mL serum, 0.5-2.4 ng 11-hydroxy-THC/mL serum). Among moderate users, in 1 sample 1.8 ng THC/mL serum and 1.3 ng 11-hydroxy-THC/mL serum were determined, and another sample was tested positive with low concentrations close to the limit of detection. In serum samples of light users both analytes could not be detected, indicating that in those persons a positive finding of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC may rather result from recent consumption than from cannabis use 1 or 2 days prior to blood sampling. The concentrations of THC-COOH and its glucuronide covered a wide range in all groups of cannabis users. However, there was a trend to higher concentrations in heavy users compared to moderate users, and the mean concentration was smaller in light smokers than in moderate smokers. Overall, the findings

  13. Comparisons of serum sclerostin levels among patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, primary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Kaji, H; Imanishi, Y; Sugimoto, T; Seino, S

    2011-07-01

    Wnt-β-catenin signaling is important for bone formation. Sclerostin inhibits bone formation mainly by suppressing this signal, and several studies suggest that the suppression of sclerostin expression contributes to the bone anabolic action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We therefore examined serum sclerostin levels using enzyme-linked immunosolvent assay in 18 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, 9 postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and 7 patients with osteomalacia. Serum levels of sclerostin were significantly lower in the group with pHPT, compared with those with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, serum sclerostin levels were significantly lower in the group with tumor-induced osteomalacia, but not in the group with osteomalacia without tumor, compared with those with postmenopausal osteoporosis. In patients with pHPT, serum sclerostin levels were significantly and negatively correlated to serum calcium and PTH levels. In patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels of sclerostin levels were significantly and positively related to serum calcium and creatinine levels. In conclusion, we showed that serum sclerostin levels are decreased presumably through endogenous PTH elevation in postmenopausal women with pHPT, compared with the patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  14. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    He, Binfeng; Li, Hongli; Hu, Mingdong; Dong, Weijie; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Yao, Wei; Guo, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, baseline serum levels of MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, while SOD and IL-10 levels were lower in HADAS subjects compared with controls (p < 0.05). It is interesting that serum levels of IL-17A were clearly interrelated with HADAS incidence and severity (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that combined serum IL-17A and IL-10 levels were a better predictor of HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS. PMID:27190491

  15. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  16. The effect of meat products enriched with plant sterols and minerals on serum lipids and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Tapola, Niina S; Lyyra, Mari L; Karvonen, Henna M; Uusitupa, Matti I; Sarkkinen, Essi S

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of non-esterified plant sterol-enriched and mineral-enriched low-fat and low-salted meat products compared with control meat products, on serum total and lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure in subjects with mildly to moderately elevated serum cholesterol concentration. A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind, repeated measure design was used. Altogether 21 volunteers completed the study. The study began with a pre-trial period of 1-2 weeks, which was followed by three different test periods in the following order: meat products enriched with plant sterols (1.2 g/day), potassium, calcium and magnesium (MP1); meat products with no added plant sterols and minerals (control); and meat products with plant sterols (2.1 g/day), potassium, calcium and magnesium (MP2). Each test period lasted for 3 weeks. During the MP2 period, the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration decreased 4.9+/-7.5% (P<0.05) and 4.6+/-11.3% (not significant), respectively, compared with the control period. No differences in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglyceride concentrations or in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were found among the test periods. In conclusion, the present study showed that frankfurters and cold cuts enriched with plant sterols from tall oil, potassium, calcium and magnesium, as part of habitual Finnish diet reduced the serum total cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects when the intake of sitosterols was 2.1 g/day, but not with the lower dose.

  17. Comparison of serum BDNF levels in deficit and nondeficit chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Amann, Benedikt L; Mármol, Frederic; Oliveira, Cristina; Messeguer, Ana; Lafuente, Amalia; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Bernardo Arroyo, Miguel

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare serum BDNF levels of chronic schizophrenic patients, with or without deficit syndrome, and healthy controls. A comparative study of serum BDNF levels, determined by ELISA, was performed in 47 chronic patients with schizophrenia matched with 47 healthy controls. A part of the chronic schizophrenic sample was further divided into patients with a deficit (n=14) and a nondeficit syndrome (n=20), according to the Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome Scale. A significant difference was observed in decreased serum BDNF levels between chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls. No statistical significant differences in BDNF levels between deficit and nondeficit chronic schizophrenic patients were found. Our study confirms differences of serum BDNF levels of chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls, which correspond to the clinical progression of the disease. Our results do not support a relation between deficit profile in chronic schizophrenia and lower serum BDNF levels.

  18. Serum phosphorus levels and risk of incident dementia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Xie, Yan; Bowe, Benjamin; Xian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Higher serum phosphorous is associated with cerebral small vessel disease, an important driver of cognitive decline and dementia. Whether serum phosphorous, a potentially modifiable parameter, associates with risk of incident dementia is not known. We aimed to examine the association between serum phosphorous and risk of incident dementia and to determine if the association is modified by age. We used the United States Department of Veterans Affairs national databases to build a longitudinal observational cohort of US veterans without prior history of dementia and with at least one outpatient serum phosphorus between October 2008 and September 2010 and followed them until September 2014. Serum phosphorus was categorized into quintiles: ≤2.9, >2.9 to ≤3.2, >3.2 to ≤3.5, >3.5 to ≤3.9, >3.9 mg/dL. There were 744,235 participants in the overall cohort. Over a median follow-up of 5.07 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 4.28, 5.63), adjusted Cox models show that compared to quintile 2, the risk of incident dementia was increased in quintile 4 (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.05; CI = 1.01–1.10) and quintile 5 (HR = 1.14; CI = 1.09–1.20). In cohort participants ≤60 years old, the risk of incident dementia was increased in quintile 4 (HR = 1.29; CI = 1.12–1.49) and 5 (HR = 1.45; CI = 1.26–1.68). In participants > 60 years old, the risk was not significant in quintile 4, and was attenuated in quintile 5 (HR = 1.10; CI = 1.05–1.16). Formal interaction analyses showed that the association between phosphorous and dementia was more pronounced in those younger than 60, and attenuated in those older than 60 (P for interaction was 0.004 and <0.0001 in quintiles 4 and 5; respectively). We conclude that higher serum phosphorous is associated with increased risk of incident dementia. This association is stronger in younger cohort participants. The identification of serum phosphorous as a risk factor for incident dementia has public health relevance and might inform the

  19. Titanium release in serum of patients with different bone fixation implants and its interaction with serum biomolecules at physiological levels.

    PubMed

    Nuevo-Ordóñez, Yoana; Montes-Bayón, M; Blanco-González, E; Paz-Aparicio, J; Raimundez, J Diánez; Tejerina, J M; Peña, M A; Sanz-Medel, A

    2011-11-01

    Increased concentrations of circulating metal-degradation products derived from the use of Ti orthopaedic implants may have deleterious biological effects over the long term. Therefore, there is an increasing need to establish the basal level of Ti in the serum of the population (exposed and non-exposed) with appropriate highly sensitive techniques and strategies. With this aim, we have developed a quantitative strategy for the determination of total Ti concentration in human serum samples by isotope dilution analysis using a double-focussing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Minimizing sample handling and therefore contamination issues, we obtained detection limits of about 0.05 μg L(-1) Ti working at medium resolution (m/Δm 4000). Such extremely good sensitivity permitted us to establish the range of Ti concentration in serum of 40 control individuals (mean 0.26 μg L(-1)) and also to compare it with the level in exposed patients with different Ti metal implants. On the other hand, Ti transport "in vivo" studies have been enabled by online coupling of liquid chromatography (anion-exchange) separation and double-focussing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for sensitive detection of Ti. The development of a postcolumn isotope dilution strategy permitted quantitative characterization of the Ti-transporting biomolecules in human serum. The results for unspiked serum revealed that 99.8% of the Ti present in this fluid is bound to the protein transferrin, with column recoveries greater than 95%.

  20. Serum calcium level of freshwater snake, Natrix piscator, in response to vitamin D3 administration.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, A K; Srivastav, S P; Srivastav, S K; Swarup, K

    1986-01-01

    The effect of i.m. injection of vitamin D3 (25 IU/100 g b.wt) on serum calcium level was investigated in Natrix piscator. This treatment evokes hypercalcemia at day 3 which progresses up to day 5. Thereafter, a decline was observed in the serum calcium level at day 10 and day 15.

  1. Possible association of elevated serum collagen type IV level with skin sclerosis in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Chisako; Toki, Sayaka; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-08-29

    Collagen type IV is the primary collagen in the basement membranes around blood vessels and in the dermoepidermal junction in the skin. Perivascular collagen type IV is synthesized by endothelial cells and pericytes, and contributes to the homeostasis and remodeling of blood vessels. It has been well recognized that elevated serum collagen type IV levels are associated with the liver fibrosis. The objective was to examine serum collagen type IV levels and their clinical associations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to examine the expression of collagen type IV in the fibrotic skin in SSc. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients and diffuse cutaneous type SSc patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals. Serum collagen type IV levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. Serum collagen type IV levels in early stage (disease duration ≤3 years) diffuse cutaneous SSc patients were significantly elevated. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients with digital ulcers (DU) were significantly elevated. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of collagen type IV around dermal small vessels in the affected skin was reduced compared with those of normal individuals. These results suggest that elevated serum collagen type IV levels may be associated with the skin sclerosis in the early stage of SSc. The measurement of serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients may be useful as a disease activity marker in skin sclerosis and DU.

  2. Serum leptin levels in gastric cancer patients and the relationship with insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Mehmet; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Emre, Habib; Kemik, Ahu; Kemik, Ozgur; Esen, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Serum leptin levels have been examined in various cancers, with conflicting results. However, there is limited information regarding serum leptin levels and insulin resistance in gastric cancer patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate serum leptin levels, performance status, insulin levels and insulin resistance in patients with gastric cancer. In addition, we examined the relationship between these measurements and leptin levels. Material and methods Thirty-nine patients with gastric cancer and 30 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum leptin, total protein, albumin, growth hormone, insulin and glucose levels were measured. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess insulin resistance. Results Serum levels of insulin, glucose and growth hormone and insulin resistance were significantly lower in gastric cancer patients than controls (p < 0.05 for all). In the Pearson correlation analysis, insulin resistance was found to be significantly correlated with serum leptin levels in gastric cancer patients (r = 0.320, p = 0.047). We observed a significant negative correlation between performance status and insulin resistance in patients with cachexia (r = –0.512, p = 0.030), while no association was found in non-cachectic patients. Conclusions We concluded that serum leptin levels are significantly lower in gastric cancer patients. In addition, gastric cancer patients have decreases in insulin levels, insulin resistance and growth hormone levels. This study found a positive association between serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Moreover, there is a negative association between serum leptin levels and growth hormone levels. Thus, low insulin and growth hormone levels may suppress the production of leptin in gastric cancer patients. PMID:25995751

  3. Changes of serum trace elements level in patients with alopecia areata: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Waishu; Zheng, Haibo; Shan, Baihui; Wu, Yi

    2017-02-02

    Abnormalities of serum trace elements are involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of alopecia areata (AA); however, the results of published studies are controversial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the alterations of serum level of trace elements and AA using a meta-analysis approach. We searched all articles indexed in PubMed, Embase and Science Citation Index published up to 30 April 2016 concerning the association between serum level of zinc, copper, iron/ferritin, selenium or magnesium and AA. Ten eligible articles involving 764 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that patients with AA had a lower serum level of zinc (P < 10(-4) ) and selenium (P < 10(-4) ) than the healthy controls. However, there was no significant difference between the AA patients and controls in the levels of serum copper (P = 0.81), serum iron (P = 0.36), serum ferritin (P = 0.37) and serum magnesium (P = 0.07). This meta-analysis suggests that low serum levels of zinc and selenium seem to be important risk factors for AA.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide levels in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, and milk from inhabitants of Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Aguirre, A A; Infanzon, R M; Silva, C S; Siliceo, J

    2001-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their persistence, accumulate in food chains and cause elevated contamination in human beings. These residues bioconcentrate in lipid-rich tissues according to the equilibrium pattern of internal transport and lipid tissue content. The analyses of maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, colostrum, and mature milk indicate circulation of these compounds through all compartments of the maternal body, including their crossover of the placental barrier. The greatest residue levels found correspond to DDTs, with highest levels determined in colostrum (5.71 mg/kg of DDT total), followed by adipose tissue with 5.66 mg/kg and in mature milk with 4.70 mg/kg. Among DDTs, pp'DDE is the most predominant compound. The paired analyses of organochlorine pesticide residue levels between mother blood serum and umbilical blood serum demonstrate significant correlation and their transfer from mother to fetus through the placenta. The paired analyses of adipose tissue and colostrum and mature milk contamination levels indicate a high degree of coherence, principally of DDT, in the body and lactation as a decontamination means.

  5. Serum Resistin Levels May Contribute to an Increased Risk of Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Liu; Xu, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Ting; Gao, Qiu-Yan; Qian, Qing-Qiang; Sun, Bao-Liang; Yang, Ming-Feng

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum resistin levels and acute cerebral infarction (ACI). PubMed, SpringerLink, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP databases (last updated search in October 2014) were exhaustively searched, and data from the eligible studies were extracted and analyzed to assess the association between serum resistin levels and ACI. STATA software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for data analysis. Ten studies including 1829 ACI patients and 1557 healthy controls were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Our major result revealed that ACI patients exhibited higher serum resistin levels compared with healthy controls. Asubgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed a significant association between serum resistin levels and ACI in Asians, but surprisingly not in Caucasians. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that serum resistin levels are associated with an increased risk of ACI.

  6. Effects of coffee consumption on oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins and serum lipid levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, G S; Mune, M; Otani, H; Tone, Y; Liang, X-M; Iwahashi, H; Sakamoto, W

    2004-01-01

    Since little is known about how coffee intake affects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative susceptibility and serum lipid levels, we conducted an in vivo study in 11 healthy male students of Wakayama Medical University aged between 20 and 31 years fed an average Japanese diet. On days 1-7 of the study, the subjects drank mineral water. On day 7, the subjects began drinking coffee, 24 g total per day, for one week. This was followed by a one week "washout period" during which mineral water was consumed. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples were taken at the end of each one-week period. LDL oxidation lag time was approximately 8% greater (p < 0.01) after the coffee drinking period than the other periods. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly decreased after the coffee drinking period. Finally, regular coffee ingestion may favorably affect cardiovascular risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility and decreasing LDL-cholesterol and MDA levels.

  7. Clinical significance of serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels in cutaneous melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Bilgin, Elif; Karabulut, Senem; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2016-07-01

    Laminin and type-IV collagen constitute a significant portion of the extracellular matrix. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the serum concentrations of laminin and type-IV collagen may serve as biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Sixty pathologically confirmed melanoma patients were enrolled in the study. Serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels were assessed using an ELISA. Thirty healthy controls were also examined. No significant differences in the baseline serum levels of laminin were identified between melanoma patients and healthy controls (P=0.45). However, the baseline serum levels of type-IV collagen were significantly elevated in melanoma patients compared with those in the control group (P<0.001). Clinical parameters, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histopathology, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and responsiveness to chemotherapy were found not to be associated with the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen (P>0.05). Furthermore, the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen had no prognostic value regarding the outcome for melanoma patients (P=0.36 and P=0.26, respectively). While laminin levels showed no diagnostic value, the serum concentrations of type-IV collagen were indicated to serve as a diagnostic marker in patients with cutaneous melanoma. In conclusion, type-IV collagen levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for cutaneous melanoma, while being void of any prognostic value.

  8. Clinical significance of serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels in cutaneous melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; BILGIN, ELIF; KARABULUT, SENEM; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Laminin and type-IV collagen constitute a significant portion of the extracellular matrix. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the serum concentrations of laminin and type-IV collagen may serve as biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Sixty pathologically confirmed melanoma patients were enrolled in the study. Serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels were assessed using an ELISA. Thirty healthy controls were also examined. No significant differences in the baseline serum levels of laminin were identified between melanoma patients and healthy controls (P=0.45). However, the baseline serum levels of type-IV collagen were significantly elevated in melanoma patients compared with those in the control group (P<0.001). Clinical parameters, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histopathology, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and responsiveness to chemotherapy were found not to be associated with the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen (P>0.05). Furthermore, the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen had no prognostic value regarding the outcome for melanoma patients (P=0.36 and P=0.26, respectively). While laminin levels showed no diagnostic value, the serum concentrations of type-IV collagen were indicated to serve as a diagnostic marker in patients with cutaneous melanoma. In conclusion, type-IV collagen levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for cutaneous melanoma, while being void of any prognostic value. PMID:27330797

  9. Adolescent Diet and Subsequent Serum Hormones, Breast Density and Bone Mineral Density in Young Women: Results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, Joanne F.; Liu, Lea; Klifa, Catherine; Hylton, Nola; Shepherd, John A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Van Horn, Linda; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Lasser, Norman L.; Himes, John H.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Kriska, Andrea; Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Barton, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent diet is hypothesized to influence breast cancer risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of an intervention to lower fat intake among adolescent girls on biomarkers that are related to breast cancer risk in adults. Methods A follow-up study was conducted of 230 girls who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC), in which healthy, prepubertal 8-10 year olds were randomly assigned to usual care or to a behavioral intervention that promoted a reduced fat diet. Participants were 25-29 years old at follow-up visits. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results In analyses that did not take account of diet at the time of the follow-up visit, the only statistically significant treatment group difference was higher bone mineral content (BMC) in intervention group participants compared to usual care group participants; their mean BMCs were 2,444g and 2,377g, respectively. After adjustment for current diet, the intervention group also had statistically significantly higher bone mineral density and luteal phase serum estradiol concentrations. Serum progesterone concentrations and breast density did not differ by treatment group in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusion Results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of a lower fat diet during adolescence reduces breast cancer risk via effects on subsequent serum estradiol and progesterone levels, breast density or BMD. Impact Additional research is needed to clarify the association of adolescent diet with breast cancer risk and to determine if the results reported here are specific to the DISC intervention or more broadly applicable. PMID:20501774

  10. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  11. Association between bone mineralization, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young Australian men.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Selma Coelho; Maple-Brown, Louise; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    The critical age for attainment of peak bone mineralization is however 20-30 yr, but few studies have investigated bone mineralization and its association with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young men. This study aimed to investigate relationships between age, bone mineral measurements, body composition measurements, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in a group of young healthy Australian men. Thirty-five healthy men aged 18-25 yr had anthropometric measures, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed. Bone mineral content was significantly associated with height, body mass and lean mass, and bone mineral density positively correlated with lean mass and body mass. Bone mineral measurements did not correlate with fat mass, percentage of fat mass, or cardiorespiratory fitness level. Age was directly correlated with total body mass, body fat, and percentage of fat mass. Body mineral measurements correlated with lean mass but not with fat mass or with cardiorespiratory fitness in this group of young healthy men. Positive association between body fat and age in such young group suggests that more studies with young men are warranted and may help inform strategies to optimize increase in bone mineral measurements.

  12. Different mechanical loading protocols influence serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels in young healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Niehoff, A; Kersting, U G; Helling, S; Dargel, J; Maurer, J; Thevis, M; Brüggemann, G-P

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a relationship between the loading mode of physical activity and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentration exists and whether the lymphatic system contributes to COMP release into the serum. Serum COMP levels were determined in healthy male subjects before, after and at 18 further time points within 7 h at four separate experimental days with four different loading interventions. The loading intervention included high impact running exercise, slow but deep knee bends, and lymphatic drainage of 30 min duration, respectively, and a resting protocol. The serum COMP levels were measured using a commercially available quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An increase (p < 0.001) in serum COMP concentration was detected immediately after 30 min running exercise. Slow but deep knee bends did not cause any significant changes in serum COMP levels. Lymphatic drainage also had no effect on the serum COMP concentration. After 30 min of complete rest the serum COMP level was significantly (p = 0.008) reduced. The elevation of COMP serum concentration seems to depend on the loading mode of the physical activity and to reflect the extrusion of COMP fragments from the impact loaded articular cartilage or synovial fluid.

  13. Elevated serum levels of APRIL, but not BAFF, in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Takashi; Fujimoto, Manabu; Echigo, Takeshi; Matsushita, Yukiyo; Shimada, Yuka; Hasegawa, Minoru; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2008-03-01

    Elevated serum levels of B-cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and/or a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) are shown in autoimmune diseases. We determined serum levels of BAFF and APRIL, and clinical association in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Serum levels of BAFF and APRIL from 35 patients with AD, 25 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 25 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 25 normal healthy subjects were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of APRIL, but not BAFF, were significantly elevated in patients with AD than in healthy controls or patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Patients with severe AD exhibited significantly increased APRIL levels compared to patients with moderate AD and mild AD, and serum APRIL levels were significantly decreased after treatment compared with those before treatment. In addition, increased APRIL levels were significantly associated with serum immunoglobulin E levels and blood eosinophil numbers. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of APRIL are associated with disease severity and activity in AD, and APRIL may have an important role in the pathogenesis of AD.

  14. Serum sialic acid and glycoprotein levels in some Libyan cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Balo, N N; Ishaq, M

    1991-01-01

    Sialic acid is a common conjugate of some serum glycoproteins and glycolipids. Elevated levels of serum sialic acid and alterations in serum glycoproteins have been observed in certain types of cancer. In this study sialic acid concentration in the sera of patients with various types of cancer was determined. In addition to this, serum glycoproteins were also analysed by electrophoretic method. Our results indicate that serum sialic acid levels are generally raised in all types of cancer studied. This increase was more pronounced in case of lung, bronchogenic, intestinal and breast cancer. Some alterations in the serum glycoprotein profiles were also observed, particularly in bronchogenic and gall bladder cancer where an additional band in the low molecular weight region was present and in lung, breast and lymphoma where a band in the middle molecular weight region was found missing when compared with normals.

  15. Association Between Serum Levels of Vitamin D and the Risk of Post-Stroke Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaowen; Ren, Wenwei; Cheng, Jianhua; Zhu, Beilei; Jin, Qianqian; Wang, Liping; Chen, Cao; Zhu, Lin; Chang, Yaling; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; Lv, Dezhao; Shao, Bei; Zhang, Shunkai; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low levels of serum vitamin D are common in patients with mood disorders and stroke. It has been shown that low levels of serum vitamin D indicate a risk of depression in post-stroke subjects. Our aim was to determine the relationship between vitamin D and post-stroke anxiety (PSA). A consecutive series of 226 first acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited and followed up for 1 month. Serum levels of vitamin D were measured within 24 hours of admission. Patients with significant clinical symptoms of anxiety and a Hamilton anxiety scale score >7 were diagnosed as having PSA. In addition, 100 healthy subjects were recruited as controls and underwent measurements of serum vitamin D. A total of 60 patients (26.55%) showed anxiety at 1 month. Both PSA patients and non-PSA patients had lower serum levels of vitamin D than healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between PSA and serum levels of vitamin D. Low serum levels of vitamin D (≤38.48 nmol/L) were independently associated with the development of PSA (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.21–5.13, P = 0.01). Serum vitamin D status is related to the occurrence of anxiety in post-stroke patients and may be an independent risk factor of PSA after 1 month. PMID:27149477

  16. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  17. Serum Hepcidin Levels in Childhood-Onset Ischemic Stroke: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Azab, Seham F; Akeel, Nagwa E; Abdalhady, Mohamed A; Elhewala, Ahmed A; Ali, Al Shymaa A; Amin, Ezzat K; Sarhan, Dina T; Almalky, Mohamed A A; Elhindawy, Eman M; Salam, Mohamed M A; Soliman, Attia A; Abdellatif, Sawsan H; Ismail, Sanaa M; Elsamad, Nahla A; Hashem, Mustafa I A; Aziz, Khalid A; Elazouni, Osama M A; Arafat, Manal S

    2016-03-01

    Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Despite the growing evidence of iron imbalance in childhood-onset ischemic stroke, serum hepcidin level in those patients has not yet been researched. In this study, we aimed to estimate serum (hepcidin) level in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and to investigate whether subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium, which is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) derivative, could modulate serum hepcidin level in those patients. This was a case-control study included 60 (AIS) cases, and 100 healthy children with comparable age and gender as control group. For all subjects' serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]) levels were assessed by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method). Iron parameters including (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were also measured. The patients were subdivided according to treatment with an LMWH derivative into 2 groups and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and 1 week after stroke onset for all cases. We found that AIS cases had higher serum iron, ferritin, and IL6 levels compared to the control group (all P < 0.01). Serum hepcidin was significantly higher in AIS cases (median, 36[15-73]ng/mL) compared to the control group (median, 24[10-41]ng/mL; P < 0.01). On the 1st day of AIS diagnosis, serum hepcidin levels were similar in both stroke subgroups (P > 0.05). However, on the 7th day of diagnosis serum hepcidin level decreased significantly in AIS cases treated with LMWH (group 1) (median, 36 vs 21 ng/mL; P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in serum hepcidin level in AIS cases not treated with LMWH (group 2) (P > 0.05). Serum hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and IL6 (r = 0.375, P < 0.05; r = 0.453, P

  18. Effect of Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.) Mushroom on serum lipid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Yuuichi; Furuichi, Yukio; Kokean, Yasushi; Nishii, Takafumi; Hisamatsu, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    The effect of Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.) mushroom on serum lipid levels was investigated in rats. When the mushroom (fruit body) powder or its hotwater extract was added at a level of 10% to a cholesterol-containing diet, the serum total cholesterol levels of rats fed the fruit body or the hot-water extract were markedly lower than that of controls, though there was no significant difference in serum HDL-cholesterol among the three groups. On a cholesterol-free diet, the addition of fruit body powder at a level of 5% significantly decreased serum total cholesterol. Serum triglycerides and phospholipids were significantly decreased in both the fruit body and hot-water extract groups. Furthermore, Hatakeshimeji in the diet significantly increased the activity of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase, which converts cellular cholesterol to bile acids, as well as the fecal excretion of bile acids.

  19. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  20. Serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won-Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum selenium levels are lower in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. However, there is no data about the difference in serum selenium levels depending on the severity of lung diseases. We aimed to identify the factors associated with low serum selenium levels in critically ill patients with respiratory diseases. Methods A prospective study was performed in 83 patients with respiratory diseases who had admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. We obtained systemic inflammatory markers, nutritional indicators and prognostic factors as the explanatory variables for the outcome of low serum selenium levels. Results Serum selenium levels on admission were lower by 28% in the ICU group as compared with the general ward group (70.0±26.4 and 97.9±20.8 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Low serum selenium levels had a correlation with malnutrition represented by decreases in levels of lymphocyte (R2=0.107, P=0.005) and albumin (R2=0.174, P<0.001). In addition, low serum selenium levels were associated with an increase in baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (R2=0.059, P=0.041) and APACHE II scores (R2=0.209, P<0.001). Lower albumin levels (P=0.032) and higher APACHE II scores (P=0.046) showed a significant correlation with lower serum selenium levels on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Low serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases have a significant correlation with poor nutritional status and prognosis on admission. PMID:27621861

  1. Association between Serum Malondialdehyde Levels and Mortality in Patients with Severe Brain Trauma Injury

    PubMed Central

    Martín, María M.; Abreu-González, Pedro; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Cáceres, Juan J.; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Lorenzo, José M.; Molina, Ismael; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is a hyperoxidative state in patients with trauma brain injury (TBI). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is an end-product formed during oxidative stress, concretely lipid peroxidation. In small studies (highest sample size 50 patients), higher levels of MDA have been found in nonsurviving than surviving patients with TBI. An association between serum MDA levels and mortality in patients with TBI, however, has not been reported. Thus, the objective of this prospective, observational, multicenter study, performed in six Spanish intensive care units, was to determine whether MDA serum levels are associated with early mortality in a large series of patients with severe TBI. Serum MDA levels were measured in 100 patients with severe TBI on day 1 and in 75 healthy controls. The end-point of the study was 30-day mortality. We found higher serum MDA levels in patients with severe TBI than in healthy controls (p<0.001). Nonsurviving patients with TBI (n=27) showed higher serum MDA levels (p<0.001) than survivors (n=73). Logistic regression analysis showed that serum MDA levels were associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR]=4.662; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.466–14.824; p=0.01), controlling for Glasgow Coma Score, age, and computed tomography findings. Survival analysis showed that patients with serum MDA levels higher than 1.96 nmol/mL presented increased 30-day mortality than patients with lower levels (hazard ratio=3.5; 95% CI=1.43–8.47; p<0.001). Thus, the most relevant new finding of our study, the largest to date on serum MDA levels in patients with severe TBI, was an association between serum MDA levels and early mortality. PMID:25054973

  2. Distribution of serum immunoglobulin G4 levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and clinical features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 levels.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Ken; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Hidefumi; Inagaki, Yuko; Yamaoka, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels, IgG4-positive plasmacytes, and lymphocyte infiltration into multiple organs. IgG4 thyroiditis is a subset of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who exhibited histopathological features of IgG4-RD; its source of serum IgG4 is suggested to be the thyroid gland. Although a relationship between IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis has been reported, the meaning of serum IgG4 in HT is uncertain. In this report, we prospectively evaluated serum IgG4 levels and clinical features of patients with HT. A total of 149 patients with HT were prospectively recruited into this study. According to the comprehensive diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD, patients were divided into two groups: elevated IgG4 (>135 mg/dL) and non-elevated IgG4 (≤135 mg/dL). Median serum IgG4 levels of HT patients were 32.0 mg/dL (interquartile range, 20.0-65.0), with a unimodal non-normal distribution. Six patients (4.0%) had elevated serum IgG4 levels above 135 mg/dL. The elevated IgG4 group was older and exhibited enlarged hypoechoic areas in the thyroid gland, as revealed by ultrasonography, relative to the non-elevated IgG4 group. Levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement doses and titers of anti-thyroid antibodies did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two out of six HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels had extra-thyroid organ involvement as seen in IgG4-RD. In conclusion, HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels shared clinical features with both IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis. Longer follow-up periods and histopathological assessments are needed to further understand the meaning of elevated serum IgG4 levels in HT.

  3. Serum electrolyte and mineral variations during pregnancy and lactation in Nili-Ravi buffalo.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M Saleem; Farooq, Abdul Asim; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Lodhi, Laeeq Akbar; Hayat, C Sikandar; Aziz, M Mushtaq

    2010-12-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the changes of sodium, potassium, chloride, copper, and zinc in serum of Nili-Ravi buffalo during pregnancy and lactation. The study was carried out on 25 Nili-Ravi buffaloes during March 2008 to February 2009 at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki, District Kasur. Blood samples were taken from each buffalo during early pregnancy (Phase EP), i.e., between 1 and 3 months gestation, mid pregnancy (Phase MP), i.e., between 4 and 6 months gestation, late pregnancy (Phase LP), i.e., between 7 and 10 months gestation, and during lactation (Phase LT). Serum sodium, potassium, and chloride were determined on a clinical chemistry analyzer whereas copper and zinc were determined on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations varied non-significantly (P > 0.05) during pregnancy and lactation. With advancing pregnancy, copper increased and was significantly high (P < 0.05) during late pregnancy whereas during lactation copper concentrations dropped significantly (P < 0.05). The zinc concentrations increased non-significantly during early and mid pregnancy. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in zinc concentrations during lactation compared with late pregnancy. This study demonstrates that concentrations of serum sodium, potassium, and chloride remain unchanged during pregnancy and lactation whereas serum copper concentrations increased and zinc concentrations decreased with advancing pregnancy because of the demand of the fetus at different periods of pregnancy.

  4. Worse Neurological State During Acute Ischemic Stroke is Associated with a Decrease in Serum Albumin Levels.

    PubMed

    Bielewicz, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Kamieniak, Piotr; Daniluk, Beata; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Rejdak, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High serum albumin levels during ischemic stroke (IS) decrease the risk of a poor outcome. This study aimed to determine whether serum albumin levels within the first days after IS correlate with radiological and biochemical markers of brain tissue damage. Fifty-six IS patients were enrolled into the study. Neurological examinations were based on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Serum albumin levels and S100BB were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kits. The albumin decrease index (ADI) was calculated as the difference between serum albumin levels measured on days 1 and 10 of IS. All parameters were estimated on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 10th days of IS, and the volume of ischemic focus was measured on the 10th day. Mean serum albumin levels were decreased during acute IS. There were correlations between the ADI and mean S100BB serum levels (r = 0.36, p < 0.05), the volume of ischemic focus (r = 0.39, p < 0.05), and the patients' neurological state when measured on day 10 of IS (r = 0.59, p < 0.001). A decrease in serum albumin levels during the acute phase of IS corresponds to a worse neurological state as a result of a large ischemic focus with intense catabolic processes.

  5. Cytokine serum level during severe sepsis in human IL-6 as a marker of severity.

    PubMed Central

    Damas, P; Ledoux, D; Nys, M; Vrindts, Y; De Groote, D; Franchimont, P; Lamy, M

    1992-01-01

    Forty critically ill surgical patients with documented infections were studied during their stay in an intensive care unit. Among these patients, 19 developed septic shock and 16 died, 9 of them from septic shock. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured each day and every 1 or 2 hours when septic shock occurred. Although IL-1 beta was never found, TNF alpha was most often observed in the serum at a level under 100 pg/mL except during septic shock. During these acute episodes TNF alpha level reached several hundred pg/mL, but only for a few hours. In contrast, IL-6 was always increased in the serum of acutely ill patients (peak to 500,000 pg/mL). There was a direct correlation between IL-6 peak serum level and TNF alpha peak serum level during septic shock and between IL-6 serum level and temperature or C-reactive protein serum level. Moreover, IL-6 correlated well with APACHE II score, and the mortality rate increased significantly in the group of patients who presented with IL-6 serum level above 1000 pg/mL. Thus, IL-6 appears to be a good marker of severity during bacterial infection. PMID:1558416

  6. Serum immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate levels in children living along major roads

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, Masayuki; Adachi, Motoaki

    1996-11-01

    To assess the effects of automobile exhaust on human health, we determined serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate in 185 schoolchildren who lived in a district that contained major roads. Serum immunoglobulin E levels were elevated in children who had asthma or wheezing, but levels did no t differ with respect to distance of their homes from the major roads. Serum hyaluronate levels were higher in children who lived less than 50 m from the roadside, compared with children who resided a greater distance from roads. The difference, however, was significant only in a subgroup of children in whom immunoglobulin E levels exceeded 250 IU/ml. Our results suggest that serum hyaluronate levels in children reflect the effects of traffic-related air pollution. Children with high immunoglobulin E levels appeared to be particularly susceptible to the effects of automobile exhaust. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Risk factors associated with elevated serum pancreatic amylase levels during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hsu; Yang, Wu-Chang; Wang, Feng-Ming; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Chen, Jinn-Yang; Ng, Yee-Yung; Wu, Tsai-Hun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum pancreatic enzymes are frequently observed in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The complex hemodynamic, biochemical, and physiological alterations in uremia were speculated to cause excessive release of pancreatic enzymes beyond decreased renal clearance. However, hemodynamic factors are seldom explored in this aspect. We performed the study to evaluate the association between intradialytic hemodynamic change and elevated serum pancreatic amylase (SPA). Eighty-three prevalent HD patients without any clinical evidence of acute pancreatitis underwent pre-HD and post-HD blood sampling for serum pancreatic enzyme levels. Demographic, biochemical, and hematological data were collected from patient record review. Hemodialysis information including intradialytic blood pressure changes and ultrafiltration (UF) amount were collected and averaged for 1 month before the blood sampling day. Patients with elevated SPA during the HD session had greater mean systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure reduction, greater UF volume, greater pre-HD blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, higher serum phosphorus, lower pre-HD serum total CO2, and lower left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF). Using multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of elevated SPA were determined to be mean arterial pressure reduction during HD, mean UF amount, pre-HD serum total CO2, and LVEF. Greater blood pressure reduction during HD, greater UF volume, lower pre-HD serum total CO2, and lower LVEF were significantly associated with elevated SPA during HD. This suggests that hemodynamic factors contribute to elevated serum pancreatic enzymes in HD patients.

  8. COPD assessment test score and serum C-reactive protein levels in stable COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Kim, Kang; Lee, Hyun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Park, Hye Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background An eight-item questionnaire of the COPD assessment test (CAT) is widely used to quantify the impact of COPD on the patient’s health status. C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with disease severity and adverse health outcomes of patients with COPD. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between CAT score and serum CRP levels in stable COPD patients. Methods We evaluated the medical records of 226 patients with CAT and serum CRP measured within a week at Samsung Medical Center between October 2013 and October 2015. Results Serum CRP levels had a significantly positive relationship with CAT score (Spearman’s r=0.20, P=0.003). Patients with elevated serum CRP levels (>0.3 mg/dL) were significantly more likely to have CAT scores of ≥14. The adjusted odds ratio for elevated serum CRP levels in total CAT score was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.09). Among CAT components, cough (adjusted P=0.005), phlegm (adjusted P=0.001), breathlessness going up hills/stairs (adjusted P=0.005), low confidence leaving home (adjusted P=0.002), and feeling low in energy (adjusted P=0.019) were independently associated with elevated serum CRP levels. Conclusion In stable COPD patients, serum CRP levels were independently associated with total CAT score and CAT components related to respiratory symptoms, confidence leaving home, and energy. PMID:27994452

  9. Hemodialysis effect on serum boron level in the patients with long term hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Usuda, K; Kono, K; Iguchi, K; Nishiura, K; Miyata, K; Shimahara, M; Konda, T; Hashiguchi, N; Senda, J

    1996-11-22

    Serum and dialysate boron levels in 17 patients with long term hemodialysis (HD) were determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICPES). Serum boron level was compared with the value of age matched 467 healthy controls and the relationship between serum and dialysate boron level was analyzed. The results showed that serum boron level was significantly higher at the beginning of HD, and lower at the completion of HD in comparison with controls. Although the dialysate was contaminated with trace boron, HD resulted in an excessive decrease of serum boron, rather than boron exposure from the dialysate. Boron hemodialyzability was almost proportional to the gradient of the boron level at the beginning of HD and it could be controlled by the adjustment of the gradient. In conclusion, the serum boron level was very much disturbed in long term HD patients. If boron excess in serum at the beginning of HD, or deficiency at the completion of HD may contribute to the complications of HD patients, fine adjustment and close surveillance of the gradient should be taken into account.

  10. Serum and CSF levels of cytokines in acute encephalopathy following prolonged febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, Takashi; Suenaga, Naoko; Kajimoto, Madoka; Tohyama, Jun; Isumi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Masaya; Mori, Masato; Furukawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that an acute encephalopathy occasionally follows prolonged febrile seizures. We measured the concentrations of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1) in serum and CSF during the acute stage in 13 children with acute encephalopathy following prolonged febrile seizures (AEPFS) and 23 with prolonged febrile seizures without encephalopathy (PFS) to investigate the pathogenesis of AEPFS. Serum IL-6, IL-10, sTNFR1, and CSF IL-6 levels were significantly higher in AEPFS and PFS compared with control subjects. CSF IL-6 levels in AEPFS were significantly higher than those in PFS, but not serum IL-6, IL-10, or sTNFR1. The CSF IL-6 levels were significantly higher than the serum levels in AEPFS, but not PFS. The serum levels of sTNFR1 and IL-10 were significantly higher than those in the CSF in AEPFS and PFS. The serum IL-10 and sTNFR1 levels in patients who did not experience a second seizure were significantly higher than those in patients who experienced a second seizure, which was characterized by clusters of complex partial seizures several days after the initial prolonged febrile seizure. Our results suggest that serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and CSF IL-6 are part of the regulatory system of cytokines in AEPFS.

  11. Serum iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Madenci, Gulizar; Bilen, Sule; Arli, Berna; Saka, Mustafa; Ak, Fikri

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to investigate possible associations between systemic iron metabolism deficiency and Parkinson's disease, and also to research any possible correlations between stage of the disease and vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. 33 male and 27 female patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 22 male and 20 female age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Having the diagnosis of secondary Parkinsonism or Parkinson plus syndromes, and for the females, not being in the menopausal stage were considered as exclusion criteria. Recordings of blood samples of both groups collected after 8 h fasts were assessed in terms of serum iron, ferritin levels and iron-binding capacity, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. The Hoehn and Yahr scale was used to determine the stage of the disease. No statistically significant difference was found with respect to mean serum iron, median serum ferritin levels and median serum iron-binding capacity between the groups. A statistically significant but inverse correlation was found between symptoms' duration and serum iron and ferritin levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. However, a statistically significant but inverse correlation was determined between the patients' vitamin B12 levels and the Hoehn and Yahr scores. As Parkinson's disease progresses, serum iron, ferritin and vitamin B12 levels may decrease. The lower levels of these parameters may be the cause of the progression or may be the result of it.

  12. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Materials and Methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Conclusions: Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women. PMID:25097281

  13. [Effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Huang, Lianzhen; Hu, Jianping; Li, Tao

    2002-08-01

    To observe the effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats, according to serum TG, TC level, 40 male Wistar rats are divided into four groups (normal control group, high fat control group, silkworm pupa oil group and silkworm pupa oil + VE group). The rats are fed different diets and six weeks later, serum lipids level and platelet function are measured. The results show that (1) Compared with high fat control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C level, AI value, Platelet aggregability, plasma TXB2 level and T/P ratio decrease significantly while HDL-C level and 6-k-PGF1 level increase in silkworm pupa oil group; (2) Serum TC, LDL-C level, T/P ratio and platelet aggregability are significantly lower in silkworm pupa oil + VE group than in silkworm pupa oil group. It is suggested that silkworm pupa oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid can reduce serum lipids level and inhibit platelet aggregation, which is more effective with the supplementation with VE.

  14. Serum and hair zinc levels in breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiujuan; Tang, Jing; Xie, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between serum/hair zinc levels and breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent. To compare the serum and hair zinc levels in women with breast cancer and controls, we conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Embase to identify relevant studies with publication dates up through November 2014. Based on a random effects model, summary standard mean differences (SMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the serum and hair zinc levels in women with breast cancer and controls. Fourteen studies that investigated serum zinc levels and seven studies that assessed hair zinc levels were included. Our study observed no difference in serum zinc levels between breast cancer cases and controls (SMD (95%CI): −0.65[−1.42,0.13]). However, we determined that hair zinc levels were lower in women with breast cancer compared with those of controls (SMD (95%CI): −1.99[−3.46, −0.52]). In conclusion, this study was the first to provide evidence that hair zinc levels in female breast cancer patients are lower than in controls; however, there was no significant difference in serum zinc levels between female breast cancer patients and controls. PMID:26179508

  15. Toward improved phosphorus efficiency in monogastrics-interplay of serum, minerals, bone, and immune system after divergent dietary phosphorus supply in swine.

    PubMed

    Oster, Michael; Just, Franziska; Büsing, Kirsten; Wolf, Petra; Polley, Christian; Vollmar, Brigitte; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2016-05-15

    Phosphorus (P) is of vital importance for many aspects of metabolism, including bone mineralization, blood buffering, and energy utilization. In order to identify molecular routes affecting intrinsic P utilization, we address processes covering P intake, uptake, metabolism, and excretion. In particular, the interrelation of bone tissue and immune features is of interest to approximate P intake to animal's physiology and health status. German Landrace piglets received different levels of digestible phosphorus: recommended, higher, or lower amounts. At multiple time points, relevant serum parameters were analyzed and radiologic studies on bone characteristics were performed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected to assess differential gene expression. Dietary differences were reflected by serum phosphorus, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Bone reorganization was persistently affected as shown by microstructural parameters, cathepsin K levels, and transcripts associated with bone formation. Moreover, blood expression patterns revealed a link to immune response, highlighting bidirectional loops comprising bone formation and immune features, where the receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand/receptor-activator of NF-κB kinase system may play a prominent role. The modulated P supplementation provoked considerable organismal plasticity. Genes found to be differentially expressed due to variable P supply are involved in pathways relevant to P utilization and are potential candidate genes for improved P efficiency.

  16. Toward improved phosphorus efficiency in monogastrics—interplay of serum, minerals, bone, and immune system after divergent dietary phosphorus supply in swine

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Michael; Just, Franziska; Büsing, Kirsten; Wolf, Petra; Polley, Christian; Vollmar, Brigitte; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is of vital importance for many aspects of metabolism, including bone mineralization, blood buffering, and energy utilization. In order to identify molecular routes affecting intrinsic P utilization, we address processes covering P intake, uptake, metabolism, and excretion. In particular, the interrelation of bone tissue and immune features is of interest to approximate P intake to animal's physiology and health status. German Landrace piglets received different levels of digestible phosphorus: recommended, higher, or lower amounts. At multiple time points, relevant serum parameters were analyzed and radiologic studies on bone characteristics were performed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected to assess differential gene expression. Dietary differences were reflected by serum phosphorus, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Bone reorganization was persistently affected as shown by microstructural parameters, cathepsin K levels, and transcripts associated with bone formation. Moreover, blood expression patterns revealed a link to immune response, highlighting bidirectional loops comprising bone formation and immune features, where the receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand/receptor-activator of NF-κB kinase system may play a prominent role. The modulated P supplementation provoked considerable organismal plasticity. Genes found to be differentially expressed due to variable P supply are involved in pathways relevant to P utilization and are potential candidate genes for improved P efficiency. PMID:26962023

  17. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of P. crispum on sperm parameters, testis tissue and serum nitric oxide levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naderi, Tahere

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sperm dysfunction is one of the main causes of male infertility. Petroselinum crispum (P. crispum) is a member of umbelliferae family that contains different vitamins and minerals and has numerous therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate P. crispum effect on sperm parameters, testis tissue and serum nitric oxid levels in mice. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of P. crispum was prepared and administered intraperitoneally (0,100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) to 40 mice, which were divided into four groups (n = 10), one control group and three experimental groups, for 14 consequent days. The sperm parameter such as motility, sperm count, morphology, and seminiferous tubules diameter, and weight of prostate and testis, and serum nitric oxide levels were analyzed. Results: P. crispum administration (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) significantly increased mean percentage of sperm motility, testis and prostate weight and serum nitric oxide compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, no significant effect was reported for different doses of P. crispum extract on sperm parameters. Conclusion: Administrating hydroalcoholic extract of P. crispum has positive effects on some reproductive parameters. PMID:25789266

  18. Supplementation with vitamin D does not increase serum testosterone levels in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Jorde, R; Grimnes, G; Hutchinson, M S; Kjærgaard, M; Kamycheva, E; Svartberg, J

    2013-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies indicate a positive relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and testosterone. It is not known if this relation is causal, which in theory could be in both directions. A cross-sectional population based study was designed with pooled data from 3 vitamin D randomized clinical trials (RCTs) performed in Tromsø with weight reduction, insulin sensitivity, and depression scores as endpoints, and one testosterone RCT in subjects with low serum testosterone (<11.0 nmol/l) and with body composition as endpoint. Serum 25(OH)D and androgens were measured in 893 males in the cross-sectional part, at baseline and after 6-12 months of supplementation with vitamin D 20 000 IU-40 000 IU per week vs. placebo in the vitamin D RCTs (n=282), and at baseline and after one year treatment with testosterone undecanoate 1 000 mg or placebo injections (at baseline and after 6, 16, 28, and 40 weeks) in the testosterone RCT (n=37). In the cross-sectional study, serum 25(OH)D was found to be a significant and positive predictor of serum testosterone. In the vitamin D RCTs, no significant effect on serum total or free testosterone levels was seen, and in the testosterone RCT no significant effect on serum 25(OH)D was seen. This was unchanged in sub-analyses in subjects with low serum 25(OH)D (or testosterone) levels. In conclusion, in subjects without significant vitamin D deficiency, there is no increase in serum testosterone after high dose vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, in subjects with moderately low serum testosterone levels, substitution with testosterone does not increase serum 25(OH)D.

  19. Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on serum levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Başak, Pinar Y; Vural, Huseyin; Kazanoglu, Oya O; Erturan, Ijlal; Buyukbayram, Halil I

    2014-12-01

    H1-receptor inhibiting drugs, namely loratadine and cetirizine, were frequently used in treatment of chronic urticaria. Urticarial weal and flare reactions, a neurogenic reflex due to neuropeptides, were reported to be more effectively inhibited by cetirizine than loratadine. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments on serum levels of selected neuropeptides in chronic urticaria. Treatment groups of either systemic loratadine or cetirizine (10 mg/d), consisting of 16 and 22 patients, respectively, were included. Serum levels of stem cell factor (SCF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor (NGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected before and after one week of treatment with antihistamines. Serum NPY and VIP levels were significantly decreased when compared before and after treatment with antihistamines (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). SCF and NGF values were also decreased after antihistamine treatment (P < 0.05). Post-treatment levels of CGRP were significantly higher compared with pretreatment values, while no significant difference was detected between pre and post treatment levels of SP. Cetirizine was significantly more effective than loratadine on lowering serum levels of SCF among the other neuropeptides. Systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments in patients with chronic urticaria precisely caused variations in serum levels of neuropeptides. The predominant effect of cetirizine compared to loratadine on reducing serum SCF levels might be explained with anti-inflammatory properties of cetirizine.

  20. EXAFS Signatures of Structural Zn at Trace Levels in Layered Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Juillot, Farid; Morin, Guillaume; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Proux, Olivier; Belin, Stephanie; Briois, Valerie; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; Calas, Georges; /Paris U., VI-VII, LMCP

    2006-12-13

    Many in situ XAFS studies have shown that zinc incorporated in layered minerals is a major form of zinc in Zn-contaminated soils. Quantitative information on the local structural environment(s) and ordering of Zn in these minerals is required to better understand its behavior in soils. In this study, EXAFS spectroscopy was used to assess the structural environment of zinc incorporated at trace levels (40 ppm to 4,000 ppm) within the octahedral sheets of various natural and synthetic layered minerals. Results indicate that EXAFS data analyzed using ab initio FEFF calculations (FEFF 8.10) can unambiguously distinguish between zinc incorporation within the octahedral sheet of dioctahedral versus trioctahedral layered minerals and can determine the distribution (random or ordered) of zinc cations within the octahedral sheets of these minerals.

  1. Serum trace mineral variations in Nili-Ravi buffaloes suffering with prepartum vaginal prolapse in two different agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, M S; Lodhi, L A; Ahmad, I; Qureshi, Z I; Muhammad, G

    2012-04-15

    The present study was conducted during 2005 and 2006 on 200 Nili-Ravi buffaloes kept in two agroecological zones (irrigated [zone 1] and rain-fed [zone-2]) of Punjab, Pakistan, with the objective to determine the level of trace minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Se) in serum of the buffaloes suffering from vaginal prolapse and to compare them with their healthy counterparts. In each zone 50 buffaloes suffering from prepartum vaginal prolapse during their seventh month of gestation were identified through survey. Vaginal prolapse-affected buffaloes belonging to zone 1 were identified as group VPB1 (N = 50), whereas buffaloes belonging to zone 2 were recognized as VPB2 (N = 50). The buffaloes of control group in zone 1 and zone 2 were identified as NCB1 and NCB2, respectively. The blood samples in all four groups of buffaloes were collected three times, i.e., first when these animals were in the eighth month of gestation, second during the eighth to ninth month of gestation, and finally when these animals were in the ninth or later month of gestation. The mean serum copper concentrations in buffaloes of group VPB1 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in comparison with NCB1 and NCB2, whereas there were nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) in copper concentrations between VPB1 and VPB2. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) of iron concentration in VPB1 compared with NCB1 and NCB2. Similarly, VPB2 also had significantly lower (P < 0.05) iron concentrations compared with NCB1 and NCB2. Serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in animals of the VPB1 group when compared with NCB1 and NCB2. Similarly, lower zinc concentrations were observed in VPB2 in comparison with NCB1 and NCB2. There was significantly lower (P < 0.05) zinc concentration in affected buffaloes (VPB1 and VPB2) from the ninth month of gestation to term when compared with those in the eighth to ninth mo of gestation, and with those not yet in the eighth month of gestation. Serum selenium

  2. Serum Interleukin-34 Levels Are Elevated in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxu; Cao, Ju; Lai, Xiaofei

    2016-12-28

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) was initially identified as an alternative ligand for the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) to mediate the biology of mononuclear phagocytic cells. Recently, IL-34 was found to be associated with chronic inflammation, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are multifactorial autoimmune diseases and are characterized by excessive immune and inflammatory responses. Thus, we investigated whether IL-34 is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. In all, 78 SLE patients and 53 healthy controls were enrolled in the research. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to measure the concentrations of serological IL-34. Then serum IL-34 levels between the SLE group and healthy controls were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Meanwhile, the correlations between the serum IL-34 levels and disease activity indexes and other established serum markers were assessed. Furthermore, the serum IL-34 levels of 20 active SLE patients were reevaluated when diseases were in the remission stage from corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs. Serum IL-34 levels were significantly higher in SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Their levels were remarkably associated with accumulation of the clinical features of SLE. Additionally, IL-34 titers were positively correlated with the SLE disease activity indexes, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA) titers and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and inversely with complement3 (C3) levels. Moreover, serum IL-34 levels were significantly decreased after successful treatment of SLE. Serum IL-34 could be a candidate biomarker for SLE as there are elevated serum levels in treatment-naive SLE patients and we saw a significant decrease after effective treatment.

  3. Time course of saliva and serum melatonin levels after ingestion of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, S; Tsuchiya, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Kotorii, T; Uchimura, N; Sakamoto, T; Yamada, S

    1998-04-01

    Salival and serum melatonin levels after melatonin ingestion were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ingestion of 3 mg melatonin caused a marked increase in serum melatonin (3561+/-1201 pg/mL) within 20 min, followed by a gradual decrease, but the level still remained higher than the basal level at 240 min after the ingestion. The saliva melatonin 60 min after the ingestion showed the highest level (1177+/-403 pg/mL) which was one-third of the plasma level. The saliva melatonin level was highly correlated with the serum level throughout the experimental period (r=0.82, P=0.0001). These data indicate that the measurement of saliva melatonin level may be a suitable indicator for the melatonin secretion into general circulation.

  4. Serum bilirubin levels are inversely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Chung, Goh Eun; Kang, Seung Joo; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Serum bilirubin exerts antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. In addition, elevated serum bilirubin levels are associated with a decreased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, few studies have evaluated whether serum bilirubin is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is closely associated with other metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was thus to elucidate the association between serum total bilirubin levels and NAFLD. Methods A cross-sectional study of 17,348 subjects undergoing a routine health check-up was conducted. Subjects positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus, or with other hepatitis history were excluded. NAFLD was diagnosed on the basis of typical ultrasonographic findings and an alcohol consumption of less than 20 g/day. Results The mean age of the subjects was 49 years and 9,076 (52.3%) were men. The prevalence of NAFLD decreased steadily as the serum bilirubin level increased in both men and women (P<0.001 for both). Multivariate regression analysis adjusted for other metabolic risk factors showed that serum bilirubin level was inversely associated with the prevalence of NAFLD [odds ratio (OR)=0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.80-0.97]. Furthermore, there was an inverse, dose-dependent association between NAFLD and serum total bilirubin levels (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.75-0.93 in the third quartile; OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.71-0.90 in the fourth quartile vs. lowest quartile, P for trend <0.001). Conclusions Serum bilirubin levels were found to be inversely associated with the prevalence of NAFLD independent of known metabolic risk factors. Serum bilirubin might be a protective marker for NAFLD. PMID:23323254

  5. The Effect of 5α-Reductase Inhibition With Dutasteride and Finasteride on Bone Mineral Density, Serum Lipoproteins, Hemoglobin, Prostate Specific Antigen and Sexual Function in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Amory, John K.; Anawalt, Bradley D.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Clark, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dutasteride and finasteride are 5α-reductase inhibitors that dramatically decrease serum levels of dihydrotestosterone. Because androgens affect bone, lipids, hematopoiesis, prostate and sexual function, we determined the impact of 5α-reductase inhibitors on these end points. Materials and Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial of 99 men 18 to 55 years old randomly assigned to receive 0.5 mg dutasteride (33), 5 mg finasteride (34) or placebo (32) daily for 1 year. Bone mineral density was measured at baseline, after 1 year of treatment and 6 months after drug discontinuation. In addition, markers of bone turnover, fasting serum lipoprotein concentrations, hemoglobin and prostate specific antigen were measured at baseline, after 26 and 52 weeks of treatment, and again 24 weeks after drug discontinuation. Sexual function was assessed at these points by a validated questionnaire. Results Significant suppression of circulating dihydrotestosterone levels with the administration of dutasteride or finasteride did not significantly affect bone mineral density or markers of bone metabolism. Similarly serum lipoproteins and hemoglobin were unaffected. Serum prostate specific antigen and self-assessed sexual function decreased slightly during treatment with both 5α-reductase inhibitors but returned to baseline during followup. Conclusions Profound suppression of circulating serum dihydrotestosterone induced by 5α-reductase inhibitors during 1 year does not adversely impact bone, serum lipoproteins or hemoglobin, and has a minimal, reversible effect on serum prostate specific antigen and sexual function in normal men. Circulating dihydrotestosterone does not appear to have a clinically significant role in modulating bone mass, hematopoiesis or lipid metabolism in normal men. PMID:18423697

  6. Serum copper and zinc levels and copper/zinc ratio in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yücel, I; Arpaci, F; Ozet, A; Döner, B; Karayilanoğlu, T; Sayar, A; Berk, O

    1994-01-01

    Serum copper, zinc levels, and the Cu/Zn ratio were evaluated in 31 patients with breast cancer and 35 healthy controls. Copper and zinc were determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry. The mean serum copper level and the mean Cu/Zn ratio in patients with breast cancer were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). In addition, the mean serum zinc level in patients with breast cancer was significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.001). Neither serum copper and zinc levels nor the Cu/Zn ratio were of value in discriminating of the disease activity and severity. Interestingly, the Cu/Zn ratio in premenopausal patients was higher than postmenopausal patients (p < 0.05) and this was not related to age. The further combined biological and epidemiological studies are necessary to investigate the roles of copper and zinc in breast cancer.

  7. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, p<0.001). Sleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation.

  8. HER-2 tissue expression correlated with serum levels in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pribylová, O; Springer, D; Vítková, I; Zima, T; Petruzelka, L

    2007-01-01

    We explored the relationship between circulating HER-2 extracellular domain and tissue HER-2 status in a group of 42 postmenopausal breast cancer patients. All patients were examined before adjuvant chemotherapy or other adjuvant treatment. Serum levels were measured by BAYER Advia Centaur System, Golden, CO (the cut-off level was in our conditions considered at 12 ng/ml). Tissue expression was assayed with the DAKO HercepTest, North America, Inc, Carpinteria, CA. Our findings that serum levels are in consonance with tissue expression could be important in metastatic breast cancer, when it is impossible to get a new tumour sample and establish the actual HER-2 status, which may be different from the primary tumour. Although we know that serum HER-2 concentration cannot be substituted for IHC or FISH, we have observed a statistically significant correlation between serum level concentration and tissue HER-2 status.

  9. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  10. Common stress and serum cortisol and IL-12 levels in missed abortion.

    PubMed

    Tian, C-F; Kang, M-H

    2014-01-01

    To investigate stress levels, serum cortisol levels, and changes in IL-12 concentration in patients with missed abortion. Patients with missed abortion (n = 48) were age and gestational age-matched with normal early pregnancy cases (n = 48). All subjects completed a stress evaluation survey questionnaire about common stressors. Venous blood samples were collected at 07.00 hours, and serum cortisol and IL-12 concentrations were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and ELISA methods, respectively. Missed abortion patients demonstrated a significantly higher number of common stressors and higher serum cortisol levels compared to controls (both p < 0.05). Dilation and curettage did not lead to significant differences in serum cortisol and IL-12 levels (p > 0.05). Stress and immunity alterations of the immune system may contribute to the aetiology of missed abortion.

  11. Serum Fetuin-A levels, insulin resistance and oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Enli, Yasar; Fenkci, Semin Melahat; Fenkci, Veysel; Oztekin, Ozer

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to determine serum Fetuin-A levels and establish whether serum Fetuin-A level is related with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, ovarian hyperandrogenism and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-two patients with PCOS and twenty-one healthy control women were evaluated in this controlled clinical study. Serum Fetuin-A, lipid fractions, glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and other hormone (gonadotropins, androgens) levels were measured. The estimate of insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R). The women with PCOS had significantly higher serum fasting glucose, insulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), MDA, Fetuin-A levels, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, free androgen index (FAI), HOMA-IR than healthy women. However, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and GSH levels were significantly lower in patients with PCOS compared with controls. Fetuin-A was positively correlated with insulin, HOMA-IR and FAI. Multiple regression analysis revealed that FAI was strong predictor of serum Fetuin-A level. Serum Fetuin-A level was related with insulin resistance and ovarian hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS. These results suggest that Fetuin-A may have a role in triggering the processes leading to insulin resistance and androgen excess in PCOS.

  12. Higher Grades and Repeated Recurrence of Hepatic Encephalopathy May Be Related to High Serum Manganese Levels.

    PubMed

    Kobtan, Abdelrahman A; El-Kalla, Ferial S; Soliman, Hanan H; Zakaria, Soha S; Goda, Mohamed A

    2016-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious complication of liver failure. Until now, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms are not fully determined. It has been demonstrated that manganese plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Therefore, we studied manganese levels in serum of cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy in relation to grading and recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy. One hundred persons were enrolled in the study, 80 cirrhotic patients with or without encephalopathy and 20 healthy controls. Hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed clinically and by laboratory findings. Serum manganese levels were measured in all participants. The grading of hepatic encephalopathy was significantly correlated to the severity of liver dysfunction. The mean serum manganese level was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls and in cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy than in those without encephalopathy. It was also significantly higher in patients with advanced grading of hepatic encephalopathy. Serum manganese level was positively correlated to number of recurrences of encephalopathy during a 6-month follow-up period. Serum manganese levels were able to predict recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy within 6 months following the episode. Serum manganese levels are positively correlated to the modified Child-Pugh score of cirrhosis as well as grading and number of recurrences of hepatic encephalopathy. Higher manganese levels seem to be related to worsening of the condition, and its measurement may be used as a predictor of repeated recurrences.

  13. Serum uric acid levels in patients with myasthenia gravis are inversely correlated with disability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dehao; Weng, Yiyun; Lin, Haihua; Xie, Feiyan; Yin, Fang; Lou, Kangliang; Zhou, Xuan; Han, Yixiang; Li, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid (UA), the final product of purine metabolism, has been reported to be reduced in patients with various neurological disorders and is considered to be a possible indicator for monitoring the disability and progression of multiple sclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether there is a close relationship between UA and myasthenia gravis (MG), or whether UA is primarily deficient or secondarily reduced because of its peroxynitrite scavenging activity. We investigated the correlation between serum UA levels and the clinical characteristics of MG. We assessed 338 serum UA levels obtained in 135 patients with MG, 47 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 156 healthy controls. In addition, we compared serum UA levels when MG patients were stratified according to disease activity and classifications performed by the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America, age of onset, duration, and thymus histology (by means of MRI or computed tomography). MG patients had significantly lower serum UA levels than the controls (P<0.001). Moreover, UA levels in patients with MG were inversely correlated with disease activity and disease progression (P=0.013). However, UA levels did not correlate significantly with disease duration, age of onset, and thymus histology. Our findings suggest that serum level of UA was reduced in patients with MG and serum UA might be considered a surrogate biomarker of MG disability and progression. PMID:26836463

  14. Acute melatonin and para-chloroamphetamine interactions on pineal, brain and serum serotonin levels as well as stress hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Manzana, E J; Chen, W J; Champney, T H

    2001-08-03

    para-Chloroamphetamine, an amphetamine analog, alters serotonergic neurochemistry. In previous reports, melatonin (MEL), when administered with other amphetamine analogs, altered the decline in serotonin content produced by these analogs. The present studies assessed the effects of various doses of melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine on serotonin levels in numerous brain regions in male rats. Melatonin (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, s.c.) and p-chloroamphetamine (3 or 5 mg/kg, s.c.) were administered and, 3 h later, brain samples and serum were collected. Serotonin levels in the serum and various regions of the brain were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin in combination with a high dose of p-chloroamphetamine (5 mg/kg) produced cumulative deficits in serotonin levels in the serum. However, serotonin levels in the pineal, cortex or brain stem in all combined melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine groups were not significantly different from groups that received p-chloroamphetamine alone. Serum adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels were significantly elevated in the melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine combined groups, suggesting that animals receiving both treatments were more stressed than control animals or animals receiving melatonin or p-chloroamphetamine alone. These results indicate that melatonin does not alter p-chloroamphetamine-induced deficits in central serotonin levels. The increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and serotonin levels observed following melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine treatment suggest that this combination may have adverse peripheral effects.

  15. Zuclopenthixol decanoate in maintenance treatment of schizophrenic outpatients. Minimum effective dose and corresponding serum levels.

    PubMed

    Solgaard, T; Kistrup, K; Aaes-Jørgensen, T; Gerlach, J

    1994-05-01

    23 schizophrenic outpatients in maintenance treatment with zuclopenthixol decanoate were included in a study aimed at finding the minimum effective dose and corresponding serum concentration of zuclopenthixol. Every three months the dose was gradually reduced until prodromal symptoms appeared, indicative of an incipient relapse. A slightly higher dose was then promptly reinstituted (the minimum effective dose). At each dose level, two blood samples were drawn to determine the serum concentration. This dose reduction principles proved feasible. Only one patient had a clear-cut relapse. The condition of the remaining patients was acceptably maintained by a dose increase. The minimum effective dose of zuclopenthixol was 200 mg/2 weeks (range 60-400), with a serum concentration of 22 nmol/l (7.1-69.7). There was a significant correlation between the administered dose and the corresponding serum level of the drug (r = 0.66, P < 0.01). A trend towards a positive correlation was found between the serum level at the minimum effective dose and the BPRS score (r = 0.42, P < 0.1). No correlation was found between the serum level and the side-effects or length of neuroleptic treatment. It is concluded that routine serum drug monitoring is hardly indicated in the long-term depot-neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenic patients. A strategy aiming at continually seeking the lowest effective dose on the basis of clinical parameters appears more appropriate, especially in case of depot-neuroleptic treatment.

  16. Effects of Dietary Selenium, Sulphur and Copper Levels on Selenium Concentration in the Serum and Liver of Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Arlindo Saran; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Correa, Lisia Bertonha; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; Salles, Márcia Saladini Vieira; Vilela, Flávio Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-two lambs were distributed in eight treatments under 2×2×2 factorial experiment to compare the effects of two levels of selenium (0.2 to 5 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), sulphur (0.25% and 0.37%) and copper (8 and 25 mg/kg DM) levels on selenium concentration in liver and serum of lambs. A liver biopsy was done on all animals and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein prior to the beginning of the treatments. The blood was sampled every thirty days and the liver was sampled after 90 days, at the slaughter. Increasing differences were noticed during the data collection period for the serum selenium concentration, and it was found to be 0.667 mg/L in animals fed with 5 mg Se/kg DM and normal sulphur and copper concentrations in their diet. However, a three-way interaction and a reduction of selenium concentration to 0.483 mg/L was verified when increasing copper and sulphur concentration levels to 25 ppm and 0.37% respectively. The liver selenium concentration was also high for diets containing higher selenium concentrations, but the antagonist effect with the increased copper and sulphur levels remained, due to interactions between these minerals. Therefore, for regions where selenium is scarce, increasing its concentration in animal diets can be an interesting option. For regions with higher levels of selenium, the antagonistic effect of interaction between these three minerals should be used by increasing copper and sulphur dietary concentrations, thus preventing possible selenium poisoning. PMID:25083101

  17. Effects of dietary selenium, sulphur and copper levels on selenium concentration in the serum and liver of lamb.

    PubMed

    Netto, Arlindo Saran; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Correa, Lisia Bertonha; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; Salles, Márcia Saladini Vieira; Vilela, Flávio Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were distributed in eight treatments under 2×2×2 factorial experiment to compare the effects of two levels of selenium (0.2 to 5 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), sulphur (0.25% and 0.37%) and copper (8 and 25 mg/kg DM) levels on selenium concentration in liver and serum of lambs. A liver biopsy was done on all animals and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein prior to the beginning of the treatments. The blood was sampled every thirty days and the liver was sampled after 90 days, at the slaughter. Increasing differences were noticed during the data collection period for the serum selenium concentration, and it was found to be 0.667 mg/L in animals fed with 5 mg Se/kg DM and normal sulphur and copper concentrations in their diet. However, a three-way interaction and a reduction of selenium concentration to 0.483 mg/L was verified when increasing copper and sulphur concentration levels to 25 ppm and 0.37% respectively. The liver selenium concentration was also high for diets containing higher selenium concentrations, but the antagonist effect with the increased copper and sulphur levels remained, due to interactions between these minerals. Therefore, for regions where selenium is scarce, increasing its concentration in animal diets can be an interesting option. For regions with higher levels of selenium, the antagonistic effect of interaction between these three minerals should be used by increasing copper and sulphur dietary concentrations, thus preventing possible selenium poisoning.

  18. Relationship between serum IL-7 concentrations and lymphopenia upon different levels of HIV immune control.

    PubMed

    Fluur, Caroline; Rethi, Bence; Thang, Pham Hong; Vivar, Nancy; Mowafi, Frida; Lopalco, Lucia; Foppa, Caterina Uberti; Karlsson, Anders; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Chiodi, Francesca

    2007-05-11

    Serum IL-7 levels correlate with T-cell depletion in HIV-infected individuals. In some patients, we observed that serum IL-7 decreases upon progression to AIDS, suggesting a role for IL-7 in T-cell maintenance in sporadic cases. Interestingly, IL-7 levels were significantly lower in stable long-term non-progressors (LTNP) than in patients who lost the LTNP status in a 3-year follow-up (P < 0.001), indicating that the serum IL-7 concentration might be a valuable marker for maintenance of the LTNP state.

  19. Radioimmunoassay for serum tobramycin levels using 125I-labeled tobramycin.

    PubMed

    Casley, D J; Atkins, R C; Murphy, G F; Johnston, C I

    1978-10-01

    A radioimmunoassay is described for the measurement of tobramycin in serum or plasma. The technique has advantages over other assay techniques with regard to precision, specificity, sensitivity and rapidity. The radioimmunoassay uses a tracer labelled with 125Iodine. The iodination technique is simple and gives tracer in high yield, at high specific activity and with complete immunological identity to unlabelled tobramycin. There is a significant correlation between the results obtained by this radioimmunoassay and by the disc-plate assay. Such knowledge of serum levels of tobramycin assists the clinician in regulating drug dosage to obtain an optimum therapeutic effect, and yet avoids toxic serum levels.

  20. CA19-9 serum levels predict micrometastases in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Potrc, Stojan; Mis, Katarina; Plankl, Mojca; Mars, Tomaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We explored the prognostic value of the up-regulated carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) in node-negative patients with gastric cancer as a surrogate marker for micrometastases. Patients and methods Micrometastases were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for a subgroup of 30 node-negative patients. This group was used to determine the cut-off for preoperative CA19-9 serum levels as a surrogate marker for micrometastases. Then 187 node-negative T1 to T4 patients were selected to validate the predictive value of this CA19-9 threshold. Results Patients with micrometastases had significantly higher preoperative CA19-9 serum levels compared to patients without micrometastases (p = 0.046). CA19-9 serum levels were significantly correlated with tumour site, tumour diameter, and perineural invasion. Although not reaching significance, subgroup analysis showed better five-year survival rates for patients with CA19-9 serum levels below the threshold, compared to patients with CA19-9 serum levels above the cut-off. The cumulative survival for T2 to T4 node-negative patients was significantly better with CA19-9 serum levels below the cut-off (p = 0.04). Conclusions Preoperative CA19-9 serum levels can be used to predict higher risk for haematogenous spread and micrometastases in node-negative patients. However, CA19-9 serum levels lack the necessary sensitivity and specificity to reliably predict micrometastases. PMID:27247553

  1. [IgA-IgG-IgM serum levels in blood donors. Examination of some variables].

    PubMed

    Ghessi, A; Azzario, F; Marinig, C; Mancini, L; Polese, T C; Pozzessere, V

    1976-07-31

    IgA, IgG and IgM serum levels in 603 normal blood donors (510 males and 93 females) have been calculated by the method of single radial immunodiffusion. In every immunoglobulin class the normal values and other important statistical parameters have been determined. Several statistical examinations have been executed to test the influence of some factors as sex, weight, age and number of blood donations on IgA, IgG and IgM serum levels.

  2. The relation between serum sex steroid levels and plasma cell infiltrates in endometritis.

    PubMed

    Punnonen, R; Lehtinen, M; Teisala, K; Aine, R; Rantala, I; Heinonen, P K; Miettinen, A; Laine, S; Paavonen, J

    1989-01-01

    We measured serum levels of progesterone and estradiol among 35 patients with endometritis confirmed by endometrial biopsy. The onset of symptoms took place predominantly in the proliferative phase of the cycle. A negative correlation was found between the serum progesterone levels and the histopathologic severity of plasma cell endometritis. Our results suggest that the hormonal status contributes to the immune response and susceptibility to endometrial infection.

  3. Serum lipid levels in neighboring communities with chlorinated and nonchlorinated drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Zeighami, E.A.; Watson, A.P.; Craun, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program was designed to ascertain levels of serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of a total of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. The purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids, blood pressure or thyroid hormones differed according to the chlorination of the water supply, or to the calcium and magnesium content (hardness) of the drinking water supply. This report examines the relationship of chlorination and water calcium to estimated community mean serum lipid levels. The estimated community means are adjusted for potential confounders, including age, education level, alcohol intake, smoking, dietary fat and dietary calcium. Serum cholesterol levels proved to be significantly higher in chlorinated communities for females. Levels of serum cholesterol were also higher in chlorinated communities for males, but differences were considerably smaller and not statistically significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were also higher in chlorinated communities for females (p = .06). Levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were higher in hard water communities than in soft water communities, although the p-value for the hardness term did not quite reach significance at p < .05 in either model. The regression of community mean HDL levels on both drinking water calcium and magnesium levels was positive, indicating increasing mean HDL levels with increasing calcium and/or magnesium content in the drinking water.

  4. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hekmati Azar Mehrabani, Zohreh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Fathi Maroufi, Nazila; Bargahi, Nasrin; Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:There are many ideas concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of total homocysteine (Hcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] are risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high dose folic acid (FA) on serum Hcy and Lp(a) concentrations with respect to methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms 677C→T during pregnancy. Methods: In a prospective uncontrolled intervention, 90 pregnant women received 5 mg FA supplementation before pregnancy till 36th week of pregnancy. The MTHFR polymorphisms 677C→T, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urine protein and creatinine concentrations were measured before starting folic acid administration. Serum levels of Hcy and Lp(a) were determined before and after completion of folic acid supplementation period. Results: Supplementation of the patients with FA for 36 week decreased the median (minimum– maximum) levels of serum Hcy from 11.40 μmol/L (4.40-28.70) to 9.70 (1.60-20.80) μmol/L (p=0.001). There was no significant change in serum Lp(a) after FA supplementation (p=0.17). The overall prevalence of genotypes in pregnant women that were under study for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was 53.3% CC, 26.7% CT and 20.0% TT. There was no correlation between decreasing level of serum Hcy in the patients receiving FA and MTHFR polymorphisms. Conclusion:Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a) was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women. PMID:26929921

  5. Serum Selenium Levels and Cervical Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Du; Wang, Zaiping; Huang, Chuying; Fang, Xiping; Chen, Dian

    2017-03-02

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between serum Se concentration and cervical cancer, but the results were inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between serum selenium levels and cervical cancer. Twelve studies investigating the association by univariate analysis and five studies by multivariate analysis were identified after a systematic search of PubMed, Wanfang, CNKI, and SinoMed databases. Standard mean differences (SMD) or odds ratios (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled to compare the selenium levels between different groups. In univariate analysis, serum selenium levels in cervical cancer cases were significantly lower than in controls (SMD = -4.86, 95% CI -6.03-3.69). Subgroup analysis showed consistent results. In multivariate analysis, serum selenium levels in cervical cancer cases were also significantly lower than in controls (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.73). After treatment, the serum selenium levels increased significantly (SMD = 2.59, 95% CI 0.50-4.69). In conclusion, high serum selenium levels were associated with cervical cancer, and selenium exposure might be a protective factor for cervical cancer.

  6. Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Levels as Indicators of Asthma Severity

    PubMed Central

    Malapati, Brahma Reddy; Gokani, Ruchi; Patel, Bhavita; Chatriwala, Mitul

    2016-01-01

    Background. Serum magnesium levels affect the concentration of circulating vitamin D in blood and subsequently it affects the immunity; thus it plays significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, in adults, is less studied and hypomagnesemia along with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in asthmatic individuals, which causes frequent asthma attacks, respiratory infections, severe exacerbations, and poor response to bronchodilators. Objective. To detect the magnitude of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and serum magnesium levels among asthmatic patients and to correlate them with the severity of asthma. Materials and Methods. This is a cross-sectional case-control study which includes 60 patients of chronic stable asthma and 60 healthy controls. After taking clinical history and systemic examination, pulmonary function test was done. Serum levels of magnesium, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D], and calcium were measured in all the subjects. Results. Significant correlation was found between vitamin D deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and asthma severity. Serum calcium levels were unaffected by that. Conclusion. Vitamin D and serum magnesium deficiency are highly prevalent in patients with asthma. Increased asthma severity, frequency of attacks, and exacerbation are associated with lower levels of one or both. Serum 25(OH)D and magnesium levels may serve as important markers of asthma severity. PMID:27818797

  7. Is the serum ferritin level a considerable predictor for hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Mehrpour, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhagic Transformation (HT) of Ischemic Stroke (IS) is a detrimental complication. This study investigated the association between serum ferritin level and HT in patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery. Methods: Thirty patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. They were divided into two groups based on the serum ferritin level, lower or greater than 164.1ng/ml at the first 24 hours after admission. To investigate the incidence of HT in the two groups, we observed them for two weeks. Results: During the two- week observation, the incidence of HT was two persons (13.3%) in the group with the serum ferritin level of lower than 164.1ng/ml, and eight persons (53.3%) in the other group. This difference was statistically significant between the two groups (p=0.02). The relative risk of HT was 4 (95% CI: 1.012- 15.8) in the patients with massive IS of middle cerebral artery and the serum ferritin level greater than 164.1ng/ml. Conclusion: This study revealed that the serum ferritin level greater than 164.1ng/ml in the first 24 hours after admission is a reasonably important predictor for HT of IS. Conducting studies on factors affecting the serum ferritin level are suggested. PMID:27493907

  8. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng.

    PubMed Central

    McRae, S

    1996-01-01

    A 74-year-old man taking a constant dose of digoxin for many years was found to have an elevated serum digoxin level with no signs of toxic effects. Common causes of elevated serum digoxin were ruled out, and the patient's digoxin level remained high after digoxin therapy was stopped. The patient then revealed that he was taking Siberian ginseng, a popular herbal remedy. The patient stopped taking ginseng, and the serum digoxin level soon returned to an acceptable level. The digoxin therapy was resumed. The patient resumed taking ginseng several months later, and the serum digoxin level again rose. Digoxin therapy was maintained at a constant daily dose, the ginseng was stopped once more, and the serum digoxin levels again returned to within the therapeutic range. It is unclear whether some component of the ginseng was converted to digoxin in vivo, interfered with digoxin elimination or caused a false serum assay result. The author cautions physicians to be alert to the potential for herbal remedies to interact with prescribed medications and to affect biochemical analyses. PMID:8705908

  9. Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Levels as Indicators of Asthma Severity.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Mohammed Nadeem; Malapati, Brahma Reddy; Gokani, Ruchi; Patel, Bhavita; Chatriwala, Mitul

    2016-01-01

    Background. Serum magnesium levels affect the concentration of circulating vitamin D in blood and subsequently it affects the immunity; thus it plays significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, in adults, is less studied and hypomagnesemia along with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in asthmatic individuals, which causes frequent asthma attacks, respiratory infections, severe exacerbations, and poor response to bronchodilators. Objective. To detect the magnitude of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and serum magnesium levels among asthmatic patients and to correlate them with the severity of asthma. Materials and Methods. This is a cross-sectional case-control study which includes 60 patients of chronic stable asthma and 60 healthy controls. After taking clinical history and systemic examination, pulmonary function test was done. Serum levels of magnesium, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D], and calcium were measured in all the subjects. Results. Significant correlation was found between vitamin D deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and asthma severity. Serum calcium levels were unaffected by that. Conclusion. Vitamin D and serum magnesium deficiency are highly prevalent in patients with asthma. Increased asthma severity, frequency of attacks, and exacerbation are associated with lower levels of one or both. Serum 25(OH)D and magnesium levels may serve as important markers of asthma severity.

  10. Serum BAFF and APRIL levels in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zi-Zhen; Zhao, Bing-Bing; Xiong, Hong; Wei, Bei-Wen; Wang, Ye-Fei

    2015-10-01

    B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) play crucial roles in B cell development, survival, and antibody production. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an acquired autoimmune disease that occurs when antibodies target autologous red blood cells. Here, we analyzed the serum levels of BAFF and APRIL and their respective clinical associations in patients with AIHA. Serum BAFF and APRIL levels in patients with AIHA were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in healthy individuals. Serum BAFF and APRIL levels were significantly augmented in patients with lower hemoglobin levels (hemoglobin was <8 g/dL) and higher LDH activity (LDH > 480 IU/mL). Glucocorticoid treatment dramatically reduced serum levels of BAFF and APRIL. Thus, serum BAFF and APRIL levels may reflect the clinical activity of this disease. Our results indicate that analysis of serum concentrations of BAFF and APRIL potentially represents a useful tool for the assessment of AIHA disease activity and progression.

  11. Genetic segregation analyses of serum IgG2 levels.

    PubMed Central

    Marazita, M. L.; Lu, H.; Cooper, M. E.; Quinn, S. M.; Zhang, J.; Burmeister, J. A.; Califano, J. V.; Pandey, J. P.; Schenkein, H. A.; Tew, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Summary : The aim of this study was to determine whether there was evidence for a genetic component in the immune response as measured by IgG2 levels. The study was motivated by our studies of early-onset periodontitis (EOP), a group of disorders characterized by rapid destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth in otherwise healthy individuals. EOP has two subforms, localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) and a generalized form (G-EOP). IgG2 levels are elevated in LJP but not G-EOP individuals; and African-American IgG2 levels are higher than Caucasian levels regardless of EOP status. IgG2 levels were determined in 123 EOP families and in 508 unrelated non-EOP control individuals. Segregation analysis under the regressive model approach of Bonney was used to analyze IgG2 levels for evidence of major locus segregation. After adjusting for LJP status, race, sex, and age, the best fitting model was an autosomal codominant major locus model (accounting for approximately 62% of the variance in IgG2), plus residual parent/offspring and spousal correlations. Smoking and GM23 are also known to affect IgG2 levels. If additional adjustments are made for smoking and GM23, the best-fitting model is still a codominant major locus but with no significant residual correlations. PMID:8651265

  12. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status with bone mineral density in 0-7 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhenying; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Zi; Li, Yinfang; Liang, Guanyu; Lv, Heyun; Hong, Hong; Song, Yuan; Wei, Yarong; Yue, Hongni; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Guoqin; Ni, Yufei; Zhu, Mei; Wu, Aiping; Yan, Juhua; Ji, Chenbo; Guo, Xirong; Wen, Juan; Qin, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the status of serum 25-hydoxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and identify the relationship between 25(OH)D and bone mineral density (BMD). In an effort to explore the appropriate definition of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in 0–7 year old children. Results The median serum 25(OH)D concentrations was 62.9 nmol/L and 28.9% of the children had a low 25(OH)D (< 50 nmol/L). And a linear relation between 25(OH)D concentrations and BMD was surveyed (r = 0.144 , P < 0.001). After adjusting for the confounders, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with BMD (β = 172.0, 95%CI = 142.8–201.2, P < 0.001), and low 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L) had a high stake for low BMD (OR = 1.424, 95%CI = 1.145–1.769, P = 0.001). Additionally, there was a nonlinear relation between 25(OH)D and low BMD, and a critical value for 25(OH)D of 75 nmol/L appeared for low BMD. The prevalence of low BMD was 14.1% in children with 25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L, much lower than that of the concentrations between 50–75 nmol/L and < 50 nmol/L. Materials and Methods A total of 4,846 children 0–7 years old were recruited in Jiangsu Province, China. BMD and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were determined by quantitative ultrasound and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of 25(OH)D concentrations with BMD. Conclusions Serum 25(OH)D concentrations was related with BMD and 25(OH)D concentrations < 75 nmol/L might be a more appropriate definition of VD deficiency in 0–7 year old children. PMID:27821808

  13. Early effects of fluoro-edenite: correlation between IL-18 serum levels and pleural and parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Matera, Serena; Massimino, Nicoletta; Cannizzaro, Emanuele; Musumeci, Andrea; Migliore, Marcello; Fenga, Concettina; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-12-01

    Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a natural mineral asbestos-like fibrous species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. In order to clarify potential involvement of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of FE-induced chest abnormalities, we analyzed IL-18 serum levels in FE-exposed workers (FEEW) and correlated them with pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. A total of 21 FEEWs, residing in Biancavilla for >30 years, with a working seniority of 17 ± 6.1 years were examined. High-resolution computed tomography scans revealed low grade of fibrosis in 8 (38%) FEEWs, and pleural plaques (PPs) in 13 (62%) FEEWs. The mean IL-18 level was 203.13 ± 90.43 pg/ml. Pearson correlation showed a significant association (p < 0.0001) between IL-18 and PPs and parenchymal abnormality scores. Data suggest a potential role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  14. Relationship between IL-17 serum level and ambulatory blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Alireza; Arbab, Elham; Samimi, Mansooreh; Tamadon, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders with an inflammatory basis. It is associated with hyperandrogenism in women and can be also associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age are affected by this disease. This syndrome is the main cause of infertility. Blood pressure may be one of the complications of the syndrome. Objectives In this study, we sought to assess the role of the IL-17 inflammatory cytokine in increasing blood pressure in patients with PCOS. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, after obtaining informed consent, we evaluated 85 patients with PCOS. IL-17 serum level was measured after separating the serum via ELISA method. The results obtained for the two groups of patients with high blood pressure and normal blood pressure were compared with each other. Results The daytime blood pressure was abnormal in eight patients, while it was normal in 72 patients. The blood pressure during the day had a direct correlation with the IL-17serum level; as a result, the mean IL-17 serum level in patients with high blood pressure was 77.10 ± 17.94 ρ g/ml while in those with normal blood pressure it was 55.20 ± 13.71 ρ g/ml (P = 0.001). High blood pressure during the night also showed a direct relation with theIL-17 serum level (P = 0.001). In addition, increasing of ambulatory 24-hourblood pressure was significantly related with IL-17 serum level, in such a way that the IL-17 serum level of people with high blood pressure rose by almost 22 ρg/ml during 24 hours (P = 0.001). Conclusions Our results showed an association between PCO syndrome and inflammatory factors. The IL-17 serum level was directly associated with the increase in blood pressure. PMID:28042549

  15. Correlation of CA-125 serum level and clinico-pathological characteristic of patients with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Dehshiri-Zadeh, Najmeh; Sekhavat, Leili; Nosouhi, Fahime

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) is a glycoprotein biomarker that is used in women with pelvic masses such as endometriosis and maybe is useful in practice of patients suspicious to endometriosis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between preoperative serum CA-125 levels and clinic pathological characteristic in women with endometriosis, and find out the best serum CA-125 levels cut-off in pre and post menopause women. Materials and Methods: Serum CA-125 levels in 87 women aged 21-54 years suspected to endometriosis with pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, or dyspareunia were measured preoperatively. Also the association between clinic pathological characteristic and serum CA-125 level were analyzed. Results: The mean age of women was 32.22±6.91. The mean serum CA-125 level was 49.93±4.30 U/mL. There was a significant correlation between the endometriosis stage, lesion size, adhesion score and preoperative CA-125 plasma concentration. However, we did not found significant differences in age, marital status, patient’s complaints, and pelvic pain associated to Ca125 serum level. The suggested preoperative serum cut-off levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients were 37 U/ml and 35 U/ml, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, preoperative serum CA-125 is an important predictor for patients with endometriosis and it should be taken into consideration when surgical management is suspected, especially if stage of disease, lesion size and adhesion score are undertaken. PMID:28008424

  16. [Correlation analysis of serum calcium level and cognition in the patients with Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Zhou, X P; Zhang, L; Zhang, Q; Liu, C F; Luo, W F

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the relation between cognition and serum calcium in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), analyze the related factors of cognition, and evaluate the correlation of serum calcium with specific cognitive domains. Methods: A total of 77 patients with Parkinson's disease who was hospitalized in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, from Dce 2013 to May 2015 were subjected to the cognitive, motor and depression function assessment, and the fasting blood calcium samples were collected from the PD patients and 75 normal control subjects. According to cognitive function, PD patients were divided into dementia group and without dementia group. Then the serum calcium levels of three groups and the related factors of the cognitive were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results: (1) The level of serum calcium in PD group with dementia (2.21±0.09) mmol/L was significantly lower than the normal control group (2.30±0.09)mmol/L (P<0.001), and there was no difference between the level of serum calcium in PD group without dementia (2.27±0.13 mmol/L) and normal control group (P=0.144). The level of serum calcium in PD group with dementia was lower than PD group without dementia, and there was marked statistical significance (P=0.023). (2) In PD patients, the cognitive scores correlated with serum calcium levels, education, H-Y stages and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Ⅲ scores (P<0.05), but didn't with gender, age, disease duration, depression levels, Body Mass Index (BMI) and total equivalent levodopa doses (P>0.05). (3) In PD patients, serum calcium level correlated with the visuospatial and executive capability, calculation ability, language ability (P1=0.004; P2=0.027; P3=0.021). Conclusions: (1) There is correlation between the serum calcium and the cognitive impairment. Lower serum calcium level predicts worse cognitive scores. (2) In PD patients, the change of the cognitive function is affected by

  17. Influence of air exposure and storage condition on serum ionized magnesium level.

    PubMed

    Baek, E J; Park, I K

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether reporting serum level of ionized magnesium (iMg) is appropriate when affected by various conditions such as exposure to air and delayed measurement. Serum levels of pH, iMg and normalized magnesium (nMg, normalized or adjusted concentration of iMg to pH 7.40) from 28 inpatients were measured at intervals of 3 min after exposing the samples to air at room temperature. Serum from 30 inpatients was stored in closed tubes at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C and iMg and nMg levels were measured after 2 days. It was found that serum iMg and nMg concentrations exposed to air were decreased by 0.0023 mmol/l and 0.0001 mmol/l per minute, respectively. nMg did not display any significant changes compared with iMg at 0 min, whereas iMg showed significant changes, which exceeded between-day precision. For the stored serum, only iMg of serum at -20 degrees C showed no statistically significant changes (p = 0.169). It is concluded that to report the result as iMg, the sample should be kept anaerobically, and if exposed to air, the result should be reported as nMg. For storage, iMg of serum kept anaerobically at -20 degrees C is reliable.

  18. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Megumi; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Omori, Akina; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level. Methods Canagliflozin (100 mg/day) was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39) for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. Results At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008), though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7%) out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044), HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044) and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041) but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables. Conclusions Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2. Trial Registration UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151 PMID:27124282

  19. Avoiding toxic levels of essential minerals: a forgotten factor in deer diet preferences.

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Olguín, Augusto; Miranda, María; García, Andrés; Martínez, Alberto; Cassinello, Jorge; Miguel, Valentín; Gallego, Laureano

    2015-01-01

    Ungulates select diets with high energy, protein, and sodium contents. However, it is scarcely known the influence of essential minerals other than Na in diet preferences. Moreover, almost no information is available about the possible influence of toxic levels of essential minerals on avoidance of certain plant species. The aim of this research was to test the relative importance of mineral content of plants in diet selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in an annual basis. We determined mineral, protein and ash content in 35 common Mediterranean plant species (the most common ones in the study area). These plant species were previously classified as preferred and non-preferred. We found that deer preferred plants with low contents of Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Cu, Sr and Zn. The model obtained was greatly accurate identifying the preferred plant species (91.3% of correct assignments). After a detailed analysis of these minerals (considering deficiencies and toxicity levels both in preferred and non-preferred plants) we suggest that the avoidance of excessive sulphur in diet (i.e., selection for plants with low sulphur content) seems to override the maximization for other nutrients. Low sulphur content seems to be a forgotten factor with certain relevance for explaining diet selection in deer. Recent studies in livestock support this conclusion, which is highlighted here for the first time in diet selection by a wild large herbivore. Our results suggest that future studies should also take into account the toxicity levels of minerals as potential drivers of preferences.

  20. Serum sirtuin 1 levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kiyak Caglayan, Emel; Engin-Ustun, Yaprak; Gocmen, Ayse Yesim; Polat, Muhammet Fevzi; Aktulay, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    Objective of the study is to determine the human nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 level in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This cross-sectional study included 24 patients aged 20-38 years, who were diagnosed to have PCOS (patient group). The control group included 16 age- and body mass index-matched healthy female volunteers. The patients and controls were compared in terms of pre-prandial blood glucose, the homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), C-reactive protein (CRP) and sirtuin 1 levels. The mean sirtuin 1 level in the patient group (6.67 ± 2.29 ng mL(-1)) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.69 ± 1.85 ng mL(-1)) (P = 0.007). Correlation analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the groups in fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR index or cholesterol, triglyceride, HD, LDL and CRP levels. The sirtuin 1 level, which is associated with inflammation, the immune system and insulin metabolism, was higher in the PCOS patients than in the healthy controls.

  1. Correlation of Cytohistlogical Expression and Serum Level of Ca125 in Ovarian Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chhanda; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Ghosh, Tarun; Saha, Ashis Kumar; Sengupta, Moumita

    2014-01-01

    Context or Background: CA125 is a biomarker that has potential utility across the spectrum: risk assessment, early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring and therapy. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to establish the validity and reliability of correlation of CA125 serum level with immunochemistry expression in imprint cytology and tissues for diagnostic purpose. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done on 50 cases of clinically and radiologically diagnosed ovarian tumor. Imprint smears were made intraoperatively from fresh samples and stained with M.G.G. stain for air dried smears and Papanicoloau stain for alcohol fixed smears. Stained smear was assessed and compared with subsequent histopathology report. Preoperative blood samples were obtained from all patients and sent for the assay of serum CA125 levels. Analysis of CA125 immunochemistry expression in imprint cytology and tissue was done and correlated with preoperative serum blood CA125 levels. Results: Significant positive correlation was found between elevated serum CA125 levels and cytohistological expression of CA125. Overall sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 86%, positive predictive value was 74% and negative predictive value 100%. Diagnostic accuracy was 90% with high statistical significance (p<0.001). Conclusion: We considered 35 U/mL as the cut-off value when evaluating serum CA125 ovarian cancer. Patients with high serum levels show good cytohistological expression. PMID:24783076

  2. Serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels during antipsychotics treatment in Parkinson's disease and related psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko

    2006-01-01

    Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (p<0,02). No changes in HDL concentrations. There was positive relationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone.

  3. Elevated Serum Titanium Level as a Marker for Failure in a Titanium Modular Fluted Tapered Stem.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Ian P; Abdel, Matthew P

    2016-07-01

    Serum ion concentrations of cobalt and chromium are commonly used to monitor for the development of local metal reactions in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties, as well as dual-modular constructs. Although rarely used in clinical practice, elevated serum titanium levels have the ability to indicate a failure with contemporary revision constructs, such as with titanium modular fluted tapered (TMFT) stems. The authors report the case of a 64-year-old man with a TMFT stem after revision total hip arthroplasty for a dual-modular neck construct who had set screw disengagement with subsequent proximal body loosening. The patient's serum cobalt and chromium levels were normal, but he had a markedly elevated serum titanium level, indicating failure of the titanium modular junction. Implant failures at modular junctions in femoral components are well described. Although several different failure mechanisms have been defined, to the authors' knowledge this is the first reported failure of this particular TMFT stem. In addition, this is the first report describing the use of serum titanium levels in identifying a novel failure mechanism. With the popularity of this stem, surgeons should be aware that an elevated serum titanium level may aid in the diagnosis of this unique complication. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e768-e770.].

  4. Effect of excitatory amino acids on serum TSH and thyroid hormone levels in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, M; Durán, R; Arufe, M C

    2000-01-01

    The actions of glutamate (L-Glu), and glutamate receptor agonists on serum thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and TSH levels have been studied in conscious and freely moving adult male rats. The excitatory amino acids (EAA), L-Glu, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainic acid (KA) and domoic acid (Dom) were administered intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected through a cannula implanted in the rats jugular 0--60 min after injection. Thyroid hormone concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that L-Glu (20 and 25 mg/kg) and NMDA (25 mg/kg) increased serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and TSH concentrations. Serum thyroid hormone levels increased 30 min after treatment, while serum TSH levels increased 5 min after i.p. administration, in both cases serum levels remained elevated during one hour. Injection of the non-NMDA glutamatergic agonists KA (30 mg/kg) and Dom (1 mg/kg) produced an increase in serum thyroid hormones and TSH levels. These results suggest the importance of EAAs in the regulation of hormone secretion from the pituitary-thyroid axis, as well as the importance of the NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in this stimulatory effect.

  5. Serum albumin levels and their correlates among individuals with motor disorders at five institutions in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Takeo; Kanaya, Yuki; Tanaka, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The level of serum albumin is an index of nourishment care and management. However, the distribution and correlates of serum albumin levels among individuals with motor disorders have not been reported until now. Therefore, we examined the distribution and correlates of serum albumin levels among individuals with motor disorders. SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional study on 249 individuals with motor disabilities (144 men, mean age: 51.4 years; 105 women, mean age: 51.4 years) was conducted at five institutions in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan in 2008. The results were compared with data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. RESULTS The mean serum albumin levels were 4.0 ± 0.4 g/dL for men and 3.8 ± 0.5 g/dL for women. Overall, 17 (11.8%) men and 25 (23.8%) women had hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin level ≤ 3.5 g/dL); these proportions were greater than those among healthy Japanese adults (≤ 1%). Low serum albumin level was related with female sex, older age, low calf circumference, low relative daily energy intake, low hemoglobin (Hb), low blood platelet count, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low HbA1c, and high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The strongest correlates, based on standardized betas, were Hb (0.321), CRP (-0.279), and HDL-C (0.279) levels. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia is higher in individuals with motor disabilities than in healthy individuals and that inflammation is a strong negative correlate of serum albumin levels. Therefore, inflammation should be examined for the assessment of hypoalbuminemia among institutionalized individuals with motor disabilities. PMID:28194266

  6. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis. PMID:27651883

  7. Serum Malondialdehyde Levels in Patients with Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction Are Associated with Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Abreu-González, Pedro; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Riaño-Ruiz, Marta; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Malondialdehyde (MDA) is an end-product formed during lipid peroxidation, due to degradation of cellular membrane phospholipids. MDA is released into extracellular space and finally into the blood; it has been used as an effective biomarker of lipid oxidation. High circulating levels of MDA have been previously described in patients with ischemic stoke than in controls, and an association between circulating MDA levels and neurological functional outcome in patients with ischemic stoke. However, an association between serum MDA levels and mortality in patients with ischemic stroke has not been previously reported, and that was the objective of this study. Methods Observational, prospective and multicenter study performed in six Intensive Care Units. We included patients with severe malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) defined as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. We measured serum MDA levels in 50 patients with severe MMCAI at the time of diagnosis and in 100 healthy subjects. Mortality at 30 days was the end point of the study. Results We found that patients with severe MMCAI showed higher serum MDA levels than healthy subjects (p<0.001). We found higher serum MDA levels (p<0.001) in non-surviving MMCAI patients (n=26) than in survivors (n=24). The area under the curve for prediction of 30-day mortality for serum MDA levels was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.63-0.88; p<0.001). Serum MDA levels >2.27 nmol/mL were associated with 30-day mortality (OR=7.23; 95% CI=1.84-28.73; p=0.005) controlling for GCS and age on multiple binomial logistic regression analysis. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that serum malondialdehyde levels in patients with MMCAI are associated with early mortality. PMID:25933254

  8. Clinical implication of VEGF serum levels in cirrhotic patients with or without portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nimer, Assy; M, Paizi; D, Gaitini; Y, Baruch; G, Spira

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels correlates with the severity of liver cirrhosis and whether portal hypertension impacts on the expression of serum VEGF protein. METHODS: Fifty-three patients (mean age 56 ± 2 years) with HCV (n = 26), HBV (n = 13), and cryptogenic liver cirrhosis (n = 14) (Child-Pugh-s class A: 24, B: 19 and C: 12) and normal renal function constitute the patient population, who were all diagnosed by clinical, histological and radiological findings. Six healthy people and six patients with acute hepatitis served as controls. Severity of liver disease was evaluated by the CP score. Serum levels of IGF-1 and VEGF were measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA, respectively. Portal hypertension was assessed using pulsed Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS: The mean serum VEGF levels in all cirrhotic patients (73 ± 58) were significantly lower than those of healthy controls (360 ± 217, P < 0.01) and acute hepatitis (1123 ± 1261, P < 0.01) respectively. No significant difference in median serum VEGF levels were noted among the different Child-Pugh-s classes (class A: median, 49.4 ng/L, range, 21-260 ng/L, Class B: median 59.9 ng/L; range 21-92, and Class C: median 69; range 20-247 ng/L). A significant correlation was noted between serum VEGF and two accurate parameters of portal hypertension: portal blood flow velocity (r = 06) and spleen size (r = 0.55). No correlation was found between VEGF serum levels and serum albumin, IGF-1, platelets count and aminotrasnferases (r = 0.2, r = 0.1, r = 0.2 and r = 0.2, respectively). CONCLUSION: Circulating VEGF level in patients with liver cirrhosis could not serve as an indicator of the progression of chronic liver disease but rather, they may reflect increased portal hypertension or decreased hepatic regenerative activity or the combination of both. PMID:11819451

  9. Usefulness of Measuring Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sook Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The relationships between serum procalcitonin, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal Behçet’s disease (BD) have not been completely determined. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum procalcitonin levels to assess disease activity and infection stage in patients with IBD and intestinal BD. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 129 patients with IBD and intestinal BD for whom serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured between January 2006 and February 2013. Results The median serum procalcitonin levels in the IBD and intestinal BD with septic shock or sepsis (n=8), with localized infection (n=76), and without infection (n=45) were 3.46 ng/mL (range, 0.17 to 63.66 ng/mL), 0.22 ng/mL (range, 0.05 to 140.18 ng/mL), and 0.07 ng/mL (range, 0.00 to 31.50 ng/mL), respectively (p=0.001). The serum CRP levels in the IBD and intestinal BD patients did not differ according to the infection stage. Variations in serum procalcitonin levels were not observed in the IBD and intestinal BD patients with different disease activities. Conclusions Serum procalcitonin levels may not be affected by IBD and intestinal BD activity itself, although they may be affected by concomitant infection. Serum procalcitonin measurements could be more useful than CRP in determining the infection stage that reflects the severity of infection in IBD and intestinal BD patients. PMID:26780089

  10. Serum hepcidin levels in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Rubab, Zille; Amin, Huma; Abbas, Khizer; Hussain, Shabbir; Ullah, Muhammad Ikram; Mohsin, Shahida

    2015-01-01

    Patients on hemodialysis (HD) are usually anemic because of defective erythropoeisis. Hepcidin is a polypeptide that regulates iron homeostasis and could serve as an indicator of functional iron deficiency in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD); this may also aid in the assessment of patient's response to erythropoietin (EPO). The present study was directed to investigate serum levels of hepcidin, iron status and inflammation markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with ESRD on maintenance HD and to observe the correlation of serum hepcidin with conventional iron and inflammatory markers. A total of 42 patients of both sexes on maintenance HD and EPO therapy were enrolled; 42 ageand sex-matched healthy subjects were included as controls. Laboratory tests including complete blood count, serum hepcidin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum ferritin, serum iron and CRP were performed. Serum hepcidin levels were significantly higher in patients with ESRD than in the control group (18.2 ± 2.8 ng/mL and 8.5 ± 2.3 ng/mL, respectively P = 0.000). The hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation levels in the patient group were significantly lower than in the control group. Higher hepcidin levels were found in EPO non-responders (19.6 ± 2.4 ng/mL) while lower levels (16.9 ± 2.5 ng/mL) were seen in responders (P = 0.001). A positive and significant correlation was observed between the values of serum hepcidin and CRP. Our study indicates that higher hepcidin levels are found in ESRD patients on HD and in those not responding to EPO. Our findings suggest that hepcidin might play a role in the pathophysiology of anemia associated with chronic diseases as well as EPO resistance.

  11. BK Virus Load Associated with Serum Levels of sCD30 in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Salma N.; Al-Saffer, Jinan M.; Jawad, Rana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rejection is the main drawback facing the renal transplant operations. Complicated and overlapping factors, mainly related to the immune system, are responsible for this rejection. Elevated serum levels of sCD30 were frequently recorded as an indicator for renal allograft rejection, while BV virus is considered as one of the most serious consequences for immunosuppressive treatment of renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Aims. This study aimed to determine the association of BK virus load with serum levels of sCD30 in RTRs suffering from nephropathy. Patients and Methods. A total of 50 RTRs with nephropathy and 30 age-matched apparently healthy individuals were recruited for this study. Serum samples were obtained from each participant. Real-time PCR was used to quantify BK virus load in RTRs serum, while ELISA technique was employed to estimate serum levels of sCD30. Results. Twenty-two percent of RTRs had detectable BKV with mean viral load of 1.094E + 06 ± 2.291E + 06. RTRs showed higher mean serum level of sCD30 (20.669 ± 18.713 U/mL) than that of controls (5.517 ± 5.304 U/mL) with significant difference. BK virus load had significant positive correlation with the serum levels of sCD30 in RTRs group. Conclusion. These results suggest that serum levels of sCD30 could be used as an indicator of BK viremia, and accordingly the immunosuppressive regime should be adjusted. PMID:27051424

  12. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals.

  13. Serum ALT levels as a surrogate marker for serum HBV DNA levels in HBeAg-negative pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sangfelt, Per; Von Sydow, Madeleine; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Weiland, Ola; Lindh, Gudrun; Fischler, Björn; Lindgren, Susanne; Reichard, Olle

    2004-01-01

    In Stockholm, Sweden, the majority of pregnant women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) negative. Newborns to HBeAg positive mothers receive vaccination and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg). Newborns to HBeAg negative mothers receive vaccine and HBIg only if the mothers have elevated ALT levels. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate ALT levels as a surrogate marker for HBV DNA levels in HBeAg negative carrier mothers. Altogether 8947 pregnant women were screened for HBV markers from 1999 to 2001 at the Virology Department, Karolinska Hospital. Among mothers screened 192 tested positive for HBsAg (2.2%). 13 of these samples could not be retrieved. Of the remaining 179 sera, 8 (4%) tested positive for HBeAg and 171 (95.5%) were HBeAg negative. Among the HBeAg negative mothers, 9 had HBV DNA levels > 10(5) copies/ml, and of these 7 had normal ALT levels indicating low sensitivity of an elevated ALT level as a surrogate marker for high HBV DNA level. Furthermore, no correlation was found between ALT and HBV DNA levels. Hence, it is concluded that the use of ALT as a surrogate marker for high viral replication in HBeAg negative mothers could be questioned.

  14. Comparison of Serum Cortisol and Testosterone Levels in Acute and Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natung, Tanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the levels of serum cortisol and testosterone in acute and chronic central serous chorio-retinopathy (CSC). Methods Serum cortisol and testosterone levels in 30 patients with either acute or chronic CSC were evaluated using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results The mean age was 42.43 ± 6.37 years (range, 32 to 56 years). The mean 8:00 to 9.00 a.m. serum cortisol level was 12.61 ± 4.74 µg/dL (range, 6.58 to 27.42 µg/dL). The mean serum testosterone level was 5.88 ± 1.57 ng/dL (range, 2.81 to 9.94 ng/dL). The mean visual acuity was 20 / 65.07 ± 40.56 (range, 20 / 25 to 20 / 200). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean levels of serum cortisol and testosterone between the acute and chronic cases (p > 0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference in the mean presenting visual acuity in the two groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions All except one patient in the acute group had normal levels of serum cortisol. Testosterone levels were within the normal range in both the acute and chronic cases of CSC. There is unlikely to be any statistically significant difference in the mean levels of serum cortisol and testosterone between the acute and chronic cases, but there may be a statistically significant difference in the mean presenting visual acuity in these groups. PMID:26635454

  15. Increased Interleukin-17 and decreased BAFF serum levels in drug-free acute schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    El Kissi, Yousri; Samoud, Samar; Mtiraoui, Ahlem; Letaief, Leila; Hannachi, Neila; Ayachi, Mouna; Ali, Bechir Ben Hadj; Boukadida, Jalel

    2015-01-30

    Hypotheses regarding an immune-cytokine basis of schizophrenia have been postulated with controversial findings and a lack of data related to many cytokines. The aim of this study was to assess serum levels of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Interleukin-4 (IL-4), Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β), Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and B-cell Activating Factor (BAFF) in schizophrenic patients and to determine correlations between cytokine levels and clinical parameters. Serum cytokine levels were measured with ELISA techniques in 60 neuroleptic-free patients on acute phase of the disease (BPRS≥40) and 28 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Current symptoms were assessed with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). No significant difference was found between patients and controls regarding IFN-γ serum levels. IL-4 was not detected in both groups. Patients exhibited significantly higher IL-17 and lower BAFF serum levels. IL-17 and BAFF levels were negatively correlated in schizophrenic patients. SANS global score was negatively correlated with IL-17 and positively correlated with IFN-γ serum levels. These results argue against the involvement of Th1 or Th2 population cells in schizophrenia. IL-17 and BAFF could be valuable markers for schizophrenia.

  16. Protective effect of berberine on serum glucose levels in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Wei-Han; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2012-03-01

    Among the active components in traditional anti-diabetic herbal plants, berberine which is an isoquinoline alkaloid exhibits promising potential for its potent anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effects. However, the berberine effect on serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects still remains unknown. This study investigated berberine's effects on serum glucose levels using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop T1D. The NOD mice were randomly divided into four groups, administered water with 50, 150, and 500 mg berberine/kg bw, respectively, through 14 weeks. ICR mice were also selected as a species control group to compare with the NOD mice. Changes in body weight, oral glucose challenge, and serum glucose levels were determined to identify the protective effect of berberine on T1D. After the 14-week oral supplementation, berberine decreased fasting serum glucose levels in NOD mice close to the levels in normal ICR mice in a dose dependent manner. Serum berberine levels showed a significantly (P<0.05) negative and non-linear correlation with fasting glucose levels in berberine-administered NOD mice. Our results suggested that berberine supplemented at appropriate doses for 14 weeks did not cause toxic side effects, but improved hyperglycemia in NOD mice.

  17. Suspected Interaction of Cranberry Juice Extracts and Tacrolimus Serum Levels: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Jones

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 inhibition through fruit supplement interactions often results in increased serum levels of calcineurin inhibitors, including tacrolimus. Cranberry extract is a supplement often used for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are common in renal allograft recipients. To our knowledge, a decrease in serum levels of tacrolimus as a result of cranberry extract interaction is unreported. A 40-year-old renal transplant patient taking cranberry extract capsules for her recurrent cystitis presented asymptomatically with low serum levels of tacrolimus. Dose increase had little effect on the level, and cessation of the cranberry extract returned levels to desired range. Cranberry extracts are an adjunctive therapy used in the management of recurrent UTIs. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive agent, is metabolized intestinally by isoenzymes of the P450 cytochrome. Cranberry extracts may alter this metabolism and lead to sub-therapeutic serum levels of tacrolimus. This interaction is heretofore unreported. Cranberry extracts should be carefully monitored in allograft recipients due to interactions with serum tacrolimus levels. PMID:27335715

  18. Correlation of serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations in patients with actinic prurigo*

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Lievanos-Estrada, Zahide; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Hojyo-Tomoka, Maria Teresa; Dominguez-Soto, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis, the pathophysiology of which has been hypothesized to involve subtype IV type b (Th2) hypersensitive response, whereby IL4, IL5, and IL13 are secreted and mediate the production of B cells, IgE, and IgG4. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of serum IgE levels and the clinical severity of injuries. METHODS: This case-control study comprised patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of actinic prurigo, as well as clinically healthy subjects, from whom 3cc of peripheral blood was taken for immunoassay. Cases were classified by lesion severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, and chi-square test was performed. RESULTS: We included 21 actinic prurigo patients and 21 subjects without disease; 11 patients with actinic prurigo had elevated serum IgE levels, and 10 had low serum levels. Six actinic prurigo (AP) patients with elevated serum levels of IgE had moderate injuries, 4 had severe injuries, and 1 had minor injuries. Eight out of 10 patients with normal IgE levels presented with minor injuries in the clinical evaluation. The 21 controls did not have increased serum IgE levels. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IgE levels are associated with moderate to severe clinical lesions, suggesting that actinic prurigo entails a type IV subtype b hypersensitivity response in which Th2 cells predominate. PMID:26982774

  19. Assessment of serum and urine ghrelin levels in patients with acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seyhanli, Eyyup Sabri; Lok, Ugur; Gulacti, Umut; Buyukaslan, Hasan; Atescelik, Metin; Yildiz, Mustafa; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Goktekin, Mehmet Cagri; Aydın, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ghrelin is a novel brain-gut peptide hormone consisted of 28 amino-acid. In the plasma, it exists in two major molecular forms, acylated and des-acyled ghrelin, filtered in glomeruli or secreted by nephrons. Primary biological effects of hormones are regulating appetite, foods intake and energy metabolism. We investigated the changing and relationships between serum and urine ghrelin levels in acute stroke patients to provide more information whether diagnostic parameter. Methods: Thirty acute stroke patients and thirty consecutive volunteers included in study prospectively. To analyze serum and urine ghrelin levels, at the time of diagnose, all of participant blood and fresh urine (1 ml serum, 2 ml urine respectively) samples were obtained. Serum ghrelin levels analyzed ELISA technique, and urine ghrelin levels studied by validation technique. To compare quantitative data student’s t test, and for qualitative data chi-square and Fisher’s Exact Chi-square test was used. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Urine acyl ghrelin levels found statistically significant between patient and control groups (P=0.001), but there were no statistically significant differences between both groups (P>0.05) in serum acyl gherelin, des-acyl ghrelin and urine des-acyle ghrelin levels. Conclusions: The results indicate that urine acyl ghrelin levels may be considered as a diagnostic parameter in acute ischemic stroke patients. Further studies delineating the mechanism of these observed results are warranted. PMID:25785049

  20. Serum Spot 14 concentration is negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chi, Yu-Chao; Han, Der-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spot 14 (S14) is a protein involved in fatty acid synthesis and was shown to be induced by thyroid hormone in rat liver. However, the presence of S14 in human serum and its relations with thyroid function status have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum S14 concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism and to evaluate the associations between serum S14 and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. We set up an immunoassay for human serum S14 concentrations and compared its levels between hyperthyroid and euthyroid subjects. Twenty-six hyperthyroid patients and 29 euthyroid individuals were recruited. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of S14 and fT4, TSH, or quartile of TSH. The hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum S14 levels than the euthyroid subjects (median [Q1, Q3]: 975 [669, 1612] ng/mL vs 436 [347, 638] ng/mL, P < 0.001). In univariate linear regression, the log-transformed S14 level (logS14) was positively associated with fT4 but negatively associated with creatinine (Cre), total cholesterol (T-C), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TSH. The positive associations between logS14 and fT4 and the negative associations between logS14 and Cre, TG, T-C, or TSH remained significant after adjustment with sex and age. These associations were prominent in females but not in males. The logS14 levels were negatively associated with the TSH levels grouped by quartile (ß = −0.3020, P < 0.001). The association between logS14 and TSH quartile persisted after adjustment with sex and age (ß = −0.2828, P = 0.001). In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, only TSH grouped by quartile remained significantly associated with logS14 level. We developed an ELISA to measure serum S14 levels in human. Female patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum S14 levels

  1. Influence of smoking on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels among family medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Beganlic, Azijada; Salihefendic, Nizama; Pranjic, Nurka; Kusljugic, Zumreta

    2008-01-01

    Smoking causes decrease of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and increase of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Low HDL-C levels and high cholesterol and LDL-C levels are associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of smoking status on serum lipid and lipoproteins levels among patients in family medicine practice. This trial was designed to detect differences in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C levels between smokers and non-smokers. We had placed a limit of 300 patients for data collection. We excluded 195 patients who met excluding criteria (diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, renal and hepatic failure, hypothyroidism; using beta blockers, thiazide diuretics, hormonal replacement therapy and corticosteroids; more than light physical activity; alcohol consumption and obesity), so the sample size included 105 randomly selected patients from Family Medicine Teaching Center Tuzla, mean age 52.05 +/- 11.61 years. Main outcomes were smoking status in all participants and serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C levels in smokers and non-smokers. Our results showed that smoking prevalence was 49.52%. Smokers had significantly higher serum total cholesterol (P=0.01), triglyceride (P=0.002) and LDL-C level (P=0.03) and significantly lower HDL-C level (P=0.003) comparing with nonsmokers. There was no significant difference in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels between ex-smokers and never smokers. These results suggest that cigarette smoking adversely affects serum lipid and lipoprotein levels which further increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  2. Comparison of serum levels of hepcidin and pro-hepcidin in hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Taheri, N; Mojerloo, M; Hadad, M; Mirkarimi, H; Nejad, R Khorasani; Joshaghani, H R

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin prevents absorption of iron from the intestine and inhibits release of iron from macrophages and hepatocytes. For this reason, it seems that high levels of hepcidin are a predisposing factor for anemia in chronic inflammatory conditions such as chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients. This study was designed to determine the role of changes in the level of serum hepcidin in the management of hemodialysis patients. This study included 44 dialysis patients and 44 controls. The hepcidin and pro-hepcidin levels were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. The serum ferritin level was measured by the chemiluminescence method. The mean hepcidin level was 999.3 ± 996.7 ng/mL in the case group and 770.4 ± 815.9 ng/mL in the control group (P = 0.25). The mean pro-hepcidin level was, respectively, 186.1 ± 220.3 pg/mL and 150.87 ± 207.7 pg/mL, in the case group and control groups (P = 0.45). The mean (standard deviation) ferritin level was 816.4 ± 379.4 ng/mL in the case group and 193 ± 171.8 ng/mL in the control group (P < 0.001). In the case group, the correlation between serum ferritin and hepcidin was not significant (r = 0.6, P = 0.08). Also, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and pro-hepcidin levels (r = 0.6, P = 0.08). A positive correlation was seen between pro-hepcidin and hepcidin levels (r = 0.92, P < 0.01). In this study, the results showed that the serum hepcidin levels are high in dialysis patients and that there was no correlation with the serum ferritin levels.

  3. Correlation between endometrial biopsy and serum progesterone level in prediction of corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    El-hefnawi, N; Abou-gabal, A; El-etriby, A; Maged, M; Wafa, G; Ragab, I

    1987-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between endometrial biopsy and serum progesterone level in prediction of corpus luteum function in regularly menstruating women. Endometrial biopsy specimens were obtained from 40 women 20-25 years old with unproven fertility 2-3 days before the anticipated onset of menses. A simultaneous blood sample was obtained for measurement of serum progesterone levels using a radioimmunoassay technique. 27 biopsies were considered to be in-phase (IP) by histologic criteria, and the remaining 13 were out-of-phase (OOP). The mean serum progesterone level obtained from women with OOP biopsies 3-4 days before onset of menses was significantly lower than that obtained 1-2 days before the onset of menses. Menstruation occurred in women with OOP biopsies at a time when serum progesterone level was apparently rising. On the other hand, values were too small to identify any significant difference between groups of women with IP and OOP biopsies when these biopsies were performed very late in the cycle. The author states the importance of evaluating both serum progesterone and endometrial biopsy dating in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Serum progesterone was easy to perform, while endometrial biopsy showed the end result.

  4. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired “t” test. Results: Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P < 0.001). The sialic acid to fucose ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P < 0.01). However, comparison with histological grading, habits, gender, and age group did not show any significant result. Conclusion: The mean serum sialic acid and fucose levels showed an increasing trend from controls to malignant group and their corresponding ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients. PMID:26759796

  5. The Level of Serum and Urinary Nephrin in Normal Pregnancy and Pregnancy with Subsequent Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun Ji; Cho, Hee Young; Cho, SiHyun; Kim, Young Han; Jeon, Jin-Dong; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Sanghoo; Park, Jimyeong; Kim, Ha Yan; Park, Yong-Won

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate serum and urinary nephrin levels of normal pregnancy to establish a standard reference value and to compare them with patients who subsequently developed preeclampsia (PE). Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 117 healthy singleton pregnancies were enrolled between 6 to 20 weeks of gestation at 2 participating medical centers during October 2010 to March 2012. Urine and serum samples were collected at the time of enrollment, each trimester, and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for nephrin was performed and samples from patients who subsequently developed PE were compared to the normal patients. Results Of 117 patients initially enrolled, 99 patients delivered at the study centers and of those patients, 12 (12.1%) developed PE at a median gestational age of 34+4 weeks (range 29+5–36+6). In the normal patients (n=68), serum nephrin level decreased and urinary nephrin level increased during the latter of pregnancy. In 12 patients who subsequently developed PE, a significant rise in the 3rd trimester serum and urinary nephrin levels, compared to the controls, was observed (p<0.001), and this increase occurred 9 days prior to the onset of clinical disease. Conclusion As the onset of PE was preceded by the rise in the serum and urinary nephrin in comparison to normal pregnancy, serum and urinary nephrin may be a useful predictive marker of PE. PMID:28120572

  6. Endochondral ossification pathway genes and postmenopausal osteoporosis: Association and specific allele related serum bone sialoprotein levels in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bo; Li, Lu; Chen, Gang; Fu, Dongke; Wang, KunZheng

    2015-11-16

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and disrupted bone architecture, predisposing the patient to increased fracture risk. Evidence from early genetic epidemiological studies has indicated a major role for genetics in the development of osteoporosis and the variation in BMD. In this study, we focused on two key genes in the endochondral ossification pathway, IBSP and PTHLH. Over 9,000 postmenopausal Han Chinese women were recruited, and 54 SNPs were genotyped. Two significant SNPs within IBSP, rs1054627 and rs17013181, were associated with BMD and postmenopausal osteoporosis by the two-stage strategy, and rs17013181 was also significantly associated with serum IBSP levels. Moreover, one haplotype (rs12425376-rs10843047-rs42294) covering the 5' end of PTHLH was associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our results provide evidence for the association of these two key endochondral ossification pathway genes with BMD and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women. Combined with previous findings, we provide evidence that a particular SNP in IBSP has an allele-specific effect on mRNA levels, which would, in turn, reflect serum IBSP levels.

  7. Serum Chromium Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Its Association with Glycaemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, Senthil; Nair, Lal Devayanivasudevan; Karuthodiyil, Rajendran; Vijayarajan, Nikhilan; Gnanasekar, Rajiv; Kapil, Vivian V.; Mohamed, Azeem S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chromium is an essential micronutrient which is required for the normal functioning of insulin and regulation of blood sugar levels. It acts as a vital antioxidant for maintaining insulin homeostasis. In diabetes mellitus, the free radical production is increased and levels of antioxidants like chromium, vanadium, selenium and manganese are reduced. There have been previous studies to suggest that low serum levels of chromium are associated with poorer glycaemic control. Aim To study the level of serum chromium in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with glycaemic control. Materials and Methods Serum chromium concentration was determined by using inductively coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectophotometry in 42 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without any pre-existing complications. They were divided into 2 groups – well controlled (HbA1c ≤7.0%) and uncontrolled groups (HbA1c >7.0%). Results Mean serum chromium concentration measured in uncontrolled type 2 diabetic patients was significantly lower (0.065 ± 0.03 mcg/L vs 0.103 ± 0.04 mcg/L, p< 0.05). There was a statistically significant inverse linear correlation of the HbA1c values and the serum chromium concentration (r= -0.6514, p < 0.0001). There was also a decrease in chromium levels across both the groups with advancing age and the decrease being significant beyond 40 years of age (p<0.05). Conclusion The results of our study describes the relationship between serum chromium levels and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Significant reduction in chromium levels are probable indicators of metabolic response to oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further large scale studies relating serum chromium and type 2 diabetes mellitus may help to understand more about the exact relationship. PMID:26676175

  8. A possible mechanism for the decrease in serum thyroxine level by phenobarbital in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Haraguchi, Koichi; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo; Degawa, Masakuni

    2010-12-15

    Effects of phenobarbital (PB) on the levels of serum thyroid hormones such as total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine were examined in male mice, hamsters, rats, and guinea pigs. One day after the final administration of PB (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, once daily for 4 days), significant decreases in the levels of the serum total T{sub 4} and free T{sub 4} occurred in mice, hamsters, and rats, while a significant decrease in the level of serum triiodothyronine was observed in hamsters and rats among the animals examined. In addition, a significant decrease in the level of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was observed in only hamsters among the rodents examined. Significant increases in the level and activity of hepatic T{sub 4}-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A) after the PB administration occurred in mice, hamsters, and rats, while the increase in the amount of biliary [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4}-glucuronide after an intravenous injection of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4} to the PB-pretreated animals occurred only in rats. In mice, rats, and hamsters, but not guinea pigs, PB pretreatment promoted the clearance of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4} from the serum, led to a significant increase in the steady-state distribution volumes of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4}, and raised the concentration ratio (Kp value) of the liver to serum and the liver distribution of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4}. The present findings indicate that the PB-mediated decreases in the serum T{sub 4} level in mice, hamsters, and rats, but not guinea pigs, occur mainly through an increase in the accumulation level of T{sub 4} in the liver.

  9. Analysis of serum levels of 15 trace elements in breast cancer patients in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao; Jiang, Meng; Jing, Haiyan; Sheng, Wei; Wang, Xingwen; Han, Junqing; Wang, Luhua

    2015-05-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that serum levels of trace elements may be associated with breast cancer risk. We compared serum levels of 15 trace elements between breast cancer patients and normal controls from Shandong, China, for the first time to assess whether serum levels of trace elements were associated with breast cancer risk. Eighty-eight breast cancer patients and 84 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. A Spectraspan V direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometer was used to determine the serum levels of 15 trace elements including Zn, Mn, Al, Cd, Fe, Mg, Ca, Pb, Cu, Se, Ni, Ti, Co, Li, and Cr. Breast cancer patients had significantly higher serum levels of Cd (p = 0.000), Mg (p = 0.001), Cu (p = 0.000), Co (p = 0.006), and Li (p = 0.003) and borderline higher Cr (p = 0.052), while significantly lower Mn (p = 0.000), Al (p = 0.000), Fe (p = 0.000), and Ti (p = 0.000) compared to their matched controls. However, there were no significant differences in serum levels of Zn (p = 0.824), Ca (p = 0.711), Pb (p = 0.274), Se (p = 0.236), and Ni (p = 0.185) between the two groups. Our study showed a possible association between serum levels of trace elements and breast cancer risk in eastern China, though it warrants further investigations to confirm the association. If confirmed, modulation of trace elements may help reduce breast cancer risk.

  10. Influence of Dietary Cyanide on Immunoglobulin and Thiocyanate Levels in the Serum of Liberian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Linda C.; Bloch, Earl F.; Jackson, Robert T.; Chandler, James P.; Kim, Yong L.; Malveaux, Floyd J.

    1985-01-01

    Serum thiocyanate, antibody titers to thiocyanates, and serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgA) were measured in 73 Liberian adults normally consuming diets of low, moderate, high, or no (control) cassava-derived cyanide (CN−). When control and low groups (n = 40; daily intake less than 0.60 mg CN− per kg body weight) were contrasted with moderate and high groups (n = 33; daily intake greater than or equal to 0.60 mg CN− per kg body weight), the authors observed that (1) one-time serum thiocyanate measurements were not sensitive to long-term cyanide intake; however, (2) antibody titers to thiocyanates were positively correlated with cassava-based cyanide intakes (r = .22, P = 0.05); and (3) serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels were elevated in individuals regularly consuming moderate and high levels of dietary cyanide. Possible responsible mechanisms and health implications are discussed. PMID:4057268

  11. Effect of isofluorane anesthesia on serum levels of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Co in humans.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, O M; Reinosa, J; Rangel, O; Silva, T; Chacón, A

    1996-09-01

    In this study the levels of zinc, copper, iron, manganese and cobalt were determined in serum of 25 male and 15 female patients, aged 18 to 35 years, with various pathologies requiring surgery, and who had received isofluorane anesthesia. Significant differences were detected in the concentration of zinc, copper, iron and manganese between presurgical and post-anesthesia samples. The truly striking finding in the present study was the significant increase in serum Zn in the post-operative period. The fact that alterations in the serum levels of these elements occurred only after a considerable time had elapsed following the intervention (24 hours), leads to the conclusion that the changes in serum cation concentration very likely result from surgical trauma and not from isofluorane anesthesia per se.

  12. Genome-wide association study for the level of serum electrolytes in Italian Large White pigs.

    PubMed

    Bovo, S; Schiavo, G; Mazzoni, G; Dall'Olio, S; Galimberti, G; Calò, D G; Scotti, E; Bertolini, F; Buttazzoni, L; Samorè, A B; Fontanesi, L

    2016-10-01

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential electrolytes involved in a large number of biological processes. Imbalance of these minerals in blood may indicate clinically relevant conditions and are important in inferring acute or chronic pathologies in humans and animals. In this work, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the level of these three electrolytes in the serum of 843 performance-tested Italian Large White pigs. All pigs were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip, and GWAS was carried out using genome-wide efficient mixed-model association. For the level of Ca(2+) , eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were significant, considering a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, and another eight were above the moderate association threshold (Pnominal value  < 5.00E-05). These SNPs are distributed in four porcine chromosomes (SSC): SSC8, SSC11, SSC12 and SSC13. In particular, a few putative different signals of association detected on SSC13 and one on SSC12 were in genes or close to genes involved in calcium metabolism (P2RY1, RAP2B, SLC9A9, C3orf58, TSC22D2, PLCH1 and CACNB1). Only one SNP (on SSC7) and six SNPs (on SSC2 and SSC7) showed moderate association with the level of magnesium and phosphorus respectively. The association signals for these two latter minerals might identify genes not known thus far for playing a role in their biological functions and regulations. In conclusion, our GWAS contributed to increased knowledge on the role that calcium, magnesium and phosphorus may play in the genetically determined physiological mechanisms affecting the natural variability of mineral levels in mammalian blood.

  13. Maternal Neuroendocrine Serum Levels in Exclusively Breastfeeding Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Pearson, Brenda; Pedersen, Cort; Grewen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low milk supply is a common cause of early weaning, and supply issues are associated with dysregulation of thyroid function and prolactin. However, hormone levels compatible with successful breastfeeding are not well defined, limiting interpretation of clinical lab results. In this study we sought to quantify ranges for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4), total T4, and prolactin in a cohort of exclusively breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: Women planning to breastfeed were recruited in the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal endocrine function was assessed before and after a breastfeeding session at 2 and 8 weeks postpartum. We used paired t tests to determine whether values changed from the 2- to 8-week visit. Results: Of 52 study participants, 28 were exclusively breastfeeding, defined as only breastmilk feeds in the prior 7 days, at both the 2- and 8-week study visits. Endocrine function changed with time since delivery: the TSH level was higher, whereas total T4, free T4, and prolactin levels were lower, at the 8-week visit than at the 2-week visit (by paired t test, p≤0.01). We found a wide range of prolactin values at the 8-week visit, with a 5th percentile value of 9 ng/dL before feeding and 74 ng/dL at 10 minutes after feeding. Conclusions: Neuroendocrine function changes during the first 8 weeks after birth, and a wide range of values is compatible with successful breastfeeding. Further studies are needed to define reference values in breastfeeding women. PMID:25831434

  14. Serum Procalcitonin Level Reflects the Severity of Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Hyeon; Park, Seok Don

    2016-01-01

    Background Cellulitis is a common bacterial infection of the superficial skin. Procalcitonin is one of the precursor proteins of calcitonin, its levels are elevated in bacterial infection, and it has been established as a diagnostic marker for severe bacterial infections. Objective This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of procalcitonin for predicting disease severity and prognosis of cellulitis. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 160 patients diagnosed with cellulitis in the past 3 years. Body temperature, procalcitonin, white blood cell (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured on their first day of admission. The associations of procalcitonin, WBC, ESR, and CRP with the body temperature and the number of hospitalized days were assessed. Results Procalcitonin, WBC, and CRP showed a positive correlation with body temperature. In addition, procalcitonin, WBC, ESR, and CRP showed a positive correlation with number of hospitalized days (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients diagnosed with cellulitis, proclacitonin was a helpful parameter to indicate the severity of disease and also a useful predictor of prognosis. PMID:27904269

  15. Postmenopausal vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun Jung

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the serum ferritin status between the postmenopausal vegetarians and non-vegetarians and to identify the relation of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in postmenopausal women. The two study groups consisted of postmenopausal vegetarians (n=59) who maintained a vegetarian diet for over 20 years and age-matched non-vegetarian controls (n=48). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum metabolic syndrome-related parameters, and serum ferritin level between the two groups were compared. The vegetarians exhibited significantly lower weight (p<0.01), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), percentage of body fat (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.01), SBP (p<0.001), DBP (p<0.001), and fasting glucose (p<0.05). According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for MetS applying Korean guidelines for waist circumference, the prevalence of MetS was lower in vegetarians (33.9 %) than in non-vegetarians (47.9 %). Vegetarians had significantly lower serum level of ferritin (p<0.01) than non-vegetarians. In the correlation analysis, serum ferritin was positively related to fasting glucose (r=0.264, p<0.01), triglycerides (r=0.232, p<0.05), and the NCEP score (r=0.214, p<0.05) and negatively related to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r=-0.225, p<0.05) after adjusting for BMI, lifestyle, and dietary factors (animal protein, animal fat, and dietary fiber intake). In conclusion, postmenopausal vegetarians had lower MetS presence and a lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk of MetS in postmenopausal women.

  16. Right hippocampus size is negatively correlated with leptin serum levels in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Vianna-Sulzbach, Miréia; Rocha, Natalia P; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Rosa, Eduarda D; Goldani, André A S; Kauer-Sant Anna, Marcia; Gama, Clarissa S

    2015-12-15

    Obesity is more frequent in bipolar disorder. Adipokines are associated with depression and obesity via the inflammatory process. Twenty-six DSM-IV patients with BD and 39 controls were enrolled to assess the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin with hippocampal volumes. Among patients, there was a significant negative correlation between right hippocampal volume and serum leptin levels. This result sum for the hypothesis of a pro-inflammatory state associated with BD and the prevalent co-morbid obesity.

  17. Do serum prolactin levels correlate with antibodies against desmoglein in pemphigus vulgaris?

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Fariba; Tajmirriahi, Nabet; Momeni, Iman; Jamshidi, Kioumars; Hashemzehi, Fazlollah; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Esfahani, Alireza Asemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin, the etiology of which is not completely known. Despite the latter, anti-desmoglein antibodies play a proven role in the pathogenesis. Recent studies showed an etiologic effect for prolactin in the pemphigus vulgaris. This study aimed to quantify the correlation between serum prolactin levels and anti-desmoglein antibodies in patients with pemphigus vulgaris. Materials and Methods: Prolactin and antibodies against desmoglein 1 and 3 measured with ELISA in 14 new subjects of pemphigus vulgaris. Results: There was no statistically significant relation between both serum prolactin and anti-desmoglein1 levels (r = 0.02, P = 0.47) and serum prolactin and anti-desmoglein 3 levels (r= -0.09, P = 0.38). Conclusion: This study indicates that no correlation was found between serum prolactin levels and anti-desmoglein 1 levels and serum prolactin and anti-desmoglein 3 levels. However, other studies should be initiated regarding exact molecular and cellular effects of prolactin in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris. PMID:28217644

  18. Serum ApoB levels in depressive patients: associated with cognitive deficits

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Li; Han, Mei; Du, Xiang Dong; Zhang, Bao Hua; He, Shu Chang; Shao, Tian Nan; Yin, Guang Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive deficits have been regarded as one of the most significant clinical symptoms of depressive disorder. Accumulating evidence has shown that apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels, which are responsible for inducing neurodegeneration, may be involved in cognitive deficits. This study examines cognitive deficits, and the correlation of serum ApoB levels with cognitive deficits of depressive disorder. 90 depressive patients and 90 healthy controls with matched age and gender were recruited. Cognition was assessed using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Serum ApoB levels in depressive patients were measured by immunoturbidimetric method. Our results showed that depressive patients had lower scores of cognition including RBANS total score and subscales of language and delayed memory (all, p < 0.001) than healthy controls after controlling for the variables. The differences in cognitive functions also passed Bonferroni corrections. Serum ApoB levels were negatively correlated with delayed memory score in depressive patients (r = −0.30, p = 0.01). Furthermore, stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that serum ApoB levels independently contributed to delayed memory in depressive patients (t = −2.68, p = 0.01). Our findings support that serum ApoB levels may be involved in delayed memory decline in depressive patients. Depressive patients also experience greater cognitive deficits, especially in delayed memory and language than healthy controls. PMID:28054633

  19. Is serum vitamin D levels associated with disability in patients with newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hatamian, Hamidreza; Bidabadi, Elham; Saadat, Seyed Mohammad Seyed; Saadat, Niloufar Seyed; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan; Ramezani, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the precise etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors are important. Recent studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are important environmental factor in MS. The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of vitamin D between MS patients and healthy subjects, and to determine its association with disability in MS patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 52 patients with MS were randomly recruited and matched for age and sex with 52 healthy subjects. Demographic characteristics and serum vitamin D levels for both groups, as well as duration of disease Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) for MS patients were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by independent samples t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Results The mean serum vitamin D levels were 26.5 ± 16.3 ng/ml in MS patients vs. 37.1 ±19.7 in healthy subjects (P = 0.003). A linear regression analysis showed no significant association between vitamin D levels and EDSS score of patients with MS (P = 0.345), after adjusting for the covariates. Conclusion Our findings did not suggest a protective association for serum vitamin D levels against disability in MS patients. PMID:24250900

  20. High serum lactate level may predict death within 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Zoubi, Abd Almajid; Kuria, Shiran; Blum, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Background Unexpected death within 24 hours of admission is a real challenge for the clinician in the emergency room. How to diagnose these patients and the right approach to prevent sudden death with 24 hours is still an enigma. The aims of our study were to find the independent factors that may affect the clinical outcome in the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital. Methods We performed a retrospective study defining unexpected death within 24 hours of admission in our Department of Medicine in the last 6 years. We found 43 patients who died within 24 hours of admission, and compared their clinical and biochemical characteristics to 6055 consecutive patients who were admitted in that period of time and did not die within the first 24 hours of admission. The parameters that were used include gender, age, temperature, clinical and laboratory criteria for SIRS, arterial blood lactate, and arterial blood pH. Results Most of the patients who died within 24 hours had sepsis with SIRS. These patients were older (78.6±14.7 vs. 65.2±20.2 years [p<.0001]), had higher lactate levels (8.0±4.8 vs. 2.1±1.8mmol/L [p<.0001]), and lower pH (7.2±0.2 vs. 7.4±0.1 [p<.0001]). Logistic regression analysis found that lactate was the strongest independent parameter to predict death within 24 hours of admission (OR 1.366 [95% CI 1.235–1.512]), followed by old age (OR 1.048 [95% CI 1.048–1.075] and low arterial blood pH (OR 0.007 [CI <0.001–0.147]). When gender was analyzed, pH was not an independent variable in females (only in males). Conclusions The significant independent variable that predicted death within 24 hours of admission was arterial blood lactate level on admission. Older age was also an independent variable; low pH affected only males, but was a less dominant variable. We suggest use of arterial blood lactate level on admission as a bio-marker in patients with suspected sepsis admitted to the hospital for risk assessment and prediction of death within 24

  1. Maternal and neonatal serum zinc level and its relationship with neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Dey, Arjun Chandra; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Noor, Mohammad Khaled; Saha, Laxmi; Rahman, Shahana A

    2010-08-01

    Neural tube defect (NTD) is a multi-factorial disorder in which nutritional, genetic and environmental factors are involved. Among the nutritional factors, low level of serum zinc has been reported from different parts of the world. This hospital-based case-control study was conducted with the objective of finding the relationship between serum zinc level in newborns and their mothers and NTDs in a Bangladeshi population. The study was conducted during August 2006-July 2007 at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) in Dhaka. In total, 32 mothers and their newborns with NTDs were included as cases and another 32 mothers with their normal babies were included as controls. Concentration of serum zinc was determined by pyro-coated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GF-AAS). The mean age of the case and control mothers was 25.28 years and 24.34 years respectively. The mean gestational age of the case newborns was 36.59 weeks and that of the control newborns was 37.75 weeks. The mean serum zinc level of the case and control mothers was 610.2 microg/L and 883.0 microg/L respectively (p < 0.01). The mean serum zinc level of the case and control newborns was 723 microg/L and 1,046 microg/L respectively (p < 0.01). In both case and control groups, the serum zinc level of the newborns positively correlated with that of the mothers. The serum zinc levels of the mothers and newborns negatively correlated with NTDs. Mothers with serum zinc level lower than normal were 7.66 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-23.28] times more likely to have NTDs compared to the normal zinc level of mothers. After adjusting for the zinc level of the newborns, parity, and age of the mothers, this risk reduced 1.61 times [confidence interval (CI) 95% 0.24-8.77]. On the other hand, the low serum zinc level of the newborns was 7.22 times more associated with NTDs compared to the newborns with the normal serum zinc level, which was statistically significant (p = 0

  2. Inverse Association between Serum Bilirubin Levels and Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Raghuram; Thankappan, Lekha; Andavar, Raghuram; Devisundaram, Sundar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and serum bilirubin has been shown to have antioxidant properties. Aim To investigate the association between serum bilirubin concentration and DR in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods This was a hospital based, cross- sectional study where in 86 patients with Type 2 DM and 30 controls were recruited. The study was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Southern India between January 2014 and December 2014. The presence and the severity of DR were determined by fundus examination and grading of colour fundus photographs using the international clinical disease severity scale for DR. Serum total, direct and indirect bilirubin levels were determined in all subjects and the association between bilirubin levels and severity of DR was studied. Results Among the 86 diabetics, 24 had no retinopathy and 62 had DR of varying grades. The mean total bilirubin level among diabetic subjects (0.52±0.17) and controls (0.51±0.19) were found to be similar. The mean total as well as direct bilirubin levels were found to be lower in patients with retinopathy as compared to no retinopathy group (p<0.001). The severity of DR was inversely proportional to the serum bilirubin levels (p=0.010). Serum total bilirubin was found to have a negative association with glycosylated haemoglobin and served as an independent determinant of DR even after adjusting for risk factors known to be associated with DR (p=0.001). Conclusion Low serum bilirubin levels are significantly associated with increased risk of DR independent of classic risk factors. Serum bilirubin can serve as a useful biomarker in identifying patients at risk for developing proliferative DR. PMID:28384901

  3. Serum Uric Acid Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueping; Guo, Xiaoyan; Huang, Rui; Chen, Yongping; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Shang, Huifang

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum uric acid (UA) could exert neuro-protective effects against Alzheimer's disease (AD) via its antioxidant capacities. Many studies investigated serum UA levels in AD patients, but to date, results from these observational studies are conflicting. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to compare serum UA levels between AD patients and healthy controls by the random-effects model. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library databases from 1966 through July 2013 using the Medical Subject Headings and keywords without restriction in languages. Only case-control studies were included if they had data on serum UA levels in AD patients and healthy controls. Begg's funnel plot and Egger's regression test were applied to assess the potential publication bias. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were conducted to explore possible explanations for heterogeneity. Results A total of 11 studies met the inclusion criteria including 2708 participants were abstracted. Serum UA levels were not significantly different in AD patients compared to healthy controls (standardized mean difference (SMD) = −0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.23 to 0.22). Little evidence of publication bias was observed. Sensitivity analyses showed that the combined SMD was consistent every time omitting any one study, except only one study which greatly influenced the overall results. Meta-regression showed that year of publication, race, sample size, and mean age were not significant sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion Our meta-analysis of case-control studies suggests that serum UA levels do not differ significantly in AD patients, but there may be a trend toward decreased UA in AD after an appropriate interpretation. More well-designed investigations are needed to demonstrate the potential change of serum UA levels in AD patients. PMID:24714617

  4. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels after balneotherapy and physical therapy in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Semiz, Esra A.; Hizmetli, Sami; Semiz, Murat; Karadağ, Ahmet; Adalı, Merve; Tuncay, Mehmet S.; Alim, Bulent; Hayta, Emrullah; Uslu, Ali U.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigated serum cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) levels between fibromyalgia (FMS) patients and a control group, and the effect of balneotherapy (BT) on these hormones. Methods: Seventy-two patients with FMS and 39 healthy volunteers were included in the study. This prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Medical Faculty, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Cumhuriyet University, Cumhuriyet, Turkey between June 2012 and June 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups. There were 40 patients in the first group, consisting of BT and physical therapy (PT) administered patients. There were 32 FMS patients in the second group who were only administered PT. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers were enrolled as a control group. Result: Cortisol was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (10.10±4.08 μg/dL and 11.78±3.6 μg/dL; p=0.033). Serum DHEA-S level was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (89.93±53.96 μg/dL and 143.15±107.92 μg/dL; p=0.015). Average serum cortisol levels of patients receiving BT were determined to be 9.95±3.20 μg/dL before treatment and 9.06±3.77μg/dL after treatment; while average serum DHEA-S levels were 77.60±48.05 μg/dL before treatment, and 76.84±48.71 μg/dL after treatment. No significant changes were determined in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels when measured again after BT and PT. Conclusion: Low levels of serum cortisol and DHEA-S were suggested to be associated with the physiopathology of FMS. PMID:27146618

  5. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease--Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078--well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels--was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed.

  6. Evaluation of serum HGF and CK18 levels in patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kilic-Baygutalp, N; Ozturk, N; Orsal-Ibisoglu, E; Gündogdu, B; Ozgeris, F B; Bakan, N; Bakan, E; Kilic, A F

    2016-08-29

    Cytokeratins are thought to play a role in apoptosis. Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is involved in the formation of intracellular cytoskeleton, and has been considered a promising apoptosis marker in gastrointestinal carcinomas. Growth factors, including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), may provide a microenvironment for malignant cells. In this study, we aimed to compare serum HGF and CK18 levels between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients and healthy controls. The study included 41 adult patients (20 male, 21 female) diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, with a mean age of 63.54 ± 10.88 years (range, 41-82 years). We also recruited 39 age and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Venous blood samples were taken; serum HGF and CK18 concentrations were determined via ELISA. Results indicated that serum HGF levels were higher in patients (1.37 ± 0.63 ng/mL) as compared to the healthy subjects (0.41 ± 0.29 ng/mL). Similarly, serum CK18 levels were higher in the patient group (2.53 ± 1.33 ng/mL) than in the control group (0.34 ± 0.23 ng/mL) (P < 0.001). In addition, serum HGF and CK18 levels were positively correlated with metastasis stage, tumor stage, and disease stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate serum HGF and CK18 levels in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The results suggest that serum CK18 and HGF levels may be used as prognostic and disease monitoring biomarkers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in pregnancies complicated by diabetes: implications for screening programs.

    PubMed

    Martin, A O; Dempsey, L M; Minogue, J; Liu, K; Keller, J; Tamura, R; Freinkel, N

    1990-10-01

    Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein may be reduced in diabetic pregnancies, but the association with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin has been controversial. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein may reflect the same phenomena that can also impair normal rates of embryo growth in the presence of poorly compensated maternal diabetes. If so, associations would be expected among maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, embryo rates of growth, and levels of glycosylated hemoglobin reflective of regulation of maternal diabetes during the period of organogenesis. We found maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in 93 pregnant patients with diabetes to be negatively associated with the earliest (4 to 12 weeks) glycosylated hemoglobin determinations. At glycosylated hemoglobin values greater than 9.6% (which approximates the upper quartile), all maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein values fell below the median for patients without diabetes (below 0.8 multiple of the median after weight adjustment). Moreover, there was a trend for pregnancies with lower maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and higher glycosylated hemoglobin values to also demonstrate early fetal growth delay as measured by ultrasonography.

  8. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of urinary tract infection in infants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianhuan; Chen, Guangdao; Wang, Dexuan; Chen, Minguang; Xing, Chao; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to determine whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency in infants increased odds of urinary tract infection (UTI). A total of 238 infants including 132 patients experiencing a first episode of UTI and 106 controls, aged from 1 to 12 months, were enrolled. Serum 25(OH)D levels were tested through blood sampling. The serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in cases with UTI than controls. The mean serum 25(OH)D levels were 29.09 ± 9.56 ng/mL in UTIs and 38.59 ± 12.41 ng/mL in controls (P < 0.001). Infants with acute pyelonephritis (APN) had lower serum 25(OH)D than those with lower UTI. The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that serum 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL (OR 5.619, 95% CI 1.469–21.484, P = 0.012) was positively related to an increased odds of UTI. Vitamin D supplementation (OR 0.298, 95% CI 0.150–0.591; P = 0.001) was associated with a decreased likelihood of UTI. Vitamin D deficiency in infants was associated with an increased odds of UTI. Interventional studies evaluating the role of vitamin D supplementation to reduce the burden of UTI are warranted. PMID:27399128

  9. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  10. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk: A MOOSE-compliant meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-02-01

    Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P < 0.05). In subgroup analysis, an inverse association between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case-control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required.

  11. Influence of bottle-feeding on serum bisphenol a levels in infants.

    PubMed

    Rhie, Young-Jun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Oh, Yeon Joung; Kim, Ho-Seong; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly during developmental periods, gives rise to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known EDC commonly found in plastic products including food and water containers, baby bottles, and metal can linings. This study investigates infant exposure to BPA and the effect of bottle-feeding on serum BPA levels in infants. Serum BPA levels in normal healthy infants 6 to 15 months of age (n=60) were evaluated by a competitive ELISA. BPA was detected in every study sample. Serum BPA levels of bottle-fed infants (n=30) were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants (n=30) (96.58±102.36 vs 45.53±34.05 pg/mL, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in serum BPA levels between boys (n=31) and girls (n=29). No significant correlations were found between serum BPA levels and age, body weight, birth weight, and gestational age. Bottle-feeding seems to increase the risk of infant exposure to BPA. Establishment of health policies to reduce or prevent BPA exposure in infants is necessary.

  12. Judging disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by serum free kappa and lambda light chain levels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yun; Li, Su-Liang; Xie, Ming; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Kai-Ge; Li, Ya-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum free kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) light chains in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as exploring the association between serum free κ and λ light chains and activity of RA. For this purpose, healthy individuals and patients with active RA and RA in remission were enrolled, and their serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were measured using rate nephelometry. The diagnostic accuracy of serum free κ and λ light chains was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and 95% confidence intervals for areas under the curve (AUC). The results obtained indicated that the levels of serum free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA were significantly higher than those of patients in remission and of healthy controls (p < 0.05). Further, the AUC values in patients with active RA were 0.871 for free κ light chain and 0.781 for free λ light chain. When the optimal cut-off point for serum κ light chain was 8.02 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 82.5%, respectively, and when the optimal cut-off point for serum λ light chain was 3.57 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 82.5%, respectively. It was thus found that serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were positively correlated with disease activity in RA, the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and values for C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, high serum levels of free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA are closely correlated with disease activity parameters including DAS28, CRP, ESR, PLT, RF, and ACPA. Thus, the above-mentioned levels of serum free κ and λ light chains may be used as important indicators of activity of RA.

  13. Time-dependent changes in serum biomarker levels after blast traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gyorgy, Andrea; Ling, Geoffrey; Wingo, Daniel; Walker, John; Tong, Lawrence; Parks, Steve; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Baumann, Richard; Agoston, Denes V

    2011-06-01

    Neuronal and glial proteins detected in the peripheral circulating blood after injury can reflect the extent of the damage caused by blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The temporal pattern of their serum levels can further predict the severity and outcome of the injury. As part of characterizing a large-animal model of bTBI, we determined the changes in the serum levels of S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myelin basic protein (MBP), and neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H). Blood samples were obtained prior to injury and at 6, 24, 72 h, and 2 weeks post-injury from animals with different severities of bTBI; protein levels were determined using reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM) technology. Serum levels of S100B, MBP, and NF-H, but not NSE, showed a time-dependent increase following injury. The detected changes in S100B and MBP levels showed no correlation with the severity of the injury. However, serum NF-H levels increased in a unique, rapid manner, peaking at 6 h post-injury only in animals exposed to severe blast with poor clinical and pathological outcomes. We conclude that the sudden increase in serum NF-H levels following bTBI may be a useful indicator of injury severity. If additional studies verify our findings, the observed early peak of serum NF-H levels can be developed into a useful diagnostic tool for predicting the extent of damage following bTBI.

  14. Correlation of Levels of Oncostatin M Cytokine in Crevicular Fluid and Serum in Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thorat, ManojKumar; AR, Pradeep; Garg, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to measure the level of Oncostatin M (OSM) a gp130 cytokine in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of chronic periodontitis patients and to find any correlation between them before and after periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing, SRP). Methodology 60 subjects (age 25–50 years) were enrolled into three groups (n=20 per group), group I (healthy), group II (gingivitis) and group III (chronic periodontitis). Group III subjects were followed for 6–8 weeks after the initial periodontal therapy (SRP) as the group IV (after periodontal therapy). Clinical parameters were assessed as gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic evidence of bone loss. GCF and serum levels of OSM were measured by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results It was found that mean OSM levels had been elevated in both the GCF and serum of chronic periodontitis subjects (726.65 ± 283.56 and 65.59 ± 12.37 pg·mL−1, respectively) and these levels were decreased proportionally after the periodontal therapy (95.50 ± 38.85 and 39.98 ± 16.69 pg·mL−1 respectively). However, OSM was detected in GCF of healthy subjects (66.15 ± 28.10 pg·mL−1) and gingivitis-suffering subjects (128.33 ± 22.96 pg·mL−1) and was found as below the detectable limit (≈0.0 pg·mL−1) in the serum of same subjects. Significant correlation has been found between clinical parameters and GCF-serum levels of OSM. Conclusion Increased OSM level both in the GCF and serum, and the decreased levels after initial periodontal therapy (SRP) may suggest a use as an inflammatory bio-marker in the periodontal disease. PMID:21404969

  15. Serum Hepcidin Levels, Iron Dyshomeostasis and Cognitive Loss in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Zohara; Hu, Zihua; Sternberg, Daniel; Waseh, Shayan; Quinn, Joseph F.; Wild, Katharine; Jeffrey, Kaye; Zhao, Lin; Garrick, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study examined the status of the master iron regulatory peptide, hepcidin, and peripheral related iron parameters in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment patients, and evaluated the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and amyloid-beta (Aβ), cognitive assessment tests, neuroimaging and clinical data. Frozen serum samples from the Oregon Tissue Bank were used to measure serum levels of hepcidin, ferritin, Aβ40, Aβ42 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum transferrin levels were determined indirectly as total iron binding capacity, serum iron was measured and the percent saturation of transferrin calculated. The study variables were correlated with the patients’ existing cognitive assessment tests, neuroimaging, and clinical data. Hepcidin, and iron-related proteins tended to be higher in AD patients than controls, reaching statistical significance for ferritin, whereas Aβ40, Aβ42 serum levels tended to be lower. Patients with pure AD had three times higher serum hepcidin levels than controls; gender differences in hepcidin and iron-related proteins were observed. Patient stratification based on clinical dementia rating-sum of boxes revealed significantly higher levels of iron and iron-related proteins in AD patients in the upper 50% as compared to controls, suggesting that iron dyshomeostasis worsens as cognitive impairment increases. Unlike Aβ peptides, iron and iron-related proteins showed significant association with cognitive assessment tests, neuroimaging, and clinical data. Hepcidin and iron-related proteins comprise a group of serum biomarkers that relate to AD diagnosis and AD disease progression. Future studies should determine whether strategies targeted to diminishing hepcidin synthesis/secretion and improving iron homeostasis could have a beneficial impact on AD progression.

  16. Evaluation of Serum Trace Element Levels and Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Translating Basic Research into Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Erfan; Qujeq, Durdi; Taheri, Hassan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-11-18

    The relationship of minerals and trace elements with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex. Alterations in their metabolism can be induced by the diseases and their complications. To study the role of trace elements in IBD patients' serum zinc and copper and their related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), activity were measured in patients with IBD patients as well as in healthy subjects. In addition, the correlation between serum trace element levels, albumin, total protein, urea level, copper/zinc ratio, and disease activity (DA) was determined in these subjects. Serum samples were obtained from 35 patients (19 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 16 Crohn's disease (CD)) in the active phase of the disease and 30 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of zinc, copper, SOD activity, albumin, total protein, and urea were measured. The results were compared between the two groups using independent Student's t test in statistical analysis. Serum levels of zinc, SOD activity, albumin, and total protein were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in patients than controls, while serum urea level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Copper concentrations did not differ between patients with IBD (mean ± SD, 58.8 ± 20.7 μg/d) and controls (55.57 ± 12.6 μg/d). Decreased levels of zinc and SOD activity are associated with increased inflammatory processes indicating inappropriate antioxidant system in patients with IBD. Additionally, lower levels of albumin and total protein with higher level of urea reflect metabolic problems in liver system.

  17. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among

  18. Serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma

    PubMed Central

    Behrangi, Elham; Baniasadi, Farzaneh; Esmaeeli, Shooka; Hedayat, Kosar; Goodarzi, Azade; Azizian, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common acquired disorder characterized by symmetric, hyperpigmented patches with an irregular outline, occurring most commonly on the face. It is most prevalent among young to middle-aged women. Although iron overload affects skin pigmentation, effect of iron deficiency on skin is not clear. So, we evaluated serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional case study was conducted in 2012 at university dermatologic department on 33 nonpregnant women with melasma (case) and 33 nonpregnant women without melasma (control). Serum iron level, TIBC and ferritin in the two groups was measured and compared. Results: Serum iron level was lower in the case group (85 ± 11) in comparison with control group (102 ± 9), but the difference was not significant (P: 0.9). Mean TIBC and Ferritin were higher in the case group (TIBC: 329.4 ± 29, ferritin: 6 ± 18) than the control group (TIBC: 329.3 ± 29, ferritin: 33 ± 6) without significant difference. Conclusion: Although the serum iron level was lower in nonpregnant women with mealsma, it was not significant compared with those without melasma. PMID:26109976

  19. ATOMIC-LEVEL IMAGING OF CO2 DISPOSAL AS A CARBONATE MINERAL: OPTIMIZING REACTION PROCESS DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McKelvy; R. Sharma; A.V.G. Chizmeshya; H. Bearat; R.W. Carpenter

    2002-11-01

    Fossil fuels, especially coal, can support the energy demands of the world for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Permanent and safe methods for CO{sub 2} capture and disposal/storage need to be developed. Mineralization of stationary-source CO{sub 2} emissions as carbonates can provide such safe capture and long-term sequestration. Mg-rich lamellar-hydroxide based minerals (e.g., brucite and serpentine) offer a class of widely available, low-cost materials, with intriguing mineral carbonation potential. Carbonation of such materials inherently involves dehydroxylation, which can disrupt the material down to the atomic level. As such, controlled dehydroxylation, before and/or during carbonation, may provide an important parameter for enhancing carbonation reaction processes. Mg(OH){sub 2} was chosen as the model material for investigating lamellar hydroxide mineral dehydroxylation/carbonation mechanisms due to (1) its structural and chemical simplicity, (2) interest in Mg(OH){sub 2} gas-solid carbonation as a potentially cost-effective CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration process component, and (3) its structural and chemical similarity to other lamellar-hydroxide-based minerals (e.g., serpentine-based minerals) whose carbonation reaction processes are being explored due to their low-cost CO{sub 2} sequestration potential. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern dehydroxylation/carbonation processes is essential for minimizing the cost of any lamellar-hydroxide-based mineral carbonation sequestration process. This final report covers the overall progress of this grant.

  20. Alterations in serum immunoglobulin levels in workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Bassig, Bryan A.; Huang, Hanlin; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been associated with a variety of immunotoxic effects and may be associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Altered serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels have been reported in NHL patients and in animals exposed to TCE. Recently, we reported that occupational exposure to TCE is associated with immunosuppressive effects and immune dysfunction, including suppression of B-cell counts and activation, even at relatively low levels. We hypothesized that TCE exposure would also affect Ig levels in humans. We measured serum levels of IgG, IgM and IgE, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in TCE-exposed workers (n = 80) and unexposed controls (n = 45), matched by age and gender, in a cross-sectional, molecular epidemiology study of occupational exposure to TCE in Guangdong, China. Exposed workers had about a 17.5% decline in serum levels of IgG compared with unexposed controls (P = 0.0002). Similarly, serum levels of IgM were reduced by about 38% in workers exposed to TCE compared with unexposed controls (P < 0.0001). Serum levels of both IgG and IgM were significantly decreased in workers exposed to TCE levels below 12 p.p.m., the median exposure level. Adjustment for B-cell counts had minimal impact on our findings. IgE levels were not significantly different between exposed and control subjects. These results provide further evidence that TCE is immunotoxic at relatively low exposure levels and provide additional biologic plausibility for the reported association of TCE with NHL. PMID:23276795

  1. Chronic Depression of Serum Sialic Acid Levels in Alloxan-Induced Diabetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Serum L- Fucose , Protein-Bound Hexose, and Total Protein Levels in Alloxan Diabetic and Control Rats at Various Time Intervals After Treatment 5...ABSTRACT This study was performed to determine whether alloxan treatment of rats alters levels of the terminal carbohydrate residues L- fucose and...occurs with no apparent alteration in the level of L- fucose . The depression in sialic acid level may be attributed in part to decreased activities of

  2. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 – 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  3. The Research on the Impact of Management Level's Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level's charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises.

  4. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  5. Correlation between secondary thrombosis in epileptic patients and serum levels of folate and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Huang, Hong-Li; Wang, Nuan; Pang, Xiao-Hu

    2016-10-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic brain dysfunction syndrome and nervous system disease whose pathogenesis remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to analyze the correlation between secondary thrombosis and the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 in epileptic patients, as well as to determine whether the supplementation of folate and vitamin B12 was associated with a decreased incidence of thrombosis, and provide the basis for novel clinical treatment. A total of 37 patients, diagnosed as epileptic with secondary thrombosis between April 2012 and April 2014, were included in the treatment group. A total of 37 epileptic patients without secondary thrombosis were included in the control group. The serum levels of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in the two groups and in the epileptic patients with intracranial thrombosis or peripheral thrombosis were compared. According to the Guidance of Epilepsy, the patients in the two groups were administered antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with the supplementation of folate tablet (0.4 mg/day) and vitamin B12 tablet (100 µg/day). These indicators and the incidence of thrombosis in the two groups were compared after 1 year. The serum levels of homocysteine in the two groups were higher than normal, and the levels in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 were not associated with the serum level of homocysteine (P>0.05). The logistic regression analysis revealed that the serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 were independent risk factors for epilepsy with secondary thrombosis [folate: odds ratio (OR)=0.635, P=0.038; vitamin B12: OR=0.418, P=0.042]. The differences in the serum levels of homocysteine, folate and

  6. β-Hexachlorocyclohexane Levels in Serum and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L.; Buckley, Brian; Winnik, Bozena; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; Factor, Stewart A.; O’Suilleabhain, Padraig; German, Dwight C.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide exposure has been implicated as an environmental risk factor for the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, few studies have identified specific pesticides. Previously, we identified elevated serum levels of the organochlorine pesticide β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) in PD patients from a small clinical sample. Here, we conducted a case-control study to confirm the association between β-HCH and PD in a larger sample size (n=283) with serum samples of PD patients and controls obtained from UT Southwestern Medical Center and Emory University. Samples were obtained from two discrete periods at both sites, 2001–2003 and 2006–2008, and were analyzed for β-HCH levels. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for PD were estimated using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations. The mean serum β-HCH level across all cohorts in this study was 22.3 ng/mg cholesterol (Range: 0 to 376.7), and the levels were significantly higher between samples collected in 2001–2003 vs. 2006–2008. After controlling for age and gender, the OR for increased risk of PD for every 1 ng/mg increase in serum β-HCH ranged from 1.02 – 1.12 across the four different cohorts, and 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00–1.07, p value = 0.031) in the pooled analysis. Furthermore, the OR for increased risk of PD of subjects having serum β-HCH levels above the inter-quartile range of 39.08 ng/mg cholesterol was 2.85 (95% CI: 1.8, 4.48; p value < 0.001). These data are consistent with environmental decreases in β-HCH levels between 2001 and 2008, but they indicate that elevated levels of serum β-HCH are still associated with heightened risk for PD. PMID:21620887

  7. Increased matrix metalloproteinase-3 serum levels in rheumatic diseases: relationship with synovitis and steroid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ribbens, C; Martin, y; Franchimont, N; Kaiser, M; Jaspar, J; Damas, P; Houssiau, F; Malaise, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) serum levels in patients with rheumatic diseases and to study the relation between MMP-3 and C reactive protein (CRP) levels. Methods: MMP-3 serum levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in (a) patients with active inflammatory rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, acute crystal arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis; (b) patients with active inflammatory systemic diseases: cutaneo-articular or renal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis, and vasculitides; (c) patients with non-inflammatory rheumatic diseases: osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia; (d) critically ill patients without rheumatic diseases, representing an acute inflammatory control group; (e) healthy controls. Results: MMP-3 serum levels were significantly increased in patients with active RA, psoriatic arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica, whether treated or not by corticosteroids, and in female patients with acute crystal arthritis. MMP-3 serum levels were normal in steroid-free patients with active cutaneo-articular or renal SLE, systemic sclerosis, and vasculitides but were significantly increased in steroid treated patients. MMP-3 levels were normal in fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and acute inflammatory controls. MMP-3 was significantly correlated with CRP in RA (r=0.5, p=0.0004) but not in any of the other disease groups. Conclusions: MMP-3 serum levels are increased in inflammatory rheumatic diseases characterised by joint synovitis, such as RA, polymyalgia rheumatica, psoriatic arthritis, and acute crystal arthritis—that is, whether the diseases are acute or chronic, erosive or not. They are normal in SLE, systemic sclerosis, and vasculitides as well as in non-rheumatic inflammatory controls, but are significantly increased by steroids. These data strongly suggest that serum MMP-3 reflects synovial inflammation. PMID

  8. Serum Cadmium Levels in Pancreatic Cancer Patients from the East Nile Delta Region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Alison M.; Soliman, Amr S.; Zhang, Qing; El-Ghawalby, Nabih; Ezzat, Farouk; Soultan, Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Fathy, Omar; Ebidi, Gamal; Bassiouni, Nadia; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Blake, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    The northeast Nile Delta region exhibits a high incidence of early-onset pancreatic cancer. It is well documented that this region has one of the highest levels of pollution in Egypt. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that cadmium, a prevalent pollutant in the northeast Nile Delta region, plays a role in the development of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We aimed to assess serum cadmium levels as markers of exposure in pancreatic cancer patients and noncancer comparison subjects from the same region in Egypt. Design and Participants: We assessed serum cadmium levels of 31 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 52 hospital comparison subjects from Mansoura, Egypt. Evaluation/Measurements: Serum cadmium levels were measured using a novel immunoassay procedure. Results: We found a significant difference between the mean serum cadmium levels in patients versus comparison subjects (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 7.7 ng/mL vs. 7.1 ± 5.0 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.012) but not in age, sex, residence, occupation, or smoking status. The odds ratio (OR) for pancreatic cancer risk was significant for serum cadmium level [OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.23; p = 0.0089] and farming (OR = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.03–11.64; p = 0.0475) but not for age, sex, residence, or smoking status. Conclusions: The results from this pilot study suggest that pancreatic cancer in the East Nile Delta region is significantly associated with high levels of serum cadmium and farming. Relevance to Clinical Practice/Public Health: Future studies should further investigate the etiologic relationship between cadmium exposure and pancreatic carcinogenesis in cadmium-exposed populations. PMID:16393667

  9. Serum Vitamin D3 Level in Patients with Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Meibodi, Naser Tayyebi; Jarahi, Lida; Dolatkhah, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women, characterized by diffuse nonscarring hair loss in frontal, central, and parietal areas of the scalp. Pathophysiology of FPHL is still not well known, and it is probably a multifactorial genetic trait. FPHL is also observed in women without increased androgen levels, which raises the likelihood of androgen-independent mechanisms and explains the lack of response to antiandrogen treatments in some patients. Vitamin D is a factor that has recently been considered in dealing with these patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of Vitamin D in patients with FPHL and compare it with healthy controls. Methods: In this case-control study, 45 women with FPHL were evaluated as well as the same number of healthy women matched for age, hours spent under sunlight per day, and body mass index. Serum 25(OH) D3 level was measured using ELISA. Results: 60% of FPHL patients were in 15–30 years old age group with the mean standard deviation (SD) age of 29.11 (7.30) years. In the majority of patients (66.7%), severity of hair loss was Ludwig I. Mean (SD) serum Vitamin D3 level in patient and control group was 13.45 (8.40) and 17.16 (8.96), respectively. T-test showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of Vitamin D3 serum levels (P = 0.04). Conclusions: This study indicated the correlation between the incidence of FPHL and decreased serum levels of Vitamin D3. It is recommended to evaluate serum Vitamin D3 levels as well as other hormone assays in these patients. PMID:27625563

  10. Serum zinc levels in 368 patients with oral mucosal diseases: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zhe-Xuan; Yang, Xiao-Wen; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels in patients with common oral mucosal diseases by comparing these to healthy controls. Material and Methods A total of 368 patients, which consisted of 156 recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) patients, 57 oral lichen planus (OLP) patients, 55 burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients, 54 atrophic glossitis (AG) patients, 46 xerostomia patients, and 115 sex-and age-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum zinc levels were measured in all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA, t-test, and Chi-square test. Results The mean serum zinc level in the healthy control group was significantly higher than the levels of all other groups (p < 0.001). No individual in the healthy control group had a serum zinc level less than the minimum normal value. However, up to 24.7% (13/54) of patients with AG presented with zinc deficiency, while 21.2% (33/156) of patients with RAS, 16.4% (9/55) of patients with BMS, 15.2% (7/46) of patients with xerostomia, and 14.0% (8/57) of patients with OLP were zinc deficient. Altogether, the zinc deficiency rate was 19.02% (70/368) in the oral mucosal diseases (OMD) group (all patients with OMD). The difference between the OMD and healthy control group was significant (p <0.001). Gender differences in serum zinc levels were also present, although not statistically significant. Conclusions Zinc deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of common oral mucosal diseases. Zinc supplementation may be a useful treatment for oral mucosal diseases, but this requires further investigation; the optimal serum level of zinc, for the prevention and treatment of oral mucosal diseases, remains to be determined. Key words:Oral mucosal diseases, Zinc deficiency, pathogenesis. PMID:27031065

  11. Serum pantetheinase/vanin levels regulate erythrocyte homeostasis and severity of malaria.

    PubMed

    Rommelaere, Samuel; Millet, Virginie; Rihet, Pascal; Atwell, Scott; Helfer, Emmanuèle; Chasson, Lionel; Beaumont, Carole; Chimini, Giovanna; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Viallat, Annie; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Tissue pantetheinase, encoded by the VNN1 gene, regulates response to stress, and previous studies have shown that VNN genes contribute to the susceptibility to malaria. Herein, we evaluated the role of pantetheinase on erythrocyte homeostasis and on the development of malaria in patients and in a new mouse model of pantetheinase insufficiency. Patients with cerebral malaria have significantly reduced levels of serum pantetheinase activity (PA). In mouse, we show that a reduction in serum PA predisposes to severe malaria, including cerebral malaria and severe anemia. Therefore, scoring pantetheinase in serum may serve as a severity marker in malaria infection. This disease triggers an acute stress in erythrocytes, which enhances cytoadherence and hemolysis. We speculated that serum pantetheinase might contribute to erythrocyte resistance to stress under homeostatic conditions. We show that mutant mice with a reduced serum PA are anemic and prone to phenylhydrazine-induced anemia. A cytofluorometric and spectroscopic analysis documented an increased frequency of erythrocytes with an autofluorescent aging phenotype. This is associated with an enhanced oxidative stress and shear stress-induced hemolysis. Red blood cell transfer and bone marrow chimera experiments show that the aging phenotype is not cell intrinsic but conferred by the environment, leading to a shortening of red blood cell half-life. Therefore, serum pantetheinase level regulates erythrocyte life span and modulates the risk of developing complicated malaria.

  12. Relationships between birth weight and serum cholesterol levels in healthy Japanese late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ito, Sanae; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Uemura, Yukari; Kodama, Momoko; Fukuoka, Hideoki

    2014-01-01

    Poor growth in utero has been suggested to be associated with adverse levels of serum cholesterol concentrations in later life. In Asia, there have only been a limited number of studies examining the relationship between fetal status and serum lipids, especially in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between birth weight and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels; adjusting for current physical status including percent body fat, physical activity and nutrient intake in healthy Japanese late adolescents. The data of 573 late adolescents with an average age of 17.6 (287 boys and 286 girls) who underwent physical examinations which included blood sampling and who had all the required data, were analyzed. Birth weight was obtained from their maternal and child health handbook. Multiple regression analysis showed that birth weight was positively associated with serum HDL in girls, independently of percent body fat or fat intake, when adjusted for current body height and weight. There were no associations between birth weight and serum HDL in boys, or serum LDL in either sex.

  13. [Studies on the mechanism of elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Sakizono, Kenji; Oita, Tatsuo; Eto, Masaaki; Bito, Sanae; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Kasakura, Shinpei

    2002-03-01

    We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations in 18 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed by the history of ethanol intake of more than 900 ml/day for over 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed histologically. Infections with hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. No tumor was detected in liver by ultrasonography and computed tomography during observation period. None of the patients studied were positive for alpafetoprotein (AFP). Eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. In contrast, only eight out of 93 (8.6%) patients with nonalcholic liver cirrhosis had elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rates of positive PIVKA-II found in alcoholic liver cirrhosis approached its rates in HCC. However, the time course for the elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels was different each other in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and HCC. In HCC, serum PIVKA-II "levels" continued to elevate until therapy. In contrast, its elevation was transient and its levels returned to baseline in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The values of ALT (GPT), gamma-GTP, and ALP correlated poorly with serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To investigate the mechanism by which elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis occurred, we studied the effect of vitamin K on production of PIVKA-II and AFP by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes(Alexander PLC/PRF/F cell line) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K (Kaytwo, Eisai, Tokyo). Vitamin K had no effect on AFP production. In contrast, PIVKA-II production was inhibited by addition of vitamin K in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was suppressed by administration of vitamin K (Kaytwo) to these patients. Taken

  14. Effect of fasting on serum lithium levels: an experimental study in animal models.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zia; Subhan, Fazal; Shah, Muhammad Tahir; Farooq, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Muslims throughout the world observe dawn to dusk fast in the month of Holy Ramadan. This study aims to investigate the effect of fasting on serum lithium levels in an animal model under typical conditions of Ramadan. Animals were categorized into oral and intraperitoneal groups. Each group was divided into fasting and non fasting groups along with their controls having six animals each. Mean serum lithium levels of non-fasting and fasting rats were assessed. Mean serum lithium levels of oral non-fasting rats was 0.23±0.004 mequiv/L, (n=6) compared to oral fasting rats 0.20+0.002 mequiv/L, (n=6) mean difference=0.003. The mean difference between mean serum lithium level of intraperitoneal non fasting (0.246±0.015 mequiv/L, n = 6) and intraperitoneal fasting rats (0.206±0.020 mequiv/L, n = 6) was 0.02. These differences were statistically non significant (P>0.05). The mean serum lithium is not grossly affected by fasting in rats under 25ºC and fasting for almost 12 hours which is consistent with a previous clinical study. Lithium can be used by fasting bipolar patients but, will require careful supervision.

  15. Serum Levels of Substance P and Mortality in Patients with a Severe Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Almeida, Teresa; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Riaño-Ruiz, Marta; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Hernández, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP), a member of tachykinin family, is involved in the inflammation of the central nervous system and in the appearance of cerebral edema. Higher serum levels of SP have been found in 18 patients with cerebral ischemia compared with healthy controls. The aim of our multi-center study was to analyze the possible association between serum levels of SP and mortality in ischemic stroke patients. We included patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) lower than 9. Non-surviving patients at 30 days (n = 31) had higher serum concentrations of SP levels at diagnosis of severe MMCAI than survivors (n = 30) (p < 0.001). We found in multiple regression an association between serum concentrations of SP higher than 362 pg/mL and mortality at 30 days (Odds Ratio = 5.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.541–18.470; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and GCS. Thus, the major novel finding of our study was the association between serum levels of SP and mortality in patients suffering from severe acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27338372

  16. The effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on serum oxidative stress levels.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Aslan, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Filiz Fusun; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Selek, Sahbettin; Sabuncu, Tevfik

    2016-12-01

    Some authors have investigated the effects of oxidative stress in some process such as undergoing laparoscopic. However, the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on oxidative stress is unclear. We evaluated the short-term effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on oxidative stress. Thirty patients who underwent endoscopy process and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the prospective study. Serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status measurements were measured before and after endoscopy process. The ratio percentage of total oxidant status to total antioxidant capacity was regarded as oxidative stress index. Before endoscopy process, serum total antioxidant capacity levels were higher, while serum total oxidant status levels and oxidative stress index values were lower in patients than controls, but this difference was not statistically significant (all, p > 0.05). After endoscopy process, serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were significantly higher in patients than before endoscopy process (both, p < 0.05). However, oxidative stress index values were slight higher in patients but this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). We observed that serum TAC and TOS levels were increased in patients who underwent endoscopy process after endoscopy process. However, short-time upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process did not cause an important change in the oxidative stress index. Further studies enrolling a larger number of patients are required to clarify the results obtained here.

  17. Differential impact of serum total bilirubin level on cerebral atherosclerosis and cerebral small vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonguk; Yoon, Seung-Jae; Woo, Min-Hee; Kim, Sang-Heum; Kim, Nam-Keun; Kim, Jinkwon; Kim, OK-Joon; Oh, Seung-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Background A low serum total bilirubin (T-bil) level is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. However, the differential impact of the serum T-bil level on cerebral atherosclerosis and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is still unclear. Methods We evaluated serum T-bil levels from 1,128 neurologically healthy subjects. Indices of cerebral atherosclerosis (extracranial arterial stenosis [ECAS] and intracranial arterial stenosis [ICAS]), and indices of SVD (silent lacunar infarct [SLI], and moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities [msWMH]) were evaluated by the use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography. Results In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for confounding variables, subjects within middle T-bil (odds ratio [OR]: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41–0.97) and high T-bil tertiles (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.33–0.86) showed a lower prevalence of ECAS than those in a low T-bil tertile. Although subjects with a high T-bil tertile had a lower prevalence of ICAS than those with a low T-bil tertile, the statistical significance was marginal after adjusting for confounding variables. There were no significant differences in the proportions of subjects with SLI and msWMH across serum T-bil tertile groups. Conclusions The serum T-bil level is negatively associated with cerebral atherosclerosis, especially extracranial atherosclerosis, but not with SVD. PMID:28319156

  18. Antioxidant status of serum, muscle, intestine and hepatopancreas for fish fed graded levels of biotin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Gangfu; Jiang, Weidan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Li, Shuhong; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2014-04-01

    Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant activities of muscle, intestine, hepatopancreas and serum in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) were investigated after feeding graded levels of biotin (0.010, 0.028, 0.054, 0.151, 0.330, 1.540 and 2.680 mg kg(-1) diet) for 63 days. Both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content in all studied tissues and serum were the lowest in fish fed diets containing 0.151-0.330 mg biotin kg(-1) diet and then increased in fish fed the diet with 2.680 mg biotin kg(-1) diet (P < 0.05). Similarly, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities in serum significantly decreased with biotin levels up to 0.151 mg kg(-1) diet (P < 0.05). Conversely, capacities of anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR) and anti-superoxide anion (ASA) in the detected tissues and serum significantly improved with biotin levels up to 0.054-1.540 mg kg(-1) diet and then decreased in 2.680 mg biotin kg(-1) diet group for muscle and intestinal AHR as well as hepatopancreas ASA (P < 0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase in all studied tissues and serum significantly elevated with biotin levels up to 0.330 mg kg(-1) diet and then decreased when fish fed the diet with 2.680 mg biotin kg(-1) diet, except intestine (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase and total thiol content in all studied tissues and serum showed the upward trend with biotin supplementations (P < 0.05). These results indicated that biotin improved antioxidant status and depressed lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in all studied tissues and serum.

  19. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, Rocio; Morrison, Katherine; Teo, Koon; Atkinson, Stephanie; Kubwabo, Cariton; Stewart, Brian; Foster, Warren G.

    2008-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and electronics that are widely distributed in the environment. The objective of the present study was to quantify exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in serum samples collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord at delivery. Pregnant women (n=101) presenting for second trimester ultrasound were recruited and PFC residue levels were quantified in maternal serum at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy, at delivery, and in umbilical cord blood (UCB; n=105) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Paired t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the concentrations of each analyte at different sample collection time points. PFOA and PFOS were detectable in all serum samples analyzed including the UCB. PFOS serum levels (mean{+-}S.D.) were significantly higher (p<0.001) in second trimester maternal serum (18.1{+-}10.9 ng/mL) than maternal serum levels at delivery (16.2{+-}10.4 ng/mL), which were higher than the levels found in UCB (7.3{+-}5.8 ng/mL; p<0.001). PFHxS was quantifiable in 46/101 (45.5%) maternal and 21/105 (20%) UCB samples with a mean concentration of 4.05{+-}12.3 and 5.05{+-}12.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between serum PFCs at any time point studied and birth weight. Taken together our data demonstrate that although there is widespread exposure to PFCs during development, these exposures do not affect birth weight.

  20. Soy milk intake in relation to serum sex hormone levels in British men.

    PubMed

    Allen, N E; Appleby, P N; Davey, G K; Key, T J

    2001-01-01

    Soy beans contain high levels of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein and their glycosides and have been implicated in the prevention of prostate cancer, possibly via their effects on sex hormone metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between dietary soy intake and sex hormone levels in a cross-sectional analysis of 696 men with a wide range of soy intakes. Soy milk intake was measured using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and serum hormone concentrations were measured by immunoassay. Multiple regression was used to investigate the association between soy milk intake, an index of isoflavone intake, and hormone levels after adjustment for pertinent confounders. Soy milk intake was not associated with serum concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone, androstanediol glucuronide, sex hormone-binding globulin, or luteinizing hormone. These results suggest that soy milk intake, as a marker of isoflavone intake, is not associated with serum sex hormone concentrations among free-living Western men.

  1. Abnormal ovarian cycles as diagnosed by ultrasound and serum estradiol levels.

    PubMed

    Polan, M L; Totora, M; Caldwell, B V; DeCherney, A H; Haseltine, F P; Kase, N

    1982-03-01

    A significant portion of human infertility is presumably due to defective ovulation, including patients who fail to conceive despite medical induction of ovulation, those who fail despite repeated timely donor inseminations, and those with "infertility of unknown etiology". All point out the inadequacy of standard criteria for normal ovulation. This investigation correlates preovulatory serum estradiol and gonadotropin concentrations with dominant follicle growth measured ultrasonographically and serum progesterone levels. The data indicate a 35% incidence of cycles with significantly abnormal serum estradiol levels, decreased dominant follicle size, and abnormal progesterone levels despite biphasic basal body temperature curves and normal cycle length. If these cycles represent inadequate or abnormal ovulation, they can be distinguished from adequate cycles prior to follicle rupture and may benefit the treatment of human infertility.

  2. Study of serum syndecan-1 levels in a group of Egyptian juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Mosaad, Naglaa Abd Elrahman; Lotfy, Hala Mohamed; Farag, Yomna Mohamed; Mahfouz, Rasha Hossam El-Din; Shahin, Rasha Mohamad Hosny

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the serum levels of Syndecan-1 in a group of Egyptian juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients and to study any possible associations with disease activity, renal activity and organ damage. Serum level of Syndecan-1 was assessed in 60 Egyptian JSLE patients and 30 apparently healthy age and gender matched children using ELISA. SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K), renal SLEDAI-2K, renal activity score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index were assessed for all patients. Serum SDC-1 levels were higher in patients with JSLE than in healthy controls (p<0.001) and were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K (p<0.001), with renal SLEDAI score (p=0.008) and renal activity score (p=0.04). So, Syndecan-1 might be used as a marker for disease activity and renal activity in JSLE patients.

  3. Serum levels of gonadotropins, prolactin, and progesterone in infertile female Africans.

    PubMed

    Kuku, S F; Akinyanju, P A; Ojeifo, J O

    1987-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in infertile African women, serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, and progesterone were estimated using radioimmunoassay techniques during the midluteal phase in 2,047 female partners of infertile relationships. Of the patients investigated, 1,085 (53%) had abnormal serum levels of one or more of the hormones studied. Hyperprolactinemia, found in 537 (26.2%) of the patients, was the commonest hormonal abnormality. Serum progesterone level of 3 ng/mL or below which is indicative of anovulation was found in 235 (11.5%) patients, while the value of 5 ng/mL or below, suggestive of inadequate luteal functions, was found in another 121 (5.9%) patients. Since hyperprolactinemia, anovulation, and defective luteal function are treatable endocrine disorders, routine endocrine evaluation of infertile females in African societies is suggested.

  4. Serum endostatin levels are elevated in colorectal cancer and correlate with invasion and systemic inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, T; Väyrynen, J P; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karppinen, S M; Pihlajaniemi, T; Autio-Harmainen, H; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J; Tuomisto, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with anti-tumour functions. However, elevated circulating endostatin concentrations have been found in several human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum endostatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay from a series of 143 patients with CRC and from 84 controls, and correlated with detailed clinicopathological features of CRC, serum leukocyte differential count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Patients with CRC had higher serum endostatin levels than the controls (P=0.005), and high levels associated with age, tumour invasion through the muscularis propria and poor differentiation, but not with metastases. Endostatin levels showed a positive correlation with the markers of systemic inflammatory response and a negative correlation with the densities of tumour-infiltrating mast cells and dendritic cells. Collagen XVIII was expressed in tumour stroma most strikingly in blood vessels and capillaries, and in the muscle layer of the bowel wall. Conclusions: Elevated endostatin levels in CRC correlate with systemic inflammation and invasion through the muscularis propria. Increased endostatin level may be a result of invasion-related cleavage of collagen XVIII expressed in the bowel wall. The negative correlations between serum endostatin and intratumoural mast cells and immature dendritic cells may reflect angiogenesis inhibition by endostatin. PMID:25137019

  5. Pyruvic acid levels in serum and saliva: A new course for oral cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohara A; Prasad, KVV; Trivedi, Dheeraj; Rajeev, BR; Battur, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cancerous cells show increased glycolysis rate. This will increase overall levels of pyruvate as it is one of the end products of glycolysis. The present on-going study is to estimate the levels of pyruvate in saliva and serum among healthy and oral cancer subjects. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional comparative study. Methodology: A total of 50 subjects among healthy and oral cancer subjects were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Saliva and serum samples were collected and subjected to pyruvate level estimation using biochemical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis and Mann-Whitney test were used to find the statistical difference between the two independent groups. Results: Serum pyruvic acid levels of the healthy group were 1.09 ± 0.14 and for oral cancer, it was 2.95 ± 0.59 and salivary level were 3.49 ± 0.47 and 1.32 ± 0.10 respectively. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference in serum and salivary pyruvate level in between two groups (P < 0.000 respectively). Conclusion: The present study showed noticeable variation in the level of pyruvic acid among healthy and oral cancer subjects. This generates the hypothesis that estimation of the pyruvic acid can be a new tool to screening of the cancer. PMID:27194870

  6. Effects of serum vitamin E levels on skin vitamin E levels in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Dennis E; Yu, Shiguang; Joshi, Dinesh K

    2002-01-01

    Skin problems are common in small animal practice. Oxidative stress, or the imbalance between prooxidants and the body's antioxidant defense system, likely plays a role in the development of skin disease. According to this study, increasing amounts of vitamin E in foods for dogs and cats increases serum and cutaneous concentrations of vitamin E. Based on available scientific data, these increases in vitamin E concentration are likely to be beneficial. However, the relationship between increases in serum and skin vitamin E concentrations and the prevention, development, and treatment of skin disease remains to be elucidated by intervention studies.

  7. Individual Variations in Serum Melatonin Levels through Time: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Leticia M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Chu, Lisa W.; Yu, Kai; Andriole, Gerald; Church, Timothy; Stanczyk, Frank Z.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin, a marker for the circadian rhythm with serum levels peaking between 2AM and 5AM, is hypothesized to possess anti-cancer properties, making it a mechanistic candidate for the probable carcinogenic effect of circadian rhythm disruption. In order to weigh epidemiologic evidence on the association of melatonin with cancer, we must first understand the laboratory and biological sources of variability in melatonin levels measured in samples. Participants for this methodological study were men enrolled in the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). We measured serum melatonin levels over a five year period in 97 individuals to test if melatonin levels are steady over time. The Pearson correlation coefficient between two measures separated by 1 year was 0.87, while the correlation between two measures separated by 5 years was to 0.70. In an additional cross-sectional study of 292 individuals, we used Analysis of Variance to identify differences in melatonin levels between different lifestyle and environmental characteristics. Serum melatonin levels were slightly higher in samples collected from 130 individuals during the winter, (6.36±0.59 pg/ml) than in samples collected from 119 individuals during the summer (4.83±0.62 pg/ml). Serum melatonin levels were lowest in current smokers (3.02±1.25 pg/ml, p = 0.007) compared to never (6.66±0.66 pg/ml) and former (5.59±0.50 pg/ml) smokers whereas BMI did not significantly affect serum melatonin levels in this study. In conclusion, the high 5 year correlation of melatonin levels implies that single measurements may be used to detect population level associations between melatonin and risk of cancer. Furthermore, our results reiterate the need to record season of sample collection, and individual characteristics in order to maximize study power and prevent confounding. PMID:24376664

  8. Increases in serum estrogen levels during major illness are caused by increased peripheral aromatization.

    PubMed

    Spratt, Daniel I; Morton, Jeremy R; Kramer, Robert S; Mayo, Sara W; Longcope, Christopher; Vary, Calvin P H

    2006-09-01

    Although serum testosterone levels decrease acutely in critically ill patients, estrogen levels rise. We hypothesized that increased rates of aromatization of androgens to estrogens underlie the increase in serum estrogen levels. Eleven men and three women (age 42-69 yr) were prospectively studied before and again after elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Each patient received priming doses of [(14)C]androgen and [(3)H]estrogen that were immediately followed by peripheral infusions for 210 min. Eight men and three women received androstenedione (A(4))/estrone (E(1)) and three men received testosterone (T)/estradiol (E(2)). Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained in another six men before and after CABG to evaluate levels of P450 aromatase mRNA. Serum T levels decreased postoperatively in all 17 men (P < 0.001), whereas E(1) levels rose (P = 0.004), with a trend toward a rise in E(2) (P = 0.23). Peripheral aromatization rates of androgens to estrogens rose markedly in all 14 patients (P < 0.0001). Estrogen clearance rates rose (P < 0.002). Mean serum A(4) levels increased slightly postoperatively (P = 0.04), although no increase in A(4) production rates (PRs) was observed. T PRs decreased in two of three men, whereas clearance rates increased in all three. Adipose tissue P450 aromatase mRNA content increased postoperatively (P < 0.001). We conclude that the primary cause of increased estrogen levels in acute illness is increased aromatase P450 gene expression, resulting in enhanced aromatization of androgens to estrogens, a previously undescribed endocrine response to acute illness. Both increased T clearance and decreased T production contribute to decreased serum T levels. Animal studies suggest that these opposing changes in circulating estrogen and androgen levels may be important to reduce morbidity and mortality in critical illness.

  9. Proton pump inhibitors use in hemodialysis patients and serum magnesium levels

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Hypomagnesemia is reported in patients who use proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). We investigated the effect of PPIs use on serum magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. Our study was conducted in a hemodialysis center including 75 end stage renal disease patients. PPI use and duration were investigated. All patients were dialyzed using a dialysate magnesium level of 0.5-0.75 mmol/L. After at least one month of hemodialysis with the mentioned dialysate, laboratory tests were performed. Fifty-four patients (72%) used PPIs while 21 (28%) did not. The mean duration of PPI use was 42.5 ± 35 months. There was no significant difference between serum magnesium levels of patients who used and did not use PPIs (2.73 ± 0.3 vs. 2.88 ± 0.3 mg/dL, P = ns). There were 15 patients (20%) with a dialysate magnesium level of 0.5 mmol/l and 60 patients (80%) with a dialysate magnesium level of 0.75 mmol/L. The mean serum magnesium levels of patients with a dialysate magnesium level of 0.5 mmol/L was 2.45 ± 0.3 mg/dL while that of patients with a dialysate magnesium level of 0.75 mmol/L was 2.85 ± 0.3 mg/dL (P<0.0001). In hemodialysis patients, PPI use did not affect serum magnesium levels. The most important factor affecting the serum magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients is the dialysate magnesium concentration. PMID:26885127

  10. High serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sari, Funda; Inci, Ayca; Dolu, Suleyman; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Ersoy, Fettah Fevzi

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. A total of 76 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and 32 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels were measured with ELISA kits. Parathyroid hormone, phosphate, calcium, creatinine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels, urinary protein to creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate were also measured or calculated. Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease had significantly higher serum parathyroid hormone (p<0.001), fibroblast growth factor-23 (p<0.001), soluble α-Klotho levels (p=0.001) and lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (p<0.001) as compared with healthy volunteers. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23, soluble α-Klotho and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were similar in all five chronic kidney disease stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (p>0.05). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (r=-0.251, p=0.034) and soluble α-Klotho levels (r=-0.251, p=0.034) were found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. This study shows increased fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease which is in harmony with the general trend in patients with chronic kidney disease of other aetiologies, but, unlike them, also a significant increase in serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease suggesting an aberrant production or a decreased clearance of α-Klotho molecule. Considering the unique increases in erythropoietin levels due to erythropoietin production in renal cysts, we assume, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease may potentially have different soluble α-Klotho production/clearance characteristics than the patients with other parenchymal renal diseases.

  11. Relationship of serum osteoprotegerin levels with coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular hypertrophy and C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Kim, Se-Yeon; Kim, Byung-Jin; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Bum-Su; Kang, Jin-Ho; Oh, Ki-Won; Oh, Eun-Sook; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Moo-Ii; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Park, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Sun-Woo; Lee, Man-Ho; Park, Jung-Roe

    2005-03-01

    OPG (osteoprotegerin) is an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and recent work suggests it has a role in atherosclerosis. Therefore we measured serum OPG levels in patients with coronary artery disease, compared the serum OPG levels among the different groups according to the number of stenotic vessels and determined whether there was any correlation with aortic calcification, LV (left ventricular) mass index and serum CRP (C-reactive protein) levels. Subjects (n=100; mean age, 57 years) who underwent coronary angiograms were enrolled. Blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles and CRP levels were measured and the LV mass indices were calculated using ECGs. Serum OPG levels were measured by ELISA. The presence of calcification in the aortic notch was checked by a chest X-ray. The subjects were divided into four groups according to the number of stenotic vessels. The mean serum OPG levels increased significantly as the number of stenotic vessels increased, and the mean serum OPG levels were higher in the group with three-vessel disease compared with the groups with no- or one-vessel disease. The mean serum CRP level was significantly higher in the group with three-vessel disease compared with the groups with no-, one- and two-vessel disease. Age and LV mass index showed significant positive correlations with serum OPG levels, although significance was lost after an adjustment for age. Serum CRP levels were positively correlated with serum OPG levels even after an adjustment for age. There were no differences in serum OPG levels according to the presence of fasting hyperglycaemia or aortic calcification. In conclusion, serum OPG level was related to the severity of stenotic coronary arteries and serum CRP levels. LV mass indices showed no significant correlation with OPG levels. The precise mechanism for the role of OPG in atherosclerosis needs to be investigated further.

  12. Relationship Between Changes in Serum Urate and Bone Mineral Density During Treatment with Thiazide Diuretics: Secondary Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Gamble, Gregory D; Horne, Anne; Reid, Ian R

    2016-05-01

    In observational studies, serum urate concentrations associate with bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of fractures. Thiazide diuretics slow the bone loss in healthy older adults, are associated with reduced incidence of fracture and also increase serum urate. We hypothesized that changes in serum urate are associated with changes in BMD during treatment with thiazide diuretics. We analysed data from a double-blind randomized controlled trial of hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg per day) and placebo in normal post-menopausal women. The relationship between change in serum urate and change in BMD after 2 years of treatment was examined using Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression models. Total body BMD increased in the hydrochlorothiazide group by 0.52 % and reduced in the placebo group by 0.29 % over 2 years (between group difference P = 0.0034). Serum urate increased in the hydrochlorothiazide group by 0.038 mmol/L and reduced in the placebo group by 0.004 mmol/L (between group difference P < 0.0001). At Year 2, there was a positive relationship between the change in serum urate and change in total body BMD for entire study population (r = 0.32, P = 0.0002) and for the hydrochlorothiazide group (r = 0.29, P = 0.023). The association between change in serum urate and change in total body BMD persisted after adjusting for treatment allocation, and change in weight, serum calcium, urinary calcium and serum creatinine (P change in serum urate = 0.043). These data raise the possibility that the effects of hydrochlorothiazide on BMD may be mediated, in part, by changes in serum urate concentrations.

  13. Autologous serum skin test response in chronic spontaneous urticaria and respiratory diseases and its relationship with serum interleukin-18 level.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Emel; Aktas, Ayse; Aksu, Kurtulus; Keren, Metin; Dokumacioglu, Ali; Goss, Christopher H; Alatas, Ozkan

    2011-11-01

    Autologous serum skin test (ASST) is mostly used in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) to show autoreactivity. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has also been shown to be involved in autoimmune conditions. To investigate the role of autoreactivity assessed by ASST in CSU and respiratory diseases and to investigate whether this autoreactive state is related to IL-18 level or other clinical covariates. Fifty-five patients with CSU (mean age: 40.3 ± 12.3 years), 70 patients with persistent asthma (mean age: 43.7 ± 9.6 years), 21 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) (mean age: 35.5 ± 11.8 years) and 20 normal controls (mean age: 37.7 ± 9.8) were included. All subjects underwent a laboratory examination and skin prick test. ASST was performed and serum IL-18 levels were measured in all subjects. Positive response to ASST and serum IL-18 levels were higher in CSU patients than those with respiratory diseases (asthma and SAR) (P = 0.034 and 0.002, respectively) and normal controls (P = 0.004 and 0.031, respectively). Considering all patients, IL-18 levels were higher in patients with positive ASST (301.8 ± 194.4 vs. 241.8 ± 206.3 pg/ml, P = 0.036) than ASST negative patients. ASST response was associated with disease severity in CSU (P = 0.037) and asthma patients (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that positive response to ASST was significantly associated with diagnosis of CSU (OR: 3.13, 95% CI: 1.25-7.87) and female gender (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.19-13.38). ASST response could be related with activity of the disease. A positive ASST response found in respiratory diseases patients suggests that it may occur as a result of some inflammatory events during the diseases' process.

  14. Serum hepcidin levels are associated with serum triglycerides and interleukin-6 concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Samouilidou, Elisabeth; Pantelias, Konstantinos; Petras, Dimitrios; Tsirpanlis, George; Bakirtzi, Joulia; Chatzivasileiou, George; Tzanatos, Helen; Grapsa, Eirini

    2014-06-01

    Hepcidin has emerged as a peptide with a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), having a strong dependence on inflammation. Recent studies reveal that hepcidin may be also associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to analyze the relation of hepcidin to markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation in patients on dialysis. A total of 90 individuals were enrolled. Sixty patients with end-stage renal disease, who were on hemodialysis (HD) (N = 30) and peritoneal dialysis (N = 30) were compared with 30 normal controls (NC). Age, body mass index, time on dialysis, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and analyzed in correlation with hepcidin concentration. It was found that patients on HD and peritoneal dialysis have significantly higher (P < 0.0001) levels of hepcidin, CRP and IL-6 than NC. Hepcidin in dialysis patients is significantly related to age (r = 0.373, P = 0.012), serum triglycerides (r = 0.401, P = 0.005), HDL-C (r = -0.268, P = 0.048), CRP (r = 0.436, P = 0.0007) and IL-6 (r = 0.569, P < 0.0001). In multiple regression analysis, hepcidin correlated independently with triglycerides (β = 0.402, P = 0.041) and IL-6 (β = 0.559, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with high triglycerides in combination with high IL-6 levels have significantly increased concentrations of hepcidin than those with low triglycerides and low IL-6 levels (P < 0.0001). Elevated levels of hepcidin in patients with CKD on dialysis may be related to the occurrence of high triglycerides and high IL-6 serum concentrations. This probably suggests that hepcidin may play a role to the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation, but this hypothesis should be further evaluated.

  15. Plasma levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors are increased in coal miners with pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Schins, R P; Borm, P J

    1995-10-01

    Among other cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is considered to play a key role in the development of mineral dust related fibrosis. Previously, we showed that ex-vivo release of TNF by peripheral blood monocytes is a marker for progression of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Since soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-Rs) are believed to play an important regulatory role in systemic effects of TNF, we measured plasma levels of sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75 in coal miners with (n = 28) or without (n = 76) CWP and in nonexposed controls (n = 29). sTNF-R75 levels were significantly increased in miners with CWP (2.09 +/- 0.44 ng.mL-1) versus the nonexposed controls (1.86 +/- 0.23 ng.mL-1). Neither sTNF-R55 nor sTNF-R75 were related to exposure, stage of pneumoconiosis, smoking, or (spontaneous or ex-vivo induced) monocyte TNF-release. sTNF-R55 was increased in subjects with medication (especially those using cardiovascular drugs); upon exclusion of these subjects, sTNF-R55 was found also to be significantly increased in CWP. In conclusion, bearing in mind a confounding effect of medication, soluble TNF receptors are elevated in plasma of retired miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis. These observations further support the important role of TNF-mediated pathways in the pathogenesis of mineral dust related fibrosis.

  16. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya; M.J. McKelvy; G.H. Wolf; R.W. Carpenter; D.A. Gormley; J.R. Diefenbacher; R. Marzke

    2006-03-01

    Fossil fuels currently provide 85% of the world's energy needs, with the majority coming from coal, due to its low cost, wide availability, and high energy content. The extensive use of coal-fired power assumes that the resulting CO2 emissions can be vented to the atmosphere. However, exponentially increasing atmospheric CO2 levels have brought this assumption under critical review. Over the last decade, this discussion has evolved from whether exponentially increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions will adversely affect the global environment, to the timing and magnitude of their impact. A variety of sequestration technologies are being explored to mitigate CO2 emissions. These technologies must be both environmentally benign and economically viable. Mineral carbonation is an attractive candidate technology as it disposes of CO2 as geologically stable, environmentally benign mineral carbonates, clearly satisfying the first criteria. The primary challenge for mineral carbonation is cost-competitive process development. CO2 mineral sequestration--the conversion of stationary-source CO2 emissions into mineral carbonates (e.g., magnesium and calcium carbonate, MgCO3 and CaCO3)--has recently emerged as one of the most promising sequestration options, providing permanent CO2 disposal, rather than storage. In this approach a magnesium-bearing feedstock mineral (typically serpentine or olivine; available in vast quantities globally) is specially processed and allowed to react with CO2 under controlled conditions. This produces a mineral carbonate which (1) is environmentally benign, (2) already exists in nature in quantities far exceeding those that could result from carbonating the world's known fossil fuel reserves, and (3) is stable on a geological time scale. Minimizing the process cost via optimization of the reaction rate and degree of completion is the remaining challenge. As members of the DOE/NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we have already

  17. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2003-12-19

    Fossil fuels currently provide 85% of the world's energy needs, with the majority coming from coal, due to its low cost, wide availability, and high energy content. The extensive use of coal-fired power assumes that the resulting CO{sub 2} emissions can be vented to the atmosphere. However, exponentially increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels have brought this assumption under critical review. Over the last decade, this discussion has evolved from whether exponentially increasing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions will adversely affect the global environment, to the timing and magnitude of their impact. A variety of sequestration technologies are being explored to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. These technologies must be both environmentally benign and economically viable. Mineral carbonation is an attractive candidate technology as it disposes of CO{sub 2} as geologically stable, environmentally benign mineral carbonates, clearly satisfying the first criteria. The primary challenge for mineral carbonation is cost-competitive process development. CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration--the conversion of stationary-source CO{sub 2} emissions into mineral carbonates (e.g., magnesium and calcium carbonate, MgCO{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3})--has recently emerged as one of the most promising sequestration options, providing permanent CO{sub 2} disposal, rather than storage. In this approach a magnesium-bearing feedstock mineral (typically serpentine or olivine; available in vast quantities globally) is specially processed and allowed to react with CO{sub 2} under controlled conditions. This produces a mineral carbonate which (1) is environmentally benign, (2) already exists in nature in quantities far exceeding those that could result from carbonating the world's known fossil fuel reserves, and (3) is stable on a geological time scale. Minimizing the process cost via optimization of the reaction rate and degree of completion is the remaining challenge. As members of the DOE

  18. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2002-12-19

    Fossil fuels currently provide 85% of the world's energy needs, with the majority coming from coal, due to its low cost, wide availability, and high energy content. The extensive use of coalfired power assumes that the resulting CO{sub 2} emissions can be vented to the atmosphere. However, exponentially increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels have brought this assumption under critical review. Over the last decade, this discussion has evolved from whether exponentially increasing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions will adversely affect the global environment, to the timing and magnitude of their impact. A variety of sequestration technologies are being explored to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. These technologies must be both environmentally benign and economically viable. Mineral carbonation is an attractive candidate technology as it disposes of CO{sub 2} as geologically stable, environmentally benign mineral carbonates, clearly satisfying the first criteria. The primary challenge for mineral carbonation is cost-competitive process development. CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration--the conversion of stationary-source CO{sub 2} emissions into mineral carbonates (e.g., magnesium and calcium carbonate, MgCO{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3})--has recently emerged as one of the most promising sequestration options, providing permanent CO{sub 2} disposal, rather than storage. In this approach a magnesium-bearing feedstock mineral (typically serpentine or olivine; available in vast quantities globally) is specially processed and allowed to react with CO{sub 2} under controlled conditions. This produces a mineral carbonate which (i) is environmentally benign, (ii) already exists in nature in quantities far exceeding those that could result from carbonating the world's known fossil fuel reserves, and (iii) is stable on a geological time scale. Minimizing the process cost via optimization of the reaction rate and degree of completion is the remaining challenge. As members of the DOE

  19. Association between serum selenium level and conversion of bacteriological tests during antituberculosis treatment* **

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Milena Lima; Ramalho, Daniela Maria de Paula; Delogo, Karina Neves; Miranda, Pryscila Fernandes Campino; Mesquita, Eliene Denites Duarte; de Oliveira, Hedi Marinho de Melo Guedes; Ruffino-Netto, Antônio; de Almeida, Paulo César; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Campos, Reinaldo Calixto; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; de Oliveira, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether serum selenium levels are associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in patients diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis after eight weeks of standard treatment. Methods: We evaluated 35 healthy male controls and 35 male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, the latter being evaluated at baseline, as well as at 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment. For all participants, we measured anthropometric indices, as well as determining serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and selenium. Because there are no reference values for the Brazilian population, we used the median of the serum selenium level of the controls as the cut-off point. At 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment, we repeated the biochemical tests, as well as collecting sputum for smear microscopy and culture from the patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.4 ± 11.4 years. Of the 35 patients, 25 (71%) described themselves as alcoholic; 20 (57.0%) were smokers; and 21 (60.0%) and 32 (91.4%) presented with muscle mass depletion as determined by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness and arm muscle area, respectively. Of 24 patients, 12 (39.2%) were classified as moderately or severely emaciated, and 15 (62.5%) had lost > 10% of their body weight by six months before diagnosis. At baseline, the tuberculosis group had lower serum selenium levels than did the control group. The conversion of bacteriological tests was associated with the CRP/albumin ratio and serum selenium levels 60 days after treatment initiation. Conclusions: Higher serum selenium levels after 60 days of treatment were associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. PMID:25029650

  20. Association of serum VEGF levels with prefrontal cortex volume in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pillai, A; Howell, K R; Ahmed, A O; Weinberg, D; Allen, K M; Bruggemann, J; Lenroot, R; Liu, D; Galletly, C; Weickert, C S; Weickert, T W

    2016-05-01

    A large body of evidence indicates alterations in brain regional cellular energy metabolism and blood flow in schizophrenia. Among the different molecules regulating blood flow, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is generally accepted as the major factor involved in the process of angiogenesis. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral VEGF levels correlate with changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) volume in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Whole-blood samples were obtained from 96 people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 83 healthy controls. Serum VEGF protein levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas quantitative PCR was performed to measure interleukin-6 (IL-6, a pro-inflammatory marker implicated in schizophrenia) mRNA levels in the blood samples. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained using a 3T Achieva scanner on a subset of 59 people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 65 healthy controls, and prefrontal volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer software. As compared with healthy controls, individuals with schizophrenia had a significant increase in log-transformed mean serum VEGF levels (t(177)=2.9, P=0.005). A significant inverse correlation (r=-0.40, P=0.002) between serum VEGF and total frontal pole volume was found in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Moreover, we observed a significant positive association (r=0.24, P=0.03) between serum VEGF and IL-6 mRNA levels in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest an association between serum VEGF and inflammation, and that serum VEGF levels are related to structural abnormalities in the PFC of people with schizophrenia.

  1. Association of serum Dkk-1 levels with β-catenin in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Xu, Xiao-juan; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-ping; Zhu, Rui; Shuai, Bo; Zhu, Xi-Wen; Li, Cheng-gang; Ma, Chen; Lv, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Wnt signaling plays an important role in the bone development and remodeling. The Wnt antagonist Dkk-1 is a potent inhibitor of bone formation. The aims of this study were firstly to compare the serum Dkk-1 levels in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients with age-matched healthy controls, and secondly, to assess the possible relationship between Dkk-1 and β-catenin, sclerostin, or bone turnover markers [CTX, PINP, N-MID-OT and 25(OH)D] in the setting of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A total of 350 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 150 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled, and the serum levels of Dkk-1, β-catenin, sclerostin, OPG, and RANKL were detected by ELISA, and bone turnover markers [CTX, PINP, N-MID-OT and 25(OH)D] were measured by Roche electrochemiluminescence system in two groups. Serum Dkk-1 levels were significantly higher in postmenopausal osteoporosis group than in control group (P<0.001). Univariate analyses revealed that serum Dkk-1 levels were weakly negatively correlated to β-catenin (r=-0.161, P=0.003) and OPG (r=-0.106, P=0.047), while multiple regression analysis showed a negative correlation between serum Dkk-1 levels with β-catenin (β=-0.165, P=0.009) and BMD (β=-0.139, P=0.027), and a positive correlation between serum Dkk-1 levels and CTX (β=0.122, P=0.040) in postmenopausal osteoporosis group. No similar correlations ware observed in control group. The results provided evidence for the role of Dkk-1 in bone metabolism and demonstrated the link of Dkk-1 and Wnt/β-catenin in some ways.

  2. Deciphering Mineral Homeostasis in Barley Seed Transfer Cells at Transcriptional Level

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the micronutrient inadequacy of staple crops for optimal human nutrition, a global downtrend in crop-quality has emerged from intensive breeding for yield. This trend will be aggravated by elevated levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Therefore, crop biofortification is inevitable to ensure a sustainable supply of minerals to the large part of human population who is dietary dependent on staple crops. This requires a thorough understanding of plant-mineral interactions due to the complexity of mineral homeostasis. Employing RNA sequencing, we here communicate transfer cell specific effects of excess iron and zinc during grain filling in our model crop plant barley. Responding to alterations in mineral contents, we found a long range of different genes and transcripts. Among them, it is worth to highlight the auxin and ethylene signaling factors Arfs, Abcbs, Cand1, Hps4, Hac1, Ecr1, and Ctr1, diurnal fluctuation components Sdg2, Imb1, Lip1, and PhyC, retroelements, sulfur homeostasis components Amp1, Hmt3, Eil3, and Vip1, mineral trafficking components Med16, Cnnm4, Aha2, Clpc1, and Pcbps, and vacuole organization factors Ymr155W, RabG3F, Vps4, and Cbl3. Our analysis introduces new interactors and signifies a broad spectrum of regulatory levels from chromatin remodeling to intracellular protein sorting mechanisms active in the plant mineral homeostasis. The results highlight the importance of storage proteins in metal ion toxicity-resistance and chelation. Interestingly, the protein sorting and recycling factors Exoc7, Cdc1, Sec23A, and Rab11A contributed to the response as well as the polar distributors of metal-transporters ensuring the directional flow of minerals. Alternative isoform switching was found important for plant adaptation and occurred among transcripts coding for identical proteins as well as transcripts coding for protein isoforms. We also identified differences in the alternative-isoform preference between the treatments

  3. Effect of supplemental trace mineral level and form on peripubertal bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to determine if different supplemental trace mineral levels and /or forms (sulfate and metal amino acid complexes) influence age at puberty, semen quality, endocrine status and scrotal circumference in peripubertal bulls. Fifty crossbred, peripubertal bulls were blocked by age (...

  4. Prognostic significance of serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in Ewing's sarcoma: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suoyuan; Yang, Qing; Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhuoying; Zuo, Dongqing; Cai, Zhengdong; Hua, Yingqi

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the role of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma, although these have yielded inconsistent and inconclusive results. Therefore, the present study aimed to systematically review the published studies and conduct a meta-analysis to assess its prognostic value more precisely. Cohort studies assessing the prognostic role of LDH levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma were included. A pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of overall survival (OS) or 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was used to assess the prognostic role of the levels of serum LDH. Nine studies published between 1980 and 2014, with a total of 1,412 patients with Ewing's sarcoma, were included. Six studies, with a total of 644 patients, used OS as the primary endpoint and four studies, with 795 patients, used 5-year DFS. Overall, the pooled HR evaluating high LDH levels was 2.90 (95% CI: 2.09–4.04) for OS and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.93–2.98) for 5-year DFS. This meta-analysis demonstrates that high levels of serum LDH are associated with lower OS and 5-year DFS rates in patients with Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, serum LDH levels are an effective biomarker of Ewing's sarcoma prognosis. PMID:28105365

  5. Association between serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Chen, Yi; Fang, Yun; Yao, Yingshui

    2015-01-01

    It is definite that the serum iron level has a positive correlation with the risk of obesity. However, the association between increased serum ferritin levels and the metabolic syndrome still remains controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to confirm the association between serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome. We searched PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for relevant articles that assessed the association between serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome and were published between 2006 and 2014. Review Manage 5.3 software was used to collect and analysis the data cited in the ultimately selected papers. The variance was exhibited using the forest plot and the heterogeneity among studies was examined using the I2 index. We use the funnel plot to evaluate the publication bias. Cross-sectional study, case-control study and prospective cohort study met our inclusion criteria including data from a total of 4,797 participants. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the metabolic syndrome comparing the highest and lowest category of ferritin levels was 1.20 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.71; I2=96%). The meta-analysis demonstrates that elevated ferritin levels are positive aassociated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:26550259

  6. Elevated Omentin Serum Levels Predict Long-Term Survival in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Luedde, Mark; Benz, Fabian; Niedeggen, Jennifer; Vucur, Mihael; Hippe, Hans-Joerg; Spehlmann, Martina E.; Schueller, Florian; Loosen, Sven; Frey, Norbert; Trautwein, Christian; Koch, Alexander; Luedde, Tom; Tacke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Omentin, a recently described adipokine, was shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, its role in critical illness and sepsis is currently unknown. Materials and Methods. Omentin serum concentrations were measured in 117 ICU-patients (84 with septic and 33 with nonseptic disease etiology) admitted to the medical ICU. Results were compared with 50 healthy controls. Results. Omentin serum levels of critically ill patients at admission to the ICU or after 72 hours of ICU treatment were similar compared to healthy controls. Moreover, circulating omentin levels were independent of sepsis and etiology of critical illness. Notably, serum concentrations of omentin could not be linked to concentrations of inflammatory cytokines or routinely used sepsis markers. While serum levels of omentin were not predictive for short term survival during ICU treatment, low omentin concentrations were an independent predictor of patients' overall survival. Omentin levels strongly correlated with that of other adipokines (e.g., leptin receptor or adiponectin), which have also been identified as prognostic markers in critical illness. Conclusions. Although circulating omentin levels did not differ between ICU-patients and controls, elevated omentin levels were predictive for an impaired patients' long term survival. PMID:27867249

  7. Effects of domoic acid on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Durán, R; Alfonso, M

    1995-08-01

    The actions of Domoic Acid (Dom), a marine toxin, on the levels of serum TSH and thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) has been studied to determine if these actions could be mediated by the serotoninergic system. In all the experiments, adult male Wistar rats were used. The Dom dissolved in saline was administered via i.p. in doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. The T4 and T3 concentrations were determined by enzimoinmunoassay and TSH concentration was determined by radioinmunoassay. The results show that Dom 1 mg/kg increases the serum T4 levels one hour after treatment and decreases these levels 2 and 3 hr after treatment. Dom 0.5 mg/kg decreased the serum T4 levels 2 and 3 hr after treatment. The concentrations of T3 in serum were unchanged by both doses of Dom. The concentration of TSH was increased by Dom. In order to study the possible mediation of the serotoninergic system in the effect of Dom on the hormone levels, PCPA, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, was administered i.p. 90 min before blood sampling. In this case, with both doses of Dom a decrease in the levels of both hormones occurred with respect to the PCPA group. These results indicate that the serotoninergic system could affect the actions of Dom on TSH and thyroid hormone secretion.

  8. Increased serum levels of lipogenic enzymes in patients with severe liver steatosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipid metabolism is altered in subjects with liver steatosis. FAS is a key enzyme in de novo lipogenesis and both FAS gene expression and enzymatic activity are primarily regulated by metabolic signals in the liver. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of core triglycerides, plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. This study aims to investigate if circulating levels of FAS and LPL could be clinically associated with liver steatosis. Methods In this work, we present data obtained from a subsample of 94 subjects with liver steatosis enrolled by NUTRIEPA study, a nutritional trial in subjects with liver steatosis. Serum levels of FAS protein and LPL activity were evaluated by ELISA test and by a fluorescent method, respectively. The diagnosis and the degree of liver steatosis were based on laboratory and ecographic measurements. Statistical methods included Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, where appropriate. The χ2 test has been performed to analyse categorical variables. Results The subjects with severe steatosis had significantly higher serum levels of FAS protein and LPL activity compared to subjects with mild and moderate liver steatosis. Moreover, a positive trend in serum levels of FAS expression from lower to higher degree of steatosis was also detected. Conclusions We describe a relationship between human liver steatosis and elevated levels of circulating lipogenic enzymes. Increased serum levels of FAS expression and LPL activity could be considered a marker of severe liver steatosis. PMID:23110339

  9. Serum Estradiol Levels Are Inversely Associated With Cortical Porosity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Vandenput, Liesbeth; Lorentzon, Mattias; Sundh, Daniel; Nilsson, Maria E.; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Mellström, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Context: The key role of serum estradiol (E2) for bone health in men is well established. The effect of serum sex steroids on bone microstructure, measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, remains unknown in elderly men. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the associations between serum sex steroids and bone microstructural parameters in older men. Methods: Trabecular and cortical bone microstructure at the tibia was measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in 440 men (mean 80 y of age) participating in the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sweden cohort. Serum levels of E2 and T were analyzed with mass spectrometry and free E2 and free T levels were calculated using law-of-mass-action equations. Results: Age-adjusted models demonstrated that E2 and free E2 but not T or free T associated significantly inversely with cortical porosity. The associations between E2 and free E2 and cortical porosity remained significant after further adjustment for height, weight, physical activity, calcium intake, and smoking. Models including both serum E2 and T demonstrated that E2 (standardized β = −.12, P < .05) but not T associated independently with cortical porosity. A similar independent association was found for free E2 (standardized β = −.12, P < .05) but not free T. Free E2 associated significantly with trabecular bone volume fraction in the age-adjusted models, but this association did not remain significant after further adjustment. Conclusions: Serum E2 levels associated inversely with cortical porosity in 80-year-old men. We propose that low serum E2 may reduce cortical bone strength, at least partly, by increasing cortical porosity and thereby increase fracture risk in older men. PMID:24694340

  10. Avoiding Toxic Levels of Essential Minerals: A Forgotten Factor in Deer Diet Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Olguín, Augusto; Miranda, María; García, Andrés; Martínez, Alberto; Cassinello, Jorge; Miguel, Valentín; Gallego, Laureano

    2015-01-01

    Ungulates select diets with high energy, protein, and sodium contents. However, it is scarcely known the influence of essential minerals other than Na in diet preferences. Moreover, almost no information is available about the possible influence of toxic levels of essential minerals on avoidance of certain plant species. The aim of this research was to test the relative importance of mineral content of plants in diet selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in an annual basis. We determined mineral, protein and ash content in 35 common Mediterranean plant species (the most common ones in the study area). These plant species were previously classified as preferred and non-preferred. We found that deer preferred plants with low contents of Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Cu, Sr and Zn. The model obtained was greatly accurate identifying the preferred plant species (91.3% of correct assignments). After a detailed analysis of these minerals (considering deficiencies and toxicity levels both in preferred and non-preferred plants) we suggest that the avoidance of excessive sulphur in diet (i.e., selection for plants with low sulphur content) seems to override the maximization for other nutrients. Low sulphur content seems to be a forgotten factor with certain relevance for explaining diet selection in deer. Recent studies in livestock support this conclusion, which is highlighted here for the first time in diet selection by a wild large herbivore. Our results suggest that future studies should also take into account the toxicity levels of minerals as potential drivers of preferences. PMID:25615596

  11. Opposite variation tendencies of serum CA724 levels in patients with colon and rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhanmeng; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Chunlin; Yang, Ziyi; Xuan, Weibo; Hou, Yahui; Zuo, Yunfei; Ren, Shuangyi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tumor biomarker carbohydrate antigen 724 (CA724) in the serum of patients with carcinomas of the colon and rectum at various clinical stages. Serum was collected from 51 patients with colon carcinoma (CC) and 49 patients with rectal carcinoma (RC). CA724 levels were then measured in the different groups according to site, TNM classification, gender, age and metastastic status of the patients. The statistical significance of the differences between the groups was calculated by non-parametric statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskall-Wallis tests). We observed a close association between the serum CA724 levels and tumor migration in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and opposite variation tendencies of CA724 in the evolution of CC and RC. In conclusion, we identified a close association between the serum levels of CA724 and tumor migration in CRC. The opposite variation tendencies of CA724 in the different evolution groups of CC and RC may reflect the differences between these two types of cancer. The evaluation of serum CA724 may be of monitoring and and predictive value and may also assist in the development of treatment strategies for CRC patients.

  12. Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O

    2008-12-01

    Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system.

  13. Serum levels of relaxin during the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Wreje, U; Kristiansson, P; Aberg, H; Byström, B; von Schoultz, B

    1995-01-01

    Serum relaxin levels were analysed in 12 healthy women every other day during the menstrual cycle and during a second cycle on oral contraceptives. Relaxin levels in 7 women with posterior pelvic and lumbar pain were also measured. Relaxin was detected during both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in some of the healthy women. Serum levels were further increased during the use of oral contraceptives. Oestradiol levels in the untreated women correlated to the relaxin levels. Women with posterior pelvic and lumbar pain had higher relaxin levels than did healthy women, a finding that needs to be further explored. Our data indicate the existence of sources for relaxin production other than the corpus luteum in the non-pregnant woman. Endogenous and exogenous oestrogens may stimulate the production of relaxin.

  14. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels and lipid peroxidation in children with chronic giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Mustafa; Delibas, Namik; Altuntas, Irfan; Oktem, Faruk; Yönden, Zafer

    2003-03-01

    This study investigated the levels of iron, zinc, and copper and their demolishing effects against lipid peroxidation in chronic giardiasis. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels, erythrocyte cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, and malondialdehyde levels were measured in 34 children with chronic giardiasis and were compared with controls. The serum iron and zinc levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were significantly lower, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher among the children with chronic giardiasis compared to the control group (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in copper levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). Consequently, the oxidant-antioxidant balance may tilt towards the oxidative side due to weakness of the antioxidant system in giardiasis. If early and proper treatment is not performed, free radical-mediated damage might occur in children with chronic giardiasis.

  15. Serum uric acid levels and long-term outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Tokiko; Mochizuki, Toshio; Takei, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2014-07-01

    Hyperuricemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but data regarding the relationship between serum uric acid levels and the long-term outcomes of CKD patients have been limited. The present study evaluated the associations between baseline serum uric acid levels with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The subjects of this study were 551 stage 2-4 CKD patients. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid tertiles and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, 50 % reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and development of ESRD, initially without adjustment, and then after adjusting for several groups of covariates. The mean age of the study subjects was 58.5 years, 59.3 % were men, and 10.0 % had diabetes. The mean eGFR was 42.02 ± 18.52 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In all subjects, the mean serum uric acid level was 6.57 ± 1.35 mg/dl, and 52.2 % of study subjects were on hypouricemic therapy (allopurinol; 48.3 %) at baseline. Thirty-one patients (6.1 %) died during a follow-up period of approximately 6 years. There was no significant association between serum uric acid level and all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR in the unadjusted Cox models. In the adjusted models, hyperuricemia was found to be associated with all-cause mortality and CVD mortality after adjustment with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol, but not associated with development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR. The results of this study showed that hyperuricemia but not serum uric acid levels were associated with all-cause mortality, CVD mortality after adjustments with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol in stage 2-4 CKD patients.

  16. Eosinophil cationic protein serum levels and allergy in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Conti, F; Magrini, L; Priori, R; Valesini, G; Bonini, S

    1996-02-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a syndrome of uncertain etiopathogenesis characterized by disabling fatigue associated with a variable number of somatic and/or neuropsychologic symptoms. In patients with CFS, several immunologic abnormalities can be detected, including a higher prevalance of allergy. The aim of this study was to determine whether CFS patients, well studied for their allergy profile, show signs of eosinophil activation, as detectable by the measurement in serum of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels. In 35 consecutive CFS outpatients (diagnosis based on the Centers for Disease Control case definition), ECP was measured in serum by a competitive enzyme immunoassay (ECP-FEIA kit, Kabi Pharmacia Diagnostics, Uppsala, Sweden). Fourteen disease-free subjects with no history of CFS or allergy were selected as controls. ECP serum levels were significantly higher in CFS patients than in controls (18.0 +/- 11.3 micrograms/l vs 7.3 +/- 2.1 micrograms/l; P < 0.01). In the CFS population, the prevalence of RAST positivity to one or more allergens was 77%, while no control showed positive RAST. Twelve of the 14 CFS patients with increased ECP serum levels were RAST-positive. However, CFS RAST-positive patients had no significantly higher ECP serum levels than CFS RAST-negative patients (19.3 +/- 12.4 micrograms/l vs 13.6 +/- 3.7 micrograms/l; P = 0.4). This is the first report of increased serum levels of ECP in CFS. On the basis of the available data, it is discussed whether eosinophil activation has a pathogenetic role in CFS or is linked to the frequently associated allergic condition, or, finally, whether a common immunologic background may exist for both atopy and CFS.

  17. Association between serum level of magnesium and postmenopausal osteoporosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianmao; Mao, Xueli; Ling, Junqi; He, Qun; Quan, Jingjing; Jiang, Hongbo

    2014-06-01

    There are conflicting reports as to the association between serum level of magnesium (Mg) and postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP). The purpose of the present study is to clarify the association between serum level of Mg and postmenopausal OP using a meta-analysis approach. We searched articles indexed in Pubmed and the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD) published as of October 2013 that met our predefined criteria. Seven eligible studies involving 1,349 postmenopausal women from 12 case-control study arms were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that postmenopausal osteoporotic women had a lower serum level of Mg than the healthy controls (standardized mean difference [SMD]=-0.55, 95 % confidence interval [CI]=-0.83 to -0.26). Further subgroup analysis found a similar pattern in Turkey (SMD=-0.66, 95% CI=-0.99 to -0.32) and Belgium (SMD=-0.98, 95% CI=-1.91 to -0.05), but not in China (SMD=0.02, 95% CI=-0.21 to 0.26). And the difference of serum level of Mg between postmenopausal osteoporotic women and healthy controls below the age of 60 years (SMD=-0.61, 95% CI=-1.09 to -0.13) was similar to that among the population over 60 years (SMD=-0.49, 95% CI=-0.80 to -0.18).In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the low serum level of Mg seems to be a risk factor for OP among the postmenopausal women. However, the subgroup analysis found that there was contradiction regarding races and geography, like China and Turkey. Thus, this finding needs further confirmation by trans-regional multicenter study to obtain better understanding of causal relationships between serum Mg and postmenopausal OP.

  18. Increased serum level of homocysteine correlates with retinal nerve fiber layer thinning in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Srivastav, Khushboo; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Meyer, Carsten H.; Akduman, Levent; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the correlation between serum levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine and the severity of diabetic retinopathy and the correlation with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods In a tertiary care center–based prospective cross-sectional study, 60 consecutive cases and 20 healthy controls in the age group of 40–65 years were included. The eyes of the cases were divided into three groups according to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification: diabetes mellitus without retinopathy (n = 20), non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (n = 20), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (n = 20). The serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using a standard protocol. The serum homocysteine assay was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Average RNFL thickness was measured using SD-OCT. Statistical analysis was used to assess the correlations between the study variables. Results Increased severity of diabetic retinopathy was found to correlate with an increase in the serum levels of homocysteine (F = 53.79; p<0.001). The mean serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were found to be within the normal reference range. A positive correlation was found between retinal nerve fiber layer thinning and serum levels of homocysteine (p<0.001). Conclusions This study, for the first time, demonstrated a correlation between increased homocysteine with a decrease in RNFL thickness and increased severity of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27994434

  19. Serum posaconazole levels during acute myeloid leukaemia induction therapy: correlations with breakthrough invasive fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Chiara; Panzali, Annafranca; Passi, Angela; Borlenghi, Erika; Lamorgese, Cinzia; Petullà, Marta; Re, Alessandro; Caimi, Luigi; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The usefulness of posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is still a matter of debate. A correlation between posaconazole serum levels and breakthrough invasive fungal infections (IFI) has not been clearly demonstrated so far. We analysed posaconazole serum levels in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) during induction therapy and correlated them with the incidence of breakthrough IFI and the need of systemic antifungal therapy. Overall, 77 AML patients receiving posaconazole were evaluated for serum levels; breakthrough IFI were observed in five with at least one posaconazole TDM (6.5%). Median serum level was 534 ng ml(-1) (IQ range: 298.5-750.5 ng ml(-1) ) and did not change significantly over time. Four of the 40 patients with median posaconazole levels <500 ng ml(-1) developed IFI, as compared with only 1 of the 37 patients with median levels ≥500 (10% vs. 2.7%, P = 0.19). Median posaconazole levels on day 7 were 384.5 ng ml(-1) (IQ range: 207-659 ng ml(-1) ) and 560.5 ng ml(-1) (IQ range: 395-756 ng ml(-1) ) in patients requiring or not systemic antifungal treatment respectively (P = 0.067). These results seem to confirm that higher median serum levels of posaconazole correlate with higher prophylactic efficacy against proven/probable IFI and with lesser need of systemic antifungal therapy.

  20. Serum Adiponectin Level and Clinical, Metabolic, and Hormonal Markers in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Yunus; Ozaksit, Gülnur; Serdar Unlu, Bekir; Ozgu, Emre; Energin, Hasan; Kaba, Metin; Ugur, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the relationship between adiponectin, metabolic and hor- monal parameters, and insulin resistance in patients with non-treated polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 81 patients admitted to out-patient clinic with complaints of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism and obesity were enrolled. Serum adiponectin, biochemical and hormonal parameters, and 75 gram oral glu- cose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results: We observed inverse correlations between serum adiponectin level and body mass index, homeostasis model assessment insulin-resistance score, insulin level, fast- ing glucose level, and prolactin level (p=0.001, p=0.02, p=0.04, p=0.02, and p=0.005, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum adiponectin level and age, height, weight, Ferriman-Gallwey score, 2 hours OGTT test value and free tes- tosterone level (p=0.3, p=0.6, p=0.2, p=0.8, p=0.9, and p=0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that in polycystic ovary syndrome patients, when serum adiponectin level decreased, degree of insulin resistance increased. Our find- ings indicate that serum adiponectin level is likely to be an adequate marker for deter- mination of the degree of insulin resistance, and may be a predictor of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, which develop on the basis of insulin resistance. PMID:24520503

  1. Circulating serum irisin levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shoukry, Amira; Shalaby, Sally M; El-Arabi Bdeer, Shereen; Mahmoud, Amira A; Mousa, Mayada M; Khalifa, Ashraf

    2016-07-01

    Irisin is an exercise-regulated myokine inducing browning of white adipose tissue and has gained interest as a potential new strategy to combat obesity and its associated disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the circulating serum irisin levels in obesity and T2DM and also to elucidate possible relationships between serum irisin levels with anthropometric and metabolic parameters of obesity and T2DM. One hundred fifty newly diagnosed T2DM patients as well as 150 nondiabetic control subjects were enrolled in this study. Nondiabetic controls were then stratified according to their body mass index (BMI) into three subgroups; lean, overweight, and obese. Serum irisin levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum irisin levels were significantly decreased in T2DM patients compared with nondiabetic controls. Obese nondiabetic controls had significantly higher serum irisin levels compared with lean nondiabetic controls. In both nondiabetic controls and T2DM patients, serum irisin was significantly positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.985, P < 0.001 and r = 0.218, P = 0.007, respectively), fat mass (r = 0.959, P < 0.001 and r = 0.202, P = 0.013, respectively), fat-free mass (r = 0.606, P < 0.001 and r = 0.194, P = 0.017, respectively), fat-free mass index (r = 0.820, P < 0.001 and r = 0.179, P = 0.028, respectively), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.880, P < 0.001 and r = 0.194, P = 0.017, respectively), fasting insulin (r = 0.989, P < 0.001 and r = 0.207, P = 0.011, respectively), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.989, P < 0.001 and r = 0.185, P = 0.023, respectively), whereas; significantly negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.992, P < 0.001 and r = -0.187, P = 0.022, respectively). In this study, we demonstrated that circulating serum irisin levels were increased in obese nondiabetic subjects, while decreased in T2DM patients. Moreover, serum irisin levels were correlated

  2. Serum 25(OH)D and adipokines levels in people with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Karonova, T; Belyaeva, O; Jude, E B; Tsiberkin, A; Andreeva, A; Grineva, E; Pludowski, P

    2016-09-11

    Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus and has been associated with vitamin D deficiency. Some studies have suggested an association between obesity and adipokine levels as well as low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level but the underlying mechanisms of the interlink between vitamin D status and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations are still disputed. We included 435 residents (132 males) from St. Petersburg, Russia into this study. All subjects had physical examination and demographics noted. Blood was collected after an overnight fast and plasma glucose, insulin, serum lipids, 25(OH)D and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) concentrations were determined at baseline in all participants. Abdominal obesity was diagnosed in 310 (71.3%) subjects (251 females and 59 males). Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were found in 314 (72.2%) subjects. Mean (95% CI) age, body mass index (BMI) and serum 25(OH)D for the cohort were 47.6±11.3years; 28.7±0.2kg/m(2) and 62.5±24.3nmol/l respectively. Serum 25(OH)D level inversely correlated with body weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI in females but not in males, was lower in diabetic than non-diabetic subjects, and was not significantly different in subjects with and without MetS. WC was positively correlated with leptin and negatively correlated with adiponectin. We found correlation between leptin and serum 25(OH)D level (r=-0.15, p=0.01) but this finding was a characteristic seen only in women. Our study showed a high prevalence of abdominal obesity, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in residents from North-West region of Russia, close association between adipokine (leptin, adiponectin) concentrations as well as vitamin D status and body composition (WC, BMI). However in our study the interlink between leptin level and 25(OH)D was found only in females. Further investigations are required to study the relationship between serum 25(OH)D level, obesity and

  3. The effect of antidepressant medication treatment on serum levels of inflammatory cytokines: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, Jonas; DellaGioia, Nicole; Bloch, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, for example, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1 beta (IL-1β), are elevated in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). The reason why this occurs is unclear. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines could be a result of brain dysfunction in MDD. It is also possible that inflammatory cytokines contribute to depressive symptoms in MDD. If the first assumption is correct, one would expect levels to normalize with resolution of the depressive episode after treatment. Several studies have measured changes in cytokine levels during antidepressant treatment; however, the results vary. The purpose of this study was to pool all available data on changes in serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β during antidepressant treatment to determine whether these levels change. Studies were included if they used an approved pharmacological treatment for depression, patients had a diagnosis of MDD, and serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, and/or IL-1β were measured before and after treatment. Twenty-two studies fulfilled these criteria. Meta-analysis of these studies showed that, overall, while pharmacological antidepressant treatment reduced depressive symptoms, it did not reduce serum levels of TNFα. On the other hand, antidepressant treatment did reduce levels of IL-1β and possibly those of IL-6. Stratified subgroup analysis by class of antidepressant indicated that serotonin reuptake inhibitors may reduce levels of IL-6 and TNFα. Other antidepressants, while efficacious for depressive symptoms, did not appear to reduce cytokine levels. These results argue against the notion that resolution of a depressive episode is associated with normalization of levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines; however, the results are consistent with the possibility that inflammatory cytokines contribute to depressive symptoms and that antidepressants block the effects of inflammatory cytokines on the brain.

  4. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    PubMed

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  5. Glycosylated serum protein level as a screening and diagnostic test for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, F J; Harbert, G M; Paulsen, E P; Thiagarajah, S

    1986-09-01

    Glycosylated serum protein assay was examined as an alternative to standard glucose screening and glucose tolerance testing. In a comparison of two groups of gravid women having abnormal 1-hour 50 gm glucose screening tests, there was no difference in glycosylated protein level in the group with abnormal glucose tolerance test results (9.4% +/- 2.0%, mean +/- SD; n = 8) versus normal results (9.2% +/- 1.07%, mean +/- SD; n = 11). Furthermore, correlation of glycosylated serum protein level with glucose screening test results was poor (r = 0.185, p = 0.23, n = 17). Glycosylated serum protein assay is not useful in detecting mild metabolic aberrations associated with gestational diabetes.

  6. Elevated Galectin-3 Levels in the Serum of Patients With Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuexin; Zhang, Shuping; Lin, Faliang; Chu, Wenzheng; Yue, Shouwei

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is characterized by a conserved sequence within the carbohydrate recognition domain. The effect of Gal-3 in AD is presently unknown. In this study, we found significantly increased Gal-3 serum levels in patients with AD compared to control participants (P=.017). There was no significant difference between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (P=.143) or between patients with AD and MCI (P=.688). The degree of cognitive impairment, as measured by the Mini-Mental Status Examination score, was found to have a significant correlation with the Gal-3 serum levels in all patients and healthy controls. These data suggest that Gal-3 potentially plays a role in the neuropathogenesis of AD. The Gal-3 found in serum could be a potential candidate for a biomarker panel for AD diagnosis.

  7. Serum levels of tumour associated glycoprotein (TAG 72) in patients with gynaecological malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Scambia, G.; Benedetti Panici, P.; Perrone, L.; Sonsini, C.; Giannelli, S.; Gallo, A.; Natali, P. G.; Mancuso, S.

    1990-01-01

    Serum levels of TAG 72 were measured in 726 serum samples from patients with benign and malignant gynaecological conditions in order to evaluate the clinical usefulness of TAG 72 alone or in combination with other tumour markers. Sixty-six per cent of patients with ovarian cancer showed abnormal concentrations of TAG 72 antigen. A good correlation was also found between serial TAG 72 values and the clinical course of disease during chemotherapy and follow-up. In cervical and endometrial cancer abnormal TAG 72 values occurred in 23% and 14% of cases, while none of the patients with breast cancer had abnormal TAG 72 levels. Among patients with benign disease only one out of 12 patients (8%) with benign ovarian tumours and one of 15 patients with uterine fibromyomatosis (7%) showed high TAG 72 serum levels. However, the determination of TAG 72 did not increase the sensitivity of CA 125 and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), in ovarian and cervical cancer, respectively. The systemic administration of recombinant interferon alpha-2b to 15 patients with ovarian cancer and different basal levels of TAG 72 did not increase serum levels of the antigen. PMID:2167724

  8. Evaluation of serum NGAL and hepcidin levels in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Avci Çiçek, Esin; Rota, Simin; Dursun, Belda; Kavalci, Emine

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The main underlying reason is inflammation. In CKD, interleukin-6 and hypersensitive C-reactive protein are known to be used for the evaluation of inflammation and serum levels increase with decreased creatinine clearance. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and hepcidin are also considered to be effective in the assessment of inflammatory conditions. The possible interactions of NGAL and hepcidin with inflammatory markers in CKD patients including the kidney transplants, which have not been thoroughly explained up to date wereevaluated in this study. Serum creatinine, iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, interleukin-6, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, NGAL, hepcidin and pro-hepcidin levels were measured in a cohort of 163 CKD patients including transplant patients and 82 healthy volunteers. Clinical evaluation and classification of the patients were done according to the NFK/KDOQI guideline. Serum hepcidin, Prohepcidin, NGAL, hypersensitive C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels were higher in patient groups compared to the control group. In patient groups, while hepcidin, NGAL, interleukin-6, hypersensitive C-reactive protein levels were correlated with creatinine and glomerular filtration rate, iron metabolism parameters were not correlated with the inflammation biomarkers. Inflammation related hepcidin and NGAL weakly correlated with creatinine clearance. Our results demonstrated that serum NGAL and hepcidin levels might be valuable for the evaluation of inflammation in CKD, and these new inflammation parameters are not related through iron metabolism.

  9. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Vitamin D Supplement in Adult Patients with Asthma Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Chantveerawong, Teerapol; Pradubpongsa, Panitan; Sangasapaviliya, Atik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. Objective. This study aimed to compare vitamin D status during the period of severe asthma exacerbations and investigate if vitamin D supplementation improves asthma control. Methods. A total of 47 asthmatic patients and 40 healthy subjects participated in this study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), asthma control test (ACT) score, and % predicted peak expiratory flow rate were evaluated in the period with and without severe asthma exacerbations. After that, we provided vitamin D2 supplements to the patients with low vitamin D levels for 3 months. Results. At the period of asthma exacerbation, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was 38.29% and 34.04%. There was no significant difference in the levels of serum 25(OH)D with and without asthma exacerbations but the levels were significantly higher in the healthy group. Serum 25(OH)D levels significantly correlated with ACT score. Moreover, vitamin D2 supplementation improved asthma control in uncontrolled asthma group. Conclusions. Hypovitaminosis D was common in asthmatic patients but was not the leading cause of asthma exacerbations. Serum 25(OH)D levels correlated with the ability to control asthma. Improving vitamin D status might be a benefit in uncontrolled asthmatic patients. PMID:27974898

  10. Serum levels of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine and clinical improvement in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Marcourakis, T; Gorenstein, C; Ramos, R T; da Motta Singer, J

    1999-01-01

    Several placebo-controlled trials have shown the efficacy of clomipramine (CMI) in panic disorder. However, none has investigated the relationship between CMI, and desmethylclomipramine (DCMI) plasma levels, and outcome. In this trial, 41 patients meeting the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder with/without agoraphobia received 50-200 mg of CMI daily in a single-blind, flexible dose regimen for 14 weeks. At the end of treatment, 97% of the patients were free of panic attacks. Patients were classified into two groups of improvement according to the panic symptom items of the 'Patient-Rated Anxiety Scale'. A repeated-measures analysis of variance suggested a significant association between outcome and serum DCMI level/daily dose ratio as well as total serum level/daily dose. Patients with intense improvement showed DCMI and total serum levels lower than those with moderate improvement. The results indicate the importance of monitoring clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine serum levels in this disorder.

  11. Association of Serum Calcium Levels with Infarct Size in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Observations from Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Meghna; Dhar, Sriparna; Gogoi, Dipankar Mall; Ruram, Alice Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calcium is known to be major mediator in ischemic neuronal cell death. Recent studies have shown that elevated serum calcium levels at admission in patients with stroke have been associated with less severe clinical deficits and with better outcomes. Aim: The aim of this to determine the correlation between serum calcium (total, corrected, and ionized) and infarct size (IS) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 61 patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke from May 2015 to April 2016 at a tertiary care institute in Northeast India. Only patients aged ≥40 years and diagnosed as having acute ischemic cerebrovascular stroke with clinical examination and confirmed by a computed tomography scan were included in the study. Serum calcium levels (total, albumin corrected, and ionized) were collapsed into quartiles, and these quartile versions were used for calculating correlation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for comparing calcium levels with IS. Results: Total calcium, albumin-corrected calcium, and ionized calcium had a statistically significant negative correlation with IS with r = −0.578, −0.5396, and −0.5335, respectively. Total and ionized calcium showed a significant negative correlation with IS across all four quartiles. Albumin-corrected calcium levels showed a significant negative correlation with IS only across the lowest and highest quartiles. Conclusion: The findings in our study suggest that serum calcium can be used as a prognostic indicator in ischemic stroke as its levels directly correlates with the IS. PMID:28163502

  12. Serum Irisin Level Can Predict the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Stable Angina

    PubMed Central

    Efe, Tolga Han; Açar, Burak; Ertem, Ahmet Göktuğ; Yayla, Kadriye Gayretli; Algül, Engin; Ünal, Sefa; Bilgin, Murat; Çimen, Tolga; Kirbaş, Özgür; Yeter, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives The recently discovered myokine irisin has a proposed role in adipose tissue metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum irisin level and the coronary artery severity in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects and Methods Sixty-three patients who underwent coronary angiography (CA) diagnosed with stable CAD and twenty-six patients with normal coronary artery (NCA) were enrolled in the study. Stable CAD patients were divided into two groups as high synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score (≥23) and lower SYNTAX score (<23). Serum irisin level measurement was carried out using human irisin colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kit (AG-45A-0046EK-KI01, Adipogen, San Diego, CA, USA) as recommended by the manufacturer's protocol. Results The patients with stable CAD with a higher SYNTAX score (score ≥23) had significantly lower serum irisin levels (127.91±55.38 ng/mL), as compared the patients with a low SYNTAX score (score <23) (224.69±92.99 ng/mL) and control group (299.54±123.20 ng/mL). Irisin levels showed significant differences between all groups (p<0.001). Conclusion Serum irisin level is an independent predictor of coronary artery severity in patients with stable CAD. PMID:28154590

  13. Serum transferrin receptor levels in the evaluation of iron deficiency in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M

    1996-10-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major global problem. Early onset of iron deficiency in developing countries makes it imperative to identify iron deficiency in neonates. Most conventional laboratory parameters of iron status fail to distinguish neonates with iron deficient erythropoiesis. Serum transferrin receptor (STFR) levels are a recent sensitive measure of iron deficiency and the present study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of cord serum transferrin receptors in identifying iron deficient erythropoiesis in neonates. A complete hemogram, red cell indices, iron profile: serum iron (SI), percent transferrin saturation (TS%) and serum ferritin (SF) was carried out in 100 full-term neonates and their mothers at parturition. Cord and maternal STFR levels were estimated using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Anemic women had a significantly lower SI, their TS% and high STFR levels suggesting that iron deficiency was responsible for the anemia. In the neonates of iron deficient mothers, cord SI, TS% and cord ferritin were not significantly different from those of neonates born to non-anemic mothers. Cord STFR level correlated well with hemoglobin (Hb) and laboratory parameters of iron status, and its level was significantly higher in neonates born to anemic mothers than in those born to non-anemic mothers. It was the only laboratory parameter to differentiate between neonates born to anemic and non-anemic mothers. Therefore, STFR is a sensitive index of iron status in neonates and identifies neonates with iron deficient erythropoiesis.

  14. Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.

    PubMed

    Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11 IU for every year of age (1 IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve.

  15. The effect of single extremity-vibration on the serum sclerostin level

    PubMed Central

    Cakar, Halil Ibrahim; Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, Ilhan; Kara, Sadik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Sclerostin is mechanosensitive protein that is produced exclusively by osteocytes. It was reported that the plasma sclerostin level increases in the 10th minute after the application of Whole-Body Vibration. The aim of this study was to determine whether single extremity-vibration induces any change in the serum sclerostin level. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy young-adult volunteers were recruited for this pilot study. The participants sat on a chair with their left hip and knee joints flexed at 90 degrees. The lower leg was exposed to vibration: 40 Hz, 4 mm, 60 s. Blood samples were collected before and after the vibration. The serum sclerostin levels were blindly measured in dual-controlled blood samples. [Results] The serum sclerostin level before vibration was 328.2±589.9 pg/ml, and it showed no significant change after vibration. [Conclusion] Unlike Whole-Body Vibration, Single-Extremity Vibration did not affect the serum sclerostin level significantly. This finding can be explained by the limited bone volume exposed to vibration. Bone volume exposed to vibration is less during Single-Extremity Vibration than during Whole-Body Vibration. PMID:26311933

  16. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Leslie A.; Peters, Sandra J.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  17. Expression of FGF23 is correlated with serum phosphate level in isolated fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Keisuke; Imanishi, Yasuo; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki; Miyauchi, Akimitsu; Wakasa, Kenichi; Kawata, Takehisa; Goto, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Hirotsugu; Koyano, Hajime M; Mochizuki, Ryuichi; Miki, Takami; Inaba, Masaaki; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2006-04-11

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) patients sometimes suffer from concomitant hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia, resulting from renal phosphate wasting. It was recently reported that FD tissue in the patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) expressed fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), which is now known to be as a pathogenic phosphaturic factor in patients with oncogenic osteomalacia and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Since it remains controversial whether serum phosphate levels are influenced by FGF23 expressions in FD tissue, isolated FD patients without MAS syndrome were examined for the relationship between FGF23 expressions, circulating levels of FGF-23 and phosphate to negate the effects of MAS-associated endocrine abnormalities on serum phosphate. Eighteen paraffin embedded FD tissues and 2 frozen tissues were obtained for the study. Sixteen of 18 isolated FD tissues were successfully analyzed GNAS gene, which exhibited activated mutations observed in MAS. Eight of 16 FD tissues, which exhibited GNAS mutations, revealed positive staining for FGF-23. These evidence indicate that postzygotic activated mutations of GNAS is necessary for the FD tissue formation by mosaic distribution of mutated osteogenic cell lineage, but is not sufficient to elevate FGF23 expression causing generalized osteomalacia with severe renal phosphate wasting. The expression level of FGF23 in isolated FD tissue with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia determined by real-time PCR was abundant close to the levels in OOM tumors. Osteoblasts/osteocytes in woven bone were predominant source of circulating FGF-23 in FD tissues by immunohistochemistry. A negative correlation of the intensity of FGF-23 staining with serum inorganic phosphate levels indicated that the expression of FGF23 in focal FD tissues could be a prominent determinant of serum phosphate levels in isolated FD patient. These data provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanism of serum inorganic phosphate levels in

  18. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ≥ 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity, increased sedentary time, and frequent consumption of instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted.

  19. Relationship of Liver X Receptors α and Endoglin Levels in Serum and Placenta with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Dong, Xing; Wu, Hong-yan; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xue-jun; Wang, Xin; Shang, Li-xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and endoglin have been postulated to play roles in trophoblast invasion and lipid metabolic disturbances. However, the relationship between LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta of patients with preeclampsia remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify correlations between LXRα, endoglin and preeclampsia and provide new feasible methods of clinical prediction and treatment for preeclampsia. Methods We enrolled 45 patients with preeclampsia (24 with moderate preeclampsia and 21 with severe preeclampsia) and 15 normal pregnant women (control group) who were admitted to the Department of Obstetrics of the General Hospital of Beijing Command between October 2012 and July 2013 in this study. Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative PCR, tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Results Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia than those in control group (P<0.05, each). Moreover, patients with severe preeclampsia displayed significantly higher LXRα and endoglin levels than those with moderate preeclampsia (P<0.05, each). The LXRα sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 66.00%, 80.00%, 89.19% and 48.48%, respectively, while those of endoglin levels were 62.00%, 85.00%, 91.18% and 47.22%, respectively. LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta from patients with preeclampsia were positively correlated (serum: r = 0.486, P<0.01; placenta: r = 0.569, P<0.01). Conclusions Elevated LXRα and endoglin levels may be associated with preeclampsia pathogenesis and development and could be used as potential predictors for this disorder. PMID:27736929

  20. Baseline serum interleukin-34 levels independently predict radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sung Hae; Choi, Byoong Yong; Choi, Jungbum; Yoo, Jong Jin; Ha, You-Jung; Cho, Hyon Joung; Kang, Eun Ha; Song, Yeong Wook; Lee, Yun Jong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our observational study was to investigate the clinical significance of interleukin (IL)-34, a novel osteoclastogenic cytokine, for predicting structural damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Serum IL-34 levels were measured in 100 RA patients, 36 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and 59 gender- and age-matched healthy individuals using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also measured IL-34 concentrations in synovial fluid (SF) samples from 18 RA patients and 19 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Progression of structural damage was assessed in 81 patients with RA by plain radiographs using the modified Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS) at baseline and after an average 1.6-year follow-up period. Serum IL-34 levels were significantly higher in patients with RA (p < 0.001) or AS (p < 0.001) than in healthy controls. SF IL-34 levels were also significantly higher in RA patients than in OA patients (p < 0.001). In RA, serum IL-34 levels were associated with rheumatoid factor positivity (p = 0.01), current smoking (p < 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.01), and C-reactive protein levels (p < 0.01), but not with disease activity score 28. ΔSHS/year was positively correlated with serum IL-34 levels (r = 0.443, p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, serum IL-34 level was an independent risk factor for radiographic progression. These results suggest that IL-34, a novel osteoclastogenic cytokine, plays a role in RA-associated joint damage and is a potential biomarker for predicting subsequent radiographic progression in patients with RA.

  1. Additive relationship between serum fibroblast growth factor 21 level and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Expression and activity of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 hormone-like protein are associated with development of several metabolic disorders. This study was designed to investigate whether serum FGF21 level was also associated with the metabolic syndrome-related cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and its clinical features in a Chinese cohort. Methods Two-hundred-and-fifty-three subjects visiting the Cardiology Department (Sixth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University) were examined by coronary arteriography (to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD)) and hepatic ultrasonography (to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)). Serum FGF21 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and analyzed for correlation to subject and clinical characteristics. The independent factors of CAD were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Subjects with NAFLD showed significantly higher serum FGF21 than those without NAFLD (388.0 pg/mL (253.0-655.4) vs. 273.3 pg/mL (164.9-383.7), P < 0.01). Subjects with CAD showed significantly higher serum FGF21, regardless of NAFLD diagnosis (P < 0.05). Serum FGF21 level significantly elevated with the increasing number of metabolic disorders (P for trend < 0.01). After adjustment of age, sex, and BMI, FGF21 was positively correlated with total cholesterol (P < 0.05) and triglyceride (P < 0.01). FGF21 was identified as an independent factor of CAD (odds ratio = 2.984, 95% confidence interval: 1.014-8.786, P < 0.05). Conclusions Increased level of serum FGF21 is associated with NAFLD, metabolic disorders and CAD. PMID:23981342

  2. Serum interleukin-6 levels in murine models of Candida albicans infection.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Renátó; Czudar, Anita; Horváth, László; Szakács, Levente; Majoros, László; Kónya, József

    2014-03-01

    Two Balb/C mouse models of Candida infection were used to detect serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses. The first model used systemic infection by Candida albicans ATCC 10231 strain infected through the lateral tail vein of mice without any specific pretreatment. The median Candida burdens of the kidneys were 1.5 × 106 CFU/ml 24 h postinoculation (p.i.) and 1.2 × 107 CFU/ml 72 h p.i., while median serum IL-6 levels were 479.3 pg/ml and 934.5 pg/ml, respectively. The Candida burden showed significant correlation with serum IL-6 24 h p.i. (R2 = 0.6358; P = 0.0082) but not 72 h p.i.The second model was a mouse vaginitis model applying intravaginal inoculation of mice pretreated with subcutaneous estradiol-valerate (10 mg/ml) 3 days before infection. Candida cell count in vaginal lavage fluid was 2.8 × 106 CFU/ml 24 h p.i. and 1.4 × 108 CFU/ml 72 h p.i. Serum IL-6 response was detected in 4 of 15 mice 24 h p.i. and 9 of 15 mice 72 h p.i. Even the responders had low IL-6 serum levels (mean values 29.9 pg/ml and 60.1 pg/ml, respectively) not correlating with Candida cell count in vaginal lavage fluid.In conclusion, serum IL-6 had strong relationship with systemic C. albicans infection while the local C. albicans infection of the vagina led to partial, prolonged and limited serum IL-6 response.

  3. Sugar alters the level of serum insulin and plasma glucose and the serum cortisol:DHEAS ratio in female migraine sufferers.

    PubMed

    Kokavec, Anna; Crebbin, Susan J

    2010-12-01

    Early work has highlighted that a large percentage of migraineurs may have an altered glucidic methabolis due to carbohydrate-induced hyperinsulinism. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sucrose on biomarkers of energy metabolism and utilization in migraineous females. A total of 16 participants (8 = Migraine, 8 = Non-migraine) at the mid-point of their menstrual cycle underwent a 15-h fast prior to ingesting 75 g sucrose dissolved in 175 g water. Blood sampling for the assessment of serum insulin, serum cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and plasma glucose was conducted upon arrival at 09:00 h and then at regular 15-min intervals across a 150-min experimental period. The results showed a significant alteration in serum insulin and plasma glucose following sucrose ingestion in the migraine and non-migraine groups. In addition, significant group differences were observed in the level of serum insulin, serum DHEAS, and the cortisol:DHEAS ratio with migraine participants on average recording a higher sucrose-induced serum insulin level and lower DHEAS level and cortisol:DHEAS ratio when group data was compared. It was concluded that while sucrose consumption may potentiate serum insulin in migraineurs this does not result in the development of sucrose-induced hypoglycemia in migraine or non-migraine participants.

  4. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet.

  5. Serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins and paraoxonase activity in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Demir, B; Demir, S; Atamer, Y; Guven, S; Atamer, A; Kocyigit, Y; Hekimoglu, A; Toprak, G

    2011-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and the oxidation of lipoproteins were investigated in 35 women with pre-eclampsia and in 35 healthy control women with normal pregnancies. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]), and PON1 activity were assessed. There were no significant between-group differences in subject age, gestational age at diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, BMI, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and ApoB levels. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum Lp(a) were significantly higher in subjects with pre-eclampsia than in controls. Mean serum HDL, ApoA1 and PON1 activity were significantly lower in subjects with pre-eclampsia compared with controls. In conclusion, lipids and oxidized lipoproteins may play important roles in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  6. Serum levels of bone Gla-protein in inhabitants exposed to environmental cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Kido, T.; Honda, R.; Tsuritani, I.; Ishizaki, M.; Yamada, Y.; Nakagawa, H.; Nogawa, K.; Dohi, Y. )

    1991-01-01

    Serum levels of bone Gla-protein (BGP)--the vitamin K-dependent CA2(+)-binding protein--were evaluated in 76 cadmium (Cd)-exposed subjects with renal tubular dysfunction (32 men, 44 women) and 133 nonexposed subjects (53 men, 80 women). Serum BGP levels were higher in the Cd-exposed subjects than in nonexposed subjects. Significant correlations between BGP and each index measured by bone microdensitometry (MD), serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and Cd in blood and urine were found. For all of the Cd-exposed and nonexposed men and women, BGP showed a significant standard partial regression coefficient (multiple regression analysis) with the metacarpal index (MCI), which was one of the MD indicators. Bone Gla-protein also correlated significantly with urinary beta 2-microglobulin in the men and with serum creatinine in the women. Serum BGP values strongly reflect the degree of bone damage and also reflect, although less strongly, the degree of renal damage induced by exposure to Cd.

  7. Serum CCL-18 level is a risk factor for COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Dilektasli, Asli Gorek; Demirdogen Cetinoglu, Ezgi; Uzaslan, Esra; Budak, Ferah; Coskun, Funda; Ursavas, Ahmet; Ercan, Ilker; Ege, Ercument

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL-18) has been shown to be elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study primarily aimed to evaluate whether the serum CCL-18 level differentiates the frequent exacerbator COPD phenotype from infrequent exacerbators. The secondary aim was to investigate whether serum CCL-18 level is a risk factor for exacerbations requiring hospitalization. Materials and methods Clinically stable COPD patients and participants with smoking history but normal spirometry (NSp) were recruited for the study. Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, COPD Assessment Test, spirometry, and 6-min walking test were performed. Serum CCL-18 levels were measured with a commercial ELISA Kit. Results Sixty COPD patients and 20 NSp patients were recruited. Serum CCL-18 levels were higher in COPD patients than those in NSp patients (169 vs 94 ng/mL, P<0.0001). CCL-18 level was significantly correlated with the number of exacerbations (r=0.30, P=0.026), although a difference in CCL-18 values between infrequent and frequent exacerbator COPD (168 vs 196 ng/mL) subgroups did not achieve statistical significance (P=0.09). Serum CCL-18 levels were significantly higher in COPD patients who had experienced at least one exacerbation during the previous 12 months. Overall, ROC analysis revealed that a serum CCL-18 level of 181.71 ng/mL could differentiate COPD patients with hospitalized exacerbations from those who were not hospitalized with a 88% sensitivity and 88.2% specificity (area under curve: 0.92). Serum CCL-18 level had a strong correlation with the frequency of exacerbations requiring hospitalization (r=0.68, P<0.0001) and was found to be an independent risk factor for hospitalized exacerbations in the multivariable analysis. Conclusion CCL-18 is a promising biomarker in COPD, as it is associated with frequency of exacerbations, particularly with severe COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization, as well as

  8. Exploring Serum Levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor Across Glaucoma Stages

    PubMed Central

    Busanello, Anna; Bonini, Stefano; Quaranta, Luciano; Agnifili, Luca; Manni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the serum levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma with a wide spectrum of disease severity compared to healthy controls and to explore their relationship with morphological and functional glaucoma parameters. Materials and Methods 45 patients affected by glaucoma at different stages and 15 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent visual field testing, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and blood collection for both neurotrophins detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Statistical analysis and association between biostrumental and biochemical data were investigated. Results Serum levels of BDNF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in healthy controls (261.2±75.0 pg/ml vs 313.6±79.6 pg/ml, p = 0.03). Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of BDNF were significantly lower in early (253.8±40.7 pg/ml, p = 0.019) and moderate glaucoma (231.3±54.3 pg/ml, p = 0.04) but not in advanced glaucoma (296.2±103.1 pg/ml, p = 0.06) compared to healthy controls. Serum levels of NGF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in the healthy controls (4.1±1 pg/mL vs 5.5±1.2 pg/mL, p = 0.01). Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of NGF were significantly lower in early (3.5±0.9 pg/mL, p = 0.0008) and moderate glaucoma (3.8±0.7 pg/ml, p<0.0001) but not in advanced glaucoma (5.0±0.7 pg/ml, p = 0.32) compared to healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were not related to age, visual field mean deviation or retinal nerve fibre layer thickness either in glaucoma or in controls while NGF levels were significantly related to visual field mean deviation in the glaucoma group (r2 = 0.26, p = 0.004). Conclusions BDNF and NGF serum levels are reduced in the early and moderate glaucoma stages, suggesting the possibility that

  9. Serum lipid levels and suicidality: a meta-analysis of 65 epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Xie, Guoming; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between serum lipid levels and suicidality, as evidence from previous studies has been inconsistent. Methods We identified relevant studies by searching Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1980 to Dec. 5, 2014). Studies assessing the association between serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides (TG) levels and suicidality were included. We used a random-effects model to take into account heterogeneity among studies. Results We included 65 studies with a total of 510 392 participants in our analysis. Compared with the nonsuicidal patients, suicidal patients had significantly lower serum TC (weighted mean difference [WMD] −22.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] −27.95 to −16.75), LDL-C (WMD −19.56, 95% CI −26.13 to −12.99) and TG (WMD −23.40, 95% CI −32.38 to −14.42) levels, while compared with the healthy controls, suicidal patients had significantly lower TC (WMD −24.75, 95% CI −27.71 to −21.78), HDL-C (WMD −1.75, 95% CI −3.01 to −0.48) and LDL-C (WMD −3.85, 95% CI −7.45 to −0.26) levels. Furthermore, compared with the highest serum TC level category, a lower serum TC level was associated with a 112% (95% CI 40%–220%) higher risk of suicidality, including a 123% (95% CI 24%–302%) higher risk of suicide attempt and an 85% (95 CI 7%–221%) higher risk of suicide completion. The cut-off values for low and high serum TC level were in compliance with the categories reported in the original studies. Limitations A major limitation of our study is the potential heterogeneity in most of the analyses. In addition, the suicidal behaviour was examined using different scales or methods across studies, which may further explain heterogeneity among the studies. Conclusion We identified an inverse association

  10. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  11. Correlation between serum parathyroid hormone levels and coronary artery calcification in patients without renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang-Yong; Xu, Bai-Da; Wu, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Tian-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xiao; Xia, Yang; Zong, Gang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients without renal failure, as well as to determine independent risk factors of CAC score (CACS). A total of 157 patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiographic examination at the 101th Hospital of the People's Liberation Army between December 2013 and February 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The correlation between PTH levels and CACS was determined using a Pearson correlation analysis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the best cutoff PTH level for prediction of CAC. The independent association between serum PTH levels and CAC was analyzed by using a logistic regression analysis model with the response variable Be binary class. The results revealed that PTH levels in patients in the CAC group were significantly higher than those of patients in the non-calcification group. PTH levels were positively correlated with CACS (r=0.288, P<0.001). The ROC curve suggested that a PTH level of ≥31.05 pg/ml was the best cut-off point for the prediction of CAC, with a sensitivity of 80.88%, specificity of 60.67% and an area under the curve of 0.761. After including predictive factors for CAC (gender, age, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate and calcium, phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, magnesium, PTH, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels), the odds ratio of the serum PTH levels regarding the prediction of CAC was 1.050 (95% confidence interval, 1.027–1.074; P<0.001). In conclusion, the present study suggested that serum PTH levels are correlated with CAC in patients without renal failure and may thus be used as a reliable predictor of CAC. PMID:27882224

  12. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Maria-Vasiliki; Hadziyannis, Emilia; Tiniakos, Dina; Georgiou, Anastasia; Margariti, Aikaterini; Kostas, Athanasios; Papatheodoridis, George V.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the significance of serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods Sixty-seven consecutive NAFLD patients and 47 healthy controls who visited our liver clinics between May 2008 and December 2010 were included. The NAFLD diagnosis required elevated alanine aminotransferase and/or gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels, evidence of hepatic steatosis on ultrasound and/or liver histology, and exclusion of other causes of liver injury. Serum VEGF levels were determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Liver biopsy was obtained in 34 NAFLD patients. Histological lesions were scored by a liver histopathologist. Results Serum VEGF levels tended to be lower in matched NAFLD patients than in healthy controls (296±146 vs. 365±186 pg/mL, P=0.092); levels in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) also tended to be lower than in those with simple fatty liver (FL) (279±149 vs. 359±190 pg/mL, P=0.095); while VEGF levels were significantly lower in NASH patients than in healthy controls (279±149 vs. 365±186 pg/mL, P=0.041). VEGF levels offered poor predictability for the differentiation between NAFLD patients and controls or between NASH and FL patients. However, patients with high VEGF levels (≥300 pg/mL) were significantly more likely to have FL, either in the total NAFLD population (67% vs. 35%, P=0.019) or in the 34 NAFLD patients with liver biopsy (57% vs. 15%, P=0.023), while those with high VEGF levels also had a significantly lower mean fibrosis score (0.7±0.9 vs. 1.6±1.0, P=0.017). Conclusion Our data suggest that serum VEGF levels are equally high in healthy controls and in patients with simple fatty liver, but tend to decrease when NASH develops. PMID:28243042

  13. Correlation between serum parathyroid hormone levels and coronary artery calcification in patients without renal failure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang-Yong; Xu, Bai-Da; Wu, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Tian-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xiao; Xia, Yang; Zong, Gang-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients without renal failure, as well as to determine independent risk factors of CAC score (CACS). A total of 157 patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiographic examination at the 101th Hospital of the People's Liberation Army between December 2013 and February 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The correlation between PTH levels and CACS was determined using a Pearson correlation analysis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the best cutoff PTH level for prediction of CAC. The independent association between serum PTH levels and CAC was analyzed by using a logistic regression analysis model with the response variable Be binary class. The results revealed that PTH levels in patients in the CAC group were significantly higher than those of patients in the non-calcification group. PTH levels were positively correlated with CACS (r=0.288, P<0.001). The ROC curve suggested that a PTH level of ≥31.05 pg/ml was the best cut-off point for the prediction of CAC, with a sensitivity of 80.88%, specificity of 60.67% and an area under the curve of 0.761. After including predictive factors for CAC (gender, age, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate and calcium, phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, magnesium, PTH, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels), the odds ratio of the serum PTH levels regarding the prediction of CAC was 1.050 (95% confidence interval, 1.027-1.074; P<0.001). In conclusion, the present study suggested that serum PTH levels are correlated with CAC in patients without renal failure and may thus be used as a reliable predictor of CAC.

  14. Maternal and cord serum vitamin E levels in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there is an association between reduced vitamin E levels and an abnormal pregnancy. Levels were measured by HPLC in maternal and, where possible, in paired umbilical cord serum from normal and abnormal pregnancies at delivery and in serial serum samples from healthy women during gestation. Abnormal pregnancies were compared with normals. In normal pregnancies, mean vitamin E levels rose from 12.9 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml in early pregnancy to 22.5 +/- 1.5 micrograms/ml at term (p < 0.05, n = 11). In pregnancies with fetal complications or maternal risks, levels were lower than in normals at corresponding gestational age (p < 0.005 in smokers, n = 20 at > or = 30 weeks & p < 0.01 in hypertensives, n = 4 at 16-23 weeks). Mean maternal and paired cord serum levels in normal pregnancies at delivery > or = 37 weeks were 21.3 +/- 0.6 and 3.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms/ml respectively (p < 0.001, n = 56). Maternal levels in women with a low birthweight infant and in smokers (> 10 cig/day) were significantly lower (p < 0.05, n = 13 & p < 0.0005, n = 12); levels in women with a malformed infant (n = 6) were also reduced, but just barely below the level of significance (p = 0.06). C