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Sample records for serum procalcitonin levels

  1. Serum procalcitonin levels in patients with primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Kenneth K; Grys, Thomas E; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Blair, Janis E

    2014-10-01

    The serum procalcitonin assay has emerged as a promising biomarker to distinguish between bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections but has not been used to differentiate coccidioidomycosis from bacterial infection. A correlation between procalcitonin serum levels and coccidioidomycosis has never been reported. To determine any association between serum procalcitonin levels and primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. We identified and enrolled 20 immunocompetent patients with symptomatic primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis of < 8 weeks' duration and performed a one-time procalcitonin assay, with a cutoff of < 0.25 μg/L indicating a nonbacterial infection. Nineteen of 20 patients (95%) had serum procalcitonin of < 0.25 μg/L. The median procalcitonin level was 0.05 μg/L (range, < 0.05-0.87 μg/L; interquartile range, 0.05-0.05 μg/L). Sixteen of 20 patients (80%) had undetectable procalcitonin of < 0.05 μg/L. The four patients with detectable procalcitonin had a median value of 0.2 μg/L (range, 0.09-0.87 μg/L). In this pilot study, procalcitonin was not elevated in immunocompetent patients with primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis at a median of 32 days after symptom onset. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  2. Marked serum procalcitonin level in response to isolated anaphylactic shock.

    PubMed

    Mann, Jason; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present a case report that highlights the limitation of serum procalcitonin levels greater than 10 ng/mL as being almost exclusively secondary to septic shock. Data source was a medical intensive care unit patient at the University of Louisville. Anaphylactic shock may cause elevations of serum procalcitonin to levels greater than 10 ng/mL.

  3. Serum procalcitonin levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Mustafa; Oktay, Esin; Tarhan, Emine F; Aslan, Ozgur; Oflazoglu, Utku; Koseoglu, Mehmet H

    2016-05-01

    Procalcitonin is a marker of bacterial and fungal infection and sepsis. The present study evaluated the relationship between serum procalcitonin levels and disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A total of 61 patients who met the 1984 New York criteria for AS were studied. Twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited to this study as a control group. Disease activity was assessed by the Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). The functional status of patients was evaluated by the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI). Spinal mobility was measured by the Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum procalcitonin levels were measured. Thirty patients were on anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment and 31 patients were on conventional treatment. Seventeen (28%) of the AS patients were active (BASDAI > 4) and 44 (72%) of the AS patients were in remission. The median ESR was 14 (34-6) mm/h and 4 (7-2) mm/h (P < 0.001) for the patient and control groups, respectively. The median CRP level was 0.91 (2.72-0.37) mg/dL and 0.15 (0.25-0.07) mg/dL in the patient and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Median BASDAI, BASFI and BASMI scores for all AS patients were 3.6 (5.25-2.29), 2.5 (4.22-0.91) and 3 (5-1), respectively. Serum procalcitonin levels were normal (< 0.05 ng/mL) for all patients and controls. Serum procalcitonin levels were not high in AS patients and controls, and the levels were independent of disease activity and medications. If bacterial or fungal infection is suspected in an AS patient, serum procalcitonin level may be useful for diagnosis. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Serum Procalcitonin Level Reflects the Severity of Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Hyeon; Park, Seok Don

    2016-01-01

    Background Cellulitis is a common bacterial infection of the superficial skin. Procalcitonin is one of the precursor proteins of calcitonin, its levels are elevated in bacterial infection, and it has been established as a diagnostic marker for severe bacterial infections. Objective This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of procalcitonin for predicting disease severity and prognosis of cellulitis. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 160 patients diagnosed with cellulitis in the past 3 years. Body temperature, procalcitonin, white blood cell (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured on their first day of admission. The associations of procalcitonin, WBC, ESR, and CRP with the body temperature and the number of hospitalized days were assessed. Results Procalcitonin, WBC, and CRP showed a positive correlation with body temperature. In addition, procalcitonin, WBC, ESR, and CRP showed a positive correlation with number of hospitalized days (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients diagnosed with cellulitis, proclacitonin was a helpful parameter to indicate the severity of disease and also a useful predictor of prognosis. PMID:27904269

  5. Usefulness of Measuring Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sook Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The relationships between serum procalcitonin, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal Behçet’s disease (BD) have not been completely determined. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum procalcitonin levels to assess disease activity and infection stage in patients with IBD and intestinal BD. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 129 patients with IBD and intestinal BD for whom serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured between January 2006 and February 2013. Results The median serum procalcitonin levels in the IBD and intestinal BD with septic shock or sepsis (n=8), with localized infection (n=76), and without infection (n=45) were 3.46 ng/mL (range, 0.17 to 63.66 ng/mL), 0.22 ng/mL (range, 0.05 to 140.18 ng/mL), and 0.07 ng/mL (range, 0.00 to 31.50 ng/mL), respectively (p=0.001). The serum CRP levels in the IBD and intestinal BD patients did not differ according to the infection stage. Variations in serum procalcitonin levels were not observed in the IBD and intestinal BD patients with different disease activities. Conclusions Serum procalcitonin levels may not be affected by IBD and intestinal BD activity itself, although they may be affected by concomitant infection. Serum procalcitonin measurements could be more useful than CRP in determining the infection stage that reflects the severity of infection in IBD and intestinal BD patients. PMID:26780089

  6. The clinical significance of serum procalcitonin levels following direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column in septic patients with colorectal perforation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Hanasawa, K; Sato, K; Umeki, M; Koga, N; Naganuma, T; Sato, S; Shimonishi, T; Ikeda, T; Matsuno, N; Ono, S; Saitoh, H; Satoh, K; Otani, Y; Endo, Y; Eguchi, Y; Tani, T

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber columns (PMX) has already been demonstrated in clinical studies for the treatment of septic shock. However, serum procalcitonin levels following PMX remain unknown. This prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized clinical study was performed at 12 institutions. Forty-five patients with severe sepsis or septic shock due to colorectal perforation underwent PMX. Patients' outcome as well as circulating levels of endotoxin, procalcitonin and IL-6 were monitored. Before surgery, procalcitonin level, but not endotoxin and IL-6 levels, was elevated according to patients' septic conditions. Procalcitonin was significantly and positively correlated with sequential organ failure assessment score. Circulating levels of procalcitonin peaked 24 h after PMX treatment. Change in serum procalcitonin level was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than survivors. Nine mortalities were observed within 28 days. The best predictor for 28-day mortality was procalcitonin >85.7 ng/ml at 24 h after PMX (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.808 +/- 0.105). Procalcitonin may be a good indicator of severity of sepsis secondary to colorectal perforation. Furthermore, procalcitonin level at 24 h after PMX appears to predict outcome after PMX. Therefore, procalcitonin may be a useful diagnostic marker to evaluate patients' condition in candidates for PMX treatment. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. High Level Serum Procalcitonin Associated Gouty Arthritis Susceptibility: From a Southern Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Sigdel, Keshav Raj; Wang, Ying; Su, Qun; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Yan Lin; Chen, Jie; Duan, Lihua; Shi, Guixiu

    2015-01-01

    To study the serum Procalcitonin (PCT) level in inflammatory arthritis including gouty arthritis (GA), Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) without any evidence of infection were evaluated the possible discriminative role of PCT in gouty arthritis susceptibility in southern Chinese Han Population. From Feb, 2012 to Feb, 2015, 51 patients with GA, 37 patients with RA, 41 patients with AS and 33 healthy control were enrolled in this study with no evidence of infections. The serum level of PCT (normal range < 0.05 ng/ml) was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Disease activity was determined by scores of VAS (4.07 ± 1.15), DAS28 (4.97 ± 1.12), and ASDAS (2.97 ± 0.81) in GA, RA and AS groups respectively. Other laboratory parameters such as, serum creatinine (CRE), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid (UA) and white blood cells (WBC) were extracted from medical record system. Serum PCT level was predominantly higher in gouty arthritis than in RA and AS patients, especially in the GA patients with tophi. PCT was significantly positively correlated with VAS, CRP and ESR in gouty arthritis and CRP in AS. PCT also had positive correlation-ship with ESR, DAS28 and ASDAS in RA and AS patients respectively, but significant differences were not observed. These data suggested that PCT is not solely a biomarker for infection, but also an indicator in inflammatory arthritis, especially in gouty arthritis.

  8. Significance of Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Wei, Haiyan; Li, Weihua

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the early diagnosis methods of severe pediatric pneumonia. A total of 65 cases hospitalized in pediatric departments and ICU of our hospital because of severe pneumonia were divided into two groups according to pathogen detection. The groups were as follows: 34 cases of bacterial pneumonia, 32 cases of a non-bacterial pneumonia, and 37 cases of healthy children after physical examination in our hospital as the control group. The peripheral blood was sampled from each of the three groups for procalcitonin (PCT). The pediatric PCT level in peripheral blood of the bacterial pneumonia group was significantly higher than that of non-bacterial pneumonia group and the control group. The statistical differences (each at p < 0.01) and the level of pediatric serum PCT in the bacterial pneumonia group before treatment were statistically different from that in the same group after treatment (p < 0.01), while the level of pediatric serum PCT in non-bacterial pneumonia group before treatment was statistical indifferent from that in the same group after treatment (p > 0.01). PCT level in pediatric peripheral blood is an important diagnostic indicator of bacterial infection and a sensitive indicator of distinction between bacterial pneumonia and the non-bacterial pneumonia, thus being of great significance for clinical and differential diagnosis.

  9. Serum Neopterin and Procalcitonin Levels in Relationship with Pediatric Burn Wound Infections.

    PubMed

    Pilanci, Ozgur; Ergin, Sevgi; Sirekbasan, Serhat; Ersin, Idris; Habip, Zafer; Yuksel, Pelin; Kuvat, Nuray; Aslan, Mustafa; Dinc, Oyku; Saribas, Suat; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2016-03-01

    Infection and septic complications in burn patients can be monitored by procalcitonin (PCT) and neopterin plasma values. The aim of the study was to investigate serum neopterin and PCT levels with WBC (white blood cell) and CRP (C-reactive protein) levels in patient group (PG) and healthy control group (HCG) and to investigate the relationship of these markers with burn wound infections (BWI). As the PG, 23 patients between 0-12 ages and up to 30% Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) burned and 15 HCG were included. PCT, neopterin, WBC, and CRP results on the first, the seventh, the fourteenth and the 21st day have been compared. During the follow-up period, 11 patients with BWI and 12 patients without BWI were classified as infected and non-infected patients, respectively. PCT and neopterin levels were detected higher in patients with BWI but no significant difference were present. Also, PCT and neopterin levels within the first 24 hours following the burn were detected higher in PG than HCG. CRP and WBC levels were detected high due to burn trauma. PCT and neopterin levels were increased in patients with BWI. PCT levels were increased during the pre-infectious period, while neopterin levels increased during the post-infectious period.

  10. Usefulness of Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Predicting Tubo-Ovarian Abscess in Patients with Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.

    PubMed

    Erenel, Hakan; Yilmaz, Nevin; Oncul, Mahmut; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat; Ayhan, Isil; Aslan, Berna; Tuten, Abdullah

    2016-09-03

    We aimed to investigate the clinical importance of serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels in the diagnosis of tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Patients diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID; n = 36) and patients diagnosed with TOA (n = 42) were included in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics, laboratory and clinical parameters were compared between the 2 groups. Mean PCT level was higher in the TOA group (p = 0.004). Mean length of stay in hospital was longer in patients with TOA (p < 0.001). White blood cell count, neutrophil count, percentage of neutrophils and C-reactive protein levels were higher than normal limits in all patients; however, no differences in these parameters were observed between the groups. A cutoff level of 0.330 ng/ml for PCT revealed 62% sensitivity and 75% specificity in predicting TOA. Serum PCT is a promising inexpensive marker for the diagnosis of TOA in PID patients.

  11. Serum procalcitonin level for the prediction of severity in women with acute pyelonephritis in the ED: value of procalcitonin in acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ho; Wee, Jung Hee; Choi, Seung Pill; Park, Kyu Nam

    2013-07-01

    Predicting medical outcomes for acute pyelonephritis (APN) in women is difficult. Delay in diagnosis and treatment often results in rapid progression to circulatory collapse, multiple-organ failure, and death. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of procalcitonin (PCT) level in women with APN at ED. We conducted a prospective study of women with APN presenting to the ED. The authors measured inflammatory biomarkers, and the severity of pyelonephritis was assessed by 4 severity of disease classification system and stage of sepsis. We performed an analysis to assess the value of PCT for the prediction of 28-day mortality and disease severity. A total of 240 female patients with APN are included. Patients were divided into 4 groups on the basis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, organ dysfunction, and persistent hypotension. The median PCT level was higher in the septic shock group compared with other groups. Of the other inflammatory markers, only white blood cell count was significantly different among the groups, whereas high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate revealed no differences. The area under the curve for PCT in predicting 28-day mortality was 0.68. For predicting mortality, a cutoff value of 0.42 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 50%. However, the disease classification systems were demonstrated to be superior to PCT in predicting 28-day mortality. Relative to other classic markers of inflammation, by distinguishing the severity of sepsis related to APN, PCT levels can provide additional aid to clinicians in disease severity classification and their decision of treatment at ED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [THE ANALYSTS OF PROCALCITONIN IN LACRIMAL FLUID AND BLOOD SERUM UNDER UVEITIS].

    PubMed

    Konkova, A Yu; Sosnin, D Yu; Gavrilova, T V; Chereshneva, M V

    2015-10-01

    The analysis was applied to concentration of procalcitonin in lacrimal fluid and blood serum in 15 healthy persons (control group), 16 patients with uveitis (main group) and 14 patients with non-inflammatory pathology of organ of vision (comparison group). The concentration of procalcitonin was detected by immunoenzyme method using commercial test-system "Procalcitonin-IFA-BEST" ("Vector-Best", Russia). The content of procalcitonin in blood serum was low (75% quartile--0.031 ng/ml) and had no significant difference between groups (H-criterion of Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.0872). The level of procalcitonin in lacrimal fluid 8-11 times exceeded its concentration in blood serum of all groups (Wilcoxon criterion, p < 0.005). The least content of procalcitonin is detected in lacrimal fluid of patients of comparison group (0.072 ± 0.064 ng/ml). In main and control groups its level was reliably higher (H-criterion of Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.0002) and amounted to 0.257 ± 0.146 and 0.198 ± 0.151 ng/ml correspondingly. The correlation analysis established no dependencies between concentration of procalcitonin in tear and blood serum (Spearman correlation coefficient had no exceeding |0.1| in all groups). The development of uveitis is not accompanied by alteration of concentration of procalcitonin in both blood serum and lacrimal fluid. The absence of correlation and higher concentration of procalcitonin in tear as compared with blood serum testify availability of additional source of this protein in lacrimal fluid.

  13. Comparison of plasma/serum levels of procalcitonin between infection and febrile disease flare in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Peng; Guan, Shi-Yang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Li, Bao-Zhu; Leng, Rui-Xue; Pan, Hai-Feng

    2017-10-03

    Currently published data regarding the potential role of procalcitonin (PCT) for the discrimination between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) flare and infection are contradictory. To derive a more precise evaluation, a meta-analysis was performed. Published literatures from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were obtained. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the study quality. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by random-effect model analysis. Heterogeneity test was performed by the Q statistic and quantified using I (2). Eight studies including 205 SLE flare patients and 198 SLE patients with infection were finally incorporated in the meta-analysis after examining title, type, abstracts, and full text. No significant differences in plasma/serum PCT levels were found between SLE patients with flare and SLE patients with infection when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (pooled SMD = - 0.45, 95% CI = - 0.96 to 0.06). However, subgroup analysis showed that Asian SLE patients with infection had higher plasma/serum PCT levels when compared with SLE patients with flare (p < 0.001). Overall, there is no significant difference in plasma/serum PCT levels between SLE patients with flare and SLE patients with infection. However, plasma/serum PCT levels are significantly higher in Asian SLE patients with infection.

  14. The impact of tracheotomy on levels of procalcitonin in patients without sepsis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xingui; Fu, Chunlai; Wang, Changfa; Cai, Yeping; Zhang, Sheng'an; Guo, Wei; Kuang, Daibing

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Procalcitonin is a reliable biomarker of infection and sepsis. We aimed to determine whether tracheotomy influences the procalcitonin concentrations in patients without sepsis and assess whether operative duration and procedure affect the peak procalcitonin level. METHODS: A total of 38 non-septic patients who required a tracheotomy underwent either a percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (n=19) or a surgical tracheotomy (n=19). Procalcitonin levels were measured at the beginning of the tracheotomy and at 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after the procedure. RESULTS: The baseline procalcitonin concentration before the tracheotomy was 0.24±0.13 ng/mL. The postoperative levels increased rapidly, with a 4-fold elevation after 2 h, reaching a peak 4 h later with a 5-fold increase over baseline. Thereafter, the levels gradually returned to 2-fold greater than the baseline level within 72 h. The peak levels of procalcitonin showed a significant positive correlation with operative durations (r=0.710, p<0.001) and procedures (rho=0.670, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients without sepsis, tracheotomy induces a rapid release of serum procalcitonin, and the operative duration and procedure have significant impacts on the peak procalcitonin levels. Thus, the nonspecific increase in procalcitonin levels following tracheotomy needs to be considered when this measure is used to evaluate infection. PMID:26375562

  15. Serum levels of procalcitonin as a biomarker for differentiating between sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the neurological intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ge; Pan, Su-yue; Ma, Gang; Liao, Wei; Su, Quan-guan; Gu, Bao-chun; Qin, Kun

    2014-07-01

    We explored the value of procalcitonin (PCT) to differentiate sepsis from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and determine sepsis severity in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU). Blood samples were measured for C-reactive protein (CRP) and PCT levels upon NICU admission, on the day of diagnosis of SIRS or sepsis, and at 3 and 7 days after diagnosis. We found that there were significant differences in serum levels of CRP and PCT as well as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score upon admission between the SIRS and sepsis groups (p<0.05). CRP and white blood cell levels were not significantly different when attempting to differentiate sepsis severity (p>0.05). Multiple comparisons showed that significant differences in serum PCT levels were observed between sepsis and severe sepsis groups, as well as sepsis and septic shock groups (p<0.05). We obtained the highest sensitivity and specificity for SIRS and sepsis with cut-off values of 2 ng/mL for PCT, 44 mg/dL for CRP, and 4 for the GCS. There were no differences in CRP and PCT levels between cerebrovascular disease and non-cerebrovascular disease groups (p>0.05). No differences were found between viral and bacterial meningitis groups (p>0.05). PCT levels are valuable in discriminating sepsis from SIRS and determining sepsis severity in critically ill patients with neurological disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic Value of Blood Purification and Prognostic Utilities of Early Serum Procalcitonin, C Reactive Protein, and Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Severely Burned Patients with Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zu, Hongxu; Li, Qinghua; Huang, Peixin; Wang, Xiaorong

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness of blood purification (BP) in severely burned patients with sepsis and to assess the prognostic utilities of early serum levels of procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). One hundred and ninety-five burn sepsis patients admitted in our hospital during May, 2008-May, 2014 were selected for the study and randomly divided into BP treatment (n = 98) and the control groups (n = 97). All of these patients received conventional therapy, while the BP group underwent additional BP treatment. Therapeutic effectiveness and survival rates of the two groups were compared 28 days after the treatment. The BP group was further divided into survivor and mortality groups, and the early serum levels of PCT, CRP, and BNP were compared retrospectively to analyze their relationship with prognosis. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation and sequential organ failure assessment scores in the two groups were not significantly different before the treatment (p > 0.05). However, after the treatment, mortality in BP group (19.39 %) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the controls (27.84 %). Serum levels of PCT and CRP in the survivor and mortality groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the serum BNP was significantly lower in the patients who survived than those who died (p < 0.05). The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis further showed that predictive value of PCT and CRP for the burn sepsis prognosis was low (p > 0.05), however, that of the BNP was good (p < 0.05). The results obtained in this study indicate that BP treatment at an early stage can significantly improve the prognosis of burn sepsis. Furthermore, BNP, an important mediator involved in myocardial infarction and heart failure was found to be positively related with the severity of sepsis suggesting its reliable utility as prognostic indicator of sepsis. Thus, serum

  17. Predicting Value of Serum Procalcitonin, C-Reactive Protein, Drain Fluid Culture, Drain Fluid Interleukin-6, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Levels in Anastomotic Leakage after Rectal Resection.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Ismail Ahmet; Hatipoglu, Engin; Aghayeva, Afag; Arikan, Akif Enes; Incir, Said; Mamal Torun, Müzeyyen; Dirican, Ahmet; Erguney, Sabri

    2017-04-01

    Anastomotic leak is the most dreaded septic complication of colorectal surgical procedures. Death is proportional to the time between occurrence and diagnosis of the leakage. Biomarkers, which may help to predict anastomotic leakage before appearance of its clinical features, may be beneficial in preventing adverse outcomes. This study investigates a biomarker that might be useful to predict rectal anastomotic leakage before its clinical presentation. Serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, bacterial proliferation, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels of drain fluid were evaluated in 50 consecutive patients who underwent low anterior resection without diverting ostomy for rectal carcinoma. Anastomotic leakage occurred in seven of 50 (14%) patients. Serum CRP and procalcitonin levels at post-operative day three were higher in patients with anastomotic leakage (p = 0.01, p = 0.02 respectively). Drain TNF-α values were increased 63.2% on post-operative day five when compared with post-operative day three in patients with anastomotic leakage, but were decreased in patients without leakage. There was no statistical difference for drain IL-6 levels between groups. The bacterial proliferation rate of drain fluid culture in the leakage group was 42.9% at post-operative day three and 85.7% at post-operative day five (p = 0.29 and p = 0.0001, respectively). High serum CRP and procalcitonin values on post-operative day three are alarming, and assessment of anastomotic leakage by abdominal imaging with rectal contrast is suggested. In addition, increasing levels of TNF-α and bacterial proliferation in drain fluid are predictive, whereas IL-6 is not.

  18. Serial procalcitonin levels to detect bacteremia in febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Reitman, Aaron J; Pisk, Rhonda M; Gates, John V; Ozeran, J Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate serial procalcitonin (PCT) levels compared with an initial PCT level at admission in predicting bacteremia in pediatric febrile neutropenic oncology patients. Serum PCT levels were measured at admission (t0) and within 24 hours of admission (t1) in pediatric oncology patients presenting with fever and neutropenia. A blood culture was collected at t0 and monitored for 5 days for bacterial growth. PCT value of 0.5 ng/mL at either t0 or t1 was considered predictive for bacteremia. PCT levels were significantly higher in children with positive blood cultures than with negative blood cultures. Serial PCT values mirrored t1 values. Serial PCT showed 76% specificity and negative predictive value of 93% in ruling out bacteremia. Elevated PCT levels are predictive of bacteremia. Using serial PCT levels within 24 hours allowed a better prediction of bacteremia than the PCT level at t0.

  19. Early prediction of renal parenchymal injury with serum procalcitonin

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Leila; Safaeian, Baranak; Mehrjerdian, Mahshid; Vakili, Mohammad-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in children that can be associated with renal parenchymal injuries and late scars. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan is known as golden standard for detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) that has a lot of difficulties and limitations. Objectives: we designed this study the accuracy of one inflammatory marker, serum procalcitonin (PCT) to identify as an early predictor of renal injuries. Patients and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in 95 patients who admitted in the hospital with the first febrile UTI. Serum PCT of all patients was measured; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) of this marker was analyzed compared to DMSA scan. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In total, 79 females and 16 males were investigated. There are 42 cases in group 1 with normal DMSA scan and 53 patients in group two with renal parenchymal injuries in their scans. Mann-Whitney test showed a meaningful relation between the two groups regarding PCT level (P<0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of PCT reported in optimum cut off were 70%, 88.1%, 88.1% and 70%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of PCT test was 5.8. Conclusion: In the current survey, PCT was the eligible inflammatory marker to predict renal parenchymal injuries in children with proper sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV that play also a pivotal role in the children aged less than 24 months, although, more studies should be undertaken to confirm. PMID:27689104

  20. Association between inflammatory biomarker serum procalcitonin and obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rashad, Nearmeen M; El-Shal, Amal S; Abdelaziz, Ahmed M

    2013-04-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is a potential biomarker of obesity-related, low-grade inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to investigate whether serum procalcitonin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and with obesity. A case-control study included 107 women with PCOS and 93 healthy controls, they were then stratified according to their body mass index (BMI) into three subgroups; lean, overweight and obese. Serum PCT levels were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. PCOS patients had significantly higher levels of serum PCT, hs-CRP, WBC, and neutrophil counts than healthy women. In control and PCOS groups, serum PCT, hs-CRP levels, WBC, and neutrophil counts were significantly increased in overweight and obese women compared with lean subjects. Serum PCT levels were positively correlated with BMI, waist/hip ratio, total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, LH/FSH, hs-CRP values, WBC and neutrophil counts in PCOS women. We also observed that the increasing obesity was accompanied by a significant increase in the mean values of serum PCT and neutrophil counts in PCOS patients. We conclude that serum PCT is a novel biomarker for low-grade chronic inflammation in PCOS patients, especially in obese women. Thus, PCT is a promising useful marker for accurate diagnosis of the inflammatory activity of body fat and of PCOS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of a research use only luminex based assay for measurement of procalcitonin in serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Garrigan, Charles; Han, Jennifer; Tolomeo, Pam; Johnson, Katherine J; Master, Stephen R; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Research use only (RUO) assays do not undergo a validation process similar to test kits used for clinical purposes. Several studies have suggested that RUO assays need to be validated prior to use in any research studies. We evaluated a research use only Luminex platform based assay for measuring serum procalcitonin levels (Bio-Plex ProTM Human Acute Phase Multiplex Assay, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) for comparability with an FDA cleared assay for procalcitonin (VIDAS B.R.A.H.M.S. PCT Assay, bioMérieux, Durham, NC). We tested 1,072 serum samples collected from patients with suspected sepsis in an intensive care unit setting for the comparison. There was poor correlation of the luminex based assay (r=0.081) with the VIDAS PCT Assay in the clinically relevant measurement range (<10 ng/mL). Additionally the Bio-Plex assay showed poor precision. Mass-spectrometry analysis of material eluted from PCT beads did not reveal any identifiable procalcitonin. The results show that research use only assays need to be validated to determine their suitability for research studies. PMID:27830020

  2. Serum Procalcitonin and Procalcitonin Clearance as a Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min-Yi; Chen, Chun-Yu; Chien, Ju-Huei; Wu, Kun-Hsi; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the tendency of the plasma concentration and procalcitonin (PCT) clearance (PCTc) to act as biomarkers of prognosis in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. From 2011 to 2013, we prospectively analyzed patients with sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The serum PCT was evaluated at the time of sepsis diagnosis and again after 48 h (day 3) and 96 h (day 5). PCTc after 48 h (PCTc-day 3) and 96 h (PCTc-day 5) was also calculated to evaluate the prognostic value for survival in patients with sepsis. A total of 48 patients were included. Overall mortality was 16.7% (8 patients). PCTc was higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors, with significant differences on day 3 and day 5 (p = 0.033; p = 0.002, resp.); however, serum PCT levels on day 1, day 3, and day 5 were not significant prognostic factors for survival. The prognosis of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock may be associated with PCTc. Dynamic changes of PCT reflected as PCTc at 48 h (day 3) and 96 h (day 5) after admission to the ICU may serve as a predictor of survival in critically ill patients with severe sepsis.

  3. Serum Procalcitonin and Procalcitonin Clearance as a Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min-Yi; Chen, Chun-Yu; Chien, Ju-Huei; Wu, Kun-Hsi; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the tendency of the plasma concentration and procalcitonin (PCT) clearance (PCTc) to act as biomarkers of prognosis in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. From 2011 to 2013, we prospectively analyzed patients with sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The serum PCT was evaluated at the time of sepsis diagnosis and again after 48 h (day 3) and 96 h (day 5). PCTc after 48 h (PCTc-day 3) and 96 h (PCTc-day 5) was also calculated to evaluate the prognostic value for survival in patients with sepsis. A total of 48 patients were included. Overall mortality was 16.7% (8 patients). PCTc was higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors, with significant differences on day 3 and day 5 (p = 0.033; p = 0.002, resp.); however, serum PCT levels on day 1, day 3, and day 5 were not significant prognostic factors for survival. The prognosis of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock may be associated with PCTc. Dynamic changes of PCT reflected as PCTc at 48 h (day 3) and 96 h (day 5) after admission to the ICU may serve as a predictor of survival in critically ill patients with severe sepsis. PMID:27088084

  4. Cirrhotic Ascites management via procalcitonin level and a new approach B-mode gray-scale histogram.

    PubMed

    Şahintürk, Yasin; Çekiç, Bülent; Zorlu Görgülügil, Gizem; Harmandar, Ferda Akbay; Uyar, Seyit; Çekin, Yeşim; Çekin, Ayhan Hilmi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the role of serum procalcitonin levels and ascites/subcutaneous echogenicity ratio (ASER) in predicting ascites infection in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. A total of 50 patients hospitalized because of cirrhosis-related ascites were included in this study. In these patients, 44% of ascites were infected (peritonitis), whereas 56% of ascites were sterile. These two groups were compared in terms of procalcitonin levels and ASER for predicting ascites infection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ASER, and the predicting outcome of ASER was compared with procalcitonin levels. The ASER values of the patients with the diagnosis of infected ascites were significantly higher than in those with the diagnosis of sterile ascites (p<0.001). ROC analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic ASER value for infected ascites. An ASER greater than 0.0019 determined peritonitis with 95.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. A procalcitonin level greater than 0.05 determined peritonitis with 86.4% sensitivity and 75% specificity. Using ROC analysis, an ASER greater than 0.0019 [area under curve (AUC): 0.974, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.884-0.999, p<0.001)] was a significantly better diagnostic marker than a procalcitonin level >0.5 mg/dL [AUC: 0.860, 95% CI (0.884-0.999, p<0.001) (p<0.045)]. According to our findings, the determination of ASER and serum procalcitonin levels seems to provide satisfactory diagnostic accuracy in differentiating ascites infections in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. ASER values significantly differentiate ascites infections better than procalcitonin levels.

  5. Correlation of serum procalcitonin with the severity of skin and skin structure infections - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Eder, Johanna; Hlavin, Gerald; Haushofer, Alexander; Trubert-Exinger, Doris; Trautinger, Franz

    2012-08-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is a specific biomarker for early detection of bacterial infections. While the usefulness of procalcitonin in severe conditions such as sepsis is well established, its relevance in the diagnosis and prognosis of localized cutaneous bacterial infections is unknown. Our aim was to initially evaluate if PCT is a useful parameter for predicting the severity of skin and skin structure infections (SSSI). Furthermore, the correlation of PCT levels with C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and body temperature was investigated. Serum PCT, routine laboratory parameters, and body temperature were regularly examined in 50 consecutive patients with SSSI requiring inpatient intravenous antibiotic treatment. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to the guidelines developed by the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) as having either an uncomplicated (SSSI) or a complicated skin and skin structure infection (cSSSI). No significant correlation could be detected between the length of inpatient antibiotic treatment and PCT on days 1, 2, 3, and the maximum value on these days. The same result was found when uncomplicated SSSI and complicated SSSI (cSSSI) were evaluated separately. However, PCT levels were significantly higher in the latter. Furthermore, PCT levels showed a significant correlation with CRP, leukocyte count, ESR, and body temperature. PCT might be a useful additional tool for initial diagnosis and monitoring of patients with SSSI. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin>

  6. Serum levels of procalcitonin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein are associated with long-term mortality in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Mei; Liu, Xue-Yuan

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the prognostic value of systemic inflammation, as measured by the inflammatory biomarkers PCT and Hs-CRP, to predict the long-term mortality in ischemic stroke patients. We prospectively studied 374 patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted within 24h after the onset of symptoms. Serum levels of PCT, Hs-CRP and NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) were measured at the time of admission. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1 year. The prognostic value of PCT to predict the mortality within one year was compared with Hs-CRP, NIHSS and with other known outcome predictors. In the 64 non-survival patients, serum PCT levels were significantly (P<0.0001) higher compared with those in survival patients. Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that log-transformed PCT and Hs-CRP were independent mortality predictors with adjusted hazard ratio of 4.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.42-6.30) and 15.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.25-41.08). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of PCT and Hs-CRP were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.85-0.93) and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.59-0.77) for mortality, respectively. Serum levels of PCT and HS-CRP at admission were independent predictor of long-term mortality after ischemic stroke in a Chinese sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Elevated postoperative serum procalcitonin is not indicative of bacterial infection in cardiac surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Murali; Kavaraganahalli, Deepak; Pargaonkar, Sumant; Hosur, Rajathadri; Harivelam, Chidananda; Bharadwaj, Ashwin; Raghunathan, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    Identifying infections early, commencing appropriate empiric antibiotic not only helps gain control early, but also reduces mortality and morbidity. Conventional cultures take about 5 days to identify infections. To identify the infections early biomarker like serum procalcitonin (SPC). We studied the correlation of an elevated level of SPC and positive culture in elective adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This prospective study was conducted from January to December 2013. SPC was checked in patients showing evidence of sepsis. Simultaneously, relevant culture was also undertaken. Correlation, specificity, and sensitivity of elevated SPC were checked. A total of 819 adult patients were included in the study. 43 of them had signs of infection and SPC levels were checked. Based on the level of SPC criteria, 10 patients were diagnosed as "nil", out of them, 4 had culture-positive infections, 17 were suggested to have "mild infection," 3 out those had culture positivity. None among the eleven patients suggested to have "moderate infection," had a positive culture, and one among the five suggested to have a severe infection had a positive culture. The sensitivity was 50% and the specificity 17%. The positive predictive value was 12% and the negative predictive value 60%. We failed to elicit positive correlation between elevated SPC levels and postoperative infection in cardio surgical patients.

  8. Serum procalcitonin as an early marker of neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ballot, Daynia E; Perovic, Olga; Galpin, Jacky; Cooper, Peter A

    2004-10-01

    It has recently been suggested that procalcitonin (PCT) is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. This study was to evaluate the role of PCT as a single early marker of neonatal sepsis. Neonatal Unit, Johannesburg Hospital, and Microbiology Laboratory, National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), South Africa. Neonates undergoing evaluation for sepsis between April and August 2002 were eligible for inclusion. Patients were categorised into 'no infection', 'possible infection' and 'definite infection' on the basis of C-reactive protein (CRP), white cell count (WCC), platelet count and blood culture results. PCT was correlated with infection categories. One hundred and eighty-three neonates were enrolled. One hundred and eighteen had no infection, 52 possible infection and 13 definite infection. PCT differed significantly among infection categories (p < 0.0001) and correlated significantly with CRP at presentation (correlation coefficient 0.404, p < 0.001) and CRP at 24 hours (correlation coefficient 0.343, p < 0.001). PCT predicted 89.5% of definite infection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for PCT to predict definite infection showed odds ratio (OR) 1.145 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.25) with an area under the curve of 0.778. PCT had a negative predictive value of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.915-0.988) for definite infection. Although PCT was significantly related to the category of infection, it is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis. PCT would be useful as part of a full sepsis evaluation, but is relatively expensive. A negative PCT on presentation may rule out sepsis, but this needs to be evaluated further.

  9. Comparison of serum calcitonin and procalcitonin in detecting medullary thyroid carcinoma among patients with thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Verburg, Frederik A; Imperiali, Mauro; Valabrega, Stefano; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Ceriani, Luca

    2013-07-01

    To prospectively evaluate the role of procalcitonin (PCT) in detecting or excluding medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) among patients with thyroid nodules and increased calcitonin (CT) levels. Fourteen of 1236 patients referred for thyroid nodules had increased serum CT >10 pg/mL. A stimulation test with pentagastrin was done and both CT and PCT were measured after stimulation. All patients underwent thyroid ultrasound, fine-needle cytology and, if indicated, surgery with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the surgical specimens. After follow-up, two MTCs were found. These two patients had basal CT >100 pg/mL and detectable (>0.1 ng/mL) PCT, with 100% sensitivity. Pentagastrin stimulated CT achieved values above 100 pg/mL in two MTCs and in other two cases with no MTC outcome (50% PPV and 83% NPV). On the contrary, all patients with no MTC had both basal and stimulated undetectable PCT (100% PPV and 100% NPV). The addition of basal PCT measurement in patients with thyroid nodule(s) and increased CT may significantly improve accuracy of CT measurement without needing a PG stimulation test.

  10. Serum Procalcitonin for Differentiating Bacterial Infection from Disease Flares in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Kowoon; Lim, Mie-Jin; Kwon, Seong-Ryul; Yoon, Jiyeol

    2011-01-01

    Early differentiation between bacterial infections and disease flares in autoimmune disease patients is important due to different treatments. Seventy-nine autoimmune disease patients with symptoms suggestive of infections or disease flares were collected by retrospective chart review. The patients were later classified into two groups, disease flare and infection. C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels were measured. The CRP and PCT levels were higher in the infection group than the disease flare group (CRP,11.96 mg/dL ± 9.60 vs 6.42 mg/dL ± 7.01, P = 0.003; PCT, 2.44 ng/mL ± 6.55 vs 0.09 ng/mL ± 0.09, P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC; 95% confidence interval) for CRP and PCT was 0.70 (0.58-0.82) and 0.84 (0.75-0.93), which showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). The predicted AUC for the CRP and PCT levels combined was 0.83, which was not significantly different compared to the PCT level alone (P = 0.80). The best cut-off value for CRP was 7.18 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 71.9% and a specificity of 68.1%. The best cut-off value for PCT was 0.09 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 78.7%. The PCT level had better sensitivity and specificity compared to the CRP level in distinguishing between bacterial infections and disease flares in autoimmune disease patients. The CRP level has no additive value when combined with the PCT level when differentiating bacterial infections from disease flares. PMID:21935268

  11. Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin Levels in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Yunus; Gündüz, Abdulkadir; Türkmen, Süha; Menteşe, Ahmet; Türedi, Süleyman; Eryiğit, Umut; Karahan, Süleyman Caner

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a potentially fatal disease. Difficulties in diagnosis make it essential to find early biomarkers. Aims: This study investigated the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in AMI. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In the experimental group, an experimental ischemia model was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery from the aortic outflow tract. Blood and tissue specimens were collected from rats in the experimental mesenteric ischemia model at 30 min and 2 and 6 h, and these were compared with specimens from the respective control groups. PCT levels were compared at 30 min and 2 and 6 h. Results: PCT levels were 185.3 pg/mL in the control group and 219.3 pg/mL in the study group, 199.6 pg/mL in the control group and 243.9 pg/mL in the study group, and 201.9 pg/mL in the control group and 286.9 pg/mL in the study group, respectively, at 30 minute, 2 and 6 hours. Significant differences were determined between 6-h control group and ischemia group PCT levels (p=0.005). Conclusion: The absence of a significant increase in PCT levels in the early period, while a significant difference was detected in the later period (6 h), shows that PCT levels rise late in mesenteric ischemia and can be a marker in the late period. PMID:26185718

  12. Molecular mechanisms underlying application of serum procalcitonin and stool miR-637 in prognosis of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Mei; Liu, Xue-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We and others have reported that the serum procalcitonin (PCT) level has a demonstrative role in predicting the long-term mortality after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in Chinese population. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. In the current study, we further detected a close association of stool microRNA-637 (miR-637) levels with the long-term mortality after AIS in Chinese population. Moreover, the serum PCT and stool miR-637 levels appeared to be inversely correlated. AIS patients with lower levels of stool miR-637 appeared to predict more severe mortality in the long-term. Since PCT has been shown to be mainly produced by the neuroendocrine cells in the intestine, we used an intestine neuroendocrine cell line to study the relationship between miR-637 and PCT. Bioinformatics analyses showed that miR-637 targeted the 3’-UTR of PCT mRNA to inhibit its translation, and thus the levels of PCT protein production and secretion, which was proved by luciferase reporter assay. Together, our data reveal that the molecular mechanisms underlying application of serum PCT and stool miR-637 in prognosis of AIS, in which miR-637 in intestine neuroendocrine cells may be reduced during AIS to allow more PCT to be released into serum to be detected. PMID:27830008

  13. Serum Procalcitonin as a Useful Serologic Marker for Differential Diagnosis between Acute Gouty Attack and Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with gout are similar to those with bacterial infection in terms of the nature of inflammation. Herein we compared the differences in procalcitonin (PCT) levels between these two inflammatory conditions and evaluated the ability of serum PCT to function as a clinical marker for differential diagnosis between acute gouty attack and bacterial infection. Materials and Methods Serum samples were obtained from 67 patients with acute gouty arthritis and 90 age-matched patients with bacterial infection. Serum PCT levels were measured with an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay. Results Serum PCT levels in patients with acute gouty arthritis were significantly lower than those in patients with bacterial infection (0.096±0.105 ng/mL vs. 4.94±13.763 ng/mL, p=0.001). However, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels showed no significant differences between the two groups. To assess the ability of PCT to discriminate between acute gouty arthritis and bacterial infection, the areas under the curves (AUCs) of serum PCT, uric acid, and CRP were 0.857 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.798–0.917, p<0.001], 0.808 (95% CI, 0.738–0.878, p<0.001), and 0.638 (95% CI, 0.544–0.731, p=0.005), respectively. There were no significant differences in ESR and white blood cell counts between these two conditions. With a cut-off value of 0.095 ng/mL, the sums of sensitivity and specificity of PCT were the highest (81.0% and 80.6%, respectively). Conclusion Serum PCT levels were significantly lower in patients with acute gouty attack than in patients with bacterial infection. Thus, serum PCT can be used as a useful serologic marker to differentiate between acute gouty arthritis and bacterial infections. PMID:27401644

  14. Serum procalcitonin in Egyptian patients with acute meningitis and a negative direct cerebrospinal fluid examination.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Nadia A; Mahmoud, Waheed A; Saber, Sally Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the morbidity and mortality related to bacterial meningitis, it is important to discriminate bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis during the acute phase of the disease, when the clinical symptoms are often similar. To test the reliability of serum procalcitonin (PCT) to discriminate bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis in patients who have a negative direct cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, and to evaluate the role of serum PCT to assess treatment efficacy compared with the total leukocyte count (TLC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Forty patients with suspected acute meningitis and negative gram stains were included, and ten healthy persons were included as controls. According to the clinical examination and the CSF cytochemical analysis and cultures, the patients were divided into bacterial and aseptic groups. The measurements of serum PCT, ESR, CRP and TLC were performed. Patients in the bacterial group had a higher value of serum PCT at admission and at 3 days post-treatment than those in the aseptic group, with a highly significant difference between them. Serum PCT and, to a lesser extent, TLC had prognostic value in patients with acute meningitis, and PCT is more useful because it can be frequently measured for the diagnosis and follow-up of bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by high serum procalcitonin in acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Oku, Eijiro; Nomura, Kei; Nakamura, Takayuki; Morishige, Satoshi; Seki, Ritsuko; Imamura, Rie; Hashiguchi, Michitoshi; Osaki, Kouichi; Mizuno, Shinichi; Nagafuji, Koji; Okamura, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    We present a case of amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with high serum procalcitonin (PCT). A 61-year-old Japanese man seen at our hospital for severe diarrhea and high fever was found to have multiple ulcers in the transverse and sigmoid colon and rectum by colonoscopy and biopsies were conducted. Immature leukocytes with mild anemia and thrombocytopenia were seen in peripheral blood, necessitating bone marrow aspiration and biopsy that yielded a diagnosis of AML (FAB M4Eo). Serum C-reactive protein and PCT were extremely elevated. Blood cultures for bacteria and fungi were negative. Multiple low-density areas in the liver were found in abdominal computed tomography. Histological colon biopsy findings revealed amebic colitis, strongly suggesting amebic liver abscess. Metronidazole treatment was initiated for amebiasis and subsequent standard chemotherapy for AML was followed after fever was lowered. Hematological and cytogenetic CR was maintained with good clinical condition. Few case reports have been published in Japan to date on amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by AML and no reports have been made on PCT elevation caused by amebiasis. In conclusion, differential diagnosis of amebiasis is necessary in addition to that of bacterial or fungal infection in serum PCT elevation.

  16. Are serum procalcitonin and interleukin-1 beta suitable markers for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children?

    PubMed

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Ahmadi, Reza; Daneshi-Kohan, Mohammad Mahdi; Hashemi, Hassan Jahani; Dalirani, Reza; Moshiri, Seyed Alireza; Habibi, Morteza; Sahmani, Mehdi; Sahmani, Ahmad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis is important because of its association with long-standing complications. This study was conducted to compare the reliability of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) with conventional laboratory parameters for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children. Seventy nine children with urinary tract infection were divided into two groups based on the result of Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan: acute pyelonephritis (n=33) and lower UTI (urinary tract infection) (n=46) groups. White blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), PCT and IL-1β concentrations of both groups were measured and compared. WBC count, neutrophil count, ESR, serum CRP, PCT and IL-1β concentrations were higher in acute pyelonephritis patients than in the lower UTI group (P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of serum PCT and IL-1β for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis were 31, 84.7% and 27.2, 90% respectively (using a cut-point value of 0.5 ng/ml for PCT and 6.9 pg/ml for IL-1β). The sensitivity of PCT and IL-1β for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis was less than that of conventional markers such as ESR and CRP. This study revealed that serum PCT and IL-1β are not good biologic markers for differentiating acute pyelonephritis from lower UTI. It seems that conventional inflammatory markers such as ESR and CRP besides the clinical findings are more reliable for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children.

  17. Procalcitonin as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Factor for Tuberculosis Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseung; Kim, Si Eun; Park, Bong Soo; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Kim, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We investigated the potential role of serum procalcitonin in differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial and viral meningitis, and in predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. Methods This was a retrospective study of 26 patients with tuberculosis meningitis. In addition, 70 patients with bacterial meningitis and 49 patients with viral meningitis were included as the disease control groups for comparison. The serum procalcitonin level was measured in all patients at admission. Differences in demographic and laboratory data, including the procalcitonin level, were analyzed among the three groups. In addition, we analyzed the predictive factors for a prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at discharge, and the correlation between the level of procalcitonin and the GCS score at discharge. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a low level of procalcitonin (≤1.27 ng/mL) independently distinguished tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis. The sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis were 96.2% and 62.9%, respectively. However, the level of procalcitonin in patients with tuberculosis meningitis did not differ significantly from that in patients with viral meningitis. In patients with tuberculosis meningitis, a high level of procalcitonin (>0.4 ng/mL) was a predictor of a poor prognosis, and the level of procalcitonin was negatively correlated with the GCS score at discharge (r=-0.437, p=0.026). Conclusions We found that serum procalcitonin is a useful marker for differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis and is also valuable for predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. PMID:27165424

  18. The First Trimester Gravid Serum Regulates Procalcitonin Expression in Human Macrophages Skewing Their Phenotype In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Radillo, Oriano

    2014-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is one of the best diagnostic and prognostic markers in clinical practice, widely used to evaluate the evolution of bacterial infections. Although it is mainly produced by thyroid, during sepsis almost all the peripheral tissues are involved in PCT production. Parenchymal cells have been suggested as the main source of PCT expression; however the contribution of macrophages is not clear yet. In response to environmental cues, tissue macrophages acquire distinct functional phenotypes, ranging from proinflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Macrophages at the fetal-maternal interface show immunosuppressive M2-like activities required for the maintenance of immunological homeostasis during pregnancy. This study aims to clarify the ability to synthesise PCT of fully differentiated (M0), polarized (M1/M2) macrophages and those cultured either in the presence of first trimester gravid serum (GS) or pregnancy hormones. We found out that M1 macrophages upregulate PCT expression following LPS stimulation compared to M0 and M2. The GS downregulates PCT expression in macrophages, skewing them towards an M2-like phenotype. This effect seems only partially mediated by the hormonal milieu. Our findings strengthen the key role of macrophages in counteracting inflammatory stimuli during pregnancy, suggesting PCT as a possible new marker of M1-like macrophages. PMID:24733960

  19. The first trimester gravid serum regulates procalcitonin expression in human macrophages skewing their phenotype in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rami, Damiano; La Bianca, Martina; Agostinis, Chiara; Zauli, Giorgio; Radillo, Oriano; Bulla, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is one of the best diagnostic and prognostic markers in clinical practice, widely used to evaluate the evolution of bacterial infections. Although it is mainly produced by thyroid, during sepsis almost all the peripheral tissues are involved in PCT production. Parenchymal cells have been suggested as the main source of PCT expression; however the contribution of macrophages is not clear yet. In response to environmental cues, tissue macrophages acquire distinct functional phenotypes, ranging from proinflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Macrophages at the fetal-maternal interface show immunosuppressive M2-like activities required for the maintenance of immunological homeostasis during pregnancy. This study aims to clarify the ability to synthesise PCT of fully differentiated (M0), polarized (M1/M2) macrophages and those cultured either in the presence of first trimester gravid serum (GS) or pregnancy hormones. We found out that M1 macrophages upregulate PCT expression following LPS stimulation compared to M0 and M2. The GS downregulates PCT expression in macrophages, skewing them towards an M2-like phenotype. This effect seems only partially mediated by the hormonal milieu. Our findings strengthen the key role of macrophages in counteracting inflammatory stimuli during pregnancy, suggesting PCT as a possible new marker of M1-like macrophages.

  20. Serum procalcitonin is a marker for prediction of readmission from an intermediate care to an acute care hospital in neurosurgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jia Xu; King, Nicolas; Low, Sharon; Ng, Wai Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Readmission of patients to acute hospitals contributes significantly toward inefficient utilization of healthcare resources, with studies quoting up to 90% being preventable. We aim to report and analyze the factors involved in the readmission of neurosurgical patients who had been previously transferred to an intermediate step-down care facility, and explore possible predictive markers for such readmissions. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all 129 neurosurgical patients who were transferred from out acute tertiary hospital to an intermediate care facility. The cases were segregated into those who were readmitted and those who were not readmitted back to our acute center. The demographic data, clinical features, diagnoses, treatment modalities, pretransfer laboratory findings, and inpatient complications were compared with readmission rate. Results: There were 23 patients (17.8%) who were readmitted to our acute hospital. The most common causes of readmission was infection (n = 12, 52.2%). We found a statistically significant correlation between the higher pretransfer procalcitonin levels with the readmission of our patients (P = 0.037). There was also a significant difference noted between ethnic groups (P = 0.026) and having no complications of disease or treatment (P = 0.008), with readmission. Conclusion: Procalcitonin is a pro-hormone known to correlate with infection and poor neurological status. We have found that its serum values correlate significantly with the readmission rates of neurosurgical patients in our study. We postulate that by ensuring normality in procalcitonin levels prior to transfer to an intermediate care facility, potentially half of neurosurgical readmissions can be prevented. PMID:26430533

  1. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and serum lactate dehydrogenase in the diagnosis of bacterial sepsis, SIRS and systemic candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, Fabio; Faneschi, Maria Letizia; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Palumbo, Claudio; Rizzo, Adriana; Cucurachi, Marco; Portaccio, Gerolamo; Guerra, Francesco; Pizzolante, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), platelet count (PLT) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as early markers for diagnosis of SIRS, bacterial sepsis and systemic candidiasis in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on blood culture results, the patients were divided into a sepsis group (70 patients), a SIRS group (42 patients) and a systemic candidiasis group (33 patients). PCT, CRP, LDH and PLT levels were measured on day 0 and on day 2 from the sepsis symptom onset. PCT levels were higher in Gram negative sepsis than those in Gram positive sepsis, although the P value between the two subgroups is not significant (P=0.095). Bacterial sepsis group had higher PCT and CRP levels compared with the systemic candidiasis group, whereas PLT and LDH levels showed similar levels in these two subgroups. The AUC for PCT (AUC: 0.892, P <0.001) was larger than for CRP (AUC: 0.738, P <0.001). The best cut-off values for PCT and CRP were 0.99 ng/mL and 76.2 mg/L, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for PCT were 84.3% and 81.8% whereas CRP showed a sensitivity of 77.2% and a specificity of 63.6%. However, PCT was unable to discriminate between SIRS and systemic candidiasis groups (P=0.093 N.S.). In conclusion, PCT can be used as a preliminary marker in the event of clinical suspicion of systemic candidiasis; however, low PCT levels (<0.99 ng/mL) necessarily require the use of other specific markers of candidaemia to confirm the diagnosis, due to great uniformity of PCT levels in systemic candidiasis and SIRS groups.

  2. Marked elevation of procalcitonin level can lead to a misdiagnosis of anaphylactic shock as septic shock.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jun; Kang, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Hoon; Cho, Ji Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with hyperthermia and hypotension is reported. Laboratory test results revealed marked elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels. The clinical presentation and laboratory test results were suggestive of septic shock. No infectious focus was identified. The shock recurred after what was subsequently understood to be an unintended re-challenge with risedronate sodium. Drug-induced anaphylactic shock was finally diagnosed. Anaphylactic shock may be misdiagnosed as septic shock in patients who present with markedly elevated PCT levels. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Is Maternal Blood Procalcitonin Level a Reliable Predictor for Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes?

    PubMed

    Cetin, Orkun; Aydın, Zuhal Dilek; Verit, Fatma Ferda; Zebitay, Ali Galip; Karaman, Erbil; Elasan, Sadi; Turfan, Mehtap; Yucel, Oguz

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at comparing the early diagnostic accuracy of maternal blood white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin in predicting early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) among early preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) pregnancies. A total of 57 consecutive pregnancies, complicated with PPROM, between 24 and 34 gestational weeks were recruited to the study at Suleymaniye Maternity Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey between January 2012 and January 2013. All patients were hospitalized and followed up with expectant management. Maternal blood WBC count, CRP and procalcitonin levels were measured in the first 12 h of membrane rupture. EONS was diagnosed using clinical and laboratory findings, and obstetric and neonatal outcomes were noted. The cutoff value for maternal blood CRP was ≥9.49 mg/dl. This value predicted EONS with 77.8% sensitivity, 80.0% specificity, 77.8% positive predictive value (PPV) and 80.0% negative predictive value (NPV). The cutoff value for maternal blood procalcitonin was 0.071 ng/ml. This value predicted EONS with 85.2% sensitivity, 86.7% specificity, 85.2% PPV and 86.7% NPV. Maternal blood procalcitonin levels were superior to maternal blood CRP and WBC count in predicting EONS. Consequently, the maternal blood procalcitonin level is a clinically useful, non-invasive and reliable biomarker in antenatal prediction of EONS. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Serum Procalcitonin Measurement and Viral Testing to Guide Antibiotic Use for Respiratory Infections in Hospitalized Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Branche, Angela R.; Walsh, Edward E.; Vargas, Roberto; Hulbert, Barbara; Formica, Maria A.; Baran, Andrea; Peterson, Derick R.; Falsey, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) frequently causes adult hospitalization and is linked to antibiotic overuse. European studies suggest that the serum procalcitonin (PCT) level may be used to guide antibiotic therapy. We conducted a trial assessing the feasibility of using PCT algorithms with viral testing to guide antibiotic use in a US hospital. Methods. Three hundred patients hospitalized with nonpneumonic LRTI during October 2013–April 2014 were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to receive standard care or PCT-guided care and viral PCR testing. The primary outcome was antibiotic exposure, and safety was assessed at 1 and 3 months. Results. Among the 151 patients in the intervention group, viruses were identified in 42% (63), and 83% (126) had PCT values of <0.25 µg/mL. There were no significant differences in antibiotic use or adverse events between intervention patients and those in the nonintervention group. Subgroup analyses revealed fewer subjects with positive results of viral testing and low PCT values who were discharged receiving antibiotics (20% vs 45%; P = .002) and shorter antibiotic durations among algorithm-adherent intervention patients versus nonintervention patients (2.0 vs 4.0 days; P = .004). Compared with historical controls (from 2008–2011), antibiotic duration in nonintervention patients decreased by 2 days (6.0 vs 4.0 days; P < .001), suggesting a study effect. Conclusions. Although antibiotic use was similar in the 2 arms, subgroup analyses of intervention patients suggest that physicians responded to viral and biomarker data. These data can inform the design of future US studies. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01907659. PMID:25910632

  5. Relationship of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and procalcitonin levels with the presence and severity of the preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Artunc-Ulkumen, Burcu; Guvenc, Yesim; Goker, Asli; Gozukara, Ceyhun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in maternal serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations in preeclampsia. This case-control study consisted of 40 preeclamptic and 40 healthy singleton pregnancies matched for age and body mass index. Serum NGAL and PCT levels were compared between the groups. Diagnostic performance and clinical association of these markers were evaluated. NGAL and PCT concentrations were significantly higher in preeclamptic group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively) and their levels were correlated with the severity of the preeclampsia. There were significant positive correlation between these markers and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and spot urine protein excretion. There was negative correlation between NGAL and apgar scores and fetal birth weight. Pregnancies with higher NGAL (OR: 4.89; 95% CI: 1.81-13.21) and higher PCT (OR: 6.67; 95% CI: 2.44-18.21) concentrations had higher risk for preeclampsia. NGAL and PCT may be potential biomarkers for preeclampsia. Their levels increase significantly in preeclampsia and they are related to the severity of the disease. These results are in agreement with the generalized endothelial damage and persistant inflammatory status in preeclampsia. NGAL may also be an indicator for adverse neonatal outcomes with decreased placental hypoperfusion.

  6. Serum Procalcitonin and Peripheral Venous Lactate for Predicting Dengue Shock and/or Organ Failure: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Thanachartwet, Vipa; Desakorn, Varunee; Sahassananda, Duangjai; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Oer-areemitr, Nittha; Osothsomboon, Sathaporn; Surabotsophon, Manoon; Wattanathum, Anan

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, there are no biomarkers that can predict the incidence of dengue shock and/or organ failure, although the early identification of risk factors is important in determining appropriate management to reduce mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the factors associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure and to evaluate the prognostic value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and peripheral venous lactate (PVL) levels as biomarkers of dengue shock and/or organ failure. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective observational study was conducted among adults hospitalized for confirmed viral dengue infection at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Bangkok, Thailand between October 2013 and July 2015. Data, including baseline characteristics, clinical parameters, laboratory findings, serum PCT and PVL levels, management, and outcomes, were recorded on pre-defined case report forms. Of 160 patients with dengue, 128 (80.0%) patients had dengue without shock or organ failure, whereas 32 (20.0%) patients developed dengue with shock and/or organ failure. Using a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR]: 4.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60–14.45; p = 0.005) and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L (OR: 27.99, 95% CI: 8.47–92.53; p <0.001) were independently associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure. A combination of PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L provided good prognostic value for predicting dengue shock and/or organ failure, with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74–0.92), a sensitivity of 81.2% (95% CI: 63.6–92.8%), and a specificity of 84.4% (95% CI: 76.9–90.2%). Dengue shock patients with non-clearance of PCT and PVL expired during hospitalization. Conclusions/Significance PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L were independently associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure. The combination of PCT and PVL levels could be used as prognostic

  7. Plasma levels of procalcitonin and eight additional inflammatory molecules in febrile neutropenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Neuenschwander, Letícia Carvalho; Bittencourt, Henrique; Tibúrcio Ribeiro, Ana Flávia; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Teixeira, Jairo Cerqueira; Nobre, Vandack

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between different inflammatory markers and specific clinical endpoints in patients with febrile neutropenia. METHOD: We prospectively evaluated the expression of procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin 8 (IL-8), induced protein-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), two soluble TNF-α receptors (sTNF-R I and sTNF-R II), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, and eotaxin in 37 episodes of febrile neutropenia occurring in 31 hospitalized adult onco-hematologic patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected in the morning at inclusion (day of fever onset) and on days 1, 3, and 7 after the onset of fever. Approximately 2–3 ml of plasma was obtained from each blood sample and stored at -80°C. RESULTS: The sTNF-R II level at inclusion (day 1), the PCT level on the day of fever onset, and the change (day 3 - day 1) in the IL-8 and eotaxin levels were significantly higher in patients who died during the 28-day follow-up. A requirement for early adjustment of antimicrobial treatment was associated with higher day 3 levels of IL-8, sTNF-R II, PCT, and MCP-1. CONCLUSION: Procalcitonin, sTNF-R II, IL-8, MCP-1, and eotaxin could potentially be used to assess the risk of death and the requirement for early adjustment of antimicrobial treatment in febrile, neutropenic onco-hematologic patients. The levels of the other markers showed no association with any of the evaluated endpoints. PMID:22012040

  8. Procalcitonin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... CRP) , cultures (e.g., blood culture , urine culture ), lactate , blood gases , complete blood count (CBC) , and cerebrospinal ... of procalcitonin can be seen with medullary thyroid cancer , but the test is not used to diagnose ...

  9. In Critically Ill Patients, Serum Procalcitonin Is More Useful in Differentiating between Sepsis and SIRS than CRP, Il-6, or LBP.

    PubMed

    Meynaar, Iwan A; Droog, Wouter; Batstra, Manou; Vreede, Rolf; Herbrink, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We studied the usefulness of serum procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, in differentiating between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in critically ill patients. Methods. In this single centre prospective observational study we included all consecutive patients admitted with SIRS or sepsis to the ICU. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6 and LBP were taken every day until ICU discharge. Results. A total of 76 patients were included, 32 with sepsis and 44 with SIRS. Patients with sepsis were sicker on admission and had a higher mortality. CRP, PCT, IL-6 and LBP levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis as compared to SIRS. With PCT levels in the first 24 hours after ICU admission <2 ng/mL, sepsis was virtually excluded (negative predictive value 97%). With PCT >10 ng/mL, sepsis with bacterial infection was very likely (positive predictive value 88%). PCT was best at discriminating between SIRS and sepsis with the highest area under the ROC curve (0.95, 95% CI 0.90-0.99). Discussion. This study showed that PCT is more useful than LBP, CRP and IL-6 in differentiating sepsis from SIRS.

  10. Procalcitonin levels in bloodstream infections caused by different sources and species of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yan, Sheng Tao; Sun, Li Chao; Jia, Hong Bing; Gao, Wen; Yang, Jian Ping; Zhang, Guo Qiang

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT) diagnostic accuracy in discriminating gram-negative (GN) from gram-positive (GP) bloodstream infections and determining the relationship between PCT levels, infection sites, and pathogen types. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients with blood culture (BC)-positive sepsis between January 2014 and December 2015. PCT levels at different infection sites were compared, as was the presence of GN and GP bloodstream infection. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to assess diagnostic accuracy. Of the 486 monomicrobial BCs, 254 (52.26%) were positive for GN bacteria (GNB), and 202 (42.18%) for GP bacteria (GPB). Median PCT levels were higher in BCs positive for GN (2.42ng/ml, IQR: 0.38-15.52) than in those positive for GPB (0.49ng/ml, IQR: 0.13-5.89) (P<0.001). In the ROC analysis to differentiate between GNB and GPB, the area under the curve was 0.628 (95% CI: 0.576-0.679). When the cutoffs for PCT were 10.335 and 15.000ng/ml, the specificity of GNB infection was 80.2% and 84.2%, respectively. PCT levels caused by GNB differed between Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumanni/Burkholderia cepacia, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumanni. PCT levels caused by GPB differed between Staphylococcus epidermidis/Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hominis/Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis/S.hominis/S. haemolyticus. Among patients with known infection sites, there were statistical differences in PCT levels between abdominal infection and pneumonia/infective endocarditis, urinary tract infection and pneumonia/catheter-related infection/infective endocarditis. PCT can distinguish between GNB and GPB infection, as well as between different bacterial species and infection sites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Salivary and serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as biomarkers of periodontitis in United States veterans with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Redman, R S; Kerr, G S; Payne, J B; Mikuls, T R; Huang, J; Sayles, H R; Becker, K L; Nylén, E S

    2016-01-01

    Serum procalcitonin (ProCT) is elevated in response to bacterial infections, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a nonspecific inflammatory marker that is increased by excess adipose tissue. We examined the efficacy of ProCT and hsCRP as biomarkers of periodontitis in the saliva and serum of patients with arthritis, which is characterized by variable levels of systemic inflammation that potentially can confound the interpretation of inflammatory biomarkers. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 33 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 50 with osteoarthritis (OA). Periodontal status was assessed by full mouth examination and patients were categorized as having no/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis by standard parameters. Salivary and serum ProCT and hsCRP concentrations were compared. BMI, diabetes, anti-inflammatory medications and smoking status were ascertained from the patient records. Differences between OA and RA in proportionate numbers of patients were compared for race, gender, diabetes, adiposity and smoking status. Serum ProCT was significantly higher in arthritis patients with moderate to severe and severe periodontitis compared with no/mild periodontitis patients. There were no significant differences in salivary ProCT or salivary or serum hsCRP in RA patients related to periodontitis category. Most of the OA and RA patients were middle aged or older, 28.9% were diabetic, 78.3% were overweight or obese, and slightly more than half were either current or past smokers. The OA and RA groups differed by race, but not gender; blacks and males were predominant in both groups. The OA and RA groups did not differ in terms of controlled or uncontrolled diabetes, smoking status or BMI. The RA patients had been prescribed more anti-inflammatory medication than the OA patients. Our results demonstrate that circulating ProCT is a more discriminative biomarker for periodontitis than serum hsCRP in patients with

  12. Salivary and serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as biomarkers of periodontitis in United States veterans with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Redman, RS; Kerr, GS; Payne, JB; Mikuls, TR; Huang, J; Sayles, HR; Becker, KL; Nylén, ES

    2016-01-01

    Serum procalcitonin (ProCT) is elevated in response to bacterial infections, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a nonspecific inflammatory marker that is increased by excess adipose tissue. We examined the efficacy of ProCT and hsCRP as biomarkers of periodontitis in the saliva and serum of patients with arthritis, which is characterized by variable levels of systemic inflammation that potentially can confound the interpretation of inflammatory biomarkers. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 33 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 50 with osteoarthritis (OA). Periodontal status was assessed by full mouth examination and patients were categorized as having no/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis by standard parameters. Salivary and serum ProCT and hsCRP concentrations were compared. BMI, diabetes, anti-inflammatory medications and smoking status were ascertained from the patient records. Differences between OA and RA in proportionate numbers of patients were compared for race, gender, diabetes, adiposity and smoking status. Serum ProCT was significantly higher in arthritis patients with moderate to severe and severe periodontitis compared with no/mild periodontitis patients. There were no significant differences in salivary ProCT or salivary or serum hsCRP in RA patients related to periodontitis category. Most of the OA and RA patients were middle aged or older, 28.9% were diabetic, 78.3% were overweight or obese, and slightly more than half were either current or past smokers. The OA and RA groups differed by race, but not gender; blacks and males were predominant in both groups. The OA and RA groups did not differ in terms of controlled or uncontrolled diabetes, smoking status or BMI. The RA patients had been prescribed more anti-inflammatory medication than the OA patients. Our results demonstrate that circulating ProCT is a more discriminative biomarker for periodontitis than serum hsCRP in patients with

  13. Evaluation of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 & serum amyloid A as diagnostic biomarkers of bacterial infection in febrile patients

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Junyan; Lü, Xiaoju; Liu, Yanbin; Wang, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Early identification of bacterial infection in patients with fever is important for prompt treatment. However, the available parameters such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte counts are not very specific. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT), CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum amyloid A (SAA) for bacterial infection in febrile patients. Methods: Serum samples were collected from febrile patients between January and December 2012 and processed for blood cultures. PCT, IL-6, CRP and SAA levels were measured. The patients were divided into three groups according to the final diagnosis: bacteraemia group (group1), bacterial infection with negative blood culture (group 2) and non-bacterial infection group (group 3). Results: There were significant (P<0.05) difference in the levels of PCT, CRP, IL-6 and SAA among the three groups. The PCT levels of patients with Gram-positive bacterial infections were lower than Gram-negative bacterial infections (0.53 vs 2.13, P < 0.01). The best cut-off value to detect bacterial infections was 0.26 ng/ml for PCT. PCT, CRP, IL-6 and SAA had areas under the curve of 0.804, 0.693, 0.658 and 0.687, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed PCT as a valuable marker of bacterial infections in febrile patients. PCT was superior to CRP, IL-6 or SAA in the early identification of bacterial infection. More prospective and large scale studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25963492

  14. Serum procalcitonin measurement as diagnostic and prognostic marker in febrile adult patients presenting to the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Hausfater, Pierre; Juillien, Gaëlle; Madonna-Py, Beatrice; Haroche, Julien; Bernard, Maguy; Riou, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Identification of bacterial infections is crucial if treatment is to be initiated early and antibiotics used rationally. The primary objective of this study was to test the efficiency of procalcitonin (PCT) in identifying bacterial/parasitic episodes among febrile adult patients presenting to an emergency department. Secondary objectives were to identify clinical or biological variables associated with either bacterial/parasitic infection or critical illness. Methods This was a prospective, single centre, non-interventional study, conducted in the adult emergency department of an academic tertiary care hospital. We included patients with body temperature of 38.5°C or greater. A serum sample for measurement of PCT was collected in the emergency room. Patients were followed up until day 30. After reviewing the medical files, two independent experts, who were blind to the PCT results, classified each of the patients as having a bacterial/parasitic infection, viral infection, or another diagnosis. Results Among 243 patients included in the study, 167 had bacterial/parasitic infections, 35 had viral infections and 41 had other diagnoses. The PCT assay, with a 0.2 μg/l cutoff value, had a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.59 in diagnosing bacterial/parasitic infection. Of the patients with PCT 5 μg/l or greater, 51% had critical illness (death or intensive care unit admission) as compared with 13% of patients with lower PCT values. Conclusion Bearing in mind the limitations of an observational study design, the judgements of the emergency department physicians were reasonably accurate in determining the pretest probability of bacterial/parasitic infection. PCT may provide additional, valuable information on the aetiology and prognosis of infection in the emergency department. PMID:17521430

  15. Salivary procalcitonin and periodontitis in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bassim, C W; Redman, R S; DeNucci, D J; Becker, K L; Nylen, E S

    2008-07-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes are co-morbid conditions, both characterized by infectious susceptibility. We investigated procalcitonin (ProCT) levels in the serum and saliva of persons with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes (n = 20), to determine if these levels are altered by periodontitis activity or by hyperglycemia. Persons with severe periodontitis showed higher levels of salivary-ProCT than did those with moderate periodontitis (241 +/- 71 vs. 77 +/- 516 pg/mL, p = 0.02) and higher levels than did healthy control individuals (118 +/- 26 pg/mL, p = 0.05). Salivary-ProCT levels were correlated with bleeding-on-probing (r = 0.45, p = 0.05), as well as with HgbA(1c) (r = 0.49, p = 0.03). Salivary levels of ProCT were higher than serum levels for the periodontitis/diabetes group (152 +/- 37 vs. 78 +/- 17 pg/mL, p = 0.02) and the control group (118 +/- 146 vs. 48 +/- 17 pg/mL, p = 0.01). Persons with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes have salivary-ProCT levels that reflect their degree of periodontitis activity and hyperglycemia. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of procalcitonin (ProCT), an established serum marker of infection, in saliva.

  16. Diagnostic value of sTREM-1 and procalcitonin levels in the early diagnosis of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aksaray, Sebahat; Alagoz, Pinar; Inan, Asuman; Cevan, Simin; Ozgultekin, Asu

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sepsis is still major cause of morbidity and mortality, despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment in modern medicine. Therefore, laboratory examinations that provide correct and rapid results are needed to support the diagnosis. This study was conducted to investigate value of immunological indicators procalcitonin (PCT) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in differential diagnosis of patients with sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), as well as to assess their importance in determining prognosis of patients with sepsis. METHODS: Total of 90 patients, 38 with SIRS and 52 with sepsis, who were between the ages 20 to 92, were included in this prospectively planned study. Blood sample was collected from the patients during hospitalization and again in follow-up visit. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MyBioSource, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) was used to measure sTREM-1, and PCT was measured using mini VIDAS B.R.A.H.M.S PCT assay (Biomerieux, S.A., Marcy-l’Étoile, France). In addition, patients were clinically assessed using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system. RESULTS: On day of intensive care unit admission, sTREM-1 and PCT levels, as well as APACHE II score were significantly higher in sepsis group than SIRS group (p=0.001, p=0.01, p=0.001, respectively). Values of sTREM-1 and APACHE II score were higher in the patients with positive blood cultures than those with negative culture results (p=0.002, p=0.006, respectively). PCT, C-reactive protein, and sTREM-1 levels were significantly higher in nonsurviving group. In differentiation of SIRS from sepsis, sTREM-1 cut-off value ≥133 pg/mL and PCT cut-off value of 1.57 ng/mL yielded sensitivity of 71.1% and 67.33%, and specificity of 73.3% and 65.79%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In patients with suspected sepsis, sTREM-1 and PCT can be used as indicators, in addition to scoring systems such as APACHE II and

  17. Serum Procalcitonin as a Valuable Diagnostic Tool in the Early Detection of Infectious Complications after Open Abdominal Aortic Repair.

    PubMed

    Varetto, Gianfranco; Castagno, Claudio; Trucco, Andrea; Frola, Edoardo; Bert, Fabrizio; Scozzari, Gitana; Rispoli, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Aortic aneurysm repair is a resolutive and effective surgical operation, which can be associated with severe postoperative complications. Procalcitonin (PCT) in clinical practice could play a role in early diagnosis and monitoring of therapy for complications, especially infections, making for timely and more effective interventions. Our aim was to investigate whether PCT could be a predictive marker in early diagnosis of infectious complications after open abdominal aortic surgery. Eighty-three consecutive patients who underwent elective open aortic repair at our institution were enrolled. Blood samples were taken before surgery, and each day over the 7-day postoperative period, and measurement of serum PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytes levels were carried out. Data regarding clinical progress, instrumental examinations, and blood chemistry were prospectively collected. Postoperative infectious complications occurred in 24 patients. Within 30 days, 1 death occurred. In the study sample, we found a significant difference in PCT curves of patients with and without infectious complications, especially on third postoperative day (POD; P = 0.004). On analysis of the area under the curve (AUC curve), PCT was shown to be a fair predictor in distinguishing cases with infectious complications (AUC, 0.765 on third POD; CI, 0.638-0.877). Conversely, other inflammatory markers commonly used (leucocytes and CRP) had similar trends in patients with and without postoperative infections. On the basis of the results collected in this pilot study, despite some limitations, PCT could be considered a better marker of infectious complications after open abdominal aortic repair, when compared with other routinely used parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Serum procalcitonin: a reliable tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal bacterial infections in Sub-Saharan Africa].

    PubMed

    Alima Yanda, A N; Kobela, M; Nansseu, J R; Taguebue, J; Boula, A; Eposse, C; Monono, N; Ngo Um-Sap, S; Gervaix, A; Koki Ndombo, P O

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal infection (NNI) is a public health problem in developing countries where pediatricians and specifically neonatologists encounter many diagnostic difficulties. Having a precise and easily measurable biological marker, with a high sensitivity and a high negative predictive value, that can rapidly detect NNI, remains a great challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the place of serum procalcitonin (PCT) in the diagnosis and follow-up of bacterial NNI in resource-limited contexts. We carried out a cross-sectional study from October 2009 to February 2010 at the Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Cameroon. We included all neonates born at term, suspected of NNI, and hospitalized in the Neonatal Care Unit of the aforementioned centre during the study period. We measured PCT levels at entry and 48h later, and determined its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. Twenty-five out of the 98 neonates enrolled presented with a confirmed diagnosis of NNI. PCT was positive in 92.4% of cases. Contrariwise, serum C-reactive protein was positive in 84.6% of patients with a cut-off point at 6mg/L, and remained positive in only 38.4% of cases when the cut-off point was raised to 20mg/L. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of PCT were 96.0%, 77.7%, 85.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. Six deaths were recorded, five of which exhibited very high PCT levels (≥10ng/mL). All neonates with negative PCT levels had a good clinical outcome as none of them died. If PCT were to be considered as a diagnostic tool of NNI, only 43 (43.9%) neonates would have benefited from a justified antibiotic therapy exceeding 48h, with a significant reduction in duration of hospitalization (9.1±3.3 vs 5.1±4.6 days; P<0.05). PCT may be an early and reliable indicator of bacterial NNI. Its course throughout hospitalization may reflect the therapeutic response, and elevated levels of PCT may be highly

  19. Procalcitonin as the biomarker of inflammation in diagnosis of appendicitis in pediatric patients and prevention of unnecessary appendectomies.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Vishal; Batt, Sajjid Hussain; Bhat, Mohammad Younis; Kawoosa, Nadeem Ulnazeer; Yousuf, Adfar; Zargar, Babar Rashid

    2011-04-01

    Numerous diseases mimic appendicitis, and it is often difficult to rule it out on the basis of clinical presentation. Concentration of procalcitonin selectively increases in inflammatory conditions and determination of its level can help in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A prospective, single centre based observational study carried out at our tertiary care institute. Twenty eight patients were admitted with preliminary diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The control group involved around 12 healthy children. Serum Procalcitonin concentration was measured in all patients using the 'Immunoluminometric Method' (LUMI- Test PCT), besides carrying out clinical examination and other investigations. The serums PCT comes out to be a better diagnostic test than serum CRP measurement as serum PCT was able to differentiate patients who came with abdominal pain but were having normal appendix from the patients who were actual cases of acute appendicitis. In patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis the level of PCT was above the normal value of 0.5 ng/ml in most cases. The analysis of procalcitonin in different groups of patients showed the serum procalcitonin test having high sensitivity of 95.65% and a specificity of about 100% on the basis of histopathological diagnosis of the removed appendix taking as the standard. The serum procalcitonin test when combined with reliable clinical signs and symptoms is an excellent diagnostic marker of the disease and should be done in the patients of pediatric appendicitis so that proper handling of the patient can be done and we can prevent unnecessary appendectomies.

  20. [Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as early indicators of postoperative intra-abdominal infection after surgery for gastrointestinal cancer].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Comesaña, Elías; López-Gómez, Victoria; Estevez-Fernández, Sergio Manuel; Mariño Padín, Esther; Ballinas-Miranda, Julio; Carrera-Dacosta, Ester; Piñon-Cimadevila, Miguel Ángel; Barreiro-Morandeira, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    to evaluate the association between serum levels of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein, on the first 3 postoperative days, and the appearance of postoperative intra-abdominal infection. Prospective observational study including 67 patients operated on for colo-rectal, gastric and pancreatic cancer. Serum levels of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein were analyzed before surgery and daily until the third postoperative day. Values of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded as well as their accuracy for detection of postoperative intra-abdominal infection (PIAI). The incidence of postoperative intra-abdominal infection was 13.4%. CRP serum levels at 72h, PCT serum levels at 24, 48 and 72h and the ratio between serum levels of CRP at 72hours and serum levels of CRP at 48hours (CRP D3/CRP D2) were significantly associated with the appearance of postoperative intra-abdominal infection. The highest sensitivity corresponded to PCT at 72hours (88.9%); the highest specificity and positive predictive value corresponded to the ratio CRP D3/CRP D2 (96.49% and 71.4%, respectively); the highest negative predictive value to procalcitonin at 72h and 24h. Serum levels of PCT are significantly associated with the appearance of postoperative intra-abdominal infection. Sensitivity and predictive positive values are low, but negative predictive value is high, even at 24h after surgery. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Systemic inflammatory response and serum lipopolysaccharide levels predict multiple organ failure and death in alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Michelena, Javier; Altamirano, José; Abraldes, Juan G; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Dominguez, Marlene; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Javier; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere; Louvet, Alexandre; Mathurin, Philippe; Mehal, Wajahat Z; Caballería, Juan; Bataller, Ramón

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) frequently progresses to multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. However, the driving factors are largely unknown. At admission, patients with AH often show criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) even in the absence of an infection. We hypothesize that the presence of SIRS may predispose to MOF and death. To test this hypothesis, we studied a cohort including 162 patients with biopsy-proven AH. The presence of SIRS and infections was assessed in all patients, and multivariate analyses identified variables independently associated with MOF and 90-day mortality. At admission, 32 (19.8%) patients were diagnosed with a bacterial infection, while 75 (46.3%) fulfilled SIRS criteria; 58 patients (35.8%) developed MOF during hospitalization. Short-term mortality was significantly higher among patients who developed MOF (62.1% versus 3.8%, P < 0.001). The presence of SIRS was a major predictor of MOF (odds ratio = 2.69, P = 0.025) and strongly correlated with mortality. Importantly, the course of patients with SIRS with and without infection was similar in terms of MOF development and short-term mortality. Finally, we sought to identify serum markers that differentiate SIRS with and without infection. We studied serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lipopolysaccharide at admission. All of them predicted mortality. Procalcitonin, but not high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum levels identified those patients with SIRS and infection. Lipopolysaccharide serum levels predicted MOF and the response to prednisolone. In the presence or absence of infections, SIRS is a major determinant of MOF and mortality in AH, and the mechanisms involved in the development of SIRS should be investigated; procalcitonin serum levels can help to identify patients with infection, and lipopolysaccharide levels may help to predict mortality and the response to steroids. © 2015 by the American Association

  2. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Serum Lipopolysaccharide Levels Predict Multiple Organ Failure and Death in Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michelena, Javier; Altamirano, José; Abraldes, Juan G.; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Dominguez, Marlene; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Javier; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere; Louvet, Alexandre; Mathurin, Philippe; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Caballería, Juan; Bataller, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) frequently progresses to multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. However, the driving factors are largely unknown. At admission, patients with AH often show criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) even in the absence of an infection. We hypothesize that the presence of SIRS may predispose to MOF and death. To test this hypothesis, we studied a cohort including 162 patients with biopsy-proven AH. The presence of SIRS and infections was assessed in all patients, and multivariate analyses identified variables independently associated with MOF and 90-day mortality. At admission, 32 (19.8%) patients were diagnosed with a bacterial infection, while 75 (46.3%) fulfilled SIRS criteria; 58 patients (35.8%) developed MOF during hospitalization. Short-term mortality was significantly higher among patients who developed MOF (62.1% versus 3.8%, P <0.001). The presence of SIRS was a major predictor of MOF (odds ratio = 2.69, P=0.025) and strongly correlated with mortality. Importantly, the course of patients with SIRS with and without infection was similar in terms of MOF development and short-term mortality. Finally, we sought to identify serum markers that differentiate SIRS with and without infection. We studied serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lipopolysaccharide at admission. All of them predicted mortality. Procalcitonin, but not high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum levels identified those patients with SIRS and infection. Lipopolysaccharide serum levels predicted MOF and the response to prednisolone. Conclusion In the presence or absence of infections, SIRS is a major determinant of MOF and mortality in AH, and the mechanisms involved in the development of SIRS should be investigated; procalcitonin serum levels can help to identify patients with infection, and lipopolysaccharide levels may help to predict mortality and the response to steroids. PMID:25761863

  3. Retrospective study on prognostic importance of serum procalcitonin and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels as compared to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV Score on Intensive Care Unit admission, in a mixed Intensive Care Unit population

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Chitra; Dara, Babita; Mehta, Yatin; Tariq, Ali M.; Joby, George V.; Singh, Manish K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Timely decision making in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is very essential to improve the outcome of critically sick patients. Conventional scores like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV) are quite cumbersome with calculations and take minimum 24 hours. Procalcitonin has shown to have prognostic value in ICU/Emergency department (ED) in disease states like pneumonia, sepsis etc. NTproBNP has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic importance in cardiac diseases. It has also been found elevated in non-cardiac diseases. We chose to study the prognostic utility of these markers on ICU admission. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: A Retrospective analysis of 100 eligible patients was done who had undergone PCT and NTproBNP measurements on ICU admission. Their correlations with all cause mortality, length of hospital stay, need for ventilator support, need for vasopressors were performed. Results: Among 100 randomly selected ICU patients, 28 were non-survivors. NTproBNP values on admission significantly correlated with all cause mortality (P = 0.036, AUC = 0.643) and morbidity (P = 0.000, AUC = 0.763), comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. PCT values on admission did not show significant association with mortality, but correlated well with morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (AUC = 0.616, P = 0.045). Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a good predictive value of NTproBNP, in terms of mortality and morbidity comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. Procalcitonin, however, was found to have doubtful prognostic importance. These findings need to be confirmed in a prospective larger study. PMID:27052066

  4. Procalcitonin levels and other biochemical parameters in patients with or without diabetic foot complications.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammaree, Shatha Abdul Wadood; Abu-ALkaseem, Banan Akram; Salman, Isam N

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of infection in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is not always simple. The analytic precision of procalcitonin (PCT) was evaluated to clarify the use of PCT for distinguish the presence of infection in DFU in comparison to other inflammatory markers. This study comprised 88 subjects distributed into four groups: 16 nondiabetic healthy subjects (group control), 17 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without foot Complication (group DM), 25 patients with noninfected diabetic foot (group NIDF), and 30 patients with infected diabetic foot (group IDF). Fasting blood samples were taken for measurement of glucose, hemoglobin A1C, lipid profile, renal function, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and white blood cell (WBC) and its derivatives. Plasma PCT was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCT, WBC, ESR, and neutrophils (NEU) were found significantly higher in IDF group than other groups. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that sensitivity, specificity, the best cutoff value, and the area under the curve were for ESR (100%, 93%, 31.5 mm/h, 1; P < 0.001), for PCT (87.5%, 86.7%, 66.55 pg/dl, 0.977; P < 0.001), for NEU (93.8%, 93.3%, 5.35, 0.957; P < 0.001) and for WBC (93.8%, 90%, 9.29 × 10(9)/L, 0.942; P < 0.001), respectively. The outcomes of this study recommend that PCT can be an asymptomatic marker in the diagnosis of infection in DFU with higher Wagner grades in combination with different inflammatory markers.

  5. Diagnostic value of lactate, procalcitonin, ferritin, serum-C-reactive protein, and other biomarkers in bacterial and viral meningitis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sanaei Dashti, Anahita; Alizadeh, Shekoofan; Karimi, Abdullah; Khalifeh, Masoomeh; Shoja, Seyed Abdolmajid

    2017-09-01

    There are many difficulties distinguishing bacterial from viral meningitis that could be reasonably solved using biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate lactate, procalcitonin (PCT), ferritin, serum-CRP (C-reactive protein), and other known biomarkers in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in children.All children aged 28 days to 14 years with suspected meningitis who were admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital, Tehran, between October 2012 and November 2013, were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Children were divided into 2 groups of bacterial and viral meningitis, based on the results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, polymerase chain reaction, and cytochemical profile. Diagnostic values of CSF parameters (ferritin, PCT, absolute neutrophil count [ANC], white blood cell count, and lactate) and serum parameters (PCT, ferritin, CRP, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) were evaluated.Among 50 patients with meningitis, 12 were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis. Concentrations of all markers were significantly different between bacterial and viral meningitis, except for serum (P = .389) and CSF (P = .136) PCT. The best rates of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were achieved by lactate (AUC = 0.923) and serum-CRP (AUC = 0.889). The best negative predictive values (NPV) for bacterial meningitis were attained by ANC (100%) and lactate (97.1%).The results of our study suggest that ferritin and PCT are not strong predictive biomarkers. A combination of low CSF lactate, ANC, ESR, and serum-CRP could reasonably rule out the bacterial meningitis.

  6. Comparative Study of Plasma Endotoxin with Procalcitonin Levels in Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Cui, Yun-Liang; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis of bacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis of bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed. Patients (n = 241) who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to blood culture (BC) for the analysis of the endotoxin or PCT levels. The exclusion criteria included the presence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and/or AIDS, neutropenia without sepsis, pregnancy, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies, or blood diseases such as hematological tumors. Patients’ BC episodes were divided into BC negative, Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. The PCT and plasma endotoxin levels were compared in the different groups. Results: A total of 241 patients with 505 episodes of BC were analyzed. The GN bacteria group showed higher levels of PCT and endotoxin than the BC negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. GN bacteremia was more prevalent than Gram-positive bacteremia. The GN bacteremia caused by non-Enterobacteriaceae infection presented higher endotoxin level than that by Enterobacteriaceae, but no significant difference in PCT levels was observed between the two groups. The plasma endotoxin significantly differed among different groups and was bacterial species dependent. Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia. Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China. And PCT is a more valuable

  7. Comparative Study of Plasma Endotoxin with Procalcitonin Levels in Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Cui, Yun-Liang; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang

    2016-02-20

    Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis of bacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis of bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed. Patients (n = 241) who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to blood culture (BC) for the analysis of the endotoxin or PCT levels. The exclusion criteria included the presence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and/or AIDS, neutropenia without sepsis, pregnancy, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies, or blood diseases such as hematological tumors. Patients' BC episodes were divided into BC negative, Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. The PCT and plasma endotoxin levels were compared in the different groups. A total of 241 patients with 505 episodes of BC were analyzed. The GN bacteria group showed higher levels of PCT and endotoxin than the BC negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. GN bacteremia was more prevalent than Gram-positive bacteremia. The GN bacteremia caused by non-Enterobacteriaceae infection presented higher endotoxin level than that by Enterobacteriaceae, but no significant difference in PCT levels was observed between the two groups. The plasma endotoxin significantly differed among different groups and was bacterial species dependent. Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia. Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China. And PCT is a more valuable biomarker than endotoxin in the diagnosis of

  8. Diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin for acute pyelonephritis in infants and children with urinary tract infections: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huhai; Yang, Jurong; Lin, Lirong; Huo, Bengang; Dai, Huanzi; He, Yani

    2016-03-01

    The aims were to assess (1) the diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) for acute pyelonephritis (APN) in infants and children with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and (2) to compare the performance of two commonly used cutoff values. A meta-analysis of serum PCT in the diagnosis of APN among pediatrics with lower UTIs was conducted. The process of search strategy, publications selection and data analysis was in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Eighteen high-quality studies with a total of 831 APN patients and 651 individuals with lower UTIs were analyzed. The overall performance of serum PCT ≥ 0.5 ng/mL was as follows: pooled sensitivity of 0.86 (95 % CI 0.73-0.93), pooled specificity of 0.76 (95 % CI 0.66-0.83), DOR of 18.90 (95 % CI 6.78-52.71) and AUROC of 0.86 (95 % CI 0.83-0.89), with significant heterogeneity. However, use of 1.0 ng/mL as a cutoff value produced an improved specificity of 0.91 (95 % CI 0.86-0.94), a DOR of 55.06 (95 % CI 22.57-115.48) and an AUROC of 0.94 (95 % CI 0.92-0.96), without obvious heterogeneity. In pediatrics with UTIs, the cutoff value of serum PCT, 1.0 ng/mL, has a preferable diagnostic performance compared with 0.5 ng/mL for APN. Additional prospective studies that propose an appropriate cutoff value and validate the performance of PCT for young with APN are needed in the future.

  9. Clinical value of dual-phase 18F-FDG SPECT with serum procalcitonin for identification of etiology in tumor patients with fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Shan, Chun; Wu, Pei; Huang, Xin-En

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate clinical value of dual-phase 18F-FDG SPECT with serum procalcitonin (PCT) in identifying cancers in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). PCT test and dual-phase 18F-FDG SPECT were sequentially performed on 50 consecutive patients with FUO. Two radiologists evaluated all 18F-FDG SPECT data independently. A consensus was reached if any difference of opinions existed. Final diagnosis was based on a comprehensive analysis of results for the PCT test, dual- phase 18F-FDG SPECT and bacterial cultivation, regarded as a gold standard. Among 50 patients, 34 demonstrated PCT ≥ 0.5 μg/L. Coincidence imaging showed in 37 patients with inflammatory lesions, and 13 with malignancy. Finally, 36 bacterial, 1 fungal and 1 viral infections, as well as 12 cancerous fevers were confirmed by dual-phase 18F-FDG SPECT with PCT, combined with bacterial cultivation and clinical follow-up. Our study demonstrated that dual-phase 18F-FDG SPECT in association with PCT could be a valuable tool for diagnosis in tumor patients with FUO.

  10. Evolution of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels in neutropenic leukaemia patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis or mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Roques, Marjorie; Chretien, Marie Lorraine; Favennec, Camille; Lafon, Ingrid; Ferrant, Emmanuelle; Legouge, Caroline; Plocque, Alexia; Golfier, Camille; Duvillard, Laurence; Amoureux, Lucie; Bastie, Jean Noel; Maurin-Bernier, Lory; Dalle, Frederic; Caillot, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Unlike bacterial infections, the value of procalcitonin (PCT) in detecting fungal infections in leukaemia patients is not clear. To determine whether the monitoring of PCT coupled with C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen (Fib) could be helpful in the management of pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) or mucormycosis (PM), we retrospectively analysed the evolution of PCT, CRP and Fib levels in 94 leukaemia patients with proven/probable IPA (n = 77) or PM (n = 17) from D-12 to D12 relative to IFI onset defined as D0. Overall, 2140 assays were performed. From D-12 to D0, 12%, 5% and 1.4% of patients had PCT >0.5, 1 and 1.5 μg l(-1) , respectively, while CRP was >50, 75 and 100 mg l(-1) in 84%, 70% and 57% and Fib was >4, 5 and 6 g l(-1) in 96%, 80% and 61% of cases respectively (P < 10(-7) ). The same trends were observed from D1 to D12. Overall, between D-12 and D12, only 6.4% of patients had PCT >1.5 μg l(-1) , while CRP >100 mg l(-1) and Fib >6 g l(-1) were observed in 80% and 75% of cases respectively (P < 10(-7) ). In leukaemia patients, IPA or PM was accompanied by a significant increase in CRP and Fib while PCT remained low. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Procalcitonin (PCT) levels for ruling-out bacterial coinfection in ICU patients with influenza: A CHAID decision-tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro H; Avilés-Jurado, Francesc X; Díaz, Emili; Schuetz, Philipp; Trefler, Sandra I; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Cordero, Lourdes; Vidaur, Loreto; Estella, Ángel; Pozo Laderas, Juan C; Socias, Lorenzo; Vergara, Juan C; Zaragoza, Rafael; Bonastre, Juan; Guerrero, José E; Suberviola, Borja; Cilloniz, Catia; Restrepo, Marcos I; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    To define which variables upon ICU admission could be related to the presence of coinfection using CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis. A secondary analysis from a prospective, multicentre, observational study (2009-2014) in ICU patients with confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. We assessed the potential of biomarkers and clinical variables upon admission to the ICU for coinfection diagnosis using CHAID analysis. Performance of cut-off points obtained was determined on the basis of the binominal distributions of the true (+) and true (-) results. Of the 972 patients included, 196 (20.3%) had coinfection. Procalcitonin (PCT; ng/mL 2.4 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001), but not C-reactive protein (CRP; mg/dL 25 vs. 38.5; p = 0.62) was higher in patients with coinfection. In CHAID analyses, PCT was the most important variable for coinfection. PCT <0.29 ng/mL showed high sensitivity (Se = 88.2%), low Sp (33.2%) and high negative predictive value (NPV = 91.9%). The absence of shock improved classification capacity. Thus, for PCT <0.29 ng/mL, the Se was 84%, the Sp 43% and an NPV of 94% with a post-test probability of coinfection of only 6%. PCT has a high negative predictive value (94%) and lower PCT levels seems to be a good tool for excluding coinfection, particularly for patients without shock. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels to predict infection and mortality in burn children.

    PubMed

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Tramonti, Nidia; Taicz, Moira; Martiren, Soledad; Basílico, Hugo; Signorelli, Cecilia; Buchovsky, Ana; Lede, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin(PCT) levels may distinguish between a systemic inflammatory response and an infection in burn children. To establish the operative capability of CRP and PCT to diagnose infections and mortality. Burn patients admitted to the hospital with clinical suspicion of an infection were included. CRP and PCT were measured and their operative diagnostic capabilities were calculated. Forty-eight patients (p) were included.Their median age was 49 months old (r: 17-86).The median burned surface area was 40% (r: 30-48%); 28 p (58%) had type AB and type B burn wounds. Infection was confirmed in 32 p (66.7%);the most common infection was burn-related sepsis (24 p, 75%), followed by burn wound infection (6 p, 19%). Eight patients (17%) died.It was not possible to establish CRP sensitivity and specificity because it was high in all patients,regardless of mortality, survival or the presence of infection. In relation to infections, PCT had a 90.6% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI]:75.8-96.8%), a 18.8% specificity (95% CI: 6.6-43%),a 69% positive predictive value (PPV) and a 50%negative predictive value (NPV). In relation to 30-day mortality, sensitivity was 100% (95% CI:67.6-100%), specificity 15% (95% CI: 7.1-29.1%),PPV 19% (95% CI: 10-33.3%) and NPV 100%(95% CI: 61-100%). In pediatric burn patients, neither CRP nor PCT showed an adequate operative capability to detect an infection or a fatal outcome.

  13. Update on Procalcitonin Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. At the same time, PCT has also been used to guide antibiotic therapy. This review outlines the main indications for PCT measurement and points out possible pitfalls. The classic indications for PCT measurement are: (i) confirmation or exclusion of diagnosis of sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock, (ii) severity assessment and follow up of systemic inflammation mainly induced by microbial infection, and (iii) individual, patient adapted guide of antibiotic therapy and focus treatment. Using serially monitored PCT levels, the duration and need of antibiotic therapy can be better adapted to the individual requirements of the patient. This individualized approach has been evaluated in various studies, and it is recommended to be a part of an antibiotic stewardship program. PMID:24982830

  14. [Clinical utility of measurement of procalcitonin for diagnosis of urosepsis].

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Yukinari; Takenaga, Maho; Itami, Yoshitaka; Shinohara, Masatake; Takada, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Hashimura, Masaya; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2012-10-01

    We assessed the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) in urosepsis on 54 patients with urinary tract infections (UTI), suspected of having urosepsis. The results of urine culture, blood culture, and serum concentrations of PCT were analyzed. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of PCT for bacteremia were as follows : 100 and 31.6% at concentrations of >0.5 ng/ml and 75.0 and 78.9% at concentrations of >10 ng/ml. we concluded that the PCT level could be a reliable early marker suggestive of urosepsis, and may be helpful when deciding whether to perform immediate urological intervention or not.

  15. High pneumococcal DNA load, procalcitonin and suPAR levels correlate to severe disease development in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Loonen, A J M; Kesarsing, C; Kusters, R; Hilbink, M; Wever, P C; van den Brule, A J C

    2017-03-29

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is mostly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Identification of the pathogen causing CAP can be achieved by conventional culture techniques of sputum and/or blood, antigen detection from urine or molecular analysis. However, it remains difficult to determine patients who are at risk of severe disease development (intensive care unit [ICU] admittance and/or death). In this retrospective study, 121 patients admitted to the emergency department with pneumonia symptoms were included. Several markers of infection (pneumococcal DNA load in blood (real-time LytA PCR), white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels) were assessed for their ability to predict severe disease development. Of 121 patients, 6 were excluded from the study because of an alternative diagnosis, whereas 8 were excluded from biomarker analysis because of the presence of co-morbidities. Of the 115 patients analysed by the LytA PCR, 23 were positive. PCR detected S. pneumoniae DNA in 82% of patients with positive blood culture for S. pneumoniae. PCR missed three samples from patients in which S. pneumoniae was recovered by blood cultures. However, eight additional LytA PCR-positive samples were detected from patients whose blood cultures remained negative. Pneumococcal DNA load was also monitored in time for 31 patients, of whom 11 had positive PCR results. For 10 out of 11 (91%) positive PCR patients, a clear increase in Ct-values was observed, indicating a lower pneumococcal DNA load in the blood as a result of antibiotic therapy. Biomarker analysis was performed in 107 patients, of whom 29 showed severe disease development. Pneumococcal DNA load (p = 0.026), PCT (p = 0.046) and suPAR (p = 0.001) levels most reliably predicted severe disease development. In conclusion, in patients with CAP, higher pneumococcal DNA load, PCT and suPAR values are associated with

  16. Carbamazepine and serum sodium levels.

    PubMed

    Kalff, R; Houtkooper, M A; Meyer, J W; Goedhart, D M; Augusteijn, R; Meinardi, H

    1984-06-01

    Serum sodium levels of 674 epileptic patients were tabulated according to the following categories: less than 135 mmol/L, hyponatremia (28 patients); 135-145 mmol/L, normonatremia (530 patients); greater than 145 mmol/L, hypernatremia (116 patients). One hundred one patients were treated with antiepileptics without carbamazepine (CBZ), 113 with CBZ monotherapy, and 460 with CBZ plus other antiepileptic drugs. Twenty-three patients could be followed up after the first detection of a serum sodium level of less than 135 mg/L. Ten patients were consistently hyponatremic (greater than 50% of the follow-up measurements were less than 135 mg/L), whereas the remaining 13 were occasionally hyponatremic. The following facts could be derived from the study: (1) The hyponatremic group was significantly older compared with the other groups. (2) In patients not treated with CBZ, no hyponatremia was seen. Only two patients on CBZ monotherapy showed hyponatremia. (3) The combination of CBZ, valproic acid, especially in high dosages, and barbiturates seemed to lead to hyponatremia. (4) The excretion of antidiuretic hormone, measured in 12 patients, was subnormal (less than 25 ng/24 h) in seven hyponatremic patients and in three normonatremic patients and normal (25-250 ng/24 h) in two other normonatremic patients. (5) Cyclic AMP, measured in five hyponatremic patients, was normal. (6) In all patients the hyponatremia was slight and did not cause any clinical symptoms. Special treatment was not required.

  17. Comparative levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor, procalcitonin, osteoprotegerin, interleukin-8, hs-C reactive protein, D-dimer in febrile neutropenia, newly diagnosed cancer patients, and infectious fever.

    PubMed

    Bilgir, Oktay; Bilgir, Ferda; Kebapcilar, Levent; Bozkaya, Giray; Çalan, Mehmet; Kırbıyık, Halil; Avci, Meltem; Sari, İsmail; Yuksel, Arif; Isikyakar, Tolgay

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the levels of procalcitonin (PCT), IL-8 (interleukin-8), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor), osteoprotegerin (OPG), hs-CRP and D-dimer during fever above 38.3°C due to various causes. Blood samples taken from a total of consecutive 65 hospitalized patients during fever were prospectively tested for hsCRP, PCT, IL-8, OPG, MIF and D-dimer. Of these patients, there were 26 patients presenting with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia who had no infectious agents found; 23 patients, who had a malignancy with a febrile episode which was neither a microbiologically documented infection nor a chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and 16 patients who did not have a malignancy and were considered to have a clinically and microbiologically documented infection. IL-8 and D-dimer levels were higher in patients with febrile neutropenia than in the other two groups. Although MIF and OPG were higher in patients with newly diagnosed cancers, there were no differences among the three groups regarding PCT and hs-CRP values. High serum IL-8 and D-dimer levels can be useful markers to identify hospitalized chemotherapy-induced neutropenia patients. MIF and OPG were found to be higher in patients with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Usefulness of Adjunctive Fecal Calprotectin and Serum Procalcitonin in Individuals Positive for Clostridium difficile Toxin Gene by PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghe, Romina; Eastmond, Jennifer; Miller, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    In 54/64 subjects with nosocomial diarrhea, fecal calprotectin levels correlated with the results of stool samples tested for Clostridium difficile toxin gene by PCR. Fecal calprotectin levels can be used as an adjunctive measure to PCR to support the diagnosis of C. difficile infection. PMID:26354814

  19. Serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein concentrations to distinguish mildly infected from non-infected diabetic foot ulcers: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jeandrot, A.; Richard, Jean-Louis; Combescure, Christophe; Jourdan, Nathalie; Finge, S.; Rodier, Michel; Corbeau, Pierre; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Infection of diabetic foot ulcers is common; at early stages it is difficult to differentiate between non-infected ulcers (or those colonised with normal flora) and ulcers infected with virulent bacteria that lead to deterioration. This pilot study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of inflammatory markers as an aid to making this distinction. Methods We included 93 diabetic patients who had an episode of foot ulcer and had not received antibiotics during the 6 months preceding the study. Ulcers were classified as infected or uninfected, according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America–International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot classification. Diabetic patients without ulcers (n=102) served as controls. C-reactive protein (CRP), orosomucoid, haptoglobin and procalcitonin were measured together with white blood cell and neutrophil counts. The diagnostic performance of each marker, in combination (using logistic regression) or alone, was assessed. Results As a single marker, CRP was the most informative for differentiating grade 1 from grade 2 ulcers (sensitivity 0.727, specificity 1.000, positive predictive value 1.000, negative predictive value 0.793) with an optimal cut-off value of 17 mg/l. In contrast, white blood cell and neutrophil counts were not predictive. The most relevant combination derived from the logistic regression was the association of CRP and procalcitonin (AUC 0.947), which resulted in a significantly more effective determination of ulcer grades, as shown by comparing receiver operating characteristic curves. Conclusions/interpretation Measurement of only two inflammatory markers, CRP and procalcitonin, might be of value for distinguishing between infected and non-infected foot ulcers in subgroups of diabetic patients, to help ensure the appropriate allocation of antibiotic treatment. Nevertheless, external validation of the diagnostic value of procalcitonin and CRP in diabetic foot ulcers is needed before

  20. [Serum sclerostin levels and metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-06-01

    Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.

  1. Procalcitonin to Detect Suspected Bacterial Infections in the PICU.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Iris M; Aghamohammadi, Sara; Deakers, Timothy; Khemani, Robinder G

    2016-01-01

    Nonspecific clinical symptoms frequently lead to suspicion of bacterial infection in critically ill children. Clinicians send bacterial cultures for suspected infection and begin an empiric course of antibiotics while microbiology results are pending. We investigated whether the biomarker procalcitonin could be useful to predict confirmed bacterial infection in critically ill children in the PICU, before culture results are available. Prospective, blinded single-center study. Tertiary PICU and cardiothoracic ICU. There were one hundred forty-four patients with suspected bacterial infections that had bacterial cultures sent by clinicians. Procalcitonin samples were obtained at three time intervals: as close to the time of the initial culture as possible (up to 12 hr after) and 24 and 72 hours after the initial culture. Patients were stratified into clinical outcome groups based on microbiology results and clinical symptoms using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. These assignments were blinded to procalcitonin levels. Primary outcome was the presence of culture-proven bacterial infection. There was a statistically significant difference in initial and subsequent median procalcitonin values between patients with confirmed bacterial infections and patients with low suspicion of bacterial infection (p < 0.02). However, there was extremely high variability in procalcitonin values among all groups. Procalcitonin had only a fair ability to predict bacterial infection, with area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic plots ranging between 0.63 and 0.71. When using serial procalcitonin values to predict bacterial infection, positive likelihood ratios were near 1 and negative likelihood ratios were between 0.3 and 0.4. Procalcitonin levels were higher in children with documented confirmed bacterial infection as compared with those with low suspicion of infection. However, neither single nor serial procalcitonin measurements were able to

  2. Risk prediction with procalcitonin and clinical rules in community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, David T.; Weissfeld, Lisa A.; Kellum, John A.; Yealy, Donald M.; Kong, Lan; Martino, Michael; Angus, Derek C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) and CURB-65 predict outcomes in community acquired pneumonia (CAP), but have limitations. Procalcitonin, a biomarker of bacterial infection, may provide prognostic information in CAP. Our objective was to describe the pattern of procalcitonin in CAP, and determine if procalcitonin provides prognostic information beyond PSI and CURB-65. Methods We conducted a multi-center prospective cohort study in 28 community and teaching emergency departments. Patients presenting with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of CAP were enrolled. We stratified procalcitonin levels a priori into four tiers – I: < 0.1; II: ≥ 0.1 to <0.25; III: ≥ 0.25 to < 0.5; and IV: ≥ 0.5 ng/ml. Primary outcome was 30d mortality. Results 1651 patients formed the study cohort. Procalcitonin levels were broadly spread across tiers: 32.8% (I), 21.6% (II), 10.2% (III), 35.4% (IV). Used alone, procalcitonin had modest test characteristics: specificity (35%), sensitivity (92%), positive likelihood ratio (LR) (1.41), and negative LR (0.22). Adding procalcitonin to PSI in all subjects minimally improved performance. Adding procalcitonin to low risk PSI subjects (Class I–III) provided no additional information. However, subjects in procalcitonin tier I had low 30d mortality regardless of clinical risk, including those in higher risk classes (1.5% vs. 1.6% for those in PSI Class I–III vs. Class IV/V). Among high risk PSI subjects (Class IV/V), one quarter (126/546) were in procalcitonin tier I, and the negative LR of procalcitonin tier I was 0.09. Procalcitonin tier I was also associated with lower burden of other adverse outcomes. Similar results were seen with CURB-65 stratification. Conclusions Selective use of procalcitonin as an adjunct to existing rules may offer additional prognostic information in high risk patients. PMID:18342993

  3. Procalcitonin and C-Reactive Protein in Hospitalized Adult Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia or Exacerbation of Asthma or COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bafadhel, Mona; Clark, Tristan W.; Reid, Carlene; Medina, Marie-jo; Batham, Sally; Barer, Michael R.; Nicholson, Karl G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic overuse in respiratory illness is common and is associated with drug resistance and hospital-acquired infection. Biomarkers that can identify bacterial infections may reduce antibiotic prescription. We aimed to compare the usefulness of the biomarkers procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with pneumonia or exacerbations of asthma or COPD. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia or exacerbation of asthma or COPD were recruited during the winter months of 2006 to 2008. Demographics, clinical data, and blood samples were collected. Procalcitonin and CRP concentrations were measured from available sera. Results: Sixty-two patients with pneumonia, 96 with asthma, and 161 with COPD were studied. Serum procalcitonin and CRP concentrations were strongly correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.56, P < .001). Patients with pneumonia had increased procalcitonin and CRP levels (median [interquartile range] 1.27 ng/mL [2.36], 191 mg/L [159]) compared with those with asthma (0.03 ng/mL [0.04], 9 mg/L [21]) and COPD (0.05 ng/mL [0.06], 16 mg/L [34]). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% CI) for distinguishing between patients with pneumonia (antibiotics required) and exacerbations of asthma (antibiotics not required), for procalcitonin and CRP was 0.93 (0.88-0.98) and 0.96 (0.93-1.00). A CRP value > 48 mg/L had a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI, 80%-97%) and specificity of 93% (95% CI, 86%-98%) for identifying patients with pneumonia. Conclusions: Procalcitonin and CRP levels can both independently distinguish pneumonia from exacerbations of asthma. CRP levels could be used to guide antibiotic therapy and reduce antibiotic overuse in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory illness. PMID:21030489

  4. Serum ischemia-modified albumin levels at diagnosis and during treatment of late-onset neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Yerlikaya, F Hümeyra; Kurban, Sevil; Mehmetoglu, Idris; Annagur, Ali; Altunhan, Huseyin; Erbay, Ekrem; Ors, Rahmi

    2014-11-01

    Sepsis is one of the most common infectious conditions in the neonatal period, and continues as a major source of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to determine serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels in late-onset neonatal sepsis at the time of diagnosis and after therapy, and to show the meaningful on the follow-up. Also, it is aimed to compare serum IMA levels with serum C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) levels and white blood cell count. The study was performed on 33 premature babies with sepsis and 21 healthy premature controls at 7-28 days of age. In the sepsis group, biochemical parameters and blood culture samples were obtained from the blood at the onset and on the fifth day of treatment for each patient. Serum IMA, CRP, PCT and white blood cell count were significantly higher in the sepsis group before treatment when compared with the control group. In addition, the levels of IMA were positively correlated with white blood cell count, CRP and PCT in the sepsis group before treatment. In conclusion, serum IMA levels may be useful in late-onset neonatal sepsis at the time of diagnosis and after therapy. As far as we know this is the first report about the assesment of illness diagnosis and after therapy using serum IMA levels, and further studies are needed to confirm our results in larger groups of patients.

  5. [Procalcitonin as a predictor of bacteremia in pediatric patients with malignancies and febrile neutropenia].

    PubMed

    Aliyev, D A; Vezirova, Z Sh; Geyusheva, T F

    2015-02-01

    Dynamics of procalcitonin level was studied in 75 pediatric patients, in whom on back- ground of polychemotherapy conduction for oncological disease bacteremia and neutropenia have occurred. Determination of procalcitonin level as a rapidly reacting biomarker of generalized infectious process permits to establish its progression, to con- duct early diagnosis, to perform timely and adequate treatment measures.

  6. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  7. [Procalcitonin: a reliable marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of the course of bacterial infection].

    PubMed

    Holub, Michal; Rozsypal, Hanus; Chalupa, Pavel

    2008-12-01

    The review is aimed at the importance of determining procalcitonin serum levels (S-PCT) in numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases. Detecting increased S-PCT is particularly important for differential diagnosis of systemic bacterial as well as fungal infections. High S-PCT concentrations are also of predictive value in severe sepsis and septic shock. S-PCT kinetics may be used for monitoring the effect of antibiotic therapy. When compared to the other routinely used markers of bacterial infection (i.e. C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and neutrophil percentage), S-PCT has higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting bacterial infection.

  8. Relation of serum molindone levels to serum prolactin levels and antipsychotic response.

    PubMed

    Pandurangi, A K; Narasimhachari, N; Blackard, W G; Landa, B S

    1989-10-01

    The antipsychotic drug molindone is considered to be atypical in its mode of action and to have mild side effects. Currently no data are available on the range of serum levels of this drug during treatment. By means of a high performance liquid chromatographic technique, serum molindone levels were measured in 14 psychotic patients receiving a wide range of doses of this drug. Molindone levels as high as 350 ng/mL were obtained and were not associated with any toxic effects. Significant relations were noted between the serum level of the drug and both serum prolactin level and treatment response. The authors suggest that molindone may have a range of serum levels consistent with therapeutic benefit. Serum molindone and prolactin levels might help assess resistance to molindone treatment.

  9. Clinical importance of thrombomodulin serum levels.

    PubMed

    Califano, F; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P; Campana, E; Parlapiano, C; Alegiani, F; Vincentelli, G M; Turchetti, P

    2000-01-01

    Thrombomodulin is a glycoprotein that can bind to thrombin and activate protein C, thus mitigating the effects of cytokines produced by inflammatory and immunological processes. The molecule exerts a protective function on endothelial cells. Thrombomodulin is cleaved to its soluble form by neutrophil elastase and by other substances produced during acute and chronic inflammatory responses, immunologic reactions and complement activation. ELISA technique yields normal serum levels of 3.1 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; in males these levels are higher; TM levels also rise during menopause. Other circumstances associated with an increase of serum TM levels are smoking, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), cardiac surgery, atherosclerosis, ARDS, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cerebral and myocardial infarction, and multiple sclerosis. Serum levels of TM represent an useful prognostic index, because they are associated with an increase in mortality rate, or however a progression of the underlying pathological condition.

  10. Prognostic value of procalcitonin in hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Vandack; Borges, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are common and potentially lethal conditions and are a major cause of inadequate antibiotic prescriptions. Characterization of disease severity and prognostic prediction in affected patients can aid disease management and can increase accuracy in determining the need for and place of hospitalization. The inclusion of biomarkers, particularly procalcitonin, in the decision taken process is a promising strategy. This study aims to present a narrative review of the potential applications and limitations of procalcitonin as a prognostic marker in hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections. The studies on this topic are heterogeneous with respect to procalcitonin measurement techniques, cutoff values, clinical settings, and disease severity. The results show that procalcitonin delivers moderate performance for prognostic prediction in patients with lower respiratory tract infections; its predictive performance was not higher than that of classical methods, and knowledge of procalcitonin levels is most useful when interpreted together with other clinical and laboratory results. Overall, repeated measurement of the procalcitonin levels during the first days of treatment provides more prognostic information than a single measurement; however, information on the cost-effectiveness of this procedure in intensive care patients is lacking. The results of studies that evaluated the prognostic value of initial procalcitonin levels in patients with community-acquired pneumonia are more consistent and have greater potential for practical application; in this case, low procalcitonin levels identify those patients with a low risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27305038

  11. The Procalcitonin And Survival Study (PASS) - a randomised multi-center investigator-initiated trial to investigate whether daily measurements biomarker Procalcitonin and pro-active diagnostic and therapeutic responses to abnormal Procalcitonin levels, can improve survival in intensive care unit patients. Calculated sample size (target population): 1000 patients.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Lundgren, Bettina; Hein, Lars; Mohr, Thomas; Petersen, Pernille L; Andersen, Lasse H; Lauritsen, Anne O; Hougaard, Sine; Mantoni, Teit; Bømler, Bonnie; Thornberg, Klaus J; Thormar, Katrin; Løken, Jesper; Steensen, Morten; Carl, Peder; Petersen, J Asger; Tousi, Hamid; Søe-Jensen, Peter; Bestle, Morten; Hestad, Søren; Andersen, Mads H; Fjeldborg, Paul; Larsen, Kim M; Rossau, Charlotte; Thomsen, Carsten B; Ostergaard, Christian; Kjaer, Jesper; Grarup, Jesper; Lundgren, Jens D

    2008-07-13

    Sepsis and complications to sepsis are major causes of mortality in critically ill patients. Rapid treatment of sepsis is of crucial importance for survival of patients. The infectious status of the critically ill patient is often difficult to assess because symptoms cannot be expressed and signs may present atypically. The established biological markers of inflammation (leucocytes, C-reactive protein) may often be influenced by other parameters than infection, and may be unacceptably slowly released after progression of an infection. At the same time, lack of a relevant antimicrobial therapy in an early course of infection may be fatal for the patient. Specific and rapid markers of bacterial infection have been sought for use in these patients. Multi-centre randomized controlled interventional trial. Powered for superiority and non-inferiority on all measured end points. Complies with, "Good Clinical Practice" (ICH-GCP Guideline (CPMP/ICH/135/95, Directive 2001/20/EC)). Inclusion: 1) Age > or = 18 years of age, 2) Admitted to the participating intensive care units, 3) Signed written informed consent.Exclusion: 1) Known hyper-bilirubinaemia. or hypertriglyceridaemia, 2) Likely that safety is compromised by blood sampling, 3) Pregnant or breast feeding. Computerized Randomisation: Two arms (1:1), n = 500 per arm: Arm 1: standard of care. Arm 2: standard of care and Procalcitonin guided diagnostics and treatment of infection. Primary Trial Objective: To address whether daily Procalcitonin measurements and immediate diagnostic and therapeutic response on day-to-day changes in procalcitonin can reduce the mortality of critically ill patients. For the first time ever, a mortality-endpoint, large scale randomized controlled trial with a biomarker-guided strategy compared to the best standard of care, is conducted in an Intensive care setting. Results will, with a high statistical power answer the question: Can the survival of critically ill patients be improved by

  12. Are admission procalcitonin levels universal mortality predictors across different medical emergency patient populations? Results from the multi-national, prospective, observational TRIAGE study.

    PubMed

    Sager, Ramon; Wirz, Yannick; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Hausfater, Pierre; Huber, Andreas; Haubitz, Sebastian; Kutz, Alexander; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2017-04-17

    Procalcitonin (PCT), an inflammatory blood biomarker, is well studied in infectious diseases. Its prognostic value in unselected emergency department (ED) patients remains yet undefined. Herein, we investigated association of admission PCT levels and mortality in a large, international-multicenter ED patient cohort. We prospectively enrolled 6970 unselected, consecutive, adult, medical patients seeking ED care in three tertiary-care hospitals in Switzerland, France and the USA. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine association of admission PCT levels (as a continuous predictor and across cut-offs) and 30-day mortality. We also investigated subgroup effects by main diagnosis, comorbidities and clinical features at presentation. During the 30-day follow-up, 328 (4.7%) participants died. Mortality increased stepwise within higher PCT cut-offs (0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 ng/mL) from 1%, 3%, 7%, 13% to 15%, respectively. This association was also confirmed in a fully-adjusted model including age, gender, main symptom, main diagnosis and vital parameters on admission. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that PCT differentiated well between survivors and non-survivors in the overall cohort (area under ROC curve [AUC] 0.75) with best results for patient with metabolic (AUC: 0.85) and cardiovascular disease (AUC: 0.82). Addition of PCT also improved the prognostic accuracy of the quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score from an AUC of from 0.61 to 0.76 (p<0.001). Results were similar for other secondary endpoints including intensive care unit (ICU) admission and hospital readmission. In this large and heterogenous medical ED patient cohort, admission PCT was a strong and independent outcome predictor for 30-day mortality across different medical diagnoses independent of underlying infection. PCT may help to improve risk stratification in unselected medical ED patients.

  13. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P < 0.05). In subgroup analysis, an inverse association between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  14. Proinflammatory cytokines and procalcitonin in children with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Gürgöze, Metin Kaya; Akarsu, Saadet; Yilmaz, Erdal; Gödekmerdan, Ahmet; Akça, Zehra; Ciftçi, Ismail; Aygün, A Denizmen

    2005-10-01

    This prospective study, performed in 76 children with a urinary tract infection (UTI), evaluates the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha) in children with acute pyelonephritis documented by dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA). Renal parenchymal involvement was assessed by (99m )Tc-DMSA scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis was confirmed only in patients with reversible lesions on scintigraphy. According to DMSA scan results, patients were divided into two groups, lower UTI or acute pyelonephritis. In acute pyelonephritis, serum PCT level was found to be significantly higher than it is in the lower UTI (p <0.001). Also, significantly higher serum proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha) levels were detected in those with acute pyelonephritis than those with lower UTI (p <0.001). We conclude that both serum PCT and proinflammatory cytokine levels may be used as accurate markers for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis.

  15. How does whisky lower serum urate level?

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Nakanishi, Takeo; Fukazawa, Miki; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-05-01

    Clinical studies have shown that moderate whisky consumption increased renal excretion of urate into urine and decreased serum urate level, but the mechanism involved has not been established. Because renal reabsorption influences serum urate level, the effects of the whisky congeners on urate transporters, urate transporter 1 (URAT1), and voltage-driven urate transporter (URATv1) involved in reabsorptive transport of urate were examined. In transporter-expressing Xenopus oocytes, 12-year-old and 18-year-old whisky congeners inhibited urate uptake by URAT1 with IC50 values of 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively, while urate uptake by URATv1 was inhibited only at 1 mg/mL. Decreased serum urate level after whisky consumption may be mainly due to inhibition of URAT1 by the congeners. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Measurement of feline serum interleukin-5 level.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ayumi; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Kadoya, Michiyo; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2007-08-01

    A bioassay was developed to measure feline interleukin-5 (IL-5). Human IL-5 receptor alpha chain transfected murine Ba/F3 cells (Ba/F3-IL-5R) showed feline IL-5-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. IL-5 levels in serum samples from 54 cats with suspected allergic dermatitis and from 11 control cats could be successfully measured using Ba/F3-IL-5R cells. The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood was not correlated with serum IL-5 level.

  17. Neopterin and procalcitonin are suitable biomarkers for exclusion of severe Plasmodium falciparum disease at the initial clinical assessment of travellers with imported malaria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most clinicians in developed, non-malaria endemic countries have limited or no experience in making clinical assessments of malaria disease severity and subsequent decisions regarding the need for parenteral therapy or high-level monitoring in febrile patients with imported malaria. In the present study, the diagnostic accuracy of plasma soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1), neopterin and procalcitonin levels as biomarkers for severe Plasmodium falciparum disease was evaluated in 104 travellers with imported malaria (26 patients with non-P. falciparum malaria, 64 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and 14 patients with severe P. falciparum malaria). Methods TREM-1, neopterin and procalcitonin were determined in serum using commercially available ELISA or EIA tests. The diagnostic performance of these biomarkers for severe disease was compared with plasma lactate, a well-validated parameter for disease severity in patients with malaria, as reference. Severe malaria was defined according to the modified WHO criteria. Results No significant differences in TREM-1 levels were detected between the different patient groups. Patients with severe P. falciparum malaria had significantly higher neopterin and procalcitonin levels on admission when compared to patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria or non-P. falciparum malaria. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that neopterin had the highest Area-Under-the-ROC curve (AUROC 0.85) compared with plasma lactate (AUROC 0.80) and procalcitonin (AUROC 0.78). At a cut-off point of 10.0 ng/ml, neopterin had a positive and negative predictive value of 0.38 and 0.98 whereas procalcitonin, at a cut-off point of 0.9 ng/ml, had a positive and negative predictive value of 0.30 and 1.00. Conclusion Although the diagnostic value of neopterin and procalcitonin is limited, the high negative predictive value of both neopterin and procalcitonin may be

  18. [Serum immunoglobulin E level in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Denchev, K; Radkov, M; Lipcheva, N

    1976-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin E level was determined in 50 patients with bronchial asthma, treated in the out-patients department and clinical conditions at the Faculty Hospital--Varna. The quantitative determination of immunoglobulin E was carried out by radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini with monospecific anti-IgE globulin serum from Behringswerke (GFR). A considerable elevation of immunoglobulin E in the patients' sera was found, at an average of 394 IU (control 124 IU). A discrepancy in serum immunoglobulin E level was established with the different clinical forms of asthma. The highest are the values with infectious-allergic astmha-424 IU. High are the values both in the treated and not-treated with corticosteroids, without an essential difference between the two patient groups. Some of the rest immunoglobulins showed also an elevationppIgG 2620 mg% and IgA 366 mg%.

  19. Procalcitonin as the biomarker of inflammation in diagnostics of pediatric appendicular peritonitis and for the prognosis of early postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Chakhunashvili, L; Inasaridze, A; Svanidze, S; Samkharadze, J; Chkhaidze, I

    2005-12-01

    A total of 43 patients up to 15 years, who underwent appendectomy with preliminary diagnosis of acute appendicitis have been studied at M. Guramishvili Pediatric Clinic in 2004-2005 years. Procalcitonin concentration has been defined in patients' blood sera using the immunoluminometric method (LUMITest PCT, BRAHMS Diagnostika, Berlin, Germany). Analysis of procalcitonin in different groups of patients has shown that increase in procalcitonin correlates with disease severity, and maximally increases in case of peritonitis due to acute destructive appendicitis. The procalcitonin level can be used to confirm the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. It has been suggested that procalcitonin can be used not only as diagnostic marker for acute appendicitis but also as a prognostic marker of it's complications. Using of procalcitonin in case of acute appendicitis would help to carry out timely surgical interventions and predict disease complications.

  20. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake.

  1. Serum ferritin levels in hemoglobin H disease.

    PubMed

    Galanello, R; Melis, M A; Paglietti, E; Cornacchia, G; de Virgiliis, S; Cao, A

    1983-01-01

    This study shows that hemoglobin H disease patients aged between 0.5 and 44 years, usually (27 out of 30) have normal serum ferritin levels according to age. This reconfirms that in this disease there are usually normal iron stores. However, in a few patients (3 out of 30) increased levels were found. This may be due to inappropriate iron medication, transfusions or associated idiopathic hereditary hemocromatosis gene.

  2. Serum fucose level in malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Sawke, N G; Sawke, G K

    2010-01-01

    We review the present knowledge of serum fucose with special attention to its relation with various malignant diseases. We summarize the role of serum fucose as a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker when used singly or in combination. The purpose of this review is to provide an expert opinion on the practical and applied aspect of serum fucose level in clinical practice and research settings. Our review is based on information from published research studies, library books, and electronic searches through Medline and PubMed. The available published data were used as the basis for recommendations. Each of the subsections concludes to provide information to assist the clinicians and the research scientists make informed decisions.

  3. Serum irisin levels in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Baran, Anna; Myśliwiec, Hanna; Kiluk, Paulina; Świderska, Magdalena; Flisiak, Iwona

    2017-06-01

    Irisin has been proposed to regulate metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes or metabolic syndrome which are common comorbidities in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum irisin level in psoriasis and elucidate possible associations with disease activity, inflammatory or metabolic parameters and topical treatment. Thirty-seven individuals with active plaque-type psoriasis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were collected before and after two weeks of therapy. Serum irisin concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and effectiveness of topical treatment. Irisin serum levels were insignificantly increased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls (p = 0.38). No significant correlations between investigated adipokine and several indicators of metabolic disorders, nor BMI (p = 0.37) or PASI (p = 0.5) were found. Significant positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP) (0.009), lipocalin-2 (p = 0.02), age (p = 0.02) and disease duration (p = 0.008) were noted. After topical treatment, serum irisin level did not significantly change (p = 0.31), despite clinical improvement. Irisin might be a marker of inflammation in psoriatic patients, but may not be a reliable indicator of metabolic conditions, severity of psoriasis nor efficacy of antipsoriatic treatment.

  4. Accuracy of serum procalcitonin for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates and children with systemic inflammatory syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pontrelli, Giuseppe; De Crescenzo, Franco; Buzzetti, Roberto; Jenkner, Alessandro; Balduzzi, Sara; Calò Carducci, Francesca; Amodio, Donato; De Luca, Maia; Chiurchiù, Sara; Davies, Elin Haf; Copponi, Giorgia; Simonetti, Alessandra; Ferretti, Elena; Di Franco, Valeria; Rasi, Virginia; Della Corte, Martina; Gramatica, Luca; Ciabattini, Marco; Livadiotti, Susanna; Rossi, Paolo

    2017-04-24

    A number of biomarkers have been studied for the diagnosis of sepsis in paediatrics, but no gold standard has been identified. Procalcitonin (PCT) was demonstrated to be an accurate biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis in adults and showed to be promising in paediatrics. Our study reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of PCT as an early biomarker of sepsis in neonates and children with suspected sepsis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in Medline/Pubmed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, for studies assessing PCT accuracy in the diagnosis of sepsis in children and neonates with suspected sepsis. Studies in which the presence of infection had been confirmed microbiologically or classified as "probable" by chart review were included. Studies comparing patients to healthy subjects were excluded. We analysed data on neonates and children separately. Our primary outcome was the diagnostic accuracy of PCT at the cut-off of 2-2.5 ng/ml, while as secondary outcomes we analysed PCT cut-offs <2 ng/ml and >2.5 ng/ml. Pooled sensitivities and specificities were calculated by a bivariate meta-analysis and heterogeneity was graphically evaluated. We included 17 studies, with a total of 1408 patients (1086 neonates and 322 children). Studies on neonates with early onset sepsis (EOS) and late onset sepsis (LOS) were grouped together. In the neonatal group, we calculated a sensitivity of 0.85, confidence interval (CI) (0.76; 0.90) and specificity of 0.54, CI (0.38; 0.70) at the PCT cut-off of 2.0-2.5 ng/ml. In the paediatric group it was not possible to undertake a pooled analysis at the PCT cut-off of 2.0-2.5 ng/ml, due to the paucity of the studies. PCT shows a moderate accuracy for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates with suspected sepsis at the cut-off of 2.0-2.5 ng/ml. More studies with high methodological quality are warranted, particularly in neonates, studies considering EOS and LOS separately are needed to improve specificity

  5. Association between serum levels of carotenoids and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Watarai, Rika; Suzuki, Koji; Ichino, Naohiro; Osakabe, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Keiko; Yamada, Hiroya; Hamajima, Takeshi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (NOS). ADMA binds to a substrate-binding site of NOS and then inhibits nitric oxide production from vascular endothelial cells. Elevated ADMA levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, it was reported that plasma ADMA levels were negatively correlated with vegetable and fruit consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between serum levels of carotenoids and serum ADMA levels in Japanese subjects. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 470 subjects (203 men and 267 women) who attended a health examination in August 2011. Serum levels of several carotenoids were separately measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum ADMA levels were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. In women, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of elevated serum ADMA levels were significantly decreased in the highest tertile for β-cryptoxanthin (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.95), α-carotene (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18-0.79), and β-carotene (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.73) compared to the lowest tertile. In men, significantly decreased ORs were observed in the highest tertiles of serum zeaxanthin/lutein (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.69) and α-carotene (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.82), and in the middle and the highest tertiles of serum β-carotene (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.74 and OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.03-0.88, respectively) when the tertile cutoff points of women were extrapolated to men. Higher serum levels of carotenoids, such as α-carotene and β-carotene, may help to prevent elevated serum ADMA levels in Japanese subjects.

  6. Presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype) and procalcitonin levels for mortality prediction in sepsis: data from the Albumin Italian Outcome Sepsis trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis, a leading cause of death in critically ill patients, is the result of complex interactions between the infecting microorganisms and the host responses that influence clinical outcomes. We evaluated the prognostic value of presepsin (sCD14-ST), a novel biomarker of bacterial infection, and compared it with procalcitonin (PCT). Methods This is a retrospective, case–control study of a multicenter, randomized clinical trial enrolling patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in ICUs in Italy. We selected 50 survivors and 50 non-survivors at ICU discharge, matched for age, sex and time from sepsis diagnosis to enrollment. Plasma samples were collected 1, 2 and 7 days after enrollment to assay presepsin and PCT. Outcome was assessed 28 and 90 days after enrollment. Results Early presepsin (day 1) was higher in decedents (2,269 pg/ml, median (Q1 to Q3), 1,171 to 4,300 pg/ml) than in survivors (1,184 pg/ml (median, 875 to 2,113); P = 0.002), whereas PCT was not different (18.5 μg/L (median 3.4 to 45.2) and 10.8 μg/L (2.7 to 41.9); P = 0.31). The evolution of presepsin levels over time was significantly different in survivors compared to decedents (P for time-survival interaction = 0.03), whereas PCT decreased similarly in the two groups (P = 0.13). Presepsin was the only variable independently associated with ICU and 28-day mortality in Cox models adjusted for clinical characteristics. It showed better prognostic accuracy than PCT in the range of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (area under the curve (AUC) from 0.64 to 0.75 vs. AUC 0.53 to 0.65). Conclusions In this multicenter clinical trial, we provide the first evidence that presepsin measurements may have useful prognostic information for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. These preliminary findings suggest that presepsin may be of clinical importance for early risk stratification. PMID:24393424

  7. Serum gastrin level in early childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Sann, L; Chayvialle, A P; Bremond, A; Lambert, R

    1975-01-01

    Serum gastrin concentration was measured in newborns and infants with no gastrointestinal disorders, in the fasting state and after food stimulation. Mean fasting concentration in 14 newborns aged 1 to 12 days (130 . 4 pg/ml +/- 11 . 4 SE) was significantly higher than the mean value in 23 infants aged 1.5 to 22 months (101.4 +/- 6.6 pg/ml). Ingestion of the usual milk meal resulted in a definite rise of the serum gastrin level in the 5 subjects tested (3 newborns and 2 infants). The mean fasting serum gastrin level in 6 babies with hiatus hernia and gastro-oesophageal reflux was found to be no different from the corresponding value in 8 age-matched controls. However, a conspicuously raised fasting gastrin concentration was observed in one infant with lower oesophageal dyskinesia. The results indicate that the release of gastrin and the reactivity of the hormone-producing sites to food stimulation in early life are similar to those in adult humans. No defect of gastrin release was shown in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux. PMID:1244175

  8. A Review of the Value of Procalcitonin as a Marker of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Adriana; Kelly, Steven; Simpson, Michael; Mabey, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Septicemia is a growing problem within the United States (US), which increases mortality and the cost of care. Procalcitonin is a pro-inflammatory marker that could be useful in the diagnosis of infection. In the past, procalcitonin levels have been evaluated to diagnose sepsis or guide antibiotic therapy, but it was not determined if it would differentiate between sepsis and other causes of inflammation. Studies reviewed here showed procalcitonin to be a useful biomarker as an indication of bacterial infection. Infections can be diagnosed earlier and managed appropriately to avoid progression to septicemia, reduce mortality, and overall medical costs. PMID:28497010

  9. Effect of cyproheptadine on serum leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Calka, Omer; Metin, Ahmet; Dülger, Haluk; Erkoç, Reha

    2005-01-01

    Leptin is a 167 amino acid protein encoded by the obesity gene that is synthesized in adipose tissue and interacts with receptors in the hypothalamus linked to the regulation of appetite and metabolism. It is known to suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. Cyproheptadine is a piperidine antihistamine that increases appetite through its antiserotonergic effect on 5-HT2 receptors in the brain. Although both leptin and cyproheptadine are effective in controlling appetite, their interaction has not been addressed in clinical studies. This study evaluated serum leptin concentrations in patients who received cyproheptadine to treat a variety of disorders. Sixteen patients aged 7 to 71 years (mean, 26.25 years) were given cyproheptadine 2 to 6 mg/day for a minimum of 7 days. Body weight was measured and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 1 week of treatment. Serum leptin levels were determined by leptin radioimmunoassay. The mean body weight at baseline (52.59 kg) did not differ significantly from that at 1 week after treatment (52.84 kg; P > .05), but the mean leptin level after 1 week of treatment with cyproheptadine (3.14 ng/mL) was 14.2% higher than that at baseline (2.75 ng/mL; P < .05). This increase may suggest that both leptin and cyproheptadine may affect appetite via similar receptors and that cyproheptadine does not impair leptin activity through these receptors. Further study will be necessary to clarify this relationship.

  10. [Usefulness of Procalcitonin Measurement for the Detection of Sepsis].

    PubMed

    Toh, Hiromi; Harada, Sadako; Kakudou, Tomoko; Era, Fumiyoshi; Tokushige, Chiemi; Yoshimura, Hisae; Kawashima, Hironobu; Ohkubo, Kumiko; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Matsunaga, Akira

    2014-10-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is a frequently used marker for bacterial sepsis. The present study was aimed to assess the usefulness of PCT measurement in patient with sepsis. We studied the relationship between serum PCT level and blood culture in clinical 209 cases admitted from January 2010 through June 2010. We compared PCT level with blood culture results and other clinical data, and diagnosis such as sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were obtained from the medical records. In the case of patients with positive blood cultures and PCT < 0.5 ng/mL, the false- positive blood culture was suspected. The possibility of bacteremia was high when PCT level was more than 0.5 ng/mL. Patients with PCT ≥ 2 ng/mL had significant correlation with the presence of sepsis. The PCT measurement could be performed and reported rapidly and provided valuable information before availability of culture results. In this study, we found that the PCT would be a useful biomarker for confirming and ruling out sepsis.

  11. Serum Telomerase Levels and COPD Exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Bozkus, Fulsen; Guler, Selma; Sımsek, Secıl

    2016-03-01

    To our knowledge, there is no study on the level of telomerase in subjects with COPD during an exacerbation period. The objective of this work was to compare lipid peroxidation, telomerase, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and malondialdehyde levels in asymptomatic smokers and subjects with COPD exacerbation. The study included 45 subjects with COPD exacerbation and 42 healthy subjects with tobacco use as a control group. Samples were taken from blood and after the serum levels of telomerase malondialdehyde, Cu, and Zn were measured, the values were compared between the 2 groups. Tests for respiratory function were performed, and sedimentation and C-reactive protein levels were measured. The COPD exacerbation group had a significantly (P < .001) lower Cu/Zn ratio compared with the control group; however, the COPD exacerbation group had significantly (P < .001) higher levels of telomerase malondialdehyde, Cu, and Zn compared with the control group. Malondialdehyde, Cu, Zn, and FEV1 were found negatively correlated in the COPD exacerbation and control groups (P < .001). The COPD exacerbation group had lower FEV1 and FVC compared with the control group. The COPD exacerbation group had significantly (P < .001) higher levels of C-reactive protein and a higher blood cell sedimentation rate compared with the control group. The reason why the subjects had a reduced Cu/Zn ratio and increased levels of telomerase, Cu, and Zn is likely to be oxidative stress, which can be defined as an increased exposure to oxidants and/or decreased antioxidant capacities It is obvious from this study that lung oxidant-antioxidant balance is abnormal in subjects with COPD exacerbation and also that the increased level of telomerase is associated with this imbalance. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Prognostic and diagnostic value of procalcitonin in the post-transplant setting after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Stirkat, Falk; Croner, Roland S.; Vassos, Nikolaos; Raptis, Dimitrios; Yedibela, Süleyman; Hohenberger, Werner; Müller, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) as a marker for complications and as a prognostic factor for mortality after liver transplantation. Material and methods Liver transplant patients between January 2007 and April 2011 were prospectively included in the study. Procalcitonin serum concentration was recorded before, 6 h after reperfusion and then daily. Postoperative clinical course was prospectively analyzed from admission to discharge. Main surgical data such as operating procedure, type of reperfusion, operating and ischemic times, high urgency (HU) status and MELD score at the time of transplantation were also recorded. Results Sixteen patients with initial PCT > 5 ng/ml suffered ≥ 1 complication (p = 0.03). However, there was no association between the level of the 1st peak PCT and the further postoperative course or the occurrence of complications. Patients in whom a 2nd PCT peak occurred had a significantly higher risk for a complicated course, for a complicated sepsis course and for mortality (p < 0.0001). Warm ischemic time over 58 min, operating time over 389 min and HU status were significant independent factors for a complicated postoperative course (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p = 0.03 respectively). Conclusions Based on our results, we believe that PCT course and the occurrence of a 2nd peak seem to possess important diagnostic and prognostic power in the post-transplant setting after liver transplantation. PMID:27186183

  13. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  14. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  15. Procalcitonin Strip Test as an Independent Predictor in Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Brendan Hermenigildo; Rozario, Anthony Prakash; Olakkengil, Santosh Antony; V, Anirudh

    2015-12-01

    Plasma procalcitonin (PCT) is a highly specific marker for the diagnosis of bacterial infection and sepsis. Studies have demonstrated its role in the setting of sepsis and acute pancreatitis. This study aims to analyze and compare the prognostic efficacy of plasma procalcitonin strip test in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study was conducted in the department of general surgery from June 2012 to June 2013. Plasma procalcitonin was estimated by the semiquantitative strip test. The study included a total of 50 patients diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. Data was collected and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17. Thirty-nine out of the 50 patients (78 %) were males with a mean age of 46.8 years (range, 25-78 years) and 25 patients (50 %) had ethanol-induced pancreatitis, while 13 patients (26 %) had gall stone pancreatitis. Plasma PCT values were found to correlate better than CRP levels and total leukocyte count with the total duration of hospitalization, ITU, and ICU stay, as well as with the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. A cut off for plasma PCT of >2 ng/mL was found to be 100 % sensitive and 100 % specific and a cut off for CRP of >19 mg/dL was 70 % sensitive and 65 % specific for predicting the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. Plasma PCT also correlated well with antibiotic requirement. A cut off value of >0.5 ng/mL for plasma PCT was 100 % sensitive and 80 % specific and a cut off value of >18 mg/dL for CRP was 86 % sensitive and 63 % specific for predicting antibiotic requirement. Plasma procalcitonin is an early and reliable prognostic indicator in acute pancreatitis. The procalcitonin strip test is a rapid test which is useful in analyzing prognosis in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  16. Massive naproxen overdose with serial serum levels.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Suad A; Anderson, Ilene B; Pedram, Fatehi; Colby, Jennifer M; Olson, Kent R

    2015-03-01

    Massive naproxen overdose is not commonly reported. Severe metabolic acidosis and seizure have been described, but the use of renal replacement therapy has not been studied in the context of overdose. A 28-year-old man ingested 70 g of naproxen along with an unknown amount of alcohol in a suicidal attempt. On examination in the emergency department 90 min later, he was drowsy but had normal vital signs apart from sinus tachycardia. Serum naproxen level 90 min after ingestion was 1,580 mg/L (therapeutic range 25-75 mg/L). He developed metabolic acidosis requiring renal replacement therapy using sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and had recurrent seizure activity requiring intubation within 4 h from ingestion. He recovered after 48 h. Massive naproxen overdose can present with serious toxicity including seizures, altered mental status, and metabolic acidosis. Hemodialysis and renal replacement therapy may correct the acid base disturbance and provide support in cases of renal impairment in context of naproxen overdose, but further studies are needed to determine the extraction of naproxen.

  17. Prognostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) and/or interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels after multiple trauma for the development of multi organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) or sepsis.

    PubMed

    Haasper, C; Kalmbach, M; Dikos, G D; Meller, R; Müller, C; Krettek, C; Hildebrand, F; Frink, M

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in treatment of severe injured patients, e.g. due to damage control orthopaedics, multi organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and sepsis are major complications in daily practice. During one year 94 patients were prospectively collected. ISS 16, age 18-60 y, primary admission to our level-1 trauma center, survival > 48 hours after trauma. The development of MODS and sepsis were observed and different groups were formed (+/-). Demographic data revealed no significant differences between the subgroups. Comparing groups +MODS and -MODS significant differences on admission day were observed, when PCT showed first on day 2 after trauma differences. Regarding the development of sepsis PCT was advantageous to IL-6 showing significant higher plasma levels in group +sepsis from the first day after trauma. Serum levels of IL-6 and PCT could be useful in early identification of high risk patients to develop posttraumatic MODS. For sepsis PCT is the better prognostic factor.

  18. Decreased levels of serum nesfatin-1 in patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuijuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yunhai; Li, Jie; Liu, Ruxin; Liu, Hong

    2014-08-01

    Nesfatin-1 is implicated to possess an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of our study is to investigate whether abnormal serum levels of nesfatin-1 are associated with the presence and severity of preeclampsia. A total of 120 women with preeclampsia and 92 women with uncomplicated pregnancies were enrolled in this study. Women with preeclampsia showed significantly reduced levels of serum nesfatin-1 levels than women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Serum nesfatin-1 levels were significantly decreased in women with severe preeclampsia compared with women with mild preeclampsia. Decreased serum nesfatin-1 levels are associated with the presence and severity of preeclampsia.

  19. Is procalcitonin increased in cases of invasive amoebiasis? A retrospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Recipon, Guillaume; Piver, Éric; Caille, Agnès; Le Pape, Patrice; Pihet, Marc; Pagès, Jean-Christophe; Chandenier, Jacques; Desoubeaux, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are commonly used for diagnostic guidance in routine bacterial infections. By contrast, little data are currently available regarding PCT in parasitic diseases, and its role in cases of invasive amoebiasis has not yet been described. For this purpose, 35 adult patients with a proven diagnosis of invasive or digestive amoebiasis were included in a 4-year study period. Serum PCT was retrospectively assessed. Results were analysed with regard to the usual inflammatory biomarkers, like C-reactive protein (CRP). PCT was significantly higher in patients with proven invasive amoebiasis than in digestive amoebiasis (mean value: 4.03 μg/L versus 0.07 μg/L, respectively; P < 0.001), but the SD was greater than with CRP, and the effect was less than that demonstrated in bacterial infections. By contrast, PCT was not shown to be elevated during digestive amoebiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Septic versus inflammatory arthritis: discriminating the ability of serum inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Talebi-Taher, Mahshid; Shirani, Fatemeh; Nikanjam, Najmeh; Shekarabi, Mehdi

    2013-02-01

    Early diagnosis of septic arthritis is very important. Few studies showed diagnostic accuracy of serum inflammatory markers in septic arthritis. The aim of our study was to compare the serum and synovial fluid markers [procalcitonin, serum IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, synovial fluid white blood cell counts and PMN percentage] in septic and inflammatory arthritis. Seventy-five patients, including 25 and 50 septic and non-septic arthritis, were enrolled in the study. The serum and synovial fluid markers [procalcitonin, serum IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, synovial fluid white blood cell counts, and PMN percentage] were compared in septic and inflammatory arthritis. Patients with septic arthritis had significantly elevated levels of procalcitonin, serum TNF-α, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, synovial fluid white blood cell counts, and PMN percentage in comparison with the inflammatory arthritis group (P < 0.00). Serum IL-6 level does not differ among the two groups. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, synovial fluid WBC counts, PMN percentage, TNF-α, ESR, and serum PCT preformed best in distinguishing between septic and non-septic arthritis. Our study suggests that PCT can be used to diagnose the septic arthritis, but more studies warranted in order to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the test.

  1. Impact of vegetarian diet on serum immunoglobulin levels in children.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, Daiva; Prescha, Anna; Szeremeta, Karolina

    2013-03-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in immune response. We evaluated the effect of nutrient intake on serum immunoglobulin levels in vegetarian and omnivore children. Serum immunoglobulin levels and iron status were estimated in 22 vegetarian and 18 omnivore children. Seven-day food records were used to assess the diet. There were no significant differences in serum IgA, IgM, and IgG levels between groups of children. Serum immunoglobulin levels were lower in vegetarian children with iron deficiency in comparison with those without iron deficiency. In the vegetarians, IgG level correlated positively with energy, zinc, copper, and vitamin B(6) intake. In the omnivores, these correlations were stronger with IgM level. Despite negligible differences in serum immunoglobulin levels between vegetarian and omnivore children, the impact of several nutrient intakes on IgM and IgG levels differed between groups. Low iron status in vegetarian children can lead to decreased immunoglobulin levels.

  2. Elevated serum zinc levels in metal fume fever

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, N.E.; Ruthman, J.C.

    1988-11-01

    Metal fume fever is not an uncommon syndrome among welders following exposure to oxidized metal fumes (usually zinc). The relationship of serum zinc level to the acute phase of this illness is not known. Two cases of metal fume fever, associated with elevated serum zinc levels, are presented. Further studies are necessary to determine the diagnostic usefulness of serum zinc levels in metal fume fever.

  3. Serum zinc levels in corticosteroid-treated asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ellul-Micallef, R.; Galdes, A.; Fenech, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Serum zinc levels have been measured in twenty-four asthmatic patients, of whom sixteen were on long term corticosteroid therapy. They were carefully screened to exclude any concomitant disease. The non-steroid-treated asthmatics had normal serum zinc levels which ranged from 89 to 138 μg/ml. The corticosteroid-treated patients had a mean serum zinc level of 64 ± 9 μg/100 ml; this was significantly lower than normal (P = < 0·001). PMID:1264936

  4. Elevated levels of serum creatine kinase induced by hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, I; Jonas, M; Thaler, M; Grossman, E

    1997-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase levels are one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial injury. Noncardiac causes such as muscular and brain damage may also be associated with elevated serum creatine kinase levels. Hyponatremia may induce increased serum creatine kinase in association with rhabdomyolysis or with hypothyroidism. A patient is described where three episodes of hyponatraemia not associated with rhabdomyolysis or hypothyroidism induced transient elevations of serum creatine kinase levels. The association between hyponatraemia and elevated creatine kinase levels should be emphasized to prevent erroneous diagnosis of myocardial injury.

  5. Procalcitonin role in differential diagnosis of infection stages and non infection inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Gholamali

    2009-02-15

    The aim of this study is evaluation of procalcitonin role in the diagnosis of infectious and non infectious inflammation. This cross-sectional study was conducted in one hundred patients in Baqiyatallah Hospital of Iran in 2008. Patients suspected to infection were recruited to study. They were divided to four groups as: systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, sepsis syndrome and septic shock. Procalcitonin quantitative was assayed by immunoluminometric kit manufactured in Germany. Procalcitonin level was divided to four groups in < 0.5 ng mL(-1) compatible for SIRS, 0.5-2 ng mL(-1) for sepsis and 2-10 ng mL(-1) for sepsis syndrome and > 10 ng mL(-1) for septic shock. Data was analyzed by SPSS 13 for window software; T student test, ANOVA and Chi-square were used. In this study 53(53%) of subjects were men with mean age of 56.16 +/- 19.5 years old. The diagnosis was SIRS in 36%, sepsis in 38%, sepsis syndrome in 14% and septic shock in 12% of cases. Procalcitonin level was less than 0.5 ng mL(-1) in 61% and more than 10 ng mL(-1) in 10% of patients. Procalcitonin level showed significant association with septic shock, positive blood culture and mental dysfunction. Ultimately this study showed that high level of procalcitonin can differentiate septic shock from SIRS and other stages of infection. Dysfunction of mental status and high level of procalcitonin can determine septic shock.

  6. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Kiral, Eylem; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-03-17

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia.

  7. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Kiral, Eylem; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia. PMID:27103976

  8. Adrenomedullin--A New Marker in Febrile Neutropenia: Comparison With CRP and Procalcitonin.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, Metin; Tugcu, Deniz; Akcay, Arzu; Aydogan, Gönül; Akıcı, Ferhan; Salcioglu, Zafer; Ekmekci, Hakan; Sevinir, Betül; Balci Ekmekci, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine serum adrenomedullin levels and compare them with levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Cancer patients aged 0-18 years who experienced febrile neutropenia attacks were included in the study. Adrenomedullin, CRP, and PCT were analyzed at admission, day 3, and days 7-10 later. Fifty episodes of febrile neutropenia that developed in 37 patients were analyzed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 7.5 ± 4.7 (1-18) years. The patients had leukemia (73%), solid tumors (19%), and lymphoma (8%). The percentages of the patients in the clinically documented infection (CDI), fever of unknown origin (FUO), sepsis, and microbiological documented infection (MDI) categories were 34%, 34%, 20%, and 12%, respectively. During the study period, four patients were lost. In the MDI group, adrenomedullin levels on day 3 were significantly higher than those in the CDI and FUO groups. PCT levels were significantly higher in the sepsis group than those in the CDI group at admission, day 3, and days 7-10. In the sepsis group, PCT levels on days 7-10 days were significantly higher than those in the sepsis group. PCT values from the deceased patients on days 7-10 were significantly higher than those from patients who survived. CRP levels did not differ significantly among the febrile neutropenia groups. First, in our study, adrenomedullin was used as a biomarker in the febrile neutropenia episodes of children with cancer. Among adrenomedullin, CRP, and PCT, procalcitonin demonstrates the highest correlation with the severity of infection.

  9. Serum and red cell folate and serum vitamin B12 levels in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ford, H C; Carter, J M; Rendle, M A

    1989-08-01

    Serum and red blood cell folate levels and serum B12 concentration were determined by radioassay in 20 hyperthyroid patients and compared with values obtained when the same patients had been euthyroid for at least 4 months. In hyperthyroidism, the levels of serum and red blood cell folate were significantly (P less than .01) higher than when euthyroidism was achieved. There was no significant change in serum B12 concentration. Declines in serum and red blood cell folate levels between hyperthyroidism and euthyroidism occurred in 15 and 16 of the 20 patients, respectively. Although the explanation for the relative elevations of serum and red blood cell folate levels in hyperthyroid patients is unclear at present, our findings do not support the view that hyperthyroidism in man is associated with depletion of folate stores or subclinical deficiency of the vitamin.

  10. Serum Potassium Levels in Sigmoid Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Keles, M. Sait; Aydinli, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the serum potassium concentrations in patients with sigmoid volvulus (SV), which is a rare large bowel obstruction. Materials and Methods: The records of 86 patients with SV were reviewed retrospectively, while the records of 41 patients diagnosed with obstructive rectosigmoid cancer (ORC) were considered as the control group and as such, served as a source for comparison. Results: The analysis revealed a mean serum potassium concentration of 3.9 ± 0.6 mEq/L for the patients with SV, while the mean potassium concentration was 3.9 ± 0.5 mEq/L for the patients diagnosed with ORC (t:0.1, P>0.05). The number of hypokalemic and hyperkalemic patients identified in this study sample were 11 versus 5 patients and 1 versus 0 patients, respectively for the SV and ORC groups (x2 = 0.1 and 0.5, respectively with a P>0.05). Conclusions: No cause-and-effect relationship was observed between the serum potassium concentrations and SV. The serum potassium concentration is not pathognomonic for SV. PMID:25610090

  11. A Prospective Bicenter Study Investigating the Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin in Patients with Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Sand, M.; Trullen, X.V.; Bechara, F.G.; Pala, X.F.; Sand, D.; Landgrafe, G.; Mann, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Procalcitonin (PCT) is an established laboratory marker for disease severity in patients with infection and sepsis. In addition, PCT has been shown to be an effective marker for a limited number of localized infections. However, whether or not PCT has any diagnostic value for acute appendicitis, still remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective bicenter study was, therefore, to determine whether or not the PCT levels in the serum of patients with acute appendicitis have any diagnostic value. Methods This prospective study included 103 patients who received an appendectomy, based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis, in a surgical department of an academic teaching hospital in Germany or in a county hospital in Spain. White blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) values were determined preoperatively. All appendectomy specimens were sent for routine histopathological evaluation. Based on this information, the patients were assigned to 1 of 5 groups that reflected the severity of the appendicitis. Results Of the 103 patients who were included in the study, 98 had appendicitis. Fourteen (14.3%) showed an increase in PCT values. Of those 14, 4 had a serum PCT >0.5 ng/ml, 9 had a PCT value >2–10 ng/ml and 1 had a PCT value >10 ng/ml. The sensitivity of PCT was calculated to be 0.14. The mean WBC value was 13.0/nl (± 5.2, 3.4–31), and for CRP it was 8.8 mg/dl (± 13, 0–60.2). The values of CRP, WBC and PCT increased with the severity of the appendicitis. Conclusions PCT is potentially increased in rare cases of severe inflammation and, in particular, after appendiceal perforation or gangrenous appendicitis. However, its remarkably low sensitivity prohibits its routine use for the diagnosis of appendicitis. PMID:19672084

  12. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongchao; Lin, Yanlin; Liu, Yuxiu; Chen, Ying; Wang, Bin; Li, Changgui; Yan, Shengli; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Wenjuan

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies assessing the association between serum uric acid levels and neurological outcome after acute ischemic stroke reported conflicting results. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the impact of serum uric acid levels on outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google scholar were searched through September 26, 2014 to identify eligible published or unpublished studies on the association between serum uric acid levels and outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Hazard ratio (HR) for poor outcome or mean differences of serum uric acid levels with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were pooled using meta-analysis. The primary outcome was occurrence of poor outcomes, while the secondary outcome was the mean differences of serum uric acid levels in patients with good or poor outcomes. Ten eligible studies with a total of 8131 acute ischemic stroke patients were included into the meta-analysis. Compared with low serum uric acid level, high serum uric acid level was associated better outcome after acute ischemic stroke (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.88, P = 0.0001). Sensitivity analysis further identified the prognostic role of serum uric acid levels on outcome after acute ischemic stroke. Patients with good outcomes had a higher serum uric acid level compared with those with poor outcome (mean difference = 30.61 μmol/L, 95% CI 20.13-41.08, P < 0.00001). There was no obvious risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis. This meta-analysis supports that serum uric acid level has a protective effect on neurological outcome after acute ischemic stroke. High uric acid level at the onset is a biomarker of better prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  13. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  14. Central injection of CDP-choline suppresses serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyici, Sinem; Basaran, Nesrin Filiz; Cavun, Sinan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-10-05

    In this study we aimed to test central administration of CDP-choline on serum ghrelin, leptin, glucose and corticosterone levels in rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol CDP-choline and saline were administered to male Wistar-Albino rats. For the measurement of serum leptin and ghrelin levels, blood samples were obtained baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min following i.c.v. CDP-choline injection. Equimolar doses of i.c.v. choline (1.0 µmol) and cytidine (1.0 µmol) were administered and measurements were repeated throughout the second round of the experiment. Atropine (10 µg) and mecamylamine (50 µg) were injected intracerebroventricularly prior to CDP-choline and measurements repeated in the third round of the experiment. After 1 µmol CDP-choline injection, serum ghrelin levels were suppressed significantly at 60 min (P=0.025), whereas serum leptin levels were increased at 60 and 120 min (P=0.012 and P=0.017 respectively). CDP-choline injections also induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum glucose and corticosterone levels. The effect of choline on serum leptin and ghrelin levels was similar with CDP-choline while no effect was seen with cytidine. Suppression of serum ghrelin levels was eliminated through mecamylamine pretreatment while a rise in leptin was prevented by both atropine and mecamylamine pretreatments. In conclusion; centrally injected CDP-choline suppressed serum ghrelin levels while increasing serum leptin levels. The observed effects following receptor antagonist treatment suggest that nicotinic receptors play a role in suppression of serum ghrelin levels,whereas nicotinic and muscarinic receptors both play a part in the increase of serum leptin levels.

  15. Are serum zinc and copper levels related to semen quality?

    PubMed

    Yuyan, Li; Junqing, Wu; Wei, Yuan; Weijin, Zhou; Ersheng, Gao

    2008-04-01

    Low serum zinc levels are harmful to semen quality in Chinese men. In this study, eligible men aged 20-59 years old-excluding those who had ever had urinary or genital disease, tuberculosis, or occupational heavy metal contact-were examined for semen quality and serum zinc and copper concentrations. Progressive motility showed differences among the five copper groups, but multiple logistic analyses did not show that higher or lower serum copper levels had a significant effect on sperm quality. When serum zinc concentration was low, the risk of asthenozoospermia was higher. The ratio of Cu/Zn was higher in the progressive motility abnormal group than in the normal group.

  16. Evidence for serum miR-15a and miR-16 levels as biomarkers that distinguish sepsis from systemic inflammatory response syndrome in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijuan; Zhang, Pengjun; Chen, Weijun; Feng, Dan; Jia, Yanhong; Xie, Li-xin

    2012-02-11

    Serum microRNAs may be useful biomarkers for diagnosing human diseases. We investigated serum levels of miR-15a and miR-16 in patients with sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) without infection. We enrolled 166 sepsis patients, 32 SIRS patients, and 24 normal controls. Serum miR-15a and miR-16 expression levels were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays (qRT-PCR). Serum miR-15a (p<0.001) and miR-16 (p<0.05) were both significantly higher in sepsis patients compared with normal controls, and miR-15a (p<0.001) and miR-16 (p<0.01) levels in SIRS patients were also significantly higher than those in normal controls. Serum miR-15a and miR-16 levels were not correlated with white blood cell counts. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that miR-15a had the highest area under the curve of 0.858 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.800-0.916] for the diagnosis of sepsis compared with C reactive protein and procalcitonin with areas under the curve of 0.572 (95% CI 0.479-0.665; p=0.198) and 0.605 (95% CI 0.443-0.767; p=0.168), respectively. When its cut-off point was set at 0.21, serum miR-15a had a sensitivity of 68.3% and a specificity of 94.4%. Serum miR-15a and miR-16 can both distinguish sepsis/SIRS from normal controls. miR-15a may be a biomarker that distinguishes between sepsis and SIRS.

  17. Alteration of maternal serum irisin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ulku Mete; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Cüre, Medine Cumhur; Sezgin, Hacer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare serum irisin concentrations in pregnant women with and without ges-tational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study was performed at the Tertiary Care Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecol-ogy, between January 2014 and April 2014. A total of 45 pregnant women with GDM (diabetes group) and 41 BMI- and age-matched healthy pregnant women (control group) were recruited. Maternal serum irisin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit at 24-28 weeks of gestation. An association between maternal serum irisin lev-els and metabolic parameters was analyzed. Body mass index, serum levels of glucose, insulin and irisin were tested and analyzed in the study group and controls. Pregnant women with GDM had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.001), first-hour OGTT glucose (p = 0.001), second-hour OGTT glucose (p = 0.001), and fasting insulin (p = 0.045) levels as compared to controls. Serum irisin levels were 1.04 ± 0.3 and 1.3 ± 0.2 in pregnant women with GDM and healthy pregnant controls, respectively (p = 0.001). Correlation analysis between irisin levels and anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with gestational diabetes revealed that none of the investigated parameters correlated with serum irisin level. Our results suggest that serum irisin levels might be introduced as a novel marker for GDM, with decreased levels of irisin being indicative of GDM.

  18. Serum Hepcidin Levels in Childhood-Onset Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Seham F.; Akeel, Nagwa E.; Abdalhady, Mohamed A.; Elhewala, Ahmed A.; Ali, Al Shymaa A.; Amin, Ezzat K.; Sarhan, Dina T.; Almalky, Mohamed A.A.; Elhindawy, Eman M.; Salam, Mohamed M.A.; Soliman, Attia A.; Abdellatif, Sawsan H.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elsamad, Nahla A.; Hashem, Mustafa I.A.; Aziz, Khalid A.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.; Arafat, Manal S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Despite the growing evidence of iron imbalance in childhood-onset ischemic stroke, serum hepcidin level in those patients has not yet been researched. In this study, we aimed to estimate serum (hepcidin) level in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and to investigate whether subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium, which is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) derivative, could modulate serum hepcidin level in those patients. This was a case–control study included 60 (AIS) cases, and 100 healthy children with comparable age and gender as control group. For all subjects’ serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]) levels were assessed by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method). Iron parameters including (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were also measured. The patients were subdivided according to treatment with an LMWH derivative into 2 groups and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and 1 week after stroke onset for all cases. We found that AIS cases had higher serum iron, ferritin, and IL6 levels compared to the control group (all P < 0.01). Serum hepcidin was significantly higher in AIS cases (median, 36[15–73]ng/mL) compared to the control group (median, 24[10–41]ng/mL; P < 0.01). On the 1st day of AIS diagnosis, serum hepcidin levels were similar in both stroke subgroups (P > 0.05). However, on the 7th day of diagnosis serum hepcidin level decreased significantly in AIS cases treated with LMWH (group 1) (median, 36 vs 21 ng/mL; P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in serum hepcidin level in AIS cases not treated with LMWH (group 2) (P > 0.05). Serum hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and IL6 (r = 0.375, P < 0

  19. Evaluation of serum uric acid levels in psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Emrah; Tamer, Emine; Artüz, Ferda; Külcü Çakmak, Seray; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2017-04-18

    Psoriasis has been accepted as a systemic disease and it is known to be associated with various disorders including metabolic syndrome. High serum uric acid levels are also associated with the components of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we aimed to determine serum uric acid levels in patients with psoriasis and the association of uric acid levels with disease activity by taking the presence of metabolic syndrome criteria into account, since it is one of the most important factors that affect serum uric acid levels. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 70 psoriasis patients and 70 healthy individuals who were matched with the patients according to the presence of metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the demographic features, levels of serum uric acid, Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores, presence of psoriatic arthritis, nail involvement, and metabolic syndrome criteria of the patients. Serum uric acid levels of psoriasis patients were significantly higher than those of controls. There was a positive correlation between PASI scores and serum uric acid levels of the patients. As hyperuricemia had a close relationship with psoriasis and PASI scores, we suggest monitoring patients with psoriasis for serum uric acid levels during treatment and follow-up.

  20. Association between serum folic acid level and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Erkmen, A E; Guzel, O; Aktas, B K; Bozkurt, A; Akdemir, S

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the serum folic acid (FA) level in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluated the possible association between the serum FA level and erectile function. The study divided 120 patients with ED into 3 groups of 40 patients each: those with severe, moderate and mild ED. Forty healthy men served as controls. Fasting serum samples were obtained, and the total testosterone, cholesterol and FA levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. There were no significant differences in the mean age, mean body mass index or mean serum total testosterone and cholesterol levels among the three ED groups and controls (P > 0.05). The mean serum FA concentrations were 7.2 ± 3.7, 7.1 ± 3.2, 10.2 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 4.6 ng ml(-1) in the severe, moderate and mild ED and control groups respectively. The mean serum FA concentration was significantly higher in the control group than in the severe and moderate ED groups (both P < 0.001), but not the mild ED group (P = 0.95). Considering the significant differences in the serum FA levels between the control and ED groups, serum FA deficiency might reflect the severity of ED.

  1. Determinants of serum leptin levels in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, A; Schürmeyer, T H; Von zur Mühlen, A; Brabant, G

    1998-02-01

    Corticosteroids and insulin increase leptin expression in vivo and in vitro. To investigate whether increased serum cortisol influences serum leptin concentrations in humans, we analyzed fasting serum leptin and insulin levels in 50 patients with Cushing's syndrome [34 female patients: 27 with the pituitary form and 7 with the adrenal form; age, 41.6 +/- 2.7 yr; body mass index (BMI), 29.6 +/- 1.2 kg/m2; 16 male patients all with the pituitary form; age, 39.2 +/- 3.1 yr; BMI, 26.3 +/- 2.3 kg/m2] and in controls matched for BMI, age, and gender. Serum leptin levels were higher in female than in male patients in both the Cushing (P < 0.01) and control (P < 0.001) groups. Disease-specific differences in serum leptin levels were only detected in male (106 vs. 67 pmol/L; Cushing's syndrome vs. control, P < 0.05), not female, patients. Multiple stepwise regression analysis of both patient groups revealed insulin as the best predictor of serum leptin concentrations, accounting for 37% of the variance in serum leptin levels, in contrast to BMI or mean serum cortisol (as measured by sampling in 10-min intervals over 24 h). In the subgroup of patients (n = 9) with pituitary adenoma, serum leptin levels were reduced after tumor resection, with concurrent decreases in serum cortisol, insulin, and BMI. In conclusion, chronic hypercortisolemia in Cushing's syndrome appears not to directly affect serum leptin concentrations, but to have an indirect effect via the associated hyperinsulinemia and/or impaired insulin sensitivity.

  2. Procalcitonin and proinflammatory parameters in diabetic foot infection as new predictive factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheem, Shler Gh.; Al-Barzinji, Ruqaya M.; Mansoor, Husham Y.; Al-Dabbagh, Ali A.

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic foot is a common complication of diabetes due to changes in blood vessels and nerves, often leads to ulceration and subsequent limb amputation if not treated early. A new diagnostic marker of bacterial infections is procalcitonin. C-reactive protein, Interleukin1β, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α as proinflammatory parameters increased in Diabetic foot infection. We evaluated above parameters in patients with diabetic foot infections in different grades. A total of 130 diabetic patients were enrolled in this case control study between June 2011 and March 2012 in Rizgary, Emergency and Hawler Teaching Hospitals, 90 of them with diabetic foot lesion as a patient group. 40 without foot lesion, as a patient control and 20 individuals as healthy control. Assessment of above parameters in sera of study groups and also bacteriological tests (bacterial isolation and identification) were done. Serum procalcitonin levels significantly increased in patients with diabetic foot with higher Wagner grades (III, IV and V) (0.28 ± 0.04, 0.30 ± 0.07 and 0.60 ± 0.11) respectively (P<0.01), indication for amputation (0.45 ± 0.06) (P<0.01), and polymicrobial infection (0.345 ± 0.043) (P<0.05). The severity of foot ulcer based on Wagner classification system was also associated with circulating levels of C-reactive protein, Interleukin1β, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (G III, IV and V) (5.36 ± 0.70, 6.38 ± 0.65, and 9.13 ± 0.88), (1.21 ± 0.08, 1.56 ± 0.16 and 2.02 ± 0.07), (23.02 ± 2.98, 36.32 ± 5.75 and 43.36 ± 6.16), and (215.39 ± 16.8, 259.21 ± 40.7 and 398.45 ± 33.4) respectively (P<0.01). A new useful diagnostic parameter in infected diabetic foot patients may be a procalcitonin especially in those with higher Wagner grades and with polymicrobial infection.

  3. Factors affecting serum oxytetracycline levels in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Mercer, H D; Rollins, L D; Carter, G G; Gural, R P; Bourne, D W; Dittert, L W

    1977-08-01

    Fifteen Aberdeen Angus steers, 295-364 kg, were dosed with either 4.4 or 11 mg of oxytetracycline hydrochloride/kg im. The antimicrobial activity of the serum was determined periodically, and the resulting data were treated statistically to determine the sources of variation. Variance in serum levels of oxytetracycline activity was attributed to dose, time of bleeding, order of dosing, animal, and assay. The total variance component was proportionately greater for the 11-mg/kg dose than for the 4.4-mg/kg dose. Animal variance increased with the higher dose level of oxytetracycline. The influence of dose on serum level was tested by applying a t test to the mean serum levels and their standard deviations at each bleeding time. The 4.4- and 11-mg/kg serum levels were significantly different (p less than 0.01) at all bleeding times. The 4.4-mg/kg serum levels mutliplied by 2.5 were not significantly different (p less than 0.05) from the 11-mg/kg serum levels at all bleeding times.

  4. Association between Serum Magnesium Levels and Depression in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Kai; Luan, Xiaoqian; Liu, Zhihua; Cai, Yan; Wang, Qiongzhang; Zhu, Beilei; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common psychiatric complication of stroke that is associated with a poor outcome in stroke patients. Our aim was to assess the association between the serum magnesium levels and the presence of PSD in Chinese patients. Two hundred nine stroke patients were included in the study. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 17-Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at 3 months after stroke. Based on the depressive symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in line with the DSM-IV criteria for PSD. Serum magnesium levels were evaluated using the dimethyl aniline blue colorimetric method at admission. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Further, 120 normal subjects were recruited, and their serum magnesium levels were also measured as control. At 3 months, fifty-nine patients (28.2%) were diagnosed as PSD. The serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in both PSD patients and non-PSD patients than in normal subjects (p < 0.001). Indeed, patients with PSD showed lower serum magnesium levels (p < 0.001) than did non-PSD patients at admission. In the multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential variables, we found that an increased risk of PSD was associated with serum magnesium levels ≤ 0.84mmol/L (OR 2.614, 95% CI 1.178-5.798, p=0.018). Low serum magnesium levels at admission were found to be associated with the presence of PSD at 3 months after stroke. PMID:28053818

  5. Failure of pyridoxine to suppress raised serum prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    de Waal, J M; Steyn, A F; Harms, J H; Slabber, C F; Pannall, P R

    1978-02-25

    Pyridoxine has been reported as having an antilactogenic effect, presumably by suppressing prolactin secretion. We have measured serum prolactin levels during pyridoxine administration in two groups of hyperprolactinaemic subjects. In normal postpartum women, the postdelivery fall in serum prolactin levels did not differ significantly in treated and control subjects. In patients with chlorpromazine-induced hyperprolactinaemia and galactorrhoea, pyridoxine did not reduce the elevated levels. In neither group was milk production suppressed.

  6. Comparative Circulating Serum Levels of Mepivacaine with Levo-Nordefrin

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, William M.; Allen, Gerald; Randall, Friederike

    1979-01-01

    Expected blood levels of common local anesthetics have been reported for numerous types of injections. Comparative levels of mepivacaine and lidocaine after dental injection have been only partially evaluated. A study was designed to compare the circulating serum level of 36 mgs. of mepivacaine with 1:20,000 levonordefrin (M) and 36 mgs. of lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (L) in 1.8 cc dental cartridges after standardized's bilateral maxillary infiltrations. Each of five subjects received 1.8 cc of (L) to the left maxillary second bicuspid and 1.8 cc of (M) to the right maxillary second bicuspid at a rate of one cc per minute. The serum was sampled before the injections and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 240 minute intervals after the injections and analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the serum level of (M) peaked at 30 minutes, 0.37 μg/ml of serum and (L) had peaks at 15 and 30 minutes, 0.22 μg/ml of serum. This difference was statistically significant, (p <.01) at all times sampled with (M) always resulting in a higher serum level. Serum levels persisted throughout the four hour test period. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3 PMID:298455

  7. Serum hepcidin concentrations correlate with serum iron level and outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Wen-Yao; Zhao, Ting; Zhong, Qi; Zhou, Kai; Meng, Zhao-You; Wang, Yan-Chun; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fang, Huang; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2015-10-01

    Iron plays a detrimental role in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage, while hepcidin is the most important iron-regulated hormone. Here, we investigate the association between serum hepcidin and serum iron, outcome in patients with ICH. Serum samples of 81 cases with ICH were obtained on consecutive days to detect the levels of hepcidin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) was measured at admission and on days 7 and 30, and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was evaluated at 3 months after ICH. Additionally, the correlations of serum hepcidin with serum iron and the mRS score were analyzed by a generalized linear model. Higher serum hepcidin levels were detected in patients with poor outcomes (P < 0.001), and the mRS score increased by a mean of 1.135 points (95% CI 1.021-1.247, P < 0.001) for every serum hepcidin quartile after adjusting for other prognostic variables. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum hepcidin was negatively correlated with serum iron (r = -0.5301, P < 0.001), and a significantly lower concentration of serum iron was found in patients with poor outcomes (P = 0.007). Additionally, serum hepcidin was independently correlated with mRS scores of ICH patients (OR 1.115, 95% CI 0.995-1.249, P = 0.021). Our results suggest that serum hepcidin is closely related to the outcome of patients with ICH and may be a biological marker for outcome prediction.

  8. Serum-soluble Fas and serum levels of erythropoietin in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Góes, M A; Dalboni, M A; Manfredi, S R; Cendoroglo, M S; Batista, M C; Canziani, M E; Balakrishnan, V S; Pereira, B J G; Draibe, S A; Cendoroglo, M

    2010-01-01

    Soluble Fas levels (sFas) are increased in the serum of uremic patients and are associated with the presence of anemia and recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) dosage in dialysis patients. It is possible that sFas levels are associated with an increased need for serum erythropoietin levels (Epo) in chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients in order to maintain hematocrit (Hct) levels. To investigate the relationship between serum sFas levels, serum Epo levels and the ratio between Epo levels and Hct in uremic patients. We studied 52 predialysis chronic kidney disease patients (CKD; 33 M, 57 +/- 12 years, hematocrit (Hct) = 37 +/- 7%), 29 peritoneal dialysis patients (PD; 12 M, 54 +/- 14 years, Hct = 36 +/- 7%), 29 hemodialysis patients (HD; 19 M, 47 +/- 14 years, Hct = 33 +/- 5%) and 29 healthy volunteers (control group 17 M, 50 +/- 16 years, Hct = 43 +/- 3%). We examined the relationship between Hct and serum levels of Epo, sFas, C-reactive protein, IL-6 and iron status. The ratio of serum Epo divided by Hct (Epo/Hct) was used as an indicator of Epo responsiveness. Compared to normal subjects, the CKD, PD and HD groups presented lower Hct levels and higher serum levels of sFas, Epo, Epo/Hct and IL-6. Serum levels of sFas correlated negatively with albumin (r = -0.24, p = 0.02), IL-6 (r = -0.18, p = 0.04) and Epo/Hct (r = -0.37, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for markers of iron store and inflammation, only sFas correlated with Epo/Hct. In the CKD group, there were negative correlations between serum levels of sFas and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.45, p < 0.001) and between Epo/Hct and GFR (r = -0.32; p = 0.02). There was a positive correlation between Epo/Hct and serum levels of sFas in the CKD group (r = 0.31, p = 0.03) and in the HD groups (r = 0.58, p = 0.001). Our findings show that serum sFas is associated with higher Epo/Hct ratio, suggesting that sFas may be a marker of Epo hyporesponsiveness in uremia. Further studies are

  9. [Seasonal alterations in serum iron levels in elite football players].

    PubMed

    Malićević, Sead; Nesić, Dejan; Rosić, Ilija

    2008-01-01

    It is very important to monitor levels of serum iron and other factors of iron metabolism and oxygen transport system as they play a very important role in functional ability of football players. A decrease in serum iron level can be the very first sign of development of iron deficiency anaemia, which seriously influences health and functional ability of an athlete and is a common problem in competitive sports. The aim of this study was to observe and evaluate changes in serum iron values during the competition season in relation to the training process. During four years, serum iron level was measured in 28-34 players of one of the top football clubs in Serbia, four times a year: at the beginning and at peak-point of both half-seasons. Differences between basic and control findings, relative and absolute changes in serum iron levels and statistical significance of the findings were than calculated. There was a significant decrease in mean serum iron levels on each control test, compared to basic values. Mean value of control serum iron levels is significantly lower than mean of preseason values (20.64 +/- 6.58 vs. 16.38 +/- 5.51 micromol/l). A significant decrease in serum iron level among footballers during both half-seasons is most probably due to an increased loss and/or diminished absorption resulting from a high intensity training process. Because the decline in serum iron may be an early sign of iron store depletion and iron deficiency anaemia, it is very important to evaluate it regularly, along with other factors of iron metabolism and oxygen transport system.

  10. Serum irisin levels in new-onset type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeon-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Bae, Kwi Hyun; Seo, Hyun-Ae; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Lee, Won-Kee; Kim, Jung-Guk; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2013-04-01

    Irisin has been identified as a novel myokine that drives brown-fat-like conversion of white adipose tissue. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether serum irisin levels are decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with control subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and assessed the association between serum irisin levels and various metabolic parameters. The study population was selected from a population-based study and included 104 subjects with NGT and 104 subjects with new-onset T2D. Serum irisin and adiponectin levels and metabolic parameters were measured. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between irisin levels and newly diagnosed T2D. Serum irisin levels were significantly decreased in the new-onset T2D group compared with the NGT control group (p=0.003). In a multivariable model adjusted for various metabolic parameters, increased irisin levels were associated with reduced odds (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47-0.88, p=0.006) of prevalent newly diagnosed T2D. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that 2 h plasma glucose was an independent variable influencing serum irisin levels (p=0.004). In the present study, we found that serum irisin levels were decreased in T2D patients and inversely associated with newly diagnosed T2D, suggesting that irisin may play a crucial role in glucose intolerance and T2D. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ≤ 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders.

  12. Serum IL-9 levels and sublingual immunotherapy: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Th9 is a new T cell subset characterized by IL-9 production. It has been reported that serum IL-9 levels are related with symptom severity in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). This study is aimed at investigating whether serum IL-9 may be modulated by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in patients with persistent AR due to Parietaria allergy. Twenty-one AR patients (9 males, median age 41 years) successfully treated with SLIT and 52 AR patients (25 males, median age 34 years) treated only with drugs were evaluated during the pollen season. Serum IL-9 was dosed in all patients. SLIT-treated patients showed significantly lower serum IL-9 levels than untreated AR patients (p <0.0001). In conclusion, this preliminary study shows that a single pre-seasonal SLIT course might modulate serum IL-9.

  13. Serum & cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels in children with acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, A; Rusia, U; Anand, N K; Sood, S K

    1989-06-01

    Serum and CSF ferritin were estimated in 35 consecutive patients of acute leukaemia at the time of admission and on induction of remission. Serum ferritin levels were significantly raised in 94 per cent patients of acute leukaemia. The mean (+/- SD) serum ferritin (314.36 +/- 158.4 micrograms/1) was significantly higher when compared with control values (P less than 0.001). Remission induction resulted in significant fall in serum ferritin values to a mean of 149 (+/- 98.7) micrograms/l (P less than 0.05). Serum ferritin is thus of value in assessing the state of remission and is a sensitive indicator of the leukaemic cell mass and the state of activity of the disease. CSF ferritin levels in acute leukaemia were comparable to normal control values. CSF ferritin did not reflect CNS involvement in acute leukaemia and therefore its value as a tumour marker of CNS infiltration is doubtful.

  14. Utility and safety of procalcitonin in an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in patients with malignancies.

    PubMed

    Liew, Y X; Lee, W; Cai, Y Y; Teo, J; Tang, S S-L; Ong, R W-Q; Lim, C L-L; Lingegowda, P B; Kwa, A L-H; Chlebicki, M P

    2012-11-01

    As data on procalcitonin utility in antibiotics discontinuation [under an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP)] in patients with malignancies are lacking, we aimed to evaluate the utility of procalcitonin in an ASP in patients with malignancies. We conducted a retrospective review of the ASP database of all patients with malignancies in whom at least one procalcitonin level was taken and our ASP had recommended changes in carbapenem regimen, from January to December 2011. We compared clinical outcomes between two groups of patients: patients whose physicians accepted and those whose physicians rejected ASP interventions. There were 749 carbapenem cases reviewed. Ninety-nine were suggested to either de-escalate, discontinue antibiotics, or narrow the spectrum of empiric treatment, based on procalcitonin trends. While there was no statistical difference in the mortality within 30 days post-ASP intervention (accepted: 8/65 patients vs. rejected: 9/34 patients; p = 0.076), the median duration of carbapenem therapy was significantly shorter (5 vs. 7 days; p = 0.002). Procalcitonin use safely facilitates decisions on antibiotics discontinuation and de-escalation in patients with malignancies in the ASP.

  15. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  16. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  17. Pre-profiling factors influencing serum microRNA levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by preventing the translation of specific mRNA transcripts. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are stably expressed in human serum samples, making them good candidates for the non-invasive detection of disease. However, before circulating miRNAs can be used reliably as biomarkers of disease, the pre-measurement variables that may affect serum miRNA levels must be assessed. Methods In this study we used quantitative RT-PCR to examine the effect of hemolysis, fasting, and smoking on the levels of 742 miRNAs in the serum of healthy individuals. We also compared serum miRNA profiles of samples taken from healthy individuals over different time periods to assess normal serum miRNA fluctuations. Results We have found that mechanical hemolysis of blood samples can significantly alter serum miRNA quantification and have identified 162 miRNAs that are significantly up-regulated in hemolysed serum samples. Conversely, fasting and smoking were demonstrated to not have a significant effect on the overall serum miRNA profiles of healthy individuals. The serum miRNA profiles of matched samples taken from individuals over varying time periods showed a high correlation and no miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in these samples further suggesting the utility of serum miRNAs as biomarkers of disease. Taking the above results into consideration, we have identified miR-99a-5p and miR-139-5p as novel endogenous controls for serum miRNA studies due to their consistency across all sample sets. Conclusion These results identify important pre-profiling factors that should be taken into consideration when identifying endogenous controls and candidate biomarkers for circulating miRNA studies. PMID:25093010

  18. Serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ohyoshi, Yukimi; Makino, Takamitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Wakana; Fukushima, Satoshi; Inoue, Yuji; Ihn, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Microvascular damage is one of the primary pathologic components of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Serological abnormalities of angiogenic and angiostatic factors in SSc have previously been described. Like these factors, the plasma levels of leptin were significantly elevated in patients with SSc in comparison to normal controls. However, leptin receptor has not been examined in patients with SSc. The current study used sandwich ELISA to evaluate the serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with SSc. Serum samples were obtained from 36 patients with SSc. Samples were also obtained from 12 healthy control subjects and 10 patients with scleroderma spectrum disorder (SSD) who did not fulfill the criteria for SSc but who had the potential to develop SSc. Mean serum leptin receptor levels were significantly higher in patients with SSD than in patients with SSc (255.7 ng/mL vs. 184.6 ng/mL, p < 0.05 according to a Mann-Whitney test). There were no statistically significant differences between healthy control subjects and patients with SSc. Clinical parameters were evaluated, and the frequency of esophageal reflux was significantly lower in patients with elevated serum leptin receptor levels than in those with reduced levels (6.3% vs. 35.3%, p < 0.05). In summary, these results suggest that the serum levels of leptin receptor are a clinically useful marker of SSD, and measurement of serum leptin receptor over time in patients with SSD may lead to early detection of SSc. PMID:25343103

  19. Serum YKL-40 Level Positively Correlates With Uterine Leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenping; Wang, Jing; Wei, Hongyi

    2016-11-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (ULMs) are the most common benign tumors in premenopausal women associated with major tissue fibrosis. It has been suggested that inflammatory response is associated with the development of ULM. YKL-40 is a chitinase-like protein present in serum of healthy participants, and its levels are increased in several human inflammatory diseases. However, the association between YKL-40 and ULM has not been reported. The aim of this study was to identify whether serum YKL-40 levels correlate with ULM. Premenopausal women with ULM (n = 61) and leiomyoma-free control women (n = 45) were recruited for this study. Serum YKL-40 levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlations were assessed by Spearman rank correlation test. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to define the optimal cutoff value for predicting ULM. We found that serum YKL-40 levels in patients with ULM were significantly higher than in healthy controls (P < .001). Positive correlation was also observed between serum YKL-40 levels and leiomyoma weight (r = .92; P < .001). Moreover, ROC curves yielded robust area under the curve value (0.94) accompanied by high sensitivity (82.0%) and specificity (91.1%) in distinguishing patients with ULM from healthy controls. These findings suggest that elevated serum YKL-40 levels are associated with the existence of ULM, and YKL-40 might be a potential adjunct biomarker for diagnosis of ULM. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Serum paraoxonase level and paraoxonase polymorphism in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Arpaci, Dilek; Karakas Celik, Sevim; Can, Murat; Ermiş, Esra; Kuzu, Fatih; Kokturk, Furuzan; Hamamcioglu, Ayse Ceylan; Dursun, Ahmet; Bayraktaroglu, Taner

    2016-11-01

    Acromegalic patients have increased cardiometabolic risk factors due to an elevation of growth hormone (GH) levels. Human serum paraoxonase (PON), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-related enzyme, is one of the major bioscavengers and decreases the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a key regulator in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated a potential relationship between serum PON levels or PON polymorphisms and acromegaly. A total of 48 acromegalic patients and 44 healthy controls were included in this study. Serum GH levels, insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and lipid profiles were measured. Serum PON levels, as well as PON 1 L55M and Q192R gene polymorphisms, were examined. No significant differences were found in terms of age, gender, presence of diabetes, serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, or triglyceride levels between the case and control groups (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found in serum PON levels between the cases and controls (P = 0.007). The median serum PON level was 101 ± 63.36 U/l in the case group and 63 ± 60.50 U/l in the control group. There was a significant correlation between serum PON levels and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.004, r = 0.319); however, no significant differences were found in PON1 L55M and PON Q192R polymorphisms between the patients and controls (P = 0.607 and P = 0.308, respectively). In addition, no significant differences were found in serum PON levels in acromegalic patients who were and were not in remission (P = 0.385), nor between those with PON1 L55M and Q192R polymorphisms (P = 0.161 and P = 0.336, respectively). Elevated serum PON levels were detected in acromegalic patients, independently of their remission status. This suggests protective effects for cardiometabolic risk parameters.

  1. Serum iron and ferritin level in idiopathic Parkinson.

    PubMed

    Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Farid, Gholnar Abbasi; Talebi, Mahnaz; Pashapou, Ali; Majidi, Jafar; Goldust, Mohamad

    2012-11-15

    Parkinson disease is a prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disorder, especially in western countries and among the elderly. This study aimed at evaluating serum iron and ferritin in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. In this case-control study, 50 patients with clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson disease (case group) were evaluated during a 12 month period. Fifty healthy persons (control group) recruited as well. Serum iron and ferritin levels were measured by biochemical and quantitative luminance methods, respectively in the case and control group. Fifty patients, 28 males and 22 females with the mean age of 64.53 +/- 10.18 (40-84) years and 50 controls were enrolled. Serum iron levels were 70.22 +/- 25.18 mg dL(-1) and 67.62 +/- 39.53 mg dL(-1) in case and control group, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were 129.79 +/- 137.67 ng dL(-1) and 109.87 +/- 154.71 ng dL(-1) in case and control group, respectively. There was no significant difference between different grades of Parkinson disease considering the serum level of iron or ferritin. The current study showed that generally there is no significant difference between the patients with the idiopathic Parkinson disease and healthy controls in terms of serum iron and ferritin levels. The same results were attributable to different grades of the disease.

  2. Serum copper and zinc levels in melanoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.L.; Spitler, L.E.; McNeill, K.L.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    Serum copper levels (SCL) and serum zinc levels (SZL) were evaluated in malignant melanoma patients at various clinical stages. Copper levels were generally found to be elevated, reflecting the degree and extent of tumor activity. Zinc levels and, hence, SCL:SZL ratios did not reflect tumor activity. SCL appeared to prognosticate disease progression in that all patients whose values never declined below 150 ..mu..g/100 ml died during the course of the study. However, not all patients who died from tumor metastases displayed persistent elevations of SCL. Patients receiving BCG immunotherapy appeared to have higher SCL than untreated patients.

  3. Serum cytokine levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, C C; Ala, T A; Hu, S; Crossley, K B; Sherman, R E; Peterson, P K; Frey, W H

    1994-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed to be an inflammatory disorder. In a recent study, markedly elevated levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with advanced AD suggested a potential predictive value of this cytokine in patients with AD. In the present prospective study, we tested the hypothesis that the levels of TGF-beta in serum would be increased in patients with AD and could thereby serve as a diagnostic marker. We found that serum TGF-beta levels but not proinflammatory cytokine levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in patients with AD (n = 22) in comparison with the levels in their healthy spousal controls. Also, serum TGF-beta levels were positively correlated (r = 0.45; P < 0.05) with disease severity. Nevertheless, the elevation in serum TGF-beta levels in patients with Ad was modest, and considerable overlap with the control values suggests that the diagnostic usefulness of this cytokine for AD is limited. PMID:8556481

  4. Relation of oral dose of oxtriphylline to serum theophylline level.

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, G. H.; Desai, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    Serum theophylline levels were studied in relation to oral doses of oxtriphylline in 30 patients with reversible airway obstruction. A wide scattering of levels was observed and was attributed to widely differing rates of metabolism of the drug. From the data obtained it was concluded that the most commonly prescribed daily dose of oxtriphylline, 800 mg, will produce a therapeutic level of theophylline in only about one quarter of patients. A daily starting dose of 15 to 20 mg/kg, however, will produce therapeutic levels in approximately one third of patients without significant toxic effects. Once the patient's conditions is stable the serum theophylline concentration should be measured; if it is subtherapeutic the dose of oxtriphylline should be increased slowly and the serum theophylline concentration remeasured until a level of 10 to 20 microgram/ml is achieved. PMID:7034918

  5. Uses of proton pump inhibitors and serum potassium levels.

    PubMed

    Gau, Jen-Tzer; Heh, Victor; Acharya, Utkarsh; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Kao, Tzu-Cheg

    2009-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) may suppress adrenal cortical steroid synthesis and release, thereby leading to electrolyte disturbances. Both hyponatremia and hyperkalemia in the setting of PPI therapy have been documented in case reports. The objective of this study was to examine the association between serum potassium (K(+)) level and PPI use. A retrospective data analysis of hospitalized adults aged > or = 65 years during 2006, including PPI users (N = 257) and PPI non-users (N = 388), was conducted. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between PPI use and serum K(+) level. PPI users [mean age (SD):79.7 (8.0) years; 70% female] had significantly higher serum K(+) levels than PPI non-users [80.2 (8.8) years; 64% female] on admission [4.13 (0.62) vs. 3.97 (0.57) mmol/L; p < 0.001]. The linear regression model revealed that > or = 2 defined daily dose (DDD) units of PPI use were a significantly positive contributor to serum K(+) levels (p = 0.021) after adjusting for age, serum creatinine levels, sex, history of diabetes, and uses of the following drugs: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, beta blocker, diuretics, spironolactone, K(+) supplement, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, atypical antipsychotics, and narcotics. However, multiple logistic regression model revealed that high dose PPI therapy was not associated with an increased risk for hyperkalemia occurrence (p = 0.762). Higher serum K(+) levels were observed among PPI users when compared to PPI non-users. High daily dose PPI therapy may be an independent positive predictor of serum potassium levels.

  6. Interleukin-22 serum levels are elevated in active scleritis.

    PubMed

    Sainz-de-la-Maza, Maite; Molins, Blanca; Mesquida, Marina; Llorenç, Victor; Zarranz-Ventura, Javier; Sala-Puigdollers, Anna; Matas, Jessica; Adan, Alfredo; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate serum cytokine profile from patients with active scleritis in a two-centre prospective case-control study. The serum of 20 active scleritis patients not treated with any local, periocular, or systemic immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) was analysed with multiplex assay to determine the levels of 11 cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-5, TNF-α, and TNF-β, and with ELISA to determine the levels of TGF-β1, IL-22, and IL-23. Twenty-five age-matched healthy volunteers were used as controls. In a subgroup of 13 patients with active disease, a second serum sample was obtained when the disease was inactive and levels of IL-22 were determined. Serum IL-22 levels from patients with active scleritis were correlated with type of scleritis (non-necrotizing and necrotizing), degree of inflammation (0-4+ :≤2+ and >2+), and associated systemic disease. Serum levels of IL-22 were elevated in active scleritis patients compared to controls (6.41 ± 1.52 pg/ml versus 1.93 ± 0.39 pg/ml, p = 0.012) and significantly decreased after scleritis remission with the use of IMT (p = 0.005). There was no statistical association with scleritis type, degree of inflammation, or associated systemic disease. The serum levels of other cytokines were not significantly different from controls. In our study cohort, IL-22 serum levels were significantly elevated in active scleritis patients compared to controls and decreased significantly after remission. Our results suggest that IL-22, a T helper (Th) 17- and Th22- derived cytokine, may play a critical role in the physiopathology of scleritis. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Use of procalcitonin for the detection of sepsis in the critically ill burn patient: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mann, Elizabeth A; Wood, Geri L; Wade, Charles E

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the evidence for use of routine procalcitonin testing to diagnose the presence of sepsis in the burn patient. The electronic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, ProQuest, and SCOPUS were searched for relevant studies using the MeSH terms burn, infection, procalcitonin, and meta-analysis. The focus of the review was the adult burn population, but other relevant studies of critically ill patients were included as data specific to the patient with burns are limited. Studies were compiled in tabular form and critically appraised for quality and level of evidence. Four meta-analyses, one review of the literature, one randomized controlled trial, nine prospective observational, and three retrospective studies were retrieved. Six of these studies were specific to the burn population, with one specific to burned children. Only one meta-analysis, one adult burn and one pediatric burn study reported no benefit of procalcitonin testing to improve diagnosis of sepsis or differentiate sepsis from non-infectious systemic inflammatory response. The collective findings of the included studies demonstrated benefit of incorporating procalcitonin assay into clinical sepsis determination. Evaluation of the burn specific studies is limited by the use of guidelines to define sepsis and inconsistent results from the burn studies. Utility of the procalcitonin assay is limited due to the lack of availability of rapid, inexpensive tests. However, it appears procalcitonin assay is a safe and beneficial addition to the clinical diagnosis of sepsis in the burn intensive care unit.

  8. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease.

  9. Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Dyslipidemia in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferritin is associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance in adults. We aimed to study the association between serum ferritin levels and dyslipidemia in adolescents, because dyslipidemia is considered an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the young. Methods We analyzed 1,879 subjects (1,026 boys and 853 girls) from the 2009–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Subjects were categorized into quartiles according to their lipid parameters, which were classified according to age and gender. Those in the highest quartile groups for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride concentrations were diagnosed as having dyslipidemia. Those in the lowest quartile for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were diagnosed with abnormal levels. Results In boys, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly correlated with serum ferritin levels. In both boys and girls, serum ferritin levels were negatively associated with HDL-C values, even after adjusting for all covariates. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride concentrations in girls. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with major dyslipidemia parameters, more prominently in boys than in girls, and this association represents a cardiometabolic risk factor. PMID:27070153

  10. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p<0.001) in vegetarian group compared to omnivores. We further grouped and analyzed our study subjects according to their gender and according to Hcy level (greater than or lower than 15µmol/L). A considerable number of vegetarian subjects 30% were having Hcy >15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p<0.001). Gender-wise comparison showed that 27.02% male and 38.46% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  11. Tissue and serum sialidase levels in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, H; Süer, S; Güngör, Z; Baloglu, H; Kökoglu, E

    1999-02-08

    Breast cancer is both one of the most common and one of the most treatable of all human malignancies. It has been suggested by various investigators that sialic acid increases in the sera of cancerous patients. In cancer patients, an increase in the levels of serum sialic acid may also be due to an increase in the activity of serum or tissue sialidase. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the concentration of sialidase in serum and breast tissue could be used as a tumor marker in breast cancer. In this study; serum sialidase levels in 26 patient with breast cancer and 31 controls were found to be 77.04+/-25.07 U/l and 55.56+/-7.50 U/l, respectively. The mean tissue sialidase levels in 26 breast cancer patients and 13 controls were 39.76+/-17.03 U/g protein and 14.30+/-7.09 U/g protein, respectively. Serum and tissue sialidase levels in breast cancer were significantly higher than those found in the control group (P < 0.001). The mean serum and tissue sialidase levels in 14 Grade I-II and 12 Grade III breast cancer patients were found to be 67.73+/-11.87 U/l and 33.41+/-12.17 U/g protein and 87.89+/-31.94 U/l and 47.17+/-19.30 U/g protein, respectively. Also we found a significant difference between the levels of serum and tissue sialidase in Grade I-II and III (P < 0.05).

  12. High serum apolipoprotein AIV levels in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Massy, Z A; Kandoussi, A M; Mamzer-Bruneel, M F; Kreis, H; Drüeke, T; Lacour, B

    2001-02-01

    Human apolipoprotein (apo) AIV might play a role in post-transplant reverse cholesterol transport, which appears to be comparable to that seen in healthy subjects. However, there may be subtle differences between healthy individuals and renal transplant recipients, given the other abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism in the latter. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate possible changes of serum apo AIV levels in renal transplant recipients, and to evaluate potential factors influencing these levels. Total and free serum apo AIV was determined in 36 clinically stable renal transplant recipients and in 20 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. Mean total serum apo IV concentrations (+/- SD) were significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than in control subjects (202 +/- 102 vs 79 +/- 45 mg/l, p < 0.01). The percentage of lipoprotein-free fractions of apo AIV was comparable in both groups. The elevated total serum concentrations of apo AIV were mainly related to creatinine clearance and partially to serum triglyceride levels in renal transplant recipients. Our data suggest that the observed elevation of serum apo AIV concentrations in renal transplant recipients is essentially related to the presence of impaired renal function.

  13. Serum anti - TPO levels in benign and malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Sabitha; Suneetha; Mohanty, Shruti; Rao, Pragna

    2009-07-01

    Breast cancer is a hormone dependent neoplasm. Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the association of anti - TPO levels in patients having complaints of a lump in breast. Serum samples and Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples were collected from 31 female patients with a lump in breast between the age group of 20-75 years. 31 age matched normal healthy controls were also examined for the same parameters. Serum samples were analyzed for its anti - TPO levels. FNAC reports confirmed patients as having duct cell carcinoma. They had raised serum anti - TPO levels compared to controls. FNAC results of others (n=26) were reported as fibroadenoma whose anti - TPO levels were less than the controls.

  14. Relationship between serum neopterin levels and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Y; Li, Y D

    2013-10-07

    The relationship between serum neopterin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) was investigated. Eighty-six CHD patients were divided into an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group (N = 21), an unstable angina pectoris (UAP) group (N = 35), and a stable angina pectoris (SAP) group (N = 30), based on coronary angiography (CAG), 30 subjects without CHD served as the control group. Serum neopterin levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and relationships between neopterin and the severity of stenosis, stenosis number, and the stability of coronary artery were analyzed. Serum neopterin levels were higher in the AMI and UAP groups than in the SAP and control groups (P < 0.01), but no significant differences were observed between the AMI and UAP groups or between the SAP and control groups (P > 0.05). Mean serum neopterin levels were higher in the single, double, and three vessel lesion groups than in the control group (P < 0.05), whereas there were no significant differences among the lesion groups (P > 0.05). Serum levels of neopterin were significantly higher in the type II than in the type I or type III, plaque groups (P < 0.01), the incidence of type II plaque was significantly higher in the AMI and UAP groups compared to the SAP group (P < 0.01). Neopterin likely plays a role in the occurrence and development of athermanous plaque and can serve as a useful biomarker of vulnerable plaques. Immunoreaction may be involved in the pathophysiological process of CHD.

  15. Serum leptin levels may be correlated with cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kun-Bin; Yao, Xian-Li; Sun, Ping-Ge; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xing; Liu, Jun-Qi; Li, Yi-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background: To investigate the relation between serum leptin levels and cerebral infarction (CI) by meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Scientific literature databases were searched for studies published in Chinese and English. After retrieving relevant articles through database searches and screening using predefined selection criteria, high-quality studies related to our research topic were selected for inclusion in this meta-analysis. All statistical analyses were conducted using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey, USA). Results: The study results revealed that serum leptin levels were significantly higher in CI patients as compared to normal controls. The outcomes of subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that the serum leptin levels in CI patients were significantly higher than normal controls in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Further, subgroup analysis based on the detection method indicated that the serum leptin levels in CI patients were significantly higher compared with normal controls when measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) but enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based measurements did not show such statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis results suggest that serum leptin levels in CI patients may be closely correlated with CI risks. PMID:27904550

  16. Serum Reactive Oxygen Metabolite Levels Predict Severe Exacerbations of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Keitaro; Watanabe, Masato; Sada, Mitsuru; Inui, Toshiya; Nakamura, Masuo; Honda, Kojiro; Wada, Hiroo; Mikami, Yu; Matsuzaki, Hirotaka; Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Hikari; Kogane, Toshiyuki; Kohyama, Tadashi; Takizawa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are intimately linked to chronic airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of BA. However, the role of ROS in the management of BA patients is not yet clear. We attempted to determine the role of ROS as a biomarker in the clinical setting of BA. Subjects and Methods We enrolled patients with BA from 2013 through 2015 and studied the degrees of asthma control, anti-asthma treatment, pulmonary function test results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels, and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Results We recruited 110 patients with BA. Serum ROM levels correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count (rs = 0.273, p = 0.004), neutrophil count (rs = 0.235, p = 0.014), CRP (rs = 0.403, p < 0.001), and IL-6 (rs = 0.339, p < 0.001). Serum ROM levels and IL-8 and CRP levels negatively correlated with %FEV1 (rs = -0.240, p = 0.012, rs = -0.362, p < 0.001, rs = -0.197, p = 0.039, respectively). Serum ROM levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced severe exacerbation within 3 months than in patients who did not (339 [302–381] vs. 376 [352–414] CARR U, p < 0.025). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis showed that ROM levels correlated significantly with the occurrence of severe exacerbation (area under the curve: 0.699, 95% CI: 0.597–0.801, p = 0.025). Conclusions Serum levels of ROM were significantly associated with the degrees of airway obstruction, WBC counts, neutrophil counts, IL-6, and severe exacerbations. This biomarker may be useful in predicting severe exacerbations of BA. PMID:27776186

  17. Procalcitonin is an independent predictor for coronary atherosclerotic burden in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kurtul, Alparslan; Elcik, Deniz

    2017-06-01

    Higher coronary atherosclerotic burden has been associated with increased cardiovascular events including mortality. The SYNTAX score (SXs) reflects coronary atherosclerotic burden. Given the body of evidence implicating inflammation in atherosclerotic process, we hypothesized that procalcitonin (PCT) as an inflammatory marker may be related to coronary atherosclerotic burden. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum PCT levels and SXs in patients with stable CAD. A total of 400 patients (mean age 62.8±10.6years) with evidence of significant CAD were included in this study. Serum PCT and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured. To calculate the burden of CAD, the SX scoring algorithm system was applied. Patients with a SXs<23 (n=320) were classified as the low SXs group and those with a SXs≥23 (n=80) were classified as the high SXs group. Serum PCT levels were higher in the high SXs group compared to the low SXs group (p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the cut-off value of PCT was 0.0335ng/mL for the prediction of high SXs (area under the curve: 0.753, sensitivity: 72.5%, specificity: 61.3%) After multivariate analysis, PCT, together with current smoking (OR 2.237, p=0.027), triglyceride (OR 1.005, p=0.001), and hs-CRP (OR 1.119, p=0.018), remained an independent predictor of high SXs (OR 3.021; 95% CI [1.492-6.097]; p=0.002). Serum PCT is independently and positively associated with SXs. Thus, elevated PCT levels may be useful to identify patients with high coronary atherosclerotic burden in patients with stable CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Further studies on the use of serum gastrin levels in assessing the significance of low serum B12 levels.

    PubMed

    Miller, A; Slingerland, D W; Cardarelli, J; Burrows, B A

    1989-07-01

    The reported incidence of low serum vitamin B12 levels in patients ranges from 4% to 8%. In only a small percentage can this be ascribed to readily diagnosed pernicious anemia, malabsorption syndrome, or to gastrointestinal surgery. This leaves a number of patients in whom the meaning of the low serum B12 is not immediately apparent. In 71 patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts, hematological indices did not adequately separate patients with decreased absorption of unbound B12 from those with normal absorption. A low absorption of B12, either unbound or food-bound, was found, however, when the level of serum gastrin was elevated. In contrast, a normal absorption of unbound B12 was likely (95% of 44 patients) when the serum gastrin was normal.

  19. Serum Selenium Levels in Euthyroid Nodular Thyroid Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sakız, Davut; Kaya, Ahmet; Kulaksizoglu, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    The thyroid gland is susceptible to nodulation. The mechanism responsible for the growth of only some follicular cells, which results in nodule formation, is not yet clear. Selenium deficiency may be a risk factor in the development of thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between selenium levels in patients with euthyroid nodular thyroid disease. Seventy patients with a solitary euthyroid thyroid nodule, 70 patients with more than one euthyroid nodule, and 60 healthy patients without thyroid nodules were included in the study. Venous serum samples were stored at -80°C and analyzed the same day using spectrometry. The selenium levels of patients with multiple thyroid nodules, solitary nodules, and patients without nodules were 57.3 ± 14.8 μg/L; 58.8 ± 15.1 μg/L; and 57.6 ± 13.3 μg/L, respectively. The mean serum selenium level of all patients included in the study was 57.9 ± 14.4 μg/L. Although serum selenium levels were slightly higher in men, a statistically significant difference was not observed. In our study, a significant relationship between serum selenium levels and nodular thyroid disease was not seen. Our study was undertaken in an iodine sufficient region. Mean serum selenium levels were lower compared with many other studies, which may be associated with the low selenium content of the soil. Nodular thyroid disease shows multifactorial features. When our study is considered together with previous studies, serum selenium levels may considered to be effective on structural thyroid diseases if combined with additional factors such as severe iodine deficiency. Further studies are required to assess the role of selenium in thyroid nodule formation.

  20. Salivary and serum cortisol levels in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Forclaz, María V; Moratto, Eduardo; Pennisi, Alicia; Falco, Silvina; Olsen, Graciela; Rodríguez, Patricia; Papazian, Regina; Bergadá, Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    Given that serum cortisol level interpretation in newborn infants (NBIs) is hard, the objective of this study was to correlate baseline salivary and serum cortisol levels and to describe salivary cortisol levels in the first month of life. Descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, and correlational study. Term NBIs were selected from the Division of Neonatology of Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas in 2014. Cortisol was measured in saliva specimens while cortisol, cortisol-binding globulin, and albumin were measured in blood specimens. A linear correlation was performed to relate serum and salivary cortisol levels; Friedman test was conducted to compare cortisol levels during the first month of life, and the difference was used to analyze the performance of values equal to or lower than the first quartile. Fifty-five NBIs were studied. Serum cortisol: 7.65 (1.0-18.1 gg/dL); salivary cortisol: 35.88 (5.52-107.64 mmol/L); cortisol-binding globulin: 22.07 (16.5-33.0 gg/mL), expressed as median and range. The correlation coefficient between serum and salivary cortisol was 0.54, P = 0.001. Cortisol performance during the first month of life showed no statistically significant differences, and the difference between the second and the first specimen of values equal to or lower than the first quartile increased in 10 out of 12 patients. The measurement of cortisol in saliva reflects serum cortisol levels in normal NBIs. Some patients had low levels of cortisol at 36 hours of life and showed a trend towards a spontaneous increase during the first month of life.

  1. Serum adiponectin levels in advanced-stage Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Erica; Cancello, Raffaella; Cavanna, Ferruccio; Maestrini, Sabrina; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Liuzzi, Antonio; Pezzoli, Gianni; Barichella, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) experience body weight loss and reductions in the most common cardiovascular risk factors. At present, the pathogenetic mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin, which possesses antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, are associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to determine adiponectin serum concentrations in PD patients. Thirty PD patients underwent a full nutritional status assessment, including the determination of adiponectin serum concentrations. Mean ± SD adiponectin concentrations were 9.59 ± 5.9 μg/mL (interquartile range: 5.92-12.9 μg/mL). In PD patients, adiponectin serum levels were similar to those in normal-weight, healthy, young subjects and significantly higher than that in an aged-matched group of morbidly obese subjects. Further studies are warranted to establish the role of adiponectin in the management of PD patients.

  2. A multivariate analysis of serum nutrient levels and lung function

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, Tricia M; Lewis, Sarah A; Smit, Henriette A; Burney, Peter; Cassano, Patricia A; Britton, John

    2008-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence that estimates of intakes of a range of dietary nutrients are related to both lung function level and rate of decline, but far less evidence on the relation between lung function and objective measures of serum levels of individual nutrients. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive examination of the independent associations of a wide range of serum markers of nutritional status with lung function, measured as the one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1). Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relation between 21 serum markers of potentially relevant nutrients and FEV1, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Systematic approaches were used to guide the analysis. Results In a mutually adjusted model, higher serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E), selenium, normalized calcium, chloride, and iron were independently associated with higher levels of FEV1. Higher concentrations of potassium and sodium were associated with lower FEV1. Conclusion Maintaining higher serum concentrations of dietary antioxidant vitamins and selenium is potentially beneficial to lung health. In addition other novel associations found in this study merit further investigation. PMID:18823528

  3. Serum irisin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bostancı, M S; Akdemir, N; Cinemre, B; Cevrioglu, A S; Özden, S; Ünal, O

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is clinically heterogeneous endocrine disorders. Insulin resistance-related proteins play a role in the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. Irisin is a newly identified myokine which act like adipokines. Irisin has been shown to be associated with the insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum levels of irisin in PCOS patients and evaluate the correlations with other metabolic and hormonal parameters. Thirty-five PCOS patients and 35 matched healthy controls were enrolled to study. Serum irisin levels, anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters including HOMA-IR were measured. Linear regression analysis was employed to study the relationship between irisin and hormonal and metabolic parameters. Serum irisin level in PCOS patients (mean value; 0.491±0.145 µg/mL) was significantly elevated when compared to control group (mean value 0.281±0.138 µg/mL) (p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed that serum irisin was positively associated with body mass index, luteinizing hormone, fasting insulin and total cholesterol in the overall patient population but not for PCOS group alone (p < 0.05). Serum irisin level of PCOS patients was high compared to that of healthy control subjects. In patients with PCOS, this situation may be due to insulin resistance, when there is leptin resistance or metabolic syndrome.

  4. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in restless legs syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Hatice; Yıldız, Özlem Kayım; Çil, Gülsüm; Şentürk, İlteriş Ahmet; Erselcan, Taner; Bolayır, Ertuğrul; Topaktaş, Suat

    2012-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome is characterised by discomfort during rest and an urge to move the limbs that is accompanied by abnormal sensations. Studies on disease pathophysiology have focused on dopaminergic dysfunction. Vitamin D may play an important role in dopamine function, but the role of vitamin D in restless legs syndrome has not been examined. We compared the serum vitamin D levels of RLS patients and matched controls and explored the correlation of plasma vitamin D levels with disease severity. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 36 patients with restless legs syndrome and compared them to 38 healthy control subjects. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 7.31±4.63 ng/mL in female patients with restless legs syndrome and 12.31±5.27 ng/mL in female control subjects (p=0.001). We found a significant inverse correlation between vitamin D levels and disease severity in females (p=0.01, r=-0.47). The mean serum vitamin D levels were lower in female patients with restless legs syndrome. Low vitamin D levels may cause dopaminergic dysfunction in restless legs syndrome patients. Further studies are required to confirm these results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of serum immunoglobulin E levels in bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Thirunavukkarasu; Roopakala, Mysore Subrahmanyam; Silvia, Chickballapur Rayappa Wilma Delphine; Chandrashekara, Srikantaiah; Rao, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immunoglobulin E and associated cellular responses are responsible for allergic airway diseases. A hypersensitivity reaction initiated by immunologic mechanisms, mediated by IgE antibodies occurs in allergic asthma Aim: To estimate and compare serum IgE levels in mild, moderate, and severe asthmatics and in normal subjects and to obtain a mathematical model describing the relationship between serum IgE levels and severity of asthma. Materials and Methods: A stratified sample of 60 patients within age group of 18-60 years and 31 male and 29 female asthmatic patients and 13 healthy controls within 18-60 years were included in this study and classified according to GINA classification. Serum IgE levels were estimated by using ELISA kit. Results: Mean IgE levels ranged from 151.95 IU/ml in normal subjects to 1045.32 IU/ml in severe asthmatics. The model developed was 27% efficient. Conclusion: Serum Immunoglobulin E levels were high in asthmatics as compared to normal subjects. On an average, the levels increased as the severity of asthma increased. However, there was no statistically significant correlation since the variability in each level of asthma was very large PMID:20931031

  6. Total serum calcium level may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female university faculty and staffs.

    PubMed

    He, Lianping; Qian, Yifan; Ren, Xiaohua; Jin, Yuelong; Chang, Weiwei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects, but the relationship between serum calcium level and blood lipids is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and blood lipids. In our study, total serum calcium level and blood lipids were measured among 1,075 subjects, with age range of 30-60 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The results showed that serum calcium level was positively correlated with triglyceride and total cholesterol weight, but not HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in female subjects (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between total serum calcium level and blood lipids in male subjects (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that a higher total serum calcium level may have a adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female subjects.

  7. The relationship of serum erythropoietin level with coronary collateral grade.

    PubMed

    Sahinarslan, Asife; Yalcin, Ridvan; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Ercin, Ugur; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Topal, Salih; Bukan, Neslihan; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin has been shown to induce neovascularization and protect against ischemic vascular injury. We investigated whether a higher serum erythropoietin (EPO) level is related to better coronary collateral vessel grade. Ninety-nine patients with stable angina pectoris who have at least 1 coronary stenosis of equal to or greater than 70% at coronary angiography were prospectively enrolled. Serum EPO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were studied. Coronary collateral degree was graded according to the Rentrop method. Patients with grade 2-3 collateral degree were included in the good collateral group and formed Group I. The patients with grade 0-1 collateral degree were included in the poor collateral group and formed Group II. The serum EPO level was significantly higher in the good collateral group (17.3 ± 9.3 mU/mL vs 11.7 ± 5.0 mU/mL; P < 0.001). There was also a positive correlation between serum EPO level and Rentrop score (r = 0.39; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, serum EPO level (odds ratio [OR] 1.336; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.120-1.593; P = 0.001), oxygen saturation (OR 0.638; 95% CI, 0.422-0.963; P = 0.033) and presence of chronic total occlusion (CTO) (OR 26.7; 95% CI, 3.874-184.6; P = 0.001) were independently related to well-developed coronary collaterals. Higher serum EPO level is related to better coronary collateral development. Erythropoietin may have a positive effect on the development of collaterals and may provide a new agent for the treatment strategies to enhance coronary collateral vessel development. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk for Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jason R.; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L.; von Stein, Richard T.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; German, Dwight C.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School’s Alzheimer’s Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. RESULTS Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P < .001). The highest tertile of DDE levels was associated with an odds ratio of 4.18 for increased risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54–5.82; P < .001) and lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (−1.605; range, −3.095 to −0.114; P < .0001). The Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the highest tertile of DDE were −1.753 points lower in the subpopulation carrying an APOE ε4 allele compared with those carrying an APOE ε3 allele (P interaction = .04). Serum levels of DDE were highly correlated with brain levels of DDE (ρ = 0.95). Exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to DDT or DDE increased levels of amyloid precursor protein. CONCLUSIONS

  9. Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L; von Stein, Richard T; Hossain, Muhammad M; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I; German, Dwight C

    2014-03-01

    The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School's Alzheimer's Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P < .001). The highest tertile of DDE levels was associated with an odds ratio of 4.18 for increased risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54-5.82; P < .001) and lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (-1.605; range, -3.095 to -0.114; P < .0001). The Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the highest tertile of DDE were -1.753 points lower in the subpopulation carrying an APOE ε4 allele compared with those carrying an APOE ε3 allele (P interaction = .04). Serum levels of DDE were highly correlated with brain levels of DDE (ρ = 0.95). Exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to DDT or DDE increased levels of amyloid precursor protein. Elevated serum DDE levels are associated with an increased risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ε4 allele may

  10. Positive Association Between Vitamin D Serum Levels and Naevus Counts.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Glass, Dan; Mangino, Massimo; Aviv, Abraham; Spector, Tim; Bataille, Veronique

    2017-03-10

    Lower vitamin D serum levels are linked to increased melanoma risk and poorer survival. Naevus counts are associated with both melanoma risk and survival and to leucocyte telomere length. Vitamin D is also linked to telomere biology with higher levels of vitamin D in individuals with longer leucocyte telomere length despite adjusting for age. Using the TwinsUK data, we explored the association between naevus count, leucocyte telomere length and vitamin D serum levels. Increasing vitamin D levels were associated with increasing naevus count: serum levels were 73.3 nmol/l in individuals with less than 50 naevi compared to 78.8 nmol/l in individuals with more than 50 naevi (p?=?0.002). In the final regression model, using naevus count as a continuous variable, vitamin D remained associated with higher naevus counts despite adjustment for age, weight, height, season of sampling and twin relatedness (p?=?0.02). Further adjustment for leucocyte telomere length, decreased the magnitude of the association but it remained significant so leucocyte telomere length is not the sole driver of this association. Having large numbers of naevi is associated with higher vitamin D serum levels.

  11. Serum Copper and Zinc Levels Among Iranian Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, Zahra; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Abdollahi, Kourosh; Shojaei, Shahla; Moradi, Mostafa; Malekzadeh, Mahyar

    2016-04-01

    Alterations of trace element concentrations adversely affect biological processes and could promote carcinogenesis. Only a few studies have investigated the degree of changes in copper and zinc levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to compare the serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in patients with CRC from Iran with those of healthy subjects. Cu and Zn concentrations in the serum of 119 cancer patients and 128 healthy individuals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. We found a significant decrease in the total mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in CRC patients as compared with the control group (137.5 ± 122.38 vs. 160.68 ± 45.12 μg/dl and 81.04 ± 52.05 vs. 141.64 ± 51.75, respectively). However, the serum Cu/Zn ratio in the patient group was significantly higher than that measured in the control group (p = 0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean values of serum Cu and Zn concentrations between young (<60 years) and elderly (≥60 years) patients. However, the Cu/Zn ratio in <60-year cases was significantly higher than that in ≥60-year age group (p < 0.05). In addition, mean serum Cu level in normal weight patients was significantly higher than that in overweight/obese cases (132.31 ± 87.43 vs. 103.81 ± 53.72 μg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.05). There was no difference in mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in patients stratified by the site, stage, or differentiation grade of tumors. Our findings suggest that imbalance in Cu and Zn trace element level is associated with CRC and might play an important role in cancer development among Iranian patients.

  12. Measuring Serum Level of Ionized Magnesium in Patients with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    ASSARZADEGAN, Farhad; ASADOLLAHI, Mostafa; DERAKHSHANFAR, Hojjat; KASHEFIZADEH, Azam; ARYANI, Omid; KHORSHIDI, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Objective Migraine is known as one of the most disabling types of headache. Among the variety of theories to explain mechanism of migraine, role of serum magnesium is of great importance. Serum magnesium, as a pathogenesis factor, was considerably lower in patients with migraine. We established this study to see if serum ionized magnesium, not its total serum level, was different in migraineurs from normal individuals. Materials & Methods In this case control study, all participants were recruited from Neurology Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Ninety-six people were entered in the study, 48 for each of case and control groups. The two groups were matched by age and sex. Migrainous patients were selected according to the criteria of International Headache Society. Various characteristics of headache were recorded based on patients’ report. Controls had no history of migraine or any significant chronic headaches. Serum ionized magnesium level was measured in both of the case and control groups and the results were compared to each other. P value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Results Case group consisted of 13 males, 35 females, and control group included 14 males, as well as 34 females. Mean age was 33.47± 10.32 yr for case and 30.45 ±7.12 yr for control group. Twenty-eight patients described the intensity of their headaches as moderate; 15 patients had severe and the 5 remainders had only mild headaches. Mean serum level of ionized Mg was 1.16± 0.08 in case group and 1.13± 0.11 in control group of no significant difference (P >0.05). Conclusion Serum ionized magnesium, which is the active form of this ion, was not significantly different in migraineurs and those without migraine. This may propose a revision regarding pathogenesis of migraine and question the role of magnesium in this type of headache. PMID:26401148

  13. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Toussirot, Éric; Gaugler, Béatrice; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis) and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3 ± 1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7 ± 0.6 μg/mL; P = .01). As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined. PMID:21234350

  14. Elevated serum level of human alkaline phosphatase in obesity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Rehman; Awan, Fazli Rabbi; Najam, Syeda Sadia; Islam, Mehboob; Siddique, Tehmina; Zain, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass. normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Of the 197 subjects, 97(49%) were obese and 100(51%) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity.

  15. Procalcitonin to guide antibiotic administration in COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mathioudakis, Alexander G; Chatzimavridou-Grigoriadou, Victoria; Corlateanu, Alexandru; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Challenges in the differentiation of the aetiology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) have led to significant overuse of antibiotics. Serum procalcitonin, released in response to bacterial infections, but not viral infections, could possibly identify AECOPD requiring antibiotics. In this meta-analysis we assessed the clinical effectiveness of procalcitonin-based protocols to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in patients presenting with AECOPD.Based on a prospectively registered protocol, we reviewed the literature and selected randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing procalcitonin-based protocols to initiate or discontinue antibiotics versus standard care in AECOPD. We followed Cochrane and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) guidance to assess risk of bias, quality of evidence and to perform meta-analyses.We included eight trials evaluating 1062 patients with AECOPD. Procalcitonin-based protocols decreased antibiotic prescription (relative risk (RR) 0.56, 95% CI 0.43-0.73) and total antibiotic exposure (mean difference (MD) -3.83, 95% CI (-4.32--3.35)), without affecting clinical outcomes such as rate of treatment failure (RR 0.81, 0.62-1.06), length of hospitalisation (MD -0.76, -1.95-0.43), exacerbation recurrence rate (RR 0.96, 0.69-1.35) or mortality (RR 0.99, 0.58-1.69). However, the quality of the available evidence is low to moderate, because of methodological limitations and small overall study population.Procalcitonin-based protocols appear to be clinically effective; however, confirmatory trials with rigorous methodology are required.

  16. Changes in serum desnutrin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Demir, Betul; Ucak, Haydar; Cicek, Demet; Aydin, Suleyman; Erden, Ilker; Dertlioglu, Selma Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and insulin may contribute to increased sebum production in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. We investigated the association between serum desnutrin levels and acne vulgaris in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. 25 patients presenting with acne vulgaris and 25 control subjects participated in this study. Fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, HDL, total cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide and thyroid function tests were measured. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance. Desnutrin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Patients with acne vulgaris had a mean serum desnutrin level of (8.83 ± 1.13 μIU/mL), which was statistically significantly lower in the control group (10:58 ± 3.43 μIU/mL). In patients with acne vulgaris the serum glucose levels, insulin levels and HOMA-IR values (87.92 ± 7:46 mg/dL, 11.33 ± 5.93 μIU/mL, 2.49 ± 1.40, respectively) were significantly higher than the control group (77.36 ± 9.83 mg/dL, 5.82 ± 2.68 μIU/mL, 1.11 ± 0.51, respectively) (p = 0.01, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). Full cohort (patients and controls) evaluation revealed a negative correlation between the serum glucose and desnutrin levels (r = -0.31, p<0.05). A positive correlation was found between insulin and desnutrin levels (r = 0.42, p<0.001). In patients with acne vulgaris, as a result of increased levels of serum glucose and insulin, the function of desnutrin was suppressed, perhaps contributing to insulin resistance.

  17. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides β-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. β-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood.

  18. Maternal Serum Meteorin Levels and the Risk of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, María F.; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Cardona, Luisa F.; Simanca, Elkin L.; González, Iván; Leal, Luis G.; Mora, José A.; Bedoya, Andrés; Alzate, Juan P.; Sánchez, Ángel Y.; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H.; Franco-Vega, Roberto; Parra, Mario O.; Ruíz—Parra, Ariel I.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Meteorin (METRN) is a recently described neutrophic factor with angiogenic properties. This is a nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort study that describes the serum profile of METRN during different periods of gestation in healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women. Moreover, we explore the possible application of METRN as a biomarker. Methods and Findings Serum METRN was measured by ELISA in a longitudinal prospective cohort study in 37 healthy pregnant women, 16 mild preeclamptic women, and 20 healthy non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle with the aim of assessing serum METRN levels and its correlations with other metabolic parameters. Immunostaining for METRN protein was performed in placenta. A multivariate logistic regression model was proposed and a classifier model was formulated for predicting preeclampsia in early and middle pregnancy. The performance in classification was evaluated using measures such as sensitivity, specificity, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In healthy pregnant women, serum METRN levels were significantly elevated in early pregnancy compared to middle and late pregnancy. METRN levels are significantly lower only in early pregnancy in preeclamptic women when compared to healthy pregnant women. Decision trees that did not include METRN levels in the first trimester had a reduced sensitivity of 56% in the detection of preeclamptic women, compared to a sensitivity of 69% when METRN was included. Conclusions The joint measurements of circulating METRN levels in the first trimester and systolic blood pressure and weight in the second trimester significantly increase the probabilities of predicting preeclampsia. PMID:26121675

  19. Fasting Serum Glucose Level in Postmenopausal Bangladeshi Women.

    PubMed

    Tajkia, T; Nessa, A; Mia, M R; Das, R K; Sufrin, S; Zannat, M R; Naznin, R; Khanam, A; Akter, R; Nasreen, S

    2016-07-01

    The study was done to find out the causes that changes the fasting serum glucose level in postmenopausal women. This was descriptive type of cross sectional study carried out over a period of one year from July 2014 to June 2015 in the department of physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Women of reproductive age (25-45 years) and clinically diagnosed 100 menopausal women (45-70 years) were included for this study. Convenience type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of fasting serum glucose was done by GOD-PAP method. Data were expressed as mean±SD and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test. The mean±SD of serum glucose in menopausal women were significant at 1% level of probability than women of reproductive age. This study revealed that postmenopausal women showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose level. Fasting blood sugar level between the study & control group were 7.69±2.37 and 4.59±0.73 and the difference was statistically significant.

  20. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on serum element levels in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangchu; Ma, Shirong; Ren, Dongqing; Li, Yurong; Ding, Guirong; Liu, Junye; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guozhen

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) was a potentially harmful factor to the human body, and a biological dosimetry to evaluate effects of EMP is necessary. Little is known about effects of EMP on concentration of macro and trace elements in serum so far. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 50-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 100-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 200-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 40), and the sham-exposed group (n = 20). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after EMP exposure at different electric field intensities. Compared with the sham-exposed groups, the concentration of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in rat serum was not changed significantly within 48 h after 200 pulses of EMP exposure at electric field intensity of 50, 100, and 200 kV/m although the K level was decreased and the Ca level was increased with the electric field intensity of EMP increasing. In addition, there was a tendency that the Zn level was decreased with the time going on within 48 h after EMP exposure. Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect the concentration of macro and trace elements in rat serum. There was no time-effect or dose-effect relationship between EMP exposure and serum element levels. The macro and trace elements in serum are not suitable endpoints of biological dosimetry of EMP.

  1. Serum irisin levels are regulated by acute strenuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Dennis; Müller, Ulrike; Scheuermann, Kathrin; Friebe, Daniela; Gesing, Julia; Bielitz, Julia; Erbs, Sandra; Landgraf, Kathrin; Wagner, Isabel Viola; Kiess, Wieland; Körner, Antje

    2015-04-01

    The newly discovered myokine irisin has been proposed to affect obesity and metabolism by promoting browning of white adipose tissue. However, clinical and functional studies on the association of irisin with obesity, muscle mass, and metabolic status remain controversial. Here we assessed the effect of 4 distinct exercise regimens on serum irisin levels in children and young adults and systematically evaluated the influence of diurnal rhythm, anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and exercise on irisin. Serum irisin levels did not show diurnal variations, nor were they affected by meal intake or defined glucose load during oral glucose tolerance testing. Irisin levels decreased with age. In adults, irisin levels were higher in men than in women, and obese subjects had significantly higher levels than lean control subjects. Irisin levels were closely correlated with muscle-associated bioimpedance parameters such as fat-free mass and body cell mass. Of the 4 exercise regimens that differed in duration and intensity, we identified a clear and immediate increase in serum irisin levels after acute strenuous exercise (cycling ergometry) and a 30-minute bout of intensive exercise in children and young adults, whereas longer (6 weeks) or chronic (1 year) increases in physical activity did not affect irisin levels. We show that irisin levels are affected by age, sex, obesity, and particularly muscle mass, whereas diurnal rhythm and meals do not contribute to the variation in irisin levels. Short bouts of intensive exercise but not long-term elevations in physical activity, acutely and transiently increase serum irisin levels in children and adults.

  2. Interleukin-6 serum levels in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Kerly Wollmeister; Schuh, Artur Francisco Schumacher; Saute, Jonas; Townsend, Raquel; Fricke, Daniele; Leke, Renata; Souza, Diogo O; Portela, Luis Valmor; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Rieder, Carlos R M

    2009-08-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that neuroimmune mechanisms may be involved in the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease (PD). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is increased in the nigrostriatal region and in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with PD. IL-6 serum level was evaluated in PD patients. The effects of levodopa treatment and disease severity on IL-6 were also studied. The IL-6 levels were similar between PD patients (treated and not treated) and controls. However, there was a negative correlation of IL-6 levels and the activities of daily living scale (P < 0.05), indicating that patients with more severe disease have higher levels of this cytokine. No correlation involving levodopa treatment and IL-6 serum level was found. The results suggest that only marginal effects of IL-6 occur on the peripheral immune system, and that the role of IL-6 and others neuroimmune factors needs to be well elucidated on PD.

  3. Has westernization influenced serum cholesterol levels in Bougainvillian males?

    PubMed

    Iser, D J; Avera, K

    1993-12-01

    This study was performed to see if there was any difference in cholesterol levels between three socioeconomic groups of Bougainvillian males, each with different levels of exposure to western influences. Serum cholesterol levels were measured in 50 subjects from each of 1) village people leading a traditional lifestyle, 2) town dwellers exposed to western influences, and 3) mine workers who regularly dined in the company mess. Mean cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the mine workers (5.3 +/- SD 0.9 mmol/l) and the town dwellers (4.8 +/- SD 0.8 mmol/l) than in the village people (3.7 +/- SD 1.0 mmol/l). There was a positive correlation between serum cholesterol level and age in two groups, the town dwellers and the village people, even though the latter group had a low mean cholesterol level. There was a significant correlation between body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol level for the entire group as well as the town dwellers and mine workers. The higher mean cholesterol levels in the mine workers and town dwellers than in the village people may reflect a difference in lifestyle, particularly in diet, between these groups, and may represent an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease.

  4. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    SciTech Connect

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 ..mu..U/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 ..mu..U/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 ..mu..Um1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 ..mu..U/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy.

  5. Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

    PubMed

    Kellum, John A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Shaw, Andrew D; Clermont, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist.

  6. Serum transaminase levels after experimental paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, M F; Fulker, M J; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J; Losowsky, M S

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between serum transaminase levels and the extent of paracetamol-induced liver necrosis has been investigated in the rat. Three methods of histological quantitation were used to assess of necrosis--arbitrary grading, point counting, and the image-analysis computer. Highly significant correlations were obtained between the three methods and all were found to be reproducible. A close correlation was found between the extent of hepatic necrosis and the serum ASAT and ALAT 24 hours after a large dose (4 g/kg) of paracetamol. Likewise, the mean grade of necrosis correlated reasonably well with the serum enzyme levels in the recovery phase at 36 and 72 hours, although the transaminase level for a given degree of necrosis was considerably lower at 72 hours than at 24 hours. These findings suggest that serum transaminase levels gives a reliable indication of the severity of hepatic necrosis if the time of ingestion of the paracetamol is known and taken into account. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:1205274

  7. Preterm birth in relation to maternal organochlorine serum levels.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arreola, Laura; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Cebrián, Mariano E; Uribe, Marisela; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the associations of serum levels of p,pacute;-DDE and two other persistent organochlorine pesticides, beta-HCH and HCB, in relation to preterm birth. During 1995 we performed a case-cohort study and 233 mothers were recruited at three large maternity hospitals in Mexico City. Serum levels were obtained shortly after delivery. A non-significant increased risk of preterm birth in relation to serum p,p'-DDE levels was observed. There was also a suggestion of an increased risk of preterm birth among women in the highest tertile of beta-HCH (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, 95% CI = 0.94-3.66, p value for test of trend p = 0.08) compared with the lowest tertile. No association was found between HCB serum levels and preterm births. These findings suggest that p,pacute;-DDE and other organochlorine pesticides may pose a risk to preterm birth in countries that continue to use such insecticides for malaria control.

  8. Serum hyaluronic acid levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Turan, Yasemin; Cerrahoglu, Lale; Isbilen, Banu

    2008-05-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate serum hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and the relationship between clinical parameters in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Approximately 30 patients with AS and 30 healthy individuals were recruited in this study consecutively. Cross-sectional study was planned, and demographic, clinical, functional, radiological, and laboratory data of patients were evaluated. Disease activity, functional status, and quality of life were assessed, respectively, with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Short-Form 36 (SF-36). Mander Enthesis Index (MEI) was used for evaluation of enthesis involvement. We examined serum concentrations of HA (ng/ml) in patients with AS and controls. The mean ages of patients and control group were 38.3 (SD=10.8) and 42.7 (SD=10.6) years, respectively. The mean of serum HA levels in AS patients was 40.4 (SD=34.8) ng/ml and in controls was 24.9 (SD=20.2). There was significant difference of HA levels between two groups (p=0.04). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between HA level and distance of hand-floor (r=0.444, p=0.014), modified lumbar Schober's (r= -0.413, p=0.023), distance of chin to chest (r=0.436, p=0.016), right sacroiliit grade (r=0.601, p<0.001), left sacroiliit grade (r=0.610, p<0.001), C reactive protein level (r=0.404, p=0.027), albumin (r= -0.464, p=0.010), C3 (p=0.449, p=0.013), and IgA levels (r=0.369, p=0.045). However, there was no significant correlation between HA levels with MEI, BASFI, BASDAI, and SF-36 (p >or= 0.05). Serum HA level was significantly higher in AS patients than controls. However, there was no significant correlation between serum HA level and disease-specific measures as BASFI and BASDAI; it had significant relation with spinal mobility limitation, sacroiliitis, and laboratory parameters related with acute inflammation. The serum HA level may be a potential biomarker of axial

  9. Serum ghrelin levels in patients with Behcet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Ilker; Demir, Betül; Cicek, Demet; Dertlioğlu, Selma Bakar; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozturk, Savas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Behcet’s disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Aim To measure serum ghrelin levels in BD patients and healthy controls and to investigate its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Material and methods Thirty BD patients and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Ghrelin levels were measured in blood samples using ELISA. Results The mean serum ghrelin level in BD patients (28.57 ±14.04) was significantly lower compared to healthy controls (40.72 ±23.21) (p = 0.01). The mean serum ghrelin level in BD patients who had MetS (24.18 ±12.73) was lower compared to BD patients who did not have MetS (30.77 ±14.45), but this difference was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions Ghrelin levels were lower in BD patients compared to healthy controls. There was no association between reduced ghrelin levels and MetS; however, there was a negative correlation between ghrelin levels and disease activity. PMID:28035223

  10. Decreased nitric oxide serum level after pituitary adenoma resection.

    PubMed

    Babula, Daniel; Horecka, Anna; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Kocot, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2017-09-22

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by the conversion of Arginine (Arg) into the NO and Citrulline (Cit). Although the NO is involved into the pathogenesis of several physiological and pathological processes, the role of NO in pituitary adenomas (PA) progres-sion is not determined. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between NO and PA as well as the effect of tumor resection on NO metabolites level in serum. The study group consisted of 21 patients with PA, 18 patients with macroade-nomas and 3 with microadenomas. Venous blood samples were collected at two time-points; 1) before the surgery and 2) 3-5 days after PA resection. Arg and Cit levels were determined by the automated ion-exchange chromatography with usage of Amino Acids Analyser (AAA 400). Commercially available kit for the evaluation of nitrate/nitrite serum levels was applied for indirect assessment of serum NO level. Significant decrease in NO concentration after the surgery was observed in com-parison with the time-point 1. Arg level did not significantly change during the study period. Cit level was ranged below the detection limit of applied method. The decrease of NO level after the pituitary adenoma resection indicates the relationship between NO synthesis and PA occurrence.

  11. Measurement of human serum IgD levels.

    PubMed

    Overed-Sayer, Catherine L; Mosedale, David E; Goodall, Margaret; Grainger, David J

    2009-04-01

    This unit describes an ELISA for the quantitative measurement of IgD levels in human serum. The ELISA is highly specific and sensitive, with a minimum detectable concentration of 30 pg/ml and more than 10,000-fold specificity for IgD over all other human immunoglobulins. Linear dilution characteristics enable measurement of IgD concentrations ranging over 5 orders of magnitude. These factors are vital for the IgD assay, since IgD makes up only a small proportion of the total immunoglobulins present in normal sera, and IgD serum concentrations are known to vary widely between individuals.

  12. Serum neopterin levels in female dogs with malignant mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Szczubiał, M; Dąbrowski, R; Łopuszyński, W

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we have determined serum neopterin levels in female dogs with primary malignant mammary tumours. The study involved 50 female dogs which had a malignant mammary tumours removed surgically (32 animals with carcinoma, 12 animals with sarcoma and 6 animals with carcinosarcoma) and 10 clinically healthy female dogs. Serum neopterin levels were determined using a commercial ELISA kit. The mean neopterin levels were lower in the malignant tumour groups than in healthy animals but differences were statistically significant only in carcinoma and sarcoma groups. The decrease of neopterin levels in animals with malignant mammary tumours may suggest their decreased cellular immunity. Moreover, it might indicate that decreased activity of cellular mechanisms of the anti-neoplastic response is one of the factors associated with the development and course of malignant mammary tumours in female dogs; however, further studies are necessary. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Salivary and serum interleukin-6 levels in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Bagan, Leticia; Sáez, Guillermo T; Tormos, M Carmen; Labaig-Rueda, Carlos; Murillo-Cortes, Judith; Bagan, Jose V

    2016-05-01

    Cytokines and chemokines have been analysed in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders. We selected interleukin-6 (IL-6) because it is a multifunctional interleukin reported to be altered in potentially malignant oral disorders and in malignant lesions. To date, this has not been evaluated or tested in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL), however. This study aimed to analyse the differences in serum and saliva IL-6 levels among patients with PVL, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy controls and to examine the relationship between salivary IL-6 levels and the extent of the verrucous area. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we determined the serum and saliva IL-6 levels in three groups: 20 patients with PVL, 20 with OSCC and 20 healthy controls. There were significant (p < 0.01) differences in the serum and saliva IL-6 levels among the three groups and among the three grades of extent of the verrucous areas (p = 0.01). In the OSCC group, there was a significant difference in the saliva IL-6 levels between patients with and without lymph node metastasis at diagnosis (p = 0.02). We found that patients with OSCC had the highest salivary and serum IL-6 levels, while PVL had lower values than OSCC, but higher than the controls, and these altered levels were associated with the extent of the verrucous areas. Salivary and plasma IL-6 are altered in patients with PVL, with more extensive verrucous areas being associated to the highest IL-6 levels. This could be a significant tool for monitoring patients with PVL, their progression to more advances stages and their recurrences.

  14. Salivary and serum immunoglobulin levels in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2003-02-01

    The salivary and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G, M and A (IgG, IgM and IgA), and the salivary concentrations of albumin were measured by ELISA in 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 32 healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis had significantly higher salivary concentrations of IgG, IgM and albumin, and higher serum concentrations of IgG, IgM and IgA, but significantly lower salivary concentrations of IgA than the healthy cats. The cats with chronic gingivostomatitis were treated with either methylprednisolone, sodium aurothiomalate, metronidazole and spiramycin, or oral hygiene products. After three months of treatment, the cats receiving methylprednisolone had a significant reduction in serum IgG levels compared to the cats treated with sodium aurothiomalate or metronidazole and spiramycin, but after six months of treatment there were no significant differences between the groups. Before the treatments, the levels of oral inflammation were not correlated significantly with any of the serum or salivary immunoglobulin levels. However, the changes in oral inflammation were correlated significantly with the changes in the salivary IgM concentration after three and six months of treatment, and with the change in the salivary IgA concentration after six months of treatment.

  15. Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels in Patients With Candiduria

    PubMed Central

    Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314

  16. [Serum phosphate level and the prognosis of dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takayuki

    2009-02-01

    U-shaped relationship was observed between serum phosphate and mortality in dialysis patients. The connection between high serum phosphate and mortality can be explained partially by the contribution of phosphate to vascular calcification and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Epidemiological study about the prior history of hip fracture in Japan revealed that high serum phosphate was associated with lower prevalence of prior fracture by univariate analysis. However, this association was eliminated by including many nutritional variables in multivariate analysis. This analysis also showed that severe hypophosphatemia less than 3 mg/dL was independently associated with high prevalence, implying the connection of malnutrition with bone health. Epidemiological data regarding incident fracture is also needed to know the factors really contributing to bone fragility. There is no way other than to determine target ranges of serum phosphate using observational studies, since interventional trial with hard outcome was practically impossible. The focus of observational studies will move on, in future, to the association between mortality and the methods to decrease serum phosphate level.

  17. [Serum IgD levels in various dermatoses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Guilhou, J J; Lhie, E; Robinet-Lévy, M; Malbos, S; Meynadier, J

    1980-01-01

    Serum IgD levels were determined by radial immunodiffusion among 349 patients with various dermatoses and 40 normal blood donnors. An increase of serum concentrations was found in atopic patients 62,5 p. 100 of which had levels over 50 mg/1 compared to 20 p. 100 in controls. No correlation was found between IgD and IgE levels in these patients. An increase (but statistically not significant) was also found in chronic urticaria whereas levels were normal in acute urticaria. No difference was found in contact dermatitis nor in psoriasis. High levels occurred in most of patients with primo-secondary syphilis and in acne pustulosa, whereas low IgD levels were found in most patients with malignant proliferative diseases (mycosis fongoide, malignant melanoma, carcinoma). However, the number of patients tested in these groups is too small to allow definitive conclusions. In our experience, determination of serum IgD values is not very useful for diagnosis in dermatologic patients.

  18. HLA-G antigen and parturition: maternal serum, fetal serum and amniotic fluid levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hackmon, Rinat; Hallak, Mordechai; Krup, Margalit; Weitzman, Dahlia; Sheiner, Eyal; Kaplan, Boris; Weinstein, Yacob

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether soluble HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1) concentrations in maternal serum and in amniotic fluid are lower at term than in the second trimester. In this prospective study amniotic fluid and maternal serum samples were aspirated from 21 pregnant women during genetic amniocentesis at 16-20 weeks' gestation, and from 19 women undergoing a cesarean section at term. In the latter group arterial umbilical cord blood was aspirated as well. sHLA-G1 levels were determined using ELISA assay. This assay included the anti-HLA-G monoclonal antibodies 87G and 16G1, both as capture antibodies and horseradish-peroxidase-labeled rabbit anti-human beta(2)-microglobulin antibodies, as the detection antibody. The relative concentrations of sHLA-G1 were measured from the absorbancy of the blue product at 650 nm. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. sHLA-G1 levels in amniotic fluid were significantly lower at term than in the second trimester (0.160 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.272 +/- 0.150 OD units; p < 0.05). Levels of sHLA-G1 in maternal serum declined toward term, but the difference from the second trimester was not statistically significant (0.266 +/- 0.157 vs. 0.205 +/- 0.120 OD units; p = 0.193). There was a strong correlation of sHLA-G1 concentrations between cord serum and maternal serum (R(2) = 0.79; p < 0.001), but not between cord serum and amniotic fluid (R(2) = 0.00004) or amniotic fluid and maternal serum (R(2) = 0.02). sHLA-G1 antigen expression is higher in amniotic fluid than in maternal-fetal compartments and significantly decreases toward term. We speculate that the declining amniotic fluid sHLA-G1 levels may stimulate a maternal immunological response against the fetus and contribute to the initiation of parturition. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Pyoderma gangrenosum with increased levels of serum cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kozono, Kana; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Satoko; Itoh, Eriko; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-12-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented after an episode of accidental trauma with a painful ulcer on her scalp which rapidly enlarged in size, accompanied by central necrosis and undermining ulceration. The patient's past history was negative for underlying systemic disease, although she had had a similar post-traumatic intractable leg ulcer 3 years prior, which was unresponsive to surgical management but successfully treated with systemic steroids. A biopsied specimen from the scalp showed marked neutrophilic infiltrates in the dermis, compatible with a diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). The large ulcerative lesion responded very well to oral steroid therapy, showing rapid epithelialization. Serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 were significantly elevated prior to treatment, with decrease to normal levels after treatment. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels were within normal limits. The significance and pathogenic role of cytokine burst in PG is reviewed and discussed.

  20. Serum immunoglobulin levels in healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Stoop, J. W.; Zegers, B. J. M.; Sander, P. C.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Serum levels of IgM, IgG and IgA were determined in 270 healthy children, 4–12 years old, and in thirty healthy adults by the radial immunodiffusion method of Mancini. There were nine 1-year age groups of thirty children each (fifteen boys and fifteen girls); the adult group consisted of fifteen males and fifteen females. The difference in values between adults and children was statistically significant. The IgG and IgA concentrations showed a gradual rise with increasing age; the IgM concentration remained constant at a distinctly lower level than that in adults. The IgA level was about the same in both sexes. Girls had significantly higher IgM and IgG levels than boys. A consistent seasonal influence on the three serum immunoglobulin concentrations could not be demonstrated. A very wide variation in serum levels of each immunoglobulin in each age group was found. Very low values were by no means exceptional. The consequence of this finding for the diagnosis of immunological incompetency is discussed. PMID:4182354

  1. Serum levels of TWEAK in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Özlem; Sivrikaya, Abdullah; Toker, Aysun; Ünlü, Ali; Altınyazar, Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. However, studies conducted on the relationship of TWEAK and psoriasis patients are limited. In this study, we aimed to explore the serum levels of TWEAK and investigated whether TWEAK levels are associated with clinical variables and expression of other well-known psoriasis-related cytokines including IL-6, IL-23 and TNF-α. Forty-five patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 43 controls were enrolled in this study. The severity of psoriasis was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Serum levels of cytokines were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The mean TWEAK, IL-6, IL-23, and TN-α levels were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in control subjects. However, there were no significant correlations between the psoriasis severity, the illness duration and serum cytokine levels. This study shows that TWEAK may be associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis, like TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-23.

  2. Association between serum fetuin-A level and erectile function.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Bozkurt, A; Gunay, M; Aktas, B K; Hirik, E; Aydın, M; Nuhoglu, B

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that ED is an early symptom of atherosclerosis. Fetuin-A, a glycoprotein secreted by the liver, kidneys and choroid plexus, has been linked to systemic fibrosis and calcification in human and rat studies. Deficiency of this compound may play a role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease progression. The aim of the study was to examine whether serum fetuin-A level is related to erectile function or severity of ED. Sixty ED patients without cardiovascular disease were assigned to one of the three groups (mild, moderate or severe ED) depending on ED severity. Twenty healthy volunteers were included as the control group. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire was used to measure erection quality in all four groups. Mean age, body mass index, total testosterone, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not significantly differ between the three erectile dysfunction and control groups (P > 0.05). The group with severe ED had a significantly lower mean fetuin-A level than the mild ED and control groups. For both mild and moderate ED groups, the mean serum fetuin-A level was significantly lower in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Serum fetuin-A level may be used as a supplemental biochemical parameter in preliminary evaluation of ED. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Serum irisin levels, precocious myocardial infarction, and healthy exceptional longevity.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscles produce irisin. Growing controversy exists on the association between this myokine and chronic disease risk. On the basis of the potential protective effects that irisin could exert on both vascular function and skeletal muscle mass, we hypothesized that an elevated level of this molecule may contribute to successful aging. Serum irisin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in disease-free centenarians, young healthy controls, and patients with precocious acute myocardial infarction. We found the highest levels of serum irisin in disease-free centenarians (35.3 ± 5.5 ng/mL) compared with young healthy controls (20.7 ± 6.3 ng/mL) and especially with young patients with acute myocardial infarction (15.1 ± 5.4 ng/mL). Our study demonstrates that healthy centenarians are characterized by increased serum irisin levels, whereas levels of this molecule were found to be significantly lower in young patients with myocardial infarction. Our findings may prompt further research into the role played by irisin not only in vascular disorders but also in life span modulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum vitamin D levels decrease in children with acute urticaria.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, B; Köksal, B T; Karakaş, N M; Ozbek, O Y

    Acute urticaria is an immune-inflammatory disease, characterised by acute immune activation. There has been increasing evidence showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased incidence and severity of immune-inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum vitamin D levels in acute urticaria. We enrolled 30 children with acute urticaria and 30 control subjects. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a biomarker of vitamin D status, were measured in serum of acute urticaria patients and compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in baseline variables (age, gender, weight) between the groups. Vitamin D deficiency (<20ng/ml) was significantly higher in patients with acute urticaria than in control patients. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in the study group compared to those in the control group (13.1±4.3 vs 28.2±7.4ng/mL, p<0.05). Moreover, we found negative correlation between mean duration of acute urticaria and serum vitamin D levels (p<0.01). This study revealed a significant association of lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations with acute urticaria and an inverse relationship with disease duration. These findings may open up the possibility of the clinical use of vitamin D as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of acute urticaria and a predictive marker for disease activity in acute urticaria. A potential role of vitamin D in pathogenesis and additive therapy in acute urticaria needs to be examined. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between serum ferritin level and amikacin ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Shayaninasab, Mohammad; Fatololoomi, Mohammadreza; Behnood, Fatollah; Alizamir, Azam

    2012-07-01

    Aminoglycosides are highly effective against bacteria but have serious side-effects including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. One of the theories in aminoglycosides ototoxicity is that Iron-aminoglycoside complex causes ototoxicity by creating free radicals. Based on this theory, the relationship between serum iron level and amikacin ototoxicity was studied to determine whether more iron results in more ototoxcity. This prospective cohort study was conducted from August 2005 to October 2008. Patients with amikacin prescription and different serum-ferritin levels were examined. Burned patients with amikacin prescription were divided into Group1 (89 patients; serum-ferritin >150) and Group2 (92 patients, serum-ferritin <150). Their hearing thresholds and red-blood-cells indices were compared using t- and paired t-test. In comparing the two groups, thresholds of Group1 were higher than Group2 at all frequencies, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The maximum threshold shift in Group1 was greater than 20 dB and in Group2, it was less than 10 dB, at 8000Hz. Again, this result was statistically and clinically significant (p<0.001). Finally, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV)was higher in Group1 than Group2, and (p=0.001). The results suggest that the level of iron is related to aminoglycoside ototoxicity. More iron can create more ototoxicity, and iron deficiency may inhibit aminoglycoside ototoxicity. An increase in MCV may be due to higher serum ferritin and an indication of more ototoxicity.

  6. Serum Vitamin D levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Rozita, Mohd; Noorul Afidza, Mohamad; Ruslinda, Mustafar; Cader, Rizna; Halim, A. Gafor; Kong, Chiew Tong Norella; Nor Azmi, Kamaruddin; Shah, Shamsul Azhar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hypovitaminosis D is reported to be associated with several medical complications. Recent studies have reported a high worldwide prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in the general population (up to 80 %). This is even higher in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increases with advancing stages of CKD. Objectives: To determine the difference in serum Vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH) D] levels between CKD patients and normal healthy population. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 50 normal volunteers (control) and 50 patients with CKD stages 2-4. Their demographic profiles were recorded and blood samples taken for serum 25(OH) D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and other routine blood tests. Results: All subjects regardless of renal status had hypovitaminosis D (< 30ng/mL). The mean serum 25(OH) D were comparable in the control and CKD groups (15.3 ± 4.2 ng/mL vs 16.1 ± 6.2 ng/mL, p = NS). However, within the Vitamin D deficient group, the CKD group had lower levels of serum 25(OH) D [12.6(3.7) ng/mL vs 11.2(6.5) ng/mL, p = 0.039]. Female gender [OR 22.553; CI 95 % (2.16-235.48); p = 0.009] and diabetic status [OR 6.456; CI 95 % (1.144-36.433); p = 0.035] were independent predictors for 25(OH) D deficiency. Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D deficiency are indeed prevalent and under-recognized. Although the vitamin D levels among the study subjects and their control are equally low, the CKD group had severe degree of vitamin D deficiency. Diabetic status and female gender were independent predictors of low serum 25(OH)D. PMID:26933400

  7. The predictive and diagnostic values of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein for clinical outcome in febrile neutropenic patients.

    PubMed

    Erten, Nilgun; Genc, Sema; Besisik, Sevgi K; Saka, Bulent; Karan, M Akif; Tascioglu, Cemil

    2004-05-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) represents a new marker of systemic inflammatory reactions to bacterial infections. The main aim in this study was to determine the diagnostic value of PCT in predicting the clinical severity of febril neutropenic attacks, compare it with that of C-reactive protein (CRP), and clarify its importance in culture-positive attacks. Between February 2001 and April 2002, 36 patients who were neutropenic due to various hematologic disorders and febrile were entered into the study. Blood samples were obtained on the first day of fever for the measurement of serum PCT and CRP levels. In clinically severe neutropenic fever attacks, means of serum PCT and CRP levels were measured as 0.93+/-1.33 ng/mL and 67+/-24 mg/L, while they were 0.37+/-0.23 ng/mL and 32+/-19 mg/L in clinically mild ones (p = 0.033 and p < 0.001). On the other hand, no statistical significance was found between culture-positive and negative attacks when either serum PCT or CRP levels were taken into consideration (p = 0.133 and p = 0.141). The specificity and positive predictive value of the serum PCT test for severe febrile neutropenia was higher than that of the serum CRP test (0.80 vs. 0.57 and 0.50 vs. 0.39). However, sensitivity and negative predictive value for CRP were higher than the values for PCT (1.00 vs. 0.40 and 1.00 vs. 0.73). Diagnostic value and positive likelihood ratio of CRP for severe febrile neutropenia were higher than those of PCT (71 vs. 67 and 2.32 vs. 2.00). PCT and CRP are comparable with each other in prediction of the clinical severity of febrile neutropenic attacks. Furthermore, serum CRP levels correlate with the duration of fever.

  8. Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels Predict Falls in Older Diabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Cauley, Jane A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Schwartz, Gary G.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and incident falls in older diabetic adults. Design Longitudinal analysis of incident falls over 1 year in a sub-study of diabetic participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants Well-functioning, community-dwelling black and white adults aged 70-79 with diabetes (n = 472). Measurements Measured baseline serum PTH. Self-report of falls over the subsequent 12 months. Baseline physical performance and self-reported demographic, behavioral, and health status measures including kidney function, chronic conditions and medication use. Results 30.3% of participants reported falling over one year of follow-up. The mean ± SD baseline serum PTH was 53.5 ± 30.0 pg/mL in non-fallers and 62.6 ± 46.2 pg/mL in fallers (p = 0.01). For every 1 SD (36 pg/mL) increment in baseline serum PTH, there was approximately a 30% increased likelihood of reporting a fall in the subsequent year after adjusting for age, gender, race, field center, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and winter/spring season (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.59). Further adjustment for kidney function, chronic conditions, medication and supplement use, and physical performance attenuated the association slightly (OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01-1.58)). A trend remained after additional adjustment for reported falls in the previous year. Conclusion Higher serum PTH was associated with incident falls among older, well-functioning diabetic men and women. Further investigation aimed at understanding the underlying mechanism for the association between serum PTH and falls is needed. PMID:19016936

  9. Serum Levels of Acylcarnitines Are Altered in Prediabetic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Manuel; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    Objective The role of mitochondrial function in the complex pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not yet completely understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of short-, medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines as markers of mitochondrial function in volunteers with normal, impaired or diabetic glucose control. Methods Based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, 1019 studied subjects were divided into a group with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 636), isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG; n = 184), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 87) or type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 112). Serum concentrations of free carnitine and 24 acylcarnitines were measured by mass spectrometry. Results Serum levels of acetylcarnitine (C2), propionylcarnitine (C3), octanoylcarnitine (C8), malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH), hexanoylcarnitine (C6), octenoylcarnitine (C8:1), decanoylcarnitine (C10), decenoylcarnitine (C10:1), dodecanoylcarnitine (C12), tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), tetradecadienylcarnitine (C14:2), hydroxytetradecanoylcarnitine (C14OH), hydroxyhexadecanoylcarnitine (C16OH) and octadecenoylcarnitine (C18:1) were significantly different among the groups (all p<0.05 adjusted for age, gender and BMI). Between the prediabetic states C14:1, C14:2 and C18:1 showed significantly higher serum concentrations in persons with IGT (p<0.05). Compared to T2D the IFG and the IGT subjects showed lower serum concentrations of malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH) (p<0.05). Conclusion Alterations in serum concentrations of several acylcarnitines, in particular tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1), tetradecadienylcarnitine (C14:2), octadecenoylcarnitine (C18:1) and malonylcarnitine/hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C3DC+C4OH) are associated not only with T2D but also with prediabetic states. PMID:24358186

  10. Serum irisin levels and thyroid function--newly discovered association.

    PubMed

    Ruchala, Marek; Zybek, Ariadna; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina

    2014-10-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered adipo-myokin, which is reported to have a significant influence on the body metabolism and thermogenesis. Other influencing factors on metabolic state are thyroid hormones, which increase heat production and control the energy balance. Due to numerous similarities in action it seems imperative to explore these substances' potential mutual influence on the body. The aim of the study is to provide the first ever, according to our knowledge, evaluation of serum irisin concentrations in patients with thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with creatine kinase (CK) levels - a serum marker of muscle damage. The studied group consisted of 20 patients with newly diagnosed thyroid disorder - hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Venous blood samples were analyzed for irisin, thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and CK serum concentrations. Patients' body mass index (BMI), body weight and muscle mass were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Median serum irisin levels were lower in hypothyroid (117.30ng/ml) than hyperthyroid (161.95ng/ml) patients with a borderline statistical significance (p=0.0726). The negative correlation between irisin and TSH levels was demonstrated (r=-0.4924, p=0.0230), as well as the positive correlation between irisin and FT4 levels (r=0.4833, p=0.0360). The CK level was negatively correlated with irisin, FT4 and FT3 concentrations (r=-0.7272, p=0.0140; r=-0.9636, p=<0.0001; r=-0.8838, p=0.0007, respectively). The study demonstrates that irisin concentrations may vary according to the thyrometabolic state, which potentially could be related to the degree of muscle damage.

  11. Serum "uracil+uridine" levels in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Parry, T E; Blackmore, J A

    1976-12-01

    The serum "uracil+uridine" level, expressed as uracil, has been measured in 21 cases of vitamin B12 deficiency, in which the serum folate was normal, and compared with the level in 97 normal subjects. The level in the vitamin B12 deficient group (11.9 mumol/1). was significantly lower than in the controls (15.7 mumol/1., P less than 0.005). Nine of the former were complicated by stystemic illness but the clinical and haematological features in the remaining 12 were consistent with the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in relapse. The serum uracil level in this group was even lower (10.21 mumol/1., P less than 0.01). This finding is unexpected in view of the generally accepted indirect role of vitamine B12 in the methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate to deoxythymidine monophosphate. Reasons are given for not accepting these results as reflecting the main biochemical lesion in vitamin B12 deficiency. Although they do not give direct support to an impairment in the methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate, they do not exclude it as they test only one possible metabolic pathway and moreover they could represent the result of more than one action of vitamin B12 on uracil metabolism. They do show, however, that some aspect of uracil metabolism other than methylation is affected in vitamin B12 deficiency in man.

  12. Serum nesfatin-1 levels in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Gungunes, A; Ozbek, M; Ginis, Z; Sahin, M; Demirci, T; Cakir Ozkaya, E; Karbek, B; Sayki Arslan, M; Ozturk Unsal, I; Tutal Akkaya, E; Ucan, B; Gultuna Ozguclu, S; Cakal, E; Topaloglu, O; Delibasi, T

    2014-09-01

    Nesfatin-1 was recently discovered anorexigenic peptide in the brain which is derived from nucleobindin-2. Central and peripheral administration of nesfatin-1, inhibits food intake, dose-dependently. Hyperthyroid patients have increased appetite and food intake with a craving for carbohydrate-rich food, at the beginning of disease, but the physiological mechanisms underlying this behavior is not known exactly. In this study, we investigated whether nesfatin-1 is involved in the regulation of appetite and body weight in hyperthyroidism, or not. A total of 70 patients with subclinical (35) and overt hyperthyroidism (35) compared with 35 control patients. Serum nesfatin-1 level was measured from all samples by commercial ELISA kit. Serum nesfatin-1 levels were similar between three groups (P=0.293). After adjusting for age and body mass index, nesfatin-1 levels in control group was not different from subclinical and overt hyperthyroid group, respectively (P=0.567 and P=0.519). These data showed that serum nesfatin-1 levels do not significant change in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  13. Use of serum progesterone levels to detect pregnancy in elk

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.J.; Wolfe, M.L.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the realibility of serum progesterone assays as a means for detecting pregnancy in elk (Cervus elaphus). The elk were trapped during February through April in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. Blood samples were set to Bio-Science Laboratories for projesterone analysis by radioimmunoassay. Levels of progesteron were highly variable within the pregnant and nonpregnant elk. (RJC)

  14. Serum TAG 72 levels in different human carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Correale, M; Abbate, I; Gargano, G; Garrubba, M; Muncipinto, A; Addabbo, L; Colangelo, D

    1991-01-01

    Since December 1988, we have measured the TAG 72 serum levels in 326 patients with different carcinomas, especially breast, gastrointestinal and ovarian, using a RIA kit. With a cut-off value of 5 U/mL, a specificity of 100% in the controls and an overall sensitivity of 22% in the neoplastic patients was obtained, with the highest positivities in ovarian (63%) and gastric (58%) carcinomas. Therefore, TAG 72 can be associated with other tumor markers for these latter neoplasms.

  15. Periodontal status and serum biomarkers levels in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vandilson P; Libério, Silvana A; Lopes, Fernanda F; Thomaz, Erika B F A; Guerra, Rosane N M; Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Antonio L A

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association between periodontal status and serum biomarkers levels in haemodialysis patients. This cross-sectional study included 96 haemodialysis patients. The periodontal evaluation was realized using clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), gingival bleeding index (GBI), visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival index (GI). Biochemical and haematological data - serum albumin, phosphorus, creatinine, transferrin, ferritin, iron, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, potassium and haemoglobin - were collected from the medical records. The subject was diagnosed with periodontitis if he/she had at least two inter-proximal sites in different teeth with CAL ≥4 mm and/or at least two inter-proximal sites in separate teeth with PD ≥5 mm. The study population consisted of 45 men and 51 women, with mean time under haemodialysis of 45.6 ± 33.1 months. Periodontitis was observed in 59.4% of the subjects. The periodontitis group had albumin (p = 0.021) and phosphorus (p = 0.024) serum levels lower than the no periodontitis group. Thus, there was a positive association of periodontitis with hypoalbuminaemia (OR = 9.10, p = 0.006) and a negative association with hyperphosphataemia (OR = 0.21, p = 0.010). These findings suggest that periodontitis is associated with albumin and phosphorus serum levels in haemodialysis patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease.

  17. Serum Adiponectin Levels in Advanced-Stage Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Erica; Cancello, Raffaella; Cavanna, Ferruccio; Maestrini, Sabrina; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Liuzzi, Antonio; Pezzoli, Gianni; Barichella, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) experience body weight loss and reductions in the most common cardiovascular risk factors. At present, the pathogenetic mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin, which possesses antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, are associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to determine adiponectin serum concentrations in PD patients. Thirty PD patients underwent a full nutritional status assessment, including the determination of adiponectin serum concentrations. Mean ± SD adiponectin concentrations were 9.59 ± 5.9 μg/mL (interquartile range: 5.92–12.9 μg/mL). In PD patients, adiponectin serum levels were similar to those in normal-weight, healthy, young subjects and significantly higher than that in an aged-matched group of morbidly obese subjects. Further studies are warranted to establish the role of adiponectin in the management of PD patients. PMID:21766000

  18. [Serum homocysteine levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Stoĭkova, V; Ivanov, S; Mazneĭkova, V; Tsoncheva, A

    2005-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most common and severe pregnancy complications, which ethiology remains unclear. It is certain that endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development of preeclampsia. Homocysteine is an important independent cardiovascular risk factor, which might induce the endothelial dysfunction observed in preeclampsia. 26 pregnant women--14 with preeclampsia (group 1) and 12 healthy term pregnant controls (group 2) were enrolled in the study between December 2003 and August 2004. Six of the women in this group had a superimposed preeclampsia. The mean homocysteine level in the first group was 11,04 mol/l, while in the control group it was 6,24 micromol/l (p < 0.05). The women with a severe preeclampsia had a significantly higher serum homocysteine levels than those with mild form (F = 0.025). Seven of the patients (50%) gave birth before 34th weeks of gestation. The study finds a link between the serum homocysteine as an endothelial dysfunction marker and the development of preeclampsia and a relation between the severity of preeclampsia and the degree of the elevation of the serum homocysteine levels.

  19. Elevated serum galectin-9 levels in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Rina; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Oka, Tomonori; Nakao, Momoko; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Suga, Hiraku; Morimura, Sohshi; Kai, Hiromichi; Asano, Yoshihide; Tada, Yayoi; Kadono, Takafumi; Sato, Shinichi; Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    Galectin-9 is a member of the galectin family that has a wide spectrum of biological functions. Among them, galectin-9 has been known mainly as a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils. In addition, galectin-9 alters the T-cell balance by negatively regulating T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, resulting in Th2 polarization. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin allergic disease characterized by peripheral eosinophilia, mast cell activation and predominance of Th2 cells. To investigate possible roles of galectin-9 in AD, we measured serum galectin-9 levels in AD patients and investigated galectin-9 expression in lesional skin by immunohistochemistry. Serum galectin-9 levels in patients with AD were significantly higher than those in healthy controls and correlated with the Eczema Area and Severity Index. Serum galectin-9 levels were decreased after treatment, accompanied by improvement of skin lesions. Immunohistochemical study revealed that galectin-9 was expressed on epidermal keratinocytes and mast cells in lesional skin of AD. Our results suggest that elevated galectin-9 expression is associated with progression of AD and that galectin-9 could be a therapeutic target in AD. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gorar, Suheyla; Culha, Cavit; Uc, Ziynet Alphan; Dellal, Fatma Dilek; Serter, Rustu; Aral, Sema; Aral, Yalcin

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to measure serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy subjects. A total of 37 women were evaluated. Serum levels FGF21, glucose, lipid profile, hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, oestradiol, testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin and insulin) were determined in 24 PCOS (15 subjects of PCOS BMI < 25 kg/m2, 9 subjects of PCOS BMI ≥ kg/m2) and 13 control group (BMI < 25 kg/m2). Serum FGF21 levels were higher in the PCOS group [99.5 (173.7) pg/ml] than in the control group [52.0 (88.0) pg/ml]. LH and T are significantly higher in PCOS cases (respectively; p < 0.05, p < 0.01). A positive correlation was found between FGF21 and luteinising hormone and testosterone (respectively; r = 0.43 p = 0.007, r = 0.38, p = 0.02). Multivariate discriminant analysis showed that BMI, triglyceride, HOMA-IR, fasting glucose with rise of FGF21 were found significant in PCOS. Our study indicates that FGF21 in cases with PCOS exhibit an increase along with the increase of BMI and also has a positive correlation with LH and T. Further studies are required to clarify the aetiology and effects of FGF21 in women with PCOS.

  1. Serum cotinine levels and diabetes mellitus in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Elbaz, Hosam A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure evident by serum cotinine level, and diabetes mellitus in never smokers. Previous studies suggest that active tobacco cigarette smoking is associated with diabetes mellitus risk. However it is not clear if the low-level "background" ETS exposure is associated with diabetes among never smokers. We present evidence from five independent replications based on the US nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted 2003-12. Our exposure of interest is ETS exposure among never smokers, measured by serum cotinine levels (ng/mL), and our main outcome is diabetes mellitus assessed via self-reported physician-diagnosis, current use of insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic medications, plasma fasting glucose levels ≥126mg/dL or glycohemoglobin levels ≥6.5%. The conceptual model encompassed age, sex, ethnic self-identification, education, poverty-income ratio, alcohol drinking, total cholesterol and body mass index. In never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with diabetes mellitus (the meta-analytic summary estimate is 1.2, 95% CI=1.1, 1.2). This association was not evident among never smokers with cotinine levels below 3ng/mL. These replications help sustain evidence of ETS-diabetes mellitus association, which might be explained by shared psychosocial characteristics. Prospective studies with appropriate biomarkers are needed to further investigate this association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum heme oxygenase-1 levels in patients with primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Ayse Nur; Laloglu, Esra; Ozkaya, Alev Lazoglu; Yilmaz, Emsal Pınar Topdagi

    2017-04-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea effects the life-quality of women negatively. The aim of this study was to evaluate heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) activity together with malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. A total of 28 nulliparous women with the diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. On the first day of menstruation, all patients underwent ultrasound examination to exclude pelvic pathology and the visual analogue scale was applied to patients. Patient's visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, age, body mass index (BMI), menstrual cycle length (day), length of bleeding (day) were recorded. In the same day, fasting blood samples were taken from each patient for biochemical analysis. Serum MDA, NO and HO1 levels were found to be higher in women with primary dysmenorrhea compared to healthy controls (p = 0.012, p = 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively). There were no correlation among serum levels of HO1, NO and MDA, age, BMI, cycle length, pain score and menses duration in both groups. In Pearson's correlation analysis, positive correlation was found between HO1 levels with the NO levels (r = 0.316, p < 0.05) and VAS scores (r = 0.520, p < 0.01). Also, positive correlation was found between MDA levels and VAS scores (r = 0.327, p < 0.05). Serum HO1, NO and MDA levels increase in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Antioxidant support might be helpful to reduce pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea.

  3. Serum CD14 levels in polytraumatized and severely burned patients.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, C; Schütt, C; Obertacke, U; Joka, T; Müller, F E; Knöller, J; Köller, M; König, W; Schönfeld, W

    1991-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that the CD14 molecule which is expressed on monocytes and macrophages serves as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bound to LPS-binding protein (LBP) and thus mediates LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. Here we report that CD14 is found as a soluble (s) molecule in serum. In healthy volunteers sCD14 levels (mean +/- s.e.m.) were 3.7 +/- 0.05 micrograms/ml (n = 30, 25-50 years of age) as determined by ELISA (detection limit 20 ng/ml serum) using two monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich technique. In polytraumatized patients (n = 16) significantly decreased levels (1.7 +/- 0.3) were detected immediately after the trauma, which increased to 4.9 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml within the first 6 days post trauma. sCD14 remained elevated during the first 14 days post trauma in patients with the most severe injuries (injury severity score greater than 45 points), whereas a return to normal levels was observed in patients with an injury score of less than 45 points. In addition, the levels of the high-density lipoproteins that partially inactivate free endotoxin are significantly decreased post trauma. No correlation between parameters of inflammation (C3a and neopterin levels, leucocyte counts, amount of band cells), liver function and sCD14 levels was established. Comparable to polytraumatized patients, increased sCD14 serum levels were observed in five patients with burn trauma (burned area greater than 35%) within the second week post trauma when clinical signs of septicaemia were evident. PMID:1713813

  4. Serum Levels of Oxylipins in Achilles Tendinopathy: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Nording, Malin L.; Gaida, Jamie E.; Forsgren, Sture; Alfredson, Håkan; Fowler, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Linoleic acid-derived oxidation products are found in experimental pain models. However, little is known about the levels of such oxylipins in human pain. In consequence, in the present study, we have undertaken a lipidomic profiling of oxylipins in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy and controls. Methodology/Principal findings A total of 34 oxylipins were analysed in the serum samples. At a significance level of P<0.00147 (<0.05/34), two linoleic acid-derived oxylipins, 13-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic (13-HODE) and 12(13)-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DiHOME) were present at significantly higher levels in the Achilles tendinopathy samples. This difference remained significant when the dataset was controlled for age, gender and body-mass index. In contrast, 0/21 of the arachidonic acid- and 0/4 of the dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahenaenoic acid-derived oxylipins were higher in the patient samples at this level of significance. The area under the Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve for 12,13-DiHOME was 0.91 (P<0.0001). Levels of four N-acylethanolamines were also analysed and found not to be significantly different between the controls and the patients at the level of P<0.0125 (<0.05/4). Conclusions/Significance It is concluded from this exploratory study that abnormal levels of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins are seen in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Given the ability of two of these, 9- and 13-HODE to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, it is possible that these changes may contribute to the symptoms seen in Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:25875933

  5. Cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax and the value of procalcitonin: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chong; Vali, Yusuf; Naeem, Muhammad; Reddy, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP) is a relatively rare condition and can be difficult to differentiate from Community acquired pneumonia (CAP). We report two cases which demonstrate the importance of considering this differential diagnosis in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax who have raised inflammatory markers or lung infiltrates. Our report highlights the value of serum procalcitonin as a biomarker in differentiating between community acquired pneumonia and cryptogenic organising pneumonia especially in the context of a high serum C-reactive protein. Furthermore, the cases show early diagnosis and prompt treatment with corticosteroids may impact the clinical outcome.

  6. Mammographic density and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D, which influences cellular proliferation and breast tissue characteristics, has been inversely correlated with breast cancer risk. Dietary vitamin D intake has been associated with lower mammographic density (MD), a strong intermediate marker of breast cancer risk. Findings We examined the relationship between MD and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], an integrated measure of vitamin D status from dietary sources and sunlight exposure, in a multi-ethnic cohort of women undergoing screening mammography. We recruited women age 40–60 years without a history of breast cancer at the time of their routine screening mammogram, and conducted in-person interviews and collected blood specimens. We enrolled 195 women from 2007–2008, 120 gave blood, and 114 were evaluable, including 25% white, 41% African American, 18% African Caribbean, and 16% Hispanic. We digitized mammograms and calculated percent density, dense area, and non-dense area on cranial-caudal images. We measured serum 25(OH)D in batched, archived specimens. Median serum 25(OH)D was 22 ng/ml (range, 8–66 ng/ml). In univariable analysis, higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with white race, higher educational level, ever breast feeding, and blood draw during the summer. After adjusting for body mass index and other confounders, we found no association between serum 25(OH)D and different measures of MD. However, when stratified by season, 25(OH)D was inversely associated with dense area during July-December (p = 0.034). Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that circulating vitamin D, a potentially modifiable breast cancer risk factor, is not associated with MD; the seasonal effects we observed need to be replicated in larger cohorts. PMID:24742098

  7. Novel Locus FER Is Associated With Serum HMW Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Menzaghi, Claudia; Salvemini, Lucia; De Bonis, Concetta; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Hu, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is a predominant isoform of circulating adiponectin and has been related to type 2 diabetes. Previous linkage studies suggest that different genetic components might be involved in determining HMW and total adiponectin levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum HMW adiponectin levels in individuals of European ancestry drawn from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (N = 1,591). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the GWAS analysis were replicated in an independent cohort of Europeans (N = 626). We examined the associations of the identified variations with diabetes risk and metabolic syndrome. RESULTS We identified a novel locus near the FER gene (5q21) at a genome-wide significance level, best represented by SNP rs10447248 (P = 4.69 × 10−8). We also confirmed that variations near the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus (3q27) were related to serum HMW adiponectin levels. In addition, we found that FER SNP rs10447248 was related to HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.009); ADIPOQ variation was associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.04), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04), and a metabolic syndrome score (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that different loci may be involved in regulation of circulating HMW adiponectin levels and provide novel insight into the mechanisms that affect HMW adiponectin homeostasis. PMID:21700879

  8. The role of procalcitonin as a marker of diabetic foot ulcer infection.

    PubMed

    Massara, Mafalda; De Caridi, Giovanni; Serra, Raffaele; Barillà, David; Cutrupi, Andrea; Volpe, Alberto; Cutrupi, Francesco; Alberti, Antonino; Volpe, Pietro

    2017-02-01

    Foot ulcers are frequent in diabetic patients and are responsible for 85% of amputations, especially in the presence of infection. The diagnosis of diabetic foot ulcer infection is essentially based on clinical evaluation, but laboratory parameters such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and, more recently, procalcitonin (PCT) could aid the diagnosis, especially when clinical signs are misleading. Fifteen diabetic patients with infected foot ulcers were admitted to our department and were compared with an additional group of patients with non-infected diabetic foot ulcers (NIDFUs). Blood samples were collected from all patients in order to evaluate laboratory markers. In the current study, the diagnostic accuracy of PCT serum levels was evaluated in comparison with other inflammatory markers such as CRP, ESR and WBC as an indicator to make the distinction between infected diabetic foot ulcers (IDFUs) and NIDFUs. CRP, WBC, ESR and especially PCT measurements represent effective biomarkers in the diagnosis of foot infections in diabetic patients particularly when clinical signs are misleading.

  9. Predictive value of procalcitonin decrease in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This prospective study investigated the predictive value of procalcitonin (PCT) for survival in 242 adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock treated in intensive care. Methods PCT was analyzed from blood samples of all patients at baseline, and 155 patients 72 hours later. Results The median PCT serum concentration on day 0 was 5.0 ng/ml (interquartile range (IQR) 1.0 and 20.1 ng/ml) and 1.3 ng/ml (IQR 0.5 and 5.8 ng/ml) 72 hours later. Hospital mortality was 25.6% (62/242). Median PCT concentrations in patients with community-acquired infections were higher than with nosocomial infections (P = 0.001). Blood cultures were positive in 28.5% of patients (n = 69), and severe sepsis with positive blood cultures was associated with higher PCT levels than with negative cultures (P = < 0.001). Patients with septic shock had higher PCT concentrations than patients without (P = 0.02). PCT concentrations did not differ between hospital survivors and nonsurvivors (P = 0.64 and P = 0.99, respectively), but mortality was lower in patients whose PCT concentration decreased > 50% (by 72 hours) compared to those with a < 50% decrease (12.2% vs. 29.8%, P = 0.007). Conclusions PCT concentrations were higher in more severe forms of severe sepsis, but a substantial concentration decrease was more important for survival than absolute values. PMID:21078153

  10. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  11. Procalcitonin in sepsis and systemic inflammation: a harmful biomarker and a therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kenneth L; Snider, Richard; Nylen, Eric S

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide yearly mortality from sepsis is substantial, greater than that of cancer of the lung and breast combined. Moreover, its incidence is increasing, and its response to therapy has not appreciably improved. In this condition, the secretion of procalcitonin (ProCT), the prohormone of calcitonin, is augmented greatly, attaining levels up to thousands of fold of normal. This hypersecretion emanates from multiple tissues throughout the body that are not traditionally viewed as being endocrine. The serum values of ProCT correlate with the severity of sepsis; they recede with its improvement and worsen with exacerbation. Accordingly, as highlighted in this review, serum ProCT has become useful as a biomarker to assist in the diagnosis of sepsis, as well as related infectious or inflammatory conditions. It is also a useful monitor of the clinical course and prognosis, and sensitive and specific assays have been developed for its measurement. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the administration of ProCT to septic animals greatly increases mortality, and several toxic effects of ProCT have been elucidated by in vitro experimental studies. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the harmful effects of ProCT, and their use markedly decreases the symptomatology and mortality of animals that harbour a highly virulent sepsis analogous to that occurring in humans. This therapy is facilitated by the long duration of serum ProCT elevation, which allows for a broad window of therapeutic opportunity. An experimental groundwork has been established that suggests a potential applicability of such therapy in septic humans. PMID:20002097

  12. Acromegalic gigantism with low serum level of growth hormone and elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, R; Yoshida, T; Sakane, N; Yasuda, T; Umekawa, T; Kondo, M; Shimatsu, A; Hizuka, N; Sano, T

    1995-03-01

    In a case of acromegalic gigantism with hyperprolactinemia is reported, the basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 ng/ml. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood sampling showed non-pulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocriptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide with bromocriptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. In this case, non-pulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism.

  13. Serum uric acid levels during leprosy reaction episodes

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Arruda, Talita A.; Lopes, Jose C.; Fontes, Cor J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Leprosy reactions are acute inflammatory episodes that occur mainly in the multibacillary forms of the disease. The reactions are classified as type 1 (reverse reaction) or type 2 (erythema nodosum leprosum). Leprosy-associated oxidative stress has been widely demonstrated. Several recent studies have shown uric acid (UA) to have antioxidative effects under pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to assess serum levels of UA in patients with leprosy reactions, with the aim of monitoring their levels before and after treatment, compared with levels in leprosy patients without reactions. Methods. The study included patients aged 18–69 years assisted at a leprosy treatment reference center in the Central Region of Brazil. Patients who were pregnant; were using immunosuppressant drugs or immunobiologicals; or had an autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or tuberculosis were excluded. Upon recruitment, all individuals were clinically assessed for skin lesions and neural or systemic impairment. Some patients had already completed treatment for leprosy, while others were still undergoing treatment or had initiated treatment after being admitted. The treatment of the reactional episode was started only after the initial evaluation. Laboratory assessments were performed upon admission (baseline) and at approximately 30 and 60 days (time points 1 and 2, respectively). Results. A total of 123 leprosy patients were recruited between June 2012 and June 2015; among them, 56, 42, and 25 presented with type 1, type 2, and no reactions, respectively. Serum UA levels were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 leprosy reactions compared with patients in the control group and remained lower in the two subsequent assessments, after initiation of anti-reaction treatments, with similar values to those recorded before the treatment. Discussion. The decreased serum UA levels in patients with

  14. Serum Leptin Levels in Women with Immunological Recurrent Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Saeed; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh; Arefi, Soheila; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Idali, Farah; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Savadi Shiraz, Elham; Moshref Behzad, Narges; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent abortion (RA) may be a consequence of aberrant expression of immunological factors during pregnancy. Although the relative importance of immunological factors in human reproduction remains controversial, substantial evidence suggests that autoantibodies contribute to reproductive failure. Production of such antibodies is under the control of cytokines; and leptin, besides its role in reproductive success, has a profound effect on directing the cytokine profile toward Th1 (cellular) pattern. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess serum leptin levels in women with immunological recurrent abortion. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 250 women who attended Avicenna Infertility Clinic with RA were screened for known causes of abortion from July to December 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Eighty-one patients with normal karyotypes and hormonal profile with normal ovaries and uterus and no signs of infection were categorized as patients with immunological (IRA, n = 39) or unexplained (URA, n = 42) recurrent abortion based on presence or absence of autoantibodies. After blood sampling, levels of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), lupus anti-coagulant antibody (LACAb), anti-phospholipid antibody (APA), anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thrombin III antibody (ATIIIAb) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Results In IRA group, 9 (23.1%), 24 (61.5%), 25(64.1%) and 1 (2.6%) women were above the normal cut-off point for ANA, TgAbs, TPOAbs and AT-III Abs, respectively. IRA patients had normal values of LACAbs, APA and ACA. With normal level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), IRA and URA groups had similar serum leptin levels (23.7 ± 13.2 ng/ml vs. 22.7 ± 12.5 ng/ml, respectively). Serum leptin concentrations showed a positive correlation with weight

  15. Tributyltin exposure alters cytokine levels in mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Shanieek; Pellom, Samuel T; Shanker, Anil; Whalen, Margaret M

    2016-11-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a toxic environmental contaminant, has been widely utilized for various industrial, agricultural and household purposes. Its usage has led to a global contamination and its bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and terrestrial mammals. Previous studies suggest that TBT has debilitating effects on the overall immune function of animals, rendering them more vulnerable to diseases. TBT (at concentrations that have been detected in human blood) alters secretion of inflammatory cytokines from human lymphocytes ex vivo. Thus, it is important to determine if specified levels of TBT can alter levels of cytokines in an in vivo system. Mice were exposed to biologically relevant concentrations of TBT (200, 100 or 25 nM final concentrations). The quantitative determination of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL2, IL5, IL7, IL12βp40, IL13, IL15, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP), MIP2 and regulated on activation normal T-cell-expressed and secreted (RANTES) was performed in mouse sera by MAGPIX analysis and Western blot. Results indicated alterations (both decreases and increases) in several cytokines. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL5, IL12βp40 and IL-15 were altered as were the chemokines MIP-1 and RANTES and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13. Increases in IFNγ and TNFα were seen in the serum of mice exposed to TBT for less than 24 h. Levels of IL1β, IL-12 βp40, IL-5 and IL-15 were also modulated in mouse serum, depending on the specific experiment and exposure level. IL-2 was consistently decreased in mouse serum when animals were exposed to TBT. There were also TBT-induced increases in MIP-1β, RANTES and IL-13. These results from human and murine samples clearly suggest that TBT exposures modulate the secretion inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in psoriatic patients*

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Manuela Ferrasso; Azevedo, Paula de Oliveira; Tanaka, Anber Ancel; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Martins, Luis Eduardo Agner Machado

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis. We compared serum levels of vitamin D of 20 psoriasis patients and 20 controls. The median vitamin D level was 22.80 ± 4.60 ng/ml; the median in the cases was 23.55 ± 7.6 ng/ml, and in controls 22.35 ± 3.10 ng/ml (p = 0.73). Only 2 cases and 4 controls had sufficient levels of vitamin D, although without statistical significance between the groups (p = 0.608). Levels were lower in women with psoriasis compared with those in male patients (20.85 ± 6.70 x 25.35 ± 2.90 ng/ml, p = 0.03), a finding that was not observed among controls. PMID:26131882

  17. Serum leptin levels in overweight children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Henedina; Santos, Cristina; Carvalho, Susana

    2009-04-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. Our aim was to determine the relationship between serum leptin and clinical and biochemical features in overweight children and adolescents. Overweight children and adolescents followed in this Unit with serum leptin ascertained were included. Clinical, biochemical and abdominal ultrasound data were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed by t test, chi2, Pearson's correlation and linear regression. One outlier of serum leptin was excluded to perform correlation and regression. Serum leptin was determined in 357 patients. At the first visit, the mean age was 9.5 (sd 3.2) years and mean BMI z-score was 1.72 (sd 1.34) (girls 1.71 (sd 1.16); boys 1.72 (sd 1.11)). Serum leptin levels were significantly related to: sex (mean: girls 48.0 ng/ml, boys 34.4 ng/ml; P = 0.003); Tanner stage (mean: I-II 37.0 ng/ml, III-V 45.2 ng/ml; P = 0.035); systolic blood pressure (mean: normal 41.3 ng/ml, high 44.0 ng/ml; P = 0.009); BMI z-score (r 0.136; P = 0.010); C-peptide (r 0.17; P = 0.002); insulin (r 0.34; P < 0.001); homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r 0.25; P < 0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (r - 0.12; P = 0.023). In the multivariate analysis (with leptin as the dependent variable and sex, Tanner stage, BMI z-score, systolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, C-peptide, insulin and HOMA-IR as independent variables), sex and BMI were determinant factors. The present study in overweight children and adolescents showed that being female and greater BMI were significantly and independently associated with increased serum leptin. In this large cohort other associations with leptin described in the literature can be discharged.

  18. Serum leptin levels, hormone levels, and hot flashes in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Carolyn; Cochran, Chrissy J; Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R; Flaws, Jodi A; Zacur, Howard

    2010-08-01

    To examine the associations between serum leptin levels, sex steroid hormone levels, and hot flashes in normal weight and obese midlife women. Cross-sectional study. University clinic. 201 Caucasian, nonsmoking women aged 45 to 54 years with a body mass index of <25 kg/m2 or >or=30 kg/m2. Questionnaire, fasting blood samples. Serum leptin and sex steroid hormone levels. Correlation and regression models were performed to examine associations between leptin levels, hormone levels, and hot flashes. Leptin levels were associated with BMI, with "ever experiencing hot flashes" (questionnaire), with hot flashes within the last 30 days, and with duration of hot flashes (>1 year, P=.03). Leptin was positively correlated with testosterone, free testosterone index, and free estrogen index and inversely associated with levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. In women with a body mass index>or=30 kg/m2, leptin levels no longer correlated with testosterone levels. Serum leptin levels are associated with the occurrence and duration of hot flashes in midlife women; however, no correlation was found between leptin and serum estradiol. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel and sensitive radioreceptor assay for serum melatonin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenn, C.; Niles, L. )

    1991-01-01

    A simple and sensitive radioreceptor assay (RRA) has been developed to measure melatonin levels in serum. The assay is based on competition between 2-({sup 125}I)iodomelatonin (({sup 125}I)MEL) and melatonin for binding to high-affinity binding sites in chick forebrain. To measure the amount of melatonin present in a serum sample, it was extracted with dichloromethane and added to the assay medium. The percentage inhibition of radioligand binding in the presence of the extracted serum was determined and compared to the percent displacement by known amounts of melatonin in a standard curve. There was little or no cross-reactivity with other structurally related compounds. The sensitivity of the assay is {approximately}1.5pg/0.15 mL and the intra- and inter-assay variations are approximately 8%. Since the RRA results are comparable to that of an established radioimmunoassay (RIA), it provides a sensitive and rapid alternative to the more time consuming RIA.

  20. Rapid separation of serum does not avoid artificially higher matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels in serum versus plasma.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Raquel F; Demacq, Caroline; Jung, Klaus; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2007-01-01

    To examine whether the time between blood drawing and centrifugation (TBDC) affects the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 levels in serum and in plasma samples, and to assess whether there is correlation between MMP-9 and MMP-2 levels in serum and plasma samples. Serum and plasma samples (N=8) were separated from venous blood collected into citrate, heparin, and EDTA tubes, which were either centrifuged immediately or after 5, 10, 20, or 30 min after blood drawing. We assessed the correlation between MMP-9/MMP-2 in serum and citrate, heparin, and plasma samples (N=20), which were assayed for gelatine zymography of MMP-2 and MMP-9. MMPs are released by platelets or leukocytes during platelet activation or sampling process, thus leading to artificially higher MMP-9 levels in serum compared with citrate, heparin, or EDTA plasma samples, independently of TBDC. Citrate and heparin plasma samples had the lowest Pro-MMP-9 and MMP-9 levels, which correlated with each other. Pro-MMP-9 levels in serum correlated with Pro-MMP-9 levels in EDTA or citrate plasma, but not with heparin plasma. While no significant correlations were found between MMP-9 levels in serum and those found in plasma samples, the total MMP-9 levels (Pro-MMP-9+MMP-9) in serum and in plasma samples correlated with each other. No significant differences were found in pro-MMP-2 levels. These results suggest that the circulating levels of MMP-9 should be assessed in citrate or heparin plasma samples, but not in serum samples because of artificially higher MMP-9 levels in serum, independently of TBDC, and because they do not correlate with the MMP-9 levels in plasma samples.

  1. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population.

  2. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Centeno, Norberto Ortego

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case–control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l−1 (12–101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l−1 (2.31–100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l−1 (22.1–48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l−1 (17.3–36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l−1 (26.5–77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  3. Serum soluble fas ligand levels in familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Ceri, Mevlut; Unverdi, Selman; Senes, Mehmet; Altay, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Yucel, Dogan; Duranay, Murat

    2013-07-01

    Fas/FasL system plays an important role in the regulation of cell life and death, and circulating levels of sFasL have been shown to increase in some inflammatory conditions. However, there is no sufficient information about the levels of sFasL in patients with FMF. This study was designed to evaluate the serum sFasL levels in patients with FMF during attack and attack-free periods. Twenty-five FMF patients in attack and forty-four in free-attack period, and 20 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Participants with any chronic diseases were excluded. Blood samples were obtained within the first 24 h of the attack period and between febrile attacks, and levels of WBC, ESR, Fibrinogen, hsCRP and sFasL were determined. The levels of traditional acute phase reactants during the attack were significantly higher than the attack-free and controls (p < 0.05). The serum sFasL levels in the FMF study groups did not differ from the control group (0.70 ± 0.08 vs. 0.73 ± 0.12; 0.70 ± 0.08 vs. 0.83 ± 0.14; 0.73 ± 0.12 vs. 0.83 ± 0.14, respectively, p > 0.05). Moreover, the sFasL levels during the attack were not significantly different from those in attack-free patients (0.70 ± 0.08 vs. 0.83 ± 0.14, p > 0.05). In this study, we demonstrated that serum sFasL levels were not markedly affected in FMF and cannot be used as a supportive marker to differentiate attacks from attack-free periods. However, further studies are needed to determine its usefulness as a marker in clinical practice.

  4. Serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and Graves' disease phenotype.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carmen Sorina; Sirbu, Anca Elena; Betivoiu, Minodora Andreea; Florea, Suzana; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Fica, Simona Vasilica

    2017-02-01

    We investigated, at diagnosis, the relationship between serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and the main characteristics of Graves' disease: hyperthyroidism severity, goiter size, presence of active Graves' ophthalmopathy, antithyroid antibodies status, and titer. This prospective study included 80 newly diagnosed Graves' disease patients. The main parameters measured at diagnosis: thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, total triiodothyronine, thyroglobulin, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, immunoglobulin G4. In Graves' disease patients, serum immunoglobulin G4 levels were higher than in general population (p = 0.028) and higher in men compared to women (p = 0.002). Only one female patient with intense hypoechoic goiter, high anti-thyroglobulin antibody, and antithyroid peroxidase antibody titers had an elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 level at diagnosis. Patients with immunoglobulin G4 levels above the 75th percentile (>237.52 mg/dl, N = 20) were younger at Graves' ophthalmopathy onset (p < 0.001), had higher antithyroid peroxidase antibody (p = 0.01), and anti-thyroglobulin antibody levels (p = 0.006) and required shorter duration of the first methimazole treatment cycle (p = 0.041) than patients with immunoglobulin G4 below the 75th percentile. At diagnosis, patients with immunoglobulin G4 levels above the 90th percentile (>286.28 mg/dl, N = 8) had lower total triiodothyronine values (p = 0.001) than patients with IgG below the 90th percentile. No significant correlations were found between smoking status (p = 0.58), goiter size (p = 0.50), the presence of ophthalmopathy (p = 0.42) or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody titers (p = 0.45) and the mean value of immunoglobulin G4 levels at diagnosis. Our data suggest that Graves' disease patients with elevated immunoglobulin G4 levels at

  5. [Total serum IgE levels in children with enterobiasis.].

    PubMed

    Delıalıoğlu, Nuran; Aslan, Gönül; Oztürk, Candan; Camdevıren, Handan; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2005-01-01

    Enterobiasis is a helminthic disease which is very common especially in children. The IgE response has been associated with helminth infections and allergic diseases. Comparison of levels of total serum IgE of 36 children infected with Enterobius vermicularis and of 25 healthy children between 7 and 12 years of age was carried out The mean value of IgE in enterobiasis in children was 363.79+/-397.06 IU/ml (medium+/-SD) and 177.14+/-224.64 IU/ml (medium+/-SD) in the control group and it was found that there was no significant statistical difference (p=0.163).

  6. Relationship of apelin, procalcitonin, and fetuin-A concentrations with carotid intima-media thickness in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Topsakal, S; Akin, F; Turgut, S; Yaylali, G F; Herek, D; Ayada, C

    2015-07-01

    Acromegaly is characterized by excess growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations. There is conflicting evidence as to whether acromegaly is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Apelin is an adipose tissue-derived peptide that may be associated with hyperinsulinemia. Fetuin-A is a hepatocyte produced plasma glycoprotein that has an important role as a calcification inhibitor. The aim of this study was to examine apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin concentrations and to assess their relationship with carotid intima medial thickness (cIMT) in subjects with acromegaly. Apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin serum concentrations were measured in 37 (20 inactive and 17 active) subjects with acromegaly and 30 control subjects, along with carotid intima medial thickness. The concentrations of apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin were increased in subjects with acromegaly. There were significant correlations between apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin in subjects with acromegaly. Carotid intima medial thickness values were similar between control subjects and subjects with acromegaly. Carotid intima medial thickness was not increased in subjects with acromegaly. It is possible that the increased apelin and fetuin-A concentrations observed play a protective role against the development of atherosclerosis in subjects with acromegaly. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Pentoxifylline decreases serum level of adhesion molecules in atherosclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Allah Abadi, Ghazaleh; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels.

  8. Serum Apelin 13 Levels in Patients With Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Selimoglu Şen, Hadice; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Abakay, Özlem; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Yilmaz, Süreyya; Taylan, Mahsuk; Abakay, Abdurrahman; Tanrikulu, Abdullah Çetin

    2016-09-01

    Expression and peptide immunoreactivity of apelin messenger RNA have been described in a variety of tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue, brain, kidney, liver, cardiovascular system, and lungs. This study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of the endogenous apelin in the pathophysiological events that occur in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). In total, 53 patients with PE and 35 healthy volunteers were included the study. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care university hospital and among patients diagnosed as having PE. The control group consisted of healthy volunteers who applied to hospital for a routine checkup examination. Serum apelin 13 levels were measured in both the groups and their results were compared. The median ages were 57 and 53 years, and female-male ratios were 30/23 and 20/15, in the PE and control groups, respectively. The mean serum apelin 13 levels were found to be significantly higher in the PE group (76.94 ± 10.70 ng/mL) than in the control group (50.01 ± 7.13 ng/mL; P < .001). This study demonstrated that apelin 13 levels are elevated in patients with PE. These results suggest that apelin may be a novel biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in patients with acute PE in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Røen, Bent Tore; Opstad, Aase Mari; Haavind, Anniken; Tønsager, Janne

    2013-06-01

    Ricinine is an alkaloid present in the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) that can be used as a biomarker for ricin poisoning. Serial ricinine levels are reported in the serum and urine of a patient suffering from intentional ricin intoxication. The patient was brought to the hospital 4 h after injection and oral intake of a castor bean extract, but died 38 h later, despite intensive medical care. Ricinine was isolated from the samples by solid-phase extraction and quantitatively determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ricinine level in serum declined from 33 to 23 ng/mL between 10 and 29 h post-exposure. Three urine samples collected from 12 to 41 h after ricin intoxication showed ricinine concentrations in the range of 20-58 ng/mL. The creatinine corrected values (21-30 µg/g) indicated a concentration-time profile with a maximum ricinine level in urine between 12 and 29 h after exposure.

  10. Procalcitonin as a predictor of severe appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Kafetzis, D A; Velissariou, I M; Nikolaides, P; Sklavos, M; Maktabi, M; Spyridis, G; Kafetzis, D D; Androulakakis, E

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) in 212 children with appendicitis and compare it with that of the standard diagnostic modalities, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, leukocyte count, and abdominal ultrasound findings, in relation to the surgical and histological findings of the appendix. A PCT value of >0.5 ng/ml was found to be indicative of perforation or gangrene with 73.4% sensitivity and 94.6% specificity, a CRP level of >50 mg/l and a leukocyte count of >10(4)/mm3 were useful diagnostic markers for perforation, while abdominal ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 82.8% and a specificity of 91.2% for detecting appendicitis with imaging findings. PCT measurement seems to be a useful adjunctive tool for diagnosing acute necrotizing appendicitis or perforation, and surgical exploration will probably be required in patients with PCT values >0.5 ng/ml.

  11. Serum Vitamin D Levels Not Associated with Atopic Dermatitis Severity.

    PubMed

    Robl, Renata; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Lima, Monica Nunes; Carvalho, Vânia Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) in a Brazilian population. This was a cross-sectional study of patients younger than 14 years of age seen from April to November 2013. All patients fulfilled the Hanifin and Rajka Diagnostic Criteria for AD diagnosis. Disease severity was determined using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index and classified as mild (<25), moderate (25-50), or severe (>50). Serum vitamin D levels were classified as sufficient (≥30 ng/mL), insufficient (29-21 ng/mL), or deficient (≤20 ng/mL). A total of 105 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mild AD was diagnosed in 58 (55.2%) children, moderate in 24 (22.8%), and severe in 23 (21.9%). Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 45 individuals (42.9%). Of these, 24 (53.3%) had mild AD, 13 (28.9%) moderate, and 8 (17.7%) severe. Insufficient vitamin D levels were found in 45 (42.9%) individuals; 24 (53.3%) had mild AD, 9 (20.0%) moderate, and 12 (26.7%) severe. Of the 15 individuals (14.2%) with sufficient vitamin D levels, 10 (60.7%) had mild AD, 2 (13.3%) moderate, and 3 (20.0%) severe. The mean vitamin D level was 22.1 ± 7.3 ng/mL in individuals with mild AD, 20.8 ± 6.5 ng/mL in those with moderate AD, and 21.9 ± 9.3 ng/mL in those with severe AD. Variables such as sex, age, skin phototype, season of the year, and bacterial infection were not significantly associated with vitamin D levels. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were deficient or insufficient in 85% of the children, but serum vitamin D concentrations were not significantly related to AD severity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Osho Dynamic Meditation's Effect on Serum Cortisol Level.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Anuj; Mittal, Ashish; Seth, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic meditation is one of the most popular active meditation, introduced by an Indian mystic Osho in 1970. This one hour meditation consists of five stages: Deep fast chaotic breathing, catharsis, using a mantra "Hoo", silence, and dancing. A previous study observed that Osho dynamic meditation causes decrease in several psychopathological variables such as aggressive behaviour, anxiety and depression. However, it is not objectively established that the dynamic meditation has an anti-stress effect. To find out the effect of Osho dynamic meditation on the serum cortisol levels (cortisol is an indicator of stress) and therefore to observe whether it has any anti-stress effect. An experimental study was planned doing the dynamic meditation empty stomach in morning at 6 to 7 am every day for 21 days from 1(st) March 2015 to 21(st) March 2015 at Lucknow. Twenty healthy volunteers between 20 to 50 years (14 males and 6 females) participated in the study. Serum cortisol level was estimated from the blood samples collected in the morning one day prior (baseline) and post-meditation on the 21(st) day of the study. The difference between mean cortisol levels of the baseline and post-meditation groups were tested for significance by applying the paired t-test. Sixteen volunteers out of the 20 completed the study while four dropped out due to their health and personal reasons. The serum cortisol levels were decreased in all the 16 participants on 21(st) day as compared to the baseline levels and the decline in the mean cortisol level was highly significant (p<0.001). The results of the study showed a significant reduction in plasma cortisol levels when the participants were tested after 21 days of meditation; it can be concluded that the Osho dynamic meditation produces anti-stress effects. The mechanism of action could primarily be attributed to the release of repressed emotions and psychological inhibitions and traumas. Thus, dynamic meditation could be recommended for

  13. Osho Dynamic Meditation’s Effect on Serum Cortisol Level

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Anuj; Mittal, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dynamic meditation is one of the most popular active meditation, introduced by an Indian mystic Osho in 1970. This one hour meditation consists of five stages: Deep fast chaotic breathing, catharsis, using a mantra "Hoo", silence, and dancing. A previous study observed that Osho dynamic meditation causes decrease in several psychopathological variables such as aggressive behaviour, anxiety and depression. However, it is not objectively established that the dynamic meditation has an anti-stress effect. Aim To find out the effect of Osho dynamic meditation on the serum cortisol levels (cortisol is an indicator of stress) and therefore to observe whether it has any anti-stress effect. Materials and Methods An experimental study was planned doing the dynamic meditation empty stomach in morning at 6 to 7 am every day for 21 days from 1st March 2015 to 21st March 2015 at Lucknow. Twenty healthy volunteers between 20 to 50 years (14 males and 6 females) participated in the study. Serum cortisol level was estimated from the blood samples collected in the morning one day prior (baseline) and post-meditation on the 21st day of the study. The difference between mean cortisol levels of the baseline and post-meditation groups were tested for significance by applying the paired t-test. Results Sixteen volunteers out of the 20 completed the study while four dropped out due to their health and personal reasons. The serum cortisol levels were decreased in all the 16 participants on 21st day as compared to the baseline levels and the decline in the mean cortisol level was highly significant (p<0.001). Conclusion The results of the study showed a significant reduction in plasma cortisol levels when the participants were tested after 21 days of meditation; it can be concluded that the Osho dynamic meditation produces anti-stress effects. The mechanism of action could primarily be attributed to the release of repressed emotions and psychological inhibitions and traumas

  14. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Martinho, Vitor Augusto Melão; Antoneli, Célia Beatriz Gianotti; Marcussi, Ludmilla Altino de Lima; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma patients, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma. PMID:25628199

  15. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  16. The effect of serum oncotic pressure on serum cholesterol levels: a study in "normal" and nephrotic subjects.

    PubMed

    Conwill, D E; Granger, D N; Cook, B H; Johnson, B B; Taylor, A E

    1977-04-01

    Clinical data in neprtotic and nonnephrotic subjects were examined to help delineate the mechanism of hypercholesterolemia in nephrotic syndrome. Analyses of the relationship between total serum cholesterol and serum albumin levels and between total serum cholesterol and calculated serum oncotic pressure in 500 nonnephrotic individuals revealed strong positive correlations (r = 0.9714, p less than 0.001 and r = 0.9720, p less than 0.001, respectively). Serum beta-lipoprotein concentration was found to bear an inverse relationship to measured serum oncotic pressure in 13 nephrotic patients (r = -0.8192, p less than 0.01). Our results lend support to the thesis that serum oncotic pressure is the major governing factor in hypercholesterolemia in nephrotic syndrome.

  17. Can procalcitonin be a diagnostic marker for catheter-related blood stream infection in children?

    PubMed

    Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Oktay Arıkan, Kamile; Bayhan, Cihangül; Karadağ-Öncel, Eda; Emre Aycan, Ahmet; Gürbüz, Venhar; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Ceyhan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The potential role of procalcitonin (PCT) in the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSIs) is still unclear and requires further research. The diagnostic value of serum PCT for the diagnosis of CRBSI in children is evaluated here. This study was conducted between October 2013 and November 2014, and included patients with suspected CRBSI from 1 month to 18 years of age who were febrile, with no focus of infection, and had a central venous catheter. Levels of PCT and other serum markers were measured, and their utility as CRBSI markers was assessed. Additionally, the clinical performance of a new, automated, rapid, and quantitative assay for the detection of PCT was tested. Among the 49 patients, 24 were diagnosed with CRBSI. The PCT-Kryptor and PCT-RTA values were significantly higher in proven CRBSI compared to those in unproven CRBSI (p=0.03 and p=0.03, respectively). There were no differences in white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels between proven CRBSI and unproven CRBSI. Among the 24 patients with CRBSI, CRP was significantly higher among those with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections. PCT-Kryptor was also significantly higher among patients with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections (p=0.01 and p=0.02, respectively). The authors suggest that PCT could be a helpful rapid diagnostic marker in children with suspected CRBSIs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2) above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders.

  19. Association Between Serum B12 and Serum Homocysteine Levels in Diabetic Patients on Metformin.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Twinkal R; Kothari, Nitin; Shah, Hitesh

    2016-04-01

    Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and metformin both can lower serum B12 (s.B12). Raised serum Homocysteine (s.Hcy) is considered as an early marker of B12 deficiency. The study aimed to check whether homocysteine levels are more sensitive indicator of s. B12 deficiency or not among diabetics using metformin. Mean s.B12 and s.Hcy levels of 30 cases (diabetics on metformin <5years) were compared with 30 diabetic controls not on metformin and 31 nondiabetic controls and statistically analysed by ANOVA and post-hoc tests. No significant differences in either s.B12 mean or s.Hcy mean were found between cases and diabetic controls. s.B12 mean did not differ significantly but s.Hcy mean was significantly higher among nondiabetics as compared to diabetic control. s. B12 level of Nondiabetic group was in borderline category while mean s. B12 levels of cases and diabetic control groups was in normal category but nearer to the lower cut off. Mean s.Hcy values in all the groups were high. Pearson correlation showed strong association between s.B12 and s.Hcy in all the groups. Additionally equation based on linear regression was derived to calculate either of the s.B12 or s.Hcy. On Receiver Operative Characteristic (ROC) curve, area under curve value was 0.842 for the value of s.Hcy. In this study neither metformin nor T2DM could be identified as a cause for s.B12 lowering and raised s.Hcy in the scenario of low normal levels of s.B12 (<300pmol/L). If B12 deficiency recognized early using s. Hcy, consequences due to B12 deficiency can be prevented or delayed among nondiabetics as well as among diabetics and metformin users.

  20. The association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linlin; Cao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the development of hemodialysis (HD). This study aims to detect the potential association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in HD. A total of 485 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The created restriction site polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methods were used to investigate ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism. Our data suggested that there were significant differences in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between HD patients and healthy controls. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a) for genotype AA were different from genotype GG in HD patients and healthy controls. Our findings support that the ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism might influence the development of HD and could be a risk factor for assessing HD.

  1. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  2. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Roscino, Maria Teresa; Minoia, Giuseppe; Trisolini, Carmelinda; Spedicato, Massimo; Mutinati, Maddalena; Pantaleo, Marianna; Jirillo, Felicita; Sciorsci, Raffaele L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the serum concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the different phases of the estrous cycle in the bitch, in order to establish their physiological values. 56 healthy mixed-breed bitches were enrolled at this purpose and divided into 4 groups, standing on the different phases of the estrus cycle. Blood samples were collected in all groups and serum ROS concentrations were determined. Proestral concentrations were statistically higher than anestral ones, and statistically lower than those found in estrus (p<0.001). The highest concentrations of ROS were detected at estrus, that is, in the peri-ovulatory period. This sharp increase in ROS concentrations is related to the acute inflammatory process underlying ovulation and to the increase in immune and metabolic activities, cytological changes and myometrial contractility promoted by the high levels of estrogens. In diestrus, the mean concentration of ROS decreases. This reduction did not show any statistically significant difference with the mean value observed in proestrus. In this phase, in fact, the high concentrations of progesterone, exerting an antioxidant and immunodepressive effect, justify the lower mean concentration of ROS detected. In anestrus, the lowest concentrations of ROS were observed, for the reduced metabolic and endocrine activity occurring in this phase of the estrous cycle. In conclusion our results establish the physiologic levels of ROS during the estrous cycle in the bitch and reflect the endocrine morphologic and metabolic changes occurring during it.

  3. Lower serum uric acid level predicts mortality in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sun Moon; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the impact of serum uric acid (SUA) on mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. A total of 4132 adult patients on dialysis were enrolled prospectively between August 2008 and September 2014. Among them, we included 1738 patients who maintained dialysis for at least 3 months and had available SUA in the database. We categorized the time averaged-SUA (TA-SUA) into 5 groups: <5.5, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.4, and ≥8.5 mg/dL. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality according to SUA group. The mean TA-SUA level was slightly higher in men than in women. Patients with lower TA-SUA level tended to have lower body mass index (BMI), phosphorus, serum albumin level, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM), and higher proportion of malnourishment on the subjective global assessment (SGA). During a median follow-up of 43.9 months, 206 patients died. Patients with the highest SUA had a similar risk to the middle 3 TA-SUA groups, but the lowest TA-SUA group had a significantly elevated HR for mortality. The lowest TA-SUA group was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.720; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–2.937; P = 0.047) even after adjusting for demographic, comorbid, nutritional covariables, and medication use that could affect SUA levels. This association was prominent in patients with well nourishment on the SGA, a preserved serum albumin level, a higher BMI, and concomitant DM although these parameters had no significant interaction in the TA-SUA-mortality relationship except DM. In conclusion, a lower TA-SUA level <5.5 mg/dL predicted all-cause mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. PMID:27310949

  4. Serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular disease: the Gordian knot

    PubMed Central

    Tugores, Antonio; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is defined as serum uric acid level of more than 7 mg/dL and blood levels of uric acid are causally associated with gout, as implicated by evidence from randomized clinical trials using urate lowering therapies. Uric acid as a cardiovascular risk factor often accompanies metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, chronic renal disease, and obesity. Despite the association of hyperuricemia with cardiovascular risk factors, it has remained controversial as to whether uric acid is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. To settle this issue, and in the absence of large randomized controlled trials, Mendelian randomization analysis in which the exposure is defined based on the presence or absence of a specific allele that influences a risk factor of interest have tried to shed light on this. PMID:28066631

  5. Serum Levels of Progranulin Do Not Reflect Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Carlo; Gillardon, Frank; Deuschle, Christian; Dubois, Evelyn; Hobert, Markus A; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Krüger, Stefanie; Biskup, Saskia; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Hruscha, Michael; Kaeser, Stephan A; Heutink, Peter; Maetzler, Walter; Synofzik, Matthis

    2016-01-01

    Altered progranulin levels play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), even in the absence of GRN mutations. Increasing progranulin levels could hereby provide a novel treatment strategy. However, knowledge on progranulin regulation in neurodegenerative diseases remains limited. We here demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid progranulin levels do not correlate with its serum levels in AD, FTD and ALS, indicating a differential regulation of its central and peripheral levels in neurodegeneration. Blood progranulin levels thus do not reliably predict central nervous progranulin levels and their response to future progranulin-increasing therapeutics.

  6. Serum leptin levels in women with uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Dingiloglu, Bihter Senem; Gungor, Tayfun; Ozdal, Bulent; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Bilge, Umit; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of leptin in women with uterine myoma. In this study, 38 women with myoma uteri and 30 normal women who applied to the Dr Zekai Tahir Burak Woman Health Research and Education Hospital's gynecology clinic were enrolled. Uterine leiomyomas were proved by pathology postoperatively. In all subjects, FSH, LH, E2, prolactin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, fasting glucose, CA125, and leptin were examined, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Data were analyzed by Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test. Although leptin level was higher in the myomatic women (5.73 +/- 4.08 ng/mL) than in the normal women, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.303). Also, no statistical difference in the ratios of leptin/BMI was found in both groups. A significant correlation was found between high E2 level and myoma uteri (p = 0.021). Hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in the myomatic women (p = 0.044). When we compared the leptin levels according to BMI, leptin levels were higher in patients who had BMI > 30 (p = 0.02). We did not find any significant difference in serum leptin levels between the two groups. But leptin may have an indirect role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma. So further research is needed to reveal the role of leptin in myoma uteri pathogenesis.

  7. Effect of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serum sclerostin has been inversely associated with serum 25OHD concentration, but the effect of supplementation with vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin is unknown. This study was done to determine whether supplementation altered serum sclerostin levels in healthy older adults. We measured s...

  8. Association between serum pepsinogen A and C levels, serum gastrin concentrations and Helicobacter pylori antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kullich, W; Pöllmann, G; Czerwenka, C; Klein, G

    1999-01-01

    Pepsinogen A and C as well as gastrin were measured in the serum of 117 patients with rheumatic diseases. Moreover, the patients were divided up in groups by aids of a semiquantitative, rapid enzyme immunoassay for detection of Helicobacter pylori: 20 patients without H. pylori antibodies (AB) negative, 18 positive + (= weak AB-titre), 21 positive +2 (medium AB-titre), and 58 positive +3 (high AB-titre). The semiquantitative determinations of H. pylori-AB correlated with pepsinogen A, C and gastrin. Patients with H. pylori-AB positive +3 showed significantly higher values of pepsinogen C (p < or = 0.01) as well as pepsinogen A and gastrin (p < or = 0.05) than H. pylori-AB negative patients. Significantly increased levels of pepsinogen A (> 150 ng/ml) and C (> 25 ng/ml) were found to occur in 39% and 100% of patients with high H. pylori-AB titres. The measurement of serum pepsinogen C concentrations may provide additional diagnostic information of the extent of mucosal lesions in patients with positive H. pylori-AB titres treated with antirheumatic drugs. Our findings suggest that the semi-quantitative classification of positive AB-results can be useful in cases determining H. pylori infection and mucosal irritation if other investigations are not available.

  9. Serum lipoprotein (a) levels in patients with arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Serban, Corina; Nicola, T; Mateescu, Rodica; Noveanu, Lavinia; Susan, Lelia; Pacurari, Alina; Caraba, A; Romoşan, I; Cristescu, A

    2010-01-01

    Lp(a) is capable of deleteriously altering the balance between the procoagulant and anticoagulant, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory, and vasorelaxing and vasoconstricting properties of the endothelium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum concentration of Lp(a) and the main parameters of lipid profile in three groups of subjects: a control group that included 16 healthy subjects, 20 patients with arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia and 20 patients with arterial hypertension without dyslipidemia. Using B-mode ultrasonography, we evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and flow mediated vasodilation (FMD) on brachial artery. We found significant higher Lp(a) concentrations in hypertensive patients with dislipidemia (70 +/- 55.95 mg/dL, p < 0.001) and in hypertensive patients without dislipidemia (69 +/- 52.33 mg/dL, p < 0.001), comparative with the control group (19 +/- 14.64 mg/dL). In hypertensive patients with dislipidemia we found a strong negative correlation between Lp(a) and carotid IMT (R2 = -0.75, p < 0.001) and a moderate negative correlation between Lp(a) and FMD (R2 = -0.38, p < 0.001). Lp(a) level wasn't correlated with the main parameters of lipid profile. These results indicated that serum Lp(a) values could play an important role in essential hypertension pathogenesis and could be considered as an individual risk factor in hypertensive patients.

  10. Cytokine Levels in the Serum of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Giulio; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years) with young children and children (1–6 and 7–17 years). We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging. PMID:23533306

  11. Cytokine levels in the serum of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Giulio; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years) with young children and children (1-6 and 7-17 years). We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging.

  12. Procalcitonin and Other Biomarkers of Sepsis in Newborns in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ignjatovic, Svetlana; Stankovic, Sanja; Nada Majkić, Singh

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is one of the most significant causes of mortality and morbidity in infants. Among numerous parameters available to confirm the presence of sepsis in newborns procalcitonin (PCT) has been chosen. The aim of this study was the determination of PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP) serum amyloid A (SAA), plasminogen, protein C, antithrombin III (AT III) and white blood cell count (WBC) in blood sample obtained by puncture of the umbilical vein. Sixty two newborn infants were included in the study: 31 with suspected bacterial infection and 31 healthy babies Serum procalcitonin was measured using Kryptor analyzer (Brahms Aktiengesellschaft, Germany); serum hsCRP and SAA on the Behring Nephelometer II (Dade Behring Diagnostics GmbH, Marburg, Germany); plasma plasminogen, protein C and AT III on BCT Coagulation system, (Dade Behring Diagnostics GmbH, Marburg, Germany); and WBC count was determined in the whole blood using hematological analyzer ADVIA 120 Hematology System (Bayer, Germany). The obtained mean values of PCT, hsCRP, SAA, WBC, plasminogen, AT III, protein C in newborn’s samples with suspected bacterial infection/healthy newborns were: 0.188 ng/L / 0.121 ng/L; 1.20 mg/L / 1.30 mg/L, 1.28% / 1.70%; 16.0 x 109/L/12.0 x 109 / L, 61.0% / 59.0%, 52.0% / 64.5%, 39.0% / 41.0%, respectively. Neonates with bacterial infection had significantly higher values of PCT (p <0.001), WBC (p <0.001) and CRP (p <0.05) compared to healthy babies. Based on these results, it may be concluded that procalcitonin is useful for early diagnosis of sepsis in newborns. PMID:27683386

  13. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in early spontaneous pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Hou, W; Yan, X-t; Bai, C-m; Zhang, X-w; Hui, L-y; Yu, X-w

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy have been associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in childbearing aged women and pregnancy loss (PL) in the first trimester. Subjects/Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Plasma was collected from 60 nulliparous women with singleton at 7–9 weeks of gestation (30 with viable gestation and 30 with PL) and 60 non-gravid childbearing aged women (30 with a successful pregnancy history, and 30 with one or more spontaneous first-trimester PL history). Quantitation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase (CYP27B1) was assayed. Results: By pregnancy/non-gravid, normal pregnant women had higher 25(OH)D (49.32 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (82.00 pg/ml) than PL women (34.49 μg/l and 37.87 pg/ml, both P<0.01); the non-gravid women with a successful pregnancy history also had higher 25(OH)D (39.56 μg/l) and CYP27B1 (39.04 pg/ml) than women with PL history (12.30 μg/l and 12.35 pg/ml, both P<0.01). The 96.7% of non-gravid women with PL history and 43.3% of PL women had serum 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 μg/l. There was a strong association between low vitamin D levels and PL (odds ratio 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.2–2.4, P<0.001). The regression analyses showed that PL was significantly inversely correlated with 25(OH)D (P<0.01) and CYP27B1 levels (P<0.01). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency associated with PL in the first trimester of pregnancy. Decreased serum vitamin D levels among childbearing aged women with the failed clinical pregnancies history may predispose to increased risk for PL. PMID:27222154

  14. Can procalcitonin measurement help the diagnosis of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis? A prospective trial

    PubMed Central

    Faesch, Sabine; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Hennequin, Carole; Pannier, Stéphanie; Glorion, Christophe; Lacour, Bernard; Chéron, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Procalcitonin (PCT) is an accurate marker for differentiating bacterial infection from non-infective causes of inflammation or viral infection. However, there is only one study in children which tested procalcitonin as a diagnostic aid in skeletal infections. With this study we sought to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of procalcitonin for identifying bone and joint infection in children evaluated in the emergency department for non traumatic decreased active motion of a skeletal segment. Methods Patients aged 1 month to 14 years were prospectively included in the emergency department when suspected for osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. Procalcitonin levels, C reactiv protein, white blood cell count were measured and bacteriological samples were collected before initiation of antibiotic treatment. Patients were assigned to 3 groups according to the degree of suspected infection: group 1 confirmed infection, group 2 presumed infection and group 3 non infected patients. Results Three hundred thirty nine patients were included (118 girls and 221 boys). Group 1 comprised 8 patients (2 had PCT levels > 0.5 ng/ml). Two had osteomyelitis and 6 septic arthritis. Forty children were incuded in group 2 (4 had PCT levels > 0.5 ng/ml). Eighteen had presumed osteomyelitis and 22 presumed septic arthritis. Group 3 comprised 291 children (9 PCT levels > 0.5 ng/ml) who recovered without antibiotic treatment. The specificity of the PCT as a marker of bacterial infection (comparing Group 1 and Group 3) was 96.9% [95% CI, 94.2-98.6], the sensitivity 25% [95% CI, 3.2-65.1], the positive predictive value (PPV) 18.2% [95% CI, 2.3-51.8] and the negative predictive value (NPV) 97.9% [95% CI, 95.5-99.2]. Conclusion PCT is not a good screening test for identifying skeletal infection in children. Larger studies are needed to evaluate still more the place of PCT measurements in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. PMID:19889215

  15. [Evaluation of serum creatinine level in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuting; Zhu, Wenjia; Cui, Fang; Yang, Fei; Huang, Xusheng

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the serum creatinine (SCr) level in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) and to explore the relationship between the SCr level and the clinical characteristics. A total of 80 patients with sALS, 80 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and 80 patients with tension-type headache (TTH) were enrolled in the study. The SCr levels were compared among the three groups. The association between the SCr level and the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R), the forced vital capacity (FVC) percentage of predicted (FVC%pred), the site of symptom onset, the duration of disease and the rate of disease progression was evaluated in the sALS group. The SCr level was significantly decreased in the sALS group than the other two groups [(60.86 ± 16.80) µmol/L vs (70.05 ± 12.79) µmol/L and (66.97 ± 14.14) µmol/L, P < 0.01].In the sALS group, the SCr level was positively correlated with the ALSFRS-R (r = 0.315, P = 0.005), while no correlation was found between the SCr level and the FVC%pred, the site of symptom onset, the duration of disease and the rate of disease progression (all P > 0.05). The SCr level is an important biochemical index in the patients with sALS and might play an important role in monitoring the disease progression.

  16. Significance of serum cardiac troponin I levels in pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Gonca; Dogan, Omer Tamer; Berk, Serdar; Ozsahin, Sefa Levent; Akkurt, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Background Some biomarkers can be helpful in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) and determining of severity and prognosis of the disease. In this study, we aimed to analyze the elevated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels and its association with electrocardiography (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings in patients with PE. Methods Totally 106 patients with suspected PE were included in the study. PE was confirmed in 63 of them, whereas it was excluded in the remaining 43 patients. Levels of cTnI were measured in all patients before the prescription of the anticoagulation therapy. Results High cTnI levels were found in 50.8% of patients with PE, and in 11.6% of patients without PE (P<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the test for the diagnosis of PE were 50.7%, 88.3% respectively. ECG findings were similar in PE patients having either elevated or normal cTnI levels. Approximately 75% of the PE patients with high cTnI had normal ECG findings; the most common pathological changes seen in ECG were S1Q3T3 pattern (~31%). TTE findings were not found to be distinguishing in the patients with suspected PE and high cTnI levels. Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) was the most common echocardiographic finding (~74%) in patients with PE and elevated cTnI levels. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between TTE findings in PE patients with increased and normal cTnI levels. Conclusions In patients presenting with clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features suggesting pulmonary embolism, increased serum cTnI levels endorse the diagnosis of severe PE. PMID:23205283

  17. Medullary thyroid cancer with undetectable serum calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Brutsaert, Erika F; Gersten, Adam J; Tassler, Andrew B; Surks, Martin I

    2015-02-01

    Calcitonin is a sensitive biomarker that is used for diagnosis and follow-up in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). In patients with tumors > 1 cm, it is uncommon for preoperative serum calcitonin to be in the normal laboratory reference range in patients with MTC, and even more unusual for serum calcitonin to be undetectable. A 39-year-old woman was found to have a left thyroid nodule on magnetic resonance imaging done for neck pain. Ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy were performed, and cytopathology was positive for malignant cells. The cells also had features suggestive of a neuroendocrine tumor, and the specimen was immune-stained with calcitonin. There was positive immunoreactivity for calcitonin in isolated cells of the cytospin, highly favoring a diagnosis of MTC. Serum calcitonin was < 2 pg/mL (<6 pg/mL), and serum carcinoembryonic antigen was 3.1 ng/mL (<5.2 ng/mL). Given the low calcitonin levels, procalcitonin was also tested and was elevated at 0.21 ng/mL (< 0.1 ng/mL). The patient subsequently underwent a total thyroidectomy and central and ipsilateral lateral lymph node dissection. Histopathology confirmed a 2.6 × 2.0 × 1.2-cm MTC, with strong, diffuse immunostaining for calcitonin. Postoperatively, serum calcitonin has remained undetectable, carcinoembryonic antigen has remained within the reference range, and procalcitonin has become undetectable. We present a rare case of a patient with MTC with undetectable preoperative serum calcitonin, whose tumor demonstrated strong, diffuse immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin. We discuss the possible pathogenesis of calcitonin-negative MTC and the challenges in following patients with this condition.

  18. Reduced serum levels of adiponectin in tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Renan B; Duarte, Halina; Rocha, Natália P; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory mediators have been studied in tension type headache (TTH) pathophysiology; however, their role is not yet well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate adiponectin (ADP) and its association with clinical parameters and psychiatric comorbidities in TTH patients. This was a cross sectional study including TTH patients and controls. Beck Depression (BDI) and Anxiety (BAI) Inventories, and Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) were recorded. Serum levels of ADP were measured by ELISA. Forty-eight TTH patients and forty-eight controls without headache were enrolled in the study. ADP levels were significantly lower among patients with TTH [31.1 (20.4-69.20) versus 37.8 (24.9-71.4) ng/mL (P=0.008)]. ADP levels were not influenced by BDI and BAI scores, body mass index (BMI), or HIT-6. ADP levels were reduced in TTH, independently of psychiatric comorbidities, BMI, and headache impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum free fatty acids level in senile cataract.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong; Rong, Shengzhong; Zhang, Yannan; Sha, Qian; Liang, Meihua; Zhang, Xuefei; Li, Miaojing; Pan, Hongzhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the levels of free fatty acids between senile cataract patients and normal controls. Fifty consecutive patients with newly diagnosed senile cataract and 50 age- and gender-matched controls were evaluated. Subjects/patients were randomized according to selection criteria. The levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in serum were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixteen fatty acids from 14:0 to 24:1 were identified. The values were compared between cataract and control groups by parametric independent sample test and Mann-Whitney U tests. A significant decrease was observed in arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6, ARA), cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), tetracosanoic acid (C24: 0), cis-7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6, DPA), total n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), total n-6 LC-PUFAs, total fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and nonessential fatty acid levels in patients with senile cataract in comparison with healthy persons (p < 0.05). The levels of FFA including DPA, tetracosanoic acid, ARA, and DHA were significantly lower in the senile cataract group compared to that in the normal controls. FFA may be helpful in preventing senile cataract.

  20. CKD patients: the dilemma of serum PTH levels.

    PubMed

    Pontoriero, Giuseppe; Cozzolino, Mario; Locatelli, Francesco; Brancaccio, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Recent observational studies of patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) not undergoing dialysis have shown that even slight increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, regardless of the serum levels of calcium and phosphorus and vitamin D therapy. These studies suggest paying particular attention to monitoring PTH levels from the early stages of CKD, and preventing any mineral metabolism disorders that may trigger the excessive synthesis and secretion of PTH. However, it is not easy to determine when an appropriate response becomes maladaptive and requires the pharmacological suppression of the parathyroid gland because the gland's adaptive response can vary widely from one person to another. Furthermore, PTH levels are not always a good predictor of bone turnover and current PTH assays have various methodological limitations. Treating the early mineral metabolism abnormalities of CKD may help prevent the cardiovascular complications whose frequency, costs and mortality have a profound effect on society as a whole. For this reason, there is great interest in establishing adequate target ranges for PTH at different stages of CKD, and determining the most appropriate strategies for reaching them.

  1. Immature ovarian teratoma with hyponatremia and low serum vasopressin level.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Takei, Yuji; Saga, Yasushi; Machida, Shizuo; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hyponatremia is often caused by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Hypersecretion of vasopressin from malignant tumors can be considered a cause of SIADH. Most of these ectopic productions of vasopressin are complications of small cell lung cancer. Cases concomitant with ovarian tumors are very rare, and a specific causative substance from the ovary is often unknown. A 16-year-old woman was diagnosed with an ovarian tumor. She developed hyponatremia that was resistant to medical treatment, but immediately improved after surgical resection of the tumor. Her diagnosis was SIADH caused by an ovarian tumor; however, her serum vasopressin level was normal. It is possible that a vasopressin-like substance causing SIADH was secreted by either nervous system tissue within an immature teratoma or small cell lung cancer. We should be cautious when SIADH is a complication of an ovarian tumor.

  2. A fluorescent immunoassay for the determination of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, F.; Bolzoni, L.; Giannetti, A.; Porro, G.; Senesi, F.; Trono, C.

    2009-05-01

    The discrimination of viral and bacterial sepsis is an important issue in intensive care patients. For this purpose, the simultaneous measurements of different analytes such as C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), myeloperoxidase, interleukines and neopterin, are necessary. A novel optical platform was designed and realised for the implementation of fluorescence-based immunoassays. The core of the optical platform is a plastic biochip, formed by a series of microchannels each of them devoted to the determination of a single analyte. Sandwich assays for CRP and PCT spiked in serum were performed in order to demonstrate the reliability of a multi-array device.

  3. Serum tissue factor levels correlate with inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Daniel; Racadot, Evelyne

    2006-07-01

    Tissue factor, the main initiator of blood coagulation, is released into the bloodstream when vessel damage occurs. Vessel damage may occur in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). To measure tissue factor levels in patients with AS and to look for correlations between tissue factor levels and established clinical and laboratory markers for disease activity. We compared patients who met modified New York criteria for AS to healthy untreated controls. Serum tissue factor was assayed using an ELISA. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G) were recorded, as well as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and IgA level. ANOVA and t-tests were performed. P values<0.05 were considered significant. We included 28 patients with AS (mean age, 42 years; and mean disease duration, 14 years), who had never received immunomodulating or vascular medications, and 22 same-age healthy controls. In the patients, tissue factor levels were significantly higher (32.6+/-33.6 vs. 9.5+/-11.5 pg/ml, P=0.003); they correlated with the ESR (P=0.018), CRP (P<0.0001), and IgA (P=0.023), but not with the clinical variables (BASDAI, BASFI, and BAS-G; P>0.05). In this preliminary study in patients with AS, tissue factor levels were high and correlated with laboratory tests for inflammation. Tissue factor elevation may be a cause or a consequence of AS inflammation that promotes the occurrence of vascular events.

  4. Serum YKL-40 and MDA levels in Behcet disease.

    PubMed

    Bilen, Handan; Altinkaynak, Konca; Sebin, Engin; Aksoy, Hulya; Akcay, Fatih

    2016-10-01

    To measure plasma levels of chitinase-3-like 1 protein and its association with malondialdehyde in Behcet's disease patients. The case-control study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University Erzurum, Turkey, from October 2012 to March 2014, and comprised patients with Behcet's disease and healthy subjects. The patients were divided into two groups, as active and inactive, based on the classification of phases of activity in Behcet's disease. Differences between groups were analysed. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 79 participants, 51(64.56%) were patients and 28(35.44%) were controls. The mean age of the first group was 29.45±7.82 years and the second group was 32.21±9.61 years. Among patients, 37(72.55%) were categorised as "active" and 14(27.45%) as "inactive". Median serum Chitinase-3-like 1 protein and malondialdehyde levels were 37.57 ng/mL (interquartilerange: 13.7-293.0 ng/mL) in patients and 26.25 ng/mL (interquartile range: 17.0-44.7 ng/mL) in controls. There was no significant correlation between Chitinase-3-like 1 protein and malondialdehyde (p>0.05). Chitinase-3-like 1 protein might be associated with Behcet's disease. Elevated malondialdehyde levels were not only the cause of inflammation but also indicator of oxidative stress in Behcet's disease.

  5. Serum levels of S-100B after recreational scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Stavrinou, L C; Kalamatianos, T; Stavrinou, P; Papasilekas, T; Psachoulia, C; Tzavara, C; Stranjalis, G

    2011-12-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a sport of increasing popularity. Previous studies indicating subtle brain injury in asymptomatic divers imply a cumulative effect of minor neural insults in association with diving for professional and/or recreational purposes, over the long-term. This is the first study to investigate putative neural tissue burden during recreational scuba diving by measuring circulating levels of S-100B, a sensitive biomarker of brain injury. 5 male divers performed 3 consecutive dives under conservative recreational diving settings (maximum depth 15 m, duration of dive 56 min, ascend rate 1.15 m/min) with an interval of 12 h between each session. Although a small increase in serum S-100B levels after each dive was apparent, this increase did not quite reach statistical significance (p=0.057). Moreover, no abnormal S-100B values were recorded (mean baseline: 0.06 μg/L, mean post-dive: 0.086 μg/L) and no effect of the 3 consecutive dives on changes in S-100B levels was detected. These results suggest that under the experimental conditions tested, diving does not seem to have a discernible and/or cumulative impact on central nervous system integrity. The extent to which variable diving settings and practices as well as individual susceptibility factors underlie putative neural tissue burden in asymptomatic divers, remains to be established.

  6. [Procalcitonin as a marker of intra-abdominal infection].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Comesaña, Elías; Ballinas-Miranda, Julio Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Procalcitonin is a quite specific biomarker of infection and in recent years has shown its superiority to others markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein, for the diagnosis and monitoring of a variety of infections. For this reason, several researchers have studied the potential role of procalcitonin for diagnosis and management of these infections. Intra-abdominal infections are a heterogeneous group of infections that, sometimes, pose difficult challenges to physicians. The published studies have produced mixed results, leading to controversy on the utility of this marker in intra-abdominal infections. This review summarizes these data and discuss the utility of procalcitonin in several intra abdominal infections, including postoperative infections.

  7. Stable cystatin C serum levels confirm normal renal function in patients with dronedarone-associated increase in serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Duncker, David; Oswald, Hanno; Gardiwal, Ajmal; Lüsebrink, Ulrich; König, Thorben; Schreyer, Hendrik; Klein, Gunnar

    2013-03-01

    Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic drug for patients with nonpermanent atrial fibrillation (AF). A relatively consistent finding in all trials studying dronedarone was a moderate but significant elevation of serum creatinine. Since dronedarone competes for the same organic cation transporter in the distal renal tubule with creatinine, serum creatinine and its derived estimated glomerular filtration rate might not reflect true renal function in patients on dronedarone. We therefore investigated alternative markers for renal function in these patients. We prospectively included 20 patients with nonpermanent AF in whom dronedarone 400 mg twice daily was started. Patients had normal renal function and serum creatinine; serum cystatin C and creatinine clearance were measured before treatment and 10 and 90 days after treatment started. Mean serum creatinine level for all 20 patients at baseline (day 0) was 84.55 ± 12.14 and 87.8 ± 17.59 µmol/L on day 10. This slight increase in all patients was not significant. Patients were now divided into the predefined groups of "increased creatinine" (increase in serum creatinine level > 1 standard deviation) and "not increased creatinine." Patients with increased creatinine levels (n = 5) showed a significant elevation of serum creatinine levels from day 0 to day 10 (82.4 ± 9.18 to 104.4 ± 12.74 µmol/L; P = .003), whereas change in serum creatinine levels in the not increased creatinine group (n = 15) was not significant. Serum cystatin C levels remained stable in both of these groups (increased creatinine group: 0.76 ± 0.08 to 0.78 ± 0.08 mg/L; P = .65; not increased creatinine group: 0.77 ± 0.108 to 0.77 ± 0.107 mg/L; P = .906). In conclusion, cystatin C represents an easily available and reliable biomarker for estimation of true renal function in patients on dronedarone treatment.

  8. Reduced serum hepcidin levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Domenico; Pasino, Michela; Goodnough, Julia B.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Guido, Maria; Castagna, Annalisa; Busti, Fabiana; Campostrini, Natascia; Martinelli, Nicola; Vantini, Italo; Corrocher, Roberto; Ganz, Tomas; Fattovich, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) often have increased liver iron, a condition associated with reduced sustained response to antiviral therapy, more rapid progression to cirrhosis, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The hepatic hormone hepcidin is the major regulator of iron metabolism and inhibits iron absorption and recycling from erythrophagocytosis. Hepcidin decrease is a possible pathophysiological mechanism of iron overload in CHC, but studies in humans have been hampered so far by the lack of reliable quantitative assays for the 25-amino acid bioactive peptide in serum (s-hepcidin). Methods Using a recently validated immunoassay, we measured s-hepcidin levels in 81 untreated CHC patients and 57 controls with rigorous definition of normal iron status. All CHC patients underwent liver biopsy with histological iron score. Results S-hepcidin was significantly lower in CHC patients than in controls (geometric means with 95% confidence intervals: 33.7, 21.5–52.9 vs. 90.9, 76.1–108.4 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.001). In CHC patients, s-hepcidin significantly correlated with serum ferritin and histological total iron score, but not with s-interleukin-6. After stratification for ferritin quartiles, s-hepcidin increased significantly across quartiles in both controls and CHC patients (chi for trend, p < 0.001). However, in CHC patients, s-hepcidin was significantly lower than in controls for each corresponding quartile (analysis of variance, p < 0.001). Conclusions These results, together with very recent studies in animal and cellular models, indicate that although hepcidin regulation by iron stores is maintained in CHC, the suppression of this hormone by hepatitis C virus is likely an important factor in liver iron accumulation in this condition. PMID:19729219

  9. Serum prolidase level in ankylosing spondylitis: low serum levels as a new potential gold standard biomarker for disease activity.

    PubMed

    Baspinar, Sevgi; Kırnap, Mehmet; Baspınar, Osman; Dizdar, Oguzhan Sıtkı; Kocer, Derya

    2016-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that mainly affects the sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton. The aim of this study was to assess serum prolidase level (SPL) and its association with disease activity in patients with AS. This prospective study included 75 AS patients. Thirty age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. AS patients were considered as active if BASDAI score was ≥4 or inactive if BASDAI score was <4. There were 34 AS patients in the active group and 41 AS patients in the inactive group. Anti-TNF-monoclonal antibody treatment was started in patients in the active group. These active patients were reassessed 6 months later. BASDAI, ASDAS, visual analogue scale, short-form-general health survey questionnaire, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and SPL were measured in all AS patients before and after treatment. The SPL was significantly lower in inactive AS patients than in control group, and also, SPL was significantly lower in active AS patients than in inactive patients. All activity parameters were successful in separating active and inactive AS patients. However, the only parameter that could distinguish active patients from inactive patients was prolidase. The optimum cutoff point of SPL to identify patients with active AS was 23.13 ng/mL with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 100 %. Serum prolidase level was successful in measuring disease activity and had as high sensitivity and specificity as BASDAI and was superior to other activity parameters.

  10. The prognostic value of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and cholesterol in patients with an infection and multiple organ dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tachyla, Siarhei Anatolevich; Marochkov, Alexey Viktorovich; Lipnitski, Artur Leonidovich; Nikiforova, Yulia Gennadevna

    2017-06-01

    To establish the prognostic value of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and cholesterol levels for mortality in patients with an infection and multiple organ dysfunction. A prospective case-control study was performed, including 67 patients admitted to the intensive care unit with an infection and multiple organ dysfunction in whom cholesterol, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein levels were measured on admission and during the course of treatment. The associations between in-hospital mortality and procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and cholesterol levels were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterol (odds ratio [OR], 1.858; 95% CI, 1.170-2.949; P = 0.009) and C-reactive protein (OR, 4.408; 95% CI, 2.019-9.624; P < 0.001) levels were predictors of mortality. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.774 and 95% CI of 0.693-0.855 (P < 0.001) for C-reactive protein, an AUC of 0.66 and 95% CI of 0.535-0.784 (P = 0.019) for procalcitonin, and an AUC of 0.654 and 95% CI of 0.593-0.715 (P < 0.001) for cholesterol as predictors of mortality. When combined with the bioscore system for mortality, these markers yielded an AUC of 0.845 and 95% CI of 0.770-0.921 (P < 0.001), with sensitivity of 89.1% and specificity of 83.1%. The combination of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and cholesterol levels in a single scoring system yielded high predictive value for mortality.

  11. Serum fetuin-A concentrations are positively associated with serum VEGF levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongwei; Ju, Huixiang; Sun, Mingzhong; Chen, Hongmei; Ji, Hongbin; Jiang, Dongmei; Ji, Yuqiao; Ji, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Fetuin-A was considered to be involved in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, higher vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is associated with diabetes and its vascular complications, but the mechanisms leading to higher VEGF levels are still not clear. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data to show the associations between fetuin-A and VEGF in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. We recruited 345 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In this study, there was a significant positive correlation between serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels (r=0.223, P<0.001), and the correlation remained significant even after adjustment for other confounding factors in the multivariate regression model (β=0.151, P=0.006). Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) stratified analysis showed that the degree of association of high concentrations of fetuin-A with high levels of VEGF is higher than that with low levels of VEGF (odds ratio of M-H [ORM-H], 2.938; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.896-4.553). In addition, this study showed that both fetuin-A and VEGF were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP). These data suggested that serum fetuin-A concentrations were positively associated with serum VEGF levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  12. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2017-10-12

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P < 0.001) and showed a strong decreasing trend with increasing PM2.5 concentrations in all subjects (Ptrend  < 0.001) as well as in exposed subjects only (Ptrend  = 0.001). Levels of IL-8 and MIP-1β were significantly lower in workers in the highest exposure tertile of PM2.5 (>397 µg/m(3) ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Correlation between ovarian chocolate cyst and serum carbohydrate antigen 125 level and the effect of ultrasound-guided interventional sclerotherapy on serum carbohydrate antigen 125 level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Ming; Cai, Huai-Qiu; Dong, Xiao-Qiu; Fan, Qiu-Lan; Wang, Lu-Lu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the correlation between ovarian chocolate cysts and serum carbohydrate antigen (CA)-125 levels and to demonstrate the effect of ultrasound-guided interventional sclerotherapy (UGIS) on serum CA-125 levels. Based on the serum CA-125 level, as determined by chemiluminescence detection prior to UGIS, 105 patients with ovarian chocolate cysts were divided into the normal group (CA-125 ≤ 35 U/mL, 45 patients) and the abnormal group (35 U/mL < CA-125 ≤ 200 U/mL, 60 patients). There were six clinical indicators including age, disease duration, dysmenorrhea history, child-bearing history, abortion history and surgical history. The ultrasonography characteristics were cyst diameter, cyst wall thickness and the side on which the cyst occurred. The correlations between serum CA-125 levels pretreatment and the clinical indicators and ultrasonography characteristics was analyzed. The serum CA-125 levels pretreatment, 3 months post-treatment and 6 months post-treatment were compared. The pretreatment serum CA-125 levels of the 105 patients positively correlated with disease duration (r = 0.3932, P = 0.0040), dysmenorrhea history (r = 0.2351, P = 0.0111), cyst diameter (r = 0.3415, P < 0.0001) and cyst wall thickness (r = 0.4263, P < 0.0001). Compared with the pretreatment level, the mean serum CA-125 level in the abnormal group at 3 months post-treatment was significantly lower (P < 0.01), and at 6 months post-treatment, the mean serum CA-125 level had decreased to a normal level (P < 0.01). UGIS significantly decreased abnormal serum CA-125 levels in patients with ovarian chocolate cysts. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. [Optimal vancomycin serum level in Staphylococcus aureus infections?].

    PubMed

    Bingen, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Nebbad, B

    2006-09-01

    Vancomycin is the cornerstone of therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus in both community and nosocomial-acquired infections. Because vancomycin is a concentration-independent or time-dependant antibiotic, most clinicians have abandoned the routine practice of determining peak serum concentrations to rely solely on monitoring serum concentrations. The so-called therapeutic range most often quoted for vancomycin was assessed for through serum concentrations of 5-10 mg/l. But prolonged exposure to serum concentration close to the MIC is associated with the emergence of resistance. More recent guidelines recommended vancomycin in concentrations of 15-20 mg/l for the treatment of severe Staphylococcus infections or in situations where vancomycin penetration is poor. However, because of the great variability of vancomycin MIC(S) (0,12-4 mg/l) of susceptible Staphylococcus strains, guidelines should recommend through serum concentrations of 5-10 times the MIC.

  15. Changes in serum NGF levels after the exercise load in dogs: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    ANDO, Izumi; KARASAWA, Kaoru; MATSUDA, Hiroshi; TANAKA, Akane

    2016-01-01

    Serum nerve growth factor (NGF) levels are increased by the external stress in mice, humans and horses; however, similar variations have been unclear in dogs. Since dogs are usually subjected to conditions of work, exercise and activity as important partners of humans, we measured serum NGF levels post-exercise and compared them with serum cortisol levels, as a biomarker of physical stress. Serum cortisol levels were immediately elevated post-exercise and returned to basal levels within 1 hr. On the other hand, serum NGF levels were significantly increased 1 hr post-exercise and gradually returned to basal levels. Further research is necessary; nevertheless, we have demonstrated for the first time that serum NGF levels respond to exercise stress in dogs. PMID:27452735

  16. Clinical factors associated with serum copper levels and potential effect of sevelamer in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ikee, Ryota; Tsunoda, Masataka; Sasaki, Naomi; Sato, Naritsugu; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2013-06-01

    Copper is an essential mineral nutrient for humans. Serum copper levels of hemodialysis patients are higher than those of healthy subjects, but it remains to be elucidated whether increased serum copper may have harmful effects. In addition, a recent in vitro study has shown that sevelamer can adsorb copper. In the present study, we searched for clinical factors associated with serum copper levels in hemodialysis patients. This cross-sectional study included patients undergoing hemodialysis for more than 6 months. In these patients, we statistically tested associations between serum copper levels and other parameters, including nutritional markers, lipid profiles, oxidative stress, inflammation, and sevelamer administration. Among 48 patients (male/female = 28:20, age 71 ± 10 years, hemodialysis duration 84 ± 72 months), sevelamer hydrochloride was administered in 39 patients (81.3 %). In univariate analysis, serum copper levels showed significant positive correlations with serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and malondialdehyde modified-LDL and negative correlations with plasma total homocysteine levels and the administered dose of sevelamer. In multivariate analysis, serum levels of LDL-cholesterol and hs-CRP were found to be independent determinants of serum copper levels. We found that serum copper levels were independently associated with dyslipidemia and inflammation in hemodialysis patients, but the pathogenic roles of copper remain to be elucidated. In addition, potential effect of sevelamer on serum copper levels should be examined in appropriately designed studies.

  17. Metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Acampa, Olga; Goldoni, Matteo; Andreoli, Roberta; Milton, Donald; Sama, Susan R; Rosiello, Richard; de Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers in exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be useful in aiding diagnosis, defining specific phenotypes of disease, monitoring the disease and evaluating the effects of drugs. The aim of this study was the characterization of metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate and serum as novel biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility in exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using reference analytical techniques. C-Reactive protein and procalcitonin were assessed as previously validated diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers which have been associated with disease exacerbation, thus useful as a basis of comparison with metal levels. Exhaled breath condensate and serum were obtained in 28 patients at the beginning of an episode of disease exacerbation and when they recovered. Trace elements and toxic metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Serum biomarkers were measured by immunoassay. Exhaled manganese and magnesium levels were influenced by exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an increase in their concentrations--respectively by 20 and 50%--being observed at exacerbation in comparison with values obtained at recovery; serum elemental composition was not modified by exacerbation; serum levels of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin at exacerbation were higher than values at recovery. In outpatients who experienced a mild-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, manganese and magnesium levels in exhaled breath condensate are elevated at admission in comparison with values at recovery, whereas no other changes were observed in metallic elements at both the pulmonary and systemic level.

  18. Serum total and bone alkaline phosphatase levels and their correlation with serum minerals over the lifespan of sheep.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristina P; Azevedo, Jorge T; Silva, Amélia M; Viegas, Carlos A; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E; Dias, Isabel R

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its bone isoform (BALP) levels during the ageing and in different physiologic states of sheep, in order to expand the knowledge about the variation of these biomarkers over the sheep lifespan. Ninety female sheep were divided into nine groups of various ages and physiological states (dry, lactation and pregnancy). Serum ALP, BALP and mineral levels were determined by commercial immunoassay, molecular absorbance spectrophotometry and chemical luminescence for BALP determination. Serum ALP and BALP decreased as sheep aged, and no statistically significant differences were obtained between ewes in different physiologic states. The continuous decline of serum BALP concentration along the sheep lifespan, namely in mature and old sheep, is a sign of decreasing bone turnover associated with ageing. Serum calcium concentrations increased slightly until 2 years of age and then showed a tenuous but statistically significant decrease in mature sheep, while serum phosphorus maintained an uninterrupted decrease as sheep matured. The knowledge of serum values of bone biomarkers throughout the sheep lifespan may be useful in preclinical orthopaedic research studies and for animal science studies using sheep.

  19. Impact of infusion method on amikacin serum levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Simon, N; Décaudin, B; Lannoy, D; Odou, M F; De Broucker, M; Barthélémy, C; Poret, E; Dubreuil, L; Odou, P

    2010-08-01

    Aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibiotics with peak-dependent bactericidal activity, administered by gravity infusion or for more accuracy by electronic pump infusion. The aim of this study was to assess the difference between the two systems and its pharmacokinetic impact. Twenty-four patients hospitalised for community-acquired pulmonary infections received amikacin by IV route over 1 h with a targeted peak concentration of 35 mg/L. They were randomly distributed into two groups, one receiving infusion through a pump system, the other by gravity. Amikacin serum levels were determined at the end of infusion and 24 h later. C(max) values were significantly lower with gravity than pump (40.2 +/- 12.3 vs. 50.6 +/- 17.6 mg/L, respectively; p = 0.04). Elimination half-life time, volume of distribution and clearance did not differ significantly from one group to the other. The percentage of patients who failed to achieve the targeted peak concentration was significantly higher with gravity than pump (41.7% vs. 16.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). Improving infusion flow-rate provides better control over amikacin C(max). This study underlines the fact that infusion device characteristics should be added to the physiopathological information of a patient if we are to make a better estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters.

  20. Specific serum protein levels in women using intrauterine contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, D; Kríz, J; Cídl, K

    1980-01-01

    The report is concerned with the levels of 17 specific serum proteins in 46 women using plastic nonmedicated intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) Dana-Super. Blood samplings were carried out three times: just before the IUCD introduction, 30 and 54 weeks after the insertion of IUCD. The following proteins except haptoglobin were quantitatively determined by radial immunodiffusion: prealbumin, albumin, orosomucoid, alpha 1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin, alpha 2HS-glycoprotein, alpha 2-macroglobulin, hemopexin, C3-component, transferrin, beta 2-glycoprotein I, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD. Moderately increased values were found for alpha 2HS-glycoprotein and beta 2-glycoprotein I in sera taken 30 weeks after the insertion of IUCD. AT the same time the augmentation of alpha 1-antitrypsin was established. This might be evoked by the raised protease activity in biological fluids of genital region. The raise in consequence of IUCD application of transferrin and the decrease of haptoglobin at the first postinsertion examination and the decrease of hemopexin and albumin at the second may be associated with higher menstrual bleeding followed by iron deficiency. All other proteins as well as the acute phase proteins showed only minor if any differences as compared with the corresponding start values. Similarly, there is no evidence of a systemic immunoglobulin response to IUCD use.

  1. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss.

  2. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes that assist various metabolic reactions involved in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis important for maintenance of healthy skin and hair. Due to its availability, affordability, and effective marketing for this purpose, biotin is a popular nutritional supplement for treatment of hair loss. However, there are little data on the frequency of biotin deficiency in patients complaining of hair loss and on the value of oral biotin for treatment of hair loss that is not due to an inborn error of biotin metabolism or deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of biotin deficiency in women complaining of hair loss. Biotin deficiency was found in 38% of women complaining of hair loss. Of those showing diffuse telogen effluvium in trichograms (24%), 35% had evidence of associated seborrheic-like dermatitis. About 11% of patients with biotin deficiency had a positive personal history for risk factors for biotin deficiency. The custom of treating women complaining of hair loss in an indiscriminate manner with oral biotin supplementation is to be rejected, unless biotin deficiency and its significance for the complaint of hair loss in an individual has been demonstrated on the basis of a careful patient history, clinical examination, determination of serum biotin levels, and exclusion of alternative factors responsible for hair loss. PMID:27601860

  3. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cytokine levels in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Karen M; Wesgate, Sarah C; Pier, Jennifer; Weis, Emily; Love, Tanzy; Evans, Katie; Chhibber, Ashwani

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated with morbidity in children. Alterations in immune responses may explain this relationship, but have not been well-studied in children. Our objective was to determine the association between SHS exposure and serum cytokine levels in healthy children. We recruited 1-6 year old patients undergoing routine procedures. A parent interview assessed medical history and SHS exposure. Children with asthma were excluded. Blood was collected under anesthesia. We used Luminex Multiplex Assays to test for a panel of cytokines; cotinine was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children were categorized as no, intermediate, or high exposure. A mixed-effects model was fit to determine differences in cytokines by exposure level. Of the 40 children recruited, 65% (N=26) had SHS exposure; 16 intermediate, and 10 high. There were no differences by demographics. In bivariate analyses, children exposed to SHS had lower concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ than those with no exposure. In the mixed-effects model, children with any SHS exposure had significantly lower concentrations of IL-1β (0.554 pg/mL vs. 0.249 pg/mL) and IFN-γ (4.193 pg/mL vs. 0.816 pg/mL), and children with high exposure had significantly lower mean concentrations of IL-4 (8.141 pg/mL vs. 0.135 pg/mL) than children with no exposure. This study suggests that SHS exposure decreases expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines in SHS exposed children, including IFN-γ. Further research to describe the acute and chronic effects of SHS on the immune systems of children is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Folate intake, serum folate, serum total homocysteine levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Mami

    2004-08-01

    Various factors influence folate status and requirements. To investigate the folate status in young Japanese women (n=340, 20-22 y), I determined the serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy), and examined the influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism on folate status in a subgroup of 252 of the women. I calculated folate consumption based on records of food intake weighed over 3 d using the standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (5th revised edition) and the US Food Composition Table based on the USDA nutrient database excluding fortification. Serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels were determined by chemiluminescent-competitive protein binding assay and HPLC, respectively. The mean intake of folate was 323+/-133 and 196+/-71 microg/d, and 86.5% and 42.1% of the participants consumed more than the RDA of 200 microg of folate, according to the Japanese and US tables, respectively. The main sources of dietary folate were vegetables, green tea and bread. Serum folate levels were significantly correlated with folate intake (r=0.249, p<0.001). Serum tHcy levels were above 15 micromol/L in four participants. I found significant negative correlations between serum tHcy and folate intake (r=-0.175, p<0.05), and between serum tHcy and serum folate (r=-0.297, p<0.0001). The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes of the MTHFR gene were 32.9, 51.6 and 15.5%, respectively. Among individuals with the TT genotype, serum folate and tHcy levels were lower and higher, respectively, than in those with the other genotypes, regardless of folate intake above RDA. These data suggest that the current RDA of folate estimated based on foreign data might not be sufficient for Japanese and that this value might require reassessment.

  6. Prognostic Value of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, Procalcitonin and Pancreatic Stone Protein in Pediatric Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; Nie, Jun; Wu, Fu-xia; Zou, Xiu-lan; Chen, Feng-yi

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate the prognostic value of procalcitonin (PCT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and pancreatic stone protein (PSP) in children with sepsis. Material/Methods A total of 214 patients with sepsis during hospitalization were enrolled. Serum levels of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP were measured on day 1 of hospitalization and the survival rates of children were recorded after a follow-up of 28 days. Pearson’s correlation analysis was conducted to test the association of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP with pediatric critical illness score (PCIS). Logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk factors contributing to patients’ death. The AUC was used to determine the value of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP in the prognosis of patients with sepsis. Results The expression of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP in the dying patients was higher than in the surviving patients (p<0.001). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that serum PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP levels were negatively correlated with PCIS (p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP were independent risk factors for the prognosis of patients with sepsis (p<0.001). ROC analysis showed the AUC values of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77–0.88), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.70–0.82), and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.67–0.79), respectively. The combined AUC value of PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP, was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.87–0.95), which was significantly increased compared with PCT, hs-CRP, or PSP (p<0.001). Conclusions The combination of serum PCT, hs-CRP, and PSP represents a promising biomarker of risk, and is a useful clinical tool for risk stratification of children with sepsis. PMID:28358790

  7. [Changes of Serum Gonadal Hormones Levels During Musk-secreting Period and Estrus of Moschus berezovskii].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng-ming; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wen-long; Wang, Zhan-yin; Ye, Song-hua; Fu, Chun-mei

    2015-02-01

    To detect concentrations of serum gonadal hormones (testosterone, estradiol and progesterone) in musk-secreting period and estrus of Moschus berezovskii, and to study the association of serum gonadal hormones concentrations and musk-secreting. The concentrations of serum gonadal hormones were detected with magnetic particle separation ELISA. During musk-secreting period, concentration changes of three serum gonadal hormones showed clear regularity, three crests occurred synchronously. Before musk-secreting period, testosterone, estradiol and progesterone concentrations were at its lower level, in prime musk-secreting period, they increased rapidly to respective highest peak; at later musk-secreting period, they quickly dropped to close to its previous levels before musk-secreting period. During estrus, serum testosterone concentration increased to lower peaks than that at later musk-secreting period. Estradiol remained at a low level and progesterone level was closed to zero. Serum testosterone concentrations in prime musk-secreting period were 114.4 ~ 190.5 times of estrus. During musk-secreting period, there were significant positive correlation among three serum gonadal hormone levels, a positive correlation between musk yield and serum testosterone levels, and negative correlation of musk yield with serum estradiol and progesterone levels as well as musk deer ages. Serum testosterone concentrations in prime musk-secreting period increase to the highest levels,which can provide reference in musk secretion induced by artificial means.

  8. Predicting the ideal serum creatinine level following kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Greg A

    2009-02-01

    This Practice Point commentary reviews a study by Sberro et al. that evaluated formulae to predict the lowest measured serum creatinine concentration in kidney transplant recipients following surgery. The objective of the study was to ascertain a simple means of identifying patients with inappropriately high serum creatinine concentrations, who are in need of further investigation. A prediction formula based on the recipient's age and weight and the donor's preoperative estimated creatinine clearance, as calculated from the Cockcroft-Gault equation, showed the strongest correlation, the greatest precision, the lowest positive bias, and the second highest 30% accuracy with the lowest observed serum creatinine concentration in the recipient. This study provides a simple means of predicting the lowest serum creatinine concentration following kidney transplantation. However, the sensitivity, specificity and other diagnostic characteristics of the equation need to be determined in a prospective study before this approach can be recommended in routine clinical practice.

  9. Serum Sclerostin Levels Negatively Correlate with Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Free Estrogen Index in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Faryal S.; Padhi, I. Desmond; Raisz, Lawrence G.; Lorenzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sclerostin is a negative regulator of bone formation. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare serum sclerostin levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and evaluate its relationship to estrogen, TH, bone turnover, and bone mass. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of healthy community-dwelling pre- and postmenopausal women. Intervention(s): There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We compared serum sclerostin levels in pre- and postmenopausal women and correlated sclerostin levels with female sex hormones, calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density. Results: Premenopausal women were 26.8 yr old, and postmenopausal women were 56.8 yr old. Postmenopausal women had lower values for estradiol (30 ± 23 vs. 10 ± 4 pg/ml; P < 0.001), estrone (61 ± 24 vs. 29 ± 10 pg/ml; P <0.001), and free estrogen index (FEI) (6 ± 4 vs. 3 ± 2 pmol/nmol; P = 0.008) and significantly lower bone mineral density at all sites compared to premenopausal women, with no significant differences in levels of PTH, 25-hydroxy or 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels. Postmenopausal women had significantly higher serum sclerostin levels (1.16 ± 0.38 ng/ml vs. 0.48 ± 0.15 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Because most of the premenopausal women were on oral contraceptives, subsequent analyses were limited to postmenopausal women. There were significant negative correlations between sclerostin and FEI and sclerostin and PTH in this group. Using multiple regression analysis, both FEI (β = −0.629; P = 0.002) and PTH (β = −0.554; P = 0.004) were found to be independent predictors of sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that serum sclerostin levels are regulated by both estrogens and PTH in postmenopausal women. These findings need to be explored further in larger prospective studies. PMID:20156921

  10. Pleural fluid procalcitonin to distinguish infectious from noninfectious etiologies of pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Rahul; Khosla, Shikha G; Becker, Kenneth L; Nylen, Eric S

    2016-05-01

    In this study we investigate the diagnostic value of pleural fluid procalcitonin (PCT) in distinguishing infectious and noninfectious etiologies of pleural effusion. We reviewed the medical records of 75 hospitalized patients who underwent thoracentesis between 2011 and 2012. Data on pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein, albumin, cell count and differential, pH, Gram stain and culture, cytology, triglyceride, cholesterol, amylase, and PCT were collected. Data on serum LDH, protein, albumin, prothrombin time, normalized, and blood culture were also collected. Pleural effusions were classified into 2 groups, infectious and noninfectious. There were 18 infectious pleural effusions (IPE) and 57 noninfectious pleural effusions (NIPE). Median pleural fluid PCT was 1.088 ng/mL (0.312-2.940 ng/mL) in IPE and 0.123 ng/mL (0.05-0.263 ng/mL) in NIPE, with a P value < 0.0001. Pleural fluid PCT > 0.25 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 77.78% and specificity of 74.14% for diagnosing an IPE. A subgroup analysis of PCT in exudative infectious effusions versus exudative noninfectious malignant/paramalignant effusions showed higher levels in the former. PCT is a novel biomarker for diagnosing infectious pleural effusion, and it would be worthwhile to investigate the role of pleural PCT in assessing severity of illness, risk stratification, and antibiotic stewardship in hospitalized patients with pleural effusions. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:363-365. 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. Association Between Serum Levels of Uric Acid and Blood Pressure Tracking in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Park, Bohyun; Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Sung Hee; Park, Bo Mi; Park, Eun Ae; Kim, Hae Soon; Cho, Su Jin; Park, Hyesook

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that high levels of serum uric acid of very early life are a result of the in-utero environment and may lead to elevated blood pressure (BP) in adulthood. However, serum uric acid levels can change throughout life. We investigated the effect of serum uric acid levels in childhood on the BP tracking and analysed BP according to changes in serum uric acid levels in early life. A total of 449 children from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort study underwent at least 2 follow-up examinations. Data were collected across 3 check-up cycles. Serum uric acid levels, BP, and anthropometric characteristics were assessed at 3, 5, and 7 years of age. Children with a serum uric acid level higher than the median values had significantly increased systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP at 3 years of age. Baseline serum uric acid levels measured at 3 years of age, significantly affected subsequent BP in the sex and body mass index adjusted longitudinal data analysis (P < 0.05). Considering the changing pattern of serum uric acid over time, subjects with high uric acid levels at both 3 and 5 years of age had the highest SBP at 7 years of age. These findings suggest the importance of maintaining an adequate level of serum uric acids from the early life. Appropriate monitoring and intervention of uric acid levels in a high-risk group can reduce the risk of a future increased BP.

  12. Raised serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase levels in two rheumatoid patients treated with sulphasalazine.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, M; Symmons, D P; Bacon, P A

    1985-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is a rare complication of sulphasalazine therapy in ulcerative colitis. This report describes two rheumatoid patients in whom raised serum levels of liver enzymes occurred soon after starting sulphasalazine treatment for their arthritis. In both cases the serum enzyme levels returned to normal after stopping the drug. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity should be considered in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who develop raised serum levels of liver enzymes while taking sulphasalazine. PMID:2865931

  13. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Pavy, Stephan; Boudaoud, Saida; Seror, Raphaèle; Goupille, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Briot, Karine; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Nithitham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Dougados, Maxime; Roux, Christian; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP) fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors. Methods The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years) suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6%) and 80 healthy controls. Results Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10−9), CRP level (p<0.0001) and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001) were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03), CRP level (p = 0.006), SOST serum level (p = 0.002) and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05). Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels. Conclusions DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels. PMID:26313358

  14. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Pavy, Stephan; Boudaoud, Saida; Seror, Raphaèle; Goupille, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Briot, Karine; Feydy, Antoine; Claudepierre, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Nithitham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E; Criswell, Lindsey A; Dougados, Maxime; Roux, Christian; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    To investigate DKK-1 and SOST serum levels among patients with recent inflammatory back pain (IBP) fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA and associated factors. The DESIR cohort is a prospective, multicenter French cohort of 708 patients with early IBP (duration >3 months and <3 years) suggestive of AxSpA. DKK-1 and SOST serum levels were assessed at baseline and were compared between the subgroup of patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA (n = 486; 68.6%) and 80 healthy controls. Mean SOST serum levels were lower in ASAS+ patients than healthy controls (49.21 ± 25.9 vs. 87.8 ± 26 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (p = 5.4 10-9), CRP level (p<0.0001) and serum DKK-1 level (p = 0.001) were associated with SOST level. Mean DKK-1 serum levels were higher in axial SpA patients than controls (30.03 ± 15.5 vs. 11.6 ± 4.2 pmol/L; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DKK-1 serum levels were associated with male gender (p = 0.03), CRP level (p = 0.006), SOST serum level (p = 0.002) and presence of sacroiliitis on radiography (p = 0.05). Genetic association testing of 10 SNPs encompassing the DKK-1 locus failed to demonstrate a significant contribution of genetics to control of DKK-1 serum levels. DKK-1 serum levels were increased and SOST levels were decreased among a large cohort of patients with early axial SpA compared to healthy controls. DKK-1 serum levels were mostly associated with biological inflammation and SOST serum levels.

  15. Serum nitric oxide (NO) levels in systemic sclerosis patients: correlation between NO levels and clinical features

    PubMed Central

    TAKAGI, K; KAWAGUCHI, Y; HARA, M; SUGIURA, T; HARIGAI, M; KAMATANI, N

    2003-01-01

    Vascular damage in systemic sclerosis (SSc) may be a factor in the abnormal regulation of several vasoactive agents. It has been well confirmed that plasma endothelin-1, as a vasoconstrictive factor, is elevated in patients with SSc. However, it is still controversial whether the levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), a strong vasodilator, are increased or decreased in SSc patients compared to healthy donors. In this study, we measured the levels of serum NO metabolites in SSc patients and determined the contribution of the excessive production of NO synthase (NOS)-2 by skin fibroblasts to NO synthesis. Serum NO levels of 45 patients with SSc were significantly higher than those of 20 healthy volunteers. In addition, some clinical features of SSc (the extent of skin fibrosis, short disease duration, and the complication of active fibrosing alveolitis) were all correlated positively with the levels of NO metabolites in SSc patients. To evaluate the levels of NOS-2 produced by skin fibroblasts, skin fibroblast cultures were established from SSc patients and healthy volunteers. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that NOS-2 mRNA was spontaneously expressed in cultured fibroblasts derived from SSc patients, but not in those derived from healthy normal controls. Immunohistochemical staining also showed that NOS-2 proteins were detected in SSc fibroblasts but not in normal fibroblasts. The production of NO by cultured fibroblasts was visualized directly by a reagent (DAF-2 DA) used for the fluorescent detection of NO. Cultured SSc fibroblasts were capable of NO synthesis in culture media containing l-arginine, whereas normal fibroblasts (with no expression of NOS-2) did not synthesize detectable NO. These observations indicate that NO production is increased markedly in early-stage diffuse cutaneous SSc patients with active fibrosing alveolitis, and that constitutive NOS-2 expression in SSc fibroblasts may contribute to increased NO production. PMID

  16. Serum vitamin D levels are not altered after controlled diesel ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Past research has suggested that exposure to urban air pollution may be associated with vitamin D deficiency in human populations. Vitamin D is widely known for its importance in bone growth/remodeling, muscle metabolism, and its ability to promote calcium absorption in the gut; deficiency in vitamin D results in the development of rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. In the current study, we assessed whether vitamin D levels are altered under controlled exposures to a commonly measured urban air pollutant, diesel. For this study, we exposed 12 healthy volunteers to clean air and diesel exhaust (300 μg/m3) for 2 hours while undergoing intermittent exercise. Venous blood was collected before, 0 hrs post-, and 18 hrs post-exposure, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in the serum. The average baseline value of 25(OH)D (mean ± standard error) was 22.9 ± 2.5 ng/mL. Four subject’s baseline values were vitamin D deficient (30 ng/mL). Additionally, there was no significant change in the baseline values between the clean air and diesel exposures (paired t-test, p = 0.54), suggesting minimal variability in 25(OH)D over the experiment's time course. Small inductions in 25(OH)D were found following clean air exposures (12.5 ± 4.9% and a 7.1 ± 5.0% for 0 hrs post- and 18 hrs post-exposure values compared to baseline, respectively). Minimal changes in 25(OH)D were observed following diesel exhaust exposures 0 hrs (3.5 ± 5.2%) and 18 hrs followin

  17. Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma during treatment with CB3717.

    PubMed

    Buamah, P K; James, O F; Skillen, A W; Harris, A L

    1987-02-01

    Elevated Serum B12 levels were found at diagnosis in five of eleven patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. During chemotherapy either with CB3717 or VP16 the serum B12 rose dramatically, in one case reaching levels ten times the upper limit of normal. However, the serum LD activities did not change in parallel with the serum B12 levels suggesting that there was little necrosis of the tumour or the liver. With two out of five patients with other types of cancer the serum B12 levels also increased but less markedly. This data seems to suggest that the serum B12 level may not be as good a tumour marker for hepatocellular carcinoma as has been suggested and indeed may be influenced by the chemotherapeutic agent.

  18. Serum levels of manganese superoxide dismutase in patients with localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Yazawa, Norihito; Asano, Yoshihide; Yamane, Kenichi; Tamaki, Kunihiko

    2004-06-01

    The objective was to determine the serum levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) in patients with localized scleroderma and investigate their clinical significance in this disease. Serum samples from 15 patients with localized scleroderma and 20 healthy volunteers were examined by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of Mn SOD were significantly higher in patients with generalized morphea than those in healthy individuals. And the patients with elevated serum Mn SOD levels had significantly larger number of sclerotic lesions and significantly higher serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor than those without it. These results suggested that the serum levels of this enzyme may be a serological marker for the disease activity and the extent of skin involvement in this disease.

  19. Effects of thyroid hormone on serum glycated albumin levels: study on non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Koga, M; Murai, J; Saito, H; Matsumoto, S; Kasayama, S

    2009-05-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) is used alongside glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1C)) as an indicator of glycemic control. Although serum GA levels are affected mainly by plasma glucose, they are also influenced by serum albumin metabolism. Thyroid hormone is known to promote albumin catabolism, and it is thus thought to affect serum GA levels. In the present study, the effects of thyroid hormone on serum GA measurements were investigated in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Six patients with untreated hypothyroidism and 17 patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis were investigated. Patients who had anemia or diabetes were excluded. A total of 25 non-diabetic, euthyroid individuals were enrolled as controls. HbA(1C), serum GA, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (T(3)), and free thyroxine (T(4)) levels were measured in all these subjects, and their relationships were examined. Although no intergroup differences were observed for HbA(1C), serum GA was significantly higher among patients with hypothyroidism than controls, and significantly lower among patients with thyrotoxicosis. Serum GA had a significant positive correlation with serum TSH and significant inverse correlations with free T(3) and free T(4). Thyroid hormone levels are inversely associated with serum GA levels. Cautions are necessary when evaluating serum GA levels in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  20. The Clinical Significance of Serum and Urinary Neopterin Levels in Several Renal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lhee, Hyun Young; Joo, Kwan Joong; Jung, Soo Suk; Lee, Kyu Beck

    2006-01-01

    Neopterin is a pyrazino-pyrimidine compound, and is known to be a marker associated with cell-mediated immunity in various diseases. We hypothesized that the levels of serum and urine neopterin would be elevated in renal disease, and would correlate with certain clinical parameters. We evaluated serum and urinary neopterin levels in patients with several renal diseases, including nephrotic syndrome (NS, n=19), chronic renal failure (CRF, n=8), end stage renal disease (ESRD, n=64) and controls (n=22). Serum neopterin was elevated in patients with CRF and ESRD, as compared to controls. Urinary neopterin levels were also found to be elevated in patients with CRF and ESRD, as compared to controls. Serum neopterin levels showed significant positive correlation with age, serum BUN and creatinine levels, and inverse correlation with WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum albumin and total iron binding capacity. Urine neopterin levels exhibited positive correlation with age and serum creatinine levels, and inverse correlation with WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, BUN and serum albumin. In conclusion, increased serum and urinary neopterin levels were found in some patients with renal disease and were correlated with certain clinical parameters. PMID:16891812

  1. Sustained Low Serum Substance P Levels in Non-Surviving Septic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Ferreres, José; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Previously, researchers found higher serum substance P (SP) concentrations in survivors of severe sepsis than in non-survivors at the time of severe sepsis diagnosis. The objectives of our current study were to determine whether there is an association between serum SP levels during the first week and sepsis mortality, sepsis severity, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10, and whether serum SP levels during the first week could be used as a biomarker of sepsis mortality. We determined serum concentration of SP, TNF-α, and IL-10 at days 1, 4, and 8. The end-point of the study was mortality at 30 days. We found that non-survivor (n = 104) compared to survivor patients (n = 206) showed lower serum SP levels at days 1, 4, and 8 (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed an association between 30-day mortality and serum SP levels at days 1, 4, and 8 (p < 0.001) controlling for SOFA score, diabetes mellitus, age, and lactic acid levels. The most interesting findings of our study were that there is an association between serum SP levels during the first week and sepsis mortality, and that serum SP levels during the first week could be used as a biomarker of sepsis mortality. PMID:28714876

  2. [Serum cannabinoid levels 24 to 48 hours after cannabis smoking].

    PubMed

    Skopp, Gisela; Richter, Barbara; Pötsch, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Low concentrations of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC in serum samples are often claimed not to result from recent cannabis use. Prediction of time of exposure is difficult, especially if distinctive features of drug use could not be observed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the presence of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC in serum samples as well as to obtain preliminary data on the analyte profile for a time window of 24-48 hours after discontinuation of cannabis smoking. Serum samples from heavy (n = 12, > 1 joint/day), moderate (n = 11, < or = 1 joint/day) and light (n = 6, < 1 joint/week) smokers of cannabis were analyzed for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and free THC-COOH by GC/MS as well as for glucuronidated THC-COOH by LC/MS-MS. The blood samples were collected 24-48 hours after abstaining from cannabis use. Additionally, 8 specimens were obtained from persons after discontinuation of the drug for more than 48 hours. During collection of the blood samples, distinctive effects due to drug use could not be observed. For heavy users of cannabis, THC was detectable in 8 samples, and in 5 cases both biologically active compounds, THC and 11-hydroxy-THC, were present (1.3-6.4 ng THC/mL serum, 0.5-2.4 ng 11-hydroxy-THC/mL serum). Among moderate users, in 1 sample 1.8 ng THC/mL serum and 1.3 ng 11-hydroxy-THC/mL serum were determined, and another sample was tested positive with low concentrations close to the limit of detection. In serum samples of light users both analytes could not be detected, indicating that in those persons a positive finding of THC and 11-hydroxy-THC may rather result from recent consumption than from cannabis use 1 or 2 days prior to blood sampling. The concentrations of THC-COOH and its glucuronide covered a wide range in all groups of cannabis users. However, there was a trend to higher concentrations in heavy users compared to moderate users, and the mean concentration was smaller in light smokers than in moderate smokers. Overall, the findings

  3. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN) in Early Breast Cancer (BCa).

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Argellati, Francesca; Di Meglio, Antonio; Zanardi, Elisa; Zinoli, Linda; Comite, Paola; Mussap, Michele; Boccardo, Francesco

    2015-07-28

    PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005), adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status (p = 0.02). No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05) and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03). Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients.

  4. Vitamin A intake and serum retinol levels in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Woestenenk, Janna W; Broos, Nancy; Stellato, Rebecca K; Arets, Hubertus G M; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Houwen, Roderick H J

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receive vitamin A supplementation according to CF-specific recommendations to prevent deficiencies. Whether current recommendations are optimal for preventing both deficiency and toxicity is a subject of debate. We assessed the longitudinal relation between serum retinol levels and appropriate variables. We studied vitamin A intake, and the long-term effects of vitamin A intake, coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) on serum retinol levels in 221 paediatrics CF patients during a seven-year follow up period. Total vitamin A intake, derived from 862 dietary assessments, exceeded the tolerable upper intake level in 30% of the assessments, mainly up to age six. Although CF patients failed to meet the CF-specific recommendations, serum retinol deficiency was found in only 17/862 (2%) of the measurements. Longitudinally, we observed no association to serum retinol levels for total vitamin A intake, CFA, gender or age but serum retinol levels were associated with serum IgG levels. Each g/L increase in serum IgG level would result in a 2.49% (95% CI -3.60 to -1.36%) reduction in serum retinol levels. In this large sample of children and adolescents with CF, serum retinol deficiency was rare despite lower than the CF-specific recommendations. However, the TUL was commonly exceeded. A reduction in CF-specific vitamin A supplementation recommendations should therefore be considered. Moreover, serum retinol levels were not associated with vitamin A intake, CFA, gender or age, although a decreased serum retinol was associated with an increased serum IgG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN) in Early Breast Cancer (BCa)

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Argellati, Francesca; Di Meglio, Antonio; Zanardi, Elisa; Zinoli, Linda; Comite, Paola; Mussap, Michele; Boccardo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005), adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status (p = 0.02). No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05) and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03). Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients. PMID:26225965

  6. Serum levels of interleukins 6, 10, and 13 before and after treatment of classic Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gaiolla, Rafael D; Domingues, Maria A C; Niéro-Melo, Lígia; de Oliveira, Deilson Elgui

    2011-04-01

    Interleukins (ILs) 6, 10, and 13 seem to be important in the pathogenesis of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but there is insufficient data on the serum levels of these cytokines in patients with HL. To evaluate serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13 before and after HL treatment and to determine their potential association with clinical and laboratory parameters. Serum IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13 levels were quantified in the serum of 27 patients with HL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results were evaluated against clinical and laboratory parameters, response to treatment, and presence of infection by the Epstein-Barr virus. As a control group, serum samples from 26 healthy blood donors were evaluated the same way. Pretreatment serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in patients with HL (P < .001), and a significant decrease was observed after treatment (P < .001). Serum IL-13 was undetectable in both patient and control groups. Serum IL-6 was higher in patients with abdominal involvement (P  =  .02), hepatomegaly (P  =  .03), B symptoms (P  =  .02), and anemia (P  =  .02). Serum IL-10 levels were higher in patients with hypoalbuminemia (P  =  .04). No association with EBV status was observed. Lymphocytopenia and B symptoms were accurate predictors of IL-6 serum levels before treatment, and higher pretreatment levels of IL-6 were observed in patients with treatment failure (P  =  .03). Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were frequently elevated in patients with HL and decreased substantially after conventional chemotherapy. The association of elevated IL-6 and IL-10 levels in serum with some clinical and laboratory features suggests those ILs may be useful biomarkers for monitoring the HL disease and its response to chemotherapy.

  7. Food-bound B12 absorption and serum total homocysteine in patients with low serum B12 levels.

    PubMed

    Miller, A; Slingerland, D W; Hall, C A; Chu, R C

    1998-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether measurements of serum total homocysteine (Hcys) and bound B12 absorption are useful in determining which patients with low- or low-normal levels of serum B12 are B12 deficient. In 40 patients with low or borderline serum levels of B12, food-bound B12 absorptions were determined using a body counter in an iron room, and were related to serum total Hcys levels. Food-bound B12 absorption was decreased in 16 patients and in an additional four, absorption of the free vitamin was also decreased. Homocysteine levels were elevated in four of the 16; in three of the four who had both decreased bound and free B12 absorptions, Hcys was elevated. If elevation of the Hcys level indicates tissue deficiency of B12, the 75% incidence of normal levels of Hcys in these patients with low food-bound B12 absorptions suggests the existence of a cohort of patients who may be at risk to develop, but have not yet developed, B12 deficiency. Only long term follow-up will reveal how many ultimately will become B12 deficient.

  8. Serum hepcidin level correlates with hyperlipidemia status in patients following allograft renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, D; He, X; Zhou, C

    2014-01-01

    Hepcidin is synthesized and secreted by liver cells and has been reported as one of the hormone molecules that regulates iron homeostasis. To determine whether serum level of hepcidin can be used as a biomarker for the evaluation of chronic inflammatory status, iron level and renal function in patients following allograft renal transplantation, serum levels of hepcidin, interleukin (IL)-6, ferritin, serum iron, and renal functions were measured. Sixty patients were included in the current study and were further separated into groups with or without hyperlipidemia. We found that allogeneic kidney transplant recipients with hyperlipidemia have significantly increased serum levels of hepcidin, IL-6, and ferritin. The increased serum hepcidin is positively correlated with serum IL-6 and ferritin as analyzed by single-factor correlation analysis. Multivariant correlation analysis in all specimens further demonstrated that serum hepcidin negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and positively correlated with serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, serum ferritin, and IL-6. Our study demonstrated that serum level of hepcidin after allogeneic kidney transplantation not only reflects the status of chronic inflammation but can also indicate changes in renal function. Thus, hepcidin has the potential to be used as a promising marker for the detection and monitoring of the status of chronic inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and renal function in patients following allograft renal transplantation.

  9. Statistical analysis of serum pepsinogen I (PG I) and II (PG II) levels, PG I/PG II ratios and serum gastrin levels in a general population.

    PubMed

    Kazuo, A; Junichi, M

    1996-10-01

    To allow adoption of serum pepsinogen as a screening indicator of gastric cancer, serum pepsinogen I & II levels, the ratios of PG I / PG II and the serum gastrin levels in a general population were studied using 850 samples selected at random from a rural area in Japan. The collected data were analyzed statistically to determine the distribution characteristics by various categories of sex and age. The following results were obtained:1. The distributions of PG I and PG II, the ratios of PG I/PG II and serum gastrin values largely deviated from the normal distribution. Therefore, the use of non-parametrical methods was recommended for analysis of these data.2. Although no significant difference between all selected men and all selected women was observed in any of the three parameters of PG I and PG II levels and the ratios of PG I / PG II, a significant difference between men and women was observed for PG I levels in under-fifty age groups. On the other hand, the median serum gastrin value (92.0 pg/ml) in all selected men was significantly lower than that (101.0 pg/ml) in all selected women. A statistically significant difference between men and women was observed in serum gastrin levels both in the under-forty age group and in the sixty and over age group.3. No significant difference was observed in the pattern of changes in PG I levels with increasing age in either men or women. While PG II levels in men varied irregularly with advancing age, PG II levels in women showed obvious increases with advancing age. The ratios of PG I / PG II showed a tendency to decrease with advancing age in both men and women. Conversely, serum gastrin levels increased with advancing age in both men and women.

  10. The relationship between solar UV exposure, serum vitamin D levels and serum prostate-specific antigen levels, in men from New South Wales, Australia: the CHAMP study.

    PubMed

    Nair-Shalliker, Visalini; Smith, David P; Clements, Mark; Naganathan, Vasikaran; Litchfield, Melisa; Waite, Louise; Handelsman, David; Seibel, Markus J; Cumming, Robert; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2014-10-01

    We aim to determine the relationship between season, personal solar UV exposure, serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Questionnaire data and blood samples were collected at baseline from participants of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (n = 1,705), aged 70 and above. They were grouped as men 'free of prostate disease' for those with no record of having prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or prostatitis and with serum PSA levels below 20 ng/mL, and 'with prostate disease' for those with a record of either of these diseases or with serum PSA levels 20 ng/mL or above. Personal solar UV exposure (sUV) was estimated from recalled hours of outdoor exposure and weighted against ambient solar UV radiation. Sera were analysed to determine levels of PSA, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, and analysed using multiple regression, adjusting for age, BMI and region of birth. The association between sUV and serum PSA levels was conditional upon season (p interaction = 0.04). There was no direct association between serum PSA and 25(OH)D in both groups of men. There was a positive association between serum PSA and 1,25(OH)2D in men with prostate disease (mean = 110.6 pmol/L; p heterogeneity = 0.03), but there was no such association in men free of prostate disease (mean = 109.3 pmol/L; p heterogeneity = 0.8). The association between PSA and sUV may only be evident at low solar UV irradiance, and this effect may be independent of serum vitamin D levels.

  11. Correlations among serum calcium, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels in the elderly in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan-Ping; Lin, Li-Wei; Yeh, Shu-Hui; Liu, Rosa Huang; Tseng, Cheun-Fen

    2002-03-01

    This study correlates serum vitamin D levels to related hormones and dietary intakes among 57 elderly Chinese above the age of 65 who were living in the same community in rural Southern Taiwan (Pingtung) and who had no conditions or drug intake known to interfere with the metabolism of vitamin D. Demographic characteristics, past medical history, medications, and dietary intake were collected via questionnaires. Venous blood samples were collected for analyses of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Our results showed subjects in this study to have normal mean values of serum 25(OH)D, PTH and calcium levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 36.21 (+/- 6.37) ng/ml, the mean serum PTH level 29.24 (+/- 18.62) pg/ml and the mean serum calcium level 9.14 (+/- 0.52) mg/dl. While the mean serum 25(OH)D and calcium values were not found to be significantly different between men and women, the mean serum PTH level was significantly higher in women (33.42 +/- 20.00 pg/ml) than in men (23.07 +/- 14.66 pg/ml) (p <.05), and serum PTH levels were significantly negatively correlated to serum calcium (r = -.33, p <.05) but not 25(OH)D (r = -.21). A higher intake of calcium was significantly associated with higher serum calcium levels (r =.29, p <.05), but not with serum 25(OH)D levels. Results from this study suggested that the elderly people living in Pingtung, a particularly sunny region, had normal serum 25(OH)D levels. The fact that the elderly women studied had higher serum PTH levels and that these levels were negatively correlated to serum calcium levels suggests that a higher PTH level in the elderly women may be related to susceptibility for osteoporosis. In an effort to provide optimal nursing care for the elderly by minimizing hip fractures and related morbidity, further nursing studies are needed to study the effects of the environment, dietary intake and bone metabolism.

  12. Dose regimen for vancomycin not needing serum peak levels?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, W; Brown, N; Kelsall, A; McClure, R

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the safety, efficacy, and need to measure peak serum vancomycin concentrations in a neonatal population using a standard vancomycin dosage regimen. Method: A total of 101 infants who were admitted to a regional neonatal intensive care unit and received vancomycin (15 mg/kg every 12 or 18 hours depending on postnatal age) were studied retrospectively. Infants who had been started on vancomycin before they were transferred to the unit were excluded. The proportion of infants was measured whose serum vancomycin concentrations were within a conservative therapeutic range of trough 5–10 mg/l, peak 20–40 mg/l, and a less conservative, but still safe, range of trough 5–12 mg/l, peak 15–60 mg/l. Results: Trough concentrations of 5–10 mg/l were achieved by 46.5% of infants, and 5–12 mg/l by 55.4%. Peak concentrations of 20–40 mg/l were found in 83.2% of infants, and 15–60 mg/l in 99.0%. Highest peak concentration was 47.2 mg/l. Some 89.4% of infants with trough concentrations of 5–10 mg/l had a peak concentration of 20–40 mg/l. Conclusions: The vancomycin dosage regimen used in this study produces acceptable therapeutic serum vancomycin concentrations. Peak serum vancomycin concentrations do not need to be measured in neonates using this dosage regimen. PMID:12390995

  13. Serum phosphorus levels and risk of incident dementia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Xie, Yan; Bowe, Benjamin; Xian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Higher serum phosphorous is associated with cerebral small vessel disease, an important driver of cognitive decline and dementia. Whether serum phosphorous, a potentially modifiable parameter, associates with risk of incident dementia is not known. We aimed to examine the association between serum phosphorous and risk of incident dementia and to determine if the association is modified by age. We used the United States Department of Veterans Affairs national databases to build a longitudinal observational cohort of US veterans without prior history of dementia and with at least one outpatient serum phosphorus between October 2008 and September 2010 and followed them until September 2014. Serum phosphorus was categorized into quintiles: ≤2.9, >2.9 to ≤3.2, >3.2 to ≤3.5, >3.5 to ≤3.9, >3.9 mg/dL. There were 744,235 participants in the overall cohort. Over a median follow-up of 5.07 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 4.28, 5.63), adjusted Cox models show that compared to quintile 2, the risk of incident dementia was increased in quintile 4 (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.05; CI = 1.01–1.10) and quintile 5 (HR = 1.14; CI = 1.09–1.20). In cohort participants ≤60 years old, the risk of incident dementia was increased in quintile 4 (HR = 1.29; CI = 1.12–1.49) and 5 (HR = 1.45; CI = 1.26–1.68). In participants > 60 years old, the risk was not significant in quintile 4, and was attenuated in quintile 5 (HR = 1.10; CI = 1.05–1.16). Formal interaction analyses showed that the association between phosphorous and dementia was more pronounced in those younger than 60, and attenuated in those older than 60 (P for interaction was 0.004 and <0.0001 in quintiles 4 and 5; respectively). We conclude that higher serum phosphorous is associated with increased risk of incident dementia. This association is stronger in younger cohort participants. The identification of serum phosphorous as a risk factor for incident dementia has public health relevance and might inform the

  14. Comparisons of serum sclerostin levels among patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, primary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Kaji, H; Imanishi, Y; Sugimoto, T; Seino, S

    2011-07-01

    Wnt-β-catenin signaling is important for bone formation. Sclerostin inhibits bone formation mainly by suppressing this signal, and several studies suggest that the suppression of sclerostin expression contributes to the bone anabolic action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We therefore examined serum sclerostin levels using enzyme-linked immunosolvent assay in 18 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, 9 postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and 7 patients with osteomalacia. Serum levels of sclerostin were significantly lower in the group with pHPT, compared with those with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, serum sclerostin levels were significantly lower in the group with tumor-induced osteomalacia, but not in the group with osteomalacia without tumor, compared with those with postmenopausal osteoporosis. In patients with pHPT, serum sclerostin levels were significantly and negatively correlated to serum calcium and PTH levels. In patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels of sclerostin levels were significantly and positively related to serum calcium and creatinine levels. In conclusion, we showed that serum sclerostin levels are decreased presumably through endogenous PTH elevation in postmenopausal women with pHPT, compared with the patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  15. Association of androgen with gender difference in serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical investigations have indicated women have higher levels of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) than men. The present study aimed to identify factors related to gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. A total of 507 participants (194 men, 132 premenopausal women, and 181 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in the present study. Serum A-FABP levels increased in the order from men to premenopausal women to postmenopausal women in both body mass index categories (<25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m2; all P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that after adjustment for factors related to serum A-FABP levels, the trunk fat mass was an independent and positive factor of serum A-FABP levels. For men, total testosterone was associated independently and inversely with serum A-FABP levels. For pre- and postmenopausal women, bioavailable testosterone and total testosterone were independent and positive factors associated with serum A-FABP levels, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the androgen was correlated with the serum A-FABP levels negatively in men, but positively in women. With these effects on the fat content, especially trunk fat, androgen might contribute to the gender difference in serum A-FABP levels. PMID:27270834

  16. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    He, Binfeng; Li, Hongli; Hu, Mingdong; Dong, Weijie; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Yao, Wei; Guo, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, baseline serum levels of MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, while SOD and IL-10 levels were lower in HADAS subjects compared with controls (p < 0.05). It is interesting that serum levels of IL-17A were clearly interrelated with HADAS incidence and severity (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that combined serum IL-17A and IL-10 levels were a better predictor of HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS. PMID:27190491

  17. Comparison of serum BDNF levels in deficit and nondeficit chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Amann, Benedikt L; Mármol, Frederic; Oliveira, Cristina; Messeguer, Ana; Lafuente, Amalia; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Bernardo Arroyo, Miguel

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare serum BDNF levels of chronic schizophrenic patients, with or without deficit syndrome, and healthy controls. A comparative study of serum BDNF levels, determined by ELISA, was performed in 47 chronic patients with schizophrenia matched with 47 healthy controls. A part of the chronic schizophrenic sample was further divided into patients with a deficit (n=14) and a nondeficit syndrome (n=20), according to the Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome Scale. A significant difference was observed in decreased serum BDNF levels between chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls. No statistical significant differences in BDNF levels between deficit and nondeficit chronic schizophrenic patients were found. Our study confirms differences of serum BDNF levels of chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls, which correspond to the clinical progression of the disease. Our results do not support a relation between deficit profile in chronic schizophrenia and lower serum BDNF levels.

  18. Value of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and neopterin in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Lacoma, Alicia; Prat, Cristina; Andreo, Felipe; Lores, Luis; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Ausina, Vicente; Domínguez, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The identification of biological markers in order to assess different aspects of COPD is an area of growing interest. The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and neopterin in COPD patients could be useful in identifying the etiological origin of the exacerbation and assessing its prognosis. Methods: We included 318 consecutive COPD patients: 46 in a stable phase, 217 undergoing an exacerbation, and 55 with pneumonia. A serum sample was collected from each patient at the time of being included in the study. A second sample was also collected 1 month later from 23 patients in the exacerbation group. We compared the characteristics, biomarker levels, microbiological findings, and prognosis in each patient group. PCT and CRP were measured using an immunofluorescence assay. Neopterin levels were measured using a competitive immunoassay. Results: PCT and CRP showed significant differences among the three patient groups, being higher in patients with pneumonia, followed by patients with exacerbation (P < 0.0001). For the 23 patients with paired samples, PCT and CRP levels decreased 1 month after the exacerbation episode, while neopterin increased. Neopterin showed significantly lower levels in exacerbations with isolation of pathogenic bacteria, but no differences were found for PCT and CRP. No significant differences were found when comparing biomarker levels according to the Gram result: PCT (P = 0.191), CRP (P = 0.080), and neopterin (P = 0.109). However, median values of PCT and CRP were high for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and enterobacteria. All biomarkers were higher in patients who died within 1 month after the sample collection than in patients who died later on. Conclusions: According to our results, biomarker levels vary depending on the clinical status. However, the identification of the etiology of infectious exacerbation by means of circulating biomarkers

  19. Titanium release in serum of patients with different bone fixation implants and its interaction with serum biomolecules at physiological levels.

    PubMed

    Nuevo-Ordóñez, Yoana; Montes-Bayón, M; Blanco-González, E; Paz-Aparicio, J; Raimundez, J Diánez; Tejerina, J M; Peña, M A; Sanz-Medel, A

    2011-11-01

    Increased concentrations of circulating metal-degradation products derived from the use of Ti orthopaedic implants may have deleterious biological effects over the long term. Therefore, there is an increasing need to establish the basal level of Ti in the serum of the population (exposed and non-exposed) with appropriate highly sensitive techniques and strategies. With this aim, we have developed a quantitative strategy for the determination of total Ti concentration in human serum samples by isotope dilution analysis using a double-focussing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Minimizing sample handling and therefore contamination issues, we obtained detection limits of about 0.05 μg L(-1) Ti working at medium resolution (m/Δm 4000). Such extremely good sensitivity permitted us to establish the range of Ti concentration in serum of 40 control individuals (mean 0.26 μg L(-1)) and also to compare it with the level in exposed patients with different Ti metal implants. On the other hand, Ti transport "in vivo" studies have been enabled by online coupling of liquid chromatography (anion-exchange) separation and double-focussing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for sensitive detection of Ti. The development of a postcolumn isotope dilution strategy permitted quantitative characterization of the Ti-transporting biomolecules in human serum. The results for unspiked serum revealed that 99.8% of the Ti present in this fluid is bound to the protein transferrin, with column recoveries greater than 95%.

  20. Relationship between Decrease in Serum Sodium Level and Bone Mineral Density in Osteoporotic Fracture Patients.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Mi Kyung; Choi, Dughyun; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Suh, Kyo Il; Yoo, Myung Hi; Byun, Dong Won

    2015-02-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that decrease in serum sodium level is associated with osteoporosis. However, no study in Korea has reported the association of decrease in serum sodium level with osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the decrease in serum sodium level and severity of osteoporotic fracture in patients. We enrolled 290 subjects who were admitted and operated at Soonchunhyang University Hospital due to major fractures. For the control group, we enrolled 1,027 subjects who visited a health promotion center. We carried a 1:1 matching with age and sex from the case group. In a total of 164 age- and sex-matched subjects, serum sodium level was significantly lower in the fracture group than in the non-fracture group (P=0.001). Serum sodium level was significantly lower in the severe osteoporosis group than that in the non-severe osteoporosis group (P=0.002). Old age and decrease in serum sodium level were independent risk factors of osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR]=1.088, P=0.008, confidence interval [CI]=[1.022-1.157]; OR= 0.840, P=0.037, CI=0.713-0.989). Serum sodium level was significantly lower in the fracture group than that in the non-fracture group and in the severe osteoporosis group than that in the non-severe osteoporosis group. Based on our results, the decrease in serum sodium level could be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis.

  1. Serum calcium level of freshwater snake, Natrix piscator, in response to vitamin D3 administration.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, A K; Srivastav, S P; Srivastav, S K; Swarup, K

    1986-01-01

    The effect of i.m. injection of vitamin D3 (25 IU/100 g b.wt) on serum calcium level was investigated in Natrix piscator. This treatment evokes hypercalcemia at day 3 which progresses up to day 5. Thereafter, a decline was observed in the serum calcium level at day 10 and day 15.

  2. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 correlate with poor prognosis in colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pang, Li; Wang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Da-Hai; Meng, Xiang-Wei

    2016-03-11

    Matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) has been shown to play a key role in human tumor progression and indicates poor clinical outcome in cancer patients. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of MMP-11 and prognosis in colon cancer patients. Serum levels of MMP-11 were determined in 92 colon cancer patients and 92 healthy individuals using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Associations between serum MMP-11 levels and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients and their outcomes were investigated. Survival analyses were performed to measure the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Serum MMP-11 levels were substantially higher in colon cancer patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, serum MMP-11 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced T status, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and a higher TNM stage. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 were identified as an independent prognostic factor for 5-year mortality and adverse events associated with colon cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified the serum MMP-11 level as an independent predictor of OS and DFS. Our study established that high serum levels of MMP-11 are associated with poor clinical outcome and may serve as a prognostic biomarker in colon cancer patients.

  3. Possible association of elevated serum collagen type IV level with skin sclerosis in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Chisako; Toki, Sayaka; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-08-29

    Collagen type IV is the primary collagen in the basement membranes around blood vessels and in the dermoepidermal junction in the skin. Perivascular collagen type IV is synthesized by endothelial cells and pericytes, and contributes to the homeostasis and remodeling of blood vessels. It has been well recognized that elevated serum collagen type IV levels are associated with the liver fibrosis. The objective was to examine serum collagen type IV levels and their clinical associations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to examine the expression of collagen type IV in the fibrotic skin in SSc. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients and diffuse cutaneous type SSc patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals. Serum collagen type IV levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. Serum collagen type IV levels in early stage (disease duration ≤3 years) diffuse cutaneous SSc patients were significantly elevated. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients with digital ulcers (DU) were significantly elevated. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of collagen type IV around dermal small vessels in the affected skin was reduced compared with those of normal individuals. These results suggest that elevated serum collagen type IV levels may be associated with the skin sclerosis in the early stage of SSc. The measurement of serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients may be useful as a disease activity marker in skin sclerosis and DU.

  4. Serum leptin levels in gastric cancer patients and the relationship with insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Mehmet; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Emre, Habib; Kemik, Ahu; Kemik, Ozgur; Esen, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Serum leptin levels have been examined in various cancers, with conflicting results. However, there is limited information regarding serum leptin levels and insulin resistance in gastric cancer patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate serum leptin levels, performance status, insulin levels and insulin resistance in patients with gastric cancer. In addition, we examined the relationship between these measurements and leptin levels. Material and methods Thirty-nine patients with gastric cancer and 30 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum leptin, total protein, albumin, growth hormone, insulin and glucose levels were measured. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess insulin resistance. Results Serum levels of insulin, glucose and growth hormone and insulin resistance were significantly lower in gastric cancer patients than controls (p < 0.05 for all). In the Pearson correlation analysis, insulin resistance was found to be significantly correlated with serum leptin levels in gastric cancer patients (r = 0.320, p = 0.047). We observed a significant negative correlation between performance status and insulin resistance in patients with cachexia (r = –0.512, p = 0.030), while no association was found in non-cachectic patients. Conclusions We concluded that serum leptin levels are significantly lower in gastric cancer patients. In addition, gastric cancer patients have decreases in insulin levels, insulin resistance and growth hormone levels. This study found a positive association between serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Moreover, there is a negative association between serum leptin levels and growth hormone levels. Thus, low insulin and growth hormone levels may suppress the production of leptin in gastric cancer patients. PMID:25995751

  5. Organochlorine pesticide levels in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, and milk from inhabitants of Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Aguirre, A A; Infanzon, R M; Silva, C S; Siliceo, J

    2001-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their persistence, accumulate in food chains and cause elevated contamination in human beings. These residues bioconcentrate in lipid-rich tissues according to the equilibrium pattern of internal transport and lipid tissue content. The analyses of maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, colostrum, and mature milk indicate circulation of these compounds through all compartments of the maternal body, including their crossover of the placental barrier. The greatest residue levels found correspond to DDTs, with highest levels determined in colostrum (5.71 mg/kg of DDT total), followed by adipose tissue with 5.66 mg/kg and in mature milk with 4.70 mg/kg. Among DDTs, pp'DDE is the most predominant compound. The paired analyses of organochlorine pesticide residue levels between mother blood serum and umbilical blood serum demonstrate significant correlation and their transfer from mother to fetus through the placenta. The paired analyses of adipose tissue and colostrum and mature milk contamination levels indicate a high degree of coherence, principally of DDT, in the body and lactation as a decontamination means.

  6. The relationship between levels of plasma-soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and presence of migraine attack and aura.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Nigar; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Sirin, Burcu; Yılmaztekin, Sureyya; Kutlu, Gülnihal

    2017-10-01

    Migraine is one of the most common types of pain associated with sterile inflammatory conditions. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a potential novel inflammatory marker. We aim to determine the association between serum values of suPAR, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and migraine disease characteristics. The study involved a total of 60 migraine patients (33 patients in the interictal period, 27 patients in the attack period) and 30 healthy individuals. The serum values of suPAR were found to be significantly higher in migraine patients in the attack period than in migraine patients in the interictal period, and in healthy individuals (p < .01 for both). In addition, levels of suPAR were determined to be higher in migraine with aura patients than in migraine without aura patients. When we subdivided migraine patients according to frequency of attack (attacks/month), significant differences were found between the suPAR and procalcitonin levels (measured during the attack period) of those in the frequent-attack group (4-5 or more) versus those in the less frequent attack group (less than 4). Serum levels of procalcitonin were shown to be significantly higher in migraine patients during the attack period compared with migraine patients in the interictal period and in control subjects (p = .001 for both). Significant differences were found between plasma levels of fibrinogen in migraine patients versus control subjects (p < .01). No statistically significant difference was found between levels of hs-CRP in migraine patients versus the control group. These findings may show that presenting a high level of suPAR in migraine patients with attack and aura results to predisposition to occurring on the symptoms and that high levels of suPAR, procalcitonin and fibrinogen in patients with migraine result in neurogenic inflammation during migraine headaches.

  7. Changes of serum trace elements level in patients with alopecia areata: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Waishu; Zheng, Haibo; Shan, Baihui; Wu, Yi

    2017-02-02

    Abnormalities of serum trace elements are involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of alopecia areata (AA); however, the results of published studies are controversial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the alterations of serum level of trace elements and AA using a meta-analysis approach. We searched all articles indexed in PubMed, Embase and Science Citation Index published up to 30 April 2016 concerning the association between serum level of zinc, copper, iron/ferritin, selenium or magnesium and AA. Ten eligible articles involving 764 subjects were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that patients with AA had a lower serum level of zinc (P < 10(-4) ) and selenium (P < 10(-4) ) than the healthy controls. However, there was no significant difference between the AA patients and controls in the levels of serum copper (P = 0.81), serum iron (P = 0.36), serum ferritin (P = 0.37) and serum magnesium (P = 0.07). This meta-analysis suggests that low serum levels of zinc and selenium seem to be important risk factors for AA.

  8. Significance of increased serum elastase 1 level during the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Umeki, S; Watanabe, M; Yagi, S; Soejima, R

    1987-10-01

    An alteration in the serum elastase 1 level in a previously non-diabetic patient, who unfortunately developed the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic syndrome (HHNS), was observed after intravenous hyperalimentation for 6 days. The patient underwent the therapy because of the occurrence of severe persistent anorexia which appeared as a side effect of treatment of lung cancer with combined anticancer drugs. In parallel with progressive dehydration, levels of serum elastase 1 and urine glucose became greatly elevated at an earlier stage of HHNS. A slight increase in serum alpha 1-antitrypsin was observed. However, there were no significant changes in serum amylase activity and serum alpha 2-macroglobulin level before or during HHNS. The elevation of the serum elastase 1 level was considered to be due to serum electrolyte abnormalities and the defect of serum alpha 2-macro-globulin elevation. Rehydration therapy with half-normal saline solution immediately produced negative urine glucose, but the serum elastase 1 level only gradually normalized after improvement of HHNS.

  9. Increased Serum Level of Cyclopropaneoctanoic Acid 2-Hexyl in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Chmielewski, Michal; Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Kaska, Lukasz; Proczko, Monika; Ratnicki-Sklucki, Krzysztof; Sledzinski, Maciej; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported the presence of various cyclopropane fatty acids-among them, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl-in the adipose tissue of obese women. The aim of this study was to verify whether the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human serum was associated with obesity or chronic kidney disease (both being related to dyslipidemia), and to find potential associations between the serum level of this compound and specific markers of the these conditions. The serum concentration of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in non-obese controls, obese patients, obese patients after a 3-month low-calorie diet, and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Obese patients and those with chronic kidney disease presented with higher serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl than controls. Switching obese individuals to a low-calorie (low-lipid) diet resulted in a reduction in this fatty acid concentration to the level observed in controls. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was also found in foods derived from animal fat. Serum concentrations of triacylglycerols in the analyzed groups followed a pattern similar to that for serum cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, and these variables were positively correlated with each other among the studied groups. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia-related conditions presented with elevated serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl. Our findings suggest that its high serum level is related to high serum triacylglycerol concentrations rather than to body mass or BMI.

  10. Serum bilirubin levels and cardiovascular disease risk: a Janus Bifrons?

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Targher, Giovanni; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    This review examines in vitro and in vivo studies, indicating that bilirubin inhibits lipid oxidation and oxygen radical formation. Experimental and epidemiological evidence is presented that suggests that bilirubin may serve as a physiological antioxidant providing protection against cardiovascular disease. Special attention is focused on large prospective studies that noted a strong, inverse relationship between serum bilirubin concentrations and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality even after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Overall, the evidence from these studies suggests that bilirubin, via its antioxidant potential, has antiatherogenic properties, and that serum bilirubin concentrations in the upper portion of the reference interval for the general population may provide some protection against cardiovascular disease, whereas concentrations in the lower portion of the reference interval indicate increased cardiovascular risk.

  11. Nearly lethal resuscitated suicide attempters have no low serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    To verify the hypothesis that suicide attempts are associated with lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels of patients with mood disorders, 26 patients with mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder) were admitted after a medically serious suicide attempt to the emergency department and then hospitalized in the psychiatric unit of the Sant' Andrea Hospital (Rome, Italy). Controls were 87 patients who had not made a recent suicide attempt. Attempters and nonattempters did not differ in the levels of serum cholesterol or triglycerides. Indeed, attempters had nonsignificantly higher serum levels of cholesterol and lower serum levels of triglycerides. The use of biologic indicators such as levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the prediction of suicide risk in mood disorders was not fully supported from this small sample.

  12. Serum antioxidants and nitric oxide levels in fibromyalgia: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sendur, Omer Faruk; Turan, Yasemin; Tastaban, Engin; Yenisey, Cigdem; Serter, Mukadder

    2009-04-01

    We proposed to assess antioxidant status and nitric oxide in fibromyalgia (FM) patients in comparison to healthy controls. Additionally, the association between the serum antioxidant levels and clinical findings in FM patients was also investigated. Thirty-seven FM patients and 37 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Severity of fatigue and pain were determined by Visual Analogue Scale. Functional capacity in daily living activities was evaluated by fibromyalgia impact questionnaire. Serum NO, catalase and glutathione were measured. Serum glutathione and catalase levels were significantly lower in FM patients than controls. However, no significant difference was seen in serum NO levels between the two groups. A significant correlation was evident between serum NO level and pain. Additionally, the correlation between glutathione level and morning stiffness was found to be significant. These findings support other studies, we assume that these two antioxidants might have impact on the pathogenesis of FM disease.

  13. Serum Resistin Levels May Contribute to an Increased Risk of Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Liu; Xu, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Liu, Ting; Gao, Qiu-Yan; Qian, Qing-Qiang; Sun, Bao-Liang; Yang, Ming-Feng

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum resistin levels and acute cerebral infarction (ACI). PubMed, SpringerLink, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP databases (last updated search in October 2014) were exhaustively searched, and data from the eligible studies were extracted and analyzed to assess the association between serum resistin levels and ACI. STATA software (version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for data analysis. Ten studies including 1829 ACI patients and 1557 healthy controls were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Our major result revealed that ACI patients exhibited higher serum resistin levels compared with healthy controls. Asubgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed a significant association between serum resistin levels and ACI in Asians, but surprisingly not in Caucasians. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that serum resistin levels are associated with an increased risk of ACI.

  14. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in patients with eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yoshihide; Ihn, Hironobu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Tamaki, Zenshiro; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2014-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), a member of the collagenase family, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases characterized by extracellular matrix remodeling. Since serum MMP-13 levels reflect disease severity of systemic sclerosis and localized scleroderma, we evaluated the clinical significance of serum MMP-13 levels in eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). All the EF patients had serum MMP-13 levels lower than the mean - 2SD of healthy controls. Serum MMP-13 levels were also significantly decreased in EF patients compared with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and generalized morphea patients. Although serum MMP-13 levels did not reflect any clinical and serological features of EF, these results indicate that MMP-13 may be involved in the development of this disease. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Male accessory gland infection: relevance of serum total testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Condorelli, R A; Calogero, A E; Vicari, E; Favilla, V; Cimino, S; Russo, G I; Morgia, G; La Vignera, S

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection) according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT). We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT < 3.6 ng mL(-1) had a higher mean duration of symptoms compared to the other examined groups. Patients with serum concentrations of TT > 6.6 ng mL(-1) showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675-0.992]; P < 0.01) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578-0.880]; P < 0.01), which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients.

  16. Clinical significance of serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels in cutaneous melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Bilgin, Elif; Karabulut, Senem; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2016-07-01

    Laminin and type-IV collagen constitute a significant portion of the extracellular matrix. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the serum concentrations of laminin and type-IV collagen may serve as biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Sixty pathologically confirmed melanoma patients were enrolled in the study. Serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels were assessed using an ELISA. Thirty healthy controls were also examined. No significant differences in the baseline serum levels of laminin were identified between melanoma patients and healthy controls (P=0.45). However, the baseline serum levels of type-IV collagen were significantly elevated in melanoma patients compared with those in the control group (P<0.001). Clinical parameters, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histopathology, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and responsiveness to chemotherapy were found not to be associated with the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen (P>0.05). Furthermore, the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen had no prognostic value regarding the outcome for melanoma patients (P=0.36 and P=0.26, respectively). While laminin levels showed no diagnostic value, the serum concentrations of type-IV collagen were indicated to serve as a diagnostic marker in patients with cutaneous melanoma. In conclusion, type-IV collagen levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for cutaneous melanoma, while being void of any prognostic value.

  17. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level.

    PubMed

    Lau, Cheryl K; Guo, Maggie; Viczko, Jeannine A; Naugler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs), biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157 276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada) between 01 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  18. Clinical significance of serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels in cutaneous melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; BILGIN, ELIF; KARABULUT, SENEM; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Laminin and type-IV collagen constitute a significant portion of the extracellular matrix. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the serum concentrations of laminin and type-IV collagen may serve as biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Sixty pathologically confirmed melanoma patients were enrolled in the study. Serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels were assessed using an ELISA. Thirty healthy controls were also examined. No significant differences in the baseline serum levels of laminin were identified between melanoma patients and healthy controls (P=0.45). However, the baseline serum levels of type-IV collagen were significantly elevated in melanoma patients compared with those in the control group (P<0.001). Clinical parameters, including patient age, gender, localization of lesion, histopathology, stage of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations and responsiveness to chemotherapy were found not to be associated with the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen (P>0.05). Furthermore, the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen had no prognostic value regarding the outcome for melanoma patients (P=0.36 and P=0.26, respectively). While laminin levels showed no diagnostic value, the serum concentrations of type-IV collagen were indicated to serve as a diagnostic marker in patients with cutaneous melanoma. In conclusion, type-IV collagen levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for cutaneous melanoma, while being void of any prognostic value. PMID:27330797

  19. The utility of procalcitonin in the prediction of serious bacterial infection in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Matha, S M; Rahiman, S N; Gelbart, B G; Duke, T D

    2016-09-01

    To determine utility of procalcitonin (PCT) for the prediction of bacterial infection in critically ill children, we analysed the relationship between serum PCT, cultures and other laboratory markers of bacterial sepsis or viral infection in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The outcome measures were levels of PCT in proven bacteraemia, pneumonia and viral respiratory infection; and comparison of PCT to immature to total neutrophil ratio (ITR) in prediction of bacteraemia. In 420 children with suspected sepsis, 1,226 serum PCT levels were analysed. Children with bacteraemia had a higher median PCT (2.03 ng/ml, interquartile range [IQR] 0.67-42.4) than those who did not have bacteraemia (0.82 ng/ml, IQR 0.295-2.87) (P=0.033). PCT was a significant but only moderate predictor of bacteraemia (AUC 0.65). In 866 episodes of suspected sepsis where paired PCT and ITR were performed, the median ITR in children with bacteraemia was 0.19 ng/ml (IQR 0.04-0.35), and the median PCT was 6.5 ng/ml (IQR 0.71-61.8). PCT was a marginally better predictor of bacteraemia (AUC 0.69) than the ITR (AUC 0.66). In children with viral respiratory tract infection only, the median PCT was 1.26 ng/ml (0.35-5.5), and in those with likely bacterial pneumonia the median PCT was 0.80 ng/ml (IQR 0.28-1.70). In a heterogeneous population of children in a tertiary PICU, PCT measured at a single timepoint was a moderate predictor of proven bacteraemia. In our population PCT did not reliably identify localised bacterial infection or distinguish bacterial from viral respiratory infection.

  20. Serum cystatin C level is an excellent predictor of mortality in patients with cirrhotic ascites.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeon Seok; Park, Soo Young; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Sang Gyune; Park, Jun Yong; Yim, Hyung Joon; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Park, Seung Ha; Kim, Ji Hoon; Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Jin Dong; Kim, Tae Yeob; Cho, Eun Young; Lee, Jun Sung; Jung, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; An, Hyonggin; Tak, Won Young; Baik, Soon Koo; Hwang, Jae Seok; Kim, Young Seok; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Um, Soon Ho

    2017-09-14

    Although serum cystatin C level is considered a more accurate marker of renal function in patients with liver cirrhosis, its prognostic efficacy remains uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic efficacy of serum cystatin C level in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Patients with cirrhotic ascites from 15 hospitals were prospectively enrolled between September 2009 and March 2013. Cox regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictive factors of mortality and development of type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-1). In total, 350 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 55.4 ± 10.8 years, and 267 patients (76.3%) were men. The leading cause of liver cirrhosis was alcoholic liver disease (64.3%), followed by chronic viral hepatitis (29.7%). Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were 0.9 ± 0.4 mg/dL and 1.1 ± 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that international normalized ratio (INR) and serum bilirubin, sodium, and cystatin C levels were independent predictors of mortality and INR and serum sodium and cystatin C levels were independent predictors of the development of HRS-1. Serum creatinine level was not significantly associated with mortality and development of HRS-1 on multivariate analysis. Serum cystatin C level was an independent predictor of mortality and development of HRS-1 in patients with cirrhotic ascites, while serum creatinine level was not. Predictive models based on serum cystatin C level instead of serum creatinine level would be more helpful in the assessment of the condition and prognosis of patients with cirrhotic ascites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunoglobulin A levels in serum and saliva of patients treated with phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Akalin, F A; Yavuzyilmaz, E; Ersoy, F; Kalfa, Z; Müftüoglu, M

    1993-03-01

    A study was conducted to compare IgA levels in serum and saliva obtained from phenytoin-treated epileptic patients (PHT-TEPs) and a control group and to examine the correlation between IgA levels and clinical parameters. Eighteen epileptic patients treated with phenytoin and 18 periodontally healthy individuals with no systemic disease were included in the study. Clinical parameters were recorded, and samples of serum and saliva were obtained from each individual. IgA levels were determined by the radial immunodiffusion technique. Serum IgA levels were significantly lower in PHT-TEPs. No difference was found in salivary IgA levels between the PHT-TEP and control groups. Weak negative correlations were found between serum IgA level and gingival overgrowth index (GOI), and between salivary IgA level and GOI. None of the clinical parameters was significantly correlated with IgA level in the PHT-TEP group.

  2. Procalcitonin is useful in identifying bacteraemia among children with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana M; Cardoso, Maria-Regina A; Barral, Aldina; Araújo-Neto, César A; Guerin, Sylvie; Saukkoriipi, Annika; Paldanius, Mika; Vainionpää, Raija; Lebon, Pierre; Leinonen, Maija; Ruuskanen, Olli; Gendrel, Dominique

    2010-09-01

    Empirical antibiotic use is prescribed in managing children with pneumonia worldwide. We assessed the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in differentiating viral from bacterial pneumonia. Among 159 hospitalized children, pneumonia was diagnosed based on clinical complaints plus pulmonary infiltrate. Aetiology was investigated for 9 viruses and 4 atypical and 3 typical bacteria. PCT and IFN-alpha were measured in the serum sample collected on admission. Eight patients had bacteraemic infections, 38 had non-bacteraemic typical infections, and 19 patients had atypical bacterial infections. Viral and unknown aetiology was established in 57 (36%) and 34 (21%) cases, respectively. Three patients with bacterial infection without collected blood culture were excluded. IFN-alpha (IU/ml) was detectable in 20 (13%) cases. The difference among median PCT values of the bacteraemic (4.22; 1.56-7.56), non-bacteraemic typical bacterial (1.47; 0.24-4.07), atypical bacterial (0.18; 0.06-1.03) and only viral (0.65; 0.11-2.22) subgroups was significant (p = 0.02). PCT was > or =2 ng/ml in 52 (33%) cases. The presence of IFN-alpha was associated with PCT <2 ng/ml (90% vs. 64%, p = 0.02). The negative predictive value (95% confidence interval) of PCT > or =2 ng/ml was 95% (89-100%), 89% (78-100%), 93% (85-100%) for differentiation of bacteraemic from viral, atypical bacterial and non-bacteraemic typical bacterial infection, respectively, and 58% (49-68%) for differentiation between bacterial and viral infection. PCT may be useful in identifying bacteraemia among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. IFN-alpha was uncommonly detected.

  3. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  4. Different mechanical loading protocols influence serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels in young healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Niehoff, A; Kersting, U G; Helling, S; Dargel, J; Maurer, J; Thevis, M; Brüggemann, G-P

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a relationship between the loading mode of physical activity and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentration exists and whether the lymphatic system contributes to COMP release into the serum. Serum COMP levels were determined in healthy male subjects before, after and at 18 further time points within 7 h at four separate experimental days with four different loading interventions. The loading intervention included high impact running exercise, slow but deep knee bends, and lymphatic drainage of 30 min duration, respectively, and a resting protocol. The serum COMP levels were measured using a commercially available quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An increase (p < 0.001) in serum COMP concentration was detected immediately after 30 min running exercise. Slow but deep knee bends did not cause any significant changes in serum COMP levels. Lymphatic drainage also had no effect on the serum COMP concentration. After 30 min of complete rest the serum COMP level was significantly (p = 0.008) reduced. The elevation of COMP serum concentration seems to depend on the loading mode of the physical activity and to reflect the extrusion of COMP fragments from the impact loaded articular cartilage or synovial fluid.

  5. Serum testosterone levels after medical or surgical androgen deprivation: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and the androgen receptor play a role in the progression of prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. ADT is expected to reduce serum testosterone levels from a normal level of about 500 to 600 ng/dl (17.3-20.8 nmol) down to castration levels. Traditionally, castration was considered to be achieved if testosterone levels were lowered to a threshold of 50 ng/dl (1.73 nmol/l), a definition determined more by measurement methods derived from the use of old assay methods than by evidence. Serum testosterone levels in three-quarter patients after surgical castration drop to less than 20 ng/dl (0.69 nmol/l). Ineffective suppression of testosterone is currently poorly recognized and may possibly have an effect of prostate cancer mortality. Persistent levels of serum testosterone after castration are mainly derived from adrenal androgens. Furthermore, the arrival of new therapies targeting androgen synthesis and androgen receptor activity has renewed interest on serum testosterone. This review discusses the biosynthetic pathway for androgen synthesis in humans and provides a comprehensive review of serum testosterone levels after surgical or medical castration. This review assesses serum testosterone levels after surgical castration and different pharmacologic castration in patients with prostate cancer under ADT, and ineffective testosterone suppression. The author proposes methods to better lower serum testosterone levels during ADT.

  6. Elevated serum levels of APRIL, but not BAFF, in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Takashi; Fujimoto, Manabu; Echigo, Takeshi; Matsushita, Yukiyo; Shimada, Yuka; Hasegawa, Minoru; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2008-03-01

    Elevated serum levels of B-cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and/or a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) are shown in autoimmune diseases. We determined serum levels of BAFF and APRIL, and clinical association in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Serum levels of BAFF and APRIL from 35 patients with AD, 25 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 25 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 25 normal healthy subjects were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of APRIL, but not BAFF, were significantly elevated in patients with AD than in healthy controls or patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Patients with severe AD exhibited significantly increased APRIL levels compared to patients with moderate AD and mild AD, and serum APRIL levels were significantly decreased after treatment compared with those before treatment. In addition, increased APRIL levels were significantly associated with serum immunoglobulin E levels and blood eosinophil numbers. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of APRIL are associated with disease severity and activity in AD, and APRIL may have an important role in the pathogenesis of AD.

  7. Chronic Depression of Serum Sialic Acid Levels in Alloxan-Induced Diabetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    AFRRI SR74-25 OCTOBER 1974 AFRRI SCIENTIFIC REPORT CHRONIC DEPRESSION OF SERUM SIALIC ACID LEVELS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETES R. J. O. Woods...1974 CHRONIC DEPRESSION OF SERUM SIALIC ACID LEVELS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETES R. J. O. WOODS P. Z. SOBOCINSKI W. J. CANTERBURY...occurs with no apparent alteration in the level of L-fucose. The depression in sialic acid level may be attributed in part to decreased activities of

  8. Serum sialic acid and glycoprotein levels in some Libyan cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Balo, N N; Ishaq, M

    1991-01-01

    Sialic acid is a common conjugate of some serum glycoproteins and glycolipids. Elevated levels of serum sialic acid and alterations in serum glycoproteins have been observed in certain types of cancer. In this study sialic acid concentration in the sera of patients with various types of cancer was determined. In addition to this, serum glycoproteins were also analysed by electrophoretic method. Our results indicate that serum sialic acid levels are generally raised in all types of cancer studied. This increase was more pronounced in case of lung, bronchogenic, intestinal and breast cancer. Some alterations in the serum glycoprotein profiles were also observed, particularly in bronchogenic and gall bladder cancer where an additional band in the low molecular weight region was present and in lung, breast and lymphoma where a band in the middle molecular weight region was found missing when compared with normals.

  9. Procalcitonin as a marker of sepsis and outcome in patients with neurotrauma: an observation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Procalcitonin (PCT) is a reliable biomarker of sepsis and infection. The level of PCT associated with sepsis and infection in patients with traumatic brain injury is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP) as diagnostic markers of sepsis and to evaluate the prognostic value of these markers related to the severity of injury, sepsis and mortality. Methods 105 adult patients with neurotrauma were enrolled in this study from June 2011 to February 2013. PCT and CRP were measured at admission and 2, 3, 5 and 7 days after admission. The sepsis criteria established by American College of Chest Physicians /Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference were used to identify patients. Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were used to assess the severity of the injury. All these patients were monitored for 28 days. Results At admission, the median level of PCT was consistent with the severity of brain injury as follows: mild 0.08 ng/ml (0.05 - 0.13), moderate 0.25 ng/ml (0.11 - 0.55) and severe 0.31 ng/ml (0.17 - 0.79), but the range of CRP levels varied greatly within the given severity of brain injury. Seventy-one (67.6%) patients developed sepsis. The initial levels of PCT at admission were statistically higher in patients with sepsis, compared with patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), but there were no differences in the initial concentration of CRP between sepsis and SIRS. After adjusting for these parameters, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that PCT was an independent risk factor for septic complications (p < 0.05). The areas under the ROCs at admission for the prediction of mortality were 0.76 (p < 0.05) and 0.733 for PCT and CRP, respectively. Conclusions Increased levels of PCT during the course of the ICU stay could be an important indicator for the early diagnosis of sepsis after neurotrauma. In

  10. Serum leptin level has a positive correlation with BMI and creatinine clearance in CAPD patients.

    PubMed

    Seirafian, S; Momeni, A; Taheri, S; Mortazavi, M; Paknahad, Z

    2012-01-01

    In a cross sectional study, 75 patients (42 males and 33 females) on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were enrolled from October 2007 to February 2008. Serum levels of leptin, albumin, triglyceride, dialysis adequacy (total KT/V), renal creatinine clearance (Cr Cl), mid arm circumference and demographic findings were measured in all patients. The mean age of patients was 53±14.76. The history of hemodialysis was seen in 23 patients. Mean serum leptin level in women and men were 27±23µg/l and 16±13µg/l, respectively. A significant correlation of serum leptin level with body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001) and renal Cr Cl (p<0.001) was found. There was no significant correlation of serum leptin level with KT/V, duration of renal failure, serum triglycerides (TG), serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and mid arm circumference (p>0.05). To our knowledge, this is probably the first study to report that serum leptin level has a direct positive correlation with renal Cr Cl in CAPD patients. This may explain the increase in mortality in patients with lower serum leptin levels (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 25).

  11. Association Between Serum Levels of Vitamin D and the Risk of Post-Stroke Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaowen; Ren, Wenwei; Cheng, Jianhua; Zhu, Beilei; Jin, Qianqian; Wang, Liping; Chen, Cao; Zhu, Lin; Chang, Yaling; Gu, Yingying; Zhao, Jiyun; Lv, Dezhao; Shao, Bei; Zhang, Shunkai; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low levels of serum vitamin D are common in patients with mood disorders and stroke. It has been shown that low levels of serum vitamin D indicate a risk of depression in post-stroke subjects. Our aim was to determine the relationship between vitamin D and post-stroke anxiety (PSA). A consecutive series of 226 first acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited and followed up for 1 month. Serum levels of vitamin D were measured within 24 hours of admission. Patients with significant clinical symptoms of anxiety and a Hamilton anxiety scale score >7 were diagnosed as having PSA. In addition, 100 healthy subjects were recruited as controls and underwent measurements of serum vitamin D. A total of 60 patients (26.55%) showed anxiety at 1 month. Both PSA patients and non-PSA patients had lower serum levels of vitamin D than healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between PSA and serum levels of vitamin D. Low serum levels of vitamin D (≤38.48 nmol/L) were independently associated with the development of PSA (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.21–5.13, P = 0.01). Serum vitamin D status is related to the occurrence of anxiety in post-stroke patients and may be an independent risk factor of PSA after 1 month. PMID:27149477

  12. Comparative evaluation of serum levels of main minerals and postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Okyay, Emre; Ertugrul, Caglan; Acar, Berrin; Sisman, Ali Rıza; Onvural, Banu; Ozaksoy, Dinc

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between serum main minerals and postmenopausal osteoporosis. A total of 728 postmenopausal women were included in this study. Women were separated into two groups according to presence or absence of osteoporosis (OP). BMD was measured in total femur (TF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (L1-L4) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Risk factors for OP were recorded by using a structured questionnaire. Women's blood were collected and serum concentrations of iron, copper, zinc, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus were measured. Low serum copper levels were significantly associated with OP according to BMD values for TF, FN and L1-L4. There was a significant relationship between low serum zinc levels and OP for L1-L4 spines. Low iron serum levels were also significantly associated with OP in BMD measurements of TF. Low serum magnesium levels had significant association with OP of L1-L4 spines and TF. Serum levels of calcium, ionized calcium, potassium, sodium and inorganic phosphorus were not associated with OP. In postmenopausal women, the low serum levels of copper, zinc, iron and magnesium appear to be an important risk factor for OP. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum Hepcidin Levels in Childhood-Onset Ischemic Stroke: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Azab, Seham F; Akeel, Nagwa E; Abdalhady, Mohamed A; Elhewala, Ahmed A; Ali, Al Shymaa A; Amin, Ezzat K; Sarhan, Dina T; Almalky, Mohamed A A; Elhindawy, Eman M; Salam, Mohamed M A; Soliman, Attia A; Abdellatif, Sawsan H; Ismail, Sanaa M; Elsamad, Nahla A; Hashem, Mustafa I A; Aziz, Khalid A; Elazouni, Osama M A; Arafat, Manal S

    2016-03-01

    Recently, hepcidin, an antimicrobial-like peptide hormone, has evolved as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Despite the growing evidence of iron imbalance in childhood-onset ischemic stroke, serum hepcidin level in those patients has not yet been researched. In this study, we aimed to estimate serum (hepcidin) level in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and to investigate whether subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium, which is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) derivative, could modulate serum hepcidin level in those patients. This was a case-control study included 60 (AIS) cases, and 100 healthy children with comparable age and gender as control group. For all subjects' serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]) levels were assessed by (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method). Iron parameters including (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were also measured. The patients were subdivided according to treatment with an LMWH derivative into 2 groups and serum hepcidin levels were assessed initially and 1 week after stroke onset for all cases. We found that AIS cases had higher serum iron, ferritin, and IL6 levels compared to the control group (all P < 0.01). Serum hepcidin was significantly higher in AIS cases (median, 36[15-73]ng/mL) compared to the control group (median, 24[10-41]ng/mL; P < 0.01). On the 1st day of AIS diagnosis, serum hepcidin levels were similar in both stroke subgroups (P > 0.05). However, on the 7th day of diagnosis serum hepcidin level decreased significantly in AIS cases treated with LMWH (group 1) (median, 36 vs 21 ng/mL; P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in serum hepcidin level in AIS cases not treated with LMWH (group 2) (P > 0.05). Serum hepcidin showed significant positive correlations with serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and IL6 (r = 0.375, P < 0.05; r = 0.453, P

  14. Streamlining antibiotic therapy with procalcitonin protocols: consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Haubitz, Sebastian; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence supports procalcitonin (PCT) as an accurate surrogate biomarker for likelihood and severity of bacterial infections. In community-acquired pneumonia and other respiratory infections, PCT-guided antibiotic therapy algorithms resulted in reduced antibiotic exposure while maintaining a similar or even better level of safety compared with standard care. Reductions in antibiotic use translate into lower treatment costs, decreased risk of side effects and decreased bacterial multiresistance. This is especially important, as acute respiratory infections represent the most frequent reason for antibiotic prescriptions worldwide. Still, there is some controversy about the benefits of PCT measurement in sepsis patients in the intensive care unit and for nonrespiratory infections. Highly sensitive PCT assays are readily available in many hospitals today, and point-of-care assays with high enough sensitivity for antibiotic guidance are expected to be available soon. Herein, the authors provide an overview of recent studies evaluating PCT in different clinical situations and an outlook of currently enrolling or upcoming interventional trials.

  15. [Predictive value of procalcitonin in children with suspected sepsis].

    PubMed

    Bustos B, Raúl; Padilla P, Oslando

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomarkers could be a tool for diagnosis, prognosis and stratifying children with sepsis. Our main goal was to analyze the value of procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP) and lactate in predicting mortality, septic shock and the stratification in children with suspected sepsis Prospective study in 81 patients. Plasma levels of PCT, CRP and lactate were measured at admission in the pediatric intensive care unit. Patients were categorized into systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. Concentrations of PCT (ng/mL) increased significantly according to the severity of sepsis: 0.36 (0-1.2) for systemic inflammatory response syndrome; 1.96 (0.4-3.5) for sepsis; 7.5 (3.9-11.1) for severe sepsis; and 58.9 (35.1-82.7) for septic shock (P<.001). Compared to CRP and lactate, the area under the ROC curve revealed a good discriminative power of PCT to predict septic shock and mortality, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83-0.97) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), respectively. In contrast to CRP and lactate, the determination of PCT in pediatric intensive care unit admission is a good predictor of mortality and septic shock and can stratify patients according to severity of sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Procalcitonin-guided diagnosis and antibiotic stewardship revisited.

    PubMed

    Sager, Ramon; Kutz, Alexander; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2017-01-24

    Several controlled clinical studies have evaluated the potential of the infection biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) to improve the diagnostic work-up of patients with bacterial infections and its influence on decisions regarding antibiotic therapy. Most research has focused on lower respiratory tract infections and critically ill sepsis patients. A clinical utility for PCT has also been found for patients with urinary tract infections, postoperative infections, meningitis, and patients with acute heart failure with possible superinfection (i.e., pneumonia). In these indications, PCT levels measured on hospital admission were found to substantially reduce the initiation of antibiotic treatment in low-risk situations (i.e., bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation). For more severe infections (i.e., pneumonia, sepsis), antibiotic stewardship by monitoring of PCT kinetics resulted in shorter antibiotic treatment durations with early cessation of therapy. Importantly, these strategies appear to be safe without increasing the risk for mortality, recurrent infections, or treatment failures. PCT kinetics also proved to have prognostic value correlating with disease severity (i.e., pancreatitis, abdominal infection) and resolution of illness (i.e., sepsis). Although promising findings have been published in these different types of infections, there are a number of limitations regarding PCT, including suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, which makes a careful interpretation of PCT in the clinical context mandatory. This narrative review aims to update clinicians on the strengths and limitations of PCT for patient management, focusing on research conducted within the last 4 years.

  17. Effect of Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.) Mushroom on serum lipid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Yuuichi; Furuichi, Yukio; Kokean, Yasushi; Nishii, Takafumi; Hisamatsu, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    The effect of Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.) mushroom on serum lipid levels was investigated in rats. When the mushroom (fruit body) powder or its hotwater extract was added at a level of 10% to a cholesterol-containing diet, the serum total cholesterol levels of rats fed the fruit body or the hot-water extract were markedly lower than that of controls, though there was no significant difference in serum HDL-cholesterol among the three groups. On a cholesterol-free diet, the addition of fruit body powder at a level of 5% significantly decreased serum total cholesterol. Serum triglycerides and phospholipids were significantly decreased in both the fruit body and hot-water extract groups. Furthermore, Hatakeshimeji in the diet significantly increased the activity of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase, which converts cellular cholesterol to bile acids, as well as the fecal excretion of bile acids.

  18. Serum soluble Talin-1 levels are elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis, reflecting its disease activity.

    PubMed

    Muto, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiro; Liu, Jia; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Uchida, Tomohiko; Masuda, Hiroki; Ohtani, Ryohei; Sugimoto, Kazuo; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-04-15

    Previously, we identified anti-Talin-1 antibodies in the serum of MS. In this case, we measured the serum soluble Talin-1 (sTalin-1) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum sTalin-1 levels were significantly higher in 40 patients with MS than in 43 normal controls and in the acute phase of disease than in the remission phase. Interestingly, serum sTalin-1 levels were associated with a sustained increase in disability after MS attack but not with serum anti-Talin-1 antibody levels. sTalin-1 may be a biomarker for the acute phase of MS and may be used for the short-term prognosis of MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Procalcitonin as a marker of serious bacterial infections in febrile children younger than 3 years old.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Prashant; Grzybowski, Mary; Chen, Xinguang; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama; Stanley, Rachel; Singal, Bonita; Hoyle, John; Borgialli, Dominic; Duffy, Elizabeth; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2014-02-01

    There is no perfectly sensitive or specific test for identifying young, febrile infants and children with occult serious bacterial infections (SBIs). Studies of procalcitonin (PCT), a 116-amino-acid precursor of the hormone calcitonin, have demonstrated its potential as an acute-phase biomarker for SBI. The objective of this study was to compare performance of serum PCT with traditional screening tests for detecting SBIs in young febrile infants and children. This was a prospective, multicenter study on a convenience sample from May 2004 to December 2005. The study was conducted in four emergency departments (EDs): one pediatric ED and three EDs with pediatric units, all with academic faculty on staff. A total of 226 febrile children 36 months old or younger who presented to the four participating EDs and were evaluated for SBI by blood, urine, and/or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cultures were included. The test characteristics (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of the white blood cell (WBC) counts including neutrophil and band counts were compared with PCT for identifying SBI. Thirty children had SBIs (13.3%, 95% CI = 8.85 to 17.70). Four (13.3%) had bacteremia (including one with meningitis), 18 (60.0%) had urinary tract infections (UTIs), and eight (26.6%) had pneumonia. Children with SBIs had higher WBC counts (18.6 × 10(9)  ± 8.6 × 10(9) cells/L vs. 11.5 × 10(9)  ± 5.3 × 10(9) cells/L, p < 0.001), higher absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs; 10.6 × 10(9)  ± 6.7 × 10(9) cells/L vs. 5.6 × 10(9)  ± 3.8 × 10(9) cells/L, p = 0.009), higher absolute band counts (0.90 × 10(9)  ± 1.1 × 10(9) cells/L vs. 0.35 × 10(9)  ± 0.6 × 10(9) cells/L, p = 0.009), and higher PCT levels (2.9 ± 5.6 ng/mL vs. 0.4 ± 0.8 ng/mL, p = 0.021) than those without SBIs. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the absolute band count and PCT were the two screening tests independently associated with SBI, although the area

  20. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  1. Distribution of serum immunoglobulin G4 levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and clinical features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 levels.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Ken; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Hidefumi; Inagaki, Yuko; Yamaoka, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels, IgG4-positive plasmacytes, and lymphocyte infiltration into multiple organs. IgG4 thyroiditis is a subset of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who exhibited histopathological features of IgG4-RD; its source of serum IgG4 is suggested to be the thyroid gland. Although a relationship between IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis has been reported, the meaning of serum IgG4 in HT is uncertain. In this report, we prospectively evaluated serum IgG4 levels and clinical features of patients with HT. A total of 149 patients with HT were prospectively recruited into this study. According to the comprehensive diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD, patients were divided into two groups: elevated IgG4 (>135 mg/dL) and non-elevated IgG4 (≤135 mg/dL). Median serum IgG4 levels of HT patients were 32.0 mg/dL (interquartile range, 20.0-65.0), with a unimodal non-normal distribution. Six patients (4.0%) had elevated serum IgG4 levels above 135 mg/dL. The elevated IgG4 group was older and exhibited enlarged hypoechoic areas in the thyroid gland, as revealed by ultrasonography, relative to the non-elevated IgG4 group. Levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement doses and titers of anti-thyroid antibodies did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two out of six HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels had extra-thyroid organ involvement as seen in IgG4-RD. In conclusion, HT patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels shared clinical features with both IgG4-RD and IgG4 thyroiditis. Longer follow-up periods and histopathological assessments are needed to further understand the meaning of elevated serum IgG4 levels in HT.

  2. Gastric morphology and serum gastrin levels in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, K J; Dowling, F; Wright, J P; Taylor, K B

    1976-01-01

    Mucosal biopsies from multiple sites in the stomachs of 21 patients with pernicious anaemia have been examined. The histological changes almost always involved the entire gastric mucosa, including that of the pyloric antrum. Metaplastic changes were almost universal and consisted of intestinal metaplasia in the body and antrum and pyloric metaplasia in the body. The severity of the pyloric metaplasia was such as to make the distinction between body and antrum on biopsy impossible. No relationship was found between serum gastrin activity and the histological appearances of the gastric antrum or body. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:964688

  3. Association between Serum Malondialdehyde Levels and Mortality in Patients with Severe Brain Trauma Injury

    PubMed Central

    Martín, María M.; Abreu-González, Pedro; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Cáceres, Juan J.; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Lorenzo, José M.; Molina, Ismael; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is a hyperoxidative state in patients with trauma brain injury (TBI). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is an end-product formed during oxidative stress, concretely lipid peroxidation. In small studies (highest sample size 50 patients), higher levels of MDA have been found in nonsurviving than surviving patients with TBI. An association between serum MDA levels and mortality in patients with TBI, however, has not been reported. Thus, the objective of this prospective, observational, multicenter study, performed in six Spanish intensive care units, was to determine whether MDA serum levels are associated with early mortality in a large series of patients with severe TBI. Serum MDA levels were measured in 100 patients with severe TBI on day 1 and in 75 healthy controls. The end-point of the study was 30-day mortality. We found higher serum MDA levels in patients with severe TBI than in healthy controls (p<0.001). Nonsurviving patients with TBI (n=27) showed higher serum MDA levels (p<0.001) than survivors (n=73). Logistic regression analysis showed that serum MDA levels were associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR]=4.662; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.466–14.824; p=0.01), controlling for Glasgow Coma Score, age, and computed tomography findings. Survival analysis showed that patients with serum MDA levels higher than 1.96 nmol/mL presented increased 30-day mortality than patients with lower levels (hazard ratio=3.5; 95% CI=1.43–8.47; p<0.001). Thus, the most relevant new finding of our study, the largest to date on serum MDA levels in patients with severe TBI, was an association between serum MDA levels and early mortality. PMID:25054973

  4. Serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won-Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum selenium levels are lower in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. However, there is no data about the difference in serum selenium levels depending on the severity of lung diseases. We aimed to identify the factors associated with low serum selenium levels in critically ill patients with respiratory diseases. Methods A prospective study was performed in 83 patients with respiratory diseases who had admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. We obtained systemic inflammatory markers, nutritional indicators and prognostic factors as the explanatory variables for the outcome of low serum selenium levels. Results Serum selenium levels on admission were lower by 28% in the ICU group as compared with the general ward group (70.0±26.4 and 97.9±20.8 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Low serum selenium levels had a correlation with malnutrition represented by decreases in levels of lymphocyte (R2=0.107, P=0.005) and albumin (R2=0.174, P<0.001). In addition, low serum selenium levels were associated with an increase in baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (R2=0.059, P=0.041) and APACHE II scores (R2=0.209, P<0.001). Lower albumin levels (P=0.032) and higher APACHE II scores (P=0.046) showed a significant correlation with lower serum selenium levels on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Low serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases have a significant correlation with poor nutritional status and prognosis on admission. PMID:27621861

  5. Association between serum malondialdehyde levels and mortality in patients with severe brain trauma injury.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M; Abreu-González, Pedro; Ramos, Luis; Argueso, Mónica; Cáceres, Juan J; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Lorenzo, José M; Molina, Ismael; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There is a hyperoxidative state in patients with trauma brain injury (TBI). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is an end-product formed during oxidative stress, concretely lipid peroxidation. In small studies (highest sample size 50 patients), higher levels of MDA have been found in nonsurviving than surviving patients with TBI. An association between serum MDA levels and mortality in patients with TBI, however, has not been reported. Thus, the objective of this prospective, observational, multicenter study, performed in six Spanish intensive care units, was to determine whether MDA serum levels are associated with early mortality in a large series of patients with severe TBI. Serum MDA levels were measured in 100 patients with severe TBI on day 1 and in 75 healthy controls. The end-point of the study was 30-day mortality. We found higher serum MDA levels in patients with severe TBI than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). Nonsurviving patients with TBI (n = 27) showed higher serum MDA levels (p < 0.001) than survivors (n = 73). Logistic regression analysis showed that serum MDA levels were associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 4.662; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.466-14.824; p = 0.01), controlling for Glasgow Coma Score, age, and computed tomography findings. Survival analysis showed that patients with serum MDA levels higher than 1.96 nmol/mL presented increased 30-day mortality than patients with lower levels (hazard ratio = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.43-8.47; p < 0.001). Thus, the most relevant new finding of our study, the largest to date on serum MDA levels in patients with severe TBI, was an association between serum MDA levels and early mortality.

  6. Clinical significance of serum matrix metalloproteinase-13 levels in patients with localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Asano, Y; Ihn, H; Kubo, M; Jinnin, M; Mimura, Y; Ashida, R; Tamaki, K

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of serum matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) levels in patients with localized scleroderma (LSc). Serum MMP-13 levels were determined by using a peptide substrate cleavage assay in 10 patients with generalized morphea, 10 with linear scleroderma, 10 with morphea, and 10 normal controls. The serum MMP-13 levels in patients with LSc were lower than those in normal controls, but there was no significant difference (64.9 +/- 19.9 versus 73.2 +/- 11.5, p = 0.058). Serum MMP-13 levels in patients with generalized morphea were significantly lower than those in normal controls (54.0 +/- 18.7 versus 73.2 +/- 11.5 ng/ml; p < 0.01). Serum levels of MMP-13 were comparable among normal controls, the patients with linear scleroderma, and those with morphea. The prevalence of muscle involvement was significantly greater in the LSc patients with decreased MMP-13 levels compared with those with normal MMP-13 levels (50% versus 8%, p < 0.05). Serum MMP-13 levels were significantly inversely correlated with the number of linear lesions (r = 0.366, p < 0.05) and the number of involved body areas (r = 0.552, p < 0.005) in patients with LSc, while there was no significant correlation between serum MMP-13 levels and the number of plaque lesions. Furthermore, there was significant inverse correlation between serum MMP-13 levels and the number of involved body areas in patients with generalized morphea (r = 0.631, p < 0.05). The serum MMP-13 levels may reflect the disease severity in patients with LSc, especially generalized morphea, the severest form of this disorder.

  7. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Cerebro-vascular Accident Patients.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Farahmand; Choobi Anzali, Babak; Heshmat, Ramin; Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Hamedanchi, Sepehr

    2013-05-01

    We aim to assess serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with different types of cerebro-vascular accidents (CVA) in comparison to control group. A comparative cross-sectional study conducted on patients admitted to the emergency department from January to August 2012. Control group consisted of patients admitted to emergency department due to common cold, urinary tract infection, low back pain, cluster, and tension headache or migraine. Serum sodium and potassium levels were measured via standard laboratory methods. There were 77 patients in control group and 78 in CVA group. Forty nine patients from the CVA group had ischemic CVA, 11 had hemorrhagic CVA and 18 suffered a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Serum sodium level in control group was significantly lower than in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Serum potassium level in control group was higher than patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Patients with hemorrhagic CVA showed significantly lower serum potassium level than patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, it was observed that serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). In patients with hemorrhagic CVA serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher when compared to patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). This study shows that higher serum sodium and lower serum potassium level may be associated with higher incidence of CVA. Further studies are paramount to elucidate the role of serum electrolyte levels in vascular events.

  9. Different serum BDNF levels in depression: results from BDNF studies in FYR Macedonia and Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Shishkov, Rinaldo; Gerazova, Vesna Pejoska; Vujovik, Viktorija; Stefanovski, Branislav; Novotni, Antoni; Marinov, Petar; Filov, Izabela

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in depressive disorder. Serum BDNF levels are lower in depressed patients and they increase after a long course of antidepressant treatment. Our study aims to test the effect of antidepressant treatment on serum BDNF levels in patients with a depressive episode, after they have achieved remission in two studies in Macedonia and Bulgaria. In the Macedonian study 23 patients were included (11 female, 12 male) diagnosed with a first depressive episode according to ICD-10, as well as 23 control subjects age- and sex-matched without a history of psychiatric disorder. In the Bulgarian study 10 female patients with depression and 10 control subjects were included. We have applied the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) to assess depression severity. Blood samples were collected before antidepressive treatment and after remission was achieved (decrease to 7 points or less on HDRS). In the Macedonian study, mean serum BDNF level at baseline was 13.15±6.75 ng/ml and the mean HDRS score was 28.52±4.02. Untreated depressed patients showed significantly lower serum BDNF levels compared to the control group (25.95±9.17 ng/ml). After remission was achieved, the mean serum BDNF level was 24.73±11.80 ng/ml whereas the mean HDRS score was 7.04±3.15. After 8 weeks of treatment there was no statistically significant difference in the serum BDNF levels between the two groups. In the Bulgarian study, baseline mean serum BDNF levels were 26.84±8.66 ng/ml, after 3 weeks treatment and remission was achieved mean serum BDNF levels were 30.33±9.25 ng/ml and in the control group mean serum BDNF levels were 25.04±2.88 ng/ml. Integrated results showed baseline mean serum BDNF levels of 17.30±9.66 ng/ml, after achieved remission 26.43±11.25 ng/ml and in the control group mean serum BDNF levels of 25.68±7.76 ng/ml. The Bulgarian results showed no statistical difference between the depressed

  10. Cytokine serum level during severe sepsis in human IL-6 as a marker of severity.

    PubMed Central

    Damas, P; Ledoux, D; Nys, M; Vrindts, Y; De Groote, D; Franchimont, P; Lamy, M

    1992-01-01

    Forty critically ill surgical patients with documented infections were studied during their stay in an intensive care unit. Among these patients, 19 developed septic shock and 16 died, 9 of them from septic shock. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured each day and every 1 or 2 hours when septic shock occurred. Although IL-1 beta was never found, TNF alpha was most often observed in the serum at a level under 100 pg/mL except during septic shock. During these acute episodes TNF alpha level reached several hundred pg/mL, but only for a few hours. In contrast, IL-6 was always increased in the serum of acutely ill patients (peak to 500,000 pg/mL). There was a direct correlation between IL-6 peak serum level and TNF alpha peak serum level during septic shock and between IL-6 serum level and temperature or C-reactive protein serum level. Moreover, IL-6 correlated well with APACHE II score, and the mortality rate increased significantly in the group of patients who presented with IL-6 serum level above 1000 pg/mL. Thus, IL-6 appears to be a good marker of severity during bacterial infection. PMID:1558416

  11. Changes in serum human hepatocyte growth factor levels after transcatheter arterial embolization and partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, A; Hayashi, N; Tanaka, Y; Ito, T; Kasahara, A; Kubo, M; Mukuda, T; Fusamoto, H; Kamada, T

    1992-08-01

    We examined the changes in serum human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF), also called "scatter factor," levels after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and partial hepatectomy (PH) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumor. In most cases, the serum hHGF levels increased transiently 1-3 days after TAE or PH, and then decreased nearly to the basal levels in 1 wk, suggesting that hHGF may play an important role in liver regeneration in humans. The mean amount of increase in serum hHGF levels after PH was 0.38 ng/ml, which was greater than that after TAE (0.16 ng/ml). In three cases of TAE followed by PH, two showed a greater increase in serum hHGF levels with PH than with TAE, but the third showed the reverse result. Because the rate of increase in serum ALT levels did not affect that of serum hHGF levels, the degree of liver injury induced by TAE or PH does not seem to be a determinant in serum hHGF elevation.

  12. Worse Neurological State During Acute Ischemic Stroke is Associated with a Decrease in Serum Albumin Levels.

    PubMed

    Bielewicz, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Kamieniak, Piotr; Daniluk, Beata; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Rejdak, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High serum albumin levels during ischemic stroke (IS) decrease the risk of a poor outcome. This study aimed to determine whether serum albumin levels within the first days after IS correlate with radiological and biochemical markers of brain tissue damage. Fifty-six IS patients were enrolled into the study. Neurological examinations were based on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Serum albumin levels and S100BB were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kits. The albumin decrease index (ADI) was calculated as the difference between serum albumin levels measured on days 1 and 10 of IS. All parameters were estimated on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 10th days of IS, and the volume of ischemic focus was measured on the 10th day. Mean serum albumin levels were decreased during acute IS. There were correlations between the ADI and mean S100BB serum levels (r = 0.36, p < 0.05), the volume of ischemic focus (r = 0.39, p < 0.05), and the patients' neurological state when measured on day 10 of IS (r = 0.59, p < 0.001). A decrease in serum albumin levels during the acute phase of IS corresponds to a worse neurological state as a result of a large ischemic focus with intense catabolic processes.

  13. Association of Serum Fetuin-A Levels with Allograft Outcome in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Azhdari Tehrani, Hamed; Keyhan, Hossein; Rahmati, Mohamad Reza; Ahmadi, Ayat; Dehghani, Sanaz; Mashhadi, Rahil

    2015-07-01

    To determine serum fetuin-A pattern after renal transplantation and its association with graft outcome. In 41 renal transplant recipients, serum pretransplant fetuin-A levels and serum fetuin-A concentrations on days 7 and 30 after transplantation were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent as­say (ELISA) method. Also, the association between serum fetuin-A levels with clinical and laboratory parameters was evaluated. A significant decrease in serum fetuin-A levels was noted in the first week after transplantation (P < .001). Subsequently, it started to increase and surpass pretransplant values during the first month (P < .001). Pretransplant fetuin-A levels did not differ among patients with different diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) results. In addition, serum fetuin-A levels did not significantly correlate with metabolic parameters. In this prospective study there was no increase in serum fetuin-A levels during the first month and pretransplant fetuin-A levels are not predictive for allograft outcome in renal transplant recipients.

  14. Decreased serum fetuin-A levels and active inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Peng; Feng, Yi-chao

    2014-07-01

    Fetuin-A is a mediator of inflammatory response that might also be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to assess whether serum fetuin-A levels are associated with the disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). A total of 139 patients with CD, 114 patients with UC, and 46 controls were enrolled in this study. The serum fetuin-A levels of the participants were measured using commercially available sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The patients with IBD had significantly lower serum fetuin-A levels compared with the healthy controls. The active patients with CD and patients with UC both had significantly decreased serum fetuin-A levels compared with the inactive patients with CD and patients with UC. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that decreased serum fetuin-A levels were independently associated with the disease activity of CD and UC. Serum fetuin-A levels were negatively associated with C-reactive protein concentrations and white blood cell count in patients with CD but not in patients with UC. Decreased serum fetuin-A levels were independently associated with disease activity in patients with CD and UC. The utilization of fetuin-A concentration measurements as markers of disease activity in patients with IBD warrants further investigations.

  15. Serum potassium level is associated with metabolic syndrome: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kan; Su, Tingwei; Li, Mian; Xu, Baihui; Xu, Min; Lu, Jieli; Liu, Jianmin; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2014-06-01

    Evidence has suggested that low serum potassium concentration or low dietary potassium intake can result in many metabolic disorders. Our objective was to evaluate the association between serum potassium level and risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 10,341 participants aged 40 years or older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Program with modification. The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was 51.7% in participants with hypokalemia and 37.7% in those with normokalemia. With the reduction of serum potassium quartiles, participants were tended to have higher level of triglycerides and uric acid, lower level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), larger waist circumference and more severe insulin resistance. Serum potassium level significantly decreased with the increasing number of metabolic syndrome components. Compared with subjects in the highest quartile of serum potassium level, multivariate adjusted odds ratios for prevalent metabolic syndrome in the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.87). Moreover, compared with subjects without central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C and elevated fasting plasma glucose, those with each of these metabolic syndrome components have lower level of serum potassium after adjusted for age and sex. Low serum potassium level significantly associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate levels in children living along major roads

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, Masayuki; Adachi, Motoaki

    1996-11-01

    To assess the effects of automobile exhaust on human health, we determined serum concentrations of total immunoglobulin E and hyaluronate in 185 schoolchildren who lived in a district that contained major roads. Serum immunoglobulin E levels were elevated in children who had asthma or wheezing, but levels did no t differ with respect to distance of their homes from the major roads. Serum hyaluronate levels were higher in children who lived less than 50 m from the roadside, compared with children who resided a greater distance from roads. The difference, however, was significant only in a subgroup of children in whom immunoglobulin E levels exceeded 250 IU/ml. Our results suggest that serum hyaluronate levels in children reflect the effects of traffic-related air pollution. Children with high immunoglobulin E levels appeared to be particularly susceptible to the effects of automobile exhaust. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Early Changes of Mannose-Binding Lectin, H-Ficolin, and Procalcitonin in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Işlak Mutcalı, Sibel; Saltoğlu, Neşe; Balkan, İlker İnanç; Özaras, Reşat; Yemişen, Mücahit; Tabak, Fehmi; Mert, Ali; Öztürk, Recep; Öngören, Şeniz; Başlar, Zafer; Aydın, Yıldız; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan; Soysal, Teoman

    2016-12-01

    The significance of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and H-ficolin deficiency in febrile neutropenic (FN) patients and the correlation of these markers along with consecutive C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels during the infectious process are investigated. Patients with any hematological malignancies who were defined to have "microbiologically confirmed infection", "clinically documented infection", or "fever of unknown origin" were included in this single-center prospective observational study. Serum levels of CRP, PCT, MBL, and H-ficolin were determined on 3 separate occasions: at baseline (between hospital admission and chemotherapy), at the onset of fever, and at the 72nd hour of fever. Forty-six patients (54% male, mean age 41.7 years) with 61 separate episodes of FN were evaluated. Eleven patients (23.9%) had "microbiologically confirmed infection", 17 (37%) had "clinically documented infection", and 18 (39.1%) had "fever of unknown origin". Fourteen (30.4%) patients had low (<500 ng/mL) initial MBL levels and 7 (15.21%) had low (<12,000 ng/mL) H-ficolin levels. Baseline MBL and H-ficolin levels did not significantly change on the first and third days of fever (p=0.076). Gram-negative bacteremia more frequently occurred in those with low initial MBL levels (p=0.006). PCT levels were significantly higher in those with microbiologically documented infections. Mean and median PCT levels were significantly higher in cases with bacteremia. There was no significant difference between hemoculture-positive and-negative patients in terms of CRP levels. Monitoring serum H-ficolin levels was shown to be of no benefit in terms of predicting severe infection. Low baseline MBL levels were correlated with high risk of gram-negative bacteremia; however, no significant correlation was shown in the follow-up. Close monitoring of PCT levels is warranted to provide more accurate and specific data while monitoring cases of bacteremia.

  18. Factors influencing serum progesterone level on triggering day in stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hee; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Elevated serum progesterone (P) levels on triggering day have been known to affect the pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to identify the possible factors influencing serum P levels on triggering day in stimulated IVF cycles. Three hundred and thirty consecutive fresh IVF cycles were included in the study. All cycles were first attempts and were performed in a single infertility center. The indications for IVF were male factor infertility (n=114), ovulatory infertility (n=84), endometriosis (n=61), tubal infertility (n=59), unexplained infertility (n=41), and uterine factor infertility (n=39). A luteal long protocol of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (n=184) or a GnRH antagonist protocol (n=146) was used for pituitary suppression. Ovarian sensitivity was defined as the serum estradiol level on triggering day per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[a]) or the retrieved oocyte number per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[b]). Univariate analysis revealed that the serum P level on triggering day was associated with the serum estradiol level on triggering day (r=0.379, p<0.001), the number of follicles ≥14 mm (r=0.247, p<0.001), the number of retrieved oocytes (r=0.384, p<0.001), and ovarian sensitivity (OS[a]: r=0.245, p<0.001; OS[b]: r=0.170, p=0.002). The woman's age, body mass index, antral follicle count, and basal serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were not associated with serum P level on triggering day. The serum P level on triggering day did not show significant variation depending on the type or cause of infertility, pituitary suppression protocol, or the type of gonadotropins used. The serum P level on triggering day was closely related to the response to ovarian stimulation.

  19. Factors influencing serum progesterone level on triggering day in stimulated in vitro fertilization cycles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju Hee; Jee, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum progesterone (P) levels on triggering day have been known to affect the pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to identify the possible factors influencing serum P levels on triggering day in stimulated IVF cycles. Methods Three hundred and thirty consecutive fresh IVF cycles were included in the study. All cycles were first attempts and were performed in a single infertility center. The indications for IVF were male factor infertility (n=114), ovulatory infertility (n=84), endometriosis (n=61), tubal infertility (n=59), unexplained infertility (n=41), and uterine factor infertility (n=39). A luteal long protocol of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (n=184) or a GnRH antagonist protocol (n=146) was used for pituitary suppression. Ovarian sensitivity was defined as the serum estradiol level on triggering day per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[a]) or the retrieved oocyte number per 500 IU of administered gonadotropins (OS[b]). Results Univariate analysis revealed that the serum P level on triggering day was associated with the serum estradiol level on triggering day (r=0.379, p<0.001), the number of follicles ≥14 mm (r=0.247, p<0.001), the number of retrieved oocytes (r=0.384, p<0.001), and ovarian sensitivity (OS[a]: r=0.245, p<0.001; OS[b]: r=0.170, p=0.002). The woman's age, body mass index, antral follicle count, and basal serum follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were not associated with serum P level on triggering day. The serum P level on triggering day did not show significant variation depending on the type or cause of infertility, pituitary suppression protocol, or the type of gonadotropins used. Conclusion The serum P level on triggering day was closely related to the response to ovarian stimulation. PMID:26161336

  20. Apolipoprotein A1/C3/A5 haplotypes and serum lipid levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein (Apo) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association between the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels ...

  1. The relationship between serum total testosterone and free testosterone levels with serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a study in 1221 men.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Cha, Jai Seong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with anemia. We reviewed the records of 1221 subjects between March 2009 and December 2014. All the subjects' blood samples were drawn for TT and FT assays. Their serum hemoglobin (Hb) and serum hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between TT and FT levels with Hb and Hct levels. The mean age was 59.82 ± 12.71 years. The mean TT and FT levels were 4.54 ± 2.02 ng/mL and 10.63 ± 3.69 pg/mL, respectively. The mean Hb and Hct levels were 14.72 ± 1.34 g/dL and 43.11 ± 3.75%, respectively. Subjects with low TT (<2.35 ng/mL) had low Hb and Hct levels (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). TT was positively associated with FT, Hb, and Hct. TT and FT levels were significantly lower in older men. Subjects with low TT and FT levels had low Hb and Hct levels. This suggests that TT and FT play a significant role in erythropoiesis. Testosterone replacement therapy may be effective in men with hypogonadism to reduce the incidence of anemia.

  2. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in early diagnosis of sepsis caused by either Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Zhang, M W; Guo, J B; Li, J; Su, L

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis is the most frequent cause of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are well-known predictors of sepsis. Serum PCT levels are associated with blood culture positivity in patients with sepsis, but the magnitude of elevation of PCT and CRP levels at the onset of sepsis is unknown in Gram-negative (GN) bacteremia and in Gram-positive (GP) bacteremia. To evaluate the PCT and CRP levels in 72 h at the onset of sepsis in GN and GP bacteremia. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 648 blood-positive specimens from three integrated teaching hospitals in Xiamen, China. One hundred and forty-seven adult patients with sepsis within 72 h enrolled in the study. Serum PCT and CRP level were assessed according GN or GP bacteremia. A total of 147 (22.68 %) patients were eligible for inclusion in the study, including 56 GP sepsis and 91 GN sepsis. PCT, but not CRP levels, was significantly higher in patients in the GP group than in the GN group (23.64 vs 6.18 ng/mL, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve of PCT was 0.73 (95 % confidence interval 0.65-0.81) and that under the ROC curve of CRP was 0.52 (95 % confidence interval 0.43-0.62). A positive predictive value of 72.5 % and a negative predictive value of 67.9 % were achieved with a PCT cutoff value of 2.1 ng/ml. Serum PCT levels are higher in GN sepsis than GP sepsis in 72 h. There are not differences in CRP. The separation of PCT and CRP phenomenon is helpful for early diagnosis of GP sepsis.

  3. The value of procalcitonin measurement in localized skin and skin structure infection, diabetic foot infections, septic arthritis and osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Kordo; Ahmad, Nusreen; Dryden, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Serum procalcitonin (PCT) is an established diagnostic marker for severe or systemic bacterial infections such as pneumonia, sepsis and septic shock. Data regarding the role of PCT in localized infections without systemic inflammatory response syndrome are scarce. The aim of this review is to assess the value of PCT measurements in localized infections such as skin and skin structure infections, diabetic foot infections, septic arthritis (SA) and osteomyelitis. It appears that serum PCT is unlikely to change the clinical practice in skin and skin structure infection. However, serum PCT could have a role in diagnosis and monitoring of diabetic foot infections in hospitalized settings. There are conflicting reports regarding the ability of serum PCT to distinguish SA from non-SA; synovial PCT may be more appropriate in these settings, including in implant-related infections. Better designed studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of PCT with or without other biomarkers in localized infections.

  4. Risk factors associated with elevated serum pancreatic amylase levels during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hsu; Yang, Wu-Chang; Wang, Feng-Ming; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Chen, Jinn-Yang; Ng, Yee-Yung; Wu, Tsai-Hun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum pancreatic enzymes are frequently observed in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The complex hemodynamic, biochemical, and physiological alterations in uremia were speculated to cause excessive release of pancreatic enzymes beyond decreased renal clearance. However, hemodynamic factors are seldom explored in this aspect. We performed the study to evaluate the association between intradialytic hemodynamic change and elevated serum pancreatic amylase (SPA). Eighty-three prevalent HD patients without any clinical evidence of acute pancreatitis underwent pre-HD and post-HD blood sampling for serum pancreatic enzyme levels. Demographic, biochemical, and hematological data were collected from patient record review. Hemodialysis information including intradialytic blood pressure changes and ultrafiltration (UF) amount were collected and averaged for 1 month before the blood sampling day. Patients with elevated SPA during the HD session had greater mean systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure reduction, greater UF volume, greater pre-HD blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, higher serum phosphorus, lower pre-HD serum total CO2, and lower left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF). Using multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of elevated SPA were determined to be mean arterial pressure reduction during HD, mean UF amount, pre-HD serum total CO2, and LVEF. Greater blood pressure reduction during HD, greater UF volume, lower pre-HD serum total CO2, and lower LVEF were significantly associated with elevated SPA during HD. This suggests that hemodynamic factors contribute to elevated serum pancreatic enzymes in HD patients.

  5. Hemodialysis effect on serum boron level in the patients with long term hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Usuda, K; Kono, K; Iguchi, K; Nishiura, K; Miyata, K; Shimahara, M; Konda, T; Hashiguchi, N; Senda, J

    1996-11-22

    Serum and dialysate boron levels in 17 patients with long term hemodialysis (HD) were determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICPES). Serum boron level was compared with the value of age matched 467 healthy controls and the relationship between serum and dialysate boron level was analyzed. The results showed that serum boron level was significantly higher at the beginning of HD, and lower at the completion of HD in comparison with controls. Although the dialysate was contaminated with trace boron, HD resulted in an excessive decrease of serum boron, rather than boron exposure from the dialysate. Boron hemodialyzability was almost proportional to the gradient of the boron level at the beginning of HD and it could be controlled by the adjustment of the gradient. In conclusion, the serum boron level was very much disturbed in long term HD patients. If boron excess in serum at the beginning of HD, or deficiency at the completion of HD may contribute to the complications of HD patients, fine adjustment and close surveillance of the gradient should be taken into account.