Science.gov

Sample records for service line replacement

  1. 40 CFR 141.84 - Lead service line replacement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead service line replacement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.84 Lead service line replacement requirements. (a) Systems that fail to meet the lead action level in tap...

  2. 40 CFR 141.84 - Lead service line replacement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead service line replacement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.84 Lead service line replacement requirements. (a) Systems that fail to meet the lead action level in tap...

  3. 40 CFR 141.84 - Lead service line replacement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead service line replacement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.84 Lead service line replacement requirements. (a) Systems that fail to meet the lead action level in tap...

  4. 40 CFR 141.84 - Lead service line replacement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead service line replacement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.84 Lead service line replacement requirements. (a) Systems that fail to meet the lead action level in tap...

  5. 40 CFR 141.84 - Lead service line replacement requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead service line replacement... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.84 Lead service line replacement requirements. (a) Systems that fail to meet the lead action level in tap...

  6. Long-Term Behavior of Simulated Partial Lead Service Line Replacements

    PubMed Central

    St. Clair, Justin; Cartier, Clement; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Clark, Brandi; Edwards, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this 48-month pilot study, long-term impacts of copper:lead galvanic connections on lead release to water were assessed without confounding differences in pipe exposure prehistory or disturbances arising from cutting lead pipe. Lead release was tracked from three lead service line configurations, including (1) 100% lead, (2) traditional partial replacement with 50% copper upstream of 50% lead, and (3) 50% lead upstream of 50% copper as a function of flow rate, connection types, and sampling methodologies. Elevated lead from galvanic corrosion worsened with time, with 140% more lead release from configurations representing traditional partial replacement configurations at 14 months compared to earlier data in the first 8 months. Even when sampled consistently at moderate flow rate (8 LPM) and collecting all water passing through service lines, conditions representing traditional partial service line configurations were significantly worse (≈40%) when compared to 100% lead pipe. If sampled at a high flow rate (32 LPM) and collecting 2 L samples from service lines, 100% of samples collected from traditional partial replacement configurations exceeded thresholds posing an acute health risk versus a 0% risk for samples from 100% lead pipe. Temporary removal of lead accumulations near Pb:Cu junctions and lead deposits from other downstream plastic pipes reduced risk of partial replacements relative to that observed for 100% lead. When typical brass compression couplings were used to connect prepassivated lead pipes, lead release spiked up to 10 times higher, confirming prior concerns raised at bench and field scale regarding adverse impacts of crevices and service line disturbances on lead release. To quantify semirandom particulate lead release from service lines in future research, whole-house filters have many advantages compared to other approaches. PMID:26989344

  7. Impact of treatment on Pb release from full and partially replaced harvested Lead Service Lines (LSLs).

    PubMed

    Cartier, Clément; Doré, Evelyne; Laroche, Laurent; Nour, Shokoufeh; Edwards, Marc; Prévost, Michèle

    2013-02-01

    Release of lead from 80% partially replaced service lines was compared to full lead service lines using harvested-stabilized lead pipes and field brass connectors. After more than a year of stabilization, lead release was consistent with field samples. Over the relatively short duration partial replacement of lead pipe by copper pipe (3 months), generated high lead release, attributed to galvanic corrosion, resulting in a final outcome for lead release that was even worse than for a full lead pipe. Increased lead release was especially evident at higher flow rates. Orthophosphate reduced lead release from full lead pipes by 64%. For partially replaced samples with copper, lead concentrations were unchanged by phosphate dosing at moderate flow (103 ± 265 vs 169 ± 349 μg/L) and were increased to very high levels when sampled at high flow rates (1001 ± 1808 vs 257 ± 224 μg/L). The increase lead release was in the form of particulate lead (>90%). In comparison to the condition without treatment, increased sulfate treatment had little impact on lead release from 100%-Pb rigs but reduced lead release from partially replaced lead pipes with copper. Our results also raise questions concerning protocols based on short 30 min stagnation (as those used in Canada) due to their incapacity to consider particulate lead release generated mostly after longer stagnation. PMID:23174535

  8. Factors affecting lead release in sodium silicate-treated partial lead service line replacements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Emily; Payne, Sarah Jane O; Hofmann, Ron; Andrews, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Water quality parameters affecting sodium silicate performance in partial lead service line replacements were examined using a fractional factorial experimental design and static pipe systems. An external copper wire was used to create a galvanic connection between a former lead service line and a new copper pipe. The pipe systems were filled with lab prepared water made to mimic real water quality. Water was changed on a three times per week basis. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the impact of alkalinity (15 mg L(-1) or 250 mg L(-1) as CaCO3), nitrate (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as N), natural organic matter (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as dissolved organic carbon), and disinfectant type (1 mg L(-1) chlorine or 3 mg L(-1) monochloramine), resulting in eight treatment conditions. Fractional factorial analysis revealed that alkalinity, natural organic matter and monochloramine had a significant positive effect on galvanic current. Natural organic matter and monochloramine also had a significant positive effect with respect to both total and dissolved lead release. For the treatment conditions examined, 67-98% of the lead released through galvanic currents was stored as corrosion scales and predominantly comprised of particulate lead (96.1-99.9%) for all eight treatments. The use of monochloramine and the presence of natural organic matter (7 mg L(-1)) were not favourable for corrosion control in sodium silicate-treated partial lead service line replacements, although further studies would be required to characterize optimal water quality parameters for specific water quality types. For utilities operating with sodium silicate as a corrosion inhibitor, this work offers further evidence regarding the consideration of chlorine as a secondary disinfectant instead of monochloramine, as well as the value of controlling natural organic matter in distributed water.

  9. Line Replaceable Unit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oepomo, T.; Prouty, T. V.

    1982-01-01

    Shuttle LRU (Line Replaceable Unit) Analysis Program (SLAP) aids in evaluation of LRU interface voltages in Shuttle orbiter electrical system. Slap includes reduced model of Shuttle LRU circuit. Although primarily intended for analysis of Shuttle LRU's SLAP could be adapted for voltage analysis in other situations.

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Full and Partial Lead Service Line Replacement on Lead Levels in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Camara, Eliman; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-19

    Lead service line replacement (LSLR) is an important strategy for reducing lead exposure via drinking water, but jurisdictional issues can sometimes interfere with full replacement of the lead line. The effects of full and partial LSLR on lead levels were assessed using 5 × 1-L sample profiles collected at more than 100 single-unit residences. Profiles comprised four sequential standing samples (L1-L4) and a free-flowing sample (L5) drawn after a 5 min flush of the outlet. At 45 sites with full lead service lines, 90th percentile lead levels in standing samples ranged from 16.4 to 44.5 μg L(-1) (L1 and L4, respectively). In the free-flowing sample (L5), 90th percentile lead was 9.8 μg L(-1). Within 3 days, full LSLR had reduced L3-L5 lead levels by more than 50%, and within 1 month, lead levels were significantly lower in every liter of the sample profile. Conversely, partial LSLR more than doubled premises plumbing (L1, L2) lead release in the short term and did not reduce L1, L2 lead release in the long term. Even 6 months after partial LSLR, 27% of first-draw lead levels were greater than 15 μg L(-1) (the U.S. EPA action level), compared with 13% pre-replacement.

  11. Comparison of corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines after changes in water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary results from scales formed 38 weeks following the LSL replacement simulations revealed differences in scale formations amongst varying water qualities and pipe sequence. Rigs fed with dechlorinated tap water show distinct pH gradients between the galvanic and the back...

  12. Replacement of alloy 800H superheated steam line

    SciTech Connect

    Barbier, R.A.; Bullock, J.W.

    1996-07-01

    Sterling Chemicals utilizes alloy 800HT (UNS N08811) piping for superheated steam service in its styrene dehydrogenation unit. An engineering project to replace these lines was recently completed. Material acquisition, shop fabrication, inspection requirements, and field erection will be highlighted in this paper.

  13. NIF Laser Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D W

    2003-12-19

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed with its high value optical systems in cassettes called Line Replaceable Units (LRUs). Virtually all of the NIF's active components are assembled in one of the {approx}4000 electrical and optical LRUs that serve between two and eight of NIF's 192 laser beam lines. Many of these LRUs are optomechanical assemblies that are roughly the size of a telephone booth. The primary design challenges for this hardware include meeting stringent mechanical precision, stability and cleanliness requirements. Pre-production units of each LRU type have been fielded on the first bundle of NIF and used to demonstrate that NIF meets its performance objectives. This presentation provides an overview of the NIF LRUs, their design and production plans for building out the remaining NIF bundles.

  14. Consider FRP linings instead of replacing storage tank bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    LeBleu, J.B. ); Hummel, B. )

    1995-03-01

    If a storage tank bottom is corroding quickly, it must either be replaced, or a thick-filmed, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) lining must be applied to the existing tank bottom. Replacing a tank bottom can be a costly and time-consuming process. Proper selection and application of an FRP lining system with a 60 to 65-mil thickness can save time, money and prevent internal corrosion of the steel tank bottom for 10 to 20 years. Average corrosion rate of carbon steel storage tanks in crude oil service at ambient temperatures is more than 1 mil per year. Corrosion occurs even more quickly when a layer of water containing corrosive compounds such as salt and sediment settles to the bottom of a crude oil tank. Installing a thick fiber glass-reinforced lining system involves applying a primer, putty, catalyzed resin with a glass mat and a sealcoat. After the tank has been pumped dry and the surface properly prepared, the entire process takes substantially less than the downtime and costs associated with replacing the entire tank bottom. The paper describes the application of a FRP lining system, testing and metal repairs, and the use of catalyzed resin and glass mats.

  15. Orthopaedic service lines-revisited.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article revisits the application of orthopaedic service lines from early introduction and growth of this organizational approach in the 1980s, through the 1990s, and into the current decade. The author has experienced and worked in various service-line structures through these three decades, as well as the preservice-line era of 1970s orthopaedics. Past lessons learned during earlier phases and then current trends and analysis by industry experts are summarized briefly, with indication given of the future for service lines. Variation versus consistency of certain elements in service-line definitions and in operational models is discussed. Main components of service-line structures and typical processes are described briefly, along with a more detailed section on the service-line director/manager role. Current knowledge contained here will help guide the reader to more "out-of-the-box" thinking toward comprehensive orthopaedic centers of excellence.

  16. 41 CFR 51-6.14 - Replacement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Replacement services. 51... § 51-6.14 Replacement services. If a service is on the Procurement List to meet the needs of a Government entity at a specific location and the entity moves to another location, the service at the...

  17. Valuing insect pollination services with cost of replacement.

    PubMed

    Allsopp, Mike H; de Lange, Willem J; Veldtman, Ruan

    2008-09-10

    Value estimates of ecosystem goods and services are useful to justify the allocation of resources towards conservation, but inconclusive estimates risk unsustainable resource allocations. Here we present replacement costs as a more accurate value estimate of insect pollination as an ecosystem service, although this method could also be applied to other services. The importance of insect pollination to agriculture is unequivocal. However, whether this service is largely provided by wild pollinators (genuine ecosystem service) or managed pollinators (commercial service), and which of these requires immediate action amidst reports of pollinator decline, remains contested. If crop pollination is used to argue for biodiversity conservation, clear distinction should be made between values of managed- and wild pollination services. Current methods either under-estimate or over-estimate the pollination service value, and make use of criticised general insect and managed pollinator dependence factors. We apply the theoretical concept of ascribing a value to a service by calculating the cost to replace it, as a novel way of valuing wild and managed pollination services. Adjusted insect and managed pollinator dependence factors were used to estimate the cost of replacing insect- and managed pollination services for the Western Cape deciduous fruit industry of South Africa. Using pollen dusting and hand pollination as suitable replacements, we value pollination services significantly higher than current market prices for commercial pollination, although lower than traditional proportional estimates. The complexity associated with inclusive value estimation of pollination services required several defendable assumptions, but made estimates more inclusive than previous attempts. Consequently this study provides the basis for continued improvement in context specific pollination service value estimates.

  18. Valuing Insect Pollination Services with Cost of Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Allsopp, Mike H.; de Lange, Willem J.; Veldtman, Ruan

    2008-01-01

    Value estimates of ecosystem goods and services are useful to justify the allocation of resources towards conservation, but inconclusive estimates risk unsustainable resource allocations. Here we present replacement costs as a more accurate value estimate of insect pollination as an ecosystem service, although this method could also be applied to other services. The importance of insect pollination to agriculture is unequivocal. However, whether this service is largely provided by wild pollinators (genuine ecosystem service) or managed pollinators (commercial service), and which of these requires immediate action amidst reports of pollinator decline, remains contested. If crop pollination is used to argue for biodiversity conservation, clear distinction should be made between values of managed- and wild pollination services. Current methods either under-estimate or over-estimate the pollination service value, and make use of criticised general insect and managed pollinator dependence factors. We apply the theoretical concept of ascribing a value to a service by calculating the cost to replace it, as a novel way of valuing wild and managed pollination services. Adjusted insect and managed pollinator dependence factors were used to estimate the cost of replacing insect- and managed pollination services for the Western Cape deciduous fruit industry of South Africa. Using pollen dusting and hand pollination as suitable replacements, we value pollination services significantly higher than current market prices for commercial pollination, although lower than traditional proportional estimates. The complexity associated with inclusive value estimation of pollination services required several defendable assumptions, but made estimates more inclusive than previous attempts. Consequently this study provides the basis for continued improvement in context specific pollination service value estimates. PMID:18781196

  19. service line analytics in the new era.

    PubMed

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-08-01

    To succeed under the value-based business model, hospitals and health systems require effective service line analytics that combine inpatient and outpatient data and that incorporate quality metrics for evaluating clinical operations. When developing a framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of service line data, healthcare organizations should focus on five key aspects of effective service line analytics: Updated service line definitions. Ability to analyze and trend service line net patient revenues by payment source. Access to accurate service line cost information across multiple dimensions with drill-through capabilities. Ability to redesign key reports based on changing requirements. Clear assignment of accountability.

  20. service line analytics in the new era.

    PubMed

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-08-01

    To succeed under the value-based business model, hospitals and health systems require effective service line analytics that combine inpatient and outpatient data and that incorporate quality metrics for evaluating clinical operations. When developing a framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of service line data, healthcare organizations should focus on five key aspects of effective service line analytics: Updated service line definitions. Ability to analyze and trend service line net patient revenues by payment source. Access to accurate service line cost information across multiple dimensions with drill-through capabilities. Ability to redesign key reports based on changing requirements. Clear assignment of accountability. PMID:26548137

  1. Service-line management/bottom-line management.

    PubMed

    Longshore, G F

    1998-01-01

    To survive in the sturm und drang of health care administration, hospitals and health care systems will have to restructure themselves in ways that emphasize their specific clinical strengths, control their costs, and manage the delivery and outcomes of care. Structuring the organization along clinical lines of service (e.g., oncology, cardiology, rehabilitation) cedes total bottom-line authority for all aspects of that service to the service, or product, line manager. This article discusses the qualifications, compensation, and responsibilities of service-line managers in well-integrated health care systems and describes how they and managed care organizations view each other. It also suggests which organizations will, and will not, benefit from restructuring along service lines.

  2. Effective cost modeling for service line planning.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael; Stephen, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Healthcare executives have struggled to have accurate, timely information about cost and resources to model and monitor service line performance. Process-based cost modeling has been used successfully in other industries, but is relatively new in health care. Understanding costs and resources at process and patient levels can make the difference between a service line having a positive or negative margin. PMID:20446426

  3. Installation of line replaceable units into the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bahowick, S; Mcmahon, D; Rowe, A; Tiszauer, D; Yakuma, S

    1999-03-08

    In the National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under design and construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), 192 high-power laser beamlines incorporating over 8,000 large optics, are focused onto a target smaller than a dime. The actual laser path will be contained within the Laser Target Area Building (LTAB), but the smaller adjacent building, the Optics Assembly Building, is where the optic modules are assembled and aligned. After the optics are finished in the OAB they must be transported and installed into the LTAB. While this is done strict cleanliness and handling conditions must be maintained. To maximize the efficiency of this process the optics are assembled into Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), which typically consist of a mechanical housing, laser optics, utilities, actuators and kinematic mounts. In this paper the Optical Transport and Material Handling designs that will be used to deliver the LRUs into the NIF laser bays are presented. Five types of delivery systems have been developed to deliver the LRUs to their locations in the LTAB. They are top loading, bottom loading, side loading, switchyard loading and target area loading. The first three operate in the laser bay of the LTAB and are transported between the OAB and the LTAB by the Laser Bay Transport System (LBTS). All delivery systems must maintain each optical LRU assemblies' specified shock, vibration, cleanliness, and environmental requirements. The design for each delivery system must take into consideration the cleanliness, functionality and alignment of the LRUs while maximizing commonality in order to meet the beamline installation schedule. This paper focuses on the design challenges of the bottom, side and top loading delivery systems and especially on how commonality among these varied systems is achieved.

  4. 25 CFR 169.22 - Service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.22... power lines to a voltage of 14.5 kv. or less except lines to serve irrigation pumps and commercial and industrial uses which shall be limited to a voltage not to exceed 34.5 kv. A service line shall be for...

  5. 49 CFR 192.361 - Service lines: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... line. (d) Protection against piping strain and external loading. Each service line must be installed so... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Installation. 192.361 Section 192..., and Service Lines § 192.361 Service lines: Installation. (a) Depth. Each buried service line must...

  6. A LINE POLE 77A, HISTORIC POLE WITH HISTORIC REPLACEMENT PINTYPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 77A, HISTORIC POLE WITH HISTORIC REPLACEMENT PIN-TYPE INSULATORS MADE OF BROWN PORCELAIN. VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  7. A LINE POLE 77A, DETAIL OF HISTORIC REPLACEMENT PINTYPE INSULATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 77A, DETAIL OF HISTORIC REPLACEMENT PIN-TYPE INSULATORS MADE OF BROWN PORCELAIN. VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  8. 49 CFR 192.363 - Service lines: Valve requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) A soft seat service line valve may not be used if its ability to control the flow of gas could be... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Valve requirements. 192.363 Section..., and Service Lines § 192.363 Service lines: Valve requirements. (a) Each service line must have...

  9. 49 CFR 192.363 - Service lines: Valve requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) A soft seat service line valve may not be used if its ability to control the flow of gas could be... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Valve requirements. 192.363 Section..., and Service Lines § 192.363 Service lines: Valve requirements. (a) Each service line must have...

  10. Enzyme Replacement Therapies: Better Lives Versus the Bottom Line

    PubMed Central

    CARROLL, JOHN

    2006-01-01

    On the highest end of the drug-cost spectrum, enzyme replacement therapies are beneficial to only a few thousand patients at most. But to give those with life-long struggles a chance at a ‘normal existence,’ can insurers and employers put a price on hope? The field is booming, making the question more important with each passing day. PMID:23393488

  11. 77 FR 4821 - Public Health Service Act, Non-competitive Replacement Award

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Public Health Service Act, Non-competitive Replacement Award AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Non-competitive Replacement Award to the California Telehealth Network. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and...

  12. 49 CFR 192.511 - Test requirements for service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test requirements for service lines. 192.511... Test requirements for service lines. (a) Each segment of a service line (other than plastic) must be... test at the operating pressure when placed in service. (b) Each segment of a service line (other...

  13. 49 CFR 192.511 - Test requirements for service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test requirements for service lines. 192.511... Test requirements for service lines. (a) Each segment of a service line (other than plastic) must be... test at the operating pressure when placed in service. (b) Each segment of a service line (other...

  14. 49 CFR 192.511 - Test requirements for service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Test requirements for service lines. 192.511... Test requirements for service lines. (a) Each segment of a service line (other than plastic) must be... test at the operating pressure when placed in service. (b) Each segment of a service line (other...

  15. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be installed... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689 kPa... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be protected... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Location of valves. 192.365 Section..., and Service Lines § 192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter. Each service-line valve must be installed upstream of the regulator or, if there is no...

  19. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Location of valves. 192.365 Section..., and Service Lines § 192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter. Each service-line valve must be installed upstream of the regulator or, if there is no...

  20. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter..., upstream of the meter. (b) Outside valves. Each service line must have a shut-off valve in a...

  1. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter..., upstream of the meter. (b) Outside valves. Each service line must have a shut-off valve in a...

  2. 49 CFR 192.365 - Service lines: Location of valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.365 Service lines: Location of valves. (a) Relation to regulator or meter..., upstream of the meter. (b) Outside valves. Each service line must have a shut-off valve in a...

  3. Planning, Building, and Maintaining a Successful Musculoskeletal Service Line.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Zain; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Chambers, Monique C; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    Within the past 3 decades, a recent trend in the growth of musculoskeletal service lines has been seen nationally. Orthopedics offers an appealing concourse for implementation of service-line care. Within this review, the authors address the components involved in planning and building a musculoskeletal service line. The authors also address methods by which orthopedic surgeons can maintain the efficacy of their service lines by examining how orthopedic surgeons can navigate their service line through recent advents in health care reform. Finally, the authors review successful examples of musculoskeletal service lines currently in practice within the orthopedic community. PMID:27637654

  4. 222-S radioactive liquid waste line replacement and 219-S secondary containment upgrade, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to: (1) replace the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) radioactive liquid waste drain lines to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility (219-S); (2) upgrade 219-S by replacing or upgrading the waste storage tanks and providing secondary containment and seismic restraints to the concrete cells which house the tanks; and (3) replace the transfer lines from 219-S to the 241-SY Tank Farm. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508), and the DOE Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). 222-S is used to perform analytical services on radioactive samples in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System and Hanford Site environmental restoration programs. Activities conducted at 222-S include decontamination of analytical processing and support equipment and disposal of nonarchived radioactive samples. These activities generate low-level liquid mixed waste. The liquid mixed waste is drained through pipelines in the 222-S service tunnels and underground concrete encasements, to two of three tanks in 219-S, where it is accumulated. 219-S is a treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit, and is therefore required to meet Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, and the associated requirements for secondary containment and leak detection. The service tunnels are periodically inspected by workers and decontaminated as necessary to maintain as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation levels. Although no contamination is reaching the environment from the service tunnels, the risk of worker exposure is present and could increase. 222-S is expected to remain in use for at least the next 30 years to serve the Hanford Site environmental cleanup mission.

  5. 76 FR 76044 - Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of West Bay Creek and West Bay, to include all waters between the Highway 79 Fixed Bridge and the mouth of West Bay Creek out to buoy markers 27 and 28 of...

  6. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375... § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be installed... terminate above ground level and outside the building, if— (i) The above ground level part of the...

  7. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375... § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be installed... terminate above ground level and outside the building, if— (i) The above ground level part of the...

  8. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375... § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be installed... terminate above ground level and outside the building, if— (i) The above ground level part of the...

  9. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375... § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be installed... terminate above ground level and outside the building, if— (i) The above ground level part of the...

  10. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  11. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  12. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  13. 49 CFR 192.377 - Service lines: Copper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Copper. 192.377 Section 192.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.377 Service lines: Copper. Each copper service line installed within a building must be...

  14. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  15. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  16. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  17. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  18. Incidence of joint replacement among active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Taubman, Stephen B; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-05-01

    In the U.S., joint replacements have become more common and the average age of individuals who undergo joint replacements has decreased. Joint replacements among active component service members increased 10.5% during 2004-2009, then 61.9% during 2009-2014. Knees and hips were the most frequently replaced joints among service members. During the surveillance period (and particularly after 2009), incidence rates increased in each age group of service members 30 years or older. Relative to their respective counterparts, rates of joint replacement overall--and of the hip and knee specifically--were higher among service members who were black, non-Hispanic; officers; and healthcare workers. One year after joint replacement, 18.2% had retired; 5.2% had been medically disqualified from service; 6.3% had otherwise left service; and 70.3% were still in service. By 2 years post-joint replacement, 30.2% had retired; 13.0% had been medically disqualified; 10.0% had otherwise left service; and 46.8% were still in service. Service members aged 30-44 years were the most likely to remain in service post-joint replacement. Given the increases in the frequency of joint replacement among younger service members, the number of service members who remain in service post-joint replacement may continue to increase. PMID:25996170

  19. Observations on renal replacement services in Russia, Belarus and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Boesken, W H; Ahmed, K E; Méry, J P; Segaert, M F; Bourgoignie, J J

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the current financial, technical and medical status of nephrology, dialysis and renal transplant services in these countries with the hope of helping our colleagues there to upgrade their standards of care. The general impression is that physicians as well as administrators in these countries are eager to improve conditions of patient care despite a disastrous economical climate. Our view is that we can help by providing literature, textbooks, journals, travel funds, by offering visiting fellowships to individual physicians, and by forming partnerships between nephrology centres. PMID:8643160

  20. 49 CFR 192.363 - Service lines: Valve requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators... incorporated in a meter bar, that allows the meter to be bypassed, may not be used as a service-line valve....

  1. 49 CFR 192.363 - Service lines: Valve requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators... incorporated in a meter bar, that allows the meter to be bypassed, may not be used as a service-line valve....

  2. 49 CFR 192.363 - Service lines: Valve requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators... incorporated in a meter bar, that allows the meter to be bypassed, may not be used as a service-line valve....

  3. An Instructor's Guide for a Program in Drive Line Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The Drive Line Services guide is designed to prepare students for employment in a specialized area of automotive services. The six units outlined are: an introduction (a course overview and a discussion of eye safety devices and the relevant legislation); clutches; drive lines; manual transmissions; overdrive units; and rear axle assemblies. Each…

  4. Service life evaluation of rigid explosive transfer lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a joint Army/NASA-sponsored research program on the service life evaluation of rigid explosive transfer lines. These transfer lines are used to initiate emergency crew escape functions on a wide variety of military and NASA aircraft. The purpose of this program was to determine quantitatively the effects of service, age, and degradation on rigid explosive transfer lines to allow responsible, conservative, service life determination. More than 800 transfer lines were removed from the U.S. Army AH-1G and AH-1S, the U.S. Air Force B-1 and F-111, and the U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft for testing. The results indicated that the lines were not adversely affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. Extension of the service life of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered, since considerable cost savings could be realized with no measurable decrease in system reliability.

  5. 49 CFR 192.361 - Service lines: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of cover in private property and at least 18 inches (457... building must: (1) In the case of a metal service line, be protected against corrosion; (2) In the case...

  6. 49 CFR 192.361 - Service lines: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... millimeters) of cover in streets and roads. However, where an underground structure prevents installation at... a plastic service line, be protected from shearing action and backfill settlement; and (3) Be...

  7. Design and development of a 3He replacement safeguards neutron counter based on 10B-lined proportional detector technology

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Evans, Louise; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Rael, Carlos D.; Martinez, Isaac P.; Marlow, Johnna B.

    2012-07-16

    This presentation represents an overview of the experimental evaluation of a boron-lined proportional technology performed within an NA-241 sponsored project on testing of boron-lined proportional counters for the purpose of replacement of {sup 3}He technologies. The presented boron-lined technology will be utilized in a design of a full scale safeguards neutron coincidence counter. The design considerations and the Monte Carlo performance predictions for the counter are also presented.

  8. Spectral Line-Shape Model to Replace the Voigt Profile in Spectroscopic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisak, Daniel; Ngo, Ngoc Hoa; Tran, Ha; Hartmann, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    The standard description of molecular line shapes in spectral databases and radiative transfer codes is based on the Voigt profile. It is well known that its simplified assumptions of absorber free motion and independence of collisional parameters from absorber velocity lead to systematic errors in analysis of experimental spectra, and retrieval of gas concentration. We demonstrate1,2 that the partially correlated quadratic speed-dependent hardcollision profile3. (pCqSDHCP) is a good candidate to replace the Voigt profile in the next generations of spectroscopic databases. This profile takes into account the following physical effects: the Doppler broadening, the pressure broadening and shifting of the line, the velocity-changing collisions, the speed-dependence of pressure broadening and shifting, and correlations between velocity- and phase/state-changing collisions. The speed-dependence of pressure broadening and shifting is incorporated into the pCqSDNGP in the so-called quadratic approximation. The velocity-changing collisions lead to the Dicke narrowing effect; however in many cases correlations between velocityand phase/state-changing collisions may lead to effective reduction of observed Dicke narrowing. The hard-collision model of velocity-changing collisions is also known as the Nelkin-Ghatak model or Rautian model. Applicability of the pCqSDHCP for different molecular systems was tested on calculated and experimental spectra of such molecules as H2, O2, CO2, H2O in a wide span of pressures. For all considered systems, pCqSDHCP is able to describe molecular spectra at least an order of magnitude better than the Voigt profile with all fitted parameters being linear with pressure. In the most cases pCqSDHCP can reproduce the reference spectra down to 0.2% or better, which fulfills the requirements of the most demanding remote-sensing applications. An important advantage of pCqSDHCP is that a fast algorithm for its computation was developedab4,5 and allows

  9. 49 CFR 192.381 - Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Excess flow valve performance... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.381 Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards. (a) Excess flow valves to be used on single residence service lines that operate...

  10. 49 CFR 192.381 - Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Excess flow valve performance... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.381 Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards. (a) Excess flow valves to be used on single residence service lines that operate...

  11. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line connected to a cast iron or ductile iron main must be...

  12. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. (a) Each service line connected to a cast iron or ductile iron main must be...

  13. 49 CFR 192.381 - Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Excess flow valve performance... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.381 Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards. (a) Excess flow valves to be used on single residence service lines that operate...

  14. 49 CFR 192.367 - Service lines: General requirements for connections to main piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.367 Service lines: General requirements for connections to main piping. (a) Location. Each service line connection to a main must be... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: General requirements...

  15. Pyrochemical Glovebox Line Replacement and Modernization Effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D. K.; McNeese, James A.; Cantrell, W. S.; Garcia, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), as part of the stockpile stewardship mission, is developing the capability to manufacture replacement pits for the United States nuclear weapon stockpile. Part of this effort requires that the various manufacturing activities formerly performed at the Rocky Flats be reconstructed at LANL, modernized to improve operation, and re-certified for pit production. Part of this effort requires that new pyrochemical metal production facilities be installed in TA-55 to replace existing outdated equipment. The purpose of this effort is design, build/procure, assemble, cold test, and support installation activities for ten pyrochemical processing gloveboxes and processing support equipment for insertion into a selected PF-4 laboratory. Eight of the gloveboxes will be connected to a common trolley tunnel with a state-of-the-art automated transport system that can access each glovebox. Five of those gloveboxes will be designed to accommodate standard water-cooled pyrochemical processing furnaces with appropriate lift mechanisms for handling the furnace products and processing hardware. Another glovebox will be designed to accommodate an improved breaking press that will be designed/procured to break alpha metal up to a thickness of l-inch, eliminate introduction of hydraulic oil to the glovebox environment, provide appropriate shielding for prevention of glovebox damage due to shrapnel projectiles, and use interchangeable impact tools in order to be able to process both contaminated and clean metals with the same machine. In addition, a storage glovebox and a distillation glovebox (already developed) will be attached to the transport system. Two other gloveboxes, one accommodating two casting furnaces and another storage glovebox, will be installed in the laboratory independent of the transport system. A transfer system (trolley) will be incorporated to handle material flow between the pyrochemical furnace gloveboxes, the press glovebox

  16. Evaluation of Hose in Hose transfer line service life

    SciTech Connect

    EAGLE, O.H.

    2003-05-30

    This document presents a determination for the amount of expected service life from Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines based on vendor information and past HIHTL experience. Based on the information presented in this report and referenced documentation, we conclude the service life of the inner hose establishes the limits of service life for the finished assemblies. Since the process and environmental conditions to which the transfer line is subjected will not adversely affect the hose, the effective service life is that stated by the vendor--three years from the date of initial transfer. Transfer line assemblies have a shelf life of seven years from the date of hose manufacture, if stored in accordance with Section 2.1. This evaluation provides documentation showing that a three year service life has been justified. In the event that transfer lines are to be operated after three years from the date of initial transfer and within the shelf life of seven years, they must be reevaluated for their ability to perform intended functions.

  17. The re-emergence of clinical service line management.

    PubMed

    Litch, Bonnie K

    2007-01-01

    As healthcare leaders are positioning their organizations for a more competitive environment characterized by expanding consumer choice models, they are renewing their attention on organizing along clinical service lines. Bringing together clinical services in ways meaningful to patients can improve quality b better integrating care, while at the same time strengthening an organization's market position and creating new opportunities for increased physician collaboration--from collaborative planning to management to economic participation. PMID:17608077

  18. On-line PWR RHR pump performance testing following motor and impeller replacement

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarzo, J.T.

    1996-12-01

    On-line maintenance and replacement of safety-related pumps requires the performance of an inservice test to determine and confirm the operational readiness of the pumps. In 1995, major maintenance was performed on two Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Pumps. A refurbished spare motor was overhauled with a new mechanical seal, new motor bearings and equipped with pump`s `B` impeller. The spare was installed into the `B` train. The motor had never been run in the system before. A pump performance test was developed to verify it`s operational readiness and determine the in-situ pump performance curve. Since the unit was operating, emphasis was placed on conducting a highly accurate pump performance test that would ensure that it satisfied the NSSS vendors accident analysis minimum acceptance curve. The design of the RHR System allowed testing of one train while the other was aligned for normal operation. A test flow path was established from the Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) through the pump (under test) and back to the RWST. This allowed staff to conduct a full flow range pump performance test. Each train was analyzed and an expression developed that included an error vector term for the TDH (ft), pressure (psig), and flow rate (gpm) using the variance error vector methodology. This method allowed the engineers to select a test instrumentation system that would yield accurate readings and minimal measurement errors, for data taken in the measurement of TDH (P,Q) versus Pump Flow Rate (Q). Test results for the `B` Train showed performance well in excess of the minimum required. The motor that was originally in the `B` train was similarly overhauled and equipped with `A` pump`s original impeller, re-installed in the `A` train, and tested. Analysis of the `A` train results indicate that the RHR pump`s performance was also well in excess of the vendors requirements.

  19. On-Line Services in Medicine and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarn, Davis B.; Leiter, Joseph

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the development and operation of MEDLINE which was initiated by the National Library of Medicine in 1971. This is the first generally accessible, on-line, national and international information retrieval service, and allows almost instantaneous searching of over 400,000 citations from the world's biomedical serial literature. (JR)

  20. Resilient organizations: matrix model and service line management.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Judith A

    2005-09-01

    Resilient organizations modify structures to meet the demands of the marketplace. The author describes a structure that enables multihospital organizations to innovate and rapidly adapt to changes. Service line management within a matrix model is an evolving organizational structure for complex systems in which nurses are pivotal members.

  1. EFVs' effectiveness proven on new residential service lines

    SciTech Connect

    Oleksa, P.E. )

    1991-12-01

    East Ohio Gas Company's experience with excess flow valves (EFV) has proven to be effective on new and renewed single-meter residential service lines with 10 psig or higher operating pressure. This paper reports that over a 15-year period, East Ohio has installed more than 200,000 such valves. The company's positive experience shows that EFVs can be an important part of service line design. However, each gas company should consider the applicability of excess flow valves to their own piping system. EFVs should be used only where the company determines they are appropriate. Installation of these valves should not be forced into locations where they would be counter-productive instead of contributing to pipe line safety.

  2. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  3. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  4. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  5. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  6. 49 CFR 192.373 - Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. 192.373... Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.373 Service lines: Cast iron and ductile iron. (a) Cast or ductile iron... cast iron pipe or ductile iron pipe is installed for use as a service line, the part of the...

  7. New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Kostygina, Ganna; England, Lucinda; Ling, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco companies have begun to acquire pharmaceutical subsidiaries and recently started to market nicotine replacement therapies, such as Zonnic nicotine gum, in convenience stores. Conversely, tobacco companies are producing tobacco products such as tobacco chewing gum and lozenges that resemble pharmaceutical nicotine replacement products, including a nicotine pouch product that resembles snus pouches. This convergence of nicotine and tobacco product marketing has implications for regulation and tobacco cessation. PMID:27077338

  8. New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Kostygina, Ganna; England, Lucinda; Ling, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco companies have begun to acquire pharmaceutical subsidiaries and recently started to market nicotine replacement therapies, such as Zonnic nicotine gum, in convenience stores. Conversely, tobacco companies are producing tobacco products such as tobacco chewing gum and lozenges that resemble pharmaceutical nicotine replacement products, including a nicotine pouch product that resembles snus pouches. This convergence of nicotine and tobacco product marketing has implications for regulation and tobacco cessation.

  9. Health service costs in Europe: cost and reimbursement of primary hip replacement in nine countries.

    PubMed

    Stargardt, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses variations in the cost of primary hip replacement between and within nine member states of the European Union (EU). It also compares the cost of service with public-payer reimbursements. To do so, data on cost and reimbursement were surveyed at the micro-level in 42 hospitals in Denmark, England, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. The total cost of treatment ranged from 1290 euros (Hungary) to 8739 euros (The Netherlands), with a mean cost of 5043 euros (STD +/- 2071 euros). The main cost drivers were found to be implants (34% of total cost on average) and ward costs (20.9% of total cost on average). A one-way random effects analysis of variance model indicated that 74.0% of variation was between and only 26% of variation was within countries. In a two-level random-intercept regression model, purchasing-power parities explained 79.4% of the explainable between-country variation, while the percentage of uncemented implants used and the number of beds explained 12.1 and 1.6% of explainable within-country variation, respectively. The large differences in cost and reimbursement between Poland, Hungary, and the other EU member states shows that primary total hip replacement is a highly relevant case for cross-border care.

  10. Replacement Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware for Propellant Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-l13- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. Replacement technologies are being investigated for aerospace hardware and for gauges and instrumentation. This paper includes the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification of aerospace hardware using known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils. The results correlate nonvolatile residue with CFC 113. The studies also include enhancements to aqueous sampling for organic and particulate contamination. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon 225 (HCFC 225), HCFC 141b, HFE 7100(R), and Vertrel MCA(R) was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC 113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autogenous ignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  11. Effect of flow rate and lead/copper pipe sequence on lead release from service lines.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Clément; Arnold, Roger B; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Prévost, Michèle; Edwards, Marc

    2012-09-01

    A pilot experiment examined lead leaching from four representative configurations of service lines including: (1) 100% lead (Pb), (2) 100% copper (Cu), (3) 50% Pb upstream of 50% Cu, and (4) 50% Pb-downstream of 50% Cu using a range of flow rates. The cumulative mass of lead release indicated that a typical partial replacement configuration (50% lead downstream of copper) did not provide a net reduction in lead when compared to 100% lead pipe (85 mg for 50% Pb-downstream versus 83 mg for 100%-Pb) due to galvanic and deposition corrosion. The partially replaced service line configuration also had a much greater likelihood of producing water with "spikes" of lead particulates at higher flow rates, while tending to produce lower levels of lead at very low flow rates. After the first 214 days the galvanic current between copper and lead was only reduced by 34%, proving that galvanic impacts can be highly persistent even in water with optimized corrosion control by dosing of zinc orthophosphate. Finally, this experiment raises concern about the low flow rates used during some prior home sampling events, which may underestimate exposure to lead during normal water use, especially when galvanic Pb:Cu connections are present.

  12. Effect of flow rate and lead/copper pipe sequence on lead release from service lines.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Clément; Arnold, Roger B; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Prévost, Michèle; Edwards, Marc

    2012-09-01

    A pilot experiment examined lead leaching from four representative configurations of service lines including: (1) 100% lead (Pb), (2) 100% copper (Cu), (3) 50% Pb upstream of 50% Cu, and (4) 50% Pb-downstream of 50% Cu using a range of flow rates. The cumulative mass of lead release indicated that a typical partial replacement configuration (50% lead downstream of copper) did not provide a net reduction in lead when compared to 100% lead pipe (85 mg for 50% Pb-downstream versus 83 mg for 100%-Pb) due to galvanic and deposition corrosion. The partially replaced service line configuration also had a much greater likelihood of producing water with "spikes" of lead particulates at higher flow rates, while tending to produce lower levels of lead at very low flow rates. After the first 214 days the galvanic current between copper and lead was only reduced by 34%, proving that galvanic impacts can be highly persistent even in water with optimized corrosion control by dosing of zinc orthophosphate. Finally, this experiment raises concern about the low flow rates used during some prior home sampling events, which may underestimate exposure to lead during normal water use, especially when galvanic Pb:Cu connections are present. PMID:22677500

  13. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement, an on-line research and education information service

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The FEDIX Annual Status Report provides details regarding an on-line information project designed, developed and implemented by Federal Information Exchange, Inc., a diversified information services company. This document details the project design activities, summarizes the developmental phases of the project and describes the implementation activities generated to fulfill the project's objectives. The information contained in this document illustrates FIE's continuing commitment to serve as the link that facilitates the dissemination of federal information to the education community. This report reviews the project accomplishments and describes intended service enhancements.

  14. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron...

  15. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron...

  16. 49 CFR 192.369 - Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Connections to cast iron or ductile iron mains. 192.369 Section 192.369 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.369 Service lines: Connections to cast iron...

  17. 49 CFR 192.725 - Test requirements for reinstating service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test requirements for reinstating service lines... § 192.725 Test requirements for reinstating service lines. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each disconnected service line must be tested in the same manner as a new service...

  18. 49 CFR 192.725 - Test requirements for reinstating service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test requirements for reinstating service lines... § 192.725 Test requirements for reinstating service lines. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each disconnected service line must be tested in the same manner as a new service...

  19. 49 CFR 192.725 - Test requirements for reinstating service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test requirements for reinstating service lines... § 192.725 Test requirements for reinstating service lines. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each disconnected service line must be tested in the same manner as a new service...

  20. 49 CFR 192.725 - Test requirements for reinstating service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Test requirements for reinstating service lines... § 192.725 Test requirements for reinstating service lines. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each disconnected service line must be tested in the same manner as a new service...

  1. Description of the attitude control, guidance and navigation space replaceable units for automated space servicing of selected NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chobotov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Control elements such as sensors, momentum exchange devices, and thrusters are described which can be used to define space replaceable units (SRU), in accordance with attitude control, guidance, and navigation performance requirements selected for NASA space serviceable mission spacecraft. A number of SRU's are developed, and their reliability block diagrams are presented. An SRU assignment is given in order to define a set of feasible space serviceable spacecraft for the missions of interest.

  2. Enhanced snoMEN Vectors Facilitate Establishment of GFP–HIF-1α Protein Replacement Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bensaddek, Dalila; Afzal, Vackar; Biddlestone, John; Ortmann, Brian; Mudie, Sharon; Boivin, Vincent; Scott, Michelle S.; Rocha, Sonia; Lamond, Angus I.

    2016-01-01

    The snoMEN (snoRNA Modulator of gene ExpressioN) vector technology was developed from a human box C/D snoRNA, HBII-180C, which contains an internal sequence that can be manipulated to make it complementary to RNA targets, allowing knock-down of targeted genes. Here we have screened additional human nucleolar snoRNAs and assessed their application for gene specific knock-downs to improve the efficiency of snoMEN vectors. We identify and characterise a new snoMEN vector, termed 47snoMEN, that is derived from box C/D snoRNA U47, demonstrating its use for knock-down of both endogenous cellular proteins and G/YFP-fusion proteins. Using multiplex 47snoMEM vectors that co-express multiple 47snoMEN in a single transcript, each of which can target different sites in the same mRNA, we document >3-fold increase in knock-down efficiency when compared with the original HBII-180C based snoMEN. The multiplex 47snoMEM vector allowed the construction of human protein replacement cell lines with improved efficiency, including the establishment of novel GFP–HIF-1α replacement cells. Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the enhanced efficiency and specificity of protein replacement using the 47snoMEN-PR vectors. The 47snoMEN vectors expand the potential applications for snoMEN technology in gene expression studies, target validation and gene therapy. PMID:27128805

  3. Enhanced snoMEN Vectors Facilitate Establishment of GFP-HIF-1α Protein Replacement Human Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Ono, Motoharu; Yamada, Kayo; Bensaddek, Dalila; Afzal, Vackar; Biddlestone, John; Ortmann, Brian; Mudie, Sharon; Boivin, Vincent; Scott, Michelle S; Rocha, Sonia; Lamond, Angus I

    2016-01-01

    The snoMEN (snoRNA Modulator of gene ExpressioN) vector technology was developed from a human box C/D snoRNA, HBII-180C, which contains an internal sequence that can be manipulated to make it complementary to RNA targets, allowing knock-down of targeted genes. Here we have screened additional human nucleolar snoRNAs and assessed their application for gene specific knock-downs to improve the efficiency of snoMEN vectors. We identify and characterise a new snoMEN vector, termed 47snoMEN, that is derived from box C/D snoRNA U47, demonstrating its use for knock-down of both endogenous cellular proteins and G/YFP-fusion proteins. Using multiplex 47snoMEM vectors that co-express multiple 47snoMEN in a single transcript, each of which can target different sites in the same mRNA, we document >3-fold increase in knock-down efficiency when compared with the original HBII-180C based snoMEN. The multiplex 47snoMEM vector allowed the construction of human protein replacement cell lines with improved efficiency, including the establishment of novel GFP-HIF-1α replacement cells. Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the enhanced efficiency and specificity of protein replacement using the 47snoMEN-PR vectors. The 47snoMEN vectors expand the potential applications for snoMEN technology in gene expression studies, target validation and gene therapy. PMID:27128805

  4. 46 CFR 44.01-1 - Establishment of load lines for special services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment of load lines for special services. 44.01-1 Section 44.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SPECIAL SERVICE LIMITED DOMESTIC VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-1 Establishment of load lines for...

  5. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line... pricing flexibility with respect to the following services: (1) Common line services, as described in... described in §§ 69.111(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (b) Phase I triggers. (1) To obtain Phase I pricing...

  6. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line... pricing flexibility with respect to the following services: (1) Common line services, as described in... described in §§ 69.111(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (b) Phase I triggers. (1) To obtain Phase I pricing...

  7. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line... pricing flexibility with respect to the following services: (1) Common line services, as described in... described in §§ 69.111(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (b) Phase I triggers. (1) To obtain Phase I pricing...

  8. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.713 Common line... pricing flexibility with respect to the following services: (1) Common line services, as described in... described in §§ 69.111(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (b) Phase I triggers. (1) To obtain Phase I pricing...

  9. An Indoor Mobile Location Estimator in Mixed Line of Sight/Non-Line of Sight Environments Using Replacement Modified Hidden Markov Models and an Interacting Multiple Model

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Jingyu; Wu, Chengdong; Jia, Zixi; Yang, Yufang; Zhang, Yunzhou; Hu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Localization as a technique to solve the complex and challenging problems besetting line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) transmissions has recently attracted considerable attention in the wireless sensor network field. This paper proposes a strategy for eliminating NLOS localization errors during calculation of the location of mobile terminals (MTs) in unfamiliar indoor environments. In order to improve the hidden Markov model (HMM), we propose two modified algorithms, namely, modified HMM (M-HMM) and replacement modified HMM (RM-HMM). Further, a hybrid localization algorithm that combines HMM with an interacting multiple model (IMM) is proposed to represent the velocity of mobile nodes. This velocity model is divided into a high-speed and a low-speed model, which means the nodes move at different speeds following the same mobility pattern. Each moving node continually switches its state based on its probability. Consequently, to improve precision, each moving node uses the IMM model to integrate the results from the HMM and its modified forms. Simulation experiments conducted show that our proposed algorithms perform well in both distance estimation and coordinate calculation, with increasing accuracy of localization of the proposed algorithms in the order M-HMM, RM-HMM, and HMM + IMM. The simulations also show that the three algorithms are accurate, stable, and robust. PMID:26091395

  10. 49 CFR 192.379 - New service lines not in use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators... must be installed in the service line or in the meter assembly. (c) The customer's piping must...

  11. 49 CFR 192.379 - New service lines not in use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators... must be installed in the service line or in the meter assembly. (c) The customer's piping must...

  12. 49 CFR 192.379 - New service lines not in use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators... must be installed in the service line or in the meter assembly. (c) The customer's piping must...

  13. 49 CFR 192.379 - New service lines not in use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators... must be installed in the service line or in the meter assembly. (c) The customer's piping must...

  14. Service and repair of the rammed lining of a rotary furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, D.A.; Khamatova, V.G.; Murzin, V.N.

    1986-03-01

    The rotary furnace is designed for heating of carbon and alloy steel billets 100-150 mm in diameter and 1000-3800 mm long with a maximum weight of 350 kg to 1130-1260 degrees C. The furnace hearth lining is made in three layers. The top of the center layer is made of parts laid with gaps between them of 20-30 mm. The 80-90-mm-thick working layer is made of type MKhGP-35 rammed chromite-clay compound. To protect the top of the side parts of the hearth from impacts, they are covered with a 40-mm-thick layer of rammed MKhGP-35 compound. During operation of the furnace and heating of the billets, the rammed compound of the hearth is compacted and after 6-7 months of service waves up to 20-30 mm deep are formed on it from the action of the round billets. To avoid the condition in which the unloading machine is not able to take the heated billets from such a hearth, ramming compound is added to the depressions in the hearth through the charging door. The furnace temperature is brought up to the heating schedule and billets are charged. The rammed lining is completely replaced once every two or three years. The saving with such a method of repair of the worn rammed hearth during 2 years of operation of the rotary furnace is substantial.

  15. A Handbook for the Introduction of On-Line Bibliographic Search Services Into Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, David M.

    A handbook is provided for library administrators who are planning to install commercially available on-line interactive search services. It includes guidelines for selecting and organizing the service, staffing, training and orientation, preparing the service sites, promotion and user education, finance, data collection, and service evaluation.…

  16. Ecological Psychology: Replacing the Medical Model Paradigm for School-Based Psychological and Psychoeducational Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutkin, Terry B.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medical model service delivery systems have facilitated the creation of nationwide mental health and education pandemics for children and youth. The characteristics and shortcomings of medical model approaches leading to these problems are explicated, including the focus of services on individuals rather than populations, relying…

  17. Extension of service life of rigid transfer lines /SMDC/. [explosive components for aircraft escape systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a life evaluation program on rigid explosive transfer lines, which are used to initiate aircraft emergency crew escape functions, are presented in order to provide quantitative information on rigid explosive transfer lines which can contribute to responsible, conservative, service life determinations. The program involved the development of a test methodology, testing of the three types of transfer lines in use in the U.S., testing of these lines following a repeat of the thermal test conducted in the original qualification, and conducting a degradation investigation. Results from the testing of more than 800 components showed that rigid explosive transfer lines were not affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. The explosive degradation limits were approximated and the mechanisms examined. It is concluded that the service lives of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered for extension in order to provide cost savings and increased system reliability.

  18. Using embedded systems for the remote delivery and recovery of National Ignition Facility and optical line replaceable units

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M L

    1999-01-19

    This paper describes the design and development of the embedded control systems used to deliver and recover the National Ignition Facility (NIF) optical line replaceable units (LRUs). As part of the NIF Operations Special Equipment Control System (OSECS), the embedded control systems form a part of the front end processor (FEP) layer of the OSECS. During the start-up and operations phases of the NIF project, it is anticipated that a significant number of LRUs will be delivered to the laser beamline structure. The frequency of LRU delivery combined with the design of the facility pose severe constraints for human-only delivery and recovery operations. To reduce the risks to personnel and to allow for safe and efficient delivery of equipment, LLNL engineers are designing and developing embedded control systems for the low-level device control of NIF Transport and Handling mechanical delivery system components. The design of the embedded control system makes use of advanced PC-based motion control technology commonly found in industrial applications. The PC-based platform consists of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software such as industrial computers, motion controllers, data acquisition boards, sensors technology, networking capabilities, development languages and operating system. Wireless networking technology is also being employed in the design to achieve a distributed control architecture for operator mobility during operations. Additionally, the PC-based platform provides the greatest degree of flexibility in satisfying a diverse set of motion control requirements and helps to maintain low maintenance and future upgrade costs.

  19. Microbial community profile of a lead service line removed from a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A

    2011-08-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments.

  20. Trace Metal Associations with Manganese-Rich Surface Coatings of Lead Service Lines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of lead service line samples from U. S. Environmental Protection Agency’s long-term research program to evaluate control and metal release from domestic drinking water service lines has revealed that Manganese-rich solids also contain Iron and sometimes Aluminum have fre...

  1. 46 CFR 44.01-11 - Assignment and marking load lines; special service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment and marking load lines; special service. 44.01-11 Section 44.01-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SPECIAL SERVICE LIMITED DOMESTIC VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-11 Assignment and marking load...

  2. Medicare Program; Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Payment Model for Acute Care Hospitals Furnishing Lower Extremity Joint Replacement Services. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-11-24

    This final rule implements a new Medicare Part A and B payment model under section 1115A of the Social Security Act, called the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model, in which acute care hospitals in certain selected geographic areas will receive retrospective bundled payments for episodes of care for lower extremity joint replacement (LEJR) or reattachment of a lower extremity. All related care within 90 days of hospital discharge from the joint replacement procedure will be included in the episode of care. We believe this model will further our goals in improving the efficiency and quality of care for Medicare beneficiaries with these common medical procedures. PMID:26606762

  3. Medicare Program; Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Payment Model for Acute Care Hospitals Furnishing Lower Extremity Joint Replacement Services. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-11-24

    This final rule implements a new Medicare Part A and B payment model under section 1115A of the Social Security Act, called the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model, in which acute care hospitals in certain selected geographic areas will receive retrospective bundled payments for episodes of care for lower extremity joint replacement (LEJR) or reattachment of a lower extremity. All related care within 90 days of hospital discharge from the joint replacement procedure will be included in the episode of care. We believe this model will further our goals in improving the efficiency and quality of care for Medicare beneficiaries with these common medical procedures.

  4. 49 CFR 192.379 - New service lines not in use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators... service upon completion of installation must comply with one of the following until the customer is... must be installed in the service line or in the meter assembly. (c) The customer's piping must...

  5. 46 CFR 53.01-10 - Service restrictions and exceptions (replaces HG-101).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). (b) Service restrictions. (1) Boilers of wrought materials shall be restricted to a maximum of 103 kPa gage (15 psig) for steam and a maximum of 689 kPa (100 psig... be restricted to a maximum of 103 kPa gage (15 psig) for steam and to a maximum of 206 kPa gage...

  6. 46 CFR 53.01-10 - Service restrictions and exceptions (replaces HG-101).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). (b) Service restrictions. (1) Boilers of wrought materials shall be restricted to a maximum of 103 kPa gage (15 psig) for steam and a maximum of 689 kPa (100 psig... be restricted to a maximum of 103 kPa gage (15 psig) for steam and to a maximum of 206 kPa gage...

  7. 46 CFR 53.01-10 - Service restrictions and exceptions (replaces HG-101).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). (b) Service restrictions. (1) Boilers of wrought materials shall be restricted to a maximum of 103 kPa gage (15 psig) for steam and a maximum of 689 kPa (100 psig... be restricted to a maximum of 103 kPa gage (15 psig) for steam and to a maximum of 206 kPa gage...

  8. 46 CFR 53.01-10 - Service restrictions and exceptions (replaces HG-101).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). (b) Service restrictions. (1) Boilers of wrought materials shall be restricted to a maximum of 103 kPa gage (15 psig) for steam and a maximum of 689 kPa (100 psig... be restricted to a maximum of 103 kPa gage (15 psig) for steam and to a maximum of 206 kPa gage...

  9. 46 CFR 53.01-10 - Service restrictions and exceptions (replaces HG-101).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 53.01-1). (b) Service restrictions. (1) Boilers of wrought materials shall be restricted to a maximum of 103 kPa gage (15 psig) for steam and a maximum of 689 kPa (100 psig... be restricted to a maximum of 103 kPa gage (15 psig) for steam and to a maximum of 206 kPa gage...

  10. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement an on-line research and education information service. Annual status report, September 1992--August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE) is a diversified information services company that is recognized as the major electronic link between the higher education community and the Federal government in the field of research administration. FIE provides a range of information related services to the government, academic and private sectors, including database management, software development and technical support. FEDIX is the on-line information service designed, developed and implemented by FIE to accomplish the following objectives: (1). Broaden the participation of the education community in Federal research and education programs by providing free and unrestricted on-line access to information from all participating Federal agencies; and (2). Provide the education community with on-line access to a single keyword-searchable system for research and educational funding opportunities at the participating Federal agencies.

  11. Foreign Service Line of Duty Death Gratuity Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. West, Allen B. [R-FL-22

    2011-09-09

    10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. The proposed planning method as a parallel element to a real service system for dynamic sharing of service lines.

    PubMed

    Klampfer, Saša; Chowdhury, Amor

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a solution to the bottleneck problem with dynamic sharing or leasing of service capacities. From this perspective the use of the proposed method as a parallel element in service capacities sharing is very important, because it enables minimization of the number of interfaces, and consequently of the number of leased lines, with a combination of two service systems with time-opposite peak loads. In this paper we present a new approach, methodology, models and algorithms which solve the problems of dynamic leasing and sharing of service capacities.

  13. Accessibility versus quality of care plus retention: the formula for service delivery in Australian opioid replacement therapy?

    PubMed

    Harlow, Warren; Roman, Marian W; Happell, Brenda; Browne, Graeme

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how Australian Opioid Replacement Therapy (ORT) policy influences access to ORT treatment, including the resources required for implementation. In doing so, we also compare the accessibility of ORT treatment in Australia (AU) with ORT in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US). A review of government data and policy that influence service delivery was undertaken. When comparing across AU, the UK, and the US, we found several differences. To improve access to treatment in Australia more general practitioners need to provide ORT. Additionally, criteria for quality care, a centralised intake system, a national ORT treatment outcome measure, and a shift towards a recovery focus are recommended.

  14. On-line Career Services: A Brief Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Murrin, Jennifer

    Numerous web sites on the Internet are dedicated to academic and career planning, market information, market trends, and job banks. A majority of the human resource management services offered on the Internet deal with the area of recruiting. The job placement activities emphasize searching vast databases of job openings and submitting resumes.…

  15. Seeking an optimal renal replacement therapy for the chronic kidney disease epidemic: the case for on-line hemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Emanuele; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be expected to increase dramatically in the foreseeable future, with suggestions that it has already reached epidemic proportions. The inadequate supply of donor organs, aggravated by an aging patient population, necessitates provision of sustainable dialysis treatment modalities. These treatment modalities must not only be of established clinical efficacy and effectiveness, but must simultaneously circumvent any potential treatment disparities due to geographical, social or other concurring factors. Home therapies might represent a partial solution to the complex issue of seeking optimal strategies to cope with the CKD epidemic. However, self-care renal replacement therapy (RRT), such as peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home therapies, can only be applied to a limited portion of the CKD population. Consequently, in preparation for coping with this CKD epidemic, specific large-scale plans need to be made that involve optimization of treatments already in use for the majority of the population requiring RRT, e.g. hemodialysis (HD). Extracorporeal chronic HD relies heavily on technology for its clinical success. Like the choice of the treatment modality and the complete medical approach to CKD patient care, the particular selection of the various components of the extracorporeal circuit has a significant impact on the well-being and survival of the patients. We present a medical-technological assessment of how best to treat vast numbers of dialysis patients under the financial restraints that are predicted to become even more severe as CKD entrenches itself as a more 'permanent epidemic'. A treatment modality is proposed that optimally addresses--and resolves--the debilitating effects of uremia, as well as of key clinical conditions closely linked to it. This treatment modality successfully tackles the issues of patient well-being, efficacy, effectiveness, safety and patient-nursing staff convenience--all in relation to

  16. Seeking an optimal renal replacement therapy for the chronic kidney disease epidemic: the case for on-line hemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Emanuele; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be expected to increase dramatically in the foreseeable future, with suggestions that it has already reached epidemic proportions. The inadequate supply of donor organs, aggravated by an aging patient population, necessitates provision of sustainable dialysis treatment modalities. These treatment modalities must not only be of established clinical efficacy and effectiveness, but must simultaneously circumvent any potential treatment disparities due to geographical, social or other concurring factors. Home therapies might represent a partial solution to the complex issue of seeking optimal strategies to cope with the CKD epidemic. However, self-care renal replacement therapy (RRT), such as peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home therapies, can only be applied to a limited portion of the CKD population. Consequently, in preparation for coping with this CKD epidemic, specific large-scale plans need to be made that involve optimization of treatments already in use for the majority of the population requiring RRT, e.g. hemodialysis (HD). Extracorporeal chronic HD relies heavily on technology for its clinical success. Like the choice of the treatment modality and the complete medical approach to CKD patient care, the particular selection of the various components of the extracorporeal circuit has a significant impact on the well-being and survival of the patients. We present a medical-technological assessment of how best to treat vast numbers of dialysis patients under the financial restraints that are predicted to become even more severe as CKD entrenches itself as a more 'permanent epidemic'. A treatment modality is proposed that optimally addresses--and resolves--the debilitating effects of uremia, as well as of key clinical conditions closely linked to it. This treatment modality successfully tackles the issues of patient well-being, efficacy, effectiveness, safety and patient-nursing staff convenience--all in relation to

  17. Application and evaluation of foreign systems for lining gas distribution service pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.R.; Gauthier, S.W.; Spivey, A.J.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes a Gas Research Institute program to test and evaluate trenchless rehabilitation technologies for lining gas distribution service pipes. The technical approach for the program was to evaluate foreign service lining systems, determine industry needs versus system capabilities, conduct controlled laboratory evaluations, and perform field evaluations. Two techniques in use at Japanese and British gas companies were investigated, and trials were conducted at six U.S. gas utilities. The reverse lining method of the Japanese utilities was successfully applied to service pipes of 1 to 4 inch diameter for lengths up to 90 feet. The RENU live insertion method used by British Gas is also a potentially viable option for service line renewal. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Reengineering a surgical service line: focusing on core process improvement.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D L; Pestotnik, S L; Coons, M C; Lelis, J W

    1997-01-01

    Integrating principles from a variety of theory has led to the development of a conceptual framework for reengineering in a clinical care delivery setting to improve the value of services provided to the customer. A conceptual framework involving the identification of three high level core processes to reengineer can provide clarity and focus for clinicians to begin directing reengineering efforts. Those core processes are: clinical management of the patient's medical needs, patient operational processes to support the clinical processes, and administrative decision-making processes to support the implementation of the clinical and operational processes. Improvement in any one of these areas has the potential to increase value, but the concurrent targeting of these core processes for reengineering has provided a synergy that has accelerated the achievement of the desired outcomes in the area of surgical services. PMID:9161059

  19. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  20. A simple and efficient method to identify replacements of P-lacZ by P-Gal4 lines allows obtaining Gal4 insertions in the bithorax complex of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    de Navas, Luis; Foronda, David; Suzanne, Magali; Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto

    2006-11-01

    The functional replacement of one gene product by another one is a powerful method to study specificity in development and evolution. In Drosophila, the Gal4/UAS method has been used to analyze in vivo such functional substitutions. To this aim, Gal4 lines that inactivate a gene and reproduce its expression pattern are required, and they can be frequently obtained by replacing pre-existing P-lacZ lines with such characteristics. We have devised a new method to quickly identify replacements of P-lacZ lines by P-Gal4 lines, and applied it successfully to obtain Gal4 insertions in the Ultrabithorax and Abdominal-B Hox genes. We have used these lines to study the functional replacement of a Hox gene by another one. Our experiments confirm that the abdominal-A gene can replace Ultrabithorax in haltere development but that it cannot substitute for Abdominal-B in the formation of the genitalia. PMID:16971094

  1. Connecting the dots: using 'big data' to build an efficient, integrated service line.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Dana; Leonard, Robert; McEnroe, Sean; McDonald, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    As seen in the case of musculoskeletal care, the broad steps hospitals and health systems should take to optimize service lines include: Understanding their market's demand for services. Guiding patients through integrated, patient-centric care. Taking patient engagement to the next level.

  2. Research influence on antimalarial drug policy change in Tanzania: case study of replacing chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as the first-line drug

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Research is an essential tool in facing the challenges of scaling up interventions and improving access to services. As in many other countries, the translation of research evidence into drug policy action in Tanzania is often constrained by poor communication between researchers and policy decision-makers, individual perceptions or attitudes towards the drug and hesitation by some policy decision-makers to approve change when they anticipate possible undesirable repercussions should the policy change as proposed. Internationally, literature on the role of researchers on national antimalarial drug policy change is limited. Objectives To describe the (a) role of researchers in producing evidence that influenced the Tanzanian government replace chloroquine (CQ) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the first-line drug and the challenges faced in convincing policy-makers, general practitioners, pharmaceutical industry and the general public on the need for change (b) challenges ahead before a new drug combination treatment policy is introduced in Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews were held with national-level policy-makers, malaria control programme managers, pharmaceutical officers, general medical practitioners, medical research library and publications officers, university academicians, heads of medical research institutions and district and regional medical officers. Additional data were obtained through a review of malaria drug policy documents and participant observations were also done. Results In year 2001, the Tanzanian Government officially changed its malaria treatment policy guidelines whereby CQ – the first-line drug for a long time was replaced with SP. This policy decision was supported by research evidence indicating parasite resistance to CQ and clinical CQ treatment failure rates to have reached intolerable levels as compared to SP and amodiaquine (AQ). Research also indicated that since SP was also facing rising resistance trend

  3. Information logistics: A production-line approach to information services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Dennis; Lee, Chee-Seng

    1991-01-01

    Logistics can be defined as the process of strategically managing the acquisition, movement, and storage of materials, parts, and finished inventory (and the related information flow) through the organization and its marketing channels in a cost effective manner. It is concerned with delivering the right product to the right customer in the right place at the right time. The logistics function is composed of inventory management, facilities management, communications unitization, transportation, materials management, and production scheduling. The relationship between logistics and information systems is clear. Systems such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Point of Sale (POS) systems, and Just in Time (JIT) inventory management systems are important elements in the management of product development and delivery. With improved access to market demand figures, logisticians can decrease inventory sizes and better service customer demand. However, without accurate, timely information, little, if any, of this would be feasible in today's global markets. Information systems specialists can learn from logisticians. In a manner similar to logistics management, information logistics is concerned with the delivery of the right data, to the ring customer, at the right time. As such, information systems are integral components of the information logistics system charged with providing customers with accurate, timely, cost-effective, and useful information. Information logistics is a management style and is composed of elements similar to those associated with the traditional logistics activity: inventory management (data resource management), facilities management (distributed, centralized and decentralized information systems), communications (participative design and joint application development methodologies), unitization (input/output system design, i.e., packaging or formatting of the information), transportations (voice, data, image, and video communication systems

  4. Replace Double Replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Reactions described as double replacements in high school texts are poorly described by this designation. The driving force for such reactions is precipitation of a solid derived from ions in solution or the production of water in acid-base reactions.

  5. How to Access Spectral Line Databases in the IVOA: SLAP Services in VOSpec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.

    2007-10-01

    In an action led by the ESA-VO project and VO-France, the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) is defining the access to spectral line data bases, both theoretical and observational. Two standards are in development, the SLAP (Simple Line Access Protocol) document and the Atomic and Molecular Spectral Line Data Model document. The first standard defines uniform access to spectral line data bases while the second specifies a common universal language for information interchange. The SLAP and the already existing SSAP (Simple Spectrum Access Protocol), integrated into the same VO application, are a powerful combination for astronomical spectral studies. Some very well known spectral line data bases have already implemented SLAP services on their servers, e.g., the NIST Atomic Spectra Database (theoretical), LERMA (observational) or the IASD (Infrared Astronomical Spectral Database) (observational). Other projects, such as ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array), are preparing their databases to be as close as possible to the Spectral Line Data Model and are planning to expose their data in SLAP format. We summarize the content of both the SLAP and AM Line Data Model documents and how these SLAP services have been integrated in VOSpec, the VO reference application for spectral access developed by the ESA-VO team.

  6. Towards On-Line Services Based on a Holistic Analysis of Human Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Very often computer scientists view computerization of services in terms of the logistics of human-machine interaction, including establishing a contract, accessing records, and of course designing an interface. But this analysis often moves too quickly to tactical details, failing to frame the entire service in human terms, and not recognizing the mutual learning required to define and relate goals, constraints, and the personalized value of available services. In particular, on-line services that "computerize communication" can be improved by constructing an activity model of what the person is trying to do, not just filtering, comparing, and selling piece-meal services. For example, from the customer s perspective the task of an on-line travel service is not merely to establish confirmed reservations, but to have a complete travel plan, usually integrating many days of transportation, lodging, and recreation into a happy experience. The task of the travel agent is not merely "ticketing", but helping the customer understand what they want and providing services that will connect everything together in an enjoyable way.

  7. Cognitive and Attitudinal Predictors Related to Line Graphing Achievement among Elementary Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyjka, Sebastian; Mumba, Frackson; Wise, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which six cognitive and attitudinal variables predicted pre-service elementary teachers' (N = 87) performance on line graphing. Predictors included reading comprehension and mathematics scores, logical thinking performance scores, as well as measures of attitudes toward science, mathematics…

  8. Teen Line: A Descriptive Analysis of a Peer Telephone Listening Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Kathryn; And Others

    1991-01-01

    During first year of operation, Teen Line (peer telephone listening service) received 2,270 calls, two-thirds of which were from females. Four percent of topics discussed dealt with crisis situations (suicide, physical abuse); 96 percent were concerned with issues such as peer relationships, family dynamics, and need to have someone "to talk to."…

  9. The Impact of On-Line Search Services on Library Operations and Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Colin K.

    An experimental program placed computer terminals in four San Francisco Bay Area public libraries to be used to provide on-line computer search services to library patrons. The first few months of operation of the experiment showed that there was a significant impact on the participating libraries, on the library patrons, and on the community and…

  10. Peak Lead Levels and Diagnostics in Lead Service Lines Dominated by PbO2 - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple studies have presented “profiles” of water lead levels from tap to main through lead service lines (LSLs), in systems where the LSLs were coated with common Pb(II) corrosion solids. These Pb(II) solids were either actual Pb(II) minerals or Pb(II) sorbed onto other pipe ...

  11. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments....

  12. 49 CFR 192.381 - Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Excess flow valve performance standards. 192.381 Section 192.381 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND...

  13. Student Support Services and Success Factors for Adult On-Line Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer,Linda B; Hudson, Larry; Paugh, Robert

    A study examined a variety of student support services and four areas for student success from the viewpoint of World Wide Web-based learners in the University of Central Florida College of Education, Vocational Education area. A two-part on-line survey form was included in the exam files for adult learners in four Web-based courses during spring…

  14. A longitudinal analysis of the impact of hospital service line profitability on the likelihood of readmission.

    PubMed

    Navathe, Amol S; Volpp, Kevin G; Konetzka, R Tamara; Press, Matthew J; Zhu, Jingsan; Chen, Wei; Lindrooth, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Quality of care may be linked to the profitability of admissions in addition to level of reimbursement. Prior policy reforms reduced payments that differentially affected the average profitability of various admission types. The authors estimated a Cox competing risks model, controlling for the simultaneous risk of mortality post discharge, to determine whether the average profitability of hospital service lines to which a patient was admitted was associated with the likelihood of readmission within 30 days. The sample included 12,705,933 Medicare Fee for Service discharges from 2,438 general acute care hospitals during 1997, 2001, and 2005. There was no evidence of an association between changes in average service line profitability and changes in readmission risk, even when controlling for risk of mortality. These findings are reassuring in that the profitability of patients' admissions did not affect readmission rates, and together with other evidence may suggest that readmissions are not an unambiguous quality indicator for in-hospital care.

  15. 78 FR 28622 - Notice of Approval of Record of Decision for Extending F-Line Streetcar Service to Fort Mason...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Approval of Record of Decision for Extending F-Line Streetcar Service to... Park, City and County of San Francisco, California AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Environmental Quality (40 CFR Part 1505.2), the Department of the Interior, National Park Service,...

  16. Continuous cell lines from the Muscovy duck as potential replacement for primary cells in the production of avian vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Ingo; John, Katrin; Höwing, Kristin; Lohr, Verena; Penzes, Zoltán; Gubucz-Sombor, Erzsébet; Fu, Yan; Gao, Peng; Harder, Timm; Zádori, Zoltán; Sandig, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Veterinary vaccines contribute to food security, interrupt zoonotic transmissions, and help to maintain overall health in livestock. Although vaccines are usually cost-effective, their adoption depends on a multitude of factors. Because poultry vaccines are usually given to birds with a short life span, very low production cost per dose is one important challenge. Other hurdles are to ensure a consistent and reliable supply of very large number of doses, and to have flexible production processes to accommodate a range of different pathogens and dosage requirements. Most poultry vaccines are currently being produced on primary avian cells derived from chicken or waterfowl embryos. This production system is associated with high costs, logistic complexities, rigid intervals between harvest and production, and supply limitations. We investigated whether the continuous cell lines Cairina retina and CR.pIX may provide a substrate independent of primary cell cultures or embryonated eggs. Viruses examined for replication in these cell lines are strains associated with, or contained in vaccines against egg drop syndrome, Marek's disease, Newcastle disease, avian influenza, infectious bursal disease and Derzsy's disease. Each of the tested viruses required the development of unique conditions for replication that are described here and can be used to generate material for in vivo efficacy studies and to accelerate transfer of the processes to larger production volumes. PMID:26814192

  17. Replacement of primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) by the DF-1 cell line for detection of avian leucosis viruses.

    PubMed

    Maas, Riks; van Zoelen, Diana; Oei, Hok; Claassen, Ivo

    2006-09-01

    International regulations prescribe that the absence of avian leucosis viruses (ALV) in avian live virus vaccines has to be demonstrated. Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) from special SPF chicken lines are normally used for detection of ALV. The suitability of the DF-1 cell line for ALV-detection, as alternative for primary CEF, was studied in three types of experiments: (1) in titration experiments without cell passage, (2) in experiments with passages in cell cultures according to European Pharmacopoeia requirements, and (3) in experiments with commercial live avian vaccines that had been spiked with known amounts of ALV. In all tests the sensitivity of ALV-A and ALV-J detections on DF-1 cells was at least as high as on primary CEF. The sensitivity of ALV-B detection was always superior when DF-1 cells were used. ALV were detected earlier in all comparative tests when DF-1 cells were used. ALV-A, ALV-B and ALV-J all induced CPE on DF-1 cells, whereas no clear CPE was seen on CEF-cells. For reasons of sensitivity, standardisation as well as reduction of animal use, the data support the use of DF-1 cells to monitor absence of ALV in vaccine virus seed lots or finished products.

  18. Posterior cruciate supplementing total knee replacement using conforming inserts and cruciate recession. Effect on range of motion and radiolucent lines.

    PubMed

    Scott, R D; Thornhill, T S

    1994-12-01

    This study was performed to determine if a sagittally curved conforming tibial insert can be used with a retained, but balanced, posterior cruciate ligament without deleterious effects on range of motion (ROM) and tibial radiolucencies, as compared with a flatter insert that is less conforming and does not require cruciate balancing. The authors reviewed 50 consecutive primary knees implanted with flatter posterior lipped inserts and 50 consecutive primary knees with curved inserts and posterior cruciate ligament balancing. The average ROM for both groups was the same postoperatively as preoperatively: 111 degrees for the posterior lipped inserts and 113 degrees for the curved inserts. The incidence of tibial radiolucent lines was 8% for both groups. The authors conclude that sagittally curved, more conforming tibial inserts with retained, but balanced, posterior cruciate ligaments, do not adversely effect ROM and tibial radiolucencies. Their use forms an attractive compromise between the schools of cruciate preservation and cruciate substitution, maximizing their advantages while minimizing their disadvantages. Functional ROM can be achieved while bone stock is preserved, the joint line is restored, and wear characteristics are improved.

  19. Pathology service line: a model for accountable care organizations at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Ira; Prystowsky, Michael B

    2012-05-01

    Accountable care is designed to manage the health of patients using a capitated cost model rather than fee for service. Pay for performance is an attempt to use quality and not service reduction as the way to decrease costs. Pathologists will have to demonstrate value to the system. This value will include (1) working with clinical colleagues to optimize testing protocols, (2) reducing unnecessary testing in both clinical and anatomic pathology, (3) guiding treatment by helping to personalize therapy, (4) designing laboratory information technology solutions that will promote and facilitate accurate, complete data mining, and (5) administering efficient cost-effective laboratories. The pathology service line was established to improve the efficiency of delivering pathology services and to provide more effective support of medical center programs. We have used this model effectively at the Montefiore Medical Center for the past 14 years. PMID:22333926

  20. Cognitive and Attitudinal Predictors Related to Line Graphing Achievement among Elementary Pre-service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyjka, Sebastian; Mumba, Frackson; Wise, Kevin C.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which six cognitive and attitudinal variables predicted pre-service elementary teachers' ( N = 87) performance on line graphing. Predictors included reading comprehension and mathematics scores, logical thinking performance scores, as well as measures of attitudes toward science, mathematics and graphing. Results indicated that mathematical and logical thinking ability were the most significant predictors of line graph performance among the other variables, accounting for 41% of the total variability. Findings from this study suggest that elementary science education programs augment instruction to include aspects of mathematics and logical thinking.

  1. Locating Negative Decimals on the Number Line: Insights into the Thinking of Pre-Service Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widjaja, Wanty; Stacey, Kaye; Steinle, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores misconceptions of the number line which are revealed when pre-service primary teachers locate negative decimals on a number line. Written test responses from 94 pre-service primary teachers provide an initial data source which is supplemented by group responses to worksheets completed during a lesson and individual interviews.…

  2. Toxicogenomic Screening of Replacements for Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) Using the Immortalized TM4 Sertoli Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Nardelli, Thomas C.; Erythropel, Hanno C.; Robaire, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate plasticizers such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are being phased out of many consumer products because of their endocrine disrupting properties and their ubiquitous presence in the environment. The concerns raised from the use of phthalates have prompted consumers, government, and industry to find alternative plasticizers that are safe, biodegradable, and have the versatility for multiple commercial applications. We examined the toxicogenomic profile of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP, the active metabolite of DEHP), the commercial plasticizer diisononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), and three recently proposed plasticizers: 1,4-butanediol dibenzoate (BDB), dioctyl succinate (DOS), and dioctyl maleate (DOM), using the immortalized TM4 Sertoli cell line. Results of gene expression studies revealed that DOS and BDB clustered with control samples while MEHP, DINCH and DOM were distributed far away from the control-DOS-BDB cluster, as determined by principle component analysis. While no significant changes in gene expression were found after treatment with BDB and DOS, treatment with MEHP, DINCH and DOM resulted in many differentially expressed genes. MEHP upregulated genes downstream of PPAR and targeted pathways of cholesterol biosynthesis without modulating the expression of PPAR’s themselves. DOM upregulated genes involved in glutathione stress response, DNA repair, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Treatment with DINCH resulted in altered expression of a large number of genes involved in major signal transduction pathways including ERK/MAPK and Rho signalling. These data suggest DOS and BDB may be safer alternatives to DEHP/MEHP than DOM or the commercial alternative DINCH. PMID:26445464

  3. A Dedicated Inferior Vena Cava Filter Service Line: How to Optimize Your Practice.

    PubMed

    Karp, Jennifer K; Desai, Kush R; Salem, Riad; Ryu, Robert K; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Despite the increased placement of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCFs), efforts to remove these devices are not commensurate. The majority of rIVCFs are left in place beyond their indicated usage, and often are retained permanently. With a growing understanding of the clinical issues associated with these devices, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has prompted clinicians to remove rIVCF when they are no longer indicated. However, major obstacles exist to filter retrieval, chief among them being poor clinical follow-up. The establishment of a dedicated IVC filter service line, or clinic, has been shown to improve filter retrieval rates. Usage of particular devices, specifically permanent versus retrievable filters, is enhanced by prospective physician consultation. In this article, the rationale behind a dedicated IVC filter service line is presented as well as described the structure and activities of the authors' IVC filter clinic; supporting data will also be provided when appropriate.

  4. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanfords Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2001-03-23

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000a), defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of waste transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program (Torres, 2000b), has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications associated with Interim Stabilization. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning, RPP-6028 Section 3.2.7. Performance Incentive Number ORP-05 requires that all the Single Shell Tanks be Interim Stabilized by September 30, 2003. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone M-41-00, enforced by a federal consent decree, requires all the Single Shell Tanks to be Interim stabilized by September 30, 2004. By meeting the Performance Incentive the TPA milestone is met. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment used to transfer waste have a life in excess of the forecasted operational time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer, published literature and calculations. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are the hose material's resistance to the harmful effects of process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, exposure to ionizing radiation and the

  5. An academic-community cardiovascular service line affiliation: design, implementation, and performance.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Charles R; Bunker, Steve; Garrison, Larry F; Means, Michael D; Pepine, Carl J; Conti, C Richard; Dewar, Marvin A; Goldfarb, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Both affiliation with an academic medical center and implementation of service line management may be effective management strategies for community health care organizations. The authors describe the design, implementation, and performance of a unique combination of these two distinct strategies for cardiovascular program development in the affiliation of the University of Florida Health Science Center with Health First, a regional community-based integrated delivery system.

  6. Product-line administration: a framework for redefining medical record department services.

    PubMed

    Postal, S N

    1990-06-01

    Product-line administration is a viable approach for managing medical records services in an environment that demands high quantity and quality service levels. Product-line administration directs medical record department team members to look outside of the department and seek input from the customers it is intended to serve. The feedback received may be alarming at first, as the current state of products usually reveals a true lack of customer input. As the planning, defining, managing, and marketing phases are implemented, the road will not be easy and rewards will be slow to come. Product-line administration does not provide quick fixes, but it does provide long-term problem resolution as products are refined and new products developed to meet customer needs and expectations. In addition to better meeting the needs of the department's external customers, the department's internal customers' needs and expectations will be addressed. The participative management approach will help nurture each team member's creativity. The team members will have the opportunity to reach their full potential while reaping the rewards and benefits of providing products and services that meet the needs and expectations of all department customers. The future of the health care industry promises more changes as the country moves toward some form of prospective payment in the ambulatory setting. Reactive management and the constant struggle to catch up can no longer be accepted as a management approach. It is imperative that the medical record department be viewed as a business with product lines composed of quality products. The planning, defining, managing, and marketing components of product-line administration afford responsiveness to the current situation and the development of quality products that will ensure that medical record departments are prepared for the future.

  7. The Impact of On-line Searching on Document Supply Services at Individual Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Kimio; Tanaka, Isao; Fukazawa, Yoshiko

    As use of on-line searching services has progressed in libraries, requests on primary materials have increased much more than before. For the purpose of clarifying this trend and countermeasures against it a survey by questionnaire was conducted in 1985. The respondants from totally 112 libraries are as follows ; 60 industrial libraries, 41 academic libraries and 11 libraries of research institutes and laboratories. It was shown that industrial libraries have received more requests on primary materials mostly resulting from on-line searching while the requests have not increased remarkably in academic libraries. Regardless the type of libraries, almost all libraries can not fully meet the requests with their own collection so that industrial libraries have to rely on external information services and academic libraries utilize interlibrary loan system. Requests are sent via on-line from industrial libraries, and by mail from academic libraries. In fact, any-libraries are not likely to review their material-collecting policy. Therefore it is urgent to establish the system which enables use of external information services or interlibrary loan system more than ever.

  8. Induction of light chain replacement in human plasma cells by caffeine is independent from both the upregulation of RAG protein expression and germ line transcription.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, H; Haruta, H; Ueda, K; Chiwata, T; Yamada, K

    2000-02-25

    When some human plasma cell lines are cultured with concanavalin A, the original light chain is replaced with another light chain which results from secondary VJ recombination (light chain shifting). We examined various intracellular factors involved in the induction of light chain shifting. Light chain shifting can be induced upon treatment with agents with phosphatase inhibitory activity such as caffeine and okadaic acid. Although the plasma cells used express both RAG-1 and RAG-2, the expression level of these proteins was not affected by caffeine or okadaic acid. Transcription of the germ line locus, which correlates to the locus activation for rearrangement, is also not influenced by phosphatase inhibition. However, the amount of signal broken-ended DNA intermediates generated during V(D)J rearrangement was shown to increase upon caffeine or okadaic acid treatment. The inhibitory activity of caffeine on phosphatase was the same as okadaic acid. However, caffeine exhibited much higher activity for VJ coding joint formation than okadaic acid. Therefore, although phosphatase inhibition might act, in part, on a mechanism by which V(D)J recombinase activity is regulated within the human plasma cells, other factor(s) are probably also involved in the process.

  9. Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... replacement is an operation in which a damaged hip joint is removed and replaced with an artificial joint. ... are many medical conditions that can damage the hip joint. (Watch the video to learn about what goes ...

  10. Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone from your hip joint and replaces them with new, man-made parts. A hip replacement can Relieve pain Help your hip joint work better Improve walking and other movements The ...

  11. Ankle replacement

    MedlinePlus

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections ...

  12. Knee Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  13. Replacement of Imu-Cmu intron by NeoR gene alters Imu germ-line expression but has no effect on V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Dania; Dougier, Hei-Lanne; Laviolette, Nathalie; Puget, Nadine; Khamlichi, Ahmed Amine

    2010-02-01

    The NeoR gene has often been used to unravel the mechanisms underlying long-range interactions between promoters and enhancers during V(D)J assembly and class switch recombination (CSR) in the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus. This approach led to the notion that CSR is regulated through competition of germ-line (GL) promoters for activities displayed by the 3' regulatory region (3'RR). This polarized long-range effect of the 3'RR is disturbed upon insertion of NeoR gene in the IgH constant (C(H)) region, where only GL transcription derived from upstream GL promoters is impaired. In the context of V(D)J recombination, replacement of Emu enhancer or Emu core enhancer (cEmu) by NeoR gene fully blocked V(D)J recombination and mu0 GL transcription which originates 5' of DQ52 and severely diminished Imu GL transcription derived from Emu/Imu promoter, suggesting a critical role for cEmu in the regulation of V(D)J recombination and of mu0 and Imu expression. Here we focus on the effect of NeoR gene on mu0 and Imu GL transcription in a mouse line in which the Imu-Cmu intron was replaced by a NeoR gene in the sense-orientation. B cell development was characterized by a marked but incomplete block at the pro-B cell stage. However, V(D)J recombination was unaffected in sorted pro-B and pre-B cells excluding an interference with the accessibility control function of Emu. mu0 GL transcription initiation was relatively normal but the maturation step seemed to be affected most likely through premature termination at NeoR polyadenylation sites. In contrast, Imu transcription initiation was impaired suggesting an interference of NeoR gene with the IgH enhancers that control Imu expression. Surprisingly, in stark contrast with the NeoR effect in the C(H) region, LPS-induced NeoR expression restored Imu transcript levels to normal. The data suggest that Emu enhancer may be the master control element that counteracts the down-regulatory "Neo effect" on Imu expression upon LPS

  14. Climate Services for Adaptation Support: Sectors, Regions, and Product Lines (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.; Shea, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Environmental information for decision support must be user-focused, accurate, and actionable. As the deleterious impacts of a non-stationary climate system manifest themselves through loss of civil infrastructure, cultural, and natural resources, NOAA and other science agencies are restructuring their approach to decision support, moving from a climate perspectives-centric model to one that offers more nimble, granular, and timely product lines supporting a breadth of sectoral- and regionally-focused decisions. This talk outlines NOAA’s efforts to this end, including its framing of sectors and regions, its development of emerging product lines, and its reliance on technological advances to better disseminate information. Through its climate services efforts, NOAA’s climate data resources can be leveraged to support sound adaptation decision making for societal infrastructure development and in the stewardship of marine, ocean, coastal, and terrestrial natural resources.

  15. Study of X80 grade high strength line pipe for sour service

    SciTech Connect

    Kushida, T.; Okaguchi, S.; Hamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Fujino, J.

    1997-08-01

    X80 grade high strength large diameter line pipe (UOE Pipe) for sour service have been studied. Increasing Mn content to provide strength of X80 increases HIC susceptibility due to center segregation of Mn in continuously cast slabs. The Mn content should be controlled less than 1.4% to maintain HIC resistance in the NACE TM0177 solution. The required strength can be obtained by addition of 0.5% Cr and accelerated controlled cooling after rolling. It has been clarified that Cr is very useful in providing high strength X70 without accelerating the center segregation of Mn. SSC resistance can be improved by controlling maximum hardness of weld metal lower than 230 Hv. Sour service X80 UOE pipes of two sizes were manufactured on large scales based on these experimental results. These pipes showed good low temperature toughness and HIC resistance in the NACE TM0177 solution.

  16. [Estrogen replacement].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, A J; Berntsen, G K; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1998-02-10

    Recent research on long-term postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) indicates a positive effect on both total mortality and morbidity. This has raised the question of widespread preventive long-term use of HRT. Possible side-effects and ideological issues related to preventive HRT have led to debate and uncertainty among health professionals, in the media, and in the population at large. In order to evaluate the level of knowledge about and attitudes towards HRT, a randomly selected group of 737 Norwegian women aged 16-79 was interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics. One in three women had received information about HRT in the last two years, mainly through weekly magazines and physicians. The proportion who answered the questions on knowledge correctly varied from 36% to 47%. Those who had been given information by a physician possessed accurate knowledge, had more positive attitudes towards HRT and were more willing to use HRT than women who had reviewed information through other channels. Women with a higher level of education were better informed and more knowledgeable than others, but were nevertheless more reluctant to use HRT than those who were less educated. The limited number of women who actually receive information on HRT, the low level of knowledge and the ambivalent attitudes toward HRT are a major challenge to the public health service.

  17. 76 FR 47593 - Award of Replacement Grant for Preventive Health to Lutheran Social Services of North Dakota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... to Lutheran Social Services of North Dakota, Fargo, ND AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF... for medical screening and initial medical treatment for refugees. Amount of Award: $66,000. SUMMARY... arriving refugees have access to preventive health screenings, the Administration for Children and...

  18. Experiences concerning the service life of rubber linings applied in flue gas desulfurization plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, W.

    1999-11-01

    Since the beginning of the eighties scrubbers and other components in European FGD plants have been protected against corrosion using rubber lining. Extensive experience is available based on service lives of rubber lining of more than 15 years. The paper will consider the various rubber types and curing systems used. While the USA and Japan had already begun retrofitting their existing coal-fired power stations with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants in the seventies, Germany followed suit in the eighties as a result of the decree issued for large-scale firing plants. Concurrent with this development retrofitting has also been enhanced in other European countries like Austria and the Netherlands, later followed by Denmark, Finland and England. After the collapse of the Eastern Bloc retrofitting work has been implemented in Eastern Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Today FGD plants are being put into operation in Spain, Italy, Turkey and Greece or are on the verge of being put into service. More than 150 plants of this kind are operated by using the wet-scrubbing process with limestone or calcium hydroxide suspensions.

  19. 76 FR 16475 - Northern Lines Railway, LLC-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Stearns County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Federal Register on February 18, 2011 (76 FR 9,634), instituting a proceeding in which BNSF is seeking an... Surface Transportation Board Northern Lines Railway, LLC--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Stearns County, MN On March 3, 2011, Northern Lines Railway, LLC (NLR) filed with the Board a petition under 49...

  20. Developing Effective Continuous On-Line Monitoring Technologies to Manage Service Degradation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2011-09-30

    Recently, there has been increased interest in using prognostics (i.e, remaining useful life (RUL) prediction) for managing and mitigating aging effects in service-degraded passive nuclear power reactor components. A vital part of this philosophy is the development of tools for detecting and monitoring service-induced degradation. Experience with in-service degradation has shown that rapidly-growing cracks, including several varieties of stress corrosion cracks (SCCs), can grow through a pipe in less than one fuel outage cycle after they initiate. Periodic inspection has limited effectiveness at detecting and managing such degradation requiring a more versatile monitoring philosophy. Acoustic emission testing (AET) and guided wave ultrasonic testing (GUT) are related technologies with potential for on-line monitoring applications. However, harsh operating conditions within NPPs inhibit the widespread implementation of both technologies. For AET, another hurdle is the attenuation of passive degradation signals as they travel though large components, relegating AET to targeted applications. GUT is further hindered by the complexity of GUT signatures limiting its application to the inspection of simple components. The development of sensors that are robust and inexpensive is key to expanding the use of AET and GUT for degradation monitoring in NPPs and improving overall effectiveness. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of AET and GUT in NPPs can be enhanced through thoughtful application of tandem AET-GUT techniques.

  1. Use of on-line bibliographic retrieval services in health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, G

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports the major findings of a questionnaire sent to the 708 U. S. and Canadian institutions which were using the National Library of Medicine's search services as of November 1977. Development of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) on-line network is traced characterizes type of institution, use of NLM and non-NLM data bases, operational service patterns, staffing levels, fee-for-service policies, and perceived impact. PMID:371720

  2. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) replacement attenuates motor impairments and nigrostriatal dopamine deficits in 12-month-old mice with a partial deletion of GDNF.

    PubMed

    Littrell, Ofelia M; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Gerhardt, Greg A; Boger, Heather A

    2013-03-01

    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been established as a growth factor for the survival and maintenance of dopamine (DA) neurons. In phase I clinical trials, GDNF treatment in Parkinson's disease patients led to improved motor function and GDNF has been found to be down regulated in Parkinson's disease patients. Studies using GDNF heterozygous (Gdnf(+/-)) mice have demonstrated that a partial reduction of GDNF leads to an age-related accelerated decline in nigrostriatal DA system- and motor-function and increased neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress in the substantia nigra (SN). Therefore, the purpose of the current studies was to determine if GDNF replacement restores motor function and functional markers within the nigrostriatal DA system in middle-aged Gdnf(+/-) mice. At 11months of age, male Gdnf(+/-) and wildtype (WT) mice underwent bilateral intra-striatal injections of GDNF (10μg) or vehicle. Locomotor activity was assessed weekly 1-4weeks after treatment. Four weeks after treatment, their brains were processed for analysis of GDNF levels and various DAergic and oxidative stress markers. An intrastriatal injection of GDNF increased motor activity in Gdnf(+/-) mice to levels comparable to WT mice (1week after injection) and this effect was maintained through the 4-week time point. This increase in locomotion was accompanied by a 40% increase in striatal GDNF protein levels and SN GDNF expression in Gdnf(+/-) mice. Additionally, GDNF treatment significantly increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the SN of middle-aged Gdnf(+/-) mice, but not WT mice, which was coupled with reduced oxidative stress in the SN. These studies further support that long-term changes related to the dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway are influenced by GDNF expression and add that this dysfunction appears to be responsive to GDNF treatment. Additionally, these studies suggest that long-term GDNF depletion alters the biological

  3. Access to Complex Abortion Care Service and Planning Improved through a Toll-Free Telephone Resource Line.

    PubMed

    Norman, Wendy V; Hestrin, Barbara; Dueck, Royce

    2014-01-01

    Background. Providing equitable access to the full range of reproductive health services over wide geographic areas presents significant challenges to any health system. We present a review of a service provision model which has provided improved access to abortion care; support for complex issues experienced by women seeking nonjudgmental family planning health services; and a mechanism to collect information on access barriers. The toll-free pregnancy options service (POS) of British Columbia Women's Hospital and Health Centre sought to improve access to services and overcome barriers experienced by women seeking abortion. Methods. We describe the development and implementation of a province-wide toll-free telephone counseling and access facilitation service, including establishment of a provincial network of local abortion service providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia from 1998 to 2010. Results. Over 2000 women annually access service via the POS line, networks of care providers are established and linked to central support, and central program planners receive timely information on new service gaps and access barriers. Conclusion. This novel service has been successful in addressing inequities and access barriers identified as priorities before service establishment. The service provided unanticipated benefits to health care planning and monitoring of provincial health care related service delivery and gaps. This model for low cost health service delivery may realize similar benefits when applied to other health care systems where access and referral barriers exist. PMID:24693291

  4. Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Felton, Adam; Nilsson, Urban; Sonesson, Johan; Felton, Annika M; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Ranius, Thomas; Ahlström, Martin; Bergh, Johan; Björkman, Christer; Boberg, Johanna; Drössler, Lars; Fahlvik, Nils; Gong, Peichen; Holmström, Emma; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Klapwijk, Maartje J; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lundmark, Tomas; Niklasson, Mats; Nordin, Annika; Pettersson, Maria; Stenlid, Jan; Sténs, Anna; Wallertz, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  5. Model for a merger: New York-Presbyterian's use of service lines to bring two academic medical centers together.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Steven J; Cooper, Mary Reich; Leiman, Joan M; Stein, Dina E; Pardes, Herbert; Berman, Michael A

    2003-11-01

    NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital is the result of the 1998 merger of two large New York City academic medical centers, the former New York and Presbyterian Hospitals, and is affiliated with two independent medical schools, the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and the Joan and Sanford J. Weill Medical College of Cornell University. At the time of the merger, the hospital faced a number of significant challenges, chief among them the clinical integration of the two medical centers. Size, separate medical schools, geography, and different histories and cultures all presented barriers to collaboration. To bring about the needed clinical alignment, the hospital turned to service lines as a way to realize the benefits of clinical integration without forcing the consolidation of departments. In this article, members of the hospital's senior management review the thinking behind the hospital's use of the service lines, their development and operation, and the significant, positive effects they have had on volume, clinical quality, clinical efficiency, best practices, and revenue management. They discuss how the service lines were used to bring together the two clinical cultures, the impact they have had on the way the hospital is operated and managed, and why service lines have worked at NewYork-Presbyterian in contrast to other hospitals that tried and abandoned them. Service lines play an increasingly central role in the hospital's clinical and business strategies, and are being extended into the NewYork-Presbyterian health care system.

  6. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  7. Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Felton, Adam; Nilsson, Urban; Sonesson, Johan; Felton, Annika M; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Ranius, Thomas; Ahlström, Martin; Bergh, Johan; Björkman, Christer; Boberg, Johanna; Drössler, Lars; Fahlvik, Nils; Gong, Peichen; Holmström, Emma; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Klapwijk, Maartje J; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lundmark, Tomas; Niklasson, Mats; Nordin, Annika; Pettersson, Maria; Stenlid, Jan; Sténs, Anna; Wallertz, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures. PMID:26744048

  8. Expansion of On-Line Database Use by the Cancer Information Service

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sharon Watkins; Fox, Laurie

    1987-01-01

    Vincent DeVita, the director of the National Cancer Institute, has been promoting the use of the user-friendly cancer database system, Physician's Data Query (PDQ), both by physicians and by the public. Because on-line access to PDQ is limited to physicians or other qualified health care professionals, the Cancer Information Service, through its toll-free 1-800-4-CANCER telephone number, provides a major point of access to this system. This paper analyzes changes in the patterns of PDQ use over the three year period that it has been available to the CIS of the Fox Chase Cancer Center. The total volume of PDQ use by the CIS has increased dramatically over time, both for physicians and for other callers. The proportion of searches done for physicians has decreased, while that for diagnosed cancer patients has increased. The change over time in the type of callers for whom PDQ searches were done was greater than expected compared with the change in non-PDQ callers.

  9. Pre-Service Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Understanding of Students' Knowledge: Location of Decimal Numbers on a Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girit, Dilek; Akyuz, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Studies reveal that students as well as teachers have difficulties in understanding and learning of decimals. The purpose of this study is to investigate students' as well as pre-service teachers' solution strategies when solving a question that involves an estimation task for the value of a decimal number on the number line. We also examined the…

  10. Low Contribution of PbO2-Coated Lead Service Lines to Water Lead Contamination at the Tap

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine if field experience corroborates that formation of stable PbO2 coatings on lead service lines (LSLs) provides an effective lead contamination control strategy, lead profile sampling was undertaken at eight home kitchen taps in three US cities (Newport, Rhode Island; ...

  11. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unaffiliated competitors, in aggregate, offer service to at least 15 percent of the price cap LEC's customer... may not rely on service the competitors provide solely by reselling the price cap LEC's services, or... LEC may rely on service the competitors provide through the use of the price cap LEC's unbundled...

  12. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement, an on-line research and education information service. Annual status report, March 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    The FEDIX Annual Status Report provides details regarding an on-line information project designed, developed and implemented by Federal Information Exchange, Inc., a diversified information services company. This document details the project design activities, summarizes the developmental phases of the project and describes the implementation activities generated to fulfill the project`s objectives. The information contained in this document illustrates FIE`s continuing commitment to serve as the link that facilitates the dissemination of federal information to the education community. This report reviews the project accomplishments and describes intended service enhancements.

  13. Improving first-line mental health services in Canada: addressing two challenges caused by the deinstitutionalization movement.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization movement in Canada began in the 1960s. It is defined as the process of discharging chronic mental health patients into the community in order for them to receive care from community mental health services. The deinstitutionalization movement is failing in Canada at this time for two main reasons: (1) the provinces' community mental health programs lack integration; and (2) the negative stigma attached to mental illness is still present in the community. This article will discuss ways to ensure the integration of first-line mental health services and the elimination of stigma through organizational and systemic changes in Canada. PMID:25906464

  14. Creating and Maintaining a Successful Service Line in an Academic Medical Center at the Dawn of Value-Based Care: Lessons Learned From the Heart and Vascular Service Line at UMass Memorial Health Care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert A; Cyr, Jay; Keaney, John F; Messina, Louis M; Meyer, Theo E; Tam, Stanley K C; Korenda, Kathleen; Darrigo, Melinda; Kumar, Pooja; Challapalli, Sailu

    2015-10-01

    The service line (SL) model has been proven to help shift health care toward value-based services, which is characterized by coordinated, multidisciplinary, high-quality, and cost-effective care. However, academic medical centers struggle with how to effectively set up SL structures that overcome the organizational and cultural challenges associated with simultaneously delivering the highest-value care for the patient and advancing the academic mission. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of UMass Memorial Health Care's heart and vascular service line (HVSL) from 2006 to 2011 and describe the impact on its success of multiple strategic decisions. These include key academic physician leadership recruitments and engagement via a matrixed governance and management model; development of multidisciplinary teams; empowerment of SL leadership through direct accountability and authority over programs and budgets; joint educational and training programs; incentives for academic achievement; and co-localization of faculty, personnel, and facilities. The authors also explore the barriers to success, including the need to overcome historical departmental-based silos, cultural and training differences among disciplines, confusion engendered by a matrixed reporting structure, and faculty's unfamiliarity with the financial and organizational skills required to operate a successful SL. Also described here is the impact that successful implementation of the SL has on creating high-quality services, increased profitability, and contribution to the financial stability and academic achievement of the academic medical center. PMID:26222322

  15. Creating and Maintaining a Successful Service Line in an Academic Medical Center at the Dawn of Value-Based Care: Lessons Learned From the Heart and Vascular Service Line at UMass Memorial Health Care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert A; Cyr, Jay; Keaney, John F; Messina, Louis M; Meyer, Theo E; Tam, Stanley K C; Korenda, Kathleen; Darrigo, Melinda; Kumar, Pooja; Challapalli, Sailu

    2015-10-01

    The service line (SL) model has been proven to help shift health care toward value-based services, which is characterized by coordinated, multidisciplinary, high-quality, and cost-effective care. However, academic medical centers struggle with how to effectively set up SL structures that overcome the organizational and cultural challenges associated with simultaneously delivering the highest-value care for the patient and advancing the academic mission. In this article, the authors examine the evolution of UMass Memorial Health Care's heart and vascular service line (HVSL) from 2006 to 2011 and describe the impact on its success of multiple strategic decisions. These include key academic physician leadership recruitments and engagement via a matrixed governance and management model; development of multidisciplinary teams; empowerment of SL leadership through direct accountability and authority over programs and budgets; joint educational and training programs; incentives for academic achievement; and co-localization of faculty, personnel, and facilities. The authors also explore the barriers to success, including the need to overcome historical departmental-based silos, cultural and training differences among disciplines, confusion engendered by a matrixed reporting structure, and faculty's unfamiliarity with the financial and organizational skills required to operate a successful SL. Also described here is the impact that successful implementation of the SL has on creating high-quality services, increased profitability, and contribution to the financial stability and academic achievement of the academic medical center.

  16. Trauma and its aftermath for commercially sexually exploited women as told by front-line service providers.

    PubMed

    Hom, Kristin A; Woods, Stephanie J

    2013-02-01

    Commercial sexual exploitation of women and girls through forced prostitution and sex-trafficking is a human rights and public health issue, with survivors facing complex mental health problems from trauma and violence. An international and domestic problem, the average age of recruitment into sex-trafficking is between 11 and 14 years old. Given its secrecy and brutality, such exploitation remains difficult to study, which results in a lack of knowledge related to trauma and how best to develop specific services that effectively engage and meet the unique needs of survivors. This qualitative research, using thematic analysis, explored the stories of trauma and its aftermath for commercially sexually exploited women as told by front-line service providers. Three themes emerged regarding the experience of sex-trafficking and its outcomes-Pimp Enculturation, Aftermath, and Healing the Wound-along with seven subthemes. These have important implications for all service and healthcare providers.

  17. Detection and Evaluation of Elevated Lead Release from Service Lines: A Field Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative stagnation sampling conducted in 32 homes in Chicago, Illinois with lead service (LSLs) demonstrated that the existing regulatory sampling protocol under the U. S. Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) systematically underestimated lead corrosion. Lead levels were highest within...

  18. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  19. Nicotine replacement therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Bullen C, et al. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Nov 14;11: ...

  20. ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS

    DOEpatents

    Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

    1957-08-27

    An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

  1. Fee-for-service joins the Medicare+Choice product line.

    PubMed

    Ahl, D; Wergin, K

    2000-10-01

    Despite hopes that providers would benefit from being able to participate in Medicare + Choice plans such as provider service organizations (PSOs) and coordinated care plans, providers have not realized many of these benefits. Private fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare + Choice plans, the first of which was approved by HCFA in May, allow Medicare beneficiaries to choose their hospitals and physicians and allow providers to be reimbursed on a FFS basis. The FFS option is particularly appealing for providers in rural markets. Financial managers for providers should identify the model that best meets the financial and operational needs of their marketplace. PMID:11183543

  2. An On-line Microcomputer Course for Pre-service Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkemeier, Mary K.

    This paper describes "Microcomputer Applications for Educators," a course at Fontbonne College for pre-service teachers which introduces the educational applications of the computer and related technologies. The course introduces students to the Macintosh computer, its operating system, Claris Works 4.0, and various other educational and personal…

  3. Transport of liquid state nitrogen through long length service lines during thermal/vacuum testing. [in a Nimbus 6 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florio, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and analytical aspects associated with the transport are presented. Included is a definition of the problems and difficulties imposed by the servicing of a typical solid cryogen system, as well as a discussion of the transport requirements and of the rationale which governed their solution. A successful detailed transport configuration is defined, and the application of established mathematics to the design approach is demonstrated. The significance of head pressure, pressure drop, line friction, heat leak, Reynolds number, and the fundamental equilibrium demands of pressure and temperature were examined as they relate to the achievement of liquid state flow. Performance predictions were made for the transport system, and several analytical quantities are tabulated. These data are analyzed and compared with measured and calculated results obtained while actually servicing a solid cryogen system during thermal/vacuum testing.

  4. Point of care information services: a platform for self-directed continuing medical education for front line decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Moja, Lorenzo; Kwag, Koren Hyogene

    2015-01-01

    The structure and aim of continuing medical education (CME) is shifting from the passive transmission of knowledge to a competency-based model focused on professional development. Self-directed learning is emerging as the foremost educational method for advancing competency-based CME. In a field marked by the constant expansion of knowledge, self-directed learning allows physicians to tailor their learning strategy to meet the information needs of practice. Point of care information services are innovative tools that provide health professionals with digested evidence at the front line to guide decision making. By mobilising self-directing learning to meet the information needs of clinicians at the bedside, point of care information services represent a promising platform for competency-based CME. Several points, however, must be considered to enhance the accessibility and development of these tools to improve competency-based CME and the quality of care. PMID:25655251

  5. Point of care information services: a platform for self-directed continuing medical education for front line decision makers.

    PubMed

    Moja, Lorenzo; Kwag, Koren Hyogene

    2015-02-01

    The structure and aim of continuing medical education (CME) is shifting from the passive transmission of knowledge to a competency-based model focused on professional development. Self-directed learning is emerging as the foremost educational method for advancing competency-based CME. In a field marked by the constant expansion of knowledge, self-directed learning allows physicians to tailor their learning strategy to meet the information needs of practice. Point of care information services are innovative tools that provide health professionals with digested evidence at the front line to guide decision making. By mobilising self-directing learning to meet the information needs of clinicians at the bedside, point of care information services represent a promising platform for competency-based CME. Several points, however, must be considered to enhance the accessibility and development of these tools to improve competency-based CME and the quality of care.

  6. Canby Area Service Project : Substation and Associated Transmission Line : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no environmental impact statement'' is not required.

  7. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp`s substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC`s Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC`s substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA`s proposed action is intended to meet SVEC`s increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC`s increasing energy load by tapping into BPA`s existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC`s Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ``environmental impact statement`` is not required.

  8. NASA Turbulence Technologies In-Service Evaluation: Delta Air Lines Report-Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amaral, Christian; Dickson, Steve; Watts, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Concluding an in-service evaluation of two new turbulence detection technologies developed in the Turbulence Prediction and Warning Systems (TPAWS) element of the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program's Weather Accident Prevention Project (WxAP), this report documents Delta's experience working with the technologies, feedback gained from pilots and dispatchers concerning current turbulence techniques and procedures, and Delta's recommendations regarding directions for further efforts by the research community. Technologies evaluated included an automatic airborne turbulence encounter reporting technology called the Turbulence Auto PIREP System (TAPS), and a significant enhancement to the ability of modern airborne weather radars to predict and display turbulence of operational significance, called E-Turb radar.

  9. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED)...

  10. Brooklyn Union develops tool for replacing steel, cast iron mains

    SciTech Connect

    Marazzo, J.J. )

    1994-12-01

    Over the last 10 years, Brooklyn Union Gas Co. has undergone significant changes in the methods it has used to install gas service and gas main systems. Recently, Brooklyn Union engineers developed a user friendly method of replacing steel and cast iron gas mains and service lines with same size or larger polyethylene pipe without using conventional trench excavation. The system, known as the ''Bullet'' pipe replacement system, involves splitting steel and cast iron pipe using a series of rolling cutter wheels. After consecutive cutting wheels completely penetrate both pipe and fittings, both pipe and soil are spread with an expander and new polyethylene pipe is inserted. The ''Bullet'' pipe splitting system for 1[1/4] in. (32 mm) through 6 in. (150 mm) diameter has been developed.

  11. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties.

  12. On-Line Earth System Science In-Service Course for K-12 Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simila, G. W.; Hawkins, B. A.

    2001-12-01

    Initially, the Departments of Geological Sciences and Education cooperated to revise the existing Earth Science and Geology preservice courses for both the elementary and secondary pre-credential majors. The main objective of this collaboration was to promote the growth of knowledgeable and well-equipped K-12 Earth system science future teachers. Now, both Departments, in cooperation with the College of Extended Learning, have instituted The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) On-line Professional Development Program of Earth System Science curriculum developed by the Center for Educational Technologies (CET) at Wheeling Jesuit University. These graduate courses have been offered in our first year to teachers of K-4, 5-8, and 9-12 that were selected from the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and other local schools. Our team also consists of master science teachers selected from local elementary and high schools. Our project also involves the incorporation of the new California Science Standards, as well as NASA's Strategic Enterprises: the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and the Space Science Enterprise (SSE). We will also present various aspects of our experiences in online instruction.

  13. Can consumer choice replace trust in the National Health Service in England? Towards developing an affective psychosocial conception of trust in health care.

    PubMed

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2014-11-01

    Trust has long been regarded as a vitally important aspect of the relationship between health service providers and patients. Recently, consumer choice has been increasingly advocated as a means of improving the quality and effectiveness of health service provision. However, it is uncertain how the increase of information necessary to allow users of health services to exercise choice, and the simultaneous introduction of markets in public health systems, will affect various dimensions of trust, and how changing relations of trust will impact upon patients and services. This article employs a theory-driven approach to investigate conceptual and material links between choice, trust and markets in health care in the context of the National Health Service in England. It also examines the implications of patient choice on systemic, organisational and interpersonal trust. The article is divided into two parts. The first argues that the shift to marketisation in public health services might lead to an over-reliance on rational-calculative aspects of trust at the expense of embodied, relational and social attributes. The second develops an alternative psychosocial conception of trust: it focuses on the central role of affect and accounts for the material and symbolic links between choice, trust and markets in health care. PMID:25470326

  14. The stigma of obesity in customer service: a mechanism for remediation and bottom-line consequences of interpersonal discrimination.

    PubMed

    King, Eden B; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Hebl, Michelle R; Singletary, Sarah L; Turner, Stacey

    2006-05-01

    Using a customer service paradigm, the authors extended the justification-suppression model (JSM) of prejudice (C. S. Crandall & A. Eshleman, 2003) to include contemporary, covert forms of discrimination and to identify a discrimination remediation mechanism. Overall, the results of 3 studies revealed that actual and confederate obese shoppers in high-prejudice justification conditions faced more interpersonal discrimination than average-weight shoppers. Furthermore, Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that adopting strategies that remove perceivers' justifications for discriminating against obese individuals (i.e., the controllability of weight) decreases the incidence of interpersonal discrimination. Additionally, Study 3 demonstrates negative bottom-line consequences of interpersonal discrimination for organizations (e.g., customer loyalty, purchasing behavior). Together, these studies confirm that the JSM applies to covert forms of discrimination, show the importance of examining subtle discrimination, and offer a mechanism for theory-driven strategies for the reduction of covert forms of discrimination. PMID:16737356

  15. Hip joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002975.htm Hip joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part ...

  16. The Application of Waiting Lines System in Improving Customer Service Management: The Examination of Malaysia Fast Food Restaurants Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Zurina; Shokor, Shahrul Suhaimi AB

    2016-03-01

    Rapid life time change of the Malaysian lifestyle had served the overwhelming growth in the service operation industry. On that occasion, this paper will provide the idea to improve the waiting line system (WLS) practices in Malaysia fast food chains. The study will compare the results in between the single server single phase (SSSP) and the single server multi-phase (SSMP) which providing Markovian Queuing (MQ) to be used for analysis. The new system will improve the current WLS, plus intensifying the organization performance. This new WLS were designed and tested in a real case scenario and in order to develop and implemented the new styles, it need to be focusing on the average number of customers (ANC), average number of customer spending time waiting in line (ACS), and the average time customers spend in waiting and being served (ABS). We introduced new WLS design and there will be prompt discussion upon theories of benefits and potential issues that will benefit other researchers.

  17. Water quality in water lines of dental units in the public dental health service in Göteborg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Alenäs-Jarl, Elna; Hjort, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    Presence of bacteria in high levels in the water lines of dental units is well known. The extent of this problem is however less well studied.This study was conducted to evaluate the water quality of all dental units within the Public Dental Health Service (Folktandvården, FTV) of the city of Göteborg, Sweden. 405 dental units in 35 clinics were tested.The evaluation included both "fast growing" (2 days incubation) and "slow growing" (7 days incubation) bacteria in 50 ml water sample from the units. The presence of potential pathogens, e.g., coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and Legionella pneumophila were also examined. Of the 405 dental units, 303 (75%) did not have acceptable (<100 CFU/ml fast growing and <5000 CFU/ml of slow growing bacteria) water quality. From 61 (15%) dental units in 13 clinics L. pneumophila were present but usually as few cells only. Immediate measures were introduced in Legionella positive units. No coliforms or Pseudomonas spp were detected. It can be concluded that the water in the dental units is generally not acceptable and does not fulfill drinking water standard. Many units have extremely high bacterial levels, which must be regarded as a risk for certain patient groups, e.g., immune-compromised and older patients. A general program for desinfection of all units of the Public Dental Health Service is needed.

  18. Implementation of the affordable care act: a case study of a service line co-management company.

    PubMed

    Lanese, Bethany

    2016-09-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test and measure the outcome of a community hospital in implementing the Affordable Care Act (ACA) through a co-management arrangement. RQ1: do the benefits of a co-management arrangement outweigh the costs? RQ2: does physician alignment aid in the effective implementation of the ACA directives set for hospitals? Design/methodology/approach A case study of a 350-bed non-profit community hospital co-management company. The quantitative data are eight quarters of quality metrics prior and eight quarters post establishment of the co-management company. The quality metrics are all based on standardized national requirements from the Joint Commission and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services guidelines. These measures directly impact the quality initiatives under the ACA that are applicable to all healthcare facilities. Qualitative data include survey results from hospital employees of the perceived effectiveness of the co-management company. A paired samples difference of means t-test was conducted to compare the timeframe before co-management and post co-management. Findings The findings indicate that the benefits of a co-management arrangement do outweigh the costs for both the physicians and the hospital ( RQ1). The physicians benefit through actual dollar payout, but also with improved communication and greater input in running the service line. The hospital benefits from reduced cost - or reduced penalties under the ACA - as well as better communication and greater physician involvement in administration of the service line. RQ2: does physician alignment aid in the effective implementation of the ACA directives set for hospitals? The hospital improved in every quality metric under the co-management company. A paired sample difference of means t-test showed a statistically significant improvement in five of the six quality metrics in the study. Originality/value Previous research indicates the potential effectiveness of

  19. Implementation of the affordable care act: a case study of a service line co-management company.

    PubMed

    Lanese, Bethany

    2016-09-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test and measure the outcome of a community hospital in implementing the Affordable Care Act (ACA) through a co-management arrangement. RQ1: do the benefits of a co-management arrangement outweigh the costs? RQ2: does physician alignment aid in the effective implementation of the ACA directives set for hospitals? Design/methodology/approach A case study of a 350-bed non-profit community hospital co-management company. The quantitative data are eight quarters of quality metrics prior and eight quarters post establishment of the co-management company. The quality metrics are all based on standardized national requirements from the Joint Commission and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services guidelines. These measures directly impact the quality initiatives under the ACA that are applicable to all healthcare facilities. Qualitative data include survey results from hospital employees of the perceived effectiveness of the co-management company. A paired samples difference of means t-test was conducted to compare the timeframe before co-management and post co-management. Findings The findings indicate that the benefits of a co-management arrangement do outweigh the costs for both the physicians and the hospital ( RQ1). The physicians benefit through actual dollar payout, but also with improved communication and greater input in running the service line. The hospital benefits from reduced cost - or reduced penalties under the ACA - as well as better communication and greater physician involvement in administration of the service line. RQ2: does physician alignment aid in the effective implementation of the ACA directives set for hospitals? The hospital improved in every quality metric under the co-management company. A paired sample difference of means t-test showed a statistically significant improvement in five of the six quality metrics in the study. Originality/value Previous research indicates the potential effectiveness of

  20. Aerocoat 7 Replacement Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has used Aerocoat 7 (AR-7) to protect stainless-steel flex hoses at Launch Complex (LC-39) and hydraulic lines of the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) because it provides excellent corrosion protection in low-temperature applications. The Sovereign Company produced AR-7 exclusively for NASA but discontinued production because the coating released high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and had a significant environmental impact. The purpose of this project was to select and evaluate potential replacement coatings for AR-7 that would be more environmentally sound. The physical and mechanical properties of commercially available coatings were investigated through the Internet. The ideal coating would be fluid enough to penetrate the outer mesh of a stainless-steel flex hose and coat the inner hose, and flexible enough to withstand the movement of the hose, as well as the expansion and contraction of its metal caused by changes in temperature.

  1. Mobil uses two-layer coating process on replacement pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    Mobil Oil's West Coast Pipe Line, as part of an ongoing program, has replaced sections of its crude oil pipe line that crosses Southern California's San Joaquin Valley. The significant aspect of the replacement project was the use of a new two-part coating process that has the ability to make cathodic protection more effective, while not deteriorating in service. Mobil's crude line extends from the company's San Joaquin Valley oil field in Kern County to the Torrance, Calif., refinery on the south side of Los Angeles. It crosses a variety of terrain including desert, foothills and urban development. Crude oil from the San Joaquin Valley is heavy and requires heating for efficient flow. Normal operating temperature is about 180{degrees}F. Due to moisture in the soil surrounding the hot line, the risk of corrosion is constant. Additionally, soil stress on such a line extending through the California hills inflicts damage on the protective coating. Under these conditions, coatings can soften, bake out and eventually become brittle. The ultimate result is separation from the pipe. The coating system employs a two-part process. Each of the two coatings are tailored to each other in a patented process, forming a chemical bond between the layers. This enhances the pipe protection both mechanically and electrically.

  2. Optimization of station battery replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  3. 41 CFR 109-38.402 - Replacement standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.4-Use and Replacement Standards § 109-38.402 Replacement standards. (a) (b) Motor vehicles may be replaced without regard to the replacement standards in 41 CFR 101-38.402 only after certification by the Director of Administrative Services or the Head...

  4. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  5. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  6. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  7. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as...

  8. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as...

  9. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as...

  10. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as...

  11. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as...

  12. Low contribution of PbO2-coated lead service lines to water lead contamination at the tap.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Schock, Michael R; DeSantis, Michael K; White, Colin

    2015-03-17

    To determine if residential water sampling corroborates the expectation that formation of stable PbO2 coatings on lead service lines (LSLs) provides an effective lead release control strategy, lead profile sampling was evaluated for eight home kitchen taps in three U.S. cities with observed PbO2-coated LSLs (Newport, Rhode Island; Cincinnati and Oakwood, Ohio). After various water standing times, these LSLs typically released similar or lower peak lead levels (1 to 18 μg/L) than the lead levels from the respective kitchen faucets (1 to 130 μg/L), and frequently 50-80% lower than the lead levels typically reported from Pb(II)-coated LSLs in comparable published sampling studies. Prolonged stagnation (10-101 h) at the Cincinnati sites produced varying results. One site showed minimal (0-4 μg/L) increase in lead release from the PbO2-coated LSL, and persistence of free chlorine residual. However, the other site showed up to a 3-fold increase proportional to standing time, with essentially full depletion of the chlorine residual. Overall, lead release was consistently much lower than that reported in studies of Pb(II)-coated LSL scales, suggesting that natural formation of PbO2 in LSLs is an effective lead "corrosion" control strategy.

  13. Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Alphabetical listing of companies which offer analytical sampling and testing services for pollution control and abatement; consultants that also manufacture and distribute products. List of book publishers included. (LK)

  14. FEDIX On-Line Information Service: Implementation of a Government-wide on-line research and educational opportunity information initiative for the education community. Final report for DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-89ER75527

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, John A.

    1999-12-01

    FEDIX is an on-line information retrieval service of federal opportunities for colleges and universities supported by multiple federal agencies as an outreach tool to promote enhanced communication to colleges, universities, and other educational and research organizations regarding federal research, and educational opportunities. Multiple attachments include several annual progress reports, a listing of sample FEDIX outreach meetings and conferences, results from user satisfaction surveys, usage statistics, and FEDIX handouts.

  15. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Status Report describes the design, development and implementation of the Minority On-Line Information Service (MOLIS) project by Federal Information Exchange, Inc. for the period of April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992. Summary information detailing developments prior to this reporting period will also be included to establish a comprehensive perspective of the project. The goal of the MOLIS project, was to develop, design, pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities and federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since April 29, 1991, the inauguration of its on-line service, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, pre-college and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from 8 participating federal agencies.

  16. Ion replacement electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Willit, J.L.; Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    We are developing a two-step electrochemical process for purifying and separating metals called ion replacement electrorefining. In each step, metal cations formed by oxidation at an electrode replace other metal cations that are reduced at another elecmae. Using this approach, we have separated or purified uranium, dysprosium, and lanthanum on a laboratory scale. This paper explains the ion replacement concept and presents results of these demonstration experiments.

  17. Coordination of Two On-Line Information Retrieval Services At the University of Minnesota Bio-Medical Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jan; Foreman, Gertrude

    The Bio-Medical Library at the University of Minnesota has access to two on-line computer systems: the MEDLINE system (MEDLARS ON-LINE) of the National Library of Medicine and the State University of New York (SUNY) Biomedical Communication Network. MEDLINE consists of two files which provide coverage of the "Index Medicus" from 1970 to the…

  18. 47 CFR 97.29 - Replacement license grant document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.29 Replacement license grant document. Each grantee whose amateur station license grant document is lost, mutilated or destroyed may apply to the FCC for...

  19. 47 CFR 97.29 - Replacement license grant document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.29 Replacement license grant document. Each grantee whose amateur station license grant document is lost, mutilated or destroyed may apply to the FCC for...

  20. 47 CFR 97.29 - Replacement license grant document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.29 Replacement license grant document. Each grantee whose amateur station license grant document is lost, mutilated or destroyed may apply to the FCC for...

  1. 47 CFR 97.29 - Replacement license grant document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.29 Replacement license grant document. Each grantee whose amateur station license grant document is lost, mutilated or destroyed may apply to the FCC for...

  2. 47 CFR 97.29 - Replacement license grant document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.29 Replacement license grant document. Each grantee whose amateur station license grant document is lost, mutilated or destroyed may apply to the FCC for...

  3. Nashville Gas treads carefully to replace pipe

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The private gas utility, Nashville Gas, was responsible for replacing damaged or inadequate 2- and 4-inch steel gas lines beneath Music City, USA. The line replacements required either size for size or upsizing. The first choice was directional drilling, which was quickly determined to be unpractical because of rocky soil conditions. The second option was open trenching. Undoubtedly, trenching would mean having to contend with angry residents and tourists, since gas lines ran beneath yards, mature trees, sidewalks, roadways, and railways. In addition to the negative social factors, trenching would require additional funds for substantial landscaping and pavement replacement. It at all possible, a no-dig alternative was desired. Nashville Gas found Grundomat piercing tools which create a bore, then pushes pipe back through it. These same tools can simultaneously pull in pipe. These tools were customized for the Nashville project.

  4. Modeling the Structure of Partnership between Researchers and Front-Line Service Providers: Strengthening Collaborative Public Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Wall, Melanie M.; Spector, Anya Y.

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between HIV researchers and service providers are essential for reducing the gap between research and practice. Community-Based Participatory Research principles guided this cross-sectional study, combining 40 in-depth interviews with surveys of 141 providers in 24 social service agencies in New York City. We generated the…

  5. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  6. Implementing a multifaceted intervention to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections in SEHA (Abu Dhabi Health Services Company) intensive care units: the Abu Dhabi experience.

    PubMed

    Latif, Asad; Kelly, Bernadette; Edrees, Hanan; Kent, Paula S; Weaver, Sallie J; Jovanovic, Branislava; Attallah, Hadeel; de Grouchy, Kristin K; Al-Obaidli, Ali; Goeschel, Christine A; Berenholtz, Sean M

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether implementation of a multifaceted intervention would significantly reduce the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections. DESIGN Prospective cohort collaborative. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Intensive care units of the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company hospitals in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. INTERVENTIONS A bundled intervention consisting of 3 components was implemented as part of the program. It consisted of a multifaceted approach that targeted clinician use of evidence-based infection prevention recommendations, tools that supported the identification of local barriers to these practices, and implementation ideas to help ensure patients received the practices. Comprehensive unit-based safety teams were created to improve safety culture and teamwork. Finally, the measurement and feedback of monthly infection rate data to safety teams, senior leaders, and staff in participating intensive care units was encouraged. The main outcome measure was the quarterly rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections. RESULTS Eighteen intensive care units from 7 hospitals in Abu Dhabi implemented the program and achieved an overall 38% reduction in their central line-associated bloodstream infection rate, adjusted at the hospital and unit level. The number of units with a quarterly central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of less than 1 infection per 1,000 catheter-days increased by almost 40% between the baseline and postintervention periods. CONCLUSION A significant reduction in the global morbidity and mortality associated with central line-associated bloodstream infections is possible across intensive care units in disparate settings using a multifaceted intervention.

  7. The promise of the internet for disability: a study of on-line services and web site accessibility at Centers for Independent Living.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Heather; Blanck, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The Internet provides individuals with disabilities numerous tools to live independently. In the convenience of the home, a person can access an abundance of information, an electronic community, updates on the latest disability advocacy news, education through distance-learning classes, and on-line shopping for books, clothes, assistive technology, and a host of other consumer goods. Centers for Independent Living (CILs) are consumer-run, non-profit grassroots disability service organizations at the forefront of the disability rights movement. Providing services to individuals across the range of disabilities, CILs have begun to use the Internet as a complement to their traditional service delivery methods. This article examines the emerging trend of independent living services on the web. The investigation examines 200 CIL Internet sites across the United States during the period of April to August 2001. Information is collected and analyzed about how CILs are using the Internet to provide their services and programs. In addition, the article examines the technological accessibility of their web sites. Implications of the findings for CILs, consumers with disabilities, and disability policy are examined.

  8. [Childhood leukaemia in a residential area with a high-voltage power line: approach according to the Dutch Community Health Services' guideline 'Cancer Clusters'].

    PubMed

    Hegger, Carola; Reedijk, Ardine M J

    2013-01-01

    The new Dutch Community Health Services' (GGD) guideline titled 'Cancer Clusters' describes a phased plan for investigating reported cancer clusters. In each phase, attention is paid to both health and environmental issues and their possible links to one another. Throughout the entire cluster investigation, good risk communication is essential. In accordance with the new guideline, the Rotterdam-Rijnmond Public Health Services investigated the incidence of childhood leukaemia in a residential area as well as the data available on the high-voltage power line located there. More children in this residential area had been diagnosed with leukaemia than expected. However, the children had not been subjected to prolonged exposure to strong magnetic fields emitted from the high-voltage power line. With this type of cluster investigation, it is not possible to establish a causal relationship between childhood leukaemia and high-voltage power lines. However, the research did provide stakeholders insight into the health-and-environment situation and thereby, the opportunity to assess the situation appropriately and to act accordingly, if desired.

  9. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    MedlinePlus

    ... majority of patients with clefts will require full orthodontic treatment, especially if the cleft has passed through ... later replacement of the missing lateral incisor. During orthodontic treatment, an artificial tooth may be attached to ...

  10. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  11. Kidney Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... their function with either dialysis or a transplant. Dialysis Dialysis, the more common form of kidney-replacement ... the result of diabetes, not of hemodialysis. Peritoneal dialysis Another form of dialysis is called peritoneal dialysis. ...

  12. Artificial Disc Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat this condition, alternatives to disc replacement include fusion, nonoperative care or no treatment. Typically, surgery is ... operative treatment for disc pain has been spinal fusion. This is a surgical procedure in which disc ...

  13. An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Usage of an On-Line Computer-Based Bibliographic Retrieval Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; Stefanov, Rebecca

    The situational and personal factors affecting the usage of a computer based information service by health care professionals are described. Of 166 health care professionals who were identified as potential users of MEDLINE at the University of Connecticut, 126 carried out one or more online searches. Pre-use and post-use questionnaires were…

  14. Early Intervention Special Instructors and Service Coordinators in One State: Characteristics, Professional Development, and Needed Lines of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nicole Megan; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    The success of Early Intervention (EI) programs (Part C, IDEA [Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004]) for infants and toddlers with special needs (birth to 36 months) is largely influenced by the quality of direct service providers. Little is known, however, about characteristics of providers or involvement in training…

  15. Modeling the Structure of Partnership Between Researchers and Front-Line Service Providers: Strengthening Collaborative Public Health Research.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rogério M; Wall, Melanie M; Spector, Anya Y

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between HIV researchers and service providers are essential for reducing the gap between research and practice. Community-Based Participatory Research principles guided this cross-sectional study, combining 40 in-depth interviews with surveys of 141 providers in 24 social service agencies in New York City. We generated the Provider-Researcher Partnership Model to account for provider- and agency-level factors' influence on intentions to form partnerships with researchers. Providers preferred "balanced partnerships" in which researchers and providers allocated research tasks and procedures to reflect diverse knowledge/skill sets. An organizational culture that values research can help enhance providers' intentions to partner. Providers' intentions and priorities found in this study may encourage researchers to engage in and policy makers to fund collaborative research. PMID:25309155

  16. Modeling the Structure of Partnership Between Researchers and Front-Line Service Providers: Strengthening Collaborative Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Wall, Melanie M.; Spector, Anya Y.

    2014-01-01

    Partnerships between HIV researchers and service providers are essential for reducing the gap between research and practice. Community-Based Participatory Research principles guided this cross-sectional study, combining 40 in-depth interviews with surveys of 141 providers in 24 social service agencies in New York City. We generated the Provider-Researcher Partnership Model to account for provider- and agency-level factors’ influence on intentions to form partnerships with researchers. Providers preferred “balanced partnerships” in which researchers and providers allocated research tasks and procedures to reflect diverse knowledge/skill sets. An organizational culture that values research can help enhance providers’ intentions to partner. Providers’ intentions and priorities found in this study may encourage researchers to engage in and policy makers to fund collaborative research. PMID:25309155

  17. 48 CFR 8.715 - Replacement commodities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement commodities. 8.715 Section 8.715 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Nonprofit Agencies Employing People...

  18. Do Formal Supports Replace Informal Supports?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barer, Barbara M.; And Others

    Health policy researchers have long been interested in the extent to which the provision of formal supports replaces or undermines the informal support system. This study examined the linkages between the formal and informal support system as they are mediated by a health care setting which readily provides patients with access to social services.…

  19. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  20. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  1. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  2. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  3. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  4. Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements.

    PubMed Central

    Dekant, W

    1996-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are stable in the atmosphere and may reach the stratosphere. They are cleaved by UV-radiation in the stratosphere to yield chlorine radicals, which are thought to interfere with the catalytic cycle of ozone formation and destruction and deplete stratospheric ozone concentrations. Due to potential adverse health effects of ozone depletion, chlorofluorocarbon replacements with much lower or absent ozone depleting potential are developed. The toxicology of these compounds that represent chlorofluorohydrocarbons (HCFCs) or fluorohydrocarbons (HFCs) has been intensively studied. All compounds investigated (1, 1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane [HCFC-141b], 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane [HFC-134a], pentafluoroethane [HFC-125], 1-chloro- 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane [HCFC-124], and 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane [HCFC-123]) show only a low potential for skin and eye irritation. Chronic adverse effects on the liver (HCFC-123) and the testes (HCFC-141b and HCFC-134a), including tumor formation, were observed in long-term inhalation studies in rodents using very high concentrations of these CFC replacements. All CFC replacements are, to varying extents, biotransformed in the organism, mainly by cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of C-H bonds. The formed acyl halides are hydrolyzed to give excretable carboxylic acids; halogenated aldehydes that are formed may be further oxidized to halogenated carboxylic acids or reduced to halogenated alcohols, which are excretory metabolites in urine from rodents exposed experimentally to CFC replacements. The chronic toxicity of the CFC replacements studied is unlikely to be of relevance for humans exposed during production and application of CFC replacements. PMID:8722112

  5. Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements.

    PubMed

    Dekant, W

    1996-03-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are stable in the atmosphere and may reach the stratosphere. They are cleaved by UV-radiation in the stratosphere to yield chlorine radicals, which are thought to interfere with the catalytic cycle of ozone formation and destruction and deplete stratospheric ozone concentrations. Due to potential adverse health effects of ozone depletion, chlorofluorocarbon replacements with much lower or absent ozone depleting potential are developed. The toxicology of these compounds that represent chlorofluorohydrocarbons (HCFCs) or fluorohydrocarbons (HFCs) has been intensively studied. All compounds investigated (1, 1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane [HCFC-141b], 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane [HFC-134a], pentafluoroethane [HFC-125], 1-chloro- 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane [HCFC-124], and 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane [HCFC-123]) show only a low potential for skin and eye irritation. Chronic adverse effects on the liver (HCFC-123) and the testes (HCFC-141b and HCFC-134a), including tumor formation, were observed in long-term inhalation studies in rodents using very high concentrations of these CFC replacements. All CFC replacements are, to varying extents, biotransformed in the organism, mainly by cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of C-H bonds. The formed acyl halides are hydrolyzed to give excretable carboxylic acids; halogenated aldehydes that are formed may be further oxidized to halogenated carboxylic acids or reduced to halogenated alcohols, which are excretory metabolites in urine from rodents exposed experimentally to CFC replacements. The chronic toxicity of the CFC replacements studied is unlikely to be of relevance for humans exposed during production and application of CFC replacements.

  6. Triple Starr Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Braimbridge, M. V.; Clement, A. J.; Brown, A. Hedley; Sabar, E.; Mendel, D.

    1969-01-01

    Of nine patients who have had triple valve replacements for organic rheumatic triple valve disease two died in the postoperative period from inadequate myocardial reserve, and a third died four months later from cerebral embolism originating from clot on the left atrial wall. The remainder are well and, except for one, leading normal lives. Though cardiac transplantation has been recommended and used successfully for triple valve disease by Cooley, it is suggested that the long-term outlook today of triple valve replacement is likely to be better than that of transplantation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5809243

  7. 42 CFR 441.305 - Replacement of beneficiaries in approved waiver programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Home and Community-Based Services: Waiver Requirements § 441.305 Replacement... of individuals who may receive home and community-based services must include those who will replace... number of individuals who may receive home and community-based services under a model waiver may...

  8. 42 CFR 441.305 - Replacement of recipients in approved waiver programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Home and Community-Based Services: Waiver Requirements § 441.305 Replacement... individuals who may receive home and community-based services must include those who will replace recipients... number of individuals who may receive home and community-based services under a model waiver may...

  9. Replacing America's Job Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  10. Python import replacement

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-01

    SmartImport.py is a Python source-code file that implements a replacement for the standard Python module importer. The code is derived from knee.py, a file in the standard Python diestribution , and adds functionality to improve the performance of Python module imports in massively parallel contexts.

  11. Engineering test results for the Moog Single Line Disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glubke, Scott E.

    1990-01-01

    New and innovative types of disconnects will be required to service, resupply, and maintain future spacecraft subsystems. Efficiently maintaining orbiting scientific instruments, spacecraft support systems, and a manned space station over a long period of time will require the periodic replenishment of consumables and the replacement of components. To accomplish these tasks, the fluid disconnect must be designed to allow the connection and separation of fluid lines and components with minimal hazard to crew and equipment. The capability to simply connect a refueling line or to easily replace a failed component greatly extends the life of a space based fluid system. A test program was initiated to evaluate the Moog Single Line Disconnect. The objective of the test program was to demonstrate the operational characteristics of the disconnect and to verify compliance with current safety regulations. The results of the program are summarized in the referenced document.

  12. Evolution of High Tooth Replacement Rates in Sauropod Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. Methodology/Principal Findings We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Conclusions/Significance Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently

  13. Celotex (Registered) Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, S; Hafner, R

    2002-10-01

    The AL-R8 is the pit storage container in most widespread use at Pantex. The AL-R8 container family consists of standard 20-in.-diameter steel drums, 30 to 60 in. in height, with insulation inserts made of Celotex{reg_sign}--a fiberboard product made from processed sugar cane. Celotex is an acceptable material for inserts in many radioactive material shipping and storage containers. It is a good shock mitigator/insulator, does a fair job in fire protection (when oxygen is excluded), shielding, and criticality, and is inexpensive and easily available. However, the fiberboard absorbs water in humid environments which, when combined with chemical residues in the fiberboard, forms corrosive compounds that can shorten the life of the container and affect container contents. To protect the contents from this potentially damaging environment, the AL-R8 SI was developed to isolate the contents within a sealed stainless steel vessel inside the AL-R8. Although the SI protected the contents, corrosion studies indicated the SI lid bolts might corrode over time and surveillance showed that areas of the outer drum were still subject to corrosion. To address this potential problem, DOE/Albuquerque sponsored bolt and Celotex replacement studies. The bolt replacement study was assigned to Mason and Hanger's Pantex Facility and this Celotex Replacement Study to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Celotex Replacement Study evaluated options for replacing Celotex with a material that is chemically compatible with the AL-R8 SI container. The evaluation was limited to materials either used previously in nuclear materials shipping and storage containers or materials with known properties in a low-radiation environment. This limitation was set to ensure that the long-term aging effect on the new material is known a priori. Initial material evaluations narrowed the material choices to foam and cork. Although cork performed better than foam in some tests, cork was considered a less

  14. NARC Rayon Replacement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Kenneth P.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the search for a replacement product for the aerospace grade rayon formerly used in the reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM). The rayon used in RSRMs is no longer produced by the North American Rayon Corporation (NARC), though NASA has stockpiled rayon to be used until a suitable replacement is found to be used in the RSRM nozzle carbon cloth phenolic (CCP). The primary considerations are performance, process ability, variability, long term availability, and cost. The preference will be given to commercial off-the-shelf products as opposed to those which are custom made. The candidate materials have been tested in previous phases of this selection process, and Enka Textile Rayon has emerged as a possible fabric, though its availability is still in question.

  15. Total femoral replacement.

    PubMed

    Nerubay, J; Katznelson, A; Tichler, T; Rubinstein, Z; Morag, B; Bubis, J J

    1988-04-01

    Between 1973 and 1983, 19 patients with sarcoma of the femur were treated by adjuvant chemotherapy, excision of the entire femur, and replacement by a total femoral prosthesis. Five patients had excellent and nine had good functional results. Twelve patients died an average of 23 months after the procedure and seven are at present disease free. This limb-saving procedure permits rapid rehabilitation, prevents severe psychological problems, and improves the quality of life.

  16. Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients’ clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the “Tower of Babel” of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  17. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients' clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the "Tower of Babel" of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  18. 75 FR 50777 - Minidoka Dam Spillway Replacement, Minidoka County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65783) with a public comment period ending on February 5, 2010. The Final... Bureau of Reclamation Minidoka Dam Spillway Replacement, Minidoka County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of... proposed Minidoka Dam Spillway Replacement. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Department of Interior)...

  19. 7 CFR 4280.138 - Replacement of document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement of document. 4280.138 Section 4280.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.138 Replacement of document....

  20. 7 CFR 4280.138 - Replacement of document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement of document. 4280.138 Section 4280.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.138 Replacement of document....

  1. The service-driven service company.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L A; Heskett, J L

    1991-01-01

    For more than 40 years, service companies like McDonald's prospered with organizations designed according to the principles of traditional mass-production manufacturing. Today that model is obsolete. It inevitably degrades the quality of service a company can provide by setting in motion a cycle of failure that produces dissatisfied customers, unhappy employees, high turnover among both--and so lower profits and lower productivity overall. The cycle starts with human resource policies that minimize the contributions frontline workers can make: jobs are designed to be idiot-proof. Technology is used largely for monitoring and control. Pay is poor. Training is minimal. Performance expectations are abysmally low. Today companies like Taco Bell, Dayton Hudson, and ServiceMaster are reversing the cycle of failure by putting workers with customer contact first and designing the business system around them. As a result, they are developing a model that replaces the logic of industrialization with a new service-driven logic. This logic: Values investments in people as much as investments in technology--and sometimes more. Uses technology to support the efforts of workers on the front lines, not just to monitor or replace them. Makes recruitment and training crucial for everyone. Links compensation to performance for employees at every level. To justify these investments, the new logic draws on innovative data such as the incremental profits of loyal customers and the total costs of lost employees. Its benefits are becoming clear in higher profits and higher pay--results that competitors bound to the old industrial model will not be able to match. PMID:10113913

  2. 2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES AN ORIGINAL 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  3. Reflections on replacement.

    PubMed

    Ryder, N B

    1993-01-01

    In the United States, the total fertility rate is about 1.9 births per woman, down from a peak of 3.2 a generation ago and below the replacement level of 2.1 children. The proportion of women who will never have children has risen from 8% a generation ago to approximately 18% in 1993. The increase in the proportion of women in the labor force, a proximate explanation of the recent decline in intended fertility, is expected to continue. The demographic consequence is declining population with an older age structure. A pronatalist policy to alleviate this outcome, through monetary transfers from taxpayers to potential parents, is not only unlikely to succeed, it is politically unfeasible. An alternative solution, immediately effective but politically unpalatable, would be a generous immigration policy. Even with replacement level fertility, the population is destined to become much older. This inevitable aging of the population should be countered by appropriate institutional transformations: 1) with lower fertility, a larger proportion of women will be available to participate in the labor force to generate taxes needed to support a larger number of pensioners; 2) the institutional practice of ascribing a dependent status to anyone above a particular age can be changed; 3) concerns that an older labor force will have an obsolete education (and fewer years of it) can be countered by changing access to education. Yet, the most serious question is not merely the net reproduction rate, but producing adequate numbers of new adult citizens with responsibility and technical training in the modern world. The fundamental process of socializing children may be jeopardized by replacing the full-time parent with the hired care-giver, the peer group, and the television set. The attenuation of the bonds between parent and child may devalue the worth of childbearing itself. These portentous consequences deserve consideration. PMID:8313953

  4. Total ankle joint replacement.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  5. Cadmium plating replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mary J.; Groshart, Earl C.

    1995-01-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  6. Sutureless aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of aortic stenosis and greater co-morbidities and risk profiles of the contemporary patient population has driven the development of minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques to reduce surgical trauma. Recent technological developments have led to an alternative minimally invasive option which avoids the placement and tying of sutures, known as “sutureless” or rapid deployment aortic valves. Potential advantages for sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration, facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, whilst maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low paravalvular leak rates. However, given its recent developments, the majority of evidence regarding sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) is limited to observational studies and there is a paucity of adequately-powered randomized studies. Recently, the International Valvular Surgery Study Group (IVSSG) has formulated to conduct the Sutureless Projects, set to be the largest international collaborative group to investigate this technology. This keynote lecture will overview the use, the potential advantages, the caveats, and current evidence of sutureless and rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (AVR). PMID:25870807

  7. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. PMID:24412045

  8. Antenna grout replacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, C. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An epoxy grout suitable for use in mounting and positioning bearing runner plates used in hydrostatic bearing assemblies for rotatably mounting large radio telescope structures to stationary support pedestals is described. The epoxy grout may be used in original mountings or may be used as part of a replacement system for repairing cavities in existing grout resulting from grout deterioration. The epoxy grout has a relatively short work life and cure time even in the presence of hydraulic oil. The epoxy grout cures without shrinking or sagging to form a grout which is sufficiently strong and durable to provide a grout especially well suited for use under the high pressure loading and close tolerance requirements of large hydrostatic bearing assemblies.

  9. 21 CFR 874.3540 - Prosthesis modification instrument for ossicular replacement surgery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices... surgeon to construct ossicular replacements. This generic type of device includes the ear, nose,...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3540 - Prosthesis modification instrument for ossicular replacement surgery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices... surgeon to construct ossicular replacements. This generic type of device includes the ear, nose,...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3540 - Prosthesis modification instrument for ossicular replacement surgery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices... surgeon to construct ossicular replacements. This generic type of device includes the ear, nose,...

  12. 31 CFR 361.8 - Claim for replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim for replacement. 361.8 Section 361.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE CLAIMS PURSUANT TO THE GOVERNMENT LOSSES IN...

  13. Report to the Legislature on: School Breakfast and Summer Food Service Programs. MGL Chapter 15 Section 1G(f) and Chapter 61 of the Acts of 2007 Line Item 7053-1925

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the report on "School Breakfast and Summer Food Service Program." Pursuant to Chapter 61 of the Acts of 2007 line item 7053-1925 and Massachusetts General Laws (MGL) chapter 15 section 1G(f), this report is submitted to the Legislature. An Act establishing school-based Nutrition and Child Hunger Relief Programs was signed into…

  14. Distribution main rehabilitated with HDPE lining process

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, M. )

    1994-08-01

    Innovative use of a new HDPE lining technology recently saved Brooklyn Union Gas Co. 30% over conventional replacement costs. The company chose lining technology from United Pipeline Systems called Tite Liner to rehabilitate 2,500 ft of 20-in., 15 psig, bare steel main in Brooklyn's Bay Ridge section, an area spanning six city blocks and crossing three major avenues. The main is mechanically joined with no offsets or service connections. Due to surface and subsurface working space restrictions and the impact on costs, the company elected to employ the liner system in which a specially designed HDPE liner pipe is reduced to a smaller diameter through a rolldown box for insertion into a steel or cast iron main. A tight fit is attained as the liner is allowed to expand against the pipe wall after pull through.

  15. 2707SX FACP replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, M.F.

    1994-11-17

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection system functions as required by project criteria. This ATP will test the Pyrotronic CP-400 fire alarm control panel (FACP), and interfaces with the radio fire alarm reporting box, alarm/supervisory initiating devices, and alarm indicating appliances. This document is to certify the installation of the fire alarm control panel and all attached devices to insure the Hanford Fire Dept. receives the proper signals. This particular fire alarm control panel services Bldg. 2707SX in the 200W Area of Hanford.

  16. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; Wert, Michael; Leung, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  17. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  18. Qualities and Practices of Professional Social Work Leadership in an Interdisciplinary Mental Health Service: An Action Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, David; Webster, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, health service restructuring in New Zealand has strengthened managerialism, arguably detracting from professional considerations. Professional leaders without line-management responsibilities have replaced social work departments headed by a professional social worker. An emerging social work contribution to interdisciplinary…

  19. Using your shoulder after replacement surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Joint replacement surgery - using your shoulder; Shoulder replacement surgery - after ... You have had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial parts. The parts include a stem made of metal and a ...

  20. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies. Annual status report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This Annual Status Report describes the design, development and implementation of the Minority On-Line Information Service (MOLIS) project by Federal Information Exchange, Inc. for the period of April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992. Summary information detailing developments prior to this reporting period will also be included to establish a comprehensive perspective of the project. The goal of the MOLIS project, was to develop, design, pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities and federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since April 29, 1991, the inauguration of its on-line service, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, pre-college and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from 8 participating federal agencies.

  1. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  2. Dialogue Replacement for Student Productions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hank, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Argues that film students should be taught how dialog replacement fits into overall engineering of a sound track--replacing dialog offers advantages to the student filmmaker that can enhance a less than stellar performance. States that skills such as foley artistry, postsynchronization of sound effects, and sound track engineering are as important…

  3. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies. Annual status report, September 28, 1992--September 27, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    The goal of the MOLIS project was to develop, design, and pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities as well as federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since going on-line on April 29, 1991, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, precollege and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from participating federal agencies. Six federal agencies are currently participating in MOLIS, including: Agency for International Development; Department of Commerce; Department of Energy; Department of Housing and Urban Development; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and National Science Foundation.

  4. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint... Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service...

  5. 7 CFR 1944.673 - Historic preservation and replacement housing requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Historic preservation and replacement housing requirements and procedures. 1944.673 Section 1944.673 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  6. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... er Total Hip Replacement cont. • Dislocation • Limb length inequality • Poor fracture healing • Repeat fracture • Lack of in- ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Page ( 5 ) AAOS does ...

  7. When to Replace a Prosthesis

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Fundraise Connect Contact Us Materiales en español Amputee Coalition Navigation HOME WHO WE ARE About Us ... Advisory Committee Connect With Us! STORE CALENDAR SEARCH Amputee Coalition > Limb Loss Resource Center > When to Replace ...

  8. Meal replacements and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B

    2010-04-26

    Induction and maintenance of a period of negative energy balance are required for overweight and obese subjects to lose weight. Meal replacements, particularly in beverage form, have now evolved as part of the "toolbox" used by researchers and clinicians to achieve negative energy balance. This overview traces the historical development of beverage meal replacements, reviews key studies supporting their clinical efficacy, and examines concerns related to their safe use. This collective information supports the view that meal replacements, particularly in beverage form, are now an effective and safe component for use in the clinical setting. Further studies are needed to identify those subjects most likely to benefit from use of meal replacements as part of their comprehensive weight control program.

  9. Prioritization Methodology for Chemical Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruit, W.; Schutzenhofer, S.; Goldberg, B.; Everhart, K.

    1993-01-01

    This project serves to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semiquantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weigh the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results are being implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

  10. Replacing equipment due to obsolescence, fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harbor, V.

    1982-08-23

    Southern Natural Gas' engine replacement program with regard to expansion problems, replacement justification, meeting requirements (e.g. FERC regulations), economics, and removal and replacement was examined. As a result of replacement, gas supplies are more plentiful; and due to increased load factors, the replacing of four 1,300-hp units is now under way.

  11. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruit, Wendy; Goldberg, Ben; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Since United States of America federal legislation has required ozone depleting chemicals (class 1 & 2) to be banned from production, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and industry have been required to find other chemicals and methods to replace these target chemicals. This project was initiated as a development of a prioritization methodology suitable for assessing and ranking existing processes for replacement 'urgency.' The methodology was produced in the form of a workbook (NASA Technical Paper 3421). The final workbook contains two tools, one for evaluation and one for prioritization. The two tools are interconnected in that they were developed from one central theme - chemical replacement due to imposed laws and regulations. This workbook provides matrices, detailed explanations of how to use them, and a detailed methodology for prioritization of replacement technology. The main objective is to provide a GUIDELINE to help direct the research for replacement technology. The approach for prioritization called for a system which would result in a numerical rating for the chemicals and processes being assessed. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique was used in order to determine numerical values which would correspond to the concerns raised and their respective importance to the process. This workbook defines the approach and the application of the QFD matrix. This technique: (1) provides a standard database for technology that can be easily reviewed, and (2) provides a standard format for information when requesting resources for further research for chemical replacement technology. Originally, this workbook was to be used for Class 1 and Class 2 chemicals, but it was specifically designed to be flexible enough to be used for any chemical used in a process (if the chemical and/or process needs to be replaced). The methodology consists of comparison matrices (and the smaller comparison components) which allow replacement technology

  12. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    SciTech Connect

    Burland, T.G.; Pallotta, D.

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 31 CFR 361.8 - Claim for replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim for replacement. 361.8 Section 361.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT CLAIMS PURSUANT TO THE GOVERNMENT LOSSES IN SHIPMENT...

  14. 31 CFR 361.8 - Claim for replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim for replacement. 361.8 Section 361.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT CLAIMS PURSUANT TO THE GOVERNMENT LOSSES IN SHIPMENT...

  15. 31 CFR 361.8 - Claim for replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim for replacement. 361.8 Section 361.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT CLAIMS PURSUANT TO THE GOVERNMENT LOSSES IN SHIPMENT...

  16. 21 CFR 870.3710 - Pacemaker repair or replacement material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker repair or replacement material. 870.3710 Section 870.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3710...

  17. 21 CFR 870.3710 - Pacemaker repair or replacement material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker repair or replacement material. 870.3710 Section 870.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3710...

  18. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  19. 21 CFR 874.3450 - Partial ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partial ossicular replacement prosthesis. 874.3450 Section 874.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... be implanted for the functional reconstruction of segments of the ossicular chain and facilitates...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3495 - Total ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Total ossicular replacement prosthesis. 874.3495 Section 874.3495 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... be implanted for the total functional reconstruction of the ossicular chain and facilitates...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3450 - Partial ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial ossicular replacement prosthesis. 874.3450 Section 874.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... be implanted for the functional reconstruction of segments of the ossicular chain and facilitates...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3495 - Total ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total ossicular replacement prosthesis. 874.3495 Section 874.3495 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... be implanted for the total functional reconstruction of the ossicular chain and facilitates...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3495 - Total ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Total ossicular replacement prosthesis. 874.3495 Section 874.3495 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... be implanted for the total functional reconstruction of the ossicular chain and facilitates...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3450 - Partial ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partial ossicular replacement prosthesis. 874.3450 Section 874.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... be implanted for the functional reconstruction of segments of the ossicular chain and facilitates...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3495 - Total ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Total ossicular replacement prosthesis. 874.3495 Section 874.3495 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... be implanted for the total functional reconstruction of the ossicular chain and facilitates...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3450 - Partial ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partial ossicular replacement prosthesis. 874.3450 Section 874.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... be implanted for the functional reconstruction of segments of the ossicular chain and facilitates...

  7. Familial LCAT deficiency: from renal replacement to enzyme replacement.

    PubMed

    Stoekenbroek, R M; van den Bergh Weerman, M A; Hovingh, G K; Potter van Loon, B J; Siegert, C E H; Holleboom, A G

    2013-01-01

    Familial LCAT deficiency (FLD) is a recessive lipid disorder ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We present two brothers with considerable variation in the age at which they developed ESRD. Kidney biopsies revealed both tubular and glomerular pathology. To date, no causal therapy is available, yet enzyme replacement therapy is in development. PMID:23412821

  8. Molecular replacement: tricks and treats

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Chantal

    2013-11-01

    To be successful, molecular replacement relies on the quality of the model and of the crystallographic data. Some tricks that could be applied to the models or to the crystal to increase the success rate of MR are discussed here. Molecular replacement is the method of choice for X-ray crystallographic structure determination provided that suitable structural homologues are available in the PDB. Presently, there are ∼80 000 structures in the PDB (8074 were deposited in the year 2012 alone), of which ∼70% have been solved by molecular replacement. For successful molecular replacement the model must cover at least 50% of the total structure and the C{sub α} r.m.s.d. between the core model and the structure to be solved must be less than 2 Å. Here, an approach originally implemented in the CaspR server (http://www.igs.cnrs-mrs.fr/Caspr2/index.cgi) based on homology modelling to search for a molecular-replacement solution is discussed. How the use of as much information as possible from different sources can improve the model(s) is briefly described. The combination of structural information with distantly related sequences is crucial to optimize the multiple alignment that will define the boundaries of the core domains. PDB clusters (sequences with ≥30% identical residues) can also provide information on the eventual changes in conformation and will help to explore the relative orientations assumed by protein subdomains. Normal-mode analysis can also help in generating series of conformational models in the search for a molecular-replacement solution. Of course, finding a correct solution is only the first step and the accuracy of the identified solution is as important as the data quality to proceed through refinement. Here, some possible reasons for failure are discussed and solutions are proposed using a set of successful examples.

  9. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ben; Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This methodology serves to define a system for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi quantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). QFD is a conceptual map that provides a method of transforming customer wants and needs into quantitative engineering terms. This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives.

  10. The UKCIS Advisory Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Archie

    1979-01-01

    Describes the free advisory service available to both users and potential users of chemical and biological databases in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Three specific areas are discussed in which queries about Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers have been received: isomers, replacing registry numbers, and mixed compounds. (JD)

  11. Replaceable Sleeve Protects Welder Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. L.; Simpson, C., E.

    1983-01-01

    New replaceable carbon insert for deflection coil in electron-beam welder promises to decrease maintenance costs. Inserts made from materials other than carbon (not yet tried) are less expensive, thus reducing costs even further. With carbon insert, deflection coils last longer and are easier to maintain.

  12. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  13. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  14. On-Line Support and Portfolio Assessment for NETS-T Standards In Pre-Service Programs at a Large Southeastern University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Mary B.; Dias, Laurie B.

    This paper details the theoretical underpinnings of one university's approach to technology integration in its pre-service teacher preparation programs, and the results of a continuous, feedback-driven project to evaluate for technology integration through a student portfolio development process. Portfolios are assessed for multiple education and…

  15. Analysis of Requirements of On-Line Network Cataloging Services for Small, Academic, Public, School and Other Libraries: A Demonstration Project using the OCLC System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markuson, Barbara Evans

    This report results from a project using the OCLC system to provide catalog services to small libraries. Alternatives described include: centralized cataloging, centralized book processing, sharing of OCLC terminals, and use of dial-up terminals. The OCLC data base was found useful for all types of small libraries. It is recommended that network…

  16. [Organ replacement therapy - renal replacement therapy in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Kraus, Daniel; Wanner, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Critically ill patients who are treated in an intensive care unit are at increased risk of developing acute renal failure. Every episode of renal failure decreases life expectancy. However, acute renal failure is no longer an immediate cause of death because renal function can be substituted medically and mechanically, by the use of renal replacement therapy. Hemodialysis and hemofiltration are the 2 fundamental modalities of renal replacement therapy and may be performed intermittently or continuously. The decision for one particular therapy has to be made for each patient individually. Peritoneal dialysis is an alternative treatment for acute renal failure, but is not available for immediate use in most centers. Contrast media and rhabdomyolysis are 2 common causes of toxic renal failure in the intensive care unit. However, they cannot be prevented by hemodialysis. PMID:27631449

  17. TOWER 1 IN CENTER,REPLACEMENT MODEL SINGLE CHAIR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER 1 IN CENTER,REPLACEMENT MODEL SINGLE CHAIR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST UP THE LIFT LINE. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  18. 47 CFR 54.304 - Administration of Connect America Fund Intercarrier Compensation Replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of Connect America Fund Intercarrier Compensation Replacement. 54.304 Section 54.304 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.304 Administration...

  19. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  20. Hurricane intensity and eyewall replacement.

    PubMed

    Houze, Robert A; Chen, Shuyi S; Smull, Bradley F; Lee, Wen-Chau; Bell, Michael M

    2007-03-01

    Observations made during the historic 2005 hurricane season document a case of "eyewall replacement." Clouds outside the hurricane eyewall coalesce to form a new eyewall at a greater radius from the storm center, and the old eyewall dies. The winds in the new eyewall are initially weaker than those in the original eyewall, but as the new eyewall contracts, the storm reintensifies. Understanding this replacement mechanism is vital to forecasting variations in hurricane intensity. Processes in the "moat" region between the new and old eyewall have been particularly unclear. Aircraft data now show that the moat becomes dynamically similar to the eye and thus is converted into a region inimical to survival of the inner eyewall. We suggest that targeting aircraft to key parts of the storm to gain crucial input to high-resolution numerical models can lead to improvements in forecasting hurricane intensity.

  1. Replacement element for automobile thermostat

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, W.

    1988-06-07

    This patent describes a thermostat replacement element for use in a cooling system in which a continuous stream of coolant normally flows from a radiator through a thermostat to an engine. The thermostat is mounted within a mounting cavity and permits maximum flow of coolant through the cooling system when in an open position. The replacement element comprises a disc-shaped member having a diameter substantially corresponding to the diameter of the mounting cavity. The member is provided with apertures of a predetermined size to permit flow of coolant therethrough at a rate generally corresponding to the rate of flow of coolant through the thermostat when the thermostat is in an open position.

  2. Nicotine Replacement Therapy: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wadgave, Umesh; Nagesh, L

    2016-01-01

    Today tobacco use is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world. Tobacco use is often incorrectly perceived to be solely a personal choice. This is contradicted by the fact that when fully aware of the health impact, most tobacco users want to quit but find it difficult to stop due to the addictiveness of nicotine. Henceforth, Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) came into existence which temporarily replaces much of the nicotine from tobacco to reduce motivation to consume tobacco and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. Various alternative nicotine sources (gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler and sublingual tablets/lozenges) have been incorporated into tobacco cessation programs. Recent research is more focusing on rapid delivery of nicotine (Nicotine preloading, true pulmonary inhaler) and immunological approaches (nicotine vaccine) to tackle nicotine dependence. These NRTs are in general well tolerated and have minimal adverse effects. The review aims to summarize literature on various modes of nicotine replacement therapy methods currently used to treat nicotine dependence, and to give an overview about future possible approaches to treat tobacco use disorder. PMID:27610066

  3. Nicotine Replacement Therapy: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Wadgave, Umesh; Nagesh, L

    2016-07-01

    Today tobacco use is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world. Tobacco use is often incorrectly perceived to be solely a personal choice. This is contradicted by the fact that when fully aware of the health impact, most tobacco users want to quit but find it difficult to stop due to the addictiveness of nicotine. Henceforth, Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) came into existence which temporarily replaces much of the nicotine from tobacco to reduce motivation to consume tobacco and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. Various alternative nicotine sources (gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler and sublingual tablets/lozenges) have been incorporated into tobacco cessation programs. Recent research is more focusing on rapid delivery of nicotine (Nicotine preloading, true pulmonary inhaler) and immunological approaches (nicotine vaccine) to tackle nicotine dependence. These NRTs are in general well tolerated and have minimal adverse effects. The review aims to summarize literature on various modes of nicotine replacement therapy methods currently used to treat nicotine dependence, and to give an overview about future possible approaches to treat tobacco use disorder.

  4. Nicotine Replacement Therapy: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Wadgave, Umesh; Nagesh, L

    2016-07-01

    Today tobacco use is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world. Tobacco use is often incorrectly perceived to be solely a personal choice. This is contradicted by the fact that when fully aware of the health impact, most tobacco users want to quit but find it difficult to stop due to the addictiveness of nicotine. Henceforth, Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) came into existence which temporarily replaces much of the nicotine from tobacco to reduce motivation to consume tobacco and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. Various alternative nicotine sources (gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler and sublingual tablets/lozenges) have been incorporated into tobacco cessation programs. Recent research is more focusing on rapid delivery of nicotine (Nicotine preloading, true pulmonary inhaler) and immunological approaches (nicotine vaccine) to tackle nicotine dependence. These NRTs are in general well tolerated and have minimal adverse effects. The review aims to summarize literature on various modes of nicotine replacement therapy methods currently used to treat nicotine dependence, and to give an overview about future possible approaches to treat tobacco use disorder. PMID:27610066

  5. Nicotine Replacement Therapy: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wadgave, Umesh; Nagesh, L

    2016-01-01

    Today tobacco use is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world. Tobacco use is often incorrectly perceived to be solely a personal choice. This is contradicted by the fact that when fully aware of the health impact, most tobacco users want to quit but find it difficult to stop due to the addictiveness of nicotine. Henceforth, Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) came into existence which temporarily replaces much of the nicotine from tobacco to reduce motivation to consume tobacco and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. Various alternative nicotine sources (gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler and sublingual tablets/lozenges) have been incorporated into tobacco cessation programs. Recent research is more focusing on rapid delivery of nicotine (Nicotine preloading, true pulmonary inhaler) and immunological approaches (nicotine vaccine) to tackle nicotine dependence. These NRTs are in general well tolerated and have minimal adverse effects. The review aims to summarize literature on various modes of nicotine replacement therapy methods currently used to treat nicotine dependence, and to give an overview about future possible approaches to treat tobacco use disorder.

  6. Physical training after heart valve replacement.

    PubMed Central

    Newell, J P; Kappagoda, C T; Stoker, J B; Deverall, P B; Watson, D A; Linden, R J

    1980-01-01

    A controlled trial was undertaken to examine the efficacy of physical training in patients recovering from the replacement of a single heart valve. Patients were allocated to a test or control group two weeks after operation. Each patient performed a submaximal exercise test at entry, and 12 and 24 weeks after this test. The Canadian Air Force exercise programme was undertaken by the test group, while the control group continued normal activities for the 24 weeks between the first and last exercise group. A regression line of submaximal heart rate on oxygen consumption was calculated from the data of each exercise test in each patient. Alterations in this line were used as an "index" of changes in "cardiorespiratory fitness". The individual results showed a consistent improvement in "cardiorespiratory fitness" over the first 12 weeks in both groups. Only patients in the test group continued to improve between 12 and 24 weeks. Thus the exercise programme modified the recovery of "cardiorespiratory fitness" after operation. Results in patients who developed clinical complications, and were excluded from the trial, predicted a deteriorating clinical condition. This finding suggested that sequential exercise tests are of value after cardiac surgery. PMID:7459147

  7. 21 CFR 1004.3 - Plans for the replacement of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plans for the replacement of electronic products. 1004.3 Section 1004.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  8. 78 FR 32274 - Scorpion Pier Replacement Project, Channel Islands National Park, Santa Barbara County, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... National Park Service Scorpion Pier Replacement Project, Channel Islands National Park, Santa Barbara... analysis process for the proposed replacement and potential relocation of the existing Scorpion Pier at..., Attn: Scorpion Pier Project, 1901 Spinnaker Drive, Ventura, CA 93001 or electronically to...

  9. 21 CFR 1004.3 - Plans for the replacement of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plans for the replacement of electronic products. 1004.3 Section 1004.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  10. 75 FR 57049 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Application for Replacement of Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card ACTION: Correction to 30-day notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I-777, Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card; OMB Control...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3540 - Prosthesis modification instrument for ossicular replacement surgery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices... prosthesis modification instrument for ossicular replacement surgery is a device intended for use by a surgeon to construct ossicular replacements. This generic type of device includes the ear, nose,...

  12. 21 CFR 874.3540 - Prosthesis modification instrument for ossicular replacement surgery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices... prosthesis modification instrument for ossicular replacement surgery is a device intended for use by a surgeon to construct ossicular replacements. This generic type of device includes the ear, nose,...

  13. 7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-15 Funds for the replacement of commercial...

  14. 7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-17 Funds for the replacement of certified...

  15. 7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-17 Funds for the replacement of certified...

  16. 7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-15 Funds for the replacement of commercial...

  17. 7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-17 Funds for the replacement of certified...

  18. 7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-17 Funds for the replacement of certified...

  19. 7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-15 Funds for the replacement of commercial...

  20. 7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-15 Funds for the replacement of commercial...

  1. 7 CFR 301.75-17 - Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-17 Funds for the replacement of certified...

  2. 7 CFR 301.75-15 - Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-15 Funds for the replacement of commercial...

  3. The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Sato, G; Hayashi, I

    1976-12-01

    The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media. (Reemplazo del suero por hormonas en el medio de cultivo de células). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 120-121, 1976. The serum used in cell culture media can be replaced by a mixture of hormones and some accesory blood factors. The pituitary cell line GH3 can be grown in a medium in which serum is replaced by triiodothyronine, transferrin, parathormone, tyrotrophin releasing hormone and somatomedins. Hela and BHK cell strains can also be grown in serum free medium supplemented with hormones. Each cell type appears to have different hormonal requirements yet it may found that some hormones are required for most cell types.

  4. The present development of time service in Brazil, with the application of the TV line-10 method for coordination and synchronization of atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, P. M.; Silva, I. M.

    1974-01-01

    Various methods presently used for the dissemination of time at several levels of precision are described along with future projects in the field. Different aspects of time coordination are reviewed and a list of future laboratories participating in a National Time Scale will be presented. A Brazilian Atomic Time Scale will be obtained from as many of these laboratories as possible. The problem of intercomparison between the Brazilian National Time Scale and the International one will be presented and probable solutions will be discussed. Needs related to the TV Line-10 method will be explained and comments will be made on the legal aspects of time dissemination throughout the country.

  5. VH Replacement Footprint Analyzer-I, a Java-Based Computer Program for Analyses of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes and Potential VH Replacement Products in Human and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Lange, Miles D; Zhang, Zhixin

    2014-01-01

    VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated secondary recombination between a rearranged VH gene and an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cryptic recombination signal sequence (cRSS, TACTGTG) at the 3' end of VH gene coding region, a short stretch of nucleotides from the previous rearranged VH gene can be retained in the newly formed VH-DH junction as a "footprint" of VH replacement. Such footprints can be used as markers to identify Ig heavy chain (IgH) genes potentially generated through VH replacement. To explore the contribution of VH replacement products to the antibody repertoire, we developed a Java-based computer program, VH replacement footprint analyzer-I (VHRFA-I), to analyze published or newly obtained IgH genes from human or mouse. The VHRFA-1 program has multiple functional modules: it first uses service provided by the IMGT/V-QUEST program to assign potential VH, DH, and JH germline genes; then, it searches for VH replacement footprint motifs within the VH-DH junction (N1) regions of IgH gene sequences to identify potential VH replacement products; it can also analyze the frequencies of VH replacement products in correlation with publications, keywords, or VH, DH, and JH gene usages, and mutation status; it can further analyze the amino acid usages encoded by the identified VH replacement footprints. In summary, this program provides a useful computation tool for exploring the biological significance of VH replacement products in human and mouse.

  6. Assessment of the Patient-Centered and Family-Centered Care Experience of Total Joint Replacement Patients Using a Shadowing Technique.

    PubMed

    Marcus-Aiyeku, Ulanda; DeBari, Margaret; Salmond, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In 2030, when baby boomers reach 65 years of age and represent 18% of the population, it is anticipated that 67 million adults will have a diagnosis of arthritis increasing the demand for total hip and knee arthroplasty. With the growing emphasis on patient- and family-centered care, the aim of this project was to assess the patient experience of patients and families throughout the entire spectrum of the total joint replacement service line care at a university regional trauma hospital. A shadowing methodology as defined by the Institute for Health Improvement was utilized. Eight patient/family groups undergoing total joint replacements were shadowed. The mapped care experience included time, caregiver, activity, shadower observations, and impressions. Findings revealed inconsistencies in the delivery of patient- and family-centered care. Communication and interactions were predominantly provider-centric, with a focus on care routines versus the patient and family, and anticipation that care would be medically directed. PMID:26375835

  7. Botas line repaired ahead of schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports on damaged sections of Botas' dual 30-in. gas line carrying USSR gas across the Marmara Sea to Turkey that were replaced 30 days ahead of contract schedule. Tefken Construction and Installation Co., Inc., Istanbul, working under a $4-million contract, replaced two sections on one of the dual lines near Ambarli, Turkey, within a two-month period. The offshore system stretches 33-mi under the Marmara Sea with some pipe laid at 262-ft maximum water depths. The scope of the project was to replace a 426-ft offshore approach to the northern shoreline and a 984-ft onshore section, which were damaged by a submarine landslide.

  8. Solvent replacement for green processing.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, J; Chin, B; Huibers, P D; Garcia-Valls, R; Hatton, T A

    1998-01-01

    The implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the Clean Air Act, and the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has resulted in increased awareness of organic solvent use in chemical processing. The advances made in the search to find "green" replacements for traditional solvents are reviewed, with reference to solvent alternatives for cleaning, coatings, and chemical reaction and separation processes. The development of solvent databases and computational methods that aid in the selection and/or design of feasible or optimal environmentally benign solvent alternatives for specific applications is also discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9539018

  9. Replacing London's cast iron mains

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, A. ); Mathews, P. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses the cast iron gas distribution systems that exist in many cities and contains considerable amounts of pipe that vary in age from 20 to 150 years. In many ways, cast iron is an excellent material. It is inherently corrosion resistant, easy to install and cheap. However, it is also brittle and smaller diameter cast iron pipe has a relatively low beam strength. This can lead, under some circumstances, to failure without external warning, with typically a full-circumferential failure. In congested areas this can lead to serious consequences. As a result, cast iron replacement programs are a common feature in such urban gas distribution systems.

  10. Anesthesia for bone replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunil; Singh, Shri Prakash; Agarwal, Jitendra K

    2012-01-01

    Advances in clinical medicine, improved understanding of pathophysiology, and the extensive application of medical technology have projected hitherto high risk and poor outcome surgical procedures into the category of routine and relatively good outcome surgeries. Bone replacement surgery is one amongst these and is wrought with a multitude of perioperative complexities. An understanding of these goes a long way in assisting in the final outcome for the patient. Here we present a review of the literature covering various issues involved during the different stages of the perioperative period. PMID:22557736

  11. Patellofemoral replacement: the third compartment.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A A; McCandless, J B; Shaeffer, J F; Magee, T H

    2013-11-01

    Isolated patellofemoral arthritis is a common condition and there are varying opinions on the most effective treatments. Non-operative and operative treatments have failed to demonstrate effective long-term treatment for those in an advanced stage of the condition. Newer designs and increased technology in patellofemoral replacement (PFR) have produced more consistent outcomes. This has led to a renewed enthusiasm for this procedure. Newer PFR prostheses have addressed the patellar maltracking issues plaguing some of the older designs. Short-term results with contemporary prostheses and new technology are described here.

  12. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  13. Midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ramappa, Manjunath

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement (TKR) is an evolving concept. Successful treatment of instability requires an understanding of the different types of instability. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify information pertinent to midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement, utilising PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched included Embase, Medline, All of the Cochrane Library, PubMed and cross references. Results: Three factors, i.e., elevated joint line, multiradii femoral component and medial collateral ligament (MCL) laxity, were identified to influence midflexion instability. Literature suggested mediolateral instability at 30–60° of flexion as diagnostic of midflexion instability. Literature search also revealed paucity in clinical studies analysing midflexion instability. Most of the evidence was obtained from cadaveric studies for elevated joint line and MCL laxity. Clinical studies on multiradii femoral component were limited by their small study size and early followup period. Conclusion: Elevated joint line, multiradii femoral component and MCL laxity have been suggested to cause midflexion laxity in primary TKR. Due to limitations in available evidence, this review was unable to raise the strength of overall evidence. Future well-designed clinical studies are essential to make definitive conclusions. This review serves as a baseline for future researchers and creates awareness for routine assessment of midflexion instability in primary total knee replacement. PMID:27163080

  14. Report: Osteocyte enhancement function of bisphosphonates in prosthetic replacement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Shangzeng; Meng, Qingliang; Sun, Yongqiang; Ran, A-fou

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic loosening after prosthetic replacement is the primary cause of shortened service life and lowered stability of prosthesis, and increased revision rate after joint replacement. Factors of causing the loosening of joint prosthesis include mechanical factors and biological factors. The mechanical effect of bisphosphonates (BP) is quite obvious, which can enhance osteocyte function, accelerate the generation of new bone and lower bone resorption activity of osteoclast and macrophage. In animal experiment and adjuvant therapy of patients after joint replacement, BP also shows up the functions of reducing osteolysis induced by wear debris, preventing stress shielding and interface fretting and enhancing bone density. This paper elaborated the mechanism of BP adjusting bone metabolism, and analyzed the action principle and the vital function of it in prosthetic replacement. It has proved that BP can effectively reduce the early peri-prosthesis bone absorption after total hip replacement and improve bone mass peri-prosthesis. It is currently the significant choice of preventing bone lose of peri-prosthesis after operation. PMID:26051741

  15. End of the Printed Line?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishengrad, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    Considers whether laptop and handheld computers will be able to replace printed textbooks in classrooms. Topics cover benefits of classroom computers, including the need for computer literacy; computer costs, including service contracts, theft, and the need for staff development; the problems with dated textbooks; publishers' concerns; and…

  16. Advances in testosterone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Gooren, Louis J G

    2009-01-01

    The major goal of androgen substitution is to replace testosterone at levels as close to physiological concentrations as is possible. The mainstay of testosterone susbstitution are parenteral testosterone esters (enanthate and cypionate) to be administered every 2-3 weeks. A major disadvantage is the strongly fluctuating levels of plasma testosterone which are at least 50% of the time not in the physiological range. A significant improvement is parenteral testosterone undecanoate producing normal plasma testosterone for 12 weeks. Subcutaneous testosterone implants provide the patient, depending on the dose of implants, with normal plasma testosterone for 3-6 months. Its use is, however, not widespread. Oral testosterone undecanoate dissolved in oil bypasses the liver via its lymphatic absorption, but resulting plasma levels are erratic. Transdermal testosterone preparations have already been available for two decades. Transdermal testosterone gel produces attractive pharmocokinetic serum testosterone profiles and offers greater flexibility in dosing. Transdermal gel has been recommended in elderly males. In case of complications its use can be discontinued immediately. Oromucosal testosterone preparations are being developed. Testosterone replacement is usually of long duration, and patient compliance is of utmost importance. Therefore, the patient must be involved in the selection of the type of testosterone preparation. PMID:19011287

  17. The future of nicotine replacement.

    PubMed

    Russell, M A

    1991-05-01

    Following in the wake of progress forged by nicotine chewing gum, a new generation of nicotine replacement products will soon be available as aids to giving up smoking. These range from nicotine skin patches, which take 6-8 hrs to give very flat steady-state peak blood levels, to nicotine vapour inhalers which mimic the transient high-nicotine boli that follow within a few seconds of each inhaled puff of cigarette smoke. Other products undergoing clinical trials include a nasal nicotine spray and nicotine lozenges. It is argued here that it is not so much the efficacy of new nicotine delivery systems as temporary aids to cessation, but their potential as long-term alternatives to tobacco that makes the virtual elimination of tobacco a realistic future target. Their relative safety compared with tobacco is discussed. A case is advanced for selected nicotine replacement products to be made as palatable and acceptable as possible and actively promoted on the open market to enable them to compete with tobacco products. They will also need health authority endorsement, tax advantages and support from the anti-smoking movement if tobacco use is to be gradually phased out altogether.

  18. Marketing for Online Bibliographic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Art

    1979-01-01

    With reference to the "BIOSIS Previews" magnetic tape service of BioSciences Information Service (BIOSIS), marketing patterns of on-line bibliographic products are examined and future possibilities are discussed, with emphasis on geographic distribution of usage, organizations and institutions employing on-line service, and their distribution in…

  19. Raised replacement heifers: some economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Harlan

    2013-11-01

    This article lays out the recommended procedure for determining the economic cost of developing a proposed set of replacement heifers. In particular, a 6-step process that calculates the economic cost of developing a raised pregnant replacement heifer is described.

  20. Cardiac valve replacement: Experience in 2400 patients

    PubMed Central

    Papo, Isidor; Albreht, Mis̆a; Martinović, Nebojs̆a; Sokolić, Josip; Marenović, Tomislav

    1981-01-01

    In the series described here, 2400 patients over a 15-year period underwent surgery for correction of acquired valvular heart disease. Of these, 1586 patients had single valve replacement, 714 had double valve replacement, and 100 had triple valve replacement. Concomitant surgery for associated congenital and acquired lesions was done in 114 patients. The hospital mortality was 9.16%. PMID:15216220

  1. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means...

  2. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means...

  3. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means...

  4. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means...

  5. Hip Replacement - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hip Replacement (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Total Hip Replacement Potpuna zamjena kuka - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Total Hip Replacement 全髋关节置换 - 简体中文 ( ...

  6. Knee Replacement - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Knee Replacement (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Total Knee Replacement Potpuna zamjena koljena - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Total Knee Replacement 全膝关节置换 - 简体中文 ( ...

  7. VARIANT: Command Line, Web service and Web interface for fast and accurate functional characterization of variants found by Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Ignacio; De Maria, Alejandro; Bleda, Marta; Salavert, Francisco; Alonso, Roberto; Gonzalez, Cristina Y.; Dopazo, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The massive use of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies is uncovering an unexpected amount of variability. The functional characterization of such variability, particularly in the most common form of variation found, the Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs), has become a priority that needs to be addressed in a systematic way. VARIANT (VARIant ANalyis Tool) reports information on the variants found that include consequence type and annotations taken from different databases and repositories (SNPs and variants from dbSNP and 1000 genomes, and disease-related variants from the Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) catalog, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) mutations, etc). VARIANT also produces a rich variety of annotations that include information on the regulatory (transcription factor or miRNA-binding sites, etc.) or structural roles, or on the selective pressures on the sites affected by the variation. This information allows extending the conventional reports beyond the coding regions and expands the knowledge on the contribution of non-coding or synonymous variants to the phenotype studied. Contrarily to other tools, VARIANT uses a remote database and operates through efficient RESTful Web Services that optimize search and transaction operations. In this way, local problems of installation, update or disk size limitations are overcome without the need of sacrifice speed (thousands of variants are processed per minute). VARIANT is available at: http://variant.bioinfo.cipf.es. PMID:22693211

  8. The NSINIC on-line system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lev, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The NSI NIC on-line system is described in the form of view graphs. The following subject areas are covered: NSI history; the ADFTO's other on-line services; the current system; and the next generation of NSI NIC.

  9. Estrogen Replacement Therapy for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pabon, Mibel; Tamboli, Cyrus; Tamboli, Sarosh; Acosta, Sandra; De La Pena, Ike; Sanberg, Paul R.; Tajiri, Naoki; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death and severe disability among Western populations. Overall, the incidence of stroke is uniformly higher in men than in women. Stroke is rare in women during the reproductive years and rapidly increases after menopause, strongly suggesting that estrogen (E2) plays an important role in the prevention of stroke. Ongoing studies are currently evaluating both the benefits and the risks associated with E2 replacement therapy and hormone replacement therapy in stroke. Equally important is the role of E2 receptor (ER), as studies indicate that ER populations in several tissue sites may significantly change during stress and aging. Such changes may affect the patient’s susceptibility to neurological disorders including stroke and greatly affect the response to selective E2 receptor modulators (SERMs). Replacement therapies may be inefficient with low ER levels. The goal of this review paper is to discuss an animal model that will allow investigations of the potential therapeutic effects of E2 and its derivatives in stroke. We hypothesize that E2 neuroprotection is, in part, receptor mediated. This hypothesis is a proof-of-principle approach to demonstrate a role for specific ER subtypes in E2 neuroprotection. To accomplish this, we use a retroviral-mediated gene transfer strategy that expresses subtypes of the ER gene in regions of the rat brain most susceptible to neuronal damage, namely, the striatum and the cortex. The animal model is exposed to experimental stroke conditions involving middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) method, and eventually the extent of neuronal damage will be evaluated. A reduction in neuronal damage is expected when E2 is administered with specific ER subtypes. From this animal model, an optimal E2 dose and treatment regimen can be determined. The animal model can help identify potential E2-like therapeutics in stroke and screen for beneficial or toxic additives present in commercial E2

  10. Molecular replacement then and now

    SciTech Connect

    Scapin, Giovanna

    2013-11-01

    A brief overview, with examples, of the evolution of molecular-replacement methods and models over the past few years is presented. The ‘phase problem’ in crystallography results from the inability to directly measure the phases of individual diffracted X-ray waves. While intensities are directly measured during data collection, phases must be obtained by other means. Several phasing methods are available (MIR, SAR, MAD, SAD and MR) and they all rely on the premise that phase information can be obtained if the positions of marker atoms in the unknown crystal structure are known. This paper is dedicated to the most popular phasing method, molecular replacement (MR), and represents a personal overview of the development, use and requirements of the methodology. The first description of noncrystallographic symmetry as a tool for structure determination was explained by Rossmann and Blow [Rossmann & Blow (1962 ▶), Acta Cryst.15, 24–31]. The term ‘molecular replacement’ was introduced as the name of a book in which the early papers were collected and briefly reviewed [Rossmann (1972 ▶), The Molecular Replacement Method. New York: Gordon & Breach]. Several programs have evolved from the original concept to allow faster and more sophisticated searches, including six-dimensional searches and brute-force approaches. While careful selection of the resolution range for the search and the quality of the data will greatly influence the outcome, the correct choice of the search model is probably still the main criterion to guarantee success in solving a structure using MR. Two of the main parameters used to define the ‘best’ search model are sequence identity (25% or more) and structural similarity. Another parameter that may often be undervalued is the quality of the probe: there is clearly a relationship between the quality and the correctness of the chosen probe and its usefulness as a search model. Efforts should be made by all structural biologists to

  11. Upgrading a 24-in. gas transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Because of increasing population density, Texas Eastern Transmission Corp. removed an existing 24-in. gas line and replaced it with a higher yield line pipe with a greater wall thickness. Work was through exclusive lake subdivisions and across a golf course and required special construction techniques.

  12. ORO. The physical developer replacement?

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael A; James, Tim

    2009-12-01

    In the process of fingerprint development Physical Developer has been largely the method of choice on porous surfaces after coming into contact with wet environments. It is only recently that a new technique has been identified which could replace this standard technique. This study aims to build on previous research and expand knowledge regarding the technique. The study built on previous research and compared Physical Developer to Oil Red O, testing both on four paper types, while being placed in three different water types and an accelerant for various amounts of time. Marks were placed with both heavily 'loaded' sebaceous fingers and 'normal' un-washed fingers. Results show that Oil Red O consistently produced clearer more detailed marks from the 'loaded' fingers, but neither technique proved to work better on the 'normal' marks. Neither technique developed any prints from the accelerant.

  13. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  14. Replacement Sequence of Events Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Daniel Wenkert Roy; Khanampompan, Teerpat

    2008-01-01

    The soeWINDOW program automates the generation of an ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations)-compliant sub-RSOE (Replacement Sequence of Events) by extracting a specified temporal window from an RSOE while maintaining page header information. RSOEs contain a significant amount of information that is not ITAR-compliant, yet that foreign partners need to see for command details to their instrument, as well as the surrounding commands that provide context for validation. soeWINDOW can serve as an example of how command support products can be made ITAR-compliant for future missions. This software is a Perl script intended for use in the mission operations UNIX environment. It is designed for use to support the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) instrument team. The tool also provides automated DOM (Distributed Object Manager) storage into the special ITAR-okay DOM collection, and can be used for creating focused RSOEs for product review by any of the MRO teams.

  15. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life‐threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  16. ORO. The physical developer replacement?

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael A; James, Tim

    2009-12-01

    In the process of fingerprint development Physical Developer has been largely the method of choice on porous surfaces after coming into contact with wet environments. It is only recently that a new technique has been identified which could replace this standard technique. This study aims to build on previous research and expand knowledge regarding the technique. The study built on previous research and compared Physical Developer to Oil Red O, testing both on four paper types, while being placed in three different water types and an accelerant for various amounts of time. Marks were placed with both heavily 'loaded' sebaceous fingers and 'normal' un-washed fingers. Results show that Oil Red O consistently produced clearer more detailed marks from the 'loaded' fingers, but neither technique proved to work better on the 'normal' marks. Neither technique developed any prints from the accelerant. PMID:20120606

  17. Identification and definition of unbundled electric generation and transmission services

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.; Vancoevering, J.

    1995-03-01

    State and federal regulators, private and public utilities, large and small customers, power brokers and marketers, and others are engaged in major debates about the future structure of the electric industry. Although the outcomes are far from certain, it seems clear that customers will have much greater choices about the electric services they purchase and from whom they buy these services. This report examines the ``ancillary`` services that are today buried within the typical vertically integrated utility. These ancillary services support and make possible the provision of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. These ancillary services include: Management of generating units; reserve generating capacity to follow variations in customer loads, to provide capacity and energy when generating units or transmission lines suddenly fall, to maintain electric-system stability, and to provide local-area security; transmission-system monitoring and control; replacement of real power and energy losses; reactive-power management and voltage regulation; transmission reserves; repair and maintenance of the transmission network; metering, billing, and communications; and assurance of appropriate levels of power quality. Our focus in this report, the first output from a larger Oak Ridge National Laboratory project, is on identification and definition of these services. Later work in this project will examine more closely the costs and pricing options for each service.

  18. Can Clouds replace Grids? Will Clouds replace Grids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiers, J. D.

    2010-04-01

    The world's largest scientific machine - comprising dual 27km circular proton accelerators cooled to 1.9oK and located some 100m underground - currently relies on major production Grid infrastructures for the offline computing needs of the 4 main experiments that will take data at this facility. After many years of sometimes difficult preparation the computing service has been declared "open" and ready to meet the challenges that will come shortly when the machine restarts in 2009. But the service is not without its problems: reliability - as seen by the experiments, as opposed to that measured by the official tools - still needs to be significantly improved. Prolonged downtimes or degradations of major services or even complete sites are still too common and the operational and coordination effort to keep the overall service running is probably not sustainable at this level. Recently "Cloud Computing" - in terms of pay-per-use fabric provisioning - has emerged as a potentially viable alternative but with rather different strengths and no doubt weaknesses too. Based on the concrete needs of the LHC experiments - where the total data volume that will be acquired over the full lifetime of the project, including the additional data copies that are required by the Computing Models of the experiments, approaches 1 Exabyte - we analyze the pros and cons of Grids versus Clouds. This analysis covers not only technical issues - such as those related to demanding database and data management needs - but also sociological aspects, which cannot be ignored, neither in terms of funding nor in the wider context of the essential but often overlooked role of science in society, education and economy.

  19. Service employees give as they get: internal service as a moderator of the service climate-service outcomes link.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart, Karen Holcombe; Witt, L A; Schneider, Benjamin; Perry, Sara Jansen

    2011-03-01

    We lend theoretical insight to the service climate literature by exploring the joint effects of branch service climate and the internal service provided to the branch (the service received from corporate units to support external service delivery) on customer-rated service quality. We hypothesized that service climate is related to service quality most strongly when the internal service quality received is high, providing front-line employees with the capability to deliver what the service climate motivates them to do. We studied 619 employees and 1,973 customers in 36 retail branches of a bank. We aggregated employee perceptions of the internal service quality received from corporate units and the local service climate and external customer perceptions of service quality to the branch level of analysis. Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that high-quality internal service is necessary for branch service climate to yield superior external customer service quality. PMID:21142340

  20. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. 84.114 Section 84.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  1. 42 CFR 84.114 - Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filters used with canisters and cartridges; location; replacement. 84.114 Section 84.114 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  2. 75 FR 71548 - Clarification of the Post Office Box Lock Replacement Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Mailing Services (75 FR 39477-39492). The applicability of the lock replacement fee for Post Office (PO... customers renew PO Box TM service more than 10 days after the renewal due date. This provides an incentive for customers to pay their PO Box rental fee on time. For those customers who do not renew until...

  3. Predicting service life margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Margins are developed for equipment susceptible to malfunction due to excessive time or operation cycles, and for identifying limited life equipment so monitoring and replacing is accomplished before hardware failure. Method applies to hardware where design service is established and where reasonable expected usage prediction is made.

  4. Dental ontogeny and replacement in Pliosauridae.

    PubMed

    Sassoon, Judyth; Foffa, Davide; Marek, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Dental morphology and patterns of tooth replacement in representatives of the clade Pliosauridae (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) are evaluated in detail. The jaws of one basal (Thalassiodracon hawkinsii) and two derived species (Pliosaurus carpenteri, Pliosaurus kevani) were visualized by μCT scans, and the ontogenetic patterns, or 'movement paths', of replacement teeth could be mapped. Other specimens (Peloneustes philarchus and Pliosaurus westbuyensis) with well-preserved jaws containing functional and replacement teeth in situ were also examined directly, and waves of tooth replacement could be inferred from the degree of in situ tooth development and the fusion between functional and replacement alveoli. The analysis revealed symmetrical tooth eruption over the medial axis throughout the length of the jaw in the basal pliosaurid Thalassiodracon. By contrast, symmetrical tooth eruption patterns occur only along the anterior sections of the jaws of derived pliosaurids. In Pliosaurus, replacement schedules differ in the anterior and posterior portions of the jaws and appear to correlate with differences in tooth morphology and symmetrical replacement. The anterior teeth exhibit longer replacement cycle periods and symmetrical replacement, while shorter cycle periods and asymmetry are seen posteriorly. A longer period suggests slower replacement and is characteristic of large, specialized caniniform teeth in the longer snouted Late Jurassic taxa. Smaller posterior teeth have a shorter period and therefore a faster replacement cycle. The transition from long to short replacement period over the length of the jaw is thought to account for the loss of symmetry. This differentiation could relate to differential tooth function and a type of heterodonty. We therefore propose a new model of pliosaurid tooth replacement patterns and present it in a phylogenetic context. PMID:26715998

  5. Dental ontogeny and replacement in Pliosauridae.

    PubMed

    Sassoon, Judyth; Foffa, Davide; Marek, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Dental morphology and patterns of tooth replacement in representatives of the clade Pliosauridae (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) are evaluated in detail. The jaws of one basal (Thalassiodracon hawkinsii) and two derived species (Pliosaurus carpenteri, Pliosaurus kevani) were visualized by μCT scans, and the ontogenetic patterns, or 'movement paths', of replacement teeth could be mapped. Other specimens (Peloneustes philarchus and Pliosaurus westbuyensis) with well-preserved jaws containing functional and replacement teeth in situ were also examined directly, and waves of tooth replacement could be inferred from the degree of in situ tooth development and the fusion between functional and replacement alveoli. The analysis revealed symmetrical tooth eruption over the medial axis throughout the length of the jaw in the basal pliosaurid Thalassiodracon. By contrast, symmetrical tooth eruption patterns occur only along the anterior sections of the jaws of derived pliosaurids. In Pliosaurus, replacement schedules differ in the anterior and posterior portions of the jaws and appear to correlate with differences in tooth morphology and symmetrical replacement. The anterior teeth exhibit longer replacement cycle periods and symmetrical replacement, while shorter cycle periods and asymmetry are seen posteriorly. A longer period suggests slower replacement and is characteristic of large, specialized caniniform teeth in the longer snouted Late Jurassic taxa. Smaller posterior teeth have a shorter period and therefore a faster replacement cycle. The transition from long to short replacement period over the length of the jaw is thought to account for the loss of symmetry. This differentiation could relate to differential tooth function and a type of heterodonty. We therefore propose a new model of pliosaurid tooth replacement patterns and present it in a phylogenetic context.

  6. Dental ontogeny and replacement in Pliosauridae

    PubMed Central

    Sassoon, Judyth; Foffa, Davide; Marek, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Dental morphology and patterns of tooth replacement in representatives of the clade Pliosauridae (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) are evaluated in detail. The jaws of one basal (Thalassiodracon hawkinsii) and two derived species (Pliosaurus carpenteri, Pliosaurus kevani) were visualized by μCT scans, and the ontogenetic patterns, or ‘movement paths’, of replacement teeth could be mapped. Other specimens (Peloneustes philarchus and Pliosaurus westbuyensis) with well-preserved jaws containing functional and replacement teeth in situ were also examined directly, and waves of tooth replacement could be inferred from the degree of in situ tooth development and the fusion between functional and replacement alveoli. The analysis revealed symmetrical tooth eruption over the medial axis throughout the length of the jaw in the basal pliosaurid Thalassiodracon. By contrast, symmetrical tooth eruption patterns occur only along the anterior sections of the jaws of derived pliosaurids. In Pliosaurus, replacement schedules differ in the anterior and posterior portions of the jaws and appear to correlate with differences in tooth morphology and symmetrical replacement. The anterior teeth exhibit longer replacement cycle periods and symmetrical replacement, while shorter cycle periods and asymmetry are seen posteriorly. A longer period suggests slower replacement and is characteristic of large, specialized caniniform teeth in the longer snouted Late Jurassic taxa. Smaller posterior teeth have a shorter period and therefore a faster replacement cycle. The transition from long to short replacement period over the length of the jaw is thought to account for the loss of symmetry. This differentiation could relate to differential tooth function and a type of heterodonty. We therefore propose a new model of pliosaurid tooth replacement patterns and present it in a phylogenetic context. PMID:26715998

  7. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  8. Delivery of testosterone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Asjad; Brothwood, Theresa; Bouloux, Pierre

    2003-10-01

    Optimal testosterone replacement therapy remains a considerable challenge for the estimated five out of 1000 men in the general community with androgen deficiency. Oral delivery is not possible due to rapid first pass metabolism and short half-life. Testosterone derivatives have been developed to enhance intrinsic androgenic potency, prolong duration of action, or improve oral bioavailability of synthetic androgens. Structural modification of testosterone include 17 beta-esterification, 17 alpha-alkylation, 1-methylation, addition of a 19-normethyl group, and 7 alpha-methylation. Currently, oral (testosterone undecanoate), transcutaneous (Andropatch, Virormone, Testoderm (ALZA Corp), Testogel), sublingual (testosterone cyclodextrin), intramuscular (Sustanon, Primoteston Depot), and fused crystalline testosterone pellet preparations are available for clinical use. Transbuccal testosterone systems have also been developed for clinical use and require twice daily application. Suspensions of biodegradable microspheres consisting of a polyglycolide-lactide matrix laden with testosterone can deliver stable, physiological levels of testosterone for 2 to 3 months. Micronized testosterone has low oral bioavailability requiring high daily doses. 7 alpha-Methyl 19-nortestosterone, a potent, synthetic androgen free of hepatotoxicity, has tissue-specific selectivity, being susceptible to aromatization but not 5 alpha-reduction, thereby potentially avoiding intraprostatic androgen amplification. PMID:14649214

  9. Autologous tracheal replacement for cancer.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Dominique; Fadel, Elie; Mussot, Sacha; Kolb, Frederic; Leymarie, Nicolas; Mercier, Olaf; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Dartevelle, Philippe G

    2015-12-01

    Surgical research has failed during fifty years to find an ideal substitute for the trachea after extended resection. All the prostheses could erode the adjacent structures or lead to infection or obstructive issues. Innovation in surgery development has been improved using novel techniques of plastic surgery. During the last ten years, we have developed a technique using free fasciocutaneous flaps. This allows us to construct tubes for tracheal replacement. The most accurate flap used for this technique is the forearm free flap (FFF). Reinforcement of the flap with autologous strips of cartilage harvested from the last ribs offers sufficient resistance to respiratory pressure. This technique is also completely autologous without any stent in the tracheal lumen. From 2004 to 2015 we have already reconstructed the trachea of 16 patients for 12 primary tracheal neoplasms [including 9 adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and 3 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)], 3 secondary tracheal Neoplasms and one for benign lesion. This article describes the indications, determination of resectability, patient selection, subheading for surgery, postoperative management and results of this technique. PMID:26730758

  10. Philadelphia Electric Company's computer replacement lessons learned at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; O'Hara, J.

    1989-01-01

    The current regulatory climate continues to prod today's nuclear utilities toward safer and more reliable operation of their plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guides NUREG-0660, NUREG-0696, and Supplement I to NUREG-0737 have all set forth increased requirements for plant monitoring. In response, the industry has looked at their existing plant computer systems as targets for enhancement or upgrade. This external pressure is nearly matched by the increasing demands made on existing computer systems by utility engineering and operations departments. The longer utilities postpone this evolution, the more likely they are to replace the entire system rather than upgrade the existing one. The older systems become harder to maintain and eventually are technically inferior to new systems, which have benefited from advances in computer technology in recent years. Enhancements become less economically advantageous than system replacements as the spread in technology widens. The object of this paper is to describe the Plant Process Computer Replacement Project at Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This paper explores (a) the impact on the plant, (b) the design and engineering services required, and (c) the planning and communication essential to a successful computer replacement project.

  11. Androgen replacement therapy: present and future.

    PubMed

    Gooren, Louis J G; Bunck, Mathijs C M

    2004-01-01

    The major goal of androgen substitution is to replace testosterone at levels as close to physiological levels as is possible. For some androgen-dependent functions testosterone is a pro-hormone, peripherally converted to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), of which the levels preferably should be within normal physiological ranges. Furthermore, androgens should have a good safety profile without adverse effects on the prostate, serum lipids, liver or respiratory function, and they must be convenient to use and patient-friendly, with a relative independence from medical services. Natural testosterone is viewed as the best androgen for substitution in hypogonadal men. The reason behind the selection is that testosterone can be converted to DHT and E2, thus developing the full spectrum of testosterone activities in long-term substitution. The mainstays of testosterone substitution are parenteral testosterone esters (testosterone enantate and testosterone cipionate) administered every 2-3 weeks. A major disadvantage is the strongly fluctuating levels of plasma testosterone, which are not in the physiological range at least 50% of the time. Also, the generated plasma E2 is usually supraphysiological. A major improvement is parenteral testosterone undecanoate producing normal plasma levels of testosterone for 12 weeks, with normal plasma levels of DHT and E2 also. Subcutaneous testosterone implants provide the patient, depending on the dose of implants, with normal plasma testosterone for 3-6 months. However, their use is not widespread. Oral testosterone undecanoate dissolved in castor oil bypasses the liver via its lymphatic absorption. At a dosage of 80 mg twice daily, plasma testosterone levels are largely in the normal range, but plasma DHT tends to be elevated. For two decades transdermal testosterone preparations have been available and have an attractive pharmacokinetic profile. Scrotal testosterone patches generate supraphysiological

  12. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact.

    PubMed

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S

    2001-06-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  13. 46 CFR 44.05-30 - Load line certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Load line certificate. 44.05-30 Section 44.05-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SPECIAL SERVICE LIMITED DOMESTIC VOYAGES Rules for Assigning Special Service Load Lines § 44.05-30 Load line certificate. (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 44.05-10 - Load line markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Load line markings. 44.05-10 Section 44.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SPECIAL SERVICE LIMITED DOMESTIC VOYAGES Rules for Assigning Special Service Load Lines § 44.05-10 Load line markings. (a) The load...

  15. Biology of tooth replacement in amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, John A; Richman, Joy M

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement is a common trait to most vertebrates, including mammals. Mammals, however, have lost the capacity for continuous tooth renewal seen in most other vertebrates, and typically have only 1–2 generations of teeth. Here, we review the mechanisms of tooth replacement in reptiles and mammals, and discuss in detail the current and historical theories on control of timing and pattern of tooth replacement and development. PMID:23788284

  16. Microcrystalline cellulose replacement in cakes and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Brys, K D; Zabik, M E

    1976-07-01

    Sensory and physical characteristics of cakes and biscuits with up to 60 per cent of flour replaced, volume for volume, with microcrystalline cellulose were compared with those of the respective controls. High quality products were obtained at replacement levels of 40 and 20 per cent, respectively, in lean-formula cakes and in biscuits. At these replacement levels, caloric density was reduced by 12 and 10 per cent, respectively, in the cakes and biscuits.

  17. Total joint replacement preadmission programs.

    PubMed

    Messer, B

    1998-01-01

    Patients begin to formulate their expectations of the postoperative hospitalization during the preadmission program. The challenge is to better understand the factors patients consider when formulating judgments about the quality of preadmission education. For example, it may be that perceptions of the preadmission program are influenced by what patients believe about their postoperative pain and functional abilities. Specific attention needs to be given both preoperatively and postoperatively to instructing patients on realistic expectations for recovery. One other method of measuring patient outcomes is with the Health Status Profile (SF-36) (Response Healthcare Information Management, 1995). The SF-36 approach emphasizes the outcome of medical care as the patient sees it, in addition to a clinical evaluation of successful health care. This form is currently initiated in the physician's office and returned for scanning at the preadmission class. The patient then completes another SF-36 at 6 months and every year thereafter to compare measurable outcomes. Patients intending to have elective total joint replacements experience anxiety and require much support and education. An effective preadmission program is a major investment in a patient's recovery, as well as a unique marketing tool to customers. Preadmission programs can be viewed as an opportunity to enhance customer satisfaction. Preadmission clinics are an excellent means for nurses to improve the quality of patient care through patient education. the overall goal of preadmission testing programs is to ensure patient preparedness while increasing quality health care and overall customer satisfaction. To enhance program effectiveness, health care providers must lead collaborative efforts to improve the efficiency of systems. PMID:9601410

  18. Total joint replacement preadmission programs.

    PubMed

    Messer, B

    1998-01-01

    Patients begin to formulate their expectations of the postoperative hospitalization during the preadmission program. The challenge is to better understand the factors patients consider when formulating judgments about the quality of preadmission education. For example, it may be that perceptions of the preadmission program are influenced by what patients believe about their postoperative pain and functional abilities. Specific attention needs to be given both preoperatively and postoperatively to instructing patients on realistic expectations for recovery. One other method of measuring patient outcomes is with the Health Status Profile (SF-36) (Response Healthcare Information Management, 1995). The SF-36 approach emphasizes the outcome of medical care as the patient sees it, in addition to a clinical evaluation of successful health care. This form is currently initiated in the physician's office and returned for scanning at the preadmission class. The patient then completes another SF-36 at 6 months and every year thereafter to compare measurable outcomes. Patients intending to have elective total joint replacements experience anxiety and require much support and education. An effective preadmission program is a major investment in a patient's recovery, as well as a unique marketing tool to customers. Preadmission programs can be viewed as an opportunity to enhance customer satisfaction. Preadmission clinics are an excellent means for nurses to improve the quality of patient care through patient education. the overall goal of preadmission testing programs is to ensure patient preparedness while increasing quality health care and overall customer satisfaction. To enhance program effectiveness, health care providers must lead collaborative efforts to improve the efficiency of systems.

  19. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael; Cho, Samuel Kang-Wook

    2015-06-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential complications associated with CDR. The published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.0%; range, 0%-3.1%), revision (mean, 0.2%; range, 0%-0.5%), and removal (mean, 1.2%; range, 0%-1.9%) following CDR are low and comparable to the published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.7%; range; 0%-3.4%), revision (mean, 1.5%; range, 0%-4.7%), and removal (mean, 2.0%; range, 0%-3.4%) following cervical arthrodesis. The surgical interventions following CDR range from the repositioning to explantation followed by fusion or the reimplantation to posterior foraminotomy or fusion. Strict patient selection, careful preoperative radiographic review and surgical planning, as well as surgical technique may reduce adverse events and the need for future intervention. Minimal literature and no guidelines exist for the approaches and techniques in revision and for the removal of implants following CDR. Adherence to strict indications and precise surgical technique may reduce the number of reoperations, revisions, and removals following CDR. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, assessing the implant survivorship and its effect on the revision and removal rates. PMID:26097667

  20. The unstable total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, F; Murena, L; Zatti, G; Cherubino, P

    2008-01-01

    Background: Dislocation is one of the most common complications of total hip arthroplasty with a reported dislocation rate of 3.2%. Despite increased experience with hip replacement, the overall rate has not yet changed. The aim of this paper is to review the most recent literature published on this topic and indexed in Medline, in order to clarify the main risk factors, and to standardize a treatment protocol of such an important complication of prosthetic surgery. Materials and Methods: Medline database was searched using key words: “hip dislocation”, “hip instability” from 1980-2007. Studies were eligible for review and included if they met the following criteria: (1) publication in English, (2) clinical trials (3) review papers. Results: The risk of first-time dislocation as a function of time after the surgery is not well understood. Most, but not all, series have demonstrated that the risk of dislocation is highest during the first few months after hip arthroplasty; however, first-time late dislocation can also occur many years after the procedure. Several risk factors were described, including the surgical approach, the diameter of the head, impingement, component malposition, insufficient abductor musculature. In addition, there are also many treatment options, such as long-term bracing after closed reduction, component reorientation, capsulorraphy, trochanteric advancement, increasing offset, exchange of the modular head and the polyethylene liner, insertion of constrained liner. Conclusion: Preventing hip dislocation is obviously the best strategy. Surgeons must take into account patient and surgical risk factors. For patients at high risk for dislocation the surgeon should accurately restore leg length and femoral offset; the use of larger femoral heads, posterior transosseous repair of the capsulotendinous envelope if posterior approach is chosen or the use of a lateral approach should be considered. Proper patient education and postoperative

  1. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  2. Opportunistic replacement of fusion power system parts

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J.A.; George, L.L.

    1981-10-26

    This paper describes a maintenance problem in a fusion power plant. The problem is to specify which life limited parts should be replaced when there is an opportunity. The objective is to minimize the cost rate of replacement parts and of maintenance actions while satisfying a power plant availability constraint. The maintenance policy is to look ahead and replace all parts that will reach their life limits within a time called a screen. Longer screens yield greater system availabilities because more parts are replaced prior to their life limits.

  3. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  4. Vibrational averages along thermal lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-01-01

    A method is proposed for the calculation of vibrational quantum and thermal expectation values of physical properties from first principles. Thermal lines are introduced: these are lines in configuration space parametrized by temperature, such that the value of any physical property along them is approximately equal to the vibrational average of that property. The number of sampling points needed to explore the vibrational phase space is reduced by up to an order of magnitude when the full vibrational density is replaced by thermal lines. Calculations of the vibrational averages of several properties and systems are reported, namely, the internal energy and the electronic band gap of diamond and silicon, and the chemical shielding tensor of L-alanine. Thermal lines pave the way for complex calculations of vibrational averages, including large systems and methods beyond semilocal density functional theory.

  5. A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Margolis, E.Q.; Swetnam, T.W.; Allen, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842-1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century. ?? 2007 NRC.

  6. A cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa; Jabr, Samer; Al-Khatib, Abdallah; Forgione, Dana; Hartmann, Michael; Kisa, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine. It informs evidence-based resource allocation decisions for government-funded kidney disease services where transplant donors are limited, and some of the common modalities, i.e., peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HD), are not widely available due to shortages of qualified staff, specialists, and centers to follow the patient cases, provide training, make home visits, or provide educational programs for patients. The average cost of kidney transplant was US$16,277 for the first year; the estimated cost of HD per patient averaged US$16,085 per year--nearly as much as a transplant. Consistent with prior literature and experience, while live, related kidney donors are scarce, we found that kidney transplant was more adequate and less expensive than HD. These results have direct resource allocation implications for government-funded kidney disease services under Palestinian Ministry of Health. Our findings strongly suggest that investing in sufficient qualified staff, equipment, and clinical infrastructure to replace HD services with transplantation whenever medically indicated and suitable kidney donors are available, as well as deploying PD programs and Home HD programs, will result in major overall cost savings. Our results provide a better understanding of the costs of kidney disease and will help to inform Ministry of Health and related policy makers as they develop short- and long-term strategies for the population, in terms of both cost savings and enhanced quality of life. PMID:25765018

  7. A cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa; Jabr, Samer; Al-Khatib, Abdallah; Forgione, Dana; Hartmann, Michael; Kisa, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine. It informs evidence-based resource allocation decisions for government-funded kidney disease services where transplant donors are limited, and some of the common modalities, i.e., peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HD), are not widely available due to shortages of qualified staff, specialists, and centers to follow the patient cases, provide training, make home visits, or provide educational programs for patients. The average cost of kidney transplant was US$16,277 for the first year; the estimated cost of HD per patient averaged US$16,085 per year--nearly as much as a transplant. Consistent with prior literature and experience, while live, related kidney donors are scarce, we found that kidney transplant was more adequate and less expensive than HD. These results have direct resource allocation implications for government-funded kidney disease services under Palestinian Ministry of Health. Our findings strongly suggest that investing in sufficient qualified staff, equipment, and clinical infrastructure to replace HD services with transplantation whenever medically indicated and suitable kidney donors are available, as well as deploying PD programs and Home HD programs, will result in major overall cost savings. Our results provide a better understanding of the costs of kidney disease and will help to inform Ministry of Health and related policy makers as they develop short- and long-term strategies for the population, in terms of both cost savings and enhanced quality of life.

  8. Calculating child welfare separation, replacement, and training costs.

    PubMed

    Dorch, Edwina; McCarthy, Mary L; Denofrio, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Across the country, incoming child welfare caseworkers have an average tenure of 2 years, and states are being evaluated on the quality of caseworker training programs and their ability to provide child welfare services that meet federally mandated outcomes. Policy makers do not know the cost of workforce turnover and replacement or the cost of training child welfare workers. The objectives of the study were to (1) obtain the separation, replacement, and training (SRT) costs for four counties in a major Northeastern state; (2) compare the SRT costs for the three different child welfare pre-service training models; (3) incorporate hidden intercounty transfer and tuition reimbursement cost; and (4) extrapolate the four-county average SRT costs to statewide average SRT costs. Results revealed that one pre-service training model was more than the state tuition for a 4-year bachelor's degree. Further, additional costs were incurred if new caseworkers transferred to another county and/or used Title IV-B tuition reimbursement funds in the first few years of employment.

  9. Mercury Thermometer Replacements in Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Barbara L.

    2005-01-01

    The consequences of broken mercury-in-glass thermometers in academic laboratories results in various health and environmental hazards, which needs to be replaced, by long-stem digital thermometers and non-mercury glass thermometers. The factors that should be considered during the mercury replacement process are types of applications in the…

  10. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement license. 13.17 Section 13.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement license. (a) Each licensee or permittee whose original document is lost, mutilated, or destroyed...

  11. Insect biotechnology: controllable replacement of disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-05-20

    To fight human vector-borne diseases, first releases of sterile transgenic mosquitoes have been performed. Someday, disease-refractory mosquitoes will replace wild types to stop transmission. For such population replacements, gene drive mechanisms must be established that allow local confinement and reversibility.

  12. Condylar hyperplasia following unilateral temporomandibular joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Machon, V; Levorova, J; Hirjak, D; Foltan, R

    2015-06-01

    Total joint replacement of the temporomandibular joint (TJR) can be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications. We report herein the occurrence of a postoperative open bite malocclusion, the result of condylar hyperplasia affecting the non-operated joint at 1 year after unilateral total joint replacement. PMID:25662429

  13. Conservative treatment planning in veneer replacement.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Armstrong, Sandra; Maia, Rodrigo Rocha

    2016-04-01

    This clinical report describes a conservative treatment in veneer replacement where diastemas, malalignment, and midline shift were the main modifying factors. When replacement veneers are indicated, the definitive results can only be accurately predicted after an esthetic reanalysis of the existing restorations. PMID:26602148

  14. International variation in hip replacement rates

    PubMed Central

    Merx, H; Dreinhofer, K; Schrader, P; Sturmer, T; Puhl, W; Gunther, K; Brenner, H

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To summarise epidemiological data on the frequency of hip replacements in the countries of the developed world, especially in countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and to investigate whether missing consensus criteria for the indication for total hip replacement (THR) result in different replacement rates. Methods: Country-specific hip replacement rates were collected using the available literature, different data sources of national authorities, and estimates of leading hip replacement manufacturers. Results: According to administrative and literature data sources the reported crude primary THR rate varied between 50 and 130 procedures/100 000 inhabitants in OECD countries in the 1990s. The crude overall hip implantation rate, summarising THR, partial hip replacement, and hip revision procedures, was reported to range from 60 to 200 procedures/100 000 inhabitants in the late 1990s. Moreover, large national differences were seen in the relationship between total and partial hip replacement procedures. Conclusion: The reported differences in hip replacement rates in OECD countries are substantial. They may be due to various causes, including different coding systems, country-specific differences in the healthcare system, in total expenditure on health per capita, in the population age structure, and in different indication criteria for THR. PMID:12594106

  15. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.719 Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  16. A LINE POLE 1 IN FOREGROUND AND MYSTIC LAKE POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 1 IN FOREGROUND AND MYSTIC LAKE POWERHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. A LINE POLE 1 IS A MODERN REPLACEMENT STRUCTURE WITH BROWN PORCELAIN SUSPENSION-TYPE INSULATORS. VIEW TO EAST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  17. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  18. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  19. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  20. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719 Section 192.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  1. 25 CFR 169.22 - Service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... schools and churches, with telephone, water, electric power, gas, and other utilities for use by such... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.22... order to encourage the use of telephone, water, electric power, gas and other utilities and...

  2. 25 CFR 169.22 - Service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.22... schools and churches, with telephone, water, electric power, gas, and other utilities for use by such... contract under which the occupant or user of the land obtained his rights specifically authorizes...

  3. 25 CFR 169.22 - Service lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER RIGHTS-OF-WAY OVER INDIAN LANDS § 169.22... schools and churches, with telephone, water, electric power, gas, and other utilities for use by such... contract under which the occupant or user of the land obtained his rights specifically authorizes...

  4. 75 FR 53976 - Risks and Benefits of Long-Term Use of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risks and Benefits of Long-Term Use of Nicotine Replacement... risks and benefits associated with the long- term use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. NRT products facilitate smoking cessation by ameliorating the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and...

  5. 43 CFR 11.82 - Damage determination phase-alternatives for restoration, rehabilitation, replacement, and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Type B... replacement and/or acquisition of equivalent natural resources capable of providing such services. For each..., replacement, and/or acquisition of equivalent natural resources. The authorized official shall then...

  6. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  7. 25 CFR 700.189 - Expenditure of replacement home benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expenditure of replacement home benefits. 700.189 Section... PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.189 Expenditure of replacement home benefits. Replacement home... maximum replacement home benefit. (b) All replacement home benefits shall be expended not later than...

  8. Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Molnar, Linda K.; Hatton, T. Alan; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2001-05-15

    Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

  9. Centrifugal chillers - CFC retrofit versus replacement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kistler, P.

    1997-09-01

    As of January 1, 1996, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants CFC-11 and CFC-12 can no longer be produced in the United States. It is estimated that as many as 60,000 or 74% of CFC chillers in service today in industrial, commercial, and institutional buildings still use the `banned` refrigerants. In addition, most of the Navy`s centrifugal chillers also use these refrigerants. In May 1994, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command dictated (NAVFAC Notice 5090) that all shore-based Navy Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVACR) equipment containing Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) be replaced or converted by December 41,2000. Equipment conversions must utilize an approved refrigerant - one with an Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) of 0.05 or less. The decision to eliminate CFC refrigerants at Navy facilities must begin with a CFC management plan. The plan should address items such as, reducing leakage in existing CFC systems, HVAC maintenance personnel training standards, and retrofitting or replacing CFC refrigerant-using equipment. The decision to retrofit or replace CFC refrigerant chiller must involve the chiller manufacturer. Manufacturers will (often at no cost) evaluate your existing cooling system, determine the most appropriate retrofit method, and determine which option is the most economical choice.

  10. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  11. Line managers as marketers.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications. PMID:10277616

  12. Older Person's Guide to Joint Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... he or she will refer you to an orthopedic surgeon who does hip and knee replacement surgery. ... The Arthritis Foundation Web The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons ' The American Association of Knee and Hip ...

  13. Replacement Saltwell Pumping System Document Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    BELLOMY, J.R.

    2000-12-07

    This document bibliography is prepared to identify engineering documentation developed during the design of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. The bibliography includes all engineering supporting documents and correspondence prepared prior to the deployment of the system in the field. All documents referenced are available electronically through the Records Management Information System (RMIS). Major components of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System include the Sundyne Canned Motor Pump, the Water Filter Skid, the Injection Water Skid and the Backflow Preventer Assembly. Drawing H-14-104498 provides an index of drawings (fabrication details, P&IDs, etc.) prepared to support development of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. Specific information pertaining to new equipment can be found in Certified Vendor Information (CVI) File 50124. This CVI file has been established specifically for new equipment associated with the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System.

  14. Management of Gaucher disease: enzyme replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    Starting in 1994, 3 years after the first approval of the placental-derived enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucerase, the recombinant form imiglucerase was the introduced and became the standard of care for the visceral symptoms of Gaucher disease. For patients with non-neuronopathic (type 1) Gaucher disease, ERT is safe, with few adverse/side events, and effective in reducing hepatosplenomegaly, improving hematological parameters such as anemia and thrombocytopenia, and to a lesser degree, ameliorating lung- and bone-referred disease. Dosage differences are appreciated mainly as differences in the initial slope in achieving improvements before plateauing. Because ERT does not pass the blood-brain barrier, for patients with the acute neuronopathic form (type 2), there is no substantial change in the life-threatening neurological parameters and hence ERT is not seen as efficacious; but for patients with sub-acute neuronopathic forms (type 3), ERT for the often devastating visceral symptoms, improved quality of life, and longevity make ERT part of the standard care. Due to a world-wide reduction in imiglucerase availability mid-2009 that was not resolved quickly, patients were ERT-stopped or dose-reduced, re-invigorated the movement to provide additional therapeutic options. Early access programs of two new ERTs, then at the pre-license stage, were initiated at regulatory authorities' request for patients requiring ERT. At that point, velaglucerase alfa which has the native-enzyme sequence produced in a (proprietary) human cell line, and taliglucerase alfa, which is plant-cell-derived and produced in an inexpensive platform, were completing Phase 3 clinical trials. Velaglucerase alfa was FDA-approved in February 2010 while taliglucerase alfo was approved in May 2012. Marketing of these ERTs has also targeted the extraordinarily high cost of imiglucerase. However, with > 20 years' experience with infusible ERTs, many patients are eager to consider oral

  15. Bioceramics in ossicular replacement prostheses: a review.

    PubMed

    Wongwiwat, Plawut; Boonma, Apichart; Lee, Yuan-Shin; Narayan, Roger J

    2011-01-01

    For many decades, bioceramic materials have been used in a variety of biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, hardness, wear resistance and compressive strength properties. Bioceramic materials, including Bioglass, glass ceramic materials, and hydroxyapatite, have used to create total ossicular replacement prostheses and partial ossicular replacement prostheses. This review describes design factors associated with middle ear implants as well as clinical use of bioceramic materials in middle ear implants.

  16. Annual report for Ion Replacement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczuk, Z.; Willit, J.L.; Fischer, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Ion replacement electrorefining is an innovative electrochemical approach to purifying and separating metals. This approach overcomes the shortcomings of conventional electrorefining and has the potential for processing a wider range of metals and metal halide salts. Salt waste is also minimized with this approach. The key element of ion replacement electrorefining is the ion replacement electrode. This electrode allows a decoupling of the electrotransport process into two separate steps, anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition. Three key accomplishments described in this report that demonstrate the feasibility of ion replacement electrorefining are: (1) we have identified a suitable sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina/molten salt electrolyte system that functions reproducibly at 723 K, (2) we have oxidized and deposited dysprosium, lanthanum, uranium, and titanium by using a sodium ion replacement electrode. In several experiments, an actual separation of dysprosium and lanthanum was observed, and (3) we have identified a metal alloy, Li{sub x}Sb, as an alternative ion replacement electrode. The next stage in the program is the design, construction, and testing of a laboratory-scale electrorefiner. Follow-on development with funding from industrial and federal sponsors is being pursued.

  17. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Application guide for transmission line non-ceramic insulators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.; Childs, D.; Gela, G.

    1998-11-01

    Although there has been a dramatic increase in NCI use over the last decade, there is a wide variation in NCI design procedures, procurement specifications, installation and handling practices, live working techniques, and inspection and maintenance methods. Consequently, practicing utility engineers need a source of relevant information and recommendations on these subjects. EPRI has responded to this need by investing in a major multiyear research program on NCI. This report provides guidelines for electric utilities considering the use of non-ceramic insulators (NCI). It includes information on new installations, the replacement of conventional porcelain or glass (ceramic) insulators with NCI on existing transmission lines, and the assessment of NCI in service on transmission lines.

  19. Kittiwakes strategically reduce investment in replacement clutches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Roulin, A.; Gill, V.A.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Boulinier, T.

    2006-01-01

    Many life-history traits are expressed interactively in life, but to a varying extent on different occasions. Changes in trait expression can be accounted for by differences in the quality of the environment ('environmental constraint' hypothesis) or by strategic adjustments, if the relative contribution of the trait to fitness varies with time ('strategic allocation' hypothesis). In birds, egg production is lower in replacement clutches than in first clutches, but it is unknown whether this reduction results from an environmental constraint (e.g. food being less available at the time when the replacement clutch is produced) or from a strategic allocation of resources between the two breeding attempts. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we performed an experiment with black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). Pairs were either food-supplemented or not before the first clutch was laid onwards and we induced them to produce a replacement clutch by removing eggs once when the first clutch was complete. As predicted by the 'strategic allocation' hypothesis, egg production of food-supplemented and non-food-supplemented birds decreased between first and replacement clutches. This suggests that kittiwakes strategically reduce investment in egg production for their replacement clutches compared to first clutches. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  20. Technology management: a perspective on system support, procurement, and replacement planning.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, M L; Jackson, M E

    1992-01-01

    The escalating costs associated with medical technology present a host of challenges for the hospital clinical engineering department. As service and support costs comprise ever larger portions of a system's life cycle cost, innovative management of service provider mix and mechanisms can provide substantial savings in operating expenses. In addition to full-service contracts, the use of demand service and independents has become commonplace. Medical equipment maintenance insurance programs provide yet another service alternative, combining the flexibility of demand service with the safety of a capped budget. These programs have gained acceptance among hospitals as their providers have become more focused on the healthcare market and its many needs. In view of the long-term cost impact surrounding technology procurement, the authors recommend that hospitals refine system evaluation methodologies and develop more comprehensive techniques directed at capital equipment replacement planning. One replacement planning approach, based on an estimation of system value changes, is described and illustrated using data collected through client consultations. Although the validity of this method has not been demonstrated, it represents a simplified approach to life cycle cost analysis and is intended to provide a standard method by which system replacement planning may be quantified. As a departure from system devaluation based solely on depreciation, this method estimates prospective system values derived from anticipated operations and maintenance costs, projected revenue, and the availability of new technology. PMID:10118350

  1. Technology management: a perspective on system support, procurement, and replacement planning.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, M L; Jackson, M E

    1992-01-01

    The escalating costs associated with medical technology present a host of challenges for the hospital clinical engineering department. As service and support costs comprise ever larger portions of a system's life cycle cost, innovative management of service provider mix and mechanisms can provide substantial savings in operating expenses. In addition to full-service contracts, the use of demand service and independents has become commonplace. Medical equipment maintenance insurance programs provide yet another service alternative, combining the flexibility of demand service with the safety of a capped budget. These programs have gained acceptance among hospitals as their providers have become more focused on the healthcare market and its many needs. In view of the long-term cost impact surrounding technology procurement, the authors recommend that hospitals refine system evaluation methodologies and develop more comprehensive techniques directed at capital equipment replacement planning. One replacement planning approach, based on an estimation of system value changes, is described and illustrated using data collected through client consultations. Although the validity of this method has not been demonstrated, it represents a simplified approach to life cycle cost analysis and is intended to provide a standard method by which system replacement planning may be quantified. As a departure from system devaluation based solely on depreciation, this method estimates prospective system values derived from anticipated operations and maintenance costs, projected revenue, and the availability of new technology.

  2. 21 CFR 1004.1 - Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR...

  3. 75 FR 24820 - Federal Management Regulation; Replacement of Personal Property Pursuant to the Exchange/Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...] RIN 3090-AI92 Federal Management Regulation; Replacement of Personal Property Pursuant to the Exchange...: Final rule. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration (GSA) is amending the Federal Management..., Office of Travel, Transportation, and Asset Management (MT), (202) 501-3828 or e-mail at...

  4. 78 FR 72794 - Revisions to Auxiliary Installations, Replacement Facilities, and Siting and Maintenance Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... replacement facilities are essential to provide certificated services, and therefore are jurisdictional. We... impact . . . we need to be informed of such activities before they occur.'' Order No. 544, 57 FR 46487... temporary work space used to construct the original ] facility.'' \\32\\ In this rulemaking proceeding, we...

  5. Adaptive Replacement Strategies for MOEA/D.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Zhang, Qingfu; Zhou, Aimin; Gong, Maoguo; Jiao, Licheng

    2016-02-01

    Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms based on decomposition (MOEA/D) decompose a multiobjective optimization problem into a set of simple optimization subproblems and solve them in a collaborative manner. A replacement scheme, which assigns a new solution to a subproblem, plays a key role in balancing diversity and convergence in MOEA/D. This paper proposes a global replacement scheme which assigns a new solution to its most suitable subproblems. We demonstrate that the replacement neighborhood size is critical for population diversity and convergence, and develop an approach for adjusting this size dynamically. A steady-state algorithm and a generational one with this approach have been designed and experimentally studied. The experimental results on a number of test problems have shown that the proposed algorithms have some advantages. PMID:25826813

  6. Replacement of charcoal sorbent in the VOST

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    EPA Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources, specifies the use of petroleum-base charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data on comparability and variability of charcoals for VOST application has created uncertainty when other charcoals are substituted. Five potential sorbent replacements for charcoal in Method 0030 were evaluated along with a reference charcoal. Two of the sorbents tested, Ambersorb XE-340 and Tenax GR, did not perform well enough to qualify as replacements. Three candidates, Anasorb 747, Carbosieve S-III and Kureha Beaded Activated Charcoal, performed adequately, and produced statistically equivalent results. Anasorb 747 appears to be an acceptable replacement for petroleum charcoal, based on a combination of performance, availability, and cost.

  7. Phaser.MRage: automated molecular replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Bunkóczi, Gábor; McCoy, Airlie J.; Oeffner, Robert D.; Read, Randy J.

    2013-11-01

    The functionality of the molecular-replacement pipeline phaser.MRage is introduced and illustrated with examples. Phaser.MRage is a molecular-replacement automation framework that implements a full model-generation workflow and provides several layers of model exploration to the user. It is designed to handle a large number of models and can distribute calculations efficiently onto parallel hardware. In addition, phaser.MRage can identify correct solutions and use this information to accelerate the search. Firstly, it can quickly score all alternative models of a component once a correct solution has been found. Secondly, it can perform extensive analysis of identified solutions to find protein assemblies and can employ assembled models for subsequent searches. Thirdly, it is able to use a priori assembly information (derived from, for example, homologues) to speculatively place and score molecules, thereby customizing the search procedure to a certain class of protein molecule (for example, antibodies) and incorporating additional biological information into molecular replacement.

  8. [Update in continuous renal replacement techniques].

    PubMed

    Romero-García, M; de la Cueva-Ariza, L; Delgado-Hito, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute renal failure affects 25% of patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Despite technological advances, the mortality of these patients is still high due to its associated complications. Continuous renal replacement techniques are one of the treatments for acute renal failure because they make it possible to treat the complications and decrease mortality. The nurse's knowledge and skills regarding these techniques will be decisive for the success of the therapy. Consequently, the nurse's experience and training are key components. The objective of this article is to update the knowledge on continuous renal replacement techniques. Keeping this in mind, a review has been made of the physical and chemical principles such as diffusion and convection, among others. A description of the different continuous renal replacement techniques, a presentation of the main vascular access, and a description of the nursing cares and complications related to techniques used have also been provided.

  9. Rapid prototyping of ossicular replacement prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsianikov, A.; Chichkov, B.; Adunka, O.; Pillsbury, H.; Doraiswamy, A.; Narayan, R. J.

    2007-05-01

    Materials used in ossicular replacement prostheses must demonstrate appropriate biological compatibility, acoustic transmission, stability, and stiffness properties. Prostheses prepared using Teflon ®, titanium, Ceravital and other conventional materials have demonstrated several problems, including migration, perforation of the tympanic membrane, difficulty in shaping the prostheses, and reactivity with the surrounding tissues. We have used two-photon polymerization for rapid prototyping of Ormocer ® middle-ear bone replacement prostheses. Ormocer ® surfaces fabricated using two-photon polymerization exhibited acceptable cell viability and cell growth profiles. The Ormocer ® prosthesis was able to be inserted and removed from the site of use in the frozen human head without fracture. Our results demonstrate that two-photon polymerization is able to create ossicular replacement prostheses and other medical devices with a larger range of sizes, shapes and materials than other microfabrication techniques.

  10. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data. PMID:19547086

  11. Rethinking Lean Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddon, John; O'Donovan, Brendan; Zokaei, Keivan

    Ever since Levitt's influential Harvard Business Review article 'Production-Line Approach to Service' was published in 1972, it has been common for services to be treated like production lines in both the academic literature and more widely in management practice. The belief that achieving economies of scale will reduce unit costs is a common feature of management decision-making. As technological advancement has produced ever more sophisticated IT and telephony, it has become increasingly easier for firms to standardise and off-shore services. The development of the 'lean' literature has only helped to emphasise the same underlying management assumptions: by managing cost and workers' activity, organisational performance is expected to improve. This chapter argues that through misinterpretation of the core paradigm 'lean' has become subsumed into the 'business as usual' of conventional service management. As a result, 'lean' has become synonymous with 'process efficiency' and the opportunity for significant performance improvement - as exemplified by Toyota - has been missed.

  12. MOOSE: Manned On-Orbit Servicing Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, J. (Editor); Leontsinis, N. (Editor); Lane, J. (Editor); Singh, R. (Editor); Angelone, K.; Boswell, C.; Chamberlain, I.; Concha, M.; Corrodo, M.; Custodio, O.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to service satellites has thus far been limited to low earth orbit platforms within reach of the Space Shuttle. Other orbits, such as geosynchronous orbits containing high-value spacecraft have not been attainable by a servicing vehicle. The useful life of a satellite can be extended by replacing spent propellant and damaged orbital replacement units, forestalling the need for eventual replacement. This growing need for satellite on-orbits servicing can be met by the Manned On-Orbit Servicing Equipment (MOOSE). Missions requiring orbit transfer capability, precision manipulation and maneuvering, and man-in-the-loop control can be accomplished using MOOSE. MOOSE is a flexible, reusable, single operator, aerobraking spacecraft designed to refuel, repair, and service orbiting spacecraft. MOOSE will be deployed from Space Station Freedom, (SSF), where it will be stored, resupplied, and refurbished.

  13. The echocardiography of replacement heart valves

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is a practical description of how replacement valves are assessed using echocardiography. Normal transthoracic appearances including normal variants are described. The problem of differentiating normal function, patient–prosthesis mismatch and pathological obstruction in aortic replacement valves with high gradients is discussed. Obstruction and abnormal regurgitation is described for valves in the aortic, mitral and right-sided positions and when to use echocardiography in suspected infective endocarditis. The roles of transoesophageal and stress echocardiography are described and finally when other imaging techniques may be useful. PMID:27600454

  14. 77 FR 20474 - Administrator's Line of Succession Designation, No. 1-A, Revision 33

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Administrator's Line of Succession Designation, No. 1-A, Revision 33 This document replaces and supersedes ``Line of Succession Designation No. 1-A, Revision 32.'' Line of Succession Designation No. 1-A, Revision 33: Effective immediately, the Administrator's Line of Succession Designation is as follows:...

  15. 76 FR 16845 - Administrator's Line of Succession Designation, No. 1-A, Revision 32

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Administrator's Line of Succession Designation, No. 1-A, Revision 32 This document replaces and supersedes ``Line of Succession Designation No. 1-A, Revision 31.'' Line of Succession Designation No. 1-A, Revision 32 Effective immediately, the Administrator's Line of Succession Designation is as follows: (a)...

  16. WEIGHT LOSS WITH MEAL REPLACEMENT AND MEAL REPLACEMENT PLUS SNACKS: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To evaluate whether snacking would improve weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight individuals within the context of a structured meal replacement (MR) weight loss program. A prospective 24 week, 2 (snacking vs nonsnacking) x 2 (MR vs meal replacement augmented with snacks (MRPS)...

  17. Running a domiciliary nebuliser service

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R. S.; Muers, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    A nebuliser service should be provided locally, according to local needs. It should be centralised and administered by a designated consultant or consultants and written guidelines should be provided for medical and para-medical staff. The service should: (1) provide compressor/nebuliser units suitable for the prescribed treatment, (2) provide a system for equipment replacement, repair and maintenance, and (3) show patients how to use the equipment and give them comprehensive written instructions. 




 PMID:9155863

  18. Experimental tracheal replacement using tissue-engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    Vacanti, C A; Paige, K T; Kim, W S; Sakata, J; Upton, J; Vacanti, J P

    1994-02-01

    The authors tested the feasibility of using tissue-engineered cartilage, grown in the shape of cylinders, for replacing large circumferential defects of the cervical trachea in rats. Chondrocytes obtained from the shoulder of newborn calves were seeded onto a synthetic nonwoven mesh, 100 microns thick, of polyglycolic acid fibers 15 microns in diameter, cut into pieces of 2.5 x 4 cm. Twenty cell-polymer constructs were wrapped around silastic tubes and implanted into 10 nude mice for 4 weeks. Specimens were then excised and evaluated grossly and histologically for the presence of new cartilage, and biomechanically for their ability to resist collapse upon application of negative pressure. Six cylinders of tissue-engineered cartilage were then sutured into large circumferential defects created in the cervical tracheas of nude rats to replace the excised trachea. Implantation of cell-polymer constructs resulted in the formation of cylinders of hyaline cartilage. When placed within the lumen of a segment of bowel denuded of its mucosal lining, the hollow cylinders resisted collapse in all instances upon administration of negative 200 mm Hg pressure. The cartilage was grossly and histologically identical to that from which the cells had been initially isolated. Four of the six animals receiving these cartilage cylinders as tracheal replacements survived the procedure and were able to breathe in an unassisted fashion. Three of these animals never recovered fully from the anesthetic and the operation, and expired at 24, 48, and 72 hours. The fourth animal fully recovered from the procedure, and breathed spontaneously for 1 week, with no apparent limitations. Increasing respiratory distress then developed, and the animal died.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The integrated management for renal replacement therapy in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Anabela P; Sá, Helena O; Diniz, José A; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Portugal was the first European country to introduce an integrated management of end-stage renal disease (IM ESRD). This new program integrates various dialysis services and products, which are reimbursed at a fixed rate/patient/week called "comprehensive price payment." This initiative restructured the delivery of dialysis services, the monitoring of outcomes, and the funding of renal replacement therapy. This article described the implementation of a new model of comprehensive provision of hemodialysis (HD) services and aimed to assess its impact on dialysis care. Quality assessments and reports of patient satisfaction, produced by the Ministry of Health since 2008, as well as national registries and reports, provided the data for this review. Indicators of HD services in all continental facilities show positive results that have successively improved along the period of 2009-2011, in spite of an average annual growth of 3% of the population under HD treatment. Mortality rates for HD patients were 12.7%, 12%, and 11%, respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011; annual hospitalization rates were 4.9%, 3.8%, and 4.4% for the same years; key performance indicators showed averages above the reference values such as hemoglobin, serum phosphorus, eKt/V, water quality, number of days of hospitalization per patient per year, and number of weekly dialysis sessions. The financing analysis of IM ESRD demonstrates a sustained control of global costs, without compromising quality. The IM ERSD program is an innovative and quality-driven approach that benefits both dialysis patients and providers, contributing toward the rationalization of service provision and the efficient use of resources.

  20. Replacing design rules in the VLSI design cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Paul; Kryszczuk, Krzysztof

    2012-03-01

    We make a case for the migration of Design Rule Check (DRC), the first step in the modern VLSI design process, to a model-based system. DRC uses a large set of rules to determine permitted designs. We argue that it is a legacy of the past: slow, labor intensive, ad-hoc, inaccurate and too restrictive. We envisage the replacement of DRC and printability simulation by a signal processing and machine learning-based approach for 22nm technology nodes and beyond. Such a process would produce fast, accurate, autonomous printability prediction for optical lithography. As such, we built a proof-of-concept demonstrator that can predict OPC problems using a trained classifier without the need to fall back on costly first-principle simulation. For one sample test site, and for the OPC Line Width error type OPC violation marker, the demonstrator obtained an Equal Error Rate of ca. 4%.

  1. Snubber replacement with limit stops at Vandellos II

    SciTech Connect

    Baltus, R.; Billington, A.

    1996-12-01

    The paper describes the particularities and reports the results of the single largest project with Limit Stops to date, i.e., a plant-wide snubber replacement at Vandellos II plant in Spain. This modern PWR plant had already undergone a snubber reduction program at the end of the construction stage, taking benefit from relaxation of dynamic loading criteria such as ASME Code Case N411 damping and Leak Before Break. The original analysis criteria were used, except for an innovative modal combination method named Generalized Algebraic Combination. A 100% elimination was achieved for the first package of 19 lines, i.e., removal of all 115 snubbers during the 1995 outage. The Limit Stop is a maintenance free piping support which provides and alternative to unreliable snubbers. It limits the dynamic response of the piping during an earthquake or other dynamic event like hydrodynamic transient, but allows for totally free thermal expansion.

  2. Food Service Equipment. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernigan, Anna Katherine; Ross, Lynne Nannen

    This book provides information that will help in purchasing the kind of food service equipment most useful in any given facility. Hence, it should be of value to architects, contractors, administrators, dietitians, managers, and others involved in remodeling a facility, replacing equipment, and/or improving the efficiency of food service…

  3. A Helix Replacement Mechanism Directs Metavinculin Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Yogesha, S.D.; Izard, Tina

    2010-10-11

    Cells require distinct adhesion complexes to form contacts with their neighbors or the extracellular matrix, and vinculin links these complexes to the actin cytoskeleton. Metavinculin, an isoform of vinculin that harbors a unique 68-residue insert in its tail domain, has distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties and plays essential roles in muscle development and homeostasis. Moreover, patients with sporadic or familial mutations in the metavinculin-specific insert invariably develop fatal cardiomyopathies. Here we report the high resolution crystal structure of the metavinculin tail domain, as well as the crystal structures of full-length human native metavinculin (1,134 residues) and of the full-length cardiomyopathy-associated {Delta}Leu954 metavinculin deletion mutant. These structures reveal that an {alpha}-helix (H1{prime}) and extended coil of the metavinculin insert replace {alpha}-helix H1 and its preceding extended coil found in the N-terminal region of the vinculin tail domain to form a new five-helix bundle tail domain. Further, biochemical analyses demonstrate that this helix replacement directs the distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties of metavinculin. Finally, the cardiomyopathy associated {Delta}Leu954 and Arg975Trp metavinculin mutants reside on the replaced extended coil and the H1{prime} {alpha}-helix, respectively. Thus, a helix replacement mechanism directs metavinculin's unique functions.

  4. [Exoprosthetic Replacement of the Upper Extremity].

    PubMed

    Salminger, S; Mayer, J A; Sturma, A; Riedl, O; Bergmeister, K D; Aszmann, O C

    2016-08-01

    During the last years, the prosthetic replacement in upper limb amputees has undergone different developments. The use of new nerve surgical concepts improved the control strategies tremendously, especially for high-level amputees. Technological innovation in the field of pattern recognition enables the control of multifunctional myoelectric hand prostheses in a natural and intuitive manner. However, the different levels of amputation pose different challenges for the therapeutic team which concern not only the prosthetic attachment; also the expected functional outcome of prosthetic limb replacement differs greatly between the individual levels of amputation. Therefore, especially in partial hand amputations the indication for prosthetic fitting has to be evaluated critically, as these patients may benefit more from biologic reconstructive concepts. The value of the upper extremity, in particular of the hand, is undisputable and, as such represents the driving force for the technological and surgical developments within the exoprosthetic replacement. This article discusses the possibilities and limitations of exoprosthetic limb replacement on the different amputation levels and explores new developments. PMID:27547980

  5. 30 CFR 57.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have...

  7. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  8. Retrograde replacement of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, D A

    1995-01-01

    A technique is described for replacement of the entire thoracic aorta. In this "pull-through" technique, which utilizes hypothermic circulatory arrest, the graft is implanted in a retrograde fashion, thus providing protection for the spinal cord and brain and avoiding injury to the vagus and phrenic nerves. PMID:7647599

  9. Nicotine Replacement: Effects on Postcessation Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined nicotine replacement effects on postcessation weight gain in smoking cessation volunteers. Randomly assigned abstinent subjects to active nicotine or placebo gum conditions for 10 weeks. Analyses revealed strong evidence for gum effect on weight gain, with active gum users gaining mean total of 3.8 pounds compared with 7.8 pounds for…

  10. 30 CFR 56.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have...

  14. Probability Issues in without Replacement Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joarder, A. H.; Al-Sabah, W. S.

    2007-01-01

    Sampling without replacement is an important aspect in teaching conditional probabilities in elementary statistics courses. Different methods proposed in different texts for calculating probabilities of events in this context are reviewed and their relative merits and limitations in applications are pinpointed. An alternative representation of…

  15. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  16. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. Bosch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so f...

  17. Recent Advances in Hydrocortisone Replacement Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallappa, Ashwini; Debono, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Since the first use of cortisone in patients around 65 years ago, the use of synthetic glucocorticoids has made a crucial impact on the treatment of several diseases in medicine. Although significant reductions in morbidity and mortality have occurred in patients suffering from cortisol deficiency, conventional hydrocortisone replacement treatment is still inadequate. A major limitation is that it fails to replace cortisol in a physiological manner. Cortisol has a distinct circadian rhythm and acts as a secondary messenger synchronizing the central to peripheral clocks, hence playing a key role in biological processes and the circadian timing system. Circadian misalignment has been associated with ill-health and so nonphysiological glucocorticoid treatment could explain the increased mortality rate, poor quality of life and metabolic complications in patients suffering from adrenal insufficiency. Attempts at replacing cortisol in a physiological manner have shown significant progress in the past decade with the development of modified-release formulations of hydrocortisone (Chronocort® and Plenadren®) and continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusions. Initial studies investigating the use of these replacement regimens are promising, demonstrating both clinical and biochemical improvement. Larger studies are needed to determine whether this novel approach enhances long-term outcomes in both children and adults with cortisol deficiency. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50 sq m SKI heliostat at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque.

  19. Mineral replacement front propagation in deformed rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Koehn, Daniel; Kelka, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Fluid migrations are a major agent of contaminant transport leading to mineral replacement in rocks, impacting their properties as porosity, permeability, and rheology. Understanding the physical and chemical mechanisms that govern mineralogical replacement during and after deformation is required to better understand complex interplays between fluid and rocks that are involved in faulting, seismic cycle, and resource distribution in the upper crust. Dolomitization process related to hydrothermal fluid flow is one of the most studied and debated replacement processes in earth sciences. Dolomitization of limestone is of economic importance as well, as it stands as unconventional oil reservoirs and is systematically observed in Mississippian-Valley Type ore deposit. Despite recent breakthrough about dolomitization processes at large-scale, the small-scale propagation of the reaction front remains unclear. It is poorly documented in the occurrence of stylolites and fractures in the medium while pressure-solution and fracture network development are the most efficient deformation accomodation mechanism in limestone from early compaction to layer-parallel shortening. Thus, the impact of such network on geometry of replaced bodies and on replacement front propagation deserves specific attention. This contribution illustrates the role of fracture and stylolites on the propagation of a reaction front. In a 2 dimensional numerical model we simulate the dolomitization front propagation in a heterogeneous porous medium. The propagation of the reaction front is governed by the competition between advection and diffusion processes, and takes into account reaction rates, disorder in the location of the potential replacement seeds, and permeability heterogeneities. We add stylolites and fractures that can act as barriers or drains to fluid flow according to their orientation and mineralogical content, which can or cannot react with the contaminant. The patterns produced from

  20. A Centrifugal Contactor Design to Facilitate Remote Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Meikrantz; Jack. D. Law; Troy G. Garn; Lawrence L. Macaluso

    2011-03-01

    Advanced designs of nuclear fuel recycling and radioactive waste treatment plants are expected to include more ambitious goals for solvent extraction based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACCs) are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. This work continues the development of remote designs for ACCs that can process the large throughputs needed for future nuclear fuel recycling and radioactive waste treatment plants. A three stage, 12.5 cm diameter rotor module has been constructed and is being evaluated for use in highly radioactive environments. This prototype assembly employs three standard CINC V-05 clean-in-place (CIP) units modified for remote service and replacement via new methods of connection for solution inlets, outlets, drain and CIP. Hydraulic testing and functional checks were successfully conducted and then the prototype was evaluated for remote handling and maintenance. Removal and replacement of the center position V-05R contactor in the three stage assembly was demonstrated using an overhead rail mounted PaR manipulator. Initial evaluation indicates a viable new design for interconnecting and cleaning individual stages while retaining the benefits of commercially reliable ACC equipment. Replacement of a single stage via remote manipulators and tools is estimated to take about 30 minutes, perhaps fast enough to support a contactor change without loss of process equilibrium. The design presented in this work is scalable to commercial ACC models from V-05 to V-20 with total throughput rates ranging from 20 to 650 liters per minute.