NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svozil, K.
1995-11-01
Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible “solution of supertasks,” and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for physical applications are discussed: Canlorian “naive” (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author's opinion, an attitude of “suspended attention” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to “bizarre” or “mindboggling” new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the lime of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.
How Settings Change People: Applying Behavior Setting Theory to Consumer-Run Organizations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Louis D.; Shepherd, Matthew D.; Wituk, Scott A.; Meissen, Greg
2007-01-01
Self-help initiatives stand as a classic context for organizational studies in community psychology. Behavior setting theory stands as a classic conception of organizations and the environment. This study explores both, applying behavior setting theory to consumer-run organizations (CROs). Analysis of multiple data sets from all CROs in Kansas…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MACCIA, ELIZABETH S.; AND OTHERS
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 20 ITEMS AND A DISCUSSION OF ITS SIGNIFICANCE WAS PRESENTED TO DESCRIBE CURRENT UTILIZATION OF SUBJECT THEORIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EDUCATIONAL THEORY. ALSO, A THEORY MODEL WAS USED TO DEMONSTRATE CONSTRUCTION OF A SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL THEORY. THE THEORY MODEL INCORPORATED SET THEORY (S), INFORMATION THEORY…
Lack of Set Theory Relevant Prerequisite Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide
2006-01-01
Many students struggle with college mathematics topics due to a lack of mastery of prerequisite knowledge. Set theory language is one such prerequisite for linear algebra courses. Many students' mistakes on linear algebra questions reveal a lack of mastery of set theory knowledge. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative analysis of a…
Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosko, Bart
1990-01-01
An introduction to fuzzy set theory is described. Topics covered include: neural networks and fuzzy systems; the dynamical systems approach to machine intelligence; intelligent behavior as adaptive model-free estimation; fuzziness versus probability; fuzzy sets; the entropy-subsethood theorem; adaptive fuzzy systems for backing up a truck-and-trailer; product-space clustering with differential competitive learning; and adaptive fuzzy system for target tracking.
Identifying and applying psychological theory to setting and achieving rehabilitation goals.
Scobbie, Lesley; Wyke, Sally; Dixon, Diane
2009-04-01
Goal setting is considered to be a fundamental part of rehabilitation; however, theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice have not been comprehensively reviewed. (i) To identify and discuss specific theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice in the rehabilitation setting. (ii) To identify 'candidate' theories that that offer most potential to inform clinical practice. The rehabilitation and self-management literature was systematically searched to identify review papers or empirical studies that proposed a specific theory of behaviour change relevant to setting and/or achieving goals in a clinical context. Data from included papers were extracted under the headings of: key constructs, clinical application and empirical support. Twenty-four papers were included in the review which proposed a total of five theories: (i) social cognitive theory, (ii) goal setting theory, (iii) health action process approach, (iv) proactive coping theory, and (v) the self-regulatory model of illness behaviour. The first three of these theories demonstrated most potential to inform clinical practice, on the basis of their capacity to inform interventions that resulted in improved patient outcomes. Social cognitive theory, goal setting theory and the health action process approach are theories of behaviour change that can inform clinicians in the process of setting and achieving goals in the rehabilitation setting. Overlapping constructs within these theories have been identified, and can be applied in clinical practice through the development and evaluation of a goal-setting practice framework.
Using evaluation theory in priority setting and resource allocation.
Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Gibson, Jennifer; Peacock, Stuart
2012-01-01
Public sector interest in methods for priority setting and program or policy evaluation has grown considerably over the last several decades, given increased expectations for accountable and efficient use of resources and emphasis on evidence-based decision making as a component of good management practice. While there has been some occasional effort to conduct evaluation of priority setting projects, the literatures around priority setting and evaluation have largely evolved separately. In this paper, the aim is to bring them together. The contention is that evaluation theory is a means by which evaluators reflect upon what it is they are doing when they do evaluation work. Theories help to organize thinking, sort out relevant from irrelevant information, provide transparent grounds for particular implementation choices, and can help resolve problematic issues which may arise in the conduct of an evaluation project. A detailed review of three major branches of evaluation theory--methods, utilization, and valuing--identifies how such theories can guide the development of efforts to evaluate priority setting and resource allocation initiatives. Evaluation theories differ in terms of their guiding question, anticipated setting or context, evaluation foci, perspective from which benefits are calculated, and typical methods endorsed. Choosing a particular theoretical approach will structure the way in which any priority setting process is evaluated. The paper suggests that explicitly considering evaluation theory makes key aspects of the evaluation process more visible to all stakeholders, and can assist in the design of effective evaluation of priority setting processes; this should iteratively serve to improve the understanding of priority setting practices themselves.
Encoding spatial images: A fuzzy set theory approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sztandera, Leszek M.
1992-01-01
As the use of fuzzy set theory continues to grow, there is an increased need for methodologies and formalisms to manipulate obtained fuzzy subsets. Concepts involving relative position of fuzzy patterns are acknowledged as being of high importance in many areas. In this paper, we present an approach based on the concept of dominance in fuzzy set theory for modelling relative positions among fuzzy subsets of a plane. In particular, we define the following spatial relations: to the left (right), in front of, behind, above, below, near, far from, and touching. This concept has been implemented to define spatial relationships among fuzzy subsets of the image plane. Spatial relationships based on fuzzy set theory, coupled with a fuzzy segmentation, should therefore yield realistic results in scene understanding.
Hailstone classifier based on Rough Set Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Huisong; Jiang, Shuming; Wei, Zhiqiang; Li, Jian; Li, Fengjiao
2017-09-01
The Rough Set Theory was used for the construction of the hailstone classifier. Firstly, the database of the radar image feature was constructed. It included transforming the base data reflected by the Doppler radar into the bitmap format which can be seen. Then through the image processing, the color, texture, shape and other dimensional features should be extracted and saved as the characteristic database to provide data support for the follow-up work. Secondly, Through the Rough Set Theory, a machine for hailstone classifications can be built to achieve the hailstone samples’ auto-classification.
Cantorian Set Theory and Teaching Prospective Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e
2008-01-01
Infinity has contradictions arising from its nature. Since mind is actually adapted to finite realities attained by behaviors in space and time, when one starts to deal with real infinity, contradictions will arise. In particular, Cantorian Set Theory for it involves the notion of "equivalence of a set to one of its proper subsets,"…
Cantorian Set Theory and Teaching Prospective Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Narli, Serkan; Baser, Nes'e
2008-01-01
Infinity has contradictions arising from its nature. Since mind is actually adapted to finite realities attained by behaviors in space and time, when one starts to deal with real infinity, contradictions will arise. In particular, Cantorian Set Theory, for it involves the notion of "equivalence of a set to one of its proper subsets," causes…
Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Locke, Edwin A.; Latham, Gary P.
2002-01-01
Summarizes 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory, describing core findings of the theory, mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. Explains the external validity and practical significance of goal setting theory,…
Challenges in combining different data sets during analysis when using grounded theory.
Rintala, Tuula-Maria; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi
2014-05-01
To describe the challenges in combining two data sets during grounded theory analysis. The use of grounded theory in nursing research is common. It is a suitable method for studying human action and interaction. It is recommended that many alternative sources of data are collected to create as rich a dataset as possible. Data from interviews with people with diabetes (n=19) and their family members (n=19). Combining two data sets. When using grounded theory, there are numerous challenges in collecting and managing data, especially for the novice researcher. One challenge is to combine different data sets during the analysis. There are many methodological textbooks about grounded theory but there is little written in the literature about combining different data sets. Discussion is needed on the management of data and the challenges of grounded theory. This article provides a means for combining different data sets in the grounded theory analysis process.
Fuzzy Set Theory and Medicine: The First Twenty Years and Beyond
Maiers, Jerald E.
1985-01-01
Fuzzy set theory is a mathematical sub-disipline, initially introduced in 1965. Essentially it was conceived as a formal approach to deal with the imprecision characteristic of real world applications, particularly medical issues. This review summarizes the medical applications of fuzzy set theory to date; assesses the value of fuzzy sets in medical applications; and suggests future potential for such an approach.
Using attachment theory in medical settings: implications for primary care physicians.
Hooper, Lisa M; Tomek, Sara; Newman, Caroline R
2012-02-01
Mental health researchers, clinicians and clinical psychologists have long considered a good provider-patient relationship to be an important factor for positive treatment outcomes in a range of therapeutic settings. However, primary care physicians have been slow to consider how attachment theory may be used in the context of patient care in medical settings. In the current article, John Bowlby's attachment theory and proposed attachment styles are proffered as a framework to better understand patient behaviors, patient communication styles with physicians and the physician-patient relationship in medical settings. The authors recommend how primary care physicians and other health care providers can translate attachment theory to enhance practice behaviors and health-related communications in medical settings.
The Nature of Quantum Truth: Logic, Set Theory, & Mathematics in the Context of Quantum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frey, Kimberly
The purpose of this dissertation is to construct a radically new type of mathematics whose underlying logic differs from the ordinary classical logic used in standard mathematics, and which we feel may be more natural for applications in quantum mechanics. Specifically, we begin by constructing a first order quantum logic, the development of which closely parallels that of ordinary (classical) first order logic --- the essential differences are in the nature of the logical axioms, which, in our construction, are motivated by quantum theory. After showing that the axiomatic first order logic we develop is sound and complete (with respect to a particular class of models), this logic is then used as a foundation on which to build (axiomatic) mathematical systems --- and we refer to the resulting new mathematics as "quantum mathematics." As noted above, the hope is that this form of mathematics is more natural than classical mathematics for the description of quantum systems, and will enable us to address some foundational aspects of quantum theory which are still troublesome --- e.g. the measurement problem --- as well as possibly even inform our thinking about quantum gravity. After constructing the underlying logic, we investigate properties of several mathematical systems --- e.g. axiom systems for abstract algebras, group theory, linear algebra, etc. --- in the presence of this quantum logic. In the process, we demonstrate that the resulting quantum mathematical systems have some strange, but very interesting features, which indicates a richness in the structure of mathematics that is classically inaccessible. Moreover, some of these features do indeed suggest possible applications to foundational questions in quantum theory. We continue our investigation of quantum mathematics by constructing an axiomatic quantum set theory, which we show satisfies certain desirable criteria. Ultimately, we hope that such a set theory will lead to a foundation for quantum
Complete set of essential parameters of an effective theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ioffe, M. V.; Vereshagin, V. V.
2018-04-01
The present paper continues the series [V. V. Vereshagin, True self-energy function and reducibility in effective scalar theories, Phys. Rev. D 89, 125022 (2014); , 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.125022A. Vereshagin and V. Vereshagin, Resultant parameters of effective theory, Phys. Rev. D 69, 025002 (2004); , 10.1103/PhysRevD.69.025002K. Semenov-Tian-Shansky, A. Vereshagin, and V. Vereshagin, S-matrix renormalization in effective theories, Phys. Rev. D 73, 025020 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevD.73.025020] devoted to the systematic study of effective scattering theories. We consider matrix elements of the effective Lagrangian monomials (in the interaction picture) of arbitrary high dimension D and show that the full set of corresponding coupling constants contains parameters of both kinds: essential and redundant. Since it would be pointless to formulate renormalization prescriptions for redundant parameters, it is necessary to select the full set of the essential ones. This is done in the present paper for the case of the single scalar field.
An analysis of possible applications of fuzzy set theory to the actuarial credibility theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ostaszewski, Krzysztof; Karwowski, Waldemar
1992-01-01
In this work, we review the basic concepts of actuarial credibility theory from the point of view of introducing applications of the fuzzy set-theoretic method. We show how the concept of actuarial credibility can be modeled through the fuzzy set membership functions and how fuzzy set methods, especially fuzzy pattern recognition, can provide an alternative tool for estimating credibility.
Certain and possible rules for decision making using rough set theory extended to fuzzy sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dekorvin, Andre; Shipley, Margaret F.
1993-01-01
Uncertainty may be caused by the ambiguity in the terms used to describe a specific situation. It may also be caused by skepticism of rules used to describe a course of action or by missing and/or erroneous data. To deal with uncertainty, techniques other than classical logic need to be developed. Although, statistics may be the best tool available for handling likelihood, it is not always adequate for dealing with knowledge acquisition under uncertainty. Inadequacies caused by estimating probabilities in statistical processes can be alleviated through use of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. Fuzzy set theory is another tool used to deal with uncertainty where ambiguous terms are present. Other methods include rough sets, the theory of endorsements and nonmonotonic logic. J. Grzymala-Busse has defined the concept of lower and upper approximation of a (crisp) set and has used that concept to extract rules from a set of examples. We will define the fuzzy analogs of lower and upper approximations and use these to obtain certain and possible rules from a set of examples where the data is fuzzy. Central to these concepts will be the idea of the degree to which a fuzzy set A is contained in another fuzzy set B, and the degree of intersection of a set A with set B. These concepts will also give meaning to the statement; A implies B. The two meanings will be: (1) if x is certainly in A then it is certainly in B, and (2) if x is possibly in A then it is possibly in B. Next, classification will be looked at and it will be shown that if a classification will be looked at and it will be shown that if a classification is well externally definable then it is well internally definable, and if it is poorly externally definable then it is poorly internally definable, thus generalizing a result of Grzymala-Busse. Finally, some ideas of how to define consensus and group options to form clusters of rules will be given.
The implications of fundamental cause theory for priority setting.
Goldberg, Daniel S
2014-10-01
Application of fundamental cause theory to Powers and Faden's model of social justice highlights the ethical superiority of upstream public health interventions. In this article, I assess the ramifications of fundamental cause theory specifically in context of public health priority setting. Ethically optimal public health policy simultaneously maximizes overall population health and compresses health inequalities. The fundamental cause theory is an important framework in helping to identify which categories of public health interventions are most likely to advance these twin goals.
Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey.
Locke, Edwin A; Latham, Gary P
2002-09-01
The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory's limitations.
Theories of justice and their implications for priority setting in health care.
Olsen, J A
1997-12-01
The paper aims to show how three theories of distributive justice; utilitarianism, egalitarianism and maximum, can provide a clearer understanding of the normative basis of different priority setting regimes in the health service. The paper starts with a brief presentation of the theories, followed by their prescriptions for distribution, as illustrated with their respective preferred points on a utility possibility frontier. After this general discussion, attention is shifted from utils to health. The paper discusses how the recent Norwegian guidelines for priority setting can be understood in the light of the theories.
How we load our data sets with theories and why we do so purposefully.
Rochefort-Maranda, Guillaume
2016-12-01
In this paper, I compare theory-laden perceptions with imputed data sets. The similarities between the two allow me to show how the phenomenon of theory-ladenness can manifest itself in statistical analyses. More importantly, elucidating the differences between them will allow me to broaden the focus of the existing literature on theory-ladenness and to introduce some much-needed nuances. The topic of statistical imputation has received no attention in philosophy of science. Yet, imputed data sets are very similar to theory-laden perceptions, and they are now an integral part of many scientific inferences. Unlike the existence of theory-laden perceptions, that of imputed data sets cannot be challenged or reduced to a manageable source of error. In fact, imputed data sets are created purposefully in order to improve the quality of our inferences. They do not undermine the possibility of scientific knowledge; on the contrary, they are epistemically desirable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prevention of sexual harassment in the medical setting applying Inoculation Theory.
Matusitz, Jonathan; Breen, Gerald Mark
2005-01-01
This paper is an examination of how Inoculation Theory can be applied in the prevention of sexual harassment in the medical setting. The basic tenet of the theory is the study of the processes through which we withstand and oppose attitude transformation during social interactions that may influence or change our attitudes. More importantly, this paper analyzes sexual harassment as a pervasive phenomenon in the medical setting. As such, it defines what sexual harassment is, explains the prevalence of sexual harassment between the physician and the patient, describes some of the general studies conducted in medical settings, provides a case scenario of doctor-patient sexual harassment, and identifies some key consequences to doctors, patients, and society.
Application of preprocessing filtering on Decision Tree C4.5 and rough set theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Joseph C. C.; Lin, Tsau Y.
2001-03-01
This paper compares two artificial intelligence methods: the Decision Tree C4.5 and Rough Set Theory on the stock market data. The Decision Tree C4.5 is reviewed with the Rough Set Theory. An enhanced window application is developed to facilitate the pre-processing filtering by introducing the feature (attribute) transformations, which allows users to input formulas and create new attributes. Also, the application produces three varieties of data set with delaying, averaging, and summation. The results prove the improvement of pre-processing by applying feature (attribute) transformations on Decision Tree C4.5. Moreover, the comparison between Decision Tree C4.5 and Rough Set Theory is based on the clarity, automation, accuracy, dimensionality, raw data, and speed, which is supported by the rules sets generated by both algorithms on three different sets of data.
Mind-sets matter: a meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation.
Burnette, Jeni L; O'Boyle, Ernest H; VanEpps, Eric M; Pollack, Jeffrey M; Finkel, Eli J
2013-05-01
This review builds on self-control theory (Carver & Scheier, 1998) to develop a theoretical framework for investigating associations of implicit theories with self-regulation. This framework conceptualizes self-regulation in terms of 3 crucial processes: goal setting, goal operating, and goal monitoring. In this meta-analysis, we included articles that reported a quantifiable assessment of implicit theories and at least 1 self-regulatory process or outcome. With a random effects approach used, meta-analytic results (total unique N = 28,217; k = 113) across diverse achievement domains (68% academic) and populations (age range = 5-42; 10 different nationalities; 58% from United States; 44% female) demonstrated that implicit theories predict distinct self-regulatory processes, which, in turn, predict goal achievement. Incremental theories, which, in contrast to entity theories, are characterized by the belief that human attributes are malleable rather than fixed, significantly predicted goal setting (performance goals, r = -.151; learning goals, r = .187), goal operating (helpless-oriented strategies, r = -.238; mastery-oriented strategies, r = .227), and goal monitoring (negative emotions, r = -.233; expectations, r = .157). The effects for goal setting and goal operating were stronger in the presence (vs. absence) of ego threats such as failure feedback. Discussion emphasizes how the present theoretical analysis merges an implicit theory perspective with self-control theory to advance scholarship and unlock major new directions for basic and applied research.
Application of fuzzy set and Dempster-Shafer theory to organic geochemistry interpretation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, C. S.; Isaksen, G. H.
1993-01-01
An application of fuzzy sets and Dempster Shafter Theory (DST) in modeling the interpretational process of organic geochemistry data for predicting the level of maturities of oil and source rock samples is presented. This was accomplished by (1) representing linguistic imprecision and imprecision associated with experience by a fuzzy set theory, (2) capturing the probabilistic nature of imperfect evidences by a DST, and (3) combining multiple evidences by utilizing John Yen's generalized Dempster-Shafter Theory (GDST), which allows DST to deal with fuzzy information. The current prototype provides collective beliefs on the predicted levels of maturity by combining multiple evidences through GDST's rule of combination.
Theory of the Lattice Boltzmann Equation: Symmetry properties of Discrete Velocity Sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Luo, Li-Shi
2007-01-01
In the lattice Boltzmann equation, continuous particle velocity space is replaced by a finite dimensional discrete set. The number of linearly independent velocity moments in a lattice Boltzmann model cannot exceed the number of discrete velocities. Thus, finite dimensionality introduces linear dependencies among the moments that do not exist in the exact continuous theory. Given a discrete velocity set, it is important to know to exactly what order moments are free of these dependencies. Elementary group theory is applied to the solution of this problem. It is found that by decomposing the velocity set into subsets that transform among themselves under an appropriate symmetry group, it becomes relatively straightforward to assess the behavior of moments in the theory. The construction of some standard two- and three-dimensional models is reviewed from this viewpoint, and procedures for constructing some new higher dimensional models are suggested.
Set Theory Applied to Uniquely Define the Inputs to Territorial Systems in Emergy Analyses
The language of set theory can be utilized to represent the emergy involved in all processes. In this paper we use set theory in an emergy evaluation to ensure an accurate representation of the inputs to territorial systems. We consider a generic territorial system and we describ...
Independence of the uniformity principle from Church's thesis in intuitionistic set theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khakhanyan, V. Kh
2013-12-01
We prove the independence of the strong uniformity principle from Church's thesis with choice in intuitionistic set theory with the axiom of extensionality extended by Markov's principle and the double complement for sets.
The Excursion Set Theory of Halo Mass Functions, Halo Clustering, and Halo Growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zentner, Andrew R.
I review the excursion set theory with particular attention toward applications to cold dark matter halo formation and growth, halo abundance, and halo clustering. After a brief introduction to notation and conventions, I begin by recounting the heuristic argument leading to the mass function of bound objects given by Press and Schechter. I then review the more formal derivation of the Press-Schechter halo mass function that makes use of excursion sets of the density field. The excursion set formalism is powerful and can be applied to numerous other problems. I review the excursion set formalism for describing both halo clustering and bias and the properties of void regions. As one of the most enduring legacies of the excursion set approach and one of its most common applications, I spend considerable time reviewing the excursion set theory of halo growth. This section of the review culminates with the description of two Monte Carlo methods for generating ensembles of halo mass accretion histories. In the last section, I emphasize that the standard excursion set approach is the result of several simplifying assumptions. Dropping these assumptions can lead to more faithful predictions and open excursion set theory to new applications. One such assumption is that the height of the barriers that define collapsed objects is a constant function of scale. I illustrate the implementation of the excursion set approach for barriers of arbitrary shape. One such application is the now well-known improvement of the excursion set mass function derived from the "moving" barrier for ellipsoidal collapse. I also emphasize that the statement that halo accretion histories are independent of halo environment in the excursion set approach is not a general prediction of the theory. It is a simplifying assumption. I review the method for constructing correlated random walks of the density field in the more general case. I construct a simple toy model to illustrate that excursion set
[Some remarks on the theory of sets by Richard Dedekind and Stanisław Leśniewski].
Obojska, Lidia
2014-01-01
Mereology, is a part-whole theory, also called the theory of collective sets. It was founded in 1916 by Stanisław Leśniewski and this is an alternative theory versus the classical set theory by Georg Cantor. These two theories are usually teamed up together as Leśniewski himself was referring to the concept of the set by Cantor and Cantor is considered the "main" ideologist of the set theory. However, when analyzing the original texts of various authors, it seems that the very concept of a collective set is closer to the idea of Richard Dedekind rather than that of Georg Cantor. It is known that Cantor borrowed some concepts on the notion of set from Dedekind, whose ideas were also known to Leśniewski, however, there is no study on this topic. This work is therefore an attempt to compare some set-theoretical concepts of both of these authors, i.e. S. Leśiewski and R. Dedekind and the presentation of their convergence.
RSA cryptosystem with fuzzy set theory for encryption and decryption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdullah, Kamilah; Bakar, Sumarni Abu; Kamis, Nor Hanimah; Aliamis, Hardi
2017-11-01
In the communication area, user is more focus on communication instead of security of the data communication. Many cryptosystems have been improvised to achieved the effectiveness in communication. RSA cryptosystem is one of well-known cryptosystem used to secure the information and protect the communication by providing a difficulty to the attackers specifically in encryption and decryption. As need arises for guarantee the security of the cryptosystem while the communication must be ensured, we propose a new RSA cryptosystem which is based on fuzzy set theory whereby the plaintext and the ciphertext are in terms of Triangular Fuzzy Number (TFN). Decryption result shows that the message obtained is the same as the original plaintext. This study reveals that the fuzzy set theory is suitable to be used as an alternative tool in securing other cryptosystem.
Mermelstein, Robin J.; Revenson, Tracey A.
2013-01-01
Basic social psychological theories have much to contribute to our understanding of health problems and health-related behaviors and may provide potential avenues for intervention development. However, for these theories to have broader reach and applicability to the field of health psychology, more work needs to be done in integrating contexts into these theories and addressing more specifically their application across settings, behaviors, and populations. We argue that integration of these theories into a broader multi-disciplinary and multi-level ecological framework is needed to enhance their translation into real-world applications. To enhance this translation, we make several recommendations, including breaking down silos between disciplinary perspectives and enhancing bidirectional communication and translation; analyzing boundary conditions of theories; expanding research approaches to move outside the laboratory and maintain a focus on external validity; and conducting efficacy testing of theories with meaningful, relevant endpoints. PMID:23646843
Mermelstein, Robin J; Revenson, Tracey A
2013-05-01
Basic social psychological theories have much to contribute to our understanding of health problems and health-related behaviors and may provide potential avenues for intervention development. However, for these theories to have broader reach and applicability to the field of health psychology, more work needs to be done in integrating contexts into these theories and addressing more specifically their application across settings, behaviors, and populations. We argue that integration of these theories into a broader multidisciplinary and multilevel ecological framework is needed to enhance their translation into real-world applications. To enhance this translation, we make several recommendations, including breaking down silos between disciplinary perspectives and enhancing bidirectional communication and translation; analyzing boundary conditions of theories; expanding research approaches to move outside the laboratory and maintain a focus on external validity; and conducting efficacy testing of theories with meaningful, relevant endpoints. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Siegert, Richard J; McPherson, Kathryn M; Taylor, William J
2004-10-21
The aim of this article is to argue that self-regulation theory might offer a useful model for clinical practice, theory-building and empirical research on goal-setting in rehabilitation. Relevant literature on goal-setting and motivation in rehabilitation is considered and some problematic issues for current practice and future research are highlighted. Carver and Scheier's self-regulation theory and its application to rehabilitation research is examined. It is argued that self-regulation theory offers a robust theoretical framework for goal-setting and one in which the salient concepts of motivation and emotion are prominent. Self-regulation theory offers a potentially useful heuristic framework for rehabilitation research.
Non-Gaussianity and Excursion Set Theory: Halo Bias
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Adshead, Peter; Baxter, Eric J.; Dodelson, Scott
2012-09-01
We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity generated during inflation on the bias of halos using excursion set theory. We recapture the familiar result that the bias scales asmore » $$k^{-2}$$ on large scales for local type non-Gaussianity but explicitly identify the approximations that go into this conclusion and the corrections to it. We solve the more complicated problem of non-spherical halos, for which the collapse threshold is scale dependent.« less
Noddings's caring ethics theory applied in a paediatric setting.
Lundqvist, Anita; Nilstun, Tore
2009-04-01
Since the 1990s, numerous studies on the relationship between parents and their children have been reported on in the literature and implemented as a philosophy of care in most paediatric units. The purpose of this article is to understand the process of nurses' care for children in a paediatric setting by using Noddings's caring ethics theory. Noddings's theory is in part described from a theoretical perspective outlining the basic idea of the theory followed by a critique of her work. Important conceptions in her theory are natural caring (reception, relation, engrossment, motivational displacement, reciprocity) and ethical caring (physical self, ethical self, and ethical ideal). As a nurse one holds a duty of care to patients and, in exercising this duty, the nurse must be able to develop a relationship with the patient including giving the patient total authenticity in a 'feeling with' the patient. Noddings's theory is analysed and described in three examples from the paediatrics. In the first example, the nurse cared for the patient in natural caring while in the second situation, the nurse strived for the ethical caring of the patient. In the third example, the nurse rejected the impulse to care and deliberately turned her back to ethics and abandoned her ethical caring. According to the Noddings's theory, caring for the patient enables the nurse to obtain ethical insights from the specific type of nursing care which forms an important contribution to an overall increase of an ethical consciousness in the nurse.
Anticipatory vigilance: A grounded theory study of minimising risk within the perioperative setting.
O'Brien, Brid; Andrews, Tom; Savage, Eileen
2018-01-01
To explore and explain how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Perioperative nurses care for patients who are having surgery or other invasive explorative procedures. Perioperative care is increasingly focused on how to improve patient safety. Safety and risk management is a global priority for health services in reducing risk. Many studies have explored safety within the healthcare settings. However, little is known about how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Classic grounded theory. Ethical approval was granted for all aspects of the study. Thirty-seven nurses working in 11 different perioperative settings in Ireland were interviewed and 33 hr of nonparticipant observation was undertaken. Concurrent data collection and analysis was undertaken using theoretical sampling. Constant comparative method, coding and memoing and were used to analyse the data. Participants' main concern was how to minimise risk. Participants resolved this through engaging in anticipatory vigilance (core category). This strategy consisted of orchestrating, routinising and momentary adapting. Understanding the strategies of anticipatory vigilance extends and provides an in-depth explanation of how nurses' behaviour ensures that risk is minimised in a complex high-risk perioperative setting. This is the first theory situated in the perioperative area for nurses. This theory provides a guide and understanding for nurses working in the perioperative setting on how to minimise risk. It makes perioperative nursing visible enabling positive patient outcomes. This research suggests the need for training and education in maintaining safety and minimising risk in the perioperative setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mind-Sets Matter: A Meta-Analytic Review of Implicit Theories and Self-Regulation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burnette, Jeni L.; O'Boyle, Ernest H.; VanEpps, Eric M.; Pollack, Jeffrey M.; Finkel, Eli J.
2013-01-01
This review builds on self-control theory (Carver & Scheier, 1998) to develop a theoretical framework for investigating associations of implicit theories with self-regulation. This framework conceptualizes self-regulation in terms of 3 crucial processes: goal setting, goal operating, and goal monitoring. In this meta-analysis, we included…
An intelligent knowledge mining model for kidney cancer using rough set theory.
Durai, M A Saleem; Acharjya, D P; Kannan, A; Iyengar, N Ch Sriman Narayana
2012-01-01
Medical diagnosis processes vary in the degree to which they attempt to deal with different complicating aspects of diagnosis such as relative importance of symptoms, varied symptom pattern and the relation between diseases themselves. Rough set approach has two major advantages over the other methods. First, it can handle different types of data such as categorical, numerical etc. Secondly, it does not make any assumption like probability distribution function in stochastic modeling or membership grade function in fuzzy set theory. It involves pattern recognition through logical computational rules rather than approximating them through smooth mathematical functional forms. In this paper we use rough set theory as a data mining tool to derive useful patterns and rules for kidney cancer faulty diagnosis. In particular, the historical data of twenty five research hospitals and medical college is used for validation and the results show the practical viability of the proposed approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dishman, Rod K.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; Motl, Robert W.; Wilson, Mark G.; DeJoy, David M.
2010-01-01
The effectiveness of an intervention depends on its dose and on moderators of dose, which usually are not studied. The purpose of the study is to determine whether goal setting and theory-based moderators of goal setting had dose relations with increases in goal-related physical activity during a successful workplace intervention. A…
Dishman, Rod K; Vandenberg, Robert J; Motl, Robert W; Wilson, Mark G; DeJoy, David M
2010-08-01
The effectiveness of an intervention depends on its dose and on moderators of dose, which usually are not studied. The purpose of the study is to determine whether goal setting and theory-based moderators of goal setting had dose relations with increases in goal-related physical activity during a successful workplace intervention. A group-randomized 12-week intervention that included personal goal setting was implemented in fall 2005, with a multiracial/ethnic sample of employees at 16 geographically diverse worksites. Here, we examined dose-related variables in the cohort of participants (N = 664) from the 8 worksites randomized to the intervention. Participants in the intervention exceeded 9000 daily pedometer steps and 300 weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the last 6 weeks of the study, which approximated or exceeded current public health guidelines. Linear growth modeling indicated that participants who set higher goals and sustained higher levels of self-efficacy, commitment and intention about attaining their goals had greater increases in pedometer steps and MVPA. The relation between change in participants' satisfaction with current physical activity and increases in physical activity was mediated by increases in self-set goals. The results show a dose relation of increased physical activity with changes in goal setting, satisfaction, self-efficacy, commitment and intention, consistent with goal-setting theory.
An IDS Alerts Aggregation Algorithm Based on Rough Set Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ru; Guo, Tao; Liu, Jianyi
2018-03-01
Within a system in which has been deployed several IDS, a great number of alerts can be triggered by a single security event, making real alerts harder to be found. To deal with redundant alerts, we propose a scheme based on rough set theory. In combination with basic concepts in rough set theory, the importance of attributes in alerts was calculated firstly. With the result of attributes importance, we could compute the similarity of two alerts, which will be compared with a pre-defined threshold to determine whether these two alerts can be aggregated or not. Also, time interval should be taken into consideration. Allowed time interval for different types of alerts is computed individually, since different types of alerts may have different time gap between two alerts. In the end of this paper, we apply proposed scheme on DAPRA98 dataset and the results of experiment show that our scheme can efficiently reduce the redundancy of alerts so that administrators of security system could avoid wasting time on useless alerts.
Renormalization group scale-setting from the action—a road to modified gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domazet, Silvije; Štefančić, Hrvoje
2012-12-01
The renormalization group (RG) corrected gravitational action in Einstein-Hilbert and other truncations is considered. The running scale of the RG is treated as a scalar field at the level of the action and determined in a scale-setting procedure recently introduced by Koch and Ramirez for the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. The scale-setting procedure is elaborated for other truncations of the gravitational action and applied to several phenomenologically interesting cases. It is shown how the logarithmic dependence of the Newton's coupling on the RG scale leads to exponentially suppressed effective cosmological constant and how the scale-setting in particular RG-corrected gravitational theories yields the effective f(R) modified gravity theories with negative powers of the Ricci scalar R. The scale-setting at the level of the action at the non-Gaussian fixed point in Einstein-Hilbert and more general truncations is shown to lead to universal effective action quadratic in the Ricci tensor.
A Workshop for High School Students on Naive Set Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wegner, Sven-Ake
2014-01-01
In this article we present the prototype of a workshop on naive set theory designed for high school students in or around the seventh year of primary education. Our concept is based on two events which the author organized in 2006 and 2010 for students of elementary school and high school, respectively. The article also includes a practice report…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Resconi, Germano; Klir, George J.; Pessa, Eliano
Recognizing that syntactic and semantic structures of classical logic are not sufficient to understand the meaning of quantum phenomena, we propose in this paper a new interpretation of quantum mechanics based on evidence theory. The connection between these two theories is obtained through a new language, quantum set theory, built on a suggestion by J. Bell. Further, we give a modal logic interpretation of quantum mechanics and quantum set theory by using Kripke's semantics of modal logic based on the concept of possible worlds. This is grounded on previous work of a number of researchers (Resconi, Klir, Harmanec) who showed how to represent evidence theory and other uncertainty theories in terms of modal logic. Moreover, we also propose a reformulation of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics in terms of Kripke's semantics. We thus show how three different theories — quantum mechanics, evidence theory, and modal logic — are interrelated. This opens, on one hand, the way to new applications of quantum mechanics within domains different from the traditional ones, and, on the other hand, the possibility of building new generalizations of quantum mechanics itself.
Setting limits on Effective Field Theories: the case of Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pobbe, Federico; Wulzer, Andrea; Zanetti, Marco
2017-08-01
The usage of Effective Field Theories (EFT) for LHC new physics searches is receiving increasing attention. It is thus important to clarify all the aspects related with the applicability of the EFT formalism in the LHC environment, where the large available energy can produce reactions that overcome the maximal range of validity, i.e. the cutoff, of the theory. We show that this does not forbid to set rigorous limits on the EFT parameter space through a modified version of the ordinary binned likelihood hypothesis test, which we design and validate. Our limit-setting strategy can be carried on in its full-fledged form by the LHC experimental collaborations, or performed externally to the collaborations, through the Simplified Likelihood approach, by relying on certain approximations. We apply it to the recent CMS mono-jet analysis and derive limits on a Dark Matter (DM) EFT model. DM is selected as a case study because the limited reach on the DM production EFT Wilson coefficient and the structure of the theory suggests that the cutoff might be dangerously low, well within the LHC reach. However our strategy can also be applied, if needed, to EFT's parametrising the indirect effects of heavy new physics in the Electroweak and Higgs sectors.
Language Ecology in Multilingual Settings. Towards a Theory of Symbolic Competence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kramsch, Claire; Whiteside, Anne
2008-01-01
This paper draws on complexity theory and post-modern sociolinguistics to explore how an ecological approach to language data can illuminate aspects of language use in multilingual environments. We first examine transcripts of exchanges taking place among multilingual individuals in multicultural settings. We briefly review what conversation and…
Hartogsohn, Ido
2016-12-01
Placebo response theory and set and setting theory are two fields which examine how non-biological factors shape the response to therapy. Both consider factors such as expectancy, preparation and beliefs to be crucial for understanding the extra-pharmacological processes which shape the response to drugs. Yet there are also fundamental differences between the two theories. Set and setting concerns itself with response to psychoactive drugs only; placebo theory relates to all therapeutic interventions. Placebo theory is aimed at medical professionals; set and setting theory is aimed at professionals and drug users alike. Placebo theory is primarily descriptive, describing how placebo acts; set and setting theory is primarily prescriptive, educating therapists and users on how to control and optimize the effects of drugs. This paper examines how placebo theory and set and setting theory can complement and benefit each other, broadening our understanding of how non-biological factors shape response to drugs and other treatment interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.
Using Multiattribute Utility Theory as a Priority-Setting Tool in Human Services Planning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Camasso, Michael J.; Dick, Janet
1993-01-01
The feasibility of applying multiattribute utility theory to the needs assessment and priority-setting activities of human services planning councils was studied in Essex County (New Jersey). Decision-making and information filtering processes are explored in the context of community planning. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowen, J. Philip; Sorensen, Jennifer B.; Kirschner, Karl N.
2007-01-01
The analysis explains the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and fragment relaxation involved in calculating the interaction energies using various first principle theories. Interacting the correlated fragment and increasing the size of the basis set can help in decreasing the BSSE to a great extent.
Chiovitti, Rosalina F
2008-02-01
The concept of caring is described as intangible, abstract, and invisible in nursing practice. This has translated into a view of caring as a personal choice or natural obligation rather than a deliberate process. While there has been movement to delineate caring within nursing in general, the psychiatric nurse's perspective on caring has been absent from theoretical works and measures constructed to describe nurse's work. To develop a substantive grounded theory of caring from the perspective of Registered Nurses working with patients in three Canadian acute psychiatric hospital settings. The qualitative research design of grounded theory methodology was used to develop a theory of caring. Three urban, acute psychiatric hospital settings in Canada. Two were general hospitals and one was a psychiatric hospital. Registered Nurses (N=17) licensed with the College of Nurses of Ontario. In-depth interviews with Registered Nurses were conducted using theoretical sampling. The data were analysed using constant comparative analysis. Protective empowering is the basic social psychological process that represents Registered Nurses' caring with patients in acute psychiatric hospital settings. Nurses accomplish protective empowering through six main categories of: (1) respecting the patient; (2) not taking the patient's behaviour personally; (3) keeping the patient safe; (4) encouraging the patient's health; (5) authentic relating; and (6) interactive teaching. The six main categories were accomplished through 27 subcategories. In the theory of protective empowering, the goal is to help patients participate in activities contributing to convalescence, health, and/or quality of life. The theory of protective empowering provides six main categories and 27 subcategories that can be transferred to funding formulas, patient health record documentation systems, nurse orientation and education programs, nurse role descriptions, and used in guiding discussions about organizational
The selection of construction sub-contractors using the fuzzy sets theory
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Krzemiński, Michał
The paper presents the algorithm for the selection of sub-contractors. Main area of author’s interest is scheduling flow models. The ranking task aims at execution time as short as possible Brigades downtime should also be as small as possible. These targets are exposed to significant obsolescence. The criteria for selection of subcontractors will not be therefore time and cost, it is assumed that all those criteria be meet by sub-contractors. The decision should be made in regard to factors difficult to measure, to assess which is the perfect application of fuzzy sets theory. The paper will present a set ofmore » evaluation criteria, the part of the knowledge base and a description of the output variable.« less
Theory and knowledge translation: setting some coordinates.
Rycroft-Malone, Jo
2007-01-01
In a healthcare context in which research evidence is not used routinely in practice, there have been increasingly loud calls for the use of theory from investigators working in the field of knowledge translation. Implementation researchers argue that theory should be used to guide the design of testable and practical intervention strategies, and thus, contribute to generalizable knowledge about implementation interventions. The purpose of this commentary is to critique model papers writing by a team of scholars who aimed to disentangle some of the relationships determining research utilization, by scrutinizing an existing conceptual framework that acknowledges, along with other factors, the importance of contextual factors in knowledge translation. These papers are used as a vehicle to explore theory application in knowledge translation research. As theory use and development is in its infancy, some key issues, including different ideological perspectives, factors for and against theory use, ensuring conceptual clarity, selecting coherent overarching frameworks, and choosing appropriately among theories, are considered. Finally, an agenda for theory-informed research is outlined, which highlights the need for scholarly, pluralistic, and collaborative activity if the state of knowledge translation science is to advance.
Students' Difficulties with Definitions in the Context of Proofs in Elementary Set Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaker, Hedieh; Berger, Margot
2016-01-01
In this paper we explore first-year students' difficulties with the use and interpretation of definitions of mathematical objects as they attempt proof construction exercises in the area of elementary set theory. The participants are students at a historically disadvantaged university in South Africa. In this study the activities and utterances of…
Poverty Lines Based on Fuzzy Sets Theory and Its Application to Malaysian Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abdullah, Lazim
2011-01-01
Defining the poverty line has been acknowledged as being highly variable by the majority of published literature. Despite long discussions and successes, poverty line has a number of problems due to its arbitrary nature. This paper proposes three measurements of poverty lines using membership functions based on fuzzy set theory. The three…
Type synthesis for 4-DOF parallel press mechanism using GF set theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jun; Gao, Feng; Meng, Xiangdun; Guo, Weizhong
2015-07-01
Parallel mechanisms is used in the large capacity servo press to avoid the over-constraint of the traditional redundant actuation. Currently, the researches mainly focus on the performance analysis for some specific parallel press mechanisms. However, the type synthesis and evaluation of parallel press mechanisms is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) press mechanisms. The type synthesis of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms is carried out based on the generalized function(GF) set theory. Five design criteria of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms are firstly proposed. The general procedure of type synthesis of parallel press mechanisms is obtained, which includes number synthesis, symmetrical synthesis of constraint GF sets, decomposition of motion GF sets and design of limbs. Nine combinations of constraint GF sets of 4-DOF parallel press mechanisms, ten combinations of GF sets of active limbs, and eleven combinations of GF sets of passive limbs are synthesized. Thirty-eight kinds of press mechanisms are presented and then different structures of kinematic limbs are designed. Finally, the geometrical constraint complexity( GCC), kinematic pair complexity( KPC), and type complexity( TC) are proposed to evaluate the press types and the optimal press type is achieved. The general methodologies of type synthesis and evaluation for parallel press mechanism are suggested.
Item Response Theory Evaluation of the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory National Data Set
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wallace, Colin S.; Chambers, Timothy G.; Prather, Edward E.
2018-01-01
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Astronomy Education Research.] This paper presents the first item response theory (IRT) analysis of the national data set on introductory, general education, college-level astronomy teaching using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI). We used the difference between students' pre- and…
Quantum Sets and Clifford Algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finkelstein, David
1982-06-01
The mathematical language presently used for quantum physics is a high-level language. As a lowest-level or basic language I construct a quantum set theory in three stages: (1) Classical set theory, formulated as a Clifford algebra of “ S numbers” generated by a single monadic operation, “bracing,” Br = {…}. (2) Indefinite set theory, a modification of set theory dealing with the modal logical concept of possibility. (3) Quantum set theory. The quantum set is constructed from the null set by the familiar quantum techniques of tensor product and antisymmetrization. There are both a Clifford and a Grassmann algebra with sets as basis elements. Rank and cardinality operators are analogous to Schroedinger coordinates of the theory, in that they are multiplication or “ Q-type” operators. “ P-type” operators analogous to Schroedinger momenta, in that they transform the Q-type quantities, are bracing (Br), Clifford multiplication by a set X, and the creator of X, represented by Grassmann multiplication c( X) by the set X. Br and its adjoint Br* form a Bose-Einstein canonical pair, and c( X) and its adjoint c( X)* form a Fermi-Dirac or anticanonical pair. Many coefficient number systems can be employed in this quantization. I use the integers for a discrete quantum theory, with the usual complex quantum theory as limit. Quantum set theory may be applied to a quantum time space and a quantum automaton.
Functional level-set derivative for a polymer self consistent field theory Hamiltonian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouaknin, Gaddiel; Laachi, Nabil; Bochkov, Daniil; Delaney, Kris; Fredrickson, Glenn H.; Gibou, Frederic
2017-09-01
We derive functional level-set derivatives for the Hamiltonian arising in self-consistent field theory, which are required to solve free boundary problems in the self-assembly of polymeric systems such as block copolymer melts. In particular, we consider Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions. We provide numerical examples that illustrate how these shape derivatives can be used to find equilibrium and metastable structures of block copolymer melts with a free surface in both two and three spatial dimensions.
Höfener, Sebastian; Bischoff, Florian A; Glöss, Andreas; Klopper, Wim
2008-06-21
In the recent years, Slater-type geminals (STGs) have been used with great success to expand the first-order wave function in an explicitly-correlated perturbation theory. The present work reports on this theory's implementation in the framework of the Turbomole suite of programs. A formalism is presented for evaluating all of the necessary molecular two-electron integrals by means of the Obara-Saika recurrence relations, which can be applied when the STG is expressed as a linear combination of a small number (n) of Gaussians (STG-nG geminal basis). In the Turbomole implementation of the theory, density fitting is employed and a complementary auxiliary basis set (CABS) is used for the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation of explicitly-correlated theory. By virtue of this RI approximation, the calculation of molecular three- and four-electron integrals is avoided. An approximation is invoked to avoid the two-electron integrals over the commutator between the operators of kinetic energy and the STG. This approximation consists of computing commutators between matrices in place of operators. Integrals over commutators between operators would have occurred if the theory had been formulated and implemented as proposed originally. The new implementation in Turbomole was tested by performing a series of calculations on rotational conformers of the alkanols n-propanol through n-pentanol. Basis-set requirements concerning the orbital basis, the auxiliary basis set for density fitting and the CABS were investigated. Furthermore, various (constrained) optimizations of the amplitudes of the explicitly-correlated double excitations were studied. These amplitudes can be optimized in orbital-variant and orbital-invariant manners, or they can be kept fixed at the values governed by the rational generator approach, that is, by the electron cusp conditions. Electron-correlation effects beyond the level of second-order perturbation theory were accounted for by conventional
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Culpitt, Tanner; Brorsen, Kurt R.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2017-06-01
Density functional theory (DFT) embedding approaches have generated considerable interest in the field of computational chemistry because they enable calculations on larger systems by treating subsystems at different levels of theory. To circumvent the calculation of the non-additive kinetic potential, various projector methods have been developed to ensure the orthogonality of molecular orbitals between subsystems. Herein the orthogonality constrained basis set expansion (OCBSE) procedure is implemented to enforce this subsystem orbital orthogonality without requiring a level shifting parameter. This scheme is a simple alternative to existing parameter-free projector-based schemes, such as the Huzinaga equation. The main advantage of the OCBSE procedure is that excellent convergence behavior is attained for DFT-in-DFT embedding without freezing any of the subsystem densities. For the three chemical systems studied, the level of accuracy is comparable to or higher than that obtained with the Huzinaga scheme with frozen subsystem densities. Allowing both the high-level and low-level DFT densities to respond to each other during DFT-in-DFT embedding calculations provides more flexibility and renders this approach more generally applicable to chemical systems. It could also be useful for future extensions to embedding approaches combining wavefunction theories and DFT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha B.
2018-06-01
Testing general relativity at cosmological scales and probing the cause of cosmic acceleration are among important objectives targeted by incoming and future astronomical surveys and experiments. I present our recent results on (in)consistency tests that can provide insights about the underlying gravity theory and cosmic acceleration using cosmological data sets. We use new statistical measures that can detect discordances between data sets when present. We use an algorithmic procedure based on these new measures that is able to identify in some cases whether an inconsistency is due to problems related to systematic effects in the data or to the underlying model. Some recent published tensions between data sets are also examined using our formalism, including the Hubble constant measurements, Planck and Large-Scale-Structure. (Work supported in part by NSF under Grant No. AST-1517768).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.
2010-01-01
Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gehrmann, Andreas; Nagai, Yoshimitsu; Yoshida, Osamu; Ishizu, Syohei
Since management decision-making becomes complex and preferences of the decision-maker frequently becomes inconsistent, multi-attribute decision-making problems were studied. To represent inconsistent preference relation, the concept of evaluation structure was introduced. We can generate simple rules to represent inconsistent preference relation by the evaluation structures. Further rough set theory for the preference relation was studied and the concept of approximation was introduced. One of our main aims of this paper is to introduce a concept of rough evaluation structure for representing inconsistent preference relation. We apply rough set theory to the evaluation structure, and develop a method for generating simple rules for inconsistent preference relations. In this paper, we introduce concepts of totally ordered information system, similarity class of preference relation, upper and lower approximation of preference relations. We also show the properties of rough evaluation structure and provide a simple example. As an application of rough evaluation structure, we analyze questionnaire survey of customer preferences about audio players.
Petruzielo, F R; Toulouse, Julien; Umrigar, C J
2011-02-14
A simple yet general method for constructing basis sets for molecular electronic structure calculations is presented. These basis sets consist of atomic natural orbitals from a multiconfigurational self-consistent field calculation supplemented with primitive functions, chosen such that the asymptotics are appropriate for the potential of the system. Primitives are optimized for the homonuclear diatomic molecule to produce a balanced basis set. Two general features that facilitate this basis construction are demonstrated. First, weak coupling exists between the optimal exponents of primitives with different angular momenta. Second, the optimal primitive exponents for a chosen system depend weakly on the particular level of theory employed for optimization. The explicit case considered here is a basis set appropriate for the Burkatzki-Filippi-Dolg pseudopotentials. Since these pseudopotentials are finite at nuclei and have a Coulomb tail, the recently proposed Gauss-Slater functions are the appropriate primitives. Double- and triple-zeta bases are developed for elements hydrogen through argon. These new bases offer significant gains over the corresponding Burkatzki-Filippi-Dolg bases at various levels of theory. Using a Gaussian expansion of the basis functions, these bases can be employed in any electronic structure method. Quantum Monte Carlo provides an added benefit: expansions are unnecessary since the integrals are evaluated numerically.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martucci, Katrina
2016-01-01
Verbal interaction with others has been identified as an important forum for children's developing understanding of the thoughts and feelings of others -- their theory of mind. However, conversational interactions in settings and relationships important to young children beyond the home and family have received little attention in research…
Epitropaki, Olga; Martin, Robin
2004-04-01
The present empirical investigation had a 3-fold purpose: (a) to cross-validate L. R. Offermann, J. K. Kennedy, and P. W. Wirtz's (1994) scale of Implicit Leadership Theories (ILTs) in several organizational settings and to further provide a shorter scale of ILTs in organizations; (b) to assess the generalizability of ILTs across different employee groups, and (c) to evaluate ILTs' change over time. Two independent samples were used for the scale validation (N1 = 500 and N2 = 439). A 6-factor structure (Sensitivity, Intelligence, Dedication, Dynamism, Tyranny, and Masculinity) was found to most accurately represent ELTs in organizational settings. Regarding the generalizability of ILTs, although the 6-factor structure was consistent across different employee groups, there was only partial support for total factorial invariance. Finally, evaluation of gamma, beta, and alpha change provided support for ILTs' stability over time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dekorvin, Andre
1989-01-01
The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.
Grimme, Stefan; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Bannwarth, Christoph; Hansen, Andreas
2015-08-07
A density functional theory (DFT) based composite electronic structure approach is proposed to efficiently compute structures and interaction energies in large chemical systems. It is based on the well-known and numerically robust Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhoff (PBE) generalized-gradient-approximation in a modified global hybrid functional with a relatively large amount of non-local Fock-exchange. The orbitals are expanded in Ahlrichs-type valence-double zeta atomic orbital (AO) Gaussian basis sets, which are available for many elements. In order to correct for the basis set superposition error (BSSE) and to account for the important long-range London dispersion effects, our well-established atom-pairwise potentials are used. In the design of the new method, particular attention has been paid to an accurate description of structural parameters in various covalent and non-covalent bonding situations as well as in periodic systems. Together with the recently proposed three-fold corrected (3c) Hartree-Fock method, the new composite scheme (termed PBEh-3c) represents the next member in a hierarchy of "low-cost" electronic structure approaches. They are mainly free of BSSE and account for most interactions in a physically sound and asymptotically correct manner. PBEh-3c yields good results for thermochemical properties in the huge GMTKN30 energy database. Furthermore, the method shows excellent performance for non-covalent interaction energies in small and large complexes. For evaluating its performance on equilibrium structures, a new compilation of standard test sets is suggested. These consist of small (light) molecules, partially flexible, medium-sized organic molecules, molecules comprising heavy main group elements, larger systems with long bonds, 3d-transition metal systems, non-covalently bound complexes (S22 and S66×8 sets), and peptide conformations. For these sets, overall deviations from accurate reference data are smaller than for various other tested DFT methods
Agenda Setting and Mass Communication Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaw, Eugene F.
The agenda-setting concept in mass communication asserts that the news media determine what people will include or exclude in their cognition of public events. Findings in uses and gratification research provide the foundation for this concept: an initial focus on people's needs, particularly the need for information. The agenda-setting concept…
Entanglement entropy in causal set theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorkin, Rafael D.; Yazdi, Yasaman K.
2018-04-01
Entanglement entropy is now widely accepted as having deep connections with quantum gravity. It is therefore desirable to understand it in the context of causal sets, especially since they provide in a natural manner the UV cutoff needed to render entanglement entropy finite. Formulating a notion of entanglement entropy in a causal set is not straightforward because the type of canonical hypersurface-data on which its definition typically relies is not available. Instead, we appeal to the more global expression given in Sorkin (2012 (arXiv:1205.2953)) which, for a Gaussian scalar field, expresses the entropy of a spacetime region in terms of the field’s correlation function within that region (its ‘Wightman function’ W(x, x') ). Carrying this formula over to the causal set, one obtains an entropy which is both finite and of a Lorentz invariant nature. We evaluate this global entropy-expression numerically for certain regions (primarily order-intervals or ‘causal diamonds’) within causal sets of 1 + 1 dimensions. For the causal-set counterpart of the entanglement entropy, we obtain, in the first instance, a result that follows a (spacetime) volume law instead of the expected (spatial) area law. We find, however, that one obtains an area law if one truncates the commutator function (‘Pauli–Jordan operator’) and the Wightman function by projecting out the eigenmodes of the Pauli–Jordan operator whose eigenvalues are too close to zero according to a geometrical criterion which we describe more fully below. In connection with these results and the questions they raise, we also study the ‘entropy of coarse-graining’ generated by thinning out the causal set, and we compare it with what one obtains by similarly thinning out a chain of harmonic oscillators, finding the same, ‘universal’ behaviour in both cases.
Self-Determination Theory With Application to Employee Health Settings.
Ross, Brenda M; Barnes, Donelle M
2018-01-01
Occupational health nurses motivate employees to engage in healthy behaviors. Both clinicians and researchers need strong theories on which to base decisions for health programs (e.g., healthy diet) and experimental interventions (e.g., workplace walking). The self-determination theory could be useful as it includes concepts of individual autonomy, competence to perform healthy behaviors, and relationships as predictors of health behaviors and outcomes. In this article, the self-determination theory is described and evaluated using Walker and Avant's criteria. The theory is applied to a population of federal employees who smoke. By increasing employees' ability to autonomously choose smoking cessation programs, support their competence to stop smoking, and improve their relationships with both others who smoke and employee health services, smoking cessation should increase.
Stejskal, Taryn M
2012-01-01
Rehabilitation professionals have become increasingly aware that family members play a critical role in the recovery process of individuals after brain injury. In addition, researchers have begun to identify a relationship between family member caregivers' well-being and survivors' outcomes. The idea of a continuum of care or following survivors from inpatient care to community reintegration has become an important model of treatment across many hospital and community-based settings. In concert with the continuum of care, present research literature indicates that family intervention may be a key component to successful rehabilitation after brain injury. Yet, clinicians interacting with family members and survivors often feel confounded about how exactly to intervene with the broader family system beyond the individual survivor. Drawing on the systemic nature of the field of marriage and family therapy (MFT), this article provides information to assist clinicians in effectively intervening with families using theory-based interventions in community settings. First, a rationale for the utilization of systems-based, as opposed to individual-based, therapies will be uncovered. Second, historically relevant publications focusing on family psychotherapy and intervention after brain injury are reviewed and their implications discussed. Recommendations for the utilization of systemic theory-based principles and strategies, specifically cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), narrative therapy (NT), and solution-focused therapy (SFT) will be examined. Descriptions of common challenges families and couples face will be presented along with case examples to illustrate how these theoretical frameworks might be applied to these special concerns postinjury. Finally, the article concludes with an overview of the ideas presented in this manuscript to assist practitioners and systems of care in community-based settings to more effectively intervene with the family system as a whole
Chen, Xuewu; Wei, Ming; Wu, Jingxian; Hou, Xianyao
2014-01-01
Most traditional mode choice models are based on the principle of random utility maximization derived from econometric theory. Alternatively, mode choice modeling can be regarded as a pattern recognition problem reflected from the explanatory variables of determining the choices between alternatives. The paper applies the knowledge discovery technique of rough sets theory to model travel mode choices incorporating household and individual sociodemographics and travel information, and to identify the significance of each attribute. The study uses the detailed travel diary survey data of Changxing county which contains information on both household and individual travel behaviors for model estimation and evaluation. The knowledge is presented in the form of easily understood IF-THEN statements or rules which reveal how each attribute influences mode choice behavior. These rules are then used to predict travel mode choices from information held about previously unseen individuals and the classification performance is assessed. The rough sets model shows high robustness and good predictive ability. The most significant condition attributes identified to determine travel mode choices are gender, distance, household annual income, and occupation. Comparative evaluation with the MNL model also proves that the rough sets model gives superior prediction accuracy and coverage on travel mode choice modeling. PMID:25431585
Rough Set Theory based prognostication of life expectancy for terminally ill patients.
Gil-Herrera, Eleazar; Yalcin, Ali; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Barnes, Laura E; Djulbegovic, Benjamin
2011-01-01
We present a novel knowledge discovery methodology that relies on Rough Set Theory to predict the life expectancy of terminally ill patients in an effort to improve the hospice referral process. Life expectancy prognostication is particularly valuable for terminally ill patients since it enables them and their families to initiate end-of-life discussions and choose the most desired management strategy for the remainder of their lives. We utilize retrospective data from 9105 patients to demonstrate the design and implementation details of a series of classifiers developed to identify potential hospice candidates. Preliminary results confirm the efficacy of the proposed methodology. We envision our work as a part of a comprehensive decision support system designed to assist terminally ill patients in making end-of-life care decisions.
Moe, Cathrine; Brinchmann, Berit Støre
2018-01-01
Reablement is an interprofessional, home-based rehabilitation service that aims to enable senior residents to cope with everyday life and to prevent functional impairments. Systematic accounts of what practitioners actually do when establishing reablement are lacking. This study aims to generate a grounded theory of practitioners' patterns of action when establishing reablement. The study is located in Norway, and grounded theory is the methodological approach. Data were collected from January 2014 to August 2016 through participant observations, focus group interviews and individual interviews. Informants are municipal healthcare employees in different organisational areas associated with the process of establishing reablement services (managers of conventional home care and representatives from the administration and service-provider offices). Altogether, 17 individuals are interviewed. The empirical data are analysed several times using open, selective and theoretical coding. The grounded theory, "tailoring reablement," includes three phases-replicating, adapting and establishing-and the strategies of collaborating, developing knowledge, habituating and filtering. The theory of tailoring reablement also includes the impact of the contextual factors. The study seeks to bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory of tailoring reablement emerges from an inductive approach and theorises participants' actions. The theory focuses on the phases from innovation to implementation. Establishing a new service model in a complex welfare setting requires a wide range of actors and agencies. Tailoring reablement also requires flexibility and professional autonomy. It is important to create terms and conditions for this within a stringent health and care service. The insights of this study have implications for practice development of reablement and can fit other public sector fields. © 2017 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Golledge, Reginald G.
1996-01-01
Discusses the origin of theories in geography and particularly the development of location theories. Considers the influence of economic theory on agricultural land use, industrial location, and geographic location theories. Explores a set of interrelated activities that show how the marketing process illustrates process theory. (MJP)
A theory for aftercare of human trafficking survivors for nursing practice in low resource settings.
Curran, R L; Naidoo, J R; Mchunu, G
2017-06-01
Research on aftercare for human trafficking survivors highlights the limited knowledge of the needs of survivors; the evaluation of current aftercare; and the process of recovery navigated by the survivor in aftercare (Oram et al., 2012; Locke, 2010; Hacker & Cohen, 2012). Furthermore there has been a transition in aftercare where the victim or survivor, who before was seen as a passive victim of circumstance of their life and in need of therapeutic intervention, is now seen as having an active role in their recovery, thus facilitating recovery (Hacker & Cohen, 2012). The need for a theory grounded in survivor's voices therefore motivated this grounded theory study underpinned by Freire's (1970) Pedagogy of the oppressed. The aim of the theory is to inform nursing care of human trafficking survivors in low resource settings. The findings elicit a theoretical model of the renewed self, and the conditions that facilitate this process in care of human trafficking survivors. The recommendations of this paper may improve the nursing care provided to human trafficking survivors and equip nurses and other health professionals with the knowledge and skills to promote the renewing of human trafficking survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brand, Sarah L.; Fleming, Lora E.; Wyatt, Katrina M.
2015-01-01
Many healthy workplace interventions have been developed for healthcare settings to address the consistently low scores of healthcare professionals on assessments of mental and physical well-being. Complex healthcare settings present challenges for the scale-up and spread of successful interventions from one setting to another. Despite general agreement regarding the importance of the local setting in affecting intervention success across different settings, there is no consensus on what it is about a local setting that needs to be taken into account to design healthy workplace interventions appropriate for different local settings. Complexity theory principles were used to understand a workplace as a complex adaptive system and to create a framework of eight domains (system characteristics) that affect the emergence of system-level behaviour. This Workplace of Well-being (WoW) framework is responsive and adaptive to local settings and allows a shared understanding of the enablers and barriers to behaviour change by capturing local information for each of the eight domains. We use the results of applying the WoW framework to one workplace, a UK National Health Service ward, to describe the utility of this approach in informing design of setting-appropriate healthy workplace interventions that create workplaces conducive to healthy behaviour change. PMID:26380358
Brand, Sarah L; Fleming, Lora E; Wyatt, Katrina M
2015-01-01
Many healthy workplace interventions have been developed for healthcare settings to address the consistently low scores of healthcare professionals on assessments of mental and physical well-being. Complex healthcare settings present challenges for the scale-up and spread of successful interventions from one setting to another. Despite general agreement regarding the importance of the local setting in affecting intervention success across different settings, there is no consensus on what it is about a local setting that needs to be taken into account to design healthy workplace interventions appropriate for different local settings. Complexity theory principles were used to understand a workplace as a complex adaptive system and to create a framework of eight domains (system characteristics) that affect the emergence of system-level behaviour. This Workplace of Well-being (WoW) framework is responsive and adaptive to local settings and allows a shared understanding of the enablers and barriers to behaviour change by capturing local information for each of the eight domains. We use the results of applying the WoW framework to one workplace, a UK National Health Service ward, to describe the utility of this approach in informing design of setting-appropriate healthy workplace interventions that create workplaces conducive to healthy behaviour change.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, Liu; Ding, Liu Wen
Inspection is not only one of the most significant duties, but the important prerequisite for going through Customs. Setting the inspection rate scientifically can not only solve the contradiction between the "check on" and "service" for CIQ (CHINA ENTRY-EXIT INSPECTION AND UARANTINE)site inspection personnel, but can highlight the key of inspection and enhance the ratio of discovering, achieving the optimum allocation of CIQ's limited human and material resources. In this article, from the characteristics of inspection risk evaluation themselves, considering the setting problem of check rate at from the angle of data mining, construct an index system rationally and objectively. On the basis of Fuzzy theory, evaluate the risk of the inward and outward goods with the grey-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and establish the inspection rate scientifically.
Scobbie, Lesley; Dixon, Diane; Wyke, Sally
2011-05-01
Setting and achieving goals is fundamental to rehabilitation practice but has been criticized for being a-theoretical and the key components of replicable goal-setting interventions are not well established. To describe the development of a theory-based goal setting practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings and to detail its component parts. Causal modelling was used to map theories of behaviour change onto the process of setting and achieving rehabilitation goals, and to suggest the mechanisms through which patient outcomes are likely to be affected. A multidisciplinary task group developed the causal model into a practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings through iterative discussion and implementation with six patients. Four components of a goal-setting and action-planning practice framework were identified: (i) goal negotiation, (ii) goal identification, (iii) planning, and (iv) appraisal and feedback. The variables hypothesized to effect change in patient outcomes were self-efficacy and action plan attainment. A theory-based goal setting practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings is described. The framework requires further development and systematic evaluation in a range of rehabilitation settings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez, Diego A.; Uribe, Felipe; Hurtado, Jorge E.
2018-02-01
Random set theory is a general framework which comprises uncertainty in the form of probability boxes, possibility distributions, cumulative distribution functions, Dempster-Shafer structures or intervals; in addition, the dependence between the input variables can be expressed using copulas. In this paper, the lower and upper bounds on the probability of failure are calculated by means of random set theory. In order to accelerate the calculation, a well-known and efficient probability-based reliability method known as subset simulation is employed. This method is especially useful for finding small failure probabilities in both low- and high-dimensional spaces, disjoint failure domains and nonlinear limit state functions. The proposed methodology represents a drastic reduction of the computational labor implied by plain Monte Carlo simulation for problems defined with a mixture of representations for the input variables, while delivering similar results. Numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.
A Grounded Theory Study of HIV-Related Stigma in U.S.-Based Health Care Settings.
Davtyan, Mariam; Olshansky, Ellen F; Brown, Brandon; Lakon, Cynthia
Despite progress made in the treatment and care of people living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related stigma has remained persistent. Health care settings and workers have been identified as important sources of stigma. Studies have addressed the construct of stigma in U.S. health care settings, but mainly from the perspectives of PLWH. We used Grounded Theory to understand how health care workers conceptualized HIV-related stigma and to develop a model to project a purposive view of stigma in health care settings. Our model indicates that stigma may be rooted in historically derogatory representations of HIV and intensified by power inequalities. Stigma may be triggered by fear, inadequate clinical education and training, unintentional behaviors, and limited contact with PLWH. Study participants perceived stigma as injurious to patient and provider health outcomes. Additional research on provider perceptions of stigma and programs that encourage empowerment, communication, and training may be necessary for stigma reduction. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An efficient graph theory based method to identify every minimal reaction set in a metabolic network
2014-01-01
Background Development of cells with minimal metabolic functionality is gaining importance due to their efficiency in producing chemicals and fuels. Existing computational methods to identify minimal reaction sets in metabolic networks are computationally expensive. Further, they identify only one of the several possible minimal reaction sets. Results In this paper, we propose an efficient graph theory based recursive optimization approach to identify all minimal reaction sets. Graph theoretical insights offer systematic methods to not only reduce the number of variables in math programming and increase its computational efficiency, but also provide efficient ways to find multiple optimal solutions. The efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated using case studies from Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In case study 1, the proposed method identified three minimal reaction sets each containing 38 reactions in Escherichia coli central metabolic network with 77 reactions. Analysis of these three minimal reaction sets revealed that one of them is more suitable for developing minimal metabolism cell compared to other two due to practically achievable internal flux distribution. In case study 2, the proposed method identified 256 minimal reaction sets from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome scale metabolic network with 620 reactions. The proposed method required only 4.5 hours to identify all the 256 minimal reaction sets and has shown a significant reduction (approximately 80%) in the solution time when compared to the existing methods for finding minimal reaction set. Conclusions Identification of all minimal reactions sets in metabolic networks is essential since different minimal reaction sets have different properties that effect the bioprocess development. The proposed method correctly identified all minimal reaction sets in a both the case studies. The proposed method is computationally efficient compared to other methods for finding minimal
Rough set classification based on quantum logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, Yasser F.
2017-11-01
By combining the advantages of quantum computing and soft computing, the paper shows that rough sets can be used with quantum logic for classification and recognition systems. We suggest the new definition of rough set theory as quantum logic theory. Rough approximations are essential elements in rough set theory, the quantum rough set model for set-valued data directly construct set approximation based on a kind of quantum similarity relation which is presented here. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the new model for quantum rough sets has new type of decision rule with less redundancy which can be used to give accurate classification using principles of quantum superposition and non-linear quantum relations. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt aiming to define rough sets in representation of a quantum rather than logic or sets. The experiments on data-sets have demonstrated that the proposed model is more accuracy than the traditional rough sets in terms of finding optimal classifications.
The Study and Design of Adaptive Learning System Based on Fuzzy Set Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Bing; Zhong, Shaochun; Zheng, Tianyang; Liu, Zhiyong
Adaptive learning is an effective way to improve the learning outcomes, that is, the selection of learning content and presentation should be adapted to each learner's learning context, learning levels and learning ability. Adaptive Learning System (ALS) can provide effective support for adaptive learning. This paper proposes a new ALS based on fuzzy set theory. It can effectively estimate the learner's knowledge level by test according to learner's target. Then take the factors of learner's cognitive ability and preference into consideration to achieve self-organization and push plan of knowledge. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of domain model and user model in ALS. Experiments confirmed that the system providing adaptive content can effectively help learners to memory the content and improve their comprehension.
Routines and rituals: a grounded theory of the pain management of drug users in acute care settings.
McCreaddie, May; Lyons, Imogen; Watt, Debbie; Ewing, Elspeth; Croft, Jeanette; Smith, Marion; Tocher, Jennifer
2010-10-01
This study reviewed the perceptions and strategies of drug users and nurses with regard to pain management in acute care settings. Drug users present unique challenges in acute care settings with pain management noted to be at best suboptimal, at worst non-existent. Little is known about why and specifically how therapeutic effectiveness is compromised. Qualitative: constructivist grounded theory. A constructivist grounded theory approach incorporating a constant comparative method of data collection and analysis was applied. The data corpus comprised interviews with drug users (n = 11) and five focus groups (n = 22) of nurses and recovering drug users. Moral relativism as the core category both represents the phenomenon and explains the basic social process. Nurses and drug users struggle with moral relativism when addressing the issue of pain management in the acute care setting. Drug users lay claim to expectations of compassionate care and moralise via narration. Paradoxically, nurses report that the caring ideal and mutuality of caring are diminished. Drug users' individual sensitivities, anxieties and felt stigma in conjunction with opioid-induced hyperalgesia complicate the processes. Nurses' and hospitals' organisational routines challenge drug user rituals and vice versa leading both protagonists to become disaffected. Consequently, key clinical issues such as preventing withdrawal and managing pain are left unaddressed and therapeutic effectiveness is compromised. This study provides a robust account of nurses' and drug users' struggle with pain management in the acute care setting. Quick technological fixes such as urine screens, checklists or the transient effects of (cognitive-based) education (or training) are not the answer. This study highlights the need for nurses to engage meaningfully with this perceptibly 'difficult' group of patients. The key aspects likely to contribute to problematic interactions with this patient cohort are outlined so that
Machado, Armando; Pata, Paulo
2005-02-01
Two theories of timing, scalar expectancy theory (SET) and learning-to-time (LeT), make substantially different assumptions about what animals learn in temporal tasks. In a test of these assumptions, pigeons learned two temporal discriminations. On Type 1 trials, they learned to choose a red key after a 1-sec signal and a green key after a 4-sec signal; on Type 2 trials, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-sec signal and a yellow key after either an 8-sec signal (Group 8) or a 16-sec signal (Group 16). Then, the birds were exposed to signals 1 sec, 4 sec, and 16 sec in length and given a choice between novel key combinations (red or green vs. blue or yellow). The choice between the green key and the blue key was of particular significance because both keys were associated with the same 4-sec signal. Whereas SET predicted no effect of the test signal duration on choice, LeT predicted that preference for green would increase monotonically with the length of the signal but would do so faster for Group 8 than for Group 16. The results were consistent with LeT, but not with SET.
Hill, J Grant
2013-09-30
Auxiliary basis sets (ABS) specifically matched to the cc-pwCVnZ-PP and aug-cc-pwCVnZ-PP orbital basis sets (OBS) have been developed and optimized for the 4d elements Y-Pd at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level. Calculation of the core-valence electron correlation energies for small to medium sized transition metal complexes demonstrates that the error due to the use of these new sets in density fitting is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that due to the OBS incompleteness, and hence is considered negligible. Utilizing the ABSs in the resolution-of-the-identity component of explicitly correlated calculations is also investigated, where it is shown that i-type functions are important to produce well-controlled errors in both integrals and correlation energy. Benchmarking at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations level indicates impressive convergence with respect to basis set size for the spectroscopic constants of 4d monofluorides; explicitly correlated double-ζ calculations produce results close to conventional quadruple-ζ, and triple-ζ is within chemical accuracy of the complete basis set limit. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ergodic theory and visualization. II. Fourier mesochronic plots visualize (quasi)periodic sets.
Levnajić, Zoran; Mezić, Igor
2015-05-01
We present an application and analysis of a visualization method for measure-preserving dynamical systems introduced by I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk [Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], based on frequency analysis and Koopman operator theory. This extends our earlier work on visualization of ergodic partition [Z. Levnajić and I. Mezić, Chaos 20, 033114 (2010)]. Our method employs the concept of Fourier time average [I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk, Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], and is realized as a computational algorithms for visualization of periodic and quasi-periodic sets in the phase space. The complement of periodic phase space partition contains chaotic zone, and we show how to identify it. The range of method's applicability is illustrated using well-known Chirikov standard map, while its potential in illuminating higher-dimensional dynamics is presented by studying the Froeschlé map and the Extended Standard Map.
An Efficient Soft Set-Based Approach for Conflict Analysis
Sutoyo, Edi; Mungad, Mungad; Hamid, Suraya; Herawan, Tutut
2016-01-01
Conflict analysis has been used as an important tool in economic, business, governmental and political dispute, games, management negotiations, military operations and etc. There are many mathematical formal models have been proposed to handle conflict situations and one of the most popular is rough set theory. With the ability to handle vagueness from the conflict data set, rough set theory has been successfully used. However, computational time is still an issue when determining the certainty, coverage, and strength of conflict situations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to handle conflict situations, based on some ideas using soft set theory. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike in rough set theory that uses decision rules, it is based on the concept of co-occurrence of parameters in soft set theory. We illustrate the proposed approach by means of a tutorial example of voting analysis in conflict situations. Furthermore, we elaborate the proposed approach on real world dataset of political conflict in Indonesian Parliament. We show that, the proposed approach achieves lower computational time as compared to rough set theory of up to 3.9%. PMID:26928627
An Efficient Soft Set-Based Approach for Conflict Analysis.
Sutoyo, Edi; Mungad, Mungad; Hamid, Suraya; Herawan, Tutut
2016-01-01
Conflict analysis has been used as an important tool in economic, business, governmental and political dispute, games, management negotiations, military operations and etc. There are many mathematical formal models have been proposed to handle conflict situations and one of the most popular is rough set theory. With the ability to handle vagueness from the conflict data set, rough set theory has been successfully used. However, computational time is still an issue when determining the certainty, coverage, and strength of conflict situations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to handle conflict situations, based on some ideas using soft set theory. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike in rough set theory that uses decision rules, it is based on the concept of co-occurrence of parameters in soft set theory. We illustrate the proposed approach by means of a tutorial example of voting analysis in conflict situations. Furthermore, we elaborate the proposed approach on real world dataset of political conflict in Indonesian Parliament. We show that, the proposed approach achieves lower computational time as compared to rough set theory of up to 3.9%.
Social Integration in Employment Settings: Application of Intergroup Contact Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novak, Jeanne A.; Rogan, Patricia M.
2010-01-01
This study used a survey of 106 employment specialists to test the ability of intergroup contact theory to explain social integration outcomes of employees with disabilities. Contact theory suggests that coworkers are more accepting of employees with disabilities if they have sufficient opportunities to interact with them, equal status and…
Idrovo, Alvaro J; Albavera-Hernández, Cidronio; Rodríguez-Hernández, Jorge Martín
2011-07-01
There are few social epidemiologic studies on chickenpox outbreaks, although previous findings suggested the important role of social determinants. This study describes the context of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Cauca Valley region, Colombia (2003 to 2007), with an emphasis on macro-determinants. We explored the temporal trends in chickenpox incidence in 42 municipalities to identify the places with higher occurrences. We analyzed municipal characteristics (education quality, vaccination coverage, performance of health care services, violence-related immigration, and area size of planted sugar cane) through analyses based on set theory. Edwards-Venn diagrams were used to present the main findings. The results indicated that three municipalities had higher incidences and that poor quality education was the attribute most prone to a higher incidence. Potential use of set theory for exploratory outbreak analyses is discussed. It is a tool potentially useful to contrast units when only small sample sizes are available.
Ergodic theory and visualization. II. Fourier mesochronic plots visualize (quasi)periodic sets
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Levnajić, Zoran; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106; Mezić, Igor
We present an application and analysis of a visualization method for measure-preserving dynamical systems introduced by I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk [Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], based on frequency analysis and Koopman operator theory. This extends our earlier work on visualization of ergodic partition [Z. Levnajić and I. Mezić, Chaos 20, 033114 (2010)]. Our method employs the concept of Fourier time average [I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk, Physica D 197, 101 (2004)], and is realized as a computational algorithms for visualization of periodic and quasi-periodic sets in the phase space. The complement of periodic phase space partition contains chaotic zone,more » and we show how to identify it. The range of method's applicability is illustrated using well-known Chirikov standard map, while its potential in illuminating higher-dimensional dynamics is presented by studying the Froeschlé map and the Extended Standard Map.« less
On Fuzzy Sets and Rough Sets from the Perspective of Indiscernibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Mihir K.
The category theoretic approach of Obtułowicz to Pawlak's rough sets has been reintroduced in a somewhat modified form. A generalization is rendered to this approach that has been motivated by the notion of rough membership function. Thus, a link is established between rough sets and L-fuzzy sets for some special lattices. It is shown that a notion of indistinguishability lies at the root of vagueness. This observation in turn gives a common ground to the theories of rough sets and fuzzy sets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Worm, Jeffrey A.; Culas, Donald E.
1991-01-01
Computers are not designed to handle terms where uncertainty is present. To deal with uncertainty, techniques other than classical logic must be developed. This paper examines the concepts of statistical analysis, the Dempster-Shafer theory, rough set theory, and fuzzy set theory to solve this problem. The fundamentals of these theories are combined to provide the possible optimal solution. By incorporating principles from these theories, a decision-making process may be simulated by extracting two sets of fuzzy rules: certain rules and possible rules. From these rules a corresponding measure of how much we believe these rules is constructed. From this, the idea of how much a fuzzy diagnosis is definable in terms of its fuzzy attributes is studied.
Application of fuzzy set theory for integral assessment of agricultural products quality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derkanosova, N. M.; Ponomareva, I. N.; Shurshikova, G. V.; Vasilenko, O. A.
2018-05-01
The methodology of integrated assessment of quality and safety of agricultural products, approbated by the example of indicators of wheat grain in relation to the provision of consumer properties of bakery products, was developed. Determination of the level of quality of the raw ingredients will allow direct using of agricultural raw materials for food production, taking into account ongoing technology, types of products, and, respectively, rational use of resource potential of the agricultural sector. The mathematical tool of the proposed method is a fuzzy set theory. The fuzzy classifier to evaluate the properties of the grain is formed. The set of six indicators normalized by the national standard is determined; values are ordered and represented by linguistic variables with a trapeziform membership function; the rules for calculation of membership functions are presented. Specific criteria values for individual indicators in shaping the quality of the finished products are considered. For one of the samples of wheat grain values of membership; functions of the linguistic variable "level" for all indicators and the linguistic variable "level of quality" were calculated. It is established that the studied sample of grain obtains the 2 (average) level of quality. Accordingly, it can be recommended for the production of bakery products with higher requirements for the structural-mechanical properties bakery and puff pastry products hearth bread and flour confectionery products of the group of hard dough cookies and crackers
The Halo mass function from Excursion Set Theory. II. The Diffusing Barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maggiore, Michele; Riotto, Antonio
2010-07-01
In excursion set theory, the computation of the halo mass function is mapped into a first-passage time process in the presence of a barrier, which in the spherical collapse model is a constant and in the ellipsoidal collapse model is a fixed function of the variance of the smoothed density field. However, N-body simulations show that dark matter halos grow through a mixture of smooth accretion, violent encounters, and fragmentations, and modeling halo collapse as spherical, or even as ellipsoidal, is a significant oversimplification. In addition, the very definition of what is a dark matter halo, both in N-body simulations and observationally, is a difficult problem. We propose that some of the physical complications inherent to a realistic description of halo formation can be included in the excursion set theory framework, at least at an effective level, by taking into account that the critical value for collapse is not a fixed constant δ c , as in the spherical collapse model, nor a fixed function of the variance σ of the smoothed density field, as in the ellipsoidal collapse model, but rather is itself a stochastic variable, whose scatter reflects a number of complicated aspects of the underlying dynamics. Solving the first-passage time problem in the presence of a diffusing barrier we find that the exponential factor in the Press-Schechter mass function changes from exp{-δ2 c /2σ2} to exp{-aδ2 c /2σ2}, where a = 1/(1 + DB ) and DB is the diffusion coefficient of the barrier. The numerical value of DB , and therefore the corresponding value of a, depends among other things on the algorithm used for identifying halos. We discuss the physical origin of the stochasticity of the barrier and, from recent N-body simulations that studied the properties of the collapse barrier, we deduce a value DB ~= 0.25. Our model then predicts a ~= 0.80, in excellent agreement with the exponential fall off of the mass function found in N-body simulations, for the same halo
New 5-adic Cantor sets and fractal string.
Kumar, Ashish; Rani, Mamta; Chugh, Renu
2013-01-01
In the year (1879-1884), George Cantor coined few problems and consequences in the field of set theory. One of them was the Cantor ternary set as a classical example of fractals. In this paper, 5-adic Cantor one-fifth set as an example of fractal string have been introduced. Moreover, the applications of 5-adic Cantor one-fifth set in string theory have also been studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philpott, Lydia
2010-09-01
Central to the development of any new theory is the investigation of the observable consequences of the theory. In the search for quantum gravity, research in phenomenology has been dominated by models violating Lorentz invariance (LI) -- despite there being, at present, no evidence that LI is violated. Causal set theory is a LI candidate theory of QG that seeks not to quantise gravity as such, but rather to develop a new understanding of the universe from which both GR and QM could arise separately. The key hypothesis is that spacetime is a discrete partial order: a set of events where the partial ordering is the physical causal ordering between the events. This thesis investigates Lorentz invariant QG phenomenology motivated by the causal set approach. Massive particles propagating in a discrete spacetime will experience diffusion in both position and momentum in proper time. This thesis considers this idea in more depth, providing a rigorous derivation of the diffusion equation in terms of observable cosmic time. The diffusion behaviour does not depend on any particular underlying particle model. Simulations of three different models are conducted, revealing behaviour that matches the diffusion equation despite limitations on the size of causal set simulated. The effect of spacetime discreteness on the behaviour of massless particles is also investigated. Diffusion equations in both affine time and cosmic time are derived, and it is found that massless particles undergo diffusion and drift in energy. Constraints are placed on the magnitudes of the drift and diffusion parameters by considering the blackbody nature of the CMB. Spacetime discreteness also has a potentially observable effect on photon polarisation. For linearly polarised photons, underlying discreteness is found to cause a rotation in polarisation angle and a suppression in overall polarisation.
Theory X/Y in the Health Care Setting: Employee Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behaviors.
Prottas, David J; Nummelin, Mary Rogers
Douglas McGregor's conceptualization of Theory X and Theory Y has influenced management practices for almost six decades, despite the relative paucity of empirical support. This empirical study examined the relationships between health care employees' perceptions of (1) manager Theory Y and Theory X orientations; (2) work unit psychological safety, organizational citizenship behavior, and service quality; and (3) the employing entity. The study used survey data from more than 3500 employees of a large US health care system and analyzed them using confirmatory factor and hierarchical regression analyses. Results indicate that McGregor's conceptualization is best considered as two separate constructs-Theory Y and Theory X-rather than as one-dimensional X/Y construct. This study's three dependent variables were positively related to Theory Y and negatively related to Theory X, with larger Theory Y effect sizes. Psychological safety partially mediated the relationship between Theory Y and the dependent variables Y. Practical implications are presented.
Measuring uncertainty by extracting fuzzy rules using rough sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Worm, Jeffrey A.
1991-01-01
Despite the advancements in the computer industry in the past 30 years, there is still one major deficiency. Computers are not designed to handle terms where uncertainty is present. To deal with uncertainty, techniques other than classical logic must be developed. The methods are examined of statistical analysis, the Dempster-Shafer theory, rough set theory, and fuzzy set theory to solve this problem. The fundamentals of these theories are combined to possibly provide the optimal solution. By incorporating principles from these theories, a decision making process may be simulated by extracting two sets of fuzzy rules: certain rules and possible rules. From these rules a corresponding measure of how much these rules is believed is constructed. From this, the idea of how much a fuzzy diagnosis is definable in terms of a set of fuzzy attributes is studied.
Approximation Set of the Interval Set in Pawlak's Space
Wang, Jin; Wang, Guoyin
2014-01-01
The interval set is a special set, which describes uncertainty of an uncertain concept or set Z with its two crisp boundaries named upper-bound set and lower-bound set. In this paper, the concept of similarity degree between two interval sets is defined at first, and then the similarity degrees between an interval set and its two approximations (i.e., upper approximation set R¯(Z) and lower approximation set R_(Z)) are presented, respectively. The disadvantages of using upper-approximation set R¯(Z) or lower-approximation set R_(Z) as approximation sets of the uncertain set (uncertain concept) Z are analyzed, and a new method for looking for a better approximation set of the interval set Z is proposed. The conclusion that the approximation set R 0.5(Z) is an optimal approximation set of interval set Z is drawn and proved successfully. The change rules of R 0.5(Z) with different binary relations are analyzed in detail. Finally, a kind of crisp approximation set of the interval set Z is constructed. We hope this research work will promote the development of both the interval set model and granular computing theory. PMID:25177721
From practice to midrange theory and back again: Beck's theory of postpartum depression.
Lasiuk, Gerri C; Ferguson, Linda M
2005-01-01
This article presents a brief overview of theory as background for a more detailed discussion of midrange theory-its origins, the critical role for midrange theory in the development of nursing practice knowledge, and the criteria for evaluating midrange theory. We then chronicle Cheryl Tatano Beck's program of research on postpartum depression (PPD) and advance the thesis that her theory of PPD, titled Teetering on the Edge, is an exemplar of a substantive midrange nursing theory. We demonstrate Beck's progression from identification of a clinical problem to exploratory-descriptive research, to concept analysis and midrange theory development, and finally to the application and testing of the theory in the clinical setting. Through ongoing refinement and testing of her theory, Beck has increased its generalizability across various practice settings and continually identifies new issues for investigation. Beck's program of research on PPD exemplifies using nursing outcomes to build and test nursing practice knowledge.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Hsu, Po Jen; Lai, S. K., E-mail: sklai@coll.phy.ncu.edu.tw; Rapallo, Arnaldo
Improved basis sets for the study of polymer dynamics by means of the diffusion theory, and tests on a melt of cis-1,4-polyisoprene decamers, and a toluene solution of a 71-mer syndiotactic trans-1,2-polypentadiene were presented recently [R. Gaspari and A. Rapallo, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244109 (2008)]. The proposed hybrid basis approach (HBA) combined two techniques, the long time sorting procedure and the maximum correlation approximation. The HBA takes advantage of the strength of these two techniques, and its basis sets proved to be very effective and computationally convenient in describing both local and global dynamics in cases of flexible syntheticmore » polymers where the repeating unit is a unique type of monomer. The question then arises if the same efficacy continues when the HBA is applied to polymers of different monomers, variable local stiffness along the chain and with longer persistence length, which have different local and global dynamical properties against the above-mentioned systems. Important examples of this kind of molecular chains are the proteins, so that a fragment of the protein transthyretin is chosen as the system of the present study. This peptide corresponds to a sequence that is structured in β-sheets of the protein and is located on the surface of the channel with thyroxin. The protein transthyretin forms amyloid fibrils in vivo, whereas the peptide fragment has been shown [C. P. Jaroniec, C. E. MacPhee, N. S. Astrof, C. M. Dobson, and R. G. Griffin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 16748 (2002)] to form amyloid fibrils in vitro in extended β-sheet conformations. For these reasons the latter is given considerable attention in the literature and studied also as an isolated fragment in water solution where both experimental and theoretical efforts have indicated the propensity of the system to form β turns or α helices, but is otherwise predominantly unstructured. Differing from previous computational studies that employed
McFarland, Marilyn M; Eipperle, Marilyn K
2008-04-01
Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality is presented as a foundational basis for the educational preparation, primary care contextual practice, and outcomes-focused research endeavours of advanced practice nursing. Discussion emphasises the value of care and caring as the essence of advanced practice nursing through the use of three modes of care, use of the Sunrise and other enablers, and the ethnonursing method. Education, research, practice, and key concepts of the theory are connected as essential components toward the provision of culturally congruent care to meet the healthcare needs of diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities by family nurse practitioners.
Use of culture care theory with Anglo- and African American elders in a long-term care setting.
McFarland, M R
1997-01-01
The purpose of this study was to discover the care expressions, practices, and patterns of elderly Anglo- and African American elders. The domain of inquiry was the cultural care of elderly residents within the environmental context of a long-term care institution. The ethnonursing qualitative research method was used to conduct the study which was conceptualized within Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality. Four major themes were discovered: (a) Residents expressed and lived generic care to maintain their preadmission lifeways; (b) The nursing staff provided aspects of professional care to support satisfying lifeways for residents; (c) Institutional care patterns and expressions were viewed as a continuing life experience but with major differences between the apartment section and nursing home units; and (d) An institutional culture of the retirement home was discovered which reflected unique lifeways and shared care and health expressions and practices. These themes substantiated the culture care theory and revealed new modes of care for the elderly in an institutional setting.
Prospect Theory and Interval-Valued Hesitant Set for Safety Evacuation Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kou, Meng; Lu, Na
2018-01-01
The study applies the research results of prospect theory and multi attribute decision making theory, combined with the complexity, uncertainty and multifactor influence of the underground mine fire system and takes the decision makers’ psychological behavior of emotion and intuition into full account to establish the intuitionistic fuzzy multiple attribute decision making method that is based on the prospect theory. The model established by this method can explain the decision maker’s safety evacuation decision behavior in the complex system of underground mine fire due to the uncertainty of the environment, imperfection of the information and human psychological behavior and other factors.
Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a truncated basis set: An augmented-KKR formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alam, Aftab; Khan, Suffian N.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nicholson, D. M.; Johnson, Duane D.
2014-11-01
The Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function, multiple-scattering theory is an efficient site-centered, electronic-structure technique for addressing an assembly of N scatterers. Wave functions are expanded in a spherical-wave basis on each scattering center and indexed up to a maximum orbital and azimuthal number Lmax=(l,mmax), while scattering matrices, which determine spectral properties, are truncated at Lt r=(l,mt r) where phase shifts δl >ltr are negligible. Historically, Lmax is set equal to Lt r, which is correct for large enough Lmax but not computationally expedient; a better procedure retains higher-order (free-electron and single-site) contributions for Lmax>Lt r with δl >ltr set to zero [X.-G. Zhang and W. H. Butler, Phys. Rev. B 46, 7433 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevB.46.7433]. We present a numerically efficient and accurate augmented-KKR Green's function formalism that solves the KKR equations by exact matrix inversion [R3 process with rank N (ltr+1 ) 2 ] and includes higher-L contributions via linear algebra [R2 process with rank N (lmax+1) 2 ]. The augmented-KKR approach yields properly normalized wave functions, numerically cheaper basis-set convergence, and a total charge density and electron count that agrees with Lloyd's formula. We apply our formalism to fcc Cu, bcc Fe, and L 1 0 CoPt and present the numerical results for accuracy and for the convergence of the total energies, Fermi energies, and magnetic moments versus Lmax for a given Lt r.
Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a truncated basis set: An augmented-KKR formalism
Alam, Aftab; Khan, Suffian N.; Smirnov, A. V.; ...
2014-11-04
Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function, multiple-scattering theory is an ecient sitecentered, electronic-structure technique for addressing an assembly of N scatterers. Wave-functions are expanded in a spherical-wave basis on each scattering center and indexed up to a maximum orbital and azimuthal number L max = (l,m) max, while scattering matrices, which determine spectral properties, are truncated at L tr = (l,m) tr where phase shifts δl>l tr are negligible. Historically, L max is set equal to L tr, which is correct for large enough L max but not computationally expedient; a better procedure retains higher-order (free-electron and single-site) contributions for L maxmore » > L tr with δl>l tr set to zero [Zhang and Butler, Phys. Rev. B 46, 7433]. We present a numerically ecient and accurate augmented-KKR Green's function formalism that solves the KKR equations by exact matrix inversion [R 3 process with rank N(l tr + 1) 2] and includes higher-L contributions via linear algebra [R 2 process with rank N(l max +1) 2]. Augmented-KKR approach yields properly normalized wave-functions, numerically cheaper basis-set convergence, and a total charge density and electron count that agrees with Lloyd's formula. We apply our formalism to fcc Cu, bcc Fe and L1 0 CoPt, and present the numerical results for accuracy and for the convergence of the total energies, Fermi energies, and magnetic moments versus L max for a given L tr.« less
Human Purposive Movement Theory
2012-03-01
theory and provides examples of developmental and operational technologies that could use this theory in common settings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS human ... activity , prediction of behavior, human algorithms purposive movement theory 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18
Goal-Setting in Youth Football. Are Coaches Missing an Opportunity?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maitland, Alison; Gervis, Misia
2010-01-01
Background: Goal-setting is not always the simple motivational technique when used in an applied sport setting especially in relation to the meaning of achievement in competitive sport. Goal-setting needs to be examined in a broader context than goal-setting theory, such as provided by social cognitive theories of motivation. In football, the…
Theories of Motivation--Borrowing the Best.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terpstra, David E.
1979-01-01
Five theories of motivation are discussed: Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Herzberg's dual-factor or motivation-hygiene theory, goal setting or task motivation, expectancy/valence-theory (also known as instrumentality theory, valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, or expectancy theory), and reinforcement. (JH)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamed, Samia; Rangel, Tonatiuh; Bruneval, Fabien; Neaton, Jeffrey B.
Quantitative understanding of charged and neutral excitations of organic molecules is critical in diverse areas of study that include astrophysics and the development of energy technologies that are clean and efficient. The recent use of local basis sets with ab initio many-body perturbation theory in the GW approximation and the Bethe-Saltpeter equation approach (BSE), methods traditionally applied to periodic condensed phases with a plane-wave basis, has opened the door to detailed study of such excitations for molecules, as well as accurate numerical benchmarks. Here, through a series of systematic benchmarks with a Gaussian basis, we report on the extent to which the predictive power and utility of this approach depend critically on interdependent underlying approximations and choices for molecules, including the mean-field starting point (eg optimally-tuned range separated hybrids, pure DFT functionals, and untuned hybrids), the GW scheme, and the Tamm Dancoff approximation. We demonstrate the effects of these choices in the context of Thiels' set while drawing analogies to linear-response time-dependent DFT and making comparisons to best theoretical estimates from higher-order wavefunction-based theories.
Rydon-Grange, Michelle
2015-11-01
The National Health Service (NHS) has, for over four decades, been beset with numerous 'scandals' relating to poor patient care across several diverse clinical contexts. Ensuing inquiries proceed as though each scandal is unique, with recommendations highlighting the need for more staff training, a change of culture within the NHS based upon a 'duty of candour', and proposed criminal sanctions for employees believed to breach good patient care. However, mistakes reoccur and failings in patient safety continue. While inquiries describe what went awry in each case, questions of how and why such failures came to be remain unanswered. Psychology has a role in answering these questions. Applying psychological theory can guide an understanding of the causes that lead to catastrophic failures in healthcare settings. Indeed, what is often neglected in inquiries is the role of human behaviour in contributing to these failures. Drawing upon behavioural, social and cognitive theories, a psychological analysis of key factors, typically present in clinical contexts where serious failures of care occur, is presented. Applying theory and models from the field of psychology can guide further understanding of the precipitants to poor care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellerman, David
2014-03-01
In models of QM over finite fields (e.g., Schumacher's ``modal quantum theory'' MQT), one finite field stands out, Z2, since Z2 vectors represent sets. QM (finite-dimensional) mathematics can be transported to sets resulting in quantum mechanics over sets or QM/sets. This gives a full probability calculus (unlike MQT with only zero-one modalities) that leads to a fulsome theory of QM/sets including ``logical'' models of the double-slit experiment, Bell's Theorem, QIT, and QC. In QC over Z2 (where gates are non-singular matrices as in MQT), a simple quantum algorithm (one gate plus one function evaluation) solves the Parity SAT problem (finding the parity of the sum of all values of an n-ary Boolean function). Classically, the Parity SAT problem requires 2n function evaluations in contrast to the one function evaluation required in the quantum algorithm. This is quantum speedup but with all the calculations over Z2 just like classical computing. This shows definitively that the source of quantum speedup is not in the greater power of computing over the complex numbers, and confirms the idea that the source is in superposition.
Koenig, Christopher J; Maguen, Shira; Daley, Aaron; Cohen, Greg; Seal, Karen H
2013-01-01
Handoffs are communication processes that enact the transfer of responsibility between providers across clinical settings. Prior research on handoff communication has focused on inpatient settings between provider teams and has emphasized patient safety. This study examines handoff communication within multidisciplinary provider teams in two outpatient settings. To conduct an exploratory study that describes handoff communication among multidisciplinary providers, to develop a theory-driven descriptive framework for outpatient handoffs, and to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different handoff types. Qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 31 primary care, mental health, and social work providers in two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center outpatient clinics. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using Grounded Practical Theory to develop a theoretical model of and a descriptive framework for handoff communication among multidisciplinary providers. Multidisciplinary providers reported that handoff decisions across settings were made spontaneously and without clear guidelines. Two situated values, clinic efficiency and patient-centeredness, shaped multidisciplinary providers' handoff decisions. Providers reported three handoff techniques along a continuum: the electronic handoff, which was the most clinically efficient; the provider-to-provider handoff, which balanced clinic efficiency and patient-centeredness; and the collaborative handoff, which was the most patient-centered. Providers described handoff choice as a practical response to manage constituent features of clinic efficiency (time, space, medium of communication) and patient-centeredness (information continuity, management continuity, relational continuity, and social interaction). We present a theoretical and descriptive framework to help providers evaluate differential handoff use, reflect on situated values guiding clinic communication, and guide
Goal Setting as Teacher Development Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Camp, Heather
2017-01-01
This article explores goal setting as a teacher development practice in higher education. It reports on a study of college teacher goal setting informed by goal setting theory. Analysis of study participants' goal setting practices and their experiences with goal pursuit offers a framework for thinking about the kinds of goals teachers might set…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eren, Altay
2009-01-01
This article aimed to examine the relationship between mirror neuron and theory of mind functions and to explore their possible roles in the emergence of an achievement goal contagion in educational settings such as classrooms. Based on the evidence from different lines of research such as neurobiology, neuropsychology, social psychology, and…
Flowe, Heather D; Stewart, Jade; Sleath, Emma R; Palmer, Francesca T
2011-01-01
Previous research has found that drinking establishments are often antecedent to sexual aggression outcomes. In this study, male participants were randomly selected from public houses (i.e., "pubs") and asked to imagine themselves in a hypothetical intimate encounter in which the female in the scenario stops consenting to sexual contact. Participants were given the option to continue making sexual advances up to and including sexual intercourse against the woman's will. It was hypothesized based on Alcohol Myopia Theory that participant blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels would be associated with hypothetical sexual aggression when stereotypical cues of a woman's sexual availability (revealing clothing and alcohol use) were present in the scenario. Men's engagement in hypothetical sexual aggression was associated with BAC levels, but only when the woman was wearing revealing clothing. The sobriety of the female actor was not associated with sexual aggression. Results indicate that Alcohol Myopia Theory generalizes to a field setting. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dick, Anthony Steven
2012-01-01
Two experiments examined processes underlying cognitive inflexibility in set-shifting tasks typically used to assess the development of executive function in children. Adult participants performed a Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST) that requires shifting from categorizing by one dimension (e.g., color) to categorizing by a second orthogonal dimension (e.g., shape). The experiments showed performance of the FIST involves suppression of the representation of the ignored dimension; response times for selecting a target object in an immediately-following oddity task were slower when the oddity target was the previously-ignored stimulus of the FIST. However, proactive interference from the previously relevant stimulus dimension also impaired responding. The results are discussed with respect to two prominent theories of the source of difficulty for children and adults on dimensional shifting tasks: attentional inertia and negative priming. In contrast to prior work emphasizing one over the other process, the findings indicate that difficulty in the FIST, and by extension other set-shifting tasks, can be attributed to both the need to shift away from the previously attended representation (attentional inertia), and the need to shift to the previously ignored representation (negative priming). Results are discussed in relation to theoretical explanations for cognitive inflexibility in adults and children. PMID:23539267
Dick, Anthony Steven
2012-01-01
Two experiments examined processes underlying cognitive inflexibility in set-shifting tasks typically used to assess the development of executive function in children. Adult participants performed a Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST) that requires shifting from categorizing by one dimension (e.g., color) to categorizing by a second orthogonal dimension (e.g., shape). The experiments showed performance of the FIST involves suppression of the representation of the ignored dimension; response times for selecting a target object in an immediately-following oddity task were slower when the oddity target was the previously-ignored stimulus of the FIST. However, proactive interference from the previously relevant stimulus dimension also impaired responding. The results are discussed with respect to two prominent theories of the source of difficulty for children and adults on dimensional shifting tasks: attentional inertia and negative priming . In contrast to prior work emphasizing one over the other process, the findings indicate that difficulty in the FIST, and by extension other set-shifting tasks, can be attributed to both the need to shift away from the previously attended representation ( attentional inertia ), and the need to shift to the previously ignored representation ( negative priming ). Results are discussed in relation to theoretical explanations for cognitive inflexibility in adults and children.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oberhofer, Harald; Blumberger, Jochen
2010-12-01
We present a plane wave basis set implementation for the calculation of electronic coupling matrix elements of electron transfer reactions within the framework of constrained density functional theory (CDFT). Following the work of Wu and Van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164105 (2006)], the diabatic wavefunctions are approximated by the Kohn-Sham determinants obtained from CDFT calculations, and the coupling matrix element calculated by an efficient integration scheme. Our results for intermolecular electron transfer in small systems agree very well with high-level ab initio calculations based on generalized Mulliken-Hush theory, and with previous local basis set CDFT calculations. The effect of thermal fluctuations on the coupling matrix element is demonstrated for intramolecular electron transfer in the tetrathiafulvalene-diquinone (Q-TTF-Q-) anion. Sampling the electronic coupling along density functional based molecular dynamics trajectories, we find that thermal fluctuations, in particular the slow bending motion of the molecule, can lead to changes in the instantaneous electron transfer rate by more than an order of magnitude. The thermal average, ( {< {| {H_ab } |^2 } > } )^{1/2} = 6.7 {mH}, is significantly higher than the value obtained for the minimum energy structure, | {H_ab } | = 3.8 {mH}. While CDFT in combination with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals describes the intermolecular electron transfer in the studied systems well, exact exchange is required for Q-TTF-Q- in order to obtain coupling matrix elements in agreement with experiment (3.9 mH). The implementation presented opens up the possibility to compute electronic coupling matrix elements for extended systems where donor, acceptor, and the environment are treated at the quantum mechanical (QM) level.
Conformal field theories from deformations of theories with Wn symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babaro, Juan Pablo; Giribet, Gaston; Ranjbar, Arash
2016-10-01
We construct a set of nonrational conformal field theories that consist of deformations of Toda field theory for s l (n ). In addition to preserving conformal invariance, the theories may still exhibit a remnant infinite-dimensional affine symmetry. The case n =3 is used to illustrate this phenomenon, together with further deformations that yield enhanced Kac-Moody symmetry algebras. For generic n we compute N -point correlation functions on the Riemann sphere and show that these can be expressed in terms of s l (n ) Toda field theory ((N -2 )n +2 ) -point correlation functions.
Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness.
Norris, Fran H; Stevens, Susan P; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Wyche, Karen F; Pfefferbaum, Rose L
2008-03-01
Communities have the potential to function effectively and adapt successfully in the aftermath of disasters. Drawing upon literatures in several disciplines, we present a theory of resilience that encompasses contemporary understandings of stress, adaptation, wellness, and resource dynamics. Community resilience is a process linking a network of adaptive capacities (resources with dynamic attributes) to adaptation after a disturbance or adversity. Community adaptation is manifest in population wellness, defined as high and non-disparate levels of mental and behavioral health, functioning, and quality of life. Community resilience emerges from four primary sets of adaptive capacities--Economic Development, Social Capital, Information and Communication, and Community Competence--that together provide a strategy for disaster readiness. To build collective resilience, communities must reduce risk and resource inequities, engage local people in mitigation, create organizational linkages, boost and protect social supports, and plan for not having a plan, which requires flexibility, decision-making skills, and trusted sources of information that function in the face of unknowns.
Alternative probability theories for cognitive psychology.
Narens, Louis
2014-01-01
Various proposals for generalizing event spaces for probability functions have been put forth in the mathematical, scientific, and philosophic literatures. In cognitive psychology such generalizations are used for explaining puzzling results in decision theory and for modeling the influence of context effects. This commentary discusses proposals for generalizing probability theory to event spaces that are not necessarily boolean algebras. Two prominent examples are quantum probability theory, which is based on the set of closed subspaces of a Hilbert space, and topological probability theory, which is based on the set of open sets of a topology. Both have been applied to a variety of cognitive situations. This commentary focuses on how event space properties can influence probability concepts and impact cognitive modeling. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, R.; Norman, M. L.
Here we present a working example of a Basic SkyNode serving theoretical data. The data is taken from the Simulated Cluster Archive (SCA), a set of simulated X-ray clusters, where each cluster was computed using four different physics models. The LCA Theory SkyNode (LCATheory) tables contain columns of the integrated physical properties of the clusters at various redshifts. The ease of setting up a Theory SkyNode is an important result, because it represents a clear way to present theory data to the Virtual Observatory. Also, our Theory SkyNode provides a prototype for additional simulated object catalogs, which will be created from other simulations by our group, and hopefully others.
Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine
Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.
Interferometric Computation Beyond Quantum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garner, Andrew J. P.
2018-03-01
There are quantum solutions for computational problems that make use of interference at some stage in the algorithm. These stages can be mapped into the physical setting of a single particle travelling through a many-armed interferometer. There has been recent foundational interest in theories beyond quantum theory. Here, we present a generalized formulation of computation in the context of a many-armed interferometer, and explore how theories can differ from quantum theory and still perform distributed calculations in this set-up. We shall see that quaternionic quantum theory proves a suitable candidate, whereas box-world does not. We also find that a classical hidden variable model first presented by Spekkens (Phys Rev A 75(3): 32100, 2007) can also be used for this type of computation due to the epistemic restriction placed on the hidden variable.
Arantes, Joana
2008-06-01
The present research tested the generality of the "context effect" previously reported in experiments using temporal double bisection tasks [e.g., Arantes, J., Machado, A. Context effects in a temporal discrimination task: Further tests of the Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time models. J. Exp. Anal. Behav., in press]. Pigeons learned two temporal discriminations in which all the stimuli appear successively: 1s (red) vs. 4s (green) and 4s (blue) vs. 16s (yellow). Then, two tests were conducted to compare predictions of two timing models, Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and the Learning-to-Time (LeT) model. In one test, two psychometric functions were obtained by presenting pigeons with intermediate signal durations (1-4s and 4-16s). Results were mixed. In the critical test, pigeons were exposed to signals ranging from 1 to 16s and followed by the green or the blue key. Whereas SET predicted that the relative response rate to each of these keys should be independent of the signal duration, LeT predicted that the relative response rate to the green key (compared with the blue key) should increase with the signal duration. Results were consistent with LeT's predictions, showing that the context effect is obtained even when subjects do not need to make a choice between two keys presented simultaneously.
Quantum resource theories in the single-shot regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gour, Gilad
2017-06-01
One of the main goals of any resource theory such as entanglement, quantum thermodynamics, quantum coherence, and asymmetry, is to find necessary and sufficient conditions that determine whether one resource can be converted to another by the set of free operations. Here we find such conditions for a large class of quantum resource theories which we call affine resource theories. Affine resource theories include the resource theories of athermality, asymmetry, and coherence, but not entanglement. Remarkably, the necessary and sufficient conditions can be expressed as a family of inequalities between resource monotones (quantifiers) that are given in terms of the conditional min-entropy. The set of free operations is taken to be (1) the maximal set (i.e., consists of all resource nongenerating quantum channels) or (2) the self-dual set of free operations (i.e., consists of all resource nongenerating maps for which the dual map is also resource nongenerating). As an example, we apply our results to quantum thermodynamics with Gibbs preserving operations, and several other affine resource theories. Finally, we discuss the applications of these results to resource theories that are not affine and, along the way, provide the necessary and sufficient conditions that a quantum resource theory consists of a resource destroying map.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichman, David R.; Charbonneau, Patrick
2005-05-01
In this set of lecture notes we review the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition from several perspectives. First, we derive mode-coupling equations for the description of density fluctuations from microscopic considerations with the use the Mori Zwanzig projection operator technique. We also derive schematic mode-coupling equations of a similar form from a field-theoretic perspective. We review the successes and failures of mode-coupling theory, and discuss recent advances in the applications of the theory.
Teaching the Phonology via Articulatory Settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erazmus, Edward T.
The failure of the phonological approach in establishing native-like speech in the learner is examined in connection with new knowledge derived from articulatory setting theory. This theory is based on the work of Honikman (1964) who demonstrated that there is an intimate relationship between the tongue and teeth in speech production.…
Chang, Kuei-Hu; Chang, Yung-Chia; Chain, Kai; Chung, Hsiang-Yu
2016-01-01
The advancement of high technologies and the arrival of the information age have caused changes to the modern warfare. The military forces of many countries have replaced partially real training drills with training simulation systems to achieve combat readiness. However, considerable types of training simulation systems are used in military settings. In addition, differences in system set up time, functions, the environment, and the competency of system operators, as well as incomplete information have made it difficult to evaluate the performance of training simulation systems. To address the aforementioned problems, this study integrated analytic hierarchy process, soft set theory, and the fuzzy linguistic representation model to evaluate the performance of various training simulation systems. Furthermore, importance–performance analysis was adopted to examine the influence of saving costs and training safety of training simulation systems. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate applying military training simulation systems, avoiding wasting of resources (e.g., low utility and idle time), and providing data for subsequent applications and analysis. To verify the method proposed in this study, the numerical examples of the performance evaluation of training simulation systems were adopted and compared with the numerical results of an AHP and a novel AHP-based ranking technique. The results verified that not only could expert-provided questionnaire information be fully considered to lower the repetition rate of performance ranking, but a two-dimensional graph could also be used to help administrators allocate limited resources, thereby enhancing the investment benefits and training effectiveness of a training simulation system. PMID:27598390
Chang, Kuei-Hu; Chang, Yung-Chia; Chain, Kai; Chung, Hsiang-Yu
2016-01-01
The advancement of high technologies and the arrival of the information age have caused changes to the modern warfare. The military forces of many countries have replaced partially real training drills with training simulation systems to achieve combat readiness. However, considerable types of training simulation systems are used in military settings. In addition, differences in system set up time, functions, the environment, and the competency of system operators, as well as incomplete information have made it difficult to evaluate the performance of training simulation systems. To address the aforementioned problems, this study integrated analytic hierarchy process, soft set theory, and the fuzzy linguistic representation model to evaluate the performance of various training simulation systems. Furthermore, importance-performance analysis was adopted to examine the influence of saving costs and training safety of training simulation systems. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate applying military training simulation systems, avoiding wasting of resources (e.g., low utility and idle time), and providing data for subsequent applications and analysis. To verify the method proposed in this study, the numerical examples of the performance evaluation of training simulation systems were adopted and compared with the numerical results of an AHP and a novel AHP-based ranking technique. The results verified that not only could expert-provided questionnaire information be fully considered to lower the repetition rate of performance ranking, but a two-dimensional graph could also be used to help administrators allocate limited resources, thereby enhancing the investment benefits and training effectiveness of a training simulation system.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Manturov, Vassily O
2010-06-29
In this work we study knot theories with a parity property for crossings: every crossing is declared to be even or odd according to a certain preassigned rule. If this rule satisfies a set of simple axioms related to the Reidemeister moves, then certain simple invariants solving the minimality problem can be defined, and invariant maps on the set of knots can be constructed. The most important example of a knot theory with parity is the theory of virtual knots. Using the parity property arising from Gauss diagrams we show that even a gross simplification of the theory of virtualmore » knots, namely, the theory of free knots, admits simple and highly nontrivial invariants. This gives a solution to a problem of Turaev, who conjectured that all free knots are trivial. In this work we show that free knots are generally not invertible, and provide invariants which detect the invertibility of free knots. The passage to ordinary virtual knots allows us to strengthen known invariants (such as the Kauffman bracket) using parity considerations. We also discuss other examples of knot theories with parity. Bibliography: 27 items.« less
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Webber, Jo
1997-01-01
Discusses how irrational beliefs can be disputed and replaced with alternative, healthier mind-sets. Focuses on cognitive restructuring theory, changing unhealthy thoughts, disputation, semantics, and adopting alternative mind-sets, such as life is bizarre and funny. Claims that using words that indicate preferences and possibilities can help…
On Negations and Algebras in Fuzzy Set Theory
1986-03-19
Esteva Departament de Matematiques i Estadistica ~ Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Diagonal 649 08028 Barcelona !Spain) ABSTRACT Dual... Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Diagonal 649 08028 Barcelona (Spain) In Zadeh’s definition of Fuzzy Sets [1] the operations are defined
Nazarian, Dalar; Ganesh, P.; Sholl, David S.
2015-09-30
We compiled a test set of chemically and topologically diverse Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) with high accuracy experimentally derived crystallographic structure data. The test set was used to benchmark the performance of Density Functional Theory (DFT) functionals (M06L, PBE, PW91, PBE-D2, PBE-D3, and vdW-DF2) for predicting lattice parameters, unit cell volume, bonded parameters and pore descriptors. On average PBE-D2, PBE-D3, and vdW-DF2 predict more accurate structures, but all functionals predicted pore diameters within 0.5 Å of the experimental diameter for every MOF in the test set. The test set was also used to assess the variance in performance of DFT functionalsmore » for elastic properties and atomic partial charges. The DFT predicted elastic properties such as minimum shear modulus and Young's modulus can differ by an average of 3 and 9 GPa for rigid MOFs such as those in the test set. Moreover, we calculated the partial charges by vdW-DF2 deviate the most from other functionals while there is no significant difference between the partial charges calculated by M06L, PBE, PW91, PBE-D2 and PBE-D3 for the MOFs in the test set. We find that while there are differences in the magnitude of the properties predicted by the various functionals, these discrepancies are small compared to the accuracy necessary for most practical applications.« less
Goal-setting in clinical medicine.
Bradley, E H; Bogardus, S T; Tinetti, M E; Inouye, S K
1999-07-01
The process of setting goals for medical care in the context of chronic disease has received little attention in the medical literature, despite the importance of goal-setting in the achievement of desired outcomes. Using qualitative research methods, this paper develops a theory of goal-setting in the care of patients with dementia. The theory posits several propositions. First, goals are generated from embedded values but are distinct from values. Goals vary based on specific circumstances and alternatives whereas values are person-specific and relatively stable in the face of changing circumstances. Second, goals are hierarchical in nature, with complex mappings between general and specific goals. Third, there are a number of factors that modify the goal-setting process, by affecting the generation of goals from values or the translation of general goals to specific goals. Modifying factors related to individuals include their degree of risk-taking, perceived self-efficacy, and acceptance of the disease. Disease factors that modify the goal-setting process include the urgency and irreversibility of the medical condition. Pertinent characteristics of the patient-family-clinician interaction include the level of participation, control, and trust among patients, family members, and clinicians. The research suggests that the goal-setting process in clinical medicine is complex, and the potential for disagreements regarding goals substantial. The nature of the goal-setting process suggests that explicit discussion of goals for care may be necessary to promote effective patient-family-clinician communication and adequate care planning.
Intelligent virtual reality in the setting of fuzzy sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dockery, John; Littman, David
1992-01-01
The authors have previously introduced the concept of virtual reality worlds governed by artificial intelligence. Creation of an intelligent virtual reality was further proposed as a universal interface for the handicapped. This paper extends consideration of intelligent virtual realty to a context in which fuzzy set principles are explored as a major tool for implementing theory in the domain of applications to the disabled.
Echebarria-Echabe, Agustin; Guede, Emilia Fernández
2003-12-01
The authors analyzed the extent to which the Theory of Realistic Conflict can be extended to institutional settings in which groups are not actively involved in decisions but are passive targets of decisions taken by an institutional authority (the rector). A negative interdependence between the in-group (psychology) and a high- or low-status outgroup (engineering versus nursing) was established by an institutional authority (the rector). The competition (induced by the rector) was beneficial (an increase in the budget previously invested in the faculty) or detrimental (a decrease in the budget) for the in-group. The results confirmed that competition affects mutual attitudes, images, and behaviors of groups even if the groups are passive targets of decisions that the institutional authority makes. Moreover, competition--regardless of whether beneficial or detrimental--deteriorated images of and attitudes toward high-status out-groups. In contrast, competition improved images and opinions about low-status out-groups, but only in the loss condition.
Salekin, Randall T; Lester, Whitney S; Sellers, Mary-Kate
2012-08-01
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of a motivational intervention on conduct problem youth with psychopathic features. Specifically, the current study examined conduct problem youths' mental set (or theory) regarding intelligence (entity vs. incremental) upon task performance. We assessed 36 juvenile offenders with psychopathic features and tested whether providing them with two different messages regarding intelligence would affect their functioning on a task related to academic performance. The study employed a MANOVA design with two motivational conditions and three outcomes including fluency, flexibility, and originality. Results showed that youth with psychopathic features who were given a message that intelligence grows over time, were more fluent and flexible than youth who were informed that intelligence is static. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of originality. The implications of these findings are discussed including the possible benefits of interventions for adolescent offenders with conduct problems and psychopathic features. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walton, Mat
2016-01-01
Recent literature has usefully explored the application of complexity theory to evaluation. However, there is little discussion of the contextual conditions in applying complexity theory. Drawing upon a single complexity-consistent public health programme evaluation and subsequent policy decisions, this paper considers how programme framing and…
Dixit, Anant; Claudot, Julien; Lebègue, Sébastien; Rocca, Dario
2017-06-07
By using a formulation based on the dynamical polarizability, we propose a novel implementation of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) theory within a plane wave (PW) basis set. Because of the intrinsic properties of PWs, this method is not affected by basis set superposition errors. Additionally, results are converged without relying on complete basis set extrapolation techniques; this is achieved by using the eigenvectors of the static polarizability as an auxiliary basis set to compactly and accurately represent the response functions involved in the MP2 equations. Summations over the large number of virtual states are avoided by using a formalism inspired by density functional perturbation theory, and the Lanczos algorithm is used to include dynamical effects. To demonstrate this method, applications to three weakly interacting dimers are presented.
Confidence set interference with a prior quadratic bound. [in geophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George E.
1989-01-01
Neyman's (1937) theory of confidence sets is developed as a replacement for Bayesian interference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) when the prior information is a hard quadratic bound. It is recommended that BI and SI be replaced by confidence set interference (CSI) only in certain circumstances. The geomagnetic problem is used to illustrate the general theory of CSI.
Theorizing healthy settings: a critical discussion with reference to Healthy Universities.
Dooris, Mark; Wills, Jane; Newton, Joanne
2014-11-01
The settings approach appreciates that health determinants operate in settings of everyday life. Whilst subject to conceptual development, we argue that the approach lacks a clear and coherent theoretical framework to steer policy, practice and research. To identify what theories and conceptual models have been used in relation to the implementation and evaluation of Healthy Universities. A scoping literature review was undertaken between 2010 and 2013, identifying 26 papers that met inclusion criteria. Seven theoretical perspectives or conceptual frameworks were identified: the Ottawa Charter; a socio-ecological approach (which implicitly drew on sociological theories concerning structure and agency); salutogenesis; systems thinking; whole system change; organizational development; and a framework proposed by Dooris. These were used to address interrelated questions on the nature of a setting, how health is created in a setting, why the settings approach is a useful means of promoting health, and how health promotion can be introduced into and embedded within a setting. Although distinctive, the example of healthy universities drew on common theoretical perspectives that have infused the settings discourse more generally this engagement with theory was at times well-developed and at other times a passing reference the paper concludes by pointing to other theories that offer value to healthy settings practice and research and by arguing that theorization has a key role to play in understanding the complexity of settings and guiding the planning, implementation and evaluation of programmes. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Lincoln, Don
2018-01-16
The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isnât true. In this video, Fermilabâs Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Lincoln, Don
The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.
Personal Theory of Brief Counseling in a High School Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santana, Monique M.; Rowland, Karen D.
2016-01-01
Because school counselors are limited in the time they have to accomplish all the tasks for which they are accountable, they must find ways to provide direct individual services to students effectively and efficiently. For this reason, high school counselors should have a brief theory of counseling and subsequent techniques to utilize in a school…
Quantitative estimation of time-variable earthquake hazard by using fuzzy set theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deyi, Feng; Ichikawa, M.
1989-11-01
In this paper, the various methods of fuzzy set theory, called fuzzy mathematics, have been applied to the quantitative estimation of the time-variable earthquake hazard. The results obtained consist of the following. (1) Quantitative estimation of the earthquake hazard on the basis of seismicity data. By using some methods of fuzzy mathematics, seismicity patterns before large earthquakes can be studied more clearly and more quantitatively, highly active periods in a given region and quiet periods of seismic activity before large earthquakes can be recognized, similarities in temporal variation of seismic activity and seismic gaps can be examined and, on the other hand, the time-variable earthquake hazard can be assessed directly on the basis of a series of statistical indices of seismicity. Two methods of fuzzy clustering analysis, the method of fuzzy similarity, and the direct method of fuzzy pattern recognition, have been studied is particular. One method of fuzzy clustering analysis is based on fuzzy netting, and another is based on the fuzzy equivalent relation. (2) Quantitative estimation of the earthquake hazard on the basis of observational data for different precursors. The direct method of fuzzy pattern recognition has been applied to research on earthquake precursors of different kinds. On the basis of the temporal and spatial characteristics of recognized precursors, earthquake hazards in different terms can be estimated. This paper mainly deals with medium-short-term precursors observed in Japan and China.
Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.
Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Pittet, Didier
2013-01-01
Although hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing healthcare-associated infections, hand hygiene practice falls short in many healthcare facilities. The compliance rate is mostly linked to system design and easily accessible hand hygiene products. System change, healthcare worker motivation, and complex behavioral considerations seem to play a significant role. This article discusses the application of behavioral theories in hand hygiene promotion in a theoretical manner. The program relies on the transtheoretical model (TTM) of health behavior change, John Keller's (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Thus, the program links attitudes and behavior to hand hygiene promotion. The TTM of health behavior change helps to tailor interventions to predict and motivate individual movement across the pathway to change. A program could be based on this theory with multiple intercalations with John Keller's ARCS and the TPB. Such a program could be strengthened by linking attitudes and behavior to promote hand hygiene. The program could utilize different strategies such as organization cultural change that may increase the attention as well as fostering the movement in the ARCS stages. In addition, modeling TPB by creating peer pressure, ability to overcome obstacles, and increasing knowledge of the role of hand hygiene may lead to the desired outcome. The understanding and application of behavior change theories may result in an effective program to improve awareness and raise intention and thus may increase the potential for success of hand hygiene promotion programs.
Theory of Semiconducting Superlattices and Microstructures
1992-03-01
theory elucidated the various factors affecting deep levels, sets forth the conditions for obtaining shallow-deep transitions, and predicts that Si (a...theory elucidates the various factors affecting deep levels, sets forth the conditions for obtaining shallow-deep transitions, and predicts that Si (a...ondenotes the anion vacancy, which can be thought any quantitative theoretical factor are theof as originating from Column-O of the Period strengths of
Generalized probability theories: what determines the structure of quantum theory?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janotta, Peter; Hinrichsen, Haye
2014-08-01
The framework of generalized probabilistic theories is a powerful tool for studying the foundations of quantum physics. It provides the basis for a variety of recent findings that significantly improve our understanding of the rich physical structure of quantum theory. This review paper tries to present the framework and recent results to a broader readership in an accessible manner. To achieve this, we follow a constructive approach. Starting from a few basic physically motivated assumptions we show how a given set of observations can be manifested in an operational theory. Furthermore, we characterize consistency conditions limiting the range of possible extensions. In this framework classical and quantum theory appear as special cases, and the aim is to understand what distinguishes quantum mechanics as the fundamental theory realized in nature. It turns out that non-classical features of single systems can equivalently result from higher-dimensional classical theories that have been restricted. Entanglement and non-locality, however, are shown to be genuine non-classical features.
Utilizing Maximal Independent Sets as Dominating Sets in Scale-Free Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derzsy, N.; Molnar, F., Jr.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.
Dominating sets provide key solution to various critical problems in networked systems, such as detecting, monitoring, or controlling the behavior of nodes. Motivated by graph theory literature [Erdos, Israel J. Math. 4, 233 (1966)], we studied maximal independent sets (MIS) as dominating sets in scale-free networks. We investigated the scaling behavior of the size of MIS in artificial scale-free networks with respect to multiple topological properties (size, average degree, power-law exponent, assortativity), evaluated its resilience to network damage resulting from random failure or targeted attack [Molnar et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 8321 (2015)], and compared its efficiency to previously proposed dominating set selection strategies. We showed that, despite its small set size, MIS provides very high resilience against network damage. Using extensive numerical analysis on both synthetic and real-world (social, biological, technological) network samples, we demonstrate that our method effectively satisfies four essential requirements of dominating sets for their practical applicability on large-scale real-world systems: 1.) small set size, 2.) minimal network information required for their construction scheme, 3.) fast and easy computational implementation, and 4.) resiliency to network damage. Supported by DARPA, DTRA, and NSF.
Behavioral momentum theory: equations and applications.
Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A
2011-01-01
Behavioral momentum theory provides a quantitative account of how reinforcers experienced within a discriminative stimulus context govern the persistence of behavior that occurs in that context. The theory suggests that all reinforcers obtained in the presence of a discriminative stimulus increase resistance to change, regardless of whether those reinforcers are contingent on the target behavior, are noncontingent, or are even contingent on an alternative behavior. In this paper, we describe the equations that constitute the theory and address their application to issues of particular importance in applied settings. The theory provides a framework within which to consider the effects of interventions such as extinction, noncontingent reinforcement, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, and other phenomena (e.g., resurgence). Finally, the theory predicts some counterintuitive and potentially counterproductive effects of alternative reinforcement, and can serve as an integrative guide for intervention when its terms are identified with the relevant conditions of applied settings.
Theory Matters: Representation and Experimentation in Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Richard
2012-01-01
This article provides a material enactment of educational theory to explore how we might do educational theory differently by defamiliarising the familiar. Theory is often assumed to be abstract, located solely in the realm of ideas and separate from practice. However, this view of theory emerges from a set of ontological and epistemological…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mikkelsen, Kim Sass
2017-01-01
Contemporary case studies rely on verbal arguments and set theory to build or evaluate theoretical claims. While existing procedures excel in the use of qualitative information (information about kind), they ignore quantitative information (information about degree) at central points of the analysis. Effectively, contemporary case studies rely on…
Quantifying inhomogeneity in fractal sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraser, Jonathan M.; Todd, Mike
2018-04-01
An inhomogeneous fractal set is one which exhibits different scaling behaviour at different points. The Assouad dimension of a set is a quantity which finds the ‘most difficult location and scale’ at which to cover the set and its difference from box dimension can be thought of as a first-level overall measure of how inhomogeneous the set is. For the next level of analysis, we develop a quantitative theory of inhomogeneity by considering the measure of the set of points around which the set exhibits a given level of inhomogeneity at a certain scale. For a set of examples, a family of -invariant subsets of the 2-torus, we show that this quantity satisfies a large deviations principle. We compare members of this family, demonstrating how the rate function gives us a deeper understanding of their inhomogeneity.
Theory and Concepts in Qualitative Research: A Theory of Methodology in a Study of Directed Change.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mills, Geoffrey E.
The importance of theory in qualitative work is discussed through an examination of the search for theory that arose in relation to a case study of educational change in an American school district. Theory is defined as an analytical, interpretive framework to help the researcher make sense of what is going on in the social setting. Certain…
Yokomizo, Hiroyuki; Naito, Wataru; Tanaka, Yoshinari; Kamo, Masashi
2013-11-01
Decisions in ecological risk management for chemical substances must be made based on incomplete information due to uncertainties. To protect the ecosystems from the adverse effect of chemicals, a precautionary approach is often taken. The precautionary approach, which is based on conservative assumptions about the risks of chemical substances, can be applied selecting management models and data. This approach can lead to an adequate margin of safety for ecosystems by reducing exposure to harmful substances, either by reducing the use of target chemicals or putting in place strict water quality criteria. However, the reduction of chemical use or effluent concentrations typically entails a financial burden. The cost effectiveness of the precautionary approach may be small. Hence, we need to develop a formulaic methodology in chemical risk management that can sufficiently protect ecosystems in a cost-effective way, even when we do not have sufficient information for chemical management. Information-gap decision theory can provide the formulaic methodology. Information-gap decision theory determines which action is the most robust to uncertainty by guaranteeing an acceptable outcome under the largest degree of uncertainty without requiring information about the extent of parameter uncertainty at the outset. In this paper, we illustrate the application of information-gap decision theory to derive a framework for setting effluent limits of pollutants for point sources under uncertainty. Our application incorporates a cost for reduction in pollutant emission and a cost to wildlife species affected by the pollutant. Our framework enables us to settle upon actions to deal with severe uncertainty in ecological risk management of chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Using theories of behaviour change to inform interventions for addictive behaviours.
Webb, Thomas L; Sniehotta, Falko F; Michie, Susan
2010-11-01
This paper reviews a set of theories of behaviour change that are used outside the field of addiction and considers their relevance for this field. Ten theories are reviewed in terms of (i) the main tenets of each theory, (ii) the implications of the theory for promoting change in addictive behaviours and (iii) studies in the field of addiction that have used the theory. An augmented feedback loop model based on Control Theory is used to organize the theories and to show how different interventions might achieve behaviour change. Briefly, each theory provided the following recommendations for intervention: Control Theory: prompt behavioural monitoring, Goal-Setting Theory: set specific and challenging goals, Model of Action Phases: form 'implementation intentions', Strength Model of Self-Control: bolster self-control resources, Social Cognition Models (Protection Motivation Theory, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Health Belief Model): modify relevant cognitions, Elaboration Likelihood Model: consider targets' motivation and ability to process information, Prototype Willingness Model: change perceptions of the prototypical person who engages in behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory: modify self-efficacy. There are a range of theories in the field of behaviour change that can be applied usefully to addiction, each one pointing to a different set of modifiable determinants and/or behaviour change techniques. Studies reporting interventions should describe theoretical basis, behaviour change techniques and mode of delivery accurately so that effective interventions can be understood and replicated. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
What motivates health professionals? Opportunities to gain greater insight from theory.
Buetow, Stephen
2007-07-01
Health care policy-makers and researchers need to pay more attention to understanding the influence of motivation on professional behaviour. Goal setting theory, including two hypotheses - the business case and the pride case - dominates current attempts to motivate professionals. However, the predominance of goal setting theory stifles other approaches to conceptualizing professional motivation. These approaches include other cognitive theories of motivation, such as self-determination theory (concerned with how to use extrinsic rewards that enhance intrinsic motivation), as well as content, psychoanalytic and environmental theories. A valuable opportunity exists to develop and test such theories in addition to possible hybrids, for example, by elaborating goal setting theory in health care. The results can be expected to inform health policy and motivate individual professionals, groups, organizations and workforces to improve and deliver high quality care.
Setting conservation priorities.
Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P
2009-04-01
A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.
[Introduction to grounded theory].
Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy
2012-02-01
Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.
On the use and usefulness of fuzzy sets in medical AI.
Steimann, F
2001-01-01
Since its inception fuzzy set theory has been regarded as a formalism suitable to deal with the imprecision intrinsic to many medical problems. Based on a literature survey on the first 30 years, we investigate the impact fuzzy set theory has had on the work in medical AI and point out what it is most appreciated for.
The Study of Imperfection in Rough Set on the Field of Engineering and Education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheu, Tian-Wei; Liang, Jung-Chin; You, Mei-Li; Wen, Kun-Li
Based on the characteristic of rough set, rough set theory overlaps with many other theories, especially with fuzzy set theory, evidence theory and Boolean reasoning methods. And the rough set methodology has found many real-life applications, such as medical data analysis, finance, banking, engineering, voice recognition, image processing and others. Till now, there is rare research associating to this issue in the imperfection of rough set. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to study the imperfection of rough set in the field of engineering and education. First of all, we preview the mathematics model of rough set, and a given two examples to enhance our approach, which one is the weighting of influence factor in muzzle noise suppressor, and the other is the weighting of evaluation factor in English learning. Third, we also apply Matlab to develop a complete human-machine interface type of toolbox in order to support the complex calculation and verification the huge data. Finally, some further suggestions are indicated for the research in the future.
Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa
2015-04-01
We drew on two agenda-setting theories usually applied at the state or national level to assess their utility at the global level: Kingdon's multiple streams theory and Baumgartner and Jones's punctuated equilibrium theory. We illustrate our analysis with findings from a qualitative study of the International Labor Organization's Decent Work Agenda. We found that both theories help explain the agenda-setting mechanisms that operate in the global context, including how windows of opportunity open and what role institutions play as policy entrepreneurs. Future application of these theories could help characterize power struggles between global actors, whose voices are heard or silenced, and their impact on global policy agenda setting.
Covering of Discrete Quasiperiodic Sets: Concepts and Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kramer, Peter
The packing of congruent, convex, impenetrable bodies in 3-space has obvious practical applications. Tilings are, in a sense, optimal packings, leaving no space between the bodies. Their applications range from practical tilings or tessellations of walls and areas of ground, through structure determination in crystallography and the physics of crystalline matter, to aperiodic tilings and to the mathematical analysis of topological manifolds and their applications in cosmology. In many applications, a local motif is uniquely related to a body or geometric object. The geometric arrangement then generates a pattern with this motif. In covering, one allows the overlap of the geometric objects. This survey of approaches to covering shows the variety of pathways opened up in this new field. In the theory of covering there arise a number of distinctions, some of which will be taken up in the other contributions to this book.
Distance Between Sets as an Objective Measure of Retrieval Effectiveness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heine, M. H.
1973-01-01
The Marczewski-Steinhaus metric provides what appears to be an objective general measure of retrieval effectiveness within the framework of set theory and the theory of metric spaces. (19 references) (Author/SJ)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sferra, Bobbie A.; Paddock, Susan C.
This booklet describes various theoretical aspects of leadership, including the proper exercise of authority, effective delegation, goal setting, exercise of control, assignment of responsibility, performance evaluation, and group process facilitation. It begins by describing the evolution of general theories of leadership from historic concepts…
Application of Rough Sets to Information Retrieval.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miyamoto, Sadaaki
1998-01-01
Develops a method of rough retrieval, an application of the rough set theory to information retrieval. The aim is to: (1) show that rough sets are naturally applied to information retrieval in which categorized information structure is used; and (2) show that a fuzzy retrieval scheme is induced from the rough retrieval. (AEF)
Resource Theory of Superposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theurer, T.; Killoran, N.; Egloff, D.; Plenio, M. B.
2017-12-01
The superposition principle lies at the heart of many nonclassical properties of quantum mechanics. Motivated by this, we introduce a rigorous resource theory framework for the quantification of superposition of a finite number of linear independent states. This theory is a generalization of resource theories of coherence. We determine the general structure of operations which do not create superposition, find a fundamental connection to unambiguous state discrimination, and propose several quantitative superposition measures. Using this theory, we show that trace decreasing operations can be completed for free which, when specialized to the theory of coherence, resolves an outstanding open question and is used to address the free probabilistic transformation between pure states. Finally, we prove that linearly independent superposition is a necessary and sufficient condition for the faithful creation of entanglement in discrete settings, establishing a strong structural connection between our theory of superposition and entanglement theory.
Quantization of set theory and generalization of the fermion algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arik, M.; Tekin, S. C.
2002-05-01
The quantum states of a d-dimensional fermion algebra are in one to one correspondence with the subsets of a d-element universal set. In this paper we use this set theoretical motivation to construct a one-parameter deformation of the fermion algebra and extend it to a d-dimensional generalization which is invariant under the group U(d). This discrete fermionic oscillator system is extended to the continuous case. We also show that the q-deformation of these systems is related to supercovariant q-oscillators.
Goal setting with mothers in child development services.
Forsingdal, S; St John, W; Miller, V; Harvey, A; Wearne, P
2014-07-01
The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore mothers' perspectives of the processes of collaborative goal setting in multidisciplinary child development services involving follow-up home therapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in South East Queensland, Australia with 14 mothers of children aged 3-6 years who were accessing multidisciplinary child development services. Interviews were focussed around the process of goal setting. A grounded theory of Maternal Roles in Goal Setting (The M-RIGS Model) was developed from analysis of data. Mothers assumed Dependent, Active Participator and Collaborator roles when engaging with the therapist in goal-setting processes. These roles were characterized by the mother's level of dependence on the therapist and insight into their child's needs and therapy processes. Goal Factors, Parent Factors and Therapist Factors influenced and added complexity to the goal-setting process. The M-RIGS Model highlights that mothers take on a range of roles in the goal-setting process. Although family-centred practice encourages negotiation and collaborative goal setting, parents may not always be ready to take on highly collaborative roles. Better understanding of parent roles, goal-setting processes and influencing factors will inform better engagement with families accessing multidisciplinary child development services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Andrade, Xavier; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2013-10-08
We discuss the application of graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate real-space density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To make our implementation efficient, we have developed a scheme to expose the data parallelism available in the DFT approach; this is applied to the different procedures required for a real-space DFT calculation. We present results for current-generation GPUs from AMD and Nvidia, which show that our scheme, implemented in the free code Octopus, can reach a sustained performance of up to 90 GFlops for a single GPU, representing a significant speed-up when compared to the CPU version of the code. Moreover, for some systems, our implementation can outperform a GPU Gaussian basis set code, showing that the real-space approach is a competitive alternative for DFT simulations on GPUs.
System Theory Aspects of Multi-Body Dynamics.
1978-08-18
systems are described from a system theory point of view. Various system theory concepts and research topics which have applicability to this class of...systems are identified and briefly described. The subject of multi-body dynamics is presented in a vector space setting and is related to system theory concepts. (Author)
Ultraviolet divergences in non-renormalizable supersymmetric theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smilga, A.
2017-03-01
We present a pedagogical review of our current understanding of the ultraviolet structure of N = (1,1) 6D supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and of N = 8 4 D supergravity. These theories are not renormalizable, they involve power ultraviolet divergences and, in all probability, an infinite set of higherdimensional counterterms that contribute to on-mass-shell scattering amplitudes. A specific feature of supersymmetric theories (especially, of extended supersymmetric theories) is that these counterterms may not be invariant off shell under the full set of supersymmetry transformations. The lowest-dimensional nontrivial counterterm is supersymmetric on shell. Still higher counterterms may lose even the on-shell invariance. On the other hand, the full effective Lagrangian, generating the amplitudes and representing an infinite sum of counterterms, still enjoys the complete symmetry of original theory. We also discuss simple supersymmetric quantum-mechanical models that exhibit the same behaviour.
Modelling uncertainty with generalized credal sets: application to conjunction and decision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bronevich, Andrey G.; Rozenberg, Igor N.
2018-01-01
To model conflict, non-specificity and contradiction in information, upper and lower generalized credal sets are introduced. Any upper generalized credal set is a convex subset of plausibility measures interpreted as lower probabilities whose bodies of evidence consist of singletons and a certain event. Analogously, contradiction is modelled in the theory of evidence by a belief function that is greater than zero at empty set. Based on generalized credal sets, we extend the conjunctive rule for contradictory sources of information, introduce constructions like natural extension in the theory of imprecise probabilities and show that the model of generalized credal sets coincides with the model of imprecise probabilities if the profile of a generalized credal set consists of probability measures. We give ways how the introduced model can be applied to decision problems.
Uncertainty Modeling for Database Design using Intuitionistic and Rough Set Theory
2009-01-01
Definition. An intuitionistic rough relation R is a sub- set of the set cross product P(D1)× P(D2) × · · ·× P( Dm )× Dµ.× Dv. For a specific relation, R...that aj ∈ dij for all j. The interpretation space is the cross product D1× D2 × · · ·× Dm × Dµ× Dv but is limited for a given re- lation R to the set...systems, Journal of Information Science 11 (1985), 77–87. [7] T. Beaubouef and F. Petry, Rough Querying of Crisp Data in Relational Databases, Third
Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.
Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael
2012-08-01
Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santra, Biswajit; Michaelides, Angelos; Scheffler, Matthias
2007-11-01
The ability of several density-functional theory (DFT) exchange-correlation functionals to describe hydrogen bonds in small water clusters (dimer to pentamer) in their global minimum energy structures is evaluated with reference to second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). Errors from basis set incompleteness have been minimized in both the MP2 reference data and the DFT calculations, thus enabling a consistent systematic evaluation of the true performance of the tested functionals. Among all the functionals considered, the hybrid X3LYP and PBE0 functionals offer the best performance and among the nonhybrid generalized gradient approximation functionals, mPWLYP and PBE1W perform best. The popular BLYP and B3LYP functionals consistently underbind and PBE and PW91 display rather variable performance with cluster size.
Santra, Biswajit; Michaelides, Angelos; Scheffler, Matthias
2007-11-14
The ability of several density-functional theory (DFT) exchange-correlation functionals to describe hydrogen bonds in small water clusters (dimer to pentamer) in their global minimum energy structures is evaluated with reference to second order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). Errors from basis set incompleteness have been minimized in both the MP2 reference data and the DFT calculations, thus enabling a consistent systematic evaluation of the true performance of the tested functionals. Among all the functionals considered, the hybrid X3LYP and PBE0 functionals offer the best performance and among the nonhybrid generalized gradient approximation functionals, mPWLYP and PBE1W perform best. The popular BLYP and B3LYP functionals consistently underbind and PBE and PW91 display rather variable performance with cluster size.
Gaspari, Roberto; Rapallo, Arnaldo
2008-06-28
In this work a new method is proposed for the choice of basis functions in diffusion theory (DT) calculations. This method, named hybrid basis approach (HBA), combines the two previously adopted long time sorting procedure (LTSP) and maximum correlation approximation (MCA) techniques; the first emphasizing contributions from the long time dynamics, the latter being based on the local correlations along the chain. In order to fulfill this task, the HBA procedure employs a first order basis set corresponding to a high order MCA one and generates upper order approximations according to LTSP. A test of the method is made first on a melt of cis-1,4-polyisoprene decamers where HBA and LTSP are compared in terms of efficiency. Both convergence properties and numerical stability are improved by the use of the HBA basis set whose performance is evaluated on local dynamics, by computing the correlation times of selected bond vectors along the chain, and on global ones, through the eigenvalues of the diffusion operator L. Further use of the DT with a HBA basis set has been made on a 71-mer of syndiotactic trans-1,2-polypentadiene in toluene solution, whose dynamical properties have been computed with a high order calculation and compared to the "numerical experiment" provided by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in explicit solvent. The necessary equilibrium averages have been obtained by a vacuum trajectory of the chain where solvent effects on conformational properties have been reproduced with a proper screening of the nonbonded interactions, corresponding to a definite value of the mean radius of gyration of the polymer in vacuum. Results show a very good agreement between DT calculations and the MD numerical experiment. This suggests a further use of DT methods with the necessary input quantities obtained by the only knowledge of some experimental values, i.e., the mean radius of gyration of the chain and the viscosity of the solution, and by a suitable vacuum
Continuum modes of nonlocal field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saravani, Mehdi
2018-04-01
We study a class of nonlocal Lorentzian quantum field theories, where the d’Alembertian operator \\Box is replaced by a non-analytic function of the d’Alembertian, f(\\Box) . This is inspired by the causal set program where such an evolution arises as the continuum limit of a wave equation on causal sets. The spectrum of these theories contains a continuum of massive excitations. This is perhaps the most important feature which leads to distinct/interesting phenomenology. In this paper, we study properties of the continuum massive modes in depth. We derive the path integral formulation of these theories. Meanwhile, this derivation introduces a dual picture in terms of local fields which clearly shows how continuum massive modes of the nonlocal field interact. As an example, we calculate the leading order modification to the Casimir force of a pair of parallel planes. The dual picture formulation opens the way for future developments in the study of nonlocal field theories using tools already available in local quantum field theories.
Hamilton-Jacobi theory in multisymplectic classical field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de León, Manuel; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso; Vilariño, Silvia
2017-09-01
The geometric framework for the Hamilton-Jacobi theory developed in the studies of Cariñena et al. [Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 3(7), 1417-1458 (2006)], Cariñena et al. [Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 13(2), 1650017 (2015)], and de León et al. [Variations, Geometry and Physics (Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2009)] is extended for multisymplectic first-order classical field theories. The Hamilton-Jacobi problem is stated for the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formalisms of these theories as a particular case of a more general problem, and the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation for field theories is recovered from this geometrical setting. Particular and complete solutions to these problems are defined and characterized in several equivalent ways in both formalisms, and the equivalence between them is proved. The use of distributions in jet bundles that represent the solutions to the field equations is the fundamental tool in this formulation. Some examples are analyzed and, in particular, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for non-autonomous mechanical systems is obtained as a special case of our results.
From Theory to Practice: A Set of Garment-Related ESL Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chan, Ha Yin
This document describes how a set of workplace literacy curricula was developed for Chinese garment workers in New York City. First, it discusses the goal of the workplace literacy program and the nature of the population served. Then, it proceeds to discuss rationale and research procedures of how the curriculum was being developed. A set of…
Strolling along gauge theory vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seraj, Ali; Van den Bleeken, Dieter
2017-08-01
We consider classical, pure Yang-Mills theory in a box. We show how a set of static electric fields that solve the theory in an adiabatic limit correspond to geodesic motion on the space of vacua, equipped with a particular Riemannian metric that we identify. The vacua are generated by spontaneously broken global gauge symmetries, leading to an infinite number of conserved momenta of the geodesic motion. We show that these correspond to the soft multipole charges of Yang-Mills theory.
Cohen, Joanna E.; Cole, Donald C.; Forman, Lisa
2015-01-01
We drew on two agenda-setting theories usually applied at the state or national level to assess their utility at the global level: Kingdon’s multiple streams theory and Baumgartner and Jones’s punctuated equilibrium theory. We illustrate our analysis with findings from a qualitative study of the International Labor Organization’s Decent Work Agenda. We found that both theories help explain the agenda-setting mechanisms that operate in the global context, including how windows of opportunity open and what role institutions play as policy entrepreneurs. Future application of these theories could help characterize power struggles between global actors, whose voices are heard or silenced, and their impact on global policy agenda setting. PMID:25713966
Complex fuzzy soft expert sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selvachandran, Ganeshsree; Hafeed, Nisren A.; Salleh, Abdul Razak
2017-04-01
Complex fuzzy sets and its accompanying theory although at its infancy, has proven to be superior to classical type-1 fuzzy sets, due its ability in representing time-periodic problem parameters and capturing the seasonality of the fuzziness that exists in the elements of a set. These are important characteristics that are pervasive in most real world problems. However, there are two major problems that are inherent in complex fuzzy sets: it lacks a sufficient parameterization tool and it does not have a mechanism to validate the values assigned to the membership functions of the elements in a set. To overcome these problems, we propose the notion of complex fuzzy soft expert sets which is a hybrid model of complex fuzzy sets and soft expert sets. This model incorporates the advantages of complex fuzzy sets and soft sets, besides having the added advantage of allowing the users to know the opinion of all the experts in a single model without the need for any additional cumbersome operations. As such, this model effectively improves the accuracy of representation of problem parameters that are periodic in nature, besides having a higher level of computational efficiency compared to similar models in literature.
Where and When do Species Interactions Set Range Limits?
Louthan, Allison M; Doak, Daniel F; Angert, Amy L
2015-12-01
A long-standing theory, originating with Darwin, suggests that abiotic forces set species range limits at high latitude, high elevation, and other abiotically 'stressful' areas, while species interactions set range limits in apparently more benign regions. This theory is of considerable importance for both basic and applied ecology, and while it is often assumed to be a ubiquitous pattern, it has not been clearly defined or broadly tested. We review tests of this idea and dissect how the strength of species interactions must vary across stress gradients to generate the predicted pattern. We conclude by suggesting approaches to better test this theory, which will deepen our understanding of the forces that determine species ranges and govern responses to climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Motivating Readers: Helping Students Set and Attain Personal Reading Goals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cabral-Márquez, Consuelo
2015-01-01
The motivational, cognitive, and performance benefits associated with setting goals are presented in light of goal-setting theory. These theoretical principles provide a framework that teachers can use to guide students in setting and pursuing personal reading goals that are proximal, specific, and compatible with students' reading abilities…
Ranking Specific Sets of Objects.
Maly, Jan; Woltran, Stefan
2017-01-01
Ranking sets of objects based on an order between the single elements has been thoroughly studied in the literature. In particular, it has been shown that it is in general impossible to find a total ranking - jointly satisfying properties as dominance and independence - on the whole power set of objects. However, in many applications certain elements from the entire power set might not be required and can be neglected in the ranking process. For instance, certain sets might be ruled out due to hard constraints or are not satisfying some background theory. In this paper, we treat the computational problem whether an order on a given subset of the power set of elements satisfying different variants of dominance and independence can be found, given a ranking on the elements. We show that this problem is tractable for partial rankings and NP-complete for total rankings.
Ab Initio Density Fitting: Accuracy Assessment of Auxiliary Basis Sets from Cholesky Decompositions.
Boström, Jonas; Aquilante, Francesco; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Lindh, Roland
2009-06-09
The accuracy of auxiliary basis sets derived by Cholesky decompositions of the electron repulsion integrals is assessed in a series of benchmarks on total ground state energies and dipole moments of a large test set of molecules. The test set includes molecules composed of atoms from the first three rows of the periodic table as well as transition metals. The accuracy of the auxiliary basis sets are tested for the 6-31G**, correlation consistent, and atomic natural orbital basis sets at the Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, and second-order Møller-Plesset levels of theory. By decreasing the decomposition threshold, a hierarchy of auxiliary basis sets is obtained with accuracies ranging from that of standard auxiliary basis sets to that of conventional integral treatments.
Introduction to the Neutrosophic Quantum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smarandache, Florentin
2014-10-01
Neutrosophic Quantum Theory (NQT) is the study of the principle that certain physical quantities can assume neutrosophic values, instead of discrete values as in quantum theory. These quantities are thus neutrosophically quantized. A neutrosophic values (neutrosophic amount) is expressed by a set (mostly an interval) that approximates (or includes) a discrete value. An oscillator can lose or gain energy by some neutrosophic amount (we mean neither continuously nor discretely, but as a series of integral sets: S, 2S, 3S, ..., where S is a set). In the most general form, one has an ensemble of sets of sets, i.e. R1S1 ,R2S2 ,R3S3 , ..., where all Rn and Sn are sets that may vary in function of time and of other parameters. Several such sets may be equal, or may be reduced to points, or may be empty. {The multiplication of two sets A and B is classically defined as: AB ={ab, a??A and b??B}. And similarly a number n times a set A is defined as: nA ={na, a??A}.} The unit of neutrosophic energy is Hν , where H is a set (in particular an interval) that includes Planck constant h, and ν is the frequency. Therefore, an oscillator could change its energy by a neutrosophic number of quanta: Hν , 2H ν, 3H ν, etc. For example, when H is an interval [h1 ,h2 ] , with 0 <=h1 <=h2 , that contains Planck constant h, then one has: [h1 ν ,h2 ν ], [2h1 ν , 2h2 ν ], [3h1 ν , 3h2 ν ],..., as series of intervals of energy change of the oscillator. The most general form of the units of neutrosophic energy is Hnνn , where all Hn and νn are sets that similarly as above may vary in function of time and of other oscillator and environment parameters. Neutrosophic quantum theory combines classical mechanics and quantum mechanics.
Is ``the Theory of Everything'' Merely the Ultimate Ensemble Theory?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tegmark, Max
1998-11-01
We discuss some physical consequences of what might be called "the ultimate ensemble theory,", where not only worlds corresponding to say different sets of initial data or different physical constants are considered equally real, but also worlds ruled by altogether different equations. The only postulate in this theory is that all structures that exist mathematically exist also physically, by which we mean that in those complex enough to contain self-aware substructures (SASs), these SASs will subjectively perceive themselves as existing in a physically "real" world. We find that it is far from clear that this simple theory, which has no free parameters whatsoever, is observationally ruled out. The predictions of the theory take the form of probability distributions for the outcome of experiments, which makes it testable. In addition, it may be possible to rule it out by comparing its a priori predictions for the observable attributes of nature (the particle masses, the dimensionality of spacetime, etc.) with what is observed.
The essential role of social theory in qualitative public health research.
Willis, Karen; Daly, Jeanne; Kealy, Michelle; Small, Rhonda; Koutroulis, Glenda; Green, Julie; Gibbs, Lisa; Thomas, Samantha
2007-10-01
To define the role of social theory and examine how research studies using qualitative methods can use social theory to generalize their results beyond the setting of the study or to other social groups. The assumptions underlying public health research using qualitative methods derive from a range of social theories that include conflict theory, structural functionalism, symbolic interactionism, the sociology of knowledge and feminism. Depending on the research problem, these and other social theories provide conceptual tools and models for constructing a suitable research framework, and for collecting and analysing data. In combination with the substantive health literature, the theoretical literature provides the conceptual bridge that links the conclusions of the study to other social groups and settings. While descriptive studies using qualitative research methods can generate important insights into social experience, the use of social theory in the construction and conduct of research enables researchers to extrapolate their findings to settings and groups broader than the ones in which the research was conducted.
School Nurses: Positive Deviant Leaders in the School Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ladd, Victoria J.
2009-01-01
A variety of leadership theories are examined to support the idea that school nurses can be positive deviants in the school setting. Transformational leadership, situational leadership, and complexity theory can all be used by school nurses to create positive change in the school environment because all recognize the need for flexible leadership…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sati, Hisham
2011-06-01
M-theory can be defined on closed manifolds as well as on manifolds with boundary. As an extension, we show that manifolds with corners appear naturally in M-theory. We illustrate this with four situations: the lift to bounding 12 dimensions of M-theory on anti-de Sitter spaces, ten-dimensional heterotic string theory in relation to 12 dimensions, and the two M-branes within M-theory in the presence of a boundary. The M2-brane is taken with (or as) a boundary and the worldvolume of the M5-brane is viewed as a tubular neighborhood. We then concentrate on the (variant) of the heterotic theory as a corner and explore analytical and geometric consequences. In particular, we formulate and study the phase of the partition function in this setting and identify the corrections due to the corner(s). The analysis involves considering M-theory on disconnected manifolds and makes use of the extension of the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem to manifolds with corners and the b-calculus of Melrose.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedberg, R.; Hohenberg, P. C.
2014-09-01
Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call ‘compatible quantum theory (CQT)’, consists of a ‘microscopic’ part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a ‘macroscopic’ part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths (‘c-truths’), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, Leonard W., Jr.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The Maximum Likelihood (ML) statistical theory required to estimate spectra information from an arbitrary number of astrophysics data sets produced by vastly different science instruments is developed in this paper. This theory and its successful implementation will facilitate the interpretation of spectral information from multiple astrophysics missions and thereby permit the derivation of superior spectral information based on the combination of data sets. The procedure is of significant value to both existing data sets and those to be produced by future astrophysics missions consisting of two or more detectors by allowing instrument developers to optimize each detector's design parameters through simulation studies in order to design and build complementary detectors that will maximize the precision with which the science objectives may be obtained. The benefits of this ML theory and its application is measured in terms of the reduction of the statistical errors (standard deviations) of the spectra information using the multiple data sets in concert as compared to the statistical errors of the spectra information when the data sets are considered separately, as well as any biases resulting from poor statistics in one or more of the individual data sets that might be reduced when the data sets are combined.
Song, Lingchun; Han, Jaebeom; Lin, Yen-lin; Xie, Wangshen; Gao, Jiali
2009-10-29
The explicit polarization (X-Pol) method has been examined using ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory. The X-Pol potential was designed to provide a novel theoretical framework for developing next-generation force fields for biomolecular simulations. Importantly, the X-Pol potential is a general method, which can be employed with any level of electronic structure theory. The present study illustrates the implementation of the X-Pol method using ab initio Hartree-Fock theory and hybrid density functional theory. The computational results are illustrated by considering a set of bimolecular complexes of small organic molecules and ions with water. The computed interaction energies and hydrogen bond geometries are in good accord with CCSD(T) calculations and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ optimizations.
Dynamical basis sets for algebraic variational calculations in quantum-mechanical scattering theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, Yan; Kouri, Donald J.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.
1990-01-01
New basis sets are proposed for linear algebraic variational calculations of transition amplitudes in quantum-mechanical scattering problems. These basis sets are hybrids of those that yield the Kohn variational principle (KVP) and those that yield the generalized Newton variational principle (GNVP) when substituted in Schlessinger's stationary expression for the T operator. Trial calculations show that efficiencies almost as great as that of the GNVP and much greater than the KVP can be obtained, even for basis sets with the majority of the members independent of energy.
Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.
Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P
2001-05-01
Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.
Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.
2012-01-01
This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…
A Novel Method for Predicting Anisakid Nematode Infection of Atlantic Cod Using Rough Set Theory.
Wąsikowska, Barbara; Sobecka, Ewa; Bielat, Iwona; Legierko, Monika; Więcaszek, Beata
2018-03-01
Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) is one of the most important fish species in the fisheries industries of many countries; however, these fish are often infected with parasites. The detection of pathogenic larval nematodes is usually performed in fish processing facilities by visual examination using candling or by digesting muscles in artificial digestive juices, but these methods are both time and labor intensive. This article presents an innovative approach to the analysis of cod parasites from both the Atlantic and Baltic Sea areas through the application of rough set theory, one of the methods of artificial intelligence, for the prediction of food safety in a food production chain. The parasitological examinations were performed focusing on nematode larvae pathogenic to humans, e.g., Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum osculatum, and Pseudoterranova decipiens. The analysis allowed identification of protocols with which it is possible to make preliminary estimates of the quantity and quality of parasites found in cod catches before detailed analyses are performed. The results indicate that the method used can be an effective analytical tool for these types of data. To achieve this goal, a database is needed that contains the patterns intensity of parasite infections and the conditions of commercial fish species in different localities in their distributions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hillyard, Sam
2010-01-01
The paper sets out to examine the role that ethnographic work can and should play in the development of sociological theory, focusing on the case study of differentiation-polarisation theory. It provides a detailed discussion of the work of Hargreaves (1967), Lacey (1970) and Ball (1981) and assesses the degree to which their work was ethnographic…
Observational information for f(T) theories and dark torsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bengochea, Gabriel R.
2011-01-01
In the present work we analyze and compare the information coming from different observational data sets in the context of a sort of f(T) theories. We perform a joint analysis with measurements of the most recent type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO), Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB), Gamma-Ray Bursts data (GRBs) and Hubble parameter observations (OHD) to constraint the only new parameter these theories have. It is shown that when the new combined BAO/CMB parameter is used to put constraints, the result is different from previous works. We also show that when we include Observational Hubble Data (OHD) the simpler ΛCDM model is excluded to one sigma level, leading the effective equation of state of these theories to be of phantom type. Also, analyzing a tension criterion for SNe Ia and other observational sets, we obtain more consistent and better suited data sets to work with these theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Gaigong; Lin, Lin; Hu, Wei; Yang, Chao; Pask, John E.
2017-04-01
Recently, we have proposed the adaptive local basis set for electronic structure calculations based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory in a pseudopotential framework. The adaptive local basis set is efficient and systematically improvable for total energy calculations. In this paper, we present the calculation of atomic forces, which can be used for a range of applications such as geometry optimization and molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that, under mild assumptions, the computation of atomic forces can scale nearly linearly with the number of atoms in the system using the adaptive local basis set. We quantify the accuracy of the Hellmann-Feynman forces for a range of physical systems, benchmarked against converged planewave calculations, and find that the adaptive local basis set is efficient for both force and energy calculations, requiring at most a few tens of basis functions per atom to attain accuracies required in practice. Since the adaptive local basis set has implicit dependence on atomic positions, Pulay forces are in general nonzero. However, we find that the Pulay force is numerically small and systematically decreasing with increasing basis completeness, so that the Hellmann-Feynman force is sufficient for basis sizes of a few tens of basis functions per atom. We verify the accuracy of the computed forces in static calculations of quasi-1D and 3D disordered Si systems, vibration calculation of a quasi-1D Si system, and molecular dynamics calculations of H2 and liquid Al-Si alloy systems, where we show systematic convergence to benchmark planewave results and results from the literature.
Supergeometry in Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hack, Thomas-Paul; Hanisch, Florian; Schenkel, Alexander
2016-03-01
In this paper we analyze supergeometric locally covariant quantum field theories. We develop suitable categories SLoc of super-Cartan supermanifolds, which generalize Lorentz manifolds in ordinary quantum field theory, and show that, starting from a few representation theoretic and geometric data, one can construct a functor A : SLoc to S* Alg to the category of super-*-algebras, which can be interpreted as a non-interacting super-quantum field theory. This construction turns out to disregard supersymmetry transformations as the morphism sets in the above categories are too small. We then solve this problem by using techniques from enriched category theory, which allows us to replace the morphism sets by suitable morphism supersets that contain supersymmetry transformations as their higher superpoints. We construct super-quantum field theories in terms of enriched functors eA : eSLoc to eS* Alg between the enriched categories and show that supersymmetry transformations are appropriately described within the enriched framework. As examples we analyze the superparticle in 1|1-dimensions and the free Wess-Zumino model in 3|2-dimensions.
Explaining Helping Behavior in a Cooperative Learning Classroom Setting Using Attribution Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ahles, Paula M.; Contento, Jann M.
2006-01-01
This recently completed study examined whether attribution theory can explain helping behavior in an interdependent classroom environment that utilized a cooperative-learning model. The study focused on student participants enrolled in 6 community college communication classes taught by the same instructor. Three levels of cooperative-learning…
Towards a general theory of implementation.
May, Carl
2013-02-13
Understanding and evaluating the implementation of complex interventions in practice is an important problem for healthcare managers and policy makers, and for patients and others who must operationalize them beyond formal clinical settings. It has been argued that this work should be founded on theory that provides a foundation for understanding, designing, predicting, and evaluating dynamic implementation processes. This paper sets out core constituents of a general theory of implementation, building on Normalization Process Theory and linking it to key constructs from recent work in sociology and psychology. These are informed by ideas about agency and its expression within social systems and fields, social and cognitive mechanisms, and collective action. This approach unites a number of contending perspectives in a way that makes possible a more comprehensive explanation of the implementation and embedding of new ways of thinking, enacting and organizing practice.
The Chaos Theory of Careers: A User's Guide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bright, Jim E. H.; Pryor, Robert G. L.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this article is to set out the key elements of the Chaos Theory of Careers. The complexity of influences on career development presents a significant challenge to traditional predictive models of career counseling. Chaos theory can provide a more appropriate description of career behavior, and the theory can be applied with clients…
Theoretical aspects of goal-setting and motivation in rehabilitation.
Siegert, Richard J; Taylor, William J
2004-01-07
The purpose of this article is to provide rehabilitation theorists and researchers with an introduction to some key theories of goals and motivation from the field of social cognition and to argue for increased dialogue between the two disciplines. The use of goals and goal-setting in rehabilitation is briefly surveyed and the somewhat ambivalent attitude toward the concept of motivation in the rehabilitation literature is highlighted. Three major contributors to the study of goals and motivation from the field of social cognition are introduced and their work summarized. They include: (i) Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Model; (ii) Emmons' work on goals and personal strivings, and (iii) Karniol and Ross' discussion of temporal influences on goal-setting. It is argued that there is a need for a greater emphasis upon theory development in rehabilitation research and that closer collaboration between researchers in rehabilitation and social psychology offers considerable promise. Instances where the three theories from social cognition might have relevance to clinical rehabilitation settings are described. Some possible directions for research are also briefly sketched. Both rehabilitation and social cognition have much to gain from increased dialogue.
Group field theories for all loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele; Ryan, James P.; Thürigen, Johannes
2015-02-01
Group field theories represent a second quantized reformulation of the loop quantum gravity state space and a completion of the spin foam formalism. States of the canonical theory, in the traditional continuum setting, have support on graphs of arbitrary valence. On the other hand, group field theories have usually been defined in a simplicial context, thus dealing with a restricted set of graphs. In this paper, we generalize the combinatorics of group field theories to cover all the loop quantum gravity state space. As an explicit example, we describe the group field theory formulation of the KKL spin foam model, as well as a particular modified version. We show that the use of tensor model tools allows for the most effective construction. In order to clarify the mathematical basis of our construction and of the formalisms with which we deal, we also give an exhaustive description of the combinatorial structures entering spin foam models and group field theories, both at the level of the boundary states and of the quantum amplitudes.
Rough set approach for accident chains exploration.
Wong, Jinn-Tsai; Chung, Yi-Shih
2007-05-01
This paper presents a novel non-parametric methodology--rough set theory--for accident occurrence exploration. The rough set theory allows researchers to analyze accidents in multiple dimensions and to model accident occurrence as factor chains. Factor chains are composed of driver characteristics, trip characteristics, driver behavior and environment factors that imply typical accident occurrence. A real-world database (2003 Taiwan single auto-vehicle accidents) is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed approach. The results show that although most accident patterns are unique, some accident patterns are significant and worth noting. Student drivers who are young and less experienced exhibit a relatively high possibility of being involved in off-road accidents on roads with a speed limit between 51 and 79 km/h under normal driving circumstances. Notably, for bump-into-facility accidents, wet surface is a distinctive environmental factor.
Towards a general theory of implementation
2013-01-01
Understanding and evaluating the implementation of complex interventions in practice is an important problem for healthcare managers and policy makers, and for patients and others who must operationalize them beyond formal clinical settings. It has been argued that this work should be founded on theory that provides a foundation for understanding, designing, predicting, and evaluating dynamic implementation processes. This paper sets out core constituents of a general theory of implementation, building on Normalization Process Theory and linking it to key constructs from recent work in sociology and psychology. These are informed by ideas about agency and its expression within social systems and fields, social and cognitive mechanisms, and collective action. This approach unites a number of contending perspectives in a way that makes possible a more comprehensive explanation of the implementation and embedding of new ways of thinking, enacting and organizing practice. PMID:23406398
Entanglement from topology in Chern-Simons theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salton, Grant; Swingle, Brian; Walter, Michael
2017-05-01
The way in which geometry encodes entanglement is a topic of much recent interest in quantum many-body physics and the AdS/CFT duality. This relation is particularly pronounced in the case of topological quantum field theories, where topology alone determines the quantum states of the theory. In this work, we study the set of quantum states that can be prepared by the Euclidean path integral in three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory. Specifically, we consider arbitrary three-manifolds with a fixed number of torus boundaries in both Abelian U (1 ) and non-Abelian S O (3 ) Chern-Simons theory. For the Abelian theory, we find that the states that can be prepared coincide precisely with the set of stabilizer states from quantum information theory. This constrains the multipartite entanglement present in this theory, but it also reveals that stabilizer states can be described by topology. In particular, we find an explicit expression for the entanglement entropy of a many-torus subsystem using only a single replica, as well as a concrete formula for the number of GHZ states that can be distilled from a tripartite state prepared through path integration. For the non-Abelian theory, we find a notion of "state universality," namely that any state can be prepared to an arbitrarily good approximation. The manifolds we consider can also be viewed as toy models of multiboundary wormholes in AdS/CFT.
E-Learning: Students Input for Using Mobile Devices in Science Instructional Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yilmaz, Ozkan
2016-01-01
A variety of e-learning theories, models, and strategy have been developed to support educational settings. There are many factors for designing good instructional settings. This study set out to determine functionality of mobile devices, students who already have, and the student needs and views in relation to e-learning settings. The study…
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Zhang, Gaigong; Lin, Lin, E-mail: linlin@math.berkeley.edu; Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720
Recently, we have proposed the adaptive local basis set for electronic structure calculations based on Kohn–Sham density functional theory in a pseudopotential framework. The adaptive local basis set is efficient and systematically improvable for total energy calculations. In this paper, we present the calculation of atomic forces, which can be used for a range of applications such as geometry optimization and molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that, under mild assumptions, the computation of atomic forces can scale nearly linearly with the number of atoms in the system using the adaptive local basis set. We quantify the accuracy of the Hellmann–Feynmanmore » forces for a range of physical systems, benchmarked against converged planewave calculations, and find that the adaptive local basis set is efficient for both force and energy calculations, requiring at most a few tens of basis functions per atom to attain accuracies required in practice. Since the adaptive local basis set has implicit dependence on atomic positions, Pulay forces are in general nonzero. However, we find that the Pulay force is numerically small and systematically decreasing with increasing basis completeness, so that the Hellmann–Feynman force is sufficient for basis sizes of a few tens of basis functions per atom. We verify the accuracy of the computed forces in static calculations of quasi-1D and 3D disordered Si systems, vibration calculation of a quasi-1D Si system, and molecular dynamics calculations of H{sub 2} and liquid Al–Si alloy systems, where we show systematic convergence to benchmark planewave results and results from the literature.« less
Zhang, Gaigong; Lin, Lin; Hu, Wei; ...
2017-01-27
Recently, we have proposed the adaptive local basis set for electronic structure calculations based on Kohn–Sham density functional theory in a pseudopotential framework. The adaptive local basis set is efficient and systematically improvable for total energy calculations. In this paper, we present the calculation of atomic forces, which can be used for a range of applications such as geometry optimization and molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that, under mild assumptions, the computation of atomic forces can scale nearly linearly with the number of atoms in the system using the adaptive local basis set. We quantify the accuracy of the Hellmann–Feynmanmore » forces for a range of physical systems, benchmarked against converged planewave calculations, and find that the adaptive local basis set is efficient for both force and energy calculations, requiring at most a few tens of basis functions per atom to attain accuracies required in practice. Sin ce the adaptive local basis set has implicit dependence on atomic positions, Pulay forces are in general nonzero. However, we find that the Pulay force is numerically small and systematically decreasing with increasing basis completeness, so that the Hellmann–Feynman force is sufficient for basis sizes of a few tens of basis functions per atom. We verify the accuracy of the computed forces in static calculations of quasi-1D and 3D disordered Si systems, vibration calculation of a quasi-1D Si system, and molecular dynamics calculations of H 2 and liquid Al–Si alloy systems, where we show systematic convergence to benchmark planewave results and results from the literature.« less
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Zhang, Gaigong; Lin, Lin; Hu, Wei
Recently, we have proposed the adaptive local basis set for electronic structure calculations based on Kohn–Sham density functional theory in a pseudopotential framework. The adaptive local basis set is efficient and systematically improvable for total energy calculations. In this paper, we present the calculation of atomic forces, which can be used for a range of applications such as geometry optimization and molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that, under mild assumptions, the computation of atomic forces can scale nearly linearly with the number of atoms in the system using the adaptive local basis set. We quantify the accuracy of the Hellmann–Feynmanmore » forces for a range of physical systems, benchmarked against converged planewave calculations, and find that the adaptive local basis set is efficient for both force and energy calculations, requiring at most a few tens of basis functions per atom to attain accuracies required in practice. Sin ce the adaptive local basis set has implicit dependence on atomic positions, Pulay forces are in general nonzero. However, we find that the Pulay force is numerically small and systematically decreasing with increasing basis completeness, so that the Hellmann–Feynman force is sufficient for basis sizes of a few tens of basis functions per atom. We verify the accuracy of the computed forces in static calculations of quasi-1D and 3D disordered Si systems, vibration calculation of a quasi-1D Si system, and molecular dynamics calculations of H 2 and liquid Al–Si alloy systems, where we show systematic convergence to benchmark planewave results and results from the literature.« less
Goal-setting protocol in adherence to exercise by Italian adults.
Annesi, James J
2002-04-01
A goal-setting protocol, based on research in goal setting and performance and personal construct theory, was tested for its effect on adherence to a new exercise program. The Goal-setting group (n = 50) had significantly less dropout (30%) than the control group (n = 50) (74%). The Goal-setting group also had significantly better attendance (p<.0001). Suggestions for increasing confidence in findings through further research and practical implications of using the protocol to improve exercise maintenance across settings were discussed.
An emerging action science of social settings.
Seidman, Edward
2012-09-01
Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.
A succession of theories: purging redundancy from disturbance theory.
Pulsford, Stephanie A; Lindenmayer, David B; Driscoll, Don A
2016-02-01
The topics of succession and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery have a long and convoluted history. There is extensive redundancy within this body of theory, which has resulted in confusion, and the links among theories have not been adequately drawn. This review aims to distil the unique ideas from the array of theory related to ecosystem change in response to disturbance. This will help to reduce redundancy, and improve communication and understanding between researchers. We first outline the broad range of concepts that have developed over the past century to describe community change in response to disturbance. The body of work spans overlapping succession concepts presented by Clements in 1916, Egler in 1954, and Connell and Slatyer in 1977. Other theories describing community change include state and transition models, biological legacy theory, and the application of functional traits to predict responses to disturbance. Second, we identify areas of overlap of these theories, in addition to highlighting the conceptual and taxonomic limitations of each. In aligning each of these theories with one another, the limited scope and relative inflexibility of some theories becomes apparent, and redundancy becomes explicit. We identify a set of unique concepts to describe the range of mechanisms driving ecosystem responses to disturbance. We present a schematic model of our proposed synthesis which brings together the range of unique mechanisms that were identified in our review. The model describes five main mechanisms of transition away from a post-disturbance community: (i) pulse events with rapid state shifts; (ii) stochastic community drift; (iii) facilitation; (iv) competition; and (v) the influence of the initial composition of a post-disturbance community. In addition, stabilising processes such as biological legacies, inhibition or continuing disturbance may prevent a transition between community types. Integrating these six mechanisms with the functional
Goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation for children with motor disabilities: a scoping review.
Pritchard-Wiart, Lesley; Phelan, Shanon K
2018-02-01
The three objectives of this scoping review were to (1) identify key conceptual/theoretical frameworks and the extent to which they are used to inform goal setting related to rehabilitation goal setting with children with motor disabilities, (2) describe research that has evaluated goal setting processes and outcomes, and (3) summarize the purposes of goal setting described in paediatric rehabilitation literature. The scoping review process described by Arksey and O'Malley was used to guide article selection and data extraction. A total of 62 articles were included in the final review. While the concept of family-centered care was well represented, theoretical frameworks specific to goal setting (i.e. goal setting theory described by Locke and Latham, mastery motivation, social cognitive, personal construct, and self-determination theories) were rarely addressed. No articles reviewed addressed prominent behavior change theory. With the exception of the description of tools specifically designed for use with children, the role of the child in the goal setting process was generally absent or not well described. Few studies ( n = 6) discussed the linkage between goals and intervention strategies explicitly. Only two studies in the review evaluated outcomes associated with goal setting. The primary purpose for goal setting identified in the literature was to develop goals that are meaningful to families ( n = 49). The results highlight significant gaps in the literature explicating a sound theoretical basis for goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation and research evaluating the effects of goal qualities and goal setting processes on the achievement of meaningful outcomes.
Overcoming Barriers in Unhealthy Settings
Lemke, Michael K.; Meissen, Gregory J.; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos
2016-01-01
We investigated the phenomenon of sustained health-supportive behaviors among long-haul commercial truck drivers, who belong to an occupational segment with extreme health disparities. With a focus on setting-level factors, this study sought to discover ways in which individuals exhibit resiliency while immersed in endemically obesogenic environments, as well as understand setting-level barriers to engaging in health-supportive behaviors. Using a transcendental phenomenological research design, 12 long-haul truck drivers who met screening criteria were selected using purposeful maximum sampling. Seven broad themes were identified: access to health resources, barriers to health behaviors, recommended alternative settings, constituents of health behavior, motivation for health behaviors, attitude toward health behaviors, and trucking culture. We suggest applying ecological theories of health behavior and settings approaches to improve driver health. We also propose the Integrative and Dynamic Healthy Commercial Driving (IDHCD) paradigm, grounded in complexity science, as a new theoretical framework for improving driver health outcomes. PMID:28462332
Intelligent System Development Using a Rough Sets Methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Gray T.; Shelton, Robert O.
1997-01-01
The purpose of this research was to examine the potential of the rough sets technique for developing intelligent models of complex systems from limited information. Rough sets a simple but promising technology to extract easily understood rules from data. The rough set methodology has been shown to perform well when used with a large set of exemplars, but its performance with sparse data sets is less certain. The difficulty is that rules will be developed based on just a few examples, each of which might have a large amount of noise associated with them. The question then becomes, what is the probability of a useful rule being developed from such limited information? One nice feature of rough sets is that in unusual situations, the technique can give an answer of 'I don't know'. That is, if a case arises that is different from the cases the rough set rules were developed on, the methodology can recognize this and alert human operators of it. It can also be trained to do this when the desired action is unknown because conflicting examples apply to the same set of inputs. This summer's project was to look at combining rough set theory with statistical theory to develop confidence limits in rules developed by rough sets. Often it is important not to make a certain type of mistake (e.g., false positives or false negatives), so the rules must be biased toward preventing a catastrophic error, rather than giving the most likely course of action. A method to determine the best course of action in the light of such constraints was examined. The resulting technique was tested with files containing electrical power line 'signatures' from the space shuttle and with decompression sickness data.
A Logical Difficulty of the Parameter Setting Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sasaki, Yoshinori
1990-01-01
Seeks to prove that the parameter setting model (PSM) of Chomsky's Universal Grammar theory contains an internal contradiction when it is seriously taken to model the internal state of language learners. (six references) (JL)
Basis sets for the calculation of core-electron binding energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; George, Michael W.; Besley, Nicholas A.
2018-05-01
Core-electron binding energies (CEBEs) computed within a Δ self-consistent field approach require large basis sets to achieve convergence with respect to the basis set limit. It is shown that supplementing a basis set with basis functions from the corresponding basis set for the element with the next highest nuclear charge (Z + 1) provides basis sets that give CEBEs close to the basis set limit. This simple procedure provides relatively small basis sets that are well suited for calculations where the description of a core-ionised state is important, such as time-dependent density functional theory calculations of X-ray emission spectroscopy.
Neutron Star Models in Alternative Theories of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manolidis, Dimitrios
We study the structure of neutron stars in a broad class of alternative theories of gravity. In particular, we focus on Scalar-Tensor theories and f(R) theories of gravity. We construct static and slowly rotating numerical star models for a set of equations of state, including a polytropic model and more realistic equations of state motivated by nuclear physics. Observable quantities such as masses, radii, etc are calculated for a set of parameters of the theories. Specifically for Scalar-Tensor theories, we also calculate the sensitivities of the mass and moment of inertia of the models to variations in the asymptotic value of the scalar field at infinity. These quantities enter post-Newtonian equations of motion and gravitational waveforms of two body systems that are used for gravitational-wave parameter estimation, in order to test these theories against observations. The construction of numerical models of neutron stars in f(R) theories of gravity has been difficult in the past. Using a new formalism by Jaime, Patino and Salgado we were able to construct models with high interior pressure, namely pc > rho c/3, both for constant density models and models with a polytropic equation of state. Thus, we have shown that earlier objections to f(R) theories on the basis of the inability to construct viable neutron star models are unfounded.
A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard
2010-01-01
This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the…
Determination system for solar cell layout in traffic light network using dominating set
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eka Yulia Retnani, Windi; Fambudi, Brelyanes Z.; Slamin
2018-04-01
Graph Theory is one of the fields in Mathematics that solves discrete problems. In daily life, the applications of Graph Theory are used to solve various problems. One of the topics in the Graph Theory that is used to solve the problem is the dominating set. The concept of dominating set is used, for example, to locate some objects systematically. In this study, the dominating set are used to determine the dominating points for solar panels, where the vertex represents the traffic light point and the edge represents the connection between the points of the traffic light. To search the dominating points for solar panels using the greedy algorithm. This algorithm is used to determine the location of solar panel. This research produced applications that can determine the location of solar panels with optimal results, that is, the minimum dominating points.
Statistical effects in large N supersymmetric gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czech, Bartlomiej Stanislaw
This thesis discusses statistical simplifications arising in supersymmetric gauge theories in the limit of large rank. Applications involve the physics of black holes and the problem of predicting the low energy effective theory from a landscape of string vacua. The first part of this work uses the AdS/CFT correspondence to explain properties of black holes. We establish that in the large charge sector of toric quiver gauge theories there exists a typical state whose structure is closely mimicked by almost all other states. Then, working in the settings of the half-BPS sector of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, we show that in the dual gravity theory semiclassical observations cannot distinguish a pair of geometries corresponding to two generic heavy states. Finally, we argue on general grounds that these conclusions are exponentially enhanced in quantum cosmological settings. The results establish that one may consistently account for the entropy of a black hole with heavy states in the dual field theory and suggest that the usual properties of black holes arise as artifacts of imposing a semiclassical description on a quantum system. In the second half we develop new tools to determine the infrared behavior of quiver gauge theories in a certain class. We apply the dynamical results to a toy model of the landscape of effective field theories defined at some high energy scale, and derive firm statistical predictions for the low energy effective theory.
Using Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory to Evaluate the LSCI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS
2011-01-01
Analyzing the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), this project uses both Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) to investigate the LSCI itself in order to better understand what it is actually measuring. We use Classical Test Theory to form a framework of results that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of individual questions at measuring differences in student understanding and provide further insight into the prior results presented from this data set. In the second phase of this research, we use Item Response Theory to form a theoretical model that generates parameters accounting for a student's ability, a question's difficulty, and estimate the level of guessing. The combined results from our investigations using both CTT and IRT are used to better understand the learning that is taking place in classrooms across the country. The analysis will also allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of individual questions and determine whether the item difficulties are appropriately matched to the abilities of the students in our data set. These results may require that some questions be revised, motivating the need for further development of the LSCI. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Humor theories and the physiological benefits of laughter.
Wilkins, Julia; Eisenbraun, Amy Janel
2009-01-01
There are 3 main theories used to explain the functions of humor: (1) the relief theory, (2) the incongruity theory, and (3) the superiority theory. While these theories focus on the specific role that humor plays for people in situations such as dealing with misfortune, making sense of rule violations, and bonding with others, we propose that underlying each of these theories are the physiological benefits of laughter. We draw on findings from empirical studies on laughter to demonstrate that these physiological benefits occur regardless of the theory that is used to explain the humor function. Findings from these studies have important implications for nurse practitioners working in hospice settings, long-term care facilities, nursing homes, and hospitals.
A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development
Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard
2010-01-01
This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the action-phase model of developmental regulation with their original life-span theory of control to present a comprehensive theory of development. Third, they reviewed the relevant empirical literature testing key propositions of the Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. Finally, because the conceptual reach of their theory goes far beyond the current empirical base, they pointed out areas that deserve further and more focused empirical inquiry. PMID:20063963
Kinetic Theories for Biofilms (Preprint)
2011-01-01
2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Kinetic Theories for Biofilms 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...binary complex fluids to develop a set of hydrodynamic models for the two-phase mixture of biofilms and solvent (water). It is aimed to model...kinetics along with the intrinsic molecular elasticity of the EPS network strand modeled as an elastic dumbbell. This theory is valid in both the biofilm
Task representation in individual and joint settings
Prinz, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
This paper outlines a framework for task representation and discusses applications to interference tasks in individual and joint settings. The framework is derived from the Theory of Event Coding (TEC). This theory regards task sets as transient assemblies of event codes in which stimulus and response codes interact and shape each other in particular ways. On the one hand, stimulus and response codes compete with each other within their respective subsets (horizontal interactions). On the other hand, stimulus and response code cooperate with each other (vertical interactions). Code interactions instantiating competition and cooperation apply to two time scales: on-line performance (i.e., doing the task) and off-line implementation (i.e., setting the task). Interference arises when stimulus and response codes overlap in features that are irrelevant for stimulus identification, but relevant for response selection. To resolve this dilemma, the feature profiles of event codes may become restructured in various ways. The framework is applied to three kinds of interference paradigms. Special emphasis is given to joint settings where tasks are shared between two participants. Major conclusions derived from these applications include: (1) Response competition is the chief driver of interference. Likewise, different modes of response competition give rise to different patterns of interference; (2) The type of features in which stimulus and response codes overlap is also a crucial factor. Different types of such features give likewise rise to different patterns of interference; and (3) Task sets for joint settings conflate intraindividual conflicts between responses (what), with interindividual conflicts between responding agents (whom). Features of response codes may, therefore, not only address responses, but also responding agents (both physically and socially). PMID:26029085
The Agenda-Setting of Ivy Lee.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olasky, Marvin N.
Journalism historians in recent years have made good use of agenda-setting theory in research, but there has been one drawback: in concentrating on the political and economic views of publishers, editors, and reporters, the agendas of those working behind the scenes, the public relations men and women have been overlooked. The public relations…
Teaching Critical Reading through Set Theory. Working Paper No. 20.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Michael R.; And Others
This paper examines the context of critical reading and considers how it can best be taught. The paper also includes some reflections on the current "state of the art" in critical reading in an English for Special Purposes (ESP) or English as a Second Language (ESL) context. The paper details a series of attempts to develop a set of…
Constraint-Free Theories of Gravitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estabrook, Frank B.; Robinson, R. Steve; Wahlquist, Hugo D.
1998-01-01
Lovelock actions (more precisely, extended Gauss-Bonnet forms) when varied as Cartan forms on subspaces of higher dimensional flat Riemannian manifolds, generate well set, causal exterior differential systems. In particular, the Einstein- Hilbert action 4-form, varied on a 4 dimensional subspace of E(sub 10) yields a well set generalized theory of gravity having no constraints. Rcci-flat solutions are selected by initial conditions on a bounding 3-space.
Constraining f(R) theories with cosmography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anabella Teppa Pannia, Florencia; Esteban Perez Bergliaffa, Santiago
2013-08-01
A method to set constraints on the parameters of extended theories of gravitation is presented. It is based on the comparison of two series expansions of any observable that depends on H(z). The first expansion is of the cosmographical type, while the second uses the dependence of H with z furnished by a given type of extended theory. When applied to f(R) theories together with the redshift drift, the method yields limits on the parameters of two examples (the theory of Hu and Sawicki [1], and the exponential gravity introduced by Linder [2]) that are compatible with or more stringent than the existing ones, as well as a limit for a previously unconstrained parameter.
Scale-covariant theory of gravitation and astrophysical applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V.; Adams, P. J.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Tsiang, E.
1977-01-01
A scale-covariant theory of gravitation is presented which is characterized by a set of equations that are complete only after a choice of the scale function is made. Special attention is given to gauge conditions and units which allow gravitational phenomena to be described in atomic units. The generalized gravitational-field equations are derived by performing a direct scale transformation, by extending Riemannian geometry to Weyl geometry through the introduction of the notion of cotensors, and from a variation principle. Modified conservation laws are provided, a set of dynamical equations is obtained, and astrophysical consequences are considered. The theory is applied to examine certain homogeneous cosmological solutions, perihelion shifts, light deflections, secular variations of planetary orbital elements, stellar structure equations for a star in quasi-static equilibrium, and the past thermal history of earth. The possible relation of the scale-covariant theory to gauge field theories and their predictions of cosmological constants is discussed.
Cancer Theory from Systems Biology Point of View
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Gaowei; Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Ao, Ping
In our previous work, we have proposed a novel cancer theory, endogenous network theory, to understand mechanism underlying cancer genesis and development. Recently, we apply this theory to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A core endogenous network of hepatocyte was established by integrating the current understanding of hepatocyte at molecular level. Quantitative description of the endogenous network consisted of a set of stochastic differential equations which could generate many local attractors with obvious or non-obvious biological functions. By comparing with clinical observation and experimental data, the results showed that two robust attractors from the model reproduced the main known features of normal hepatocyte and cancerous hepatocyte respectively at both modular and molecular level. In light of our theory, the genesis and progression of cancer is viewed as transition from normal attractor to HCC attractor. A set of new insights on understanding cancer genesis and progression, and on strategies for cancer prevention, cure, and care were provided.
Reality Therapy in a Middle School Setting: Altering a Student's Perception
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mabeus, Danielle; Rowland, Karen D.
2016-01-01
Reality Therapy is a form of brief therapy that is applicable in the school setting and is derived from William Glasser's Choice Theory (Banks, 2009). The basic premise of Choice Theory is that individuals are the masters of their own choices and they alone are responsible for their choices and behaviors. Choice theory states that each person is…
Theory-Based Evaluation Meets Ambiguity: The Role of Janus Variables
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dahler-Larsen, Peter
2018-01-01
As theory-based evaluation (TBE) engages in situations where multiple stakeholders help develop complex program theory about dynamic phenomena in politically contested settings, it becomes difficult to develop and use program theory without ambiguity. The purpose of this article is to explore ambiguity as a fruitful perspective that helps TBE face…
Preservice and Inservice Teachers' Implicit Theories of Intelligence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Brett D.; Bryant, Lauren H.; Snyder, Jennifer Dee; Malone, David
2012-01-01
Implicit theories of intelligence (i.e., individuals' beliefs about the nature of intelligence, such as whether it is fixed or changeable) are important because they are related to individuals' behaviors and their beliefs in other areas (Sternberg, 2000). Implicit theories of intelligence are especially important in educational settings because…
Visual feature integration theory: past, present, and future.
Quinlan, Philip T
2003-09-01
Visual feature integration theory was one of the most influential theories of visual information processing in the last quarter of the 20th century. This article provides an exposition of the theory and a review of the associated data. In the past much emphasis has been placed on how the theory explains performance in various visual search tasks. The relevant literature is discussed and alternative accounts are described. Amendments to the theory are also set out. Many other issues concerning internal processes and representations implicated by the theory are reviewed. The article closes with a synopsis of what has been learned from consideration of the theory, and it is concluded that some of the issues may remain intractable unless appropriate neuroscientific investigations are carried out.
Situational theory of leadership.
Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T
1989-11-01
The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.
Astronomy and political theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campion, Nicholas
2011-06-01
This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.
Theories of Modern Management.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knight, W. Hal
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" identifies management theories that provide a fundamental conceptual knowledge base that school business officials can use to understand the school organizational setting and its influences on the day-to-day operation of the educational process. Particular attention is paid to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beach, Derek; Rohlfing, Ingo
2018-01-01
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the combination of two methods on the basis of set theory. In our introduction and this special issue, we focus on two variants of cross-case set-theoretic methods--"qualitative comparative analysis" (QCA) and typological theory (TT)--and their combination with process tracing (PT).…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Banks, Jerome; Mhunpiew, Nathara
2012-01-01
Character development must balance academic achievement. International school environments are diverse and multicultural settings, containing a learning-focused culture. This investigation constructs the sophisticated elements of authentic leadership and the complexities of the social cognitive theory as factors that produce a practical approach…
Ideal Theory in Semigroups Based on Intersectional Soft Sets
Song, Seok Zun; Jun, Young Bae
2014-01-01
The notions of int-soft semigroups and int-soft left (resp., right) ideals are introduced, and several properties are investigated. Using these notions and the notion of inclusive set, characterizations of subsemigroups and left (resp., right) ideals are considered. Using the notion of int-soft products, characterizations of int-soft semigroups and int-soft left (resp., right) ideals are discussed. We prove that the soft intersection of int-soft left (resp., right) ideals (resp., int-soft semigroups) is also int-soft left (resp., right) ideals (resp., int-soft semigroups). The concept of int-soft quasi-ideals is also introduced, and characterization of a regular semigroup is discussed. PMID:25101310
Psychotherapy: theory, experience, and personalized actuarial tables.
Leventhal, D B; Shemberg, K M
1977-12-01
This paper addresses the issue of the role of theory in the actual application of psychotherapeutic operations. Within the present framework, psychotherapeutic effectiveness is seen as an empirical, actuarial process which occurs in an interpersonal setting separate from theoretical considerations. The role of theory is discussed and a rationale for the coexistence of equally 'effective' contradictory theories is presented. Suggestions for future research in the area of behaviour change are made and an argument for the eventual development of a 'therapeutic cookbook' is presented.
Sisk, Victoria F; Burgoyne, Alexander P; Sun, Jingze; Butler, Jennifer L; Macnamara, Brooke N
2018-04-01
Mind-sets (aka implicit theories) are beliefs about the nature of human attributes (e.g., intelligence). The theory holds that individuals with growth mind-sets (beliefs that attributes are malleable with effort) enjoy many positive outcomes-including higher academic achievement-while their peers who have fixed mind-sets experience negative outcomes. Given this relationship, interventions designed to increase students' growth mind-sets-thereby increasing their academic achievement-have been implemented in schools around the world. In our first meta-analysis ( k = 273, N = 365,915), we examined the strength of the relationship between mind-set and academic achievement and potential moderating factors. In our second meta-analysis ( k = 43, N = 57,155), we examined the effectiveness of mind-set interventions on academic achievement and potential moderating factors. Overall effects were weak for both meta-analyses. However, some results supported specific tenets of the theory, namely, that students with low socioeconomic status or who are academically at risk might benefit from mind-set interventions.
Dense matter theory: A simple classical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savić, P.; Čelebonović, V.
1994-07-01
In the sixties, the first author and by P. Savić and R. Kašanin started developing a mean-field theory of dense matter. It is based on the Coulomb interaction, supplemented by a microscopic selection rule and a set of experimentally founded postulates. Applications of the theory range from the calculation of models of planetary internal structure to DAC experiments.
Theory of Mind Enhances Preference for Fairness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takagishi, Haruto; Kameshima, Shinya; Schug, Joanna; Koizumi, Michiko; Yamagishi, Toshio
2010-01-01
The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of theory of mind in fairness-related behavior in preschoolers and to introduce a tool for examining fairness-related behavior in children. A total of 68 preschoolers played the Ultimatum Game in a face-to-face setting. Acquisition of theory of mind was defined as the understanding of false…
The dynamic range of response set activation during action sequencing.
Behmer, Lawrence P; Crump, Matthew J C
2017-03-01
We show that theories of response scheduling for sequential action can be discriminated on the basis of their predictions for the dynamic range of response set activation during sequencing, which refers to the momentary span of activation states for completed and to-be-completed actions in a response set. In particular, theories allow that future actions in a plan are partially activated, but differ with respect to the width of the range, which refers to the number of future actions that are partially activated. Similarly, theories differ on the width of the range for recently completed actions that are assumed to be rapidly deactivated or gradually deactivated in a passive fashion. We validate a new typing task for measuring momentary activation states of actions across a response set during action sequencing. Typists recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk copied a paragraph by responding to a "go" signal that usually cued the next letter but sometimes cued a near-past or future letter (n-3, -2, -1, 0, +2, +3). The activation states for producing letters across go-signal positions can be inferred from RTs and errors. In general, we found evidence of graded parallel activation for future actions and rapid deactivation of more distal past actions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Homeopathic drug selection using Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.
Kharal, Athar
2009-01-01
Using intuitionistic fuzzy set theory, Sanchez's approach to medical diagnosis has been applied to the problem of selection of single remedy from homeopathic repertorization. Two types of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations (IFRs) and three types of selection indices are discussed. I also propose a new repertory exploiting the benefits of soft-intelligence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chmela, Jiří; Harding, Michael E.
2018-06-01
Optimised auxiliary basis sets for lanthanide atoms (Ce to Lu) for four basis sets of the Karlsruhe error-balanced segmented contracted def2 - series (SVP, TZVP, TZVPP and QZVPP) are reported. These auxiliary basis sets enable the use of the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation in post Hartree-Fock methods - as for example, second-order perturbation theory (MP2) and coupled cluster (CC) theory. The auxiliary basis sets are tested on an enlarged set of about a hundred molecules where the test criterion is the size of the RI error in MP2 calculations. Our tests also show that the same auxiliary basis sets can be used together with different effective core potentials. With these auxiliary basis set calculations of MP2 and CC quality can now be performed efficiently on medium-sized molecules containing lanthanides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayral, Thomas; Lee, Tsung-Han; Kotliar, Gabriel
2017-12-01
We present a unified perspective on dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), density-matrix embedding theory (DMET), and rotationally invariant slave bosons (RISB). We show that DMET can be regarded as a simplification of the RISB method where the quasiparticle weight is set to unity. This relation makes it easy to transpose extensions of a given method to another: For instance, a temperature-dependent version of RISB can be used to derive a temperature-dependent free-energy formula for DMET.
Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.
2012-01-01
This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…
A Critical Theory of Adult and Community Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brookfield, Stephen
2012-01-01
Critical theory is one of the most influential theoretical frameworks influencing scholarship within the field of adult and community education. This chapter outlines what constitute the chief elements of critical theory using Horkheimer's (1937/1995) classic essay as a touchstone for this analysis. It argues for a set of adult learning tasks that…
Dowding, Dawn; Lichtner, Valentina; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; James, Kirstin; Keady, John; Lasrado, Reena; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Swarbrick, Caroline; José Closs, S
2016-01-01
The recognition, assessment and management of pain in hospital settings is suboptimal, and is a particular challenge in patients with dementia. The existing process guiding pain assessment and management in clinical settings is based on the assumption that nurses follow a sequential linear approach to decision making. In this paper we re-evaluate this theoretical assumption drawing on findings from a study of pain recognition, assessment and management in patients with dementia. To provide a revised conceptual model of pain recognition, assessment and management based on sense-making theories of decision making. The research we refer to is an exploratory ethnographic study using nested case sites. Patients with dementia (n=31) were the unit of data collection, nested in 11 wards (vascular, continuing care, stroke rehabilitation, orthopaedic, acute medicine, care of the elderly, elective and emergency surgery), located in four NHS hospital organizations in the UK. Data consisted of observations of patients at bedside (170h in total); observations of the context of care; audits of patient hospital records; documentary analysis of artefacts; semi-structured interviews (n=56) and informal open conversations with staff and carers (family members). Existing conceptualizations of pain recognition, assessment and management do not fully explain how the decision process occurs in clinical practice. Our research indicates that pain recognition, assessment and management is not an individual cognitive activity; rather it is carried out by groups of individuals over time and within a specific organizational culture or climate, which influences both health care professional and patient behaviour. We propose a revised theoretical model of decision making related to pain assessment and management for patients with dementia based on theories of sense-making, which is reflective of the reality of clinical decision making in acute hospital wards. The revised model recognizes the
Resource theory for work and heat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sparaciari, Carlo; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Fritz, Tobias
2017-11-01
Several recent results on thermodynamics have been obtained using the tools of quantum information theory and resource theories. So far, the resource theories utilized to describe thermodynamics have assumed the existence of an infinite thermal reservoir, by declaring that thermal states at some background temperature come for free. Here, we propose a resource theory of quantum thermodynamics without a background temperature, so that no states at all come for free. We apply this resource theory to the case of many noninteracting systems and show that all quantum states are classified by their entropy and average energy, even arbitrarily far away from equilibrium. This implies that thermodynamics takes place in a two-dimensional convex set that we call the energy-entropy diagram. The answers to many resource-theoretic questions about thermodynamics can be read off from this diagram, such as the efficiency of a heat engine consisting of finite reservoirs, or the rate of conversion between two states. This allows us to consider a resource theory which puts work and heat on an equal footing, and serves as a model for other resource theories.
Beyond Lovelock gravity: Higher derivative metric theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crisostomi, M.; Noui, K.; Charmousis, C.; Langlois, D.
2018-02-01
We consider theories describing the dynamics of a four-dimensional metric, whose Lagrangian is diffeomorphism invariant and depends at most on second derivatives of the metric. Imposing degeneracy conditions we find a set of Lagrangians that, apart form the Einstein-Hilbert one, are either trivial or contain more than 2 degrees of freedom. Among the partially degenerate theories, we recover Chern-Simons gravity, endowed with constraints whose structure suggests the presence of instabilities. Then, we enlarge the class of parity violating theories of gravity by introducing new "chiral scalar-tensor theories." Although they all raise the same concern as Chern-Simons gravity, they can nevertheless make sense as low energy effective field theories or, by restricting them to the unitary gauge (where the scalar field is uniform), as Lorentz breaking theories with a parity violating sector.
Use of graph theory measures to identify errors in record linkage.
Randall, Sean M; Boyd, James H; Ferrante, Anna M; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B
2014-07-01
Ensuring high linkage quality is important in many record linkage applications. Current methods for ensuring quality are manual and resource intensive. This paper seeks to determine the effectiveness of graph theory techniques in identifying record linkage errors. A range of graph theory techniques was applied to two linked datasets, with known truth sets. The ability of graph theory techniques to identify groups containing errors was compared to a widely used threshold setting technique. This methodology shows promise; however, further investigations into graph theory techniques are required. The development of more efficient and effective methods of improving linkage quality will result in higher quality datasets that can be delivered to researchers in shorter timeframes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guturu, Parthasarathy; Dantu, Ram
2008-06-01
Many graph- and set-theoretic problems, because of their tremendous application potential and theoretical appeal, have been well investigated by the researchers in complexity theory and were found to be NP-hard. Since the combinatorial complexity of these problems does not permit exhaustive searches for optimal solutions, only near-optimal solutions can be explored using either various problem-specific heuristic strategies or metaheuristic global-optimization methods, such as simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, etc. In this paper, we propose a unified evolutionary algorithm (EA) to the problems of maximum clique finding, maximum independent set, minimum vertex cover, subgraph and double subgraph isomorphism, set packing, set partitioning, and set cover. In the proposed approach, we first map these problems onto the maximum clique-finding problem (MCP), which is later solved using an evolutionary strategy. The proposed impatient EA with probabilistic tabu search (IEA-PTS) for the MCP integrates the best features of earlier successful approaches with a number of new heuristics that we developed to yield a performance that advances the state of the art in EAs for the exploration of the maximum cliques in a graph. Results of experimentation with the 37 DIMACS benchmark graphs and comparative analyses with six state-of-the-art algorithms, including two from the smaller EA community and four from the larger metaheuristics community, indicate that the IEA-PTS outperforms the EAs with respect to a Pareto-lexicographic ranking criterion and offers competitive performance on some graph instances when individually compared to the other heuristic algorithms. It has also successfully set a new benchmark on one graph instance. On another benchmark suite called Benchmarks with Hidden Optimal Solutions, IEA-PTS ranks second, after a very recent algorithm called COVER, among its peers that have experimented with this suite.
Street, Helen
2003-09-01
This study explores depression in cancer patients with reference to conditional goal setting (CGS) theory. CGS theory proposes that depressed individuals believe that personal happiness is conditional upon attainment of specific goals (personal CGS). Other individuals may set important goals believing that goal achievement is a necessary prerequisite of social acceptance and approval (social CGS). CGS has been found to contribute to depression in normal populations. 15.2% of the 67 newly diagnosed cancer patients in this study showed clinical levels of depression. A significant relationship was identified between personal CGS, rumination and depression, as predicted in CGS theory. Two months later, 46.7% of patients demonstrated clinical levels of depression. This later experience of depression was significantly related to social CGS. The results suggest CGS involving a misdirected pursuit of happiness is initially associated with depression whereas subsequent experiences of depression are related to a misdirected pursuit of social acceptance. Implications are discussed in terms of understanding the cancer patients' motivations controlling goal setting. It is suggested that successful psychotherapy for depression in cancer patients needs to examine the motivations controlling goal setting in addition to the process of goal pursuit. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach.
Meyer, Raquel M; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda L
2010-12-01
This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a 'black box' that masks the nature and organization of nursing work. Theory linking nursing work, staffing, work environments, and outcomes in different settings is urgently needed to inform management decisions about the allocation of nurse staffing resources in organizations. A search of CINAHL and Business Source Premier for the years 1980-2008 was conducted using the following terms: theory, models, organization, organizational structure, management, administration, nursing units, and nursing. Seminal works were included. The healthcare organization is conceptualized as an open system characterized by energy transformation, a dynamic steady state, negative entropy, event cycles, negative feedback, differentiation, integration and coordination, and equifinality. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory proposes that input, throughput, and output factors interact dynamically to influence the global work demands placed on nursing work groups at the point of care in production subsystems. THE Nursing Services Delivery Theory can be applied to varied settings, cultures, and countries and supports the study of multi-level phenomena and cross-level effects. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory gives a relational structure for reconciling disparate streams of research related to nursing work, staffing, and work environments. The theory can guide future research and the management of nursing services in large-scale healthcare organizations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Theory-Based Approaches to the Concept of Life
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
El-Hani, Charbel Nino
2008-01-01
In this paper, I argue that characterisations of life through lists of properties have several shortcomings and should be replaced by theory-based accounts that explain the coexistence of a set of properties in living beings. The concept of life should acquire its meaning from its relationships with other concepts inside a theory. I illustrate…
Reason and Rationalization: A Theory of Modern Play
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henricks, Thomas S.
2016-01-01
The author reviews historical attempts--mostly by European thinkers--to characterize modernity and its relationship to play. He discusses ideas from Friederich Schiller to Brian Sutton-Smith, all to set the ground for a theory of play in the modern world. Emphasizing the ideas of Max Weber--in particular his theory of rationalization and its…
The Role of Perceptual-Motor Theory in Practice.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pyfer, Jean L.
Theory and practice in education are interrelated and interdependent. The credibility of any set of postulates depends upon how well the position holds up in practice. There are three ways we can utilize theory in practice: (1) to reexamine our traditional approaches; (2) to give some direction to our future practices; and (3) to generate…
Quantum cellular automata and free quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2017-02-01
In a series of recent papers [1-4] it has been shown how free quantum field theory can be derived without using mechanical primitives (including space-time, special relativity, quantization rules, etc.), but only considering the easiest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the simple principles of unitarity, homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. This has opened the route to extending the axiomatic information-theoretic derivation of the quantum theory of abstract systems [5, 6] to include quantum field theory. The inherent discrete nature of the informational axiomatization leads to an extension of quantum field theory to a quantum cellular automata theory, where the usual field theory is recovered in a regime where the discrete structure of the automata cannot be probed. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale of discreteness to the Planck scale, and the customary physical regime where discreteness is not visible is the relativistic one of small wavevectors. In this paper we provide a thorough derivation from principles that in the most general case the graph of the quantum cellular automaton is the Cayley graph of a finitely presented group, and showing how for the case corresponding to Euclidean emergent space (where the group resorts to an Abelian one) the automata leads to Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell field dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some perspectives towards the more general scenario of non-linear automata for interacting quantum field theory.
Constrained variational calculus for higher order classical field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David
2010-11-01
We develop an intrinsic geometrical setting for higher order constrained field theories. As a main tool we use an appropriate generalization of the classical Skinner-Rusk formalism. Some examples of applications are studied, in particular to the geometrical description of optimal control theory for partial differential equations.
Individual Perseverance: A Theory of Home Tutors' Management of Schooling in Isolated Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tynan, Belinda; O'Neill, Marnie
2007-01-01
This article reports a study of parents' management of the education of primary school-aged children in their care in remote and rural locations of Western Australia. It presents a theory of the ways in which these parents, in the role of home tutors, "manage" the schooling of their children in a distance education regime in isolated…
Hermeneutical Field Theory and the Structural Character of Understanding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitehouse, William Leonard
Through a series of exploratory case studies focusing on hermeneutics, phenomenology, relativity, field theory, quantum mechanics, chronobiology, chaos theory, holographic theory and various aspects of mathematics, a set of hermeneutical constraints and degrees of freedom are generated. There are a set of eight field equations given in the thesis which give qualitative symbolic expression to the aforementioned spectrum of constraints and degrees of freedom that constitute the structural character of understanding. However, as is sometimes the case with their quantitative mathematical counterparts, the hermeneutical field equations are capable of giving a variety of descriptions or solutions for one and the same set of conditions. The task, therefore, is to try to sort out those solutions which have reflective properties with respect to the structural character of reality from those which do not have such properties. The thesis addresses this task by introducing the idea of hermeneutical field theory. In this theory the notion of a semiotic operator or semiotic quantum plays a central role. More specifically, this quantum is considered to be the carrier of hermeneutical force. It arises as a field property at the complex, horizontal membrane-manifold linking human consciousness with different levels of scale of reality. When taken collectively, the aforementioned set of equations gives expression to the structural character of hermeneutical field theory. Therefore, when one begins to run concrete variables through the theory underlying these equations, one encounters various kinds of hermeneutical constraints and degrees of freedom. These constraints and degrees of freedom characterize the dialectical engagement of consciousness and reality as one seeks to acquire understanding concerning the above mentioned variables and the context which gives rise to them. Hermeneutical field theory is really the study of the factors that affect the state of the six internal
Ayral, Thomas; Lee, Tsung-Han; Kotliar, Gabriel
2017-12-26
In this paper, we present a unified perspective on dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), density-matrix embedding theory (DMET), and rotationally invariant slave bosons (RISB). We show that DMET can be regarded as a simplification of the RISB method where the quasiparticle weight is set to unity. Finally, this relation makes it easy to transpose extensions of a given method to another: For instance, a temperature-dependent version of RISB can be used to derive a temperature-dependent free-energy formula for DMET.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Ayral, Thomas; Lee, Tsung-Han; Kotliar, Gabriel
In this paper, we present a unified perspective on dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), density-matrix embedding theory (DMET), and rotationally invariant slave bosons (RISB). We show that DMET can be regarded as a simplification of the RISB method where the quasiparticle weight is set to unity. Finally, this relation makes it easy to transpose extensions of a given method to another: For instance, a temperature-dependent version of RISB can be used to derive a temperature-dependent free-energy formula for DMET.
On lattice chiral gauge theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maiani, L.; Rossi, G. C.; Testa, M.
1991-01-01
The Smit-Swift-Aoki formulation of a lattice chiral gauge theory is presented. In this formulation the Wilson and other non invariant terms in the action are made gauge invariant by the coupling with a nonlinear auxilary scalar field, omega. It is shown that omega decouples from the physical states only if appropriate parameters are tuned so as to satisfy a set of BRST identities. In addition, explicit ghost fields are necessary to ensure decoupling. These theories can give rise to the correct continuum limit. Similar considerations apply to schemes with mirror fermions. Simpler cases with a global chiral symmetry are discussed and it is shown that the theory becomes free at decoupling. Recent numerical simulations agree with those considerations.
Good IR duals of bad quiver theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Anindya; Koroteev, Peter
2018-05-01
The infrared dynamics of generic 3d N = 4 bad theories (as per the good-bad-ugly classification of Gaiotto and Witten) are poorly understood. Examples of such theories with a single unitary gauge group and fundamental flavors have been studied recently, and the low energy effective theory around some special point in the Coulomb branch was shown to have a description in terms of a good theory and a certain number of free hypermultiplets. A classification of possible infrared fixed points for bad theories by Bashkirov, based on unitarity constraints and superconformal symmetry, suggest a much richer set of possibilities for the IR behavior, although explicit examples were not known. In this note, we present a specific example of a bad quiver gauge theory which admits a good IR description on a sublocus of its Coulomb branch. The good description, in question, consists of two decoupled quiver gauge theories with no free hypermultiplets.
Peer Assisted Learning in the Clinical Setting: An Activity Systems Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; Kelly, Martina
2015-01-01
Peer assisted learning (PAL) is a common feature of medical education. Understanding of PAL has been based on processes and outcomes in controlled settings, such as clinical skills labs. PAL in the clinical setting, a complex learning environment, requires fresh evaluation. Socio-cultural theory is proposed as a means to understand educational…
Dramatic Playing beyond the Theory of Multiple Intelligences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guss, Faith Gabrielle
2005-01-01
Related to aspects of drama and theatre education, I search beyond the findings about symbolic play set forth by Dr Howard Gardner in "Frames of mind. The theory of multiple intelligences". Despite the inspiration for and solidarity with arts educators that emanate from his theory, I sensed that it did not provide a full picture of the complex…
Organizational Theories and Analysis: A Feminist Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irefin, Peace; Ifah, S. S.; Bwala, M. H.
2012-06-01
This paper is a critique of organization theories and their failure to come to terms with the fact of the reproduction of labour power within a particular form of the division of labour. It examines feminist theory and its aims to understand the nature of inequality and focuses on gender, power relations and sexuality part of the task of feminists which organizational theories have neglected is to offer an account of how the different treatments of the sexes operate in our culture. The paper concludes that gender has been completely neglected within the organizational theory which result in a rhetorical reproduction of males as norms and women as others. It is recommended that only radical form of organization theory can account for the situation of women in organisational setting
Designing a grounded theory study: some practicalities.
McCallin, Antoinette M
2003-01-01
Grounded theory is an interpretative research methodology frequently used by social science researchers seeking to discover the underlying social processes shaping interaction. The methodology is useful to create knowledge about the behavioural patterns of a group. The aim of this paper was to discuss some practical issues that the prospective grounded theory researcher planning a small-scale project may consider. Discussion focuses on the basic premises, choosing a version of grounded theory, the research problem, the purpose of study, the research question and the place of the literature in a study. The specific skills required of the grounded theory researcher are considered and some cautions are exercised. The paper may assist student researchers in a critical care setting and may be of interest to their supervisors and experienced. grounded theory researchers.
Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D
2012-01-01
Two prominent theories of lifespan development, socioemotional selectivity theory and selection, optimization, and compensation theory, make similar predictions for differences in the goal representations of younger and older adults. Our purpose was to test whether the goals of younger and older adults differed in ways predicted by these two theories. Older adults and two groups of younger adults (college students and non-students) listed their current goals, which were then coded by independent raters. Observed age group differences in goals generally supported both theories. Specifically, when compared to younger adults, older adults reported more goals focused on maintenance/loss prevention, the present, emotion-focus and generativity, and social selection, and less goals focused on knowledge acquisition and the future. However, contrary to prediction, older adults also showed less goal focusing than younger adults, reporting goals from a broader set of life domains (e.g., health, property/possessions, friendship).
Teaching transcultural nursing in a transcultural setting.
Baker, S S; Burkhalter, N C
1996-01-01
The application of Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality to the dialogue between students and faculty regarding nursing education and practice provides the theoretical framework for evaluating a transcultural nursing curriculum in a transcultural, transnational setting on the Texas-Mexico border. In evaluating the first semester of this cultural encounter between the nurse-patient-community system and baccalaureate nursing education, faculty and students at Texas A&M International University School of Nursing in Laredo identified some particular challenges and assessed the effectiveness of approaches to meeting these challenges within the context of Leininger's Culture Care Theory and its three modes of action: culture care preservation, accommodation, and repatterning.
Perfect fluids in the Einstein-Cartan theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. J.
1982-01-01
It is pointed out that whereas most of the discussion of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory involves the relationship between gravitation and elementary particles, it is possible that the theory, if correct, may be important in certain extreme astrophysical and cosmological problems. The latter would include something like the collapse of a spinning star or an early universe with spin. A set of equations that describe a macroscopic perfect fluid in the EC theory is derived and examined. The equations are derived starting from the fundamental variational principle for a perfect fluid in general relativity. A brief review of the study by Ray (1972) is included, and the results for the EC theory are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooper, Wesley
2003-01-01
James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…
Etch Profile Simulation Using Level Set Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Helen H.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Etching and deposition of materials are critical steps in semiconductor processing for device manufacturing. Both etching and deposition may have isotropic and anisotropic components, due to directional sputtering and redeposition of materials, for example. Previous attempts at modeling profile evolution have used so-called "string theory" to simulate the moving solid-gas interface between the semiconductor and the plasma. One complication of this method is that extensive de-looping schemes are required at the profile corners. We will present a 2D profile evolution simulation using level set theory to model the surface. (1) By embedding the location of the interface in a field variable, the need for de-looping schemes is eliminated and profile corners are more accurately modeled. This level set profile evolution model will calculate both isotropic and anisotropic etch and deposition rates of a substrate in low pressure (10s mTorr) plasmas, considering the incident ion energy angular distribution functions and neutral fluxes. We will present etching profiles of Si substrates in Ar/Cl2 discharges for various incident ion energies and trench geometries.
Ph.D. Thesis: Quantum Field Theory and Gravity in Causal Sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sverdlov, Roman
2009-05-01
This is is a copy of dissertation that I have submitted in defense of my ph.d. thesis, with some minor changes that I have made since then. The goal of the project is to generalize matter fields and their Lagrangians from regular space time to causal sets.
Goal setting: an integral component of effective diabetes care.
Miller, Carla K; Bauman, Jennifer
2014-08-01
Goal setting is a widely used behavior change tool in diabetes education and training. Prior research found specific relatively difficult but attainable goals set within a specific timeframe improved performance in sports and at the workplace. However, the impact of goal setting in diabetes self-care has not received extensive attention. This review examined the mechanisms underlying behavioral change according to goal setting theory and evaluated the impact of goal setting in diabetes intervention studies. Eight studies were identified, which incorporated goal setting as the primary strategy to promote behavioral change in individual, group-based, and primary care settings among patients with type 2 diabetes. Improvements in diabetes-related self-efficacy, dietary intake, physical activity, and A1c were observed in some but not all studies. More systematic research is needed to determine the conditions and behaviors for which goal setting is most effective. Initial recommendations for using goal setting in diabetes patient encounters are offered.
Marchetti, Luca; Manca, Vincenzo
2015-04-15
MpTheory Java library is an open-source project collecting a set of objects and algorithms for modeling observed dynamics by means of the Metabolic P (MP) theory, that is, a mathematical theory introduced in 2004 for modeling biological dynamics. By means of the library, it is possible to model biological systems both at continuous and at discrete time. Moreover, the library comprises a set of regression algorithms for inferring MP models starting from time series of observations. To enhance the modeling experience, beside a pure Java usage, the library can be directly used within the most popular computing environments, such as MATLAB, GNU Octave, Mathematica and R. The library is open-source and licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) Version 3.0. Source code, binaries and complete documentation are available at http://mptheory.scienze.univr.it. luca.marchetti@univr.it, marchetti@cosbi.eu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Work Motivation: Theory and Practice.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Katzell, Raymond A.; Thompson, Donna E.
1990-01-01
Presents theories of motivation classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. The following strategies for improving work motivation are discussed: (1) personal motives; (2) incentives and rewards; (3) reinforcement; (4) goal-setting techniques; (5) personal and material resources; (6) social and group…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curtis, Russell C.
2000-01-01
Goal setting can be an effective way to help beginning counselors focus on important developmental issues. This article argues that counselors and supervisors must consider issues related to goal-setting theory and understand the process by which goals are set so that optimal learning experiences are created. (Author/MKA)
Nonunitary Lagrangians and Unitary Non-Lagrangian Conformal Field Theories.
Buican, Matthew; Laczko, Zoltan
2018-02-23
In various dimensions, we can sometimes compute observables of interacting conformal field theories (CFTs) that are connected to free theories via the renormalization group (RG) flow by computing protected quantities in the free theories. On the other hand, in two dimensions, it is often possible to algebraically construct observables of interacting CFTs using free fields without the need to explicitly construct an underlying RG flow. In this Letter, we begin to extend this idea to higher dimensions by showing that one can compute certain observables of an infinite set of unitary strongly interacting four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) by performing simple calculations involving sets of nonunitary free four-dimensional hypermultiplets. These free fields are distant cousins of the Majorana fermion underlying the two-dimensional Ising model and are not obviously connected to our interacting theories via an RG flow. Rather surprisingly, this construction gives us Lagrangians for particular observables in certain subsectors of many "non-Lagrangian" SCFTs by sacrificing unitarity while preserving the full N=2 superconformal algebra. As a by-product, we find relations between characters in unitary and nonunitary affine Kac-Moody algebras. We conclude by commenting on possible generalizations of our construction.
Nonunitary Lagrangians and Unitary Non-Lagrangian Conformal Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buican, Matthew; Laczko, Zoltan
2018-02-01
In various dimensions, we can sometimes compute observables of interacting conformal field theories (CFTs) that are connected to free theories via the renormalization group (RG) flow by computing protected quantities in the free theories. On the other hand, in two dimensions, it is often possible to algebraically construct observables of interacting CFTs using free fields without the need to explicitly construct an underlying RG flow. In this Letter, we begin to extend this idea to higher dimensions by showing that one can compute certain observables of an infinite set of unitary strongly interacting four-dimensional N =2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) by performing simple calculations involving sets of nonunitary free four-dimensional hypermultiplets. These free fields are distant cousins of the Majorana fermion underlying the two-dimensional Ising model and are not obviously connected to our interacting theories via an RG flow. Rather surprisingly, this construction gives us Lagrangians for particular observables in certain subsectors of many "non-Lagrangian" SCFTs by sacrificing unitarity while preserving the full N =2 superconformal algebra. As a by-product, we find relations between characters in unitary and nonunitary affine Kac-Moody algebras. We conclude by commenting on possible generalizations of our construction.
Theory, the Final Frontier? A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Role of Theory in Psychological Articles.
Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea
2017-01-01
Contemporary psychology regards itself as an empirical science, at least in most of its subfields. Theory building and development are often considered critical to the sciences, but the extent to which psychology can be cast in this way is under debate. According to those advocating a strong role of theory, studies should be designed to test hypotheses derived from theories (theory-driven) and ideally should yield findings that stimulate hypothesis formation and theory building (theory-generating). The alternative position values empirical findings over theories as the lasting legacy of science. To investigate which role theory actually plays in current research practice, we analyse references to theory in the complete set of 2,046 articles accepted for publication in Frontiers of Psychology in 2015. This sample of articles, while not representative in the strictest sense, covers a broad range of sub-disciplines, both basic and applied, and a broad range of article types, including research articles, reviews, hypothesis & theory, and commentaries. For the titles, keyword lists, and abstracts in this sample, we conducted a text search for terms related to empiricism and theory, assessed the frequency and scope of usage for six theory-related terms, and analyzed their distribution over different article types and subsections of the journal. The results indicate substantially lower frequencies of theoretical than empirical terms, with references to a specific (named) theory in less than 10% of the sample and references to any of even the most frequently mentioned theories in less than 0.5% of the sample. In conclusion, we discuss possible limitations of our study and the prospect of theoretical advancement.
Theory, the Final Frontier? A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Role of Theory in Psychological Articles
Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea
2017-01-01
Contemporary psychology regards itself as an empirical science, at least in most of its subfields. Theory building and development are often considered critical to the sciences, but the extent to which psychology can be cast in this way is under debate. According to those advocating a strong role of theory, studies should be designed to test hypotheses derived from theories (theory-driven) and ideally should yield findings that stimulate hypothesis formation and theory building (theory-generating). The alternative position values empirical findings over theories as the lasting legacy of science. To investigate which role theory actually plays in current research practice, we analyse references to theory in the complete set of 2,046 articles accepted for publication in Frontiers of Psychology in 2015. This sample of articles, while not representative in the strictest sense, covers a broad range of sub-disciplines, both basic and applied, and a broad range of article types, including research articles, reviews, hypothesis & theory, and commentaries. For the titles, keyword lists, and abstracts in this sample, we conducted a text search for terms related to empiricism and theory, assessed the frequency and scope of usage for six theory-related terms, and analyzed their distribution over different article types and subsections of the journal. The results indicate substantially lower frequencies of theoretical than empirical terms, with references to a specific (named) theory in less than 10% of the sample and references to any of even the most frequently mentioned theories in less than 0.5% of the sample. In conclusion, we discuss possible limitations of our study and the prospect of theoretical advancement. PMID:28642728
Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach
Meyer, Raquel M; O’Brien-Pallas, Linda L
2010-01-01
meyer r.m. & o’brien-pallas l.l. (2010)Nursing services delivery theory: an open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(12), 2828–2838. Aim This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. Background The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a ‘black box’ that masks the nature and organization of nursing work. Theory linking nursing work, staffing, work environments, and outcomes in different settings is urgently needed to inform management decisions about the allocation of nurse staffing resources in organizations. Data sources A search of CINAHL and Business Source Premier for the years 1980–2008 was conducted using the following terms: theory, models, organization, organizational structure, management, administration, nursing units, and nursing. Seminal works were included. Discussion The healthcare organization is conceptualized as an open system characterized by energy transformation, a dynamic steady state, negative entropy, event cycles, negative feedback, differentiation, integration and coordination, and equifinality. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory proposes that input, throughput, and output factors interact dynamically to influence the global work demands placed on nursing work groups at the point of care in production subsystems. Implications for nursing The Nursing Services Delivery Theory can be applied to varied settings, cultures, and countries and supports the study of multi-level phenomena and cross-level effects. Conclusion The Nursing Services Delivery Theory gives a relational structure for reconciling disparate streams of research related to nursing work, staffing, and work environments. The theory can guide future research and the management of nursing services in large-scale healthcare organizations. PMID:20831573
Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu
2012-01-01
Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…
A Unifying Framework for Causal Analysis in Set-Theoretic Multimethod Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rohlfing, Ingo; Schneider, Carsten Q.
2018-01-01
The combination of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) with process tracing, which we call set-theoretic multimethod research (MMR), is steadily becoming more popular in empirical research. Despite the fact that both methods have an elected affinity based on set theory, it is not obvious how a within-case method operating in a single case and a…
Making sense of grounded theory in medical education.
Kennedy, Tara J T; Lingard, Lorelei A
2006-02-01
Grounded theory is a research methodology designed to develop, through collection and analysis of data that is primarily (but not exclusively) qualitative, a well-integrated set of concepts that provide a theoretical explanation of a social phenomenon. This paper aims to provide an introduction to key features of grounded theory methodology within the context of medical education research. In this paper we include a discussion of the origins of grounded theory, a description of key methodological processes, a comment on pitfalls encountered commonly in the application of grounded theory research, and a summary of the strengths of grounded theory methodology with illustrations from the medical education domain. The significant strengths of grounded theory that have resulted in its enduring prominence in qualitative research include its clearly articulated analytical process and its emphasis on the generation of pragmatic theory that is grounded in the data of experience. When applied properly and thoughtfully, grounded theory can address research questions of significant relevance to the domain of medical education.
Gravitational decoherence, alternative quantum theories and semiclassical gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, B. L.
2014-04-01
In this report we discuss three aspects: 1) Semiclassical gravity theory (SCG): 4 levels of theories describing the interaction of quantum matter with classical gravity. 2) Alternative Quantum Theories: Discerning those which are derivable from general relativity (GR) plus quantum field theory (QFT) from those which are not 3) Gravitational Decoherence: derivation of a master equation and examination of the assumptions which led to the claims of observational possibilities. We list three sets of corresponding problems worthy of pursuit: a) Newton-Schrödinger Equations in relation to SCG; b) Master equation of gravity-induced effects serving as discriminator of 2); and c) Role of gravity in macroscopic quantum phenomena.
Machado, Armando; Arantes, Joana
2006-06-01
To contrast two models of timing, Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and Learning to Time (LeT), pigeons were exposed to a double temporal bisection procedure. On half of the trials, they learned to choose a red key after a 1s signal and a green key after a 4s signal; on the other half of the trials, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-s signal and a yellow key after a 16-s signal. This was Phase A of an ABA design. On Phase B, the pigeons were divided into two groups and exposed to a new bisection task in which the signals ranged from 1 to 16s and the choice keys were blue and green. One group was reinforced for choosing blue after 1-s signals and green after 16-s signals and the other group was reinforced for the opposite mapping (green after 1-s signals and blue after 16-s signals). Whereas SET predicted no differences between the groups, LeT predicted that the former group would learn the new discrimination faster than the latter group. The results were consistent with LeT. Finally, the pigeons returned to Phase A. Only LeT made specific predictions regarding the reacquisition of the four temporal discriminations. These predictions were only partly consistent with the results.
Udod, Sonia A; Racine, Louise
2017-12-01
To draw on the findings of a grounded theory study aimed at exploring how power is exercised in nurse-manager relationships in the hospital setting, this paper examines the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory as a methodology to advance the concept of empowerment in the area of nursing leadership and management. The evidence on staff nurse empowerment has highlighted the magnitude of individual and organisational outcomes, but has not fully explicated the micro-level processes underlying how power is exercised, shared or created within the nurse-manager relationship. Although grounded theory is a widely adopted nursing research methodology, it remains less used in nursing leadership because of the dominance of quantitative approaches to research. Grounded theory methodology provides the empirical and pragmatic relevance to inform nursing practice and policy. Grounded theory is a relevant qualitative approach to use in leadership research as it provides a fine and detailed analysis of the process underlying complexity and bureaucracy. Discursive paper. A critical examination of the empirical and pragmatic relevance of grounded theory by (Corbin & Strauss, , ) as a method for analysing and solving problems in nurses' practice is provided. This paper provides evidence to support the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory methodology. Although the application of the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions of grounded theory is challenging, this methodology is useful to address real-life problems in nursing practice by developing theoretical explanations of nurse empowerment, or lack thereof, in the workplace. Grounded theory represents a relevant methodology to inform nursing leadership research. Grounded theory is anchored in the reality of practice. The strength of grounded theory is to provide results that can be readily applied to clinical practice and policy as they arise from problems that affect practice and that
Theory of Mind and Social Interest in Zero-Acquaintance Play Situations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Chris; Bosacki, Sandra Leanne; Macgillivray, Shannon
2011-01-01
Many studies have examined associations between children's theory of mind and social behavior with familiar peers, but to date none have examined how theory of mind might relate to behavior toward unfamiliar peers in a play setting. Forty-four 4-year-olds (21 girls, 23 boys) participated in standard theory-of-mind tasks and in a play session with…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack
2009-05-01
Although it is common practice to borrow tools from mathematics to apply to physics or music, it is unusual to use tools developed in music theory to mathematically describe physical phenomena. So called ``Maximally Even Set'' theory fits this unusual case. In this poster, we summarize, by example, the theory of Maximally Even (ME) sets and show how this formalism leads to the distribution of black and white keys on the piano keyboard. We then show how ME sets lead to a generalization of the well-known ``Cycle-of-Fifths'' in music theory. Subsequently, we describe ordering in one-dimensional spin-1/2 anti-ferromagnets using ME sets showing that this description leads to a fractal ``Devil's Staircase'' magnetic phase diagram. Finally, we examine an extension of ME sets, ``Iterated Maximally Even Sets'' that describes chord structure in music.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack
2009-10-01
Although it is common practice to borrow tools from mathematics to apply to physics or music, it is unusual to use tools developed in music theory to mathematically describe physical phenomena. So called ``Maximally Even Set'' theory fits this unusual case. In this poster, we summarize, by example, the theory of Maximally Even (ME) sets and show how this formalism leads to the distribution of black and white keys on the piano keyboard. We then show how ME sets lead to a generalization of the well-known ``Cycle-of-Fifths'' in music theory. Subsequently, we describe ordering in one-dimensional spin-1/2 anti-ferromagnets using ME sets showing that this description leads to a fractal ``Devil's Staircase'' magnetic phase diagram. Finally, we examine an extension of ME sets, ``Iterated Maximally Even'' sets that describes chord structure in music.
Brooks, Jessica M; Iwanaga, Kanako; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Cotton, Brandi Parker; Deiches, Jon; Morrison, Blaise; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong
2017-08-01
This study examined the relationships between self-determination theory (SDT) and theory of planned behavior (TpB) applied to physical activity and exercise behavior (PA&E) in people with chronic pain. Two hundred and eleven adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain (28 males and 183 females, age range 18 to 82 years, mean age 43 years) were recruited from online support groups and clinic networks in the United States. Participants completed SDT measures relevant to PA&E on perceived autonomy support, autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as well as TpB measures relevant to PA&E on intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Correlational techniques and canonical correlation analysis were performed to examine the relationships and variance within and between theoretical dimensions. Overall, the SDT set accounted for 37% of the TpB variance and the TpB set accounted for 32% of the SDT set variance. The results indicate there are statistical similarities and differences between concepts in SDT and TpB models for PA&E. Using both empirical guidance and clinical expertise, researchers and practitioners should attempt to select and integrate non-redundant and complementary components from SDT, TpB, and other related health behavior theories.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Ricky W.; Sjogren, Jon A.
1998-01-01
This paper documents the NASA Langley PVS graph theory library. The library provides fundamental definitions for graphs, subgraphs, walks, paths, subgraphs generated by walks, trees, cycles, degree, separating sets, and four notions of connectedness. Theorems provided include Ramsey's and Menger's and the equivalence of all four notions of connectedness.
Higher-Order Interference in Extensions of Quantum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ciarán M.; Selby, John H.
2017-01-01
Quantum interference, manifest in the two slit experiment, lies at the heart of several quantum computational speed-ups and provides a striking example of a quantum phenomenon with no classical counterpart. An intriguing feature of quantum interference arises in a variant of the standard two slit experiment, in which there are three, rather than two, slits. The interference pattern in this set-up can be written in terms of the two and one slit patterns obtained by blocking one, or more, of the slits. This is in stark contrast with the standard two slit experiment, where the interference pattern cannot be written as a sum of the one slit patterns. This was first noted by Rafael Sorkin, who raised the question of why quantum theory only exhibits irreducible interference in the two slit experiment. One approach to this problem is to compare the predictions of quantum theory to those of operationally-defined `foil' theories, in the hope of determining whether theories that do exhibit higher-order interference suffer from pathological—or at least undesirable—features. In this paper two proposed extensions of quantum theory are considered: the theory of Density Cubes proposed by Dakić, Paterek and Brukner, which has been shown to exhibit irreducible interference in the three slit set-up, and the Quartic Quantum Theory of Życzkowski. The theory of Density Cubes will be shown to provide an advantage over quantum theory in a certain computational task and to posses a well-defined mechanism which leads to the emergence of quantum theory—analogous to the emergence of classical physics from quantum theory via decoherence. Despite this, the axioms used to define Density Cubes will be shown to be insufficient to uniquely characterise the theory. In comparison, Quartic Quantum Theory is a well-defined theory and we demonstrate that it exhibits irreducible interference to all orders. This feature of Życzkowski's theory is argued not to be a genuine phenomenon, but to
Exploring empowerment in settings: mapping distributions of network power.
Neal, Jennifer Watling
2014-06-01
This paper brings together two trends in the empowerment literature-understanding empowerment in settings and understanding empowerment as relational-by examining what makes settings empowering from a social network perspective. Specifically, extending Neal and Neal's (Am J Community Psychol 48(3/4):157-167, 2011) conception of network power, an empowering setting is defined as one in which (1) actors have existing relationships that allow for the exchange of resources and (2) the distribution of network power among actors in the setting is roughly equal. The paper includes a description of how researchers can examine distributions of network power in settings. Next, this process is illustrated in both an abstract example and using empirical data on early adolescents' peer relationships in urban classrooms. Finally, implications for theory, methods, and intervention related to understanding empowering settings are explored.
The SEEK Mentoring Program: An Application of the Goal-Setting Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sorrentino, Diane M.
2007-01-01
This article describes a pilot academic mentoring program carried out over 1 semester in the SEEK Program at the College of Staten Island, CUNY. The program was utilized to provide a resource for students whose overall grade point average was below 2.5, placing them at risk for academic dismissal. A goal-setting approach was used to aid the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heshi, Kamal Nosrati; Nasrabadi, Hassanali Bakhtiyar
2016-01-01
The present paper attempts to recognize principles and methods of education based on Wittgenstein's picture theory of language. This qualitative research utilized inferential analytical approach to review the related literature and extracted a set of principles and methods from his theory on picture language. Findings revealed that Wittgenstein…
Infinite Set of Soft Theorems in Gauge-Gravity Theories as Ward-Takahashi Identities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Shiu, Gary
2018-05-01
We show that the soft photon, gluon, and graviton theorems can be understood as the Ward-Takahashi identities of large gauge transformation, i.e., diffeomorphism that does not fall off at spatial infinity. We found infinitely many new identities which constrain the higher order soft behavior of the gauge bosons and gravitons in scattering amplitudes of gauge and gravity theories. Diagrammatic representations of these soft theorems are presented.
Beyond SMART? A New Framework for Goal Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Day, Trevor; Tosey, Paul
2011-01-01
This article extends currently reported theory and practice in the use of learning goals or targets with students in secondary and further education. Goal-setting and action-planning constructs are employed in personal development plans (PDPs) and personal learning plans (PLPs) and are advocated as practice within the English national policy…
Interpreting in Mental Health Settings: Issues and Concerns.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vernon, McCay; Miller, Katrina
2001-01-01
This paper examines expectations and stresses placed on sign language interpreters in mental health settings within a framework of demand and control theory. Translations of some specific psychological screening instruments and issues related to the Code of Ethics of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf are considered relative to…
Lloyd, A; Roberts, A R; Freeman, J A
2014-09-01
Collaborative goal setting (between patient and professional) confers benefits within stroke and neurological rehabilitation, and is recommended in clinical guidelines. However, evidence suggests that patient participation in rehabilitation goal setting is not maximized, particularly within the hospital setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate physiotherapists' perceptions about their experiences of collaborative goal setting with patients in the sub-acute stages after stroke, in the hospital setting. This qualitative study employed constructivist grounded theory methodology. Nine physiotherapists, of varying experience, were selected using purposive then theoretical sampling from three National Health Service hospital stroke units in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory to find common themes. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) 'coming to terms with stroke' - the individual patient journey; 2) the evolution of goal setting skill - the individual physiotherapist journey; and 3) 'finding a balance' - managing expectations and negotiating interactions. A provisional grounded theory was constructed, which highlighted that, from the physiotherapists' perspective, collaboration with patients within goal setting early after stroke involved finding a balance between numerous different drivers, which have the potential to compete. Patient-directed and therapist-directed goal setting approaches could be viewed as opposite ends of a continuum, along which patient-centred goal setting is possible. Physiotherapists perceived that collaborating with patients in goal setting was important but challenging. Goal setting interactions with other professionals, patients and families were perceived as complex, difficult and requiring significant effort. The importance of individuality and temporality were recognized suggesting that
ECR plasma thruster research - Preliminary theory and experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sercel, Joel C.; Fitzgerald, Dennis J.
1989-01-01
A preliminary theory of the operation of the electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) plasma thruster is described along with an outline of recent experiments. This work is presented to communicate the status of an ongoing research effort directed at developing a unified theory to quantitatively describe the operation of the ECR plasma thruster. The theory is presented as a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations and boundary conditions which describe the plasma density, velocity, and electron temperature. Diagnostic tools developed to measure plasma conditions in the existing research device are described.
Condition for confinement in non-Abelian gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaichian, Masud; Frasca, Marco
2018-06-01
We show that a criterion for confinement, based on the BRST invariance, holds in four dimensions, by solving a non-Abelian gauge theory with a set of exact solutions. The confinement condition we consider was obtained by Kugo and Ojima some decades ago. The current understanding of gauge theories permits us to apply the techniques straightforwardly for checking the validity of this criterion. In this way, we are able to show that the non-Abelian gauge theory is confining and that confinement is rooted in the BRST invariance and asymptotic freedom.
Panarchy: theory and application
Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Holling, Crawford S.
2014-01-01
The concept of panarchy provides a framework that characterizes complex systems of people and nature as dynamically organized and structured within and across scales of space and time. It has been more than a decade since the introduction of panarchy. Over this period, its invocation in peer-reviewed literature has been steadily increasing, but its use remains primarily descriptive and abstract. Here, we discuss the use of the concept in the literature to date, highlight where the concept may be useful, and discuss limitations to the broader applicability of panarchy theory for research in the ecological and social sciences. Finally, we forward a set of testable hypotheses to evaluate key propositions that follow from panarchy theory.
Attachment Theory and Challenging Behaviors: Reconstructing the Nature of Relationships.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Marilyn
2003-01-01
Outlines the basic principles of attachment theory and its implications for young children's social and emotional development. Applies attachment theory to children whose behaviors are especially challenging, using examples from a primary classroom in an urban setting. Asserts that sensitive teachers can build collaborative relationships. (SD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Stephen
1997-01-01
Raises concerns about the failure of mental health service providers to address the psycho-developmental needs of people with mental retardation, especially incarcerated individuals with severe behavior disturbances and both mental illness and mental retardation. A "flight from developmental theory" is seen in most service providers to this…
Prediction of tautomer ratios by embedded-cluster integral equation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kast, Stefan M.; Heil, Jochen; Güssregen, Stefan; Schmidt, K. Friedemann
2010-04-01
The "embedded cluster reference interaction site model" (EC-RISM) approach combines statistical-mechanical integral equation theory and quantum-chemical calculations for predicting thermodynamic data for chemical reactions in solution. The electronic structure of the solute is determined self-consistently with the structure of the solvent that is described by 3D RISM integral equation theory. The continuous solvent-site distribution is mapped onto a set of discrete background charges ("embedded cluster") that represent an additional contribution to the molecular Hamiltonian. The EC-RISM analysis of the SAMPL2 challenge set of tautomers proceeds in three stages. Firstly, the group of compounds for which quantitative experimental free energy data was provided was taken to determine appropriate levels of quantum-chemical theory for geometry optimization and free energy prediction. Secondly, the resulting workflow was applied to the full set, allowing for chemical interpretations of the results. Thirdly, disclosure of experimental data for parts of the compounds facilitated a detailed analysis of methodical issues and suggestions for future improvements of the model. Without specifically adjusting parameters, the EC-RISM model yields the smallest value of the root mean square error for the first set (0.6 kcal mol-1) as well as for the full set of quantitative reaction data (2.0 kcal mol-1) among the SAMPL2 participants.
The creative élan of nursing theory: indispensable to leadership.
Donohue-Porter, Patricia
2014-10-01
The author discusses how nursing theoretical knowledge contributes to nursing leadership and how the use of nursing theory can build confidence in nurse leaders in all settings, drawing on examples from selected theorists' work. It is suggested that when nursing theory is not fully valued by the profession, not only knowledge is lost but also the language that helps nurses to lead. However, the vision and the voice of nursing theory will allow nurses to lead with creativity and to tap into innovation that facilitates contributions to healthcare. To be firmly, intellectually, and enthusiastically grounded in one's disciplinary knowledge sets the stage to being able to lead effectively. Four aspects of leadership are addressed: clinical, interdisciplinary, nursing education, and interpersonal nursing. Our accumulated nursing theories can help nurse leaders to meet contemporary healthcare challenges by providing answers that help to focus on improvement, patient-centered care, critical reflection, and caring. © The Author(s) 2014.
Conditionals: a theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference.
Johnson-Laird, P N; Byrne, Ruth M J
2002-10-01
The authors outline a theory of conditionals of the form If A then C and If A then possibly C. The 2 sorts of conditional have separate core meanings that refer to sets of possibilities. Knowledge, pragmatics, and semantics can modulate these meanings. Modulation can add information about temporal and other relations between antecedent and consequent. It can also prevent the construction of possibilities to yield 10 distinct sets of possibilities to which conditionals can refer. The mental representation of a conditional normally makes explicit only the possibilities in which its antecedent is true, yielding other possibilities implicitly. Reasoners tend to focus on the explicit possibilities. The theory predicts the major phenomena of understanding and reasoning with conditionals.
Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen
2014-01-01
Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.
A STRUCTURAL THEORY FOR THE PERCEPTION OF MORSE CODE SIGNALS AND RELATED RHYTHMIC PATTERNS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
WISH, MYRON
THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS DISSERTATION IS TO DEVELOP A STRUCTURAL THEORY, ALONG FACET-THEORETIC LINES, FOR THE PERCEPTION OF MORSE CODE SIGNALS AND RELATED RHYTHMIC PATTERNS. AS STEPS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS THEORY, MODELS FOR TWO SETS OF SIGNALS ARE PROPOSED AND TESTED. THE FIRST MODEL IS FOR A SET COMPRISED OF ALL SIGNALS OF THE…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Sullivan, Ralph G.
The purpose of this paper is to link several sets of ideas in personality theory to each other and to Christian theology; link several sets of ideas in personality theory and cultural anthropology to each other and to Christian theology; and demonstrate that various social phenomena are not the domain of any particular social or behavioral science…
The middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital.
Covell, Christine L
2008-07-01
This paper is a report of the development of the middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital. Rising healthcare costs and advances in technology have contributed to the need for better understanding of the influence of nurses' knowledge, skills and experience on patient and organizational outcomes. The middle-range nursing intellectual capital theory was developed using the strategies of concept and theory derivation. The principles of research synthesis were used to provide empirical support for the propositions of the theory. The middle-range nursing intellectual capital theory was derived from intellectual capital theory to make it relevant and applicable to a specific aspect of nursing, continuing professional development. It proposes that the nursing knowledge available in healthcare organizations is influenced by variables within the work environment, and influences patient and organizational outcomes. The middle-range nursing intellectual capital theory should be tested in different healthcare systems and in different settings and countries to determine its effectiveness in guiding research.
Theory Learning as Stochastic Search in the Language of Thought
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ullman, Tomer D.; Goodman, Noah D.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.
2012-01-01
We present an algorithmic model for the development of children's intuitive theories within a hierarchical Bayesian framework, where theories are described as sets of logical laws generated by a probabilistic context-free grammar. We contrast our approach with connectionist and other emergentist approaches to modeling cognitive development. While…
Articulating nurse practitioner practice using King's theory of goal attainment.
de Leon-Demare, Kathleen; MacDonald, Jane; Gregory, David M; Katz, Alan; Halas, Gayle
2015-11-01
To further understand the interactions between nurse practitioners (NPs) and patients, King's nursing theory of goal attainment was applied as the conceptual framework to describe the interactions between NPs and patients in the primary care setting. Six dyads of NPs and their patients were video- and audio-taped over three consecutive clinic visits. For the purposes of this arm of the study, the audio-taped interactions were transcribed and then coded using King's concepts in her theory of goal attainment. King's theory was applicable to describe NP practice. King's concepts and processes of nurse-patient interactions, such as disturbances, mutual goal setting, and transactions, were observed in NP-patient interactions. Disturbances during clinical encounters were essential in the progression toward goal attainment. Elements, such as social exchange, symptom reporting, role explanation, and information around clinical processes facilitated relationship building. NPs as practitioners need to be reflective of their own practice, embrace disturbances in the clinical encounter, and attend to these as opportunities for mutual goal setting. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Decomposition of Fuzzy Soft Sets with Finite Value Spaces
Jun, Young Bae
2014-01-01
The notion of fuzzy soft sets is a hybrid soft computing model that integrates both gradualness and parameterization methods in harmony to deal with uncertainty. The decomposition of fuzzy soft sets is of great importance in both theory and practical applications with regard to decision making under uncertainty. This study aims to explore decomposition of fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces. Scalar uni-product and int-product operations of fuzzy soft sets are introduced and some related properties are investigated. Using t-level soft sets, we define level equivalent relations and show that the quotient structure of the unit interval induced by level equivalent relations is isomorphic to the lattice consisting of all t-level soft sets of a given fuzzy soft set. We also introduce the concepts of crucial threshold values and complete threshold sets. Finally, some decomposition theorems for fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces are established, illustrated by an example concerning the classification and rating of multimedia cell phones. The obtained results extend some classical decomposition theorems of fuzzy sets, since every fuzzy set can be viewed as a fuzzy soft set with a single parameter. PMID:24558342
Decomposition of fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces.
Feng, Feng; Fujita, Hamido; Jun, Young Bae; Khan, Madad
2014-01-01
The notion of fuzzy soft sets is a hybrid soft computing model that integrates both gradualness and parameterization methods in harmony to deal with uncertainty. The decomposition of fuzzy soft sets is of great importance in both theory and practical applications with regard to decision making under uncertainty. This study aims to explore decomposition of fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces. Scalar uni-product and int-product operations of fuzzy soft sets are introduced and some related properties are investigated. Using t-level soft sets, we define level equivalent relations and show that the quotient structure of the unit interval induced by level equivalent relations is isomorphic to the lattice consisting of all t-level soft sets of a given fuzzy soft set. We also introduce the concepts of crucial threshold values and complete threshold sets. Finally, some decomposition theorems for fuzzy soft sets with finite value spaces are established, illustrated by an example concerning the classification and rating of multimedia cell phones. The obtained results extend some classical decomposition theorems of fuzzy sets, since every fuzzy set can be viewed as a fuzzy soft set with a single parameter.
Advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: Setting the research agenda
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net; School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520; Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845
2013-07-15
Impact assessment has been in place for over 40 years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of impact assessment theory and practice, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment. We note that although the fundamentals of impact assessment have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discoursemore » in each case, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective impact assessment practice, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the impact assessment jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable impact assessment to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver. -- Highlights: ► Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper ► EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment are reviewed ► Diversity of practice is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate ► There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements ► Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential.« less
Jarrott, Shannon E; Smith, Cynthia L
2011-02-01
We assessed whether a shared site intergenerational care program informed by contact theory contributed to more desirable social behaviors of elders and children during intergenerational programming than a center with a more traditional programming approach that lacks some or all of the contact theory tenets. We observed 59 elder and child participants from the two sites during intergenerational activities. Using the Intergenerational Observation Scale, we coded participants' predominant behavior in 15-s intervals through each activity's duration. We then calculated for each individual the percentage of time frames each behavior code was predominant. Participants at the theory-based program demonstrated higher rates of intergenerational interaction, higher rates of solitary behavior, and lower rates of watching than at the traditional program. Contact theory tenets were optimized when coupled with evidence-based practices. Intergenerational programs with stakeholder support that promotes equal group status, cooperation toward a common goal, and mechanisms of friendship among participants can achieve important objectives for elder and child participants in care settings.
Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for Podolsky's electromagnetic theory on the null-plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcárcel, C. E.; Zambrano, G. E. R.
2017-08-01
We develop the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for Podolsky's electromagnetic theory on the null-plane. The main goal is to build the complete set of Hamiltonian generators of the system as well as to study the canonical and gauge transformations of the theory.
The moon illusion: II. A reference theory.
Baird, J C
1982-09-01
The present theory provides explanations for the moon illusion and related issues involving size and distance perception in natural, outdoor settings. Although some assumptions of previous theories are rejected, other pivotal aspects are retained in this formulation. In particular, the present theory states that both the sky and ground are important referents in judging the spatial extent of the moon. Neither factor alone can account for all the available data, but quantitative models incorporating both factors do quite well when applied to the parametric findings of Holway and Boring, as well as to the results obtained by Kaufman and Rock. The reference theory and its associated class of specific models suggest new theoretical directions and experimental tests to narrow yet further the selection of appropriate explanations for one of visual perception's oldest unsolved puzzles.
Conceptualizing Mathematics as Discourse in Different Educational Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Güçler, Beste; Wang, Sasha; Kim, Dong-Joong
2015-01-01
In this work, we focus on a relatively new theory in mathematics education research, which views thinking as communication and characterizes mathematics as a form of discourse. We discuss how this framework can be utilized in different educational settings by giving examples from our own research to highlight the insights it provides in the…
Item Response Theory: Overview, Applications, and Promise for Institutional Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge; Sharkness, Jessica
2014-01-01
Item Response Theory (IRT) is a measurement theory that is ideal for scale and test development in institutional research, but it is not without its drawbacks. This chapter provides an overview of IRT, describes an example of its use, and highlights the pros and cons of using IRT in applied settings.
Khvostichenko, Daria; Choi, Andrew; Boulatov, Roman
2008-04-24
insignificantly for iron(II) porphyrin coordinated with imidazole. Poor performance of a "locally dense" basis set with a large number of basis functions on the Fe center was observed in calculation of quintet-triplet gaps. Our results lead to a series of suggestions for density functional theory calculations of quintet-triplet energy gaps in ferrohemes with a single axial imidazole; these suggestions are potentially applicable for other transition-metal complexes.
Computer-based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories.
Lau, K H Vincent
2014-03-01
The computer-based teaching module (CBTM), which has recently gained prominence in medical education, is a teaching format in which a multimedia program serves as a single source for knowledge acquisition rather than playing an adjunctive role as it does in computer-assisted learning (CAL). Despite empirical validation in the past decade, there is limited research into the optimisation of CBTM design. This review aims to summarise research in classic and modern multimedia-specific learning theories applied to computer learning, and to collapse the findings into a set of design principles to guide the development of CBTMs. Scopus was searched for: (i) studies of classic cognitivism, constructivism and behaviourism theories (search terms: 'cognitive theory' OR 'constructivism theory' OR 'behaviourism theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') and their sub-theories applied to computer learning, and (ii) recent studies of modern learning theories applied to computer learning (search terms: 'learning theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') for articles published between 1990 and 2012. The first search identified 29 studies, dominated in topic by the cognitive load, elaboration and scaffolding theories. The second search identified 139 studies, with diverse topics in connectivism, discovery and technical scaffolding. Based on their relative representation in the literature, the applications of these theories were collapsed into a list of CBTM design principles. Ten principles were identified and categorised into three levels of design: the global level (managing objectives, framing, minimising technical load); the rhetoric level (optimising modality, making modality explicit, scaffolding, elaboration, spaced repeating), and the detail level (managing text, managing devices). This review examined the literature in the application of learning theories to CAL to develop a set of principles that guide CBTM design. Further research will enable educators to
Tamuz, Michal; Harrison, Michael I
2006-01-01
Objective To identify the distinctive contributions of high-reliability theory (HRT) and normal accident theory (NAT) as frameworks for examining five patient safety practices. Data Sources/Study Setting We reviewed and drew examples from studies of organization theory and health services research. Study Design After highlighting key differences between HRT and NAT, we applied the frames to five popular safety practices: double-checking medications, crew resource management (CRM), computerized physician order entry (CPOE), incident reporting, and root cause analysis (RCA). Principal Findings HRT highlights how double checking, which is designed to prevent errors, can undermine mindfulness of risk. NAT emphasizes that social redundancy can diffuse and reduce responsibility for locating mistakes. CRM promotes high reliability organizations by fostering deference to expertise, rather than rank. However, HRT also suggests that effective CRM depends on fundamental changes in organizational culture. NAT directs attention to an underinvestigated feature of CPOE: it tightens the coupling of the medication ordering process, and tight coupling increases the chances of a rapid and hard-to-contain spread of infrequent, but harmful errors. Conclusions Each frame can make a valuable contribution to improving patient safety. By applying the HRT and NAT frames, health care researchers and administrators can identify health care settings in which new and existing patient safety interventions are likely to be effective. Furthermore, they can learn how to improve patient safety, not only from analyzing mishaps, but also by studying the organizational consequences of implementing safety measures. PMID:16898984
Modified Saez–Ballester scalar–tensor theory from 5D space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasouli, S. M. M.; Vargas Moniz, Paulo
2018-01-01
In this paper, we bring together the five-dimensional Saez–Ballester (SB) scalar–tensor theory (Saez and Ballester 1986 Phys. Lett. 113A 9) and the induced-matter-theory (IMT) setting (Wesson and Ponce de Leon 1992 J. Math. Phys. 33 3883), to obtain a modified SB theory (MSBT) in four dimensions. Specifically, by using an intrinsic dimensional reduction procedure into the SB field equations in five-dimensions, a MSBT is obtained onto a hypersurface orthogonal to the extra dimension. This four-dimensional MSBT is shown to bear distinctive new features in contrast to the usual corresponding SB theory as well as to IMT and the modified Brans–Dicke theory (MBDT) (Rasouli et al 2014 Class. Quantum Grav. 31 115002). In more detail, besides the usual induced matter terms retrieved through the IMT, the MSBT scalar field is provided with additional physically distinct (namely, SB induced) terms as well as an intrinsic self-interacting potential (interpreted as a consequence of the IMT process and the concrete geometry associated with the extra dimension). Moreover, our MSBT has four sets of field equations, with two sets having no analog in the standard SB scalar–tensor theory. It should be emphasized that the herein appealing solutions can emerge solely from the geometrical reductional process, from the presence also of extra dimension(s) and not from any ad-hoc matter either in the bulk or on the hypersurface. Subsequently, we apply the herein MSBT to cosmology and consider an extended spatially flat FLRW geometry in a five-dimensional vacuum space-time. After obtaining the exact solutions in the bulk, we proceed to construct, by means of the MSBT setting, the corresponding dynamic, on the four-dimensional hypersurface. More precisely, we obtain the (SB) components of the induced matter, including the induced scalar potential terms. We retrieve two different classes of solutions. Concerning the first class, we show that the MSBT yields a barotropic equation of
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsamir, Pessia
1999-01-01
Describes a course in Cantorian Set Theory relating to prospective secondary mathematics teachers' tendencies to overgeneralize from finite to infinite sets. Indicates that when comparing the number of elements in infinite sets, teachers who took the course were more successful and more consistent in their use of single method than those who…
Towards a Quantum Theory of Humour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabora, Liane; Kitto, Kirsty
2016-12-01
This paper proposes that cognitive humour can be modelled using the mathematical framework of quantum theory, suggesting that a Quantum Theory of Humour (QTH) is a viable approach. We begin with brief overviews of both research on humour, and the generalized quantum framework. We show how the bisociation of incongruous frames or word meanings in jokes can be modelled as a linear superposition of a set of basis states, or possible interpretations, in a complex Hilbert space. The choice of possible interpretations depends on the context provided by the set-up versus the punchline of a joke. We apply QTH first to a verbal pun, and then consider how this might be extended to frame blending in cartoons. An initial study of 85 participant responses to 35 jokes (and a number of variants) suggests that there is reason to believe that a quantum approach to the modelling of cognitive humour is a viable new avenue of research for the field of quantum cognition.
The Scope of Usage-Based Theory
Ibbotson, Paul
2013-01-01
Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the “cognitive commitment” of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure vs. cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works. PMID:23658552
"Theory Becoming Alive": The Learning Transition Process of Newly Graduated Nurses in Canada.
Nour, Violet; Williams, Anne M
2018-01-01
Background Newly graduated nurses often encounter a gap between theory and practice in clinical settings. Although this has been the focus of considerable research, little is known about the learning transition process. Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of newly graduated nurses in acute healthcare settings within Canada. This study was conducted to gain a greater understanding of the experiences and challenges faced by graduates. Methods Grounded theory method was utilized with a sample of 14 registered nurses who were employed in acute-care settings. Data were collected using in-depth interviews. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze data. Results Findings revealed a core category, "Theory Becoming Alive," and four supporting categories: Entry into Practice, Immersion, Committing, and Evolving. Theory Becoming Alive described the process of new graduate nurses' clinical learning experiences as well as the challenges that they encountered in clinical settings after graduating. Conclusions This research provides a greater understanding of learning process of new graduate nurses in Canada. It highlights the importance of providing supportive environments to assist new graduate nurses to develop confidence as independent registered nurses in clinical areas. Future research directions as well as supportive educational strategies are described.
An Application of Activity Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marken, James A.
2006-01-01
Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…
Aubry-Mather Theory for Conformally Symplectic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marò, Stefano; Sorrentino, Alfonso
2017-09-01
In this article we develop an analogue of Aubry-Mather theory for a class of dissipative systems, namely conformally symplectic systems, and prove the existence of interesting invariant sets, which, in analogy to the conservative case, will be called the Aubry and the Mather sets. Besides describing their structure and their dynamical significance, we shall analyze their attracting/repelling properties, as well as their noteworthy role in driving the asymptotic dynamics of the system.
Nonabelian noncommutative gauge theory via noncommutative extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, Branislav; Schupp, Peter; Wess, Julius
2001-06-01
The concept of covariant coordinates on noncommutative spaces leads directly to gauge theories with generalized noncommutative gauge fields of the type that arises in string theory with background B-fields. The theory is naturally expressed in terms of cochains in an appropriate cohomology; we discuss how it fits into the framework of projective modules. The equivalence of star products that arise from the background field with and without fluctuations and Kontsevich's formality theorem allow an explicitly construction of a map that relates ordinary gauge theory and noncommutative gauge theory (Seiberg-Witten map). As application we show the exact equality of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action with B-field in the commutative setting and its semi-noncommutative cousin in the intermediate picture. Using noncommutative extra dimensions the construction is extended to noncommutative nonabelian gauge theory for arbitrary gauge groups; an explicit map between abelian and nonabelian gauge fields is given. All constructions are also valid for non-constant B-field, Poisson structure and metric.
The Hirst-Carr Debate Revisited: Beyond the Theory-Practice Dichotomy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Misawa, Koichiro
2011-01-01
This article examines the benefits and burdens of the debate between Paul Hirst and Wilfred Carr over a set of issues to do with philosophy and education specifically and theory and practice more generally. Hirst and Carr, in different ways, emphasise the importance of Aristotelian practical philosophy as an antidote to the theory-oriented…
Status of the Vibrational Theory of Olfaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoehn, Ross D.; Nichols, David E.; Neven, Hartmut; Kais, Sabre
2018-03-01
The vibrational theory of olfaction is an attempt to describe a possible mechanism for olfaction which is explanatory and provides researchers with a set of principles which permit predictions allowing for structure-odor relations. Similar theories have occurred several times throughout olfactory science; this theory has again recently come to prominence by Luca Turin who suggested that inelastic electron tunneling is the method by which vibrations are detected by the olfactory receptors within the hose. This work is intended to convey to the reader the an up-to-date account of the vibrational theory of olfaction, both the historical iterations as well as the present iteration. This text is designed to give a chronological account of both theoretical and experimental studies on the topic, while providing context, comments and background where they were found to be needed.
A structuralist theory of evolution reconsidered.
van der Hammen, L
1997-01-01
The structuralist theory of evolution is reconsidered in the light of new discoveries. According to this theory, the evolutionary potentialities are in the genotype (a hierarchically ordered set of interacting elements) and manifest themselves in the course of morphogenesis in association with changes in the environment. It is demonstrated that this theory is in fact the development of a long philosophical tradition, in which Darwin and Neo-Darwinism did not participate. New discoveries in the field of molecular cytogenetics confirm the ideas of evolutionary potentiality and hierarchical genotypic ordering. It is demonstrated that gene regulation can manifest itself in association with instabilities of the morphogenetic field and the attainment of a new equilibrium; this change could be connected with changes in the environment, but has nothing to do with natural selection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruse, Holger; Grimme, Stefan
2012-04-01
A semi-empirical counterpoise-type correction for basis set superposition error (BSSE) in molecular systems is presented. An atom pair-wise potential corrects for the inter- and intra-molecular BSSE in supermolecular Hartree-Fock (HF) or density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This geometrical counterpoise (gCP) denoted scheme depends only on the molecular geometry, i.e., no input from the electronic wave-function is required and hence is applicable to molecules with ten thousands of atoms. The four necessary parameters have been determined by a fit to standard Boys and Bernadi counterpoise corrections for Hobza's S66×8 set of non-covalently bound complexes (528 data points). The method's target are small basis sets (e.g., minimal, split-valence, 6-31G*), but reliable results are also obtained for larger triple-ζ sets. The intermolecular BSSE is calculated by gCP within a typical error of 10%-30% that proves sufficient in many practical applications. The approach is suggested as a quantitative correction in production work and can also be routinely applied to estimate the magnitude of the BSSE beforehand. The applicability for biomolecules as the primary target is tested for the crambin protein, where gCP removes intramolecular BSSE effectively and yields conformational energies comparable to def2-TZVP basis results. Good mutual agreement is also found with Jensen's ACP(4) scheme, estimating the intramolecular BSSE in the phenylalanine-glycine-phenylalanine tripeptide, for which also a relaxed rotational energy profile is presented. A variety of minimal and double-ζ basis sets combined with gCP and the dispersion corrections DFT-D3 and DFT-NL are successfully benchmarked on the S22 and S66 sets of non-covalent interactions. Outstanding performance with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 0.51 kcal/mol (0.38 kcal/mol after D3-refit) is obtained at the gCP-corrected HF-D3/(minimal basis) level for the S66 benchmark. The gCP-corrected B3LYP-D3/6-31G* model
These lecture notes deal with the mathematical theory of decision - making , i.e., wihematical models of situations in which there is a set of...individual and group decision - making as a quantitative science, in contrast with a field such as physics, suggests that mathematical theorizing on...phenomena of decision - making is very much an exploratory enterprise and that ex isting models have limited generality and appli cability. The purpose is to
Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, Takaaki; Kiritsis, Elias; Rosen, Christopher
2016-11-01
Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which "real world" theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory's confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the "abrupt quench" limit.
Evolving Non-Dominated Parameter Sets for Computational Models from Multiple Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lane, Peter C. R.; Gobet, Fernand
2013-03-01
Creating robust, reproducible and optimal computational models is a key challenge for theorists in many sciences. Psychology and cognitive science face particular challenges as large amounts of data are collected and many models are not amenable to analytical techniques for calculating parameter sets. Particular problems are to locate the full range of acceptable model parameters for a given dataset, and to confirm the consistency of model parameters across different datasets. Resolving these problems will provide a better understanding of the behaviour of computational models, and so support the development of general and robust models. In this article, we address these problems using evolutionary algorithms to develop parameters for computational models against multiple sets of experimental data; in particular, we propose the `speciated non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm' for evolving models in several theories. We discuss the problem of developing a model of categorisation using twenty-nine sets of data and models drawn from four different theories. We find that the evolutionary algorithms generate high quality models, adapted to provide a good fit to all available data.
Lean and leadership practices: development of an initial realist program theory.
Goodridge, Donna; Westhorp, Gill; Rotter, Thomas; Dobson, Roy; Bath, Brenna
2015-09-07
Lean as a management system has been increasingly adopted in health care settings in an effort to enhance quality, capacity and safety, while simultaneously containing or reducing costs. The Ministry of Health in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada has made a multi-million dollar investment in Lean initiatives to create "better health, better value, better care, and better teams", affording a unique opportunity to advance our understanding of the way in which Lean philosophy, principles and tools work in health care. In order to address the questions, "What changes in leadership practices are associated with the implementation of Lean?" and "When leadership practices change, how do the changed practices contribute to subsequent outcomes?", we used a qualitative, multi-stage approach to work towards developing an initial realist program theory. We describe the implications of realist assumptions for evaluation of this Lean initiative. Formal theories including Normalization Process Theory, Theories of Double Loop and Organization Leaning and the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance help understand this initial rough program theory. Data collection included: key informant consultation; a stakeholder workshop; documentary review; 26 audiotaped and transcribed interviews with health region personnel; and team discussions. A set of seven initial hypotheses regarding the manner in which Lean changes leadership practices were developed from our data. We hypothesized that Lean, as implemented in this particular setting, changes leadership practices in the following ways. Lean: a) aligns the aims and objectives of health regions; b) authorizes attention and resources to quality improvement and change management c) provides an integrated set of tools for particular tasks; d) changes leaders' attitudes or beliefs about appropriate leadership and management styles and behaviors; e) demands increased levels of expertise, accountability and commitment from leaders; f) measures and
The Model-Based View of Scientific Theories and the Structuring of School Science Programmes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Develaki, Maria
2007-01-01
Model theory in contemporary philosophy of science interprets scientific theories as sets of models, and contributes significantly to the understanding of the relation between theories, models, and the real world. The clarification of this relation is fundamental for the understanding of the nature of scientific methods and scientific knowledge…
Symbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic organelles; criteria for proof.
Margulis, L
1975-01-01
The purpose of a scientific theory is to unite apparently disparate observations into a coherent set of generalizations with predictive power. Historical theories, which necessarily treat complex irreversible events, can never be directly tested. However they certainly can lead to predictions. The 'extreme' version of the serial endosymbiotic theory argues that three classes of eukaryotic organelles had free-living ancestors: mitochondria, basal bodies/flagella/cilia [(9 + 2) homologues] and photosynthetic plastids. Many lines of evidence support this theory and can be interpreted in relation to one another on the basis of this theory. Even if this theory should eventually be proved wrong it has the real advantage of generating a large number of unique experimentally verifiable hypotheses.
An Integrative Theory of Numerical Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegler, Robert; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues
2014-01-01
Understanding of numerical development is growing rapidly, but the volume and diversity of findings can make it difficult to perceive any coherence in the process. The integrative theory of numerical development posits that a coherent theme is present, however--progressive broadening of the set of numbers whose magnitudes can be accurately…
Responding mindfully to distressing psychosis: A grounded theory analysis.
Abba, Nicola; Chadwick, Paul; Stevenson, Chris
2008-01-01
This study investigates the psychological process involved when people with current distressing psychosis learned to respond mindfully to unpleasant psychotic sensations (voices, thoughts, and images). Sixteen participants were interviewed on completion of a mindfulness group program. Grounded theory methodology was used to generate a theory of the core psychological process using a systematically applied set of methods linking analysis with data collection. The theory inducted describes the experience of relating differently to psychosis through a three-stage process: centering in awareness of psychosis; allowing voices, thoughts, and images to come and go without reacting or struggle; and reclaiming power through acceptance of psychosis and the self. The conceptual and clinical applications of the theory and its limits are discussed.
Revitalizing Educational Counseling: How Career Theory Can Inform a Forgotten Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reardon, Robert C.; Bertoch, Sara C.
2011-01-01
Educational counseling has declined as a counseling specialization in the United States, although the need for this intervention persists and is being met by other providers. This article illustrates how career theories such as Holland's RIASEC theory can inform a revitalized educational counseling practice in secondary and postsecondary settings.…
Simulation and Verification of Synchronous Set Relations in Rewriting Logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rocha, Camilo; Munoz, Cesar A.
2011-01-01
This paper presents a mathematical foundation and a rewriting logic infrastructure for the execution and property veri cation of synchronous set relations. The mathematical foundation is given in the language of abstract set relations. The infrastructure consists of an ordersorted rewrite theory in Maude, a rewriting logic system, that enables the synchronous execution of a set relation provided by the user. By using the infrastructure, existing algorithm veri cation techniques already available in Maude for traditional asynchronous rewriting, such as reachability analysis and model checking, are automatically available to synchronous set rewriting. The use of the infrastructure is illustrated with an executable operational semantics of a simple synchronous language and the veri cation of temporal properties of a synchronous system.
Oller, Stephen D
2005-01-01
The pragmatic mapping process and its variants have proven effective in second language learning and teaching. The goal of this paper is to show that the same process applies in teaching and intervention with disordered populations. A secondary goal, ultimately more important, is to give clinicians, teachers, and other educators a tool-kit, or a framework, from which they can evaluate and implement interventions. What is offered is an introduction to a general theory of signs and some examples of how it can be applied in treating communication disorders. (1) Readers will be able to relate the three theoretical consistency requirements to language teaching and intervention. (2) Readers will be introduced to a general theory of signs that provides a basis for evaluating and implementing interventions.
Morphing continuum theory for turbulence: Theory, computation, and visualization.
Chen, James
2017-10-01
A high order morphing continuum theory (MCT) is introduced to model highly compressible turbulence. The theory is formulated under the rigorous framework of rational continuum mechanics. A set of linear constitutive equations and balance laws are deduced and presented from the Coleman-Noll procedure and Onsager's reciprocal relations. The governing equations are then arranged in conservation form and solved through the finite volume method with a second-order Lax-Friedrichs scheme for shock preservation. A numerical example of transonic flow over a three-dimensional bump is presented using MCT and the finite volume method. The comparison shows that MCT-based direct numerical simulation (DNS) provides a better prediction than Navier-Stokes (NS)-based DNS with less than 10% of the mesh number when compared with experiments. A MCT-based and frame-indifferent Q criterion is also derived to show the coherent eddy structure of the downstream turbulence in the numerical example. It should be emphasized that unlike the NS-based Q criterion, the MCT-based Q criterion is objective without the limitation of Galilean invariance.
Groundwater Remediation using Bayesian Information-Gap Decision Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.
2016-12-01
Probabilistic analyses of groundwater remediation scenarios frequently fail because the probability of an adverse, unanticipated event occurring is often high. In general, models of flow and transport in contaminated aquifers are always simpler than reality. Further, when a probabilistic analysis is performed, probability distributions are usually chosen more for convenience than correctness. The Bayesian Information-Gap Decision Theory (BIGDT) was designed to mitigate the shortcomings of the models and probabilistic decision analyses by leveraging a non-probabilistic decision theory - information-gap decision theory. BIGDT considers possible models that have not been explicitly enumerated and does not require us to commit to a particular probability distribution for model and remediation-design parameters. Both the set of possible models and the set of possible probability distributions grow as the degree of uncertainty increases. The fundamental question that BIGDT asks is "How large can these sets be before a particular decision results in an undesirable outcome?". The decision that allows these sets to be the largest is considered to be the best option. In this way, BIGDT enables robust decision-support for groundwater remediation problems. Here we apply BIGDT to in a representative groundwater remediation scenario where different options for hydraulic containment and pump & treat are being considered. BIGDT requires many model runs and for complex models high-performance computing resources are needed. These analyses are carried out on synthetic problems, but are applicable to real-world problems such as LANL site contaminations. BIGDT is implemented in Julia (a high-level, high-performance dynamic programming language for technical computing) and is part of the MADS framework (http://mads.lanl.gov/ and https://github.com/madsjulia/Mads.jl).
Meehan, Michael P; Menniti, Marie F
2014-01-01
Veterinary graduates require effective communication skills training to successfully transition from university into practice. Although the literature has supported the need for veterinary student communication skills training programs, there is minimal research using learning theory to design programs and explore students' perceptions of such programs. This study investigated veterinary students' perceptions of (1) their communication skills and (2) the usefulness of a communication skills training program designed with Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) as a framework and implemented in a primary care setting. Twenty-nine final-year veterinary students from the Ontario Veterinary College attended a 3-week communication skills training rotation. Pre- and post-training surveys explored their communication objectives, confidence in their communication skills, and the usefulness of specific communication training strategies. The results indicated that both before and after training, students were most confident in building rapport, displaying empathy, recognizing how bonded a client is with his or her pet, and listening. They were least confident in managing clients who were angry or not happy with the charges and who monopolized the appointment. Emotionally laden topics, such as breaking bad news and managing euthanasia discussions, were also identified as challenging and in need of improvement. Interactive small-group discussions and review of video-recorded authentic client appointments were most valuable for their learning and informed students' self-awareness of their non-verbal communication. These findings support the use of Kolb's ELT as a theoretical framework and of video review and reflection to guide veterinary students' learning of communication skills in a primary care setting.
Elucidating a Goal-Setting Continuum in Brain Injury Rehabilitation.
Hunt, Anne W; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Trentham, Barry; Polatajko, Helene J; Dawson, Deirdre R
2015-08-01
For individuals with brain injury, active participation in goal setting is associated with better rehabilitation outcomes. However, clinicians report difficulty engaging these clients in goal setting due to perceived or real deficits (e.g., lack of awareness). We conducted a study using grounded theory methods to understand how clinicians from occupational therapy facilitate client engagement and manage challenges inherent in goal setting with this population. Through constant comparative analysis, a goal-setting continuum emerged. At one end of the continuum, therapists embrace client-determined goals and enable clients to decide their own goals. At the other, therapists accept preset organization-determined goals (e.g., "the goal is discharge") and pay little attention to client input. Although all participants aspired to embrace client-determined goal setting, most felt powerless to do so within perceived organizational constraints. Views of advocacy and empowerment help to explain our findings and inform more inclusive practice. © The Author(s) 2015.
Generalized minimum dominating set and application in automatic text summarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yi-Zhi; Zhou, Hai-Jun
2016-03-01
For a graph formed by vertices and weighted edges, a generalized minimum dominating set (MDS) is a vertex set of smallest cardinality such that the summed weight of edges from each outside vertex to vertices in this set is equal to or larger than certain threshold value. This generalized MDS problem reduces to the conventional MDS problem in the limiting case of all the edge weights being equal to the threshold value. We treat the generalized MDS problem in the present paper by a replica-symmetric spin glass theory and derive a set of belief-propagation equations. As a practical application we consider the problem of extracting a set of sentences that best summarize a given input text document. We carry out a preliminary test of the statistical physics-inspired method to this automatic text summarization problem.
In pursuit of change: youth response to intensive goal setting embedded in a serious video game.
Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Juliano, Melissa; Frazior, McKee; Wilsdon, Jon; Jago, Russell
2007-11-01
Type 2 diabetes has increased in prevalence among youth, paralleling the increase in pediatric obesity. Helping youth achieve energy balance by changing diet and physical activity behaviors should decrease the risk for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Goal setting and goal review are critical components of behavior change. Theory-informed video games that emphasize development and refinement of goal setting and goal review skills provide a method for achieving energy balance in an informative, entertaining format. This article reports alpha-testing results of early versions of theory-informed goal setting and reviews components of two diabetes and obesity prevention video games for preadolescents. Two episodes each of two video games were alpha tested with 9- to 11-year-old youth from multiple ethnic groups. Alpha testing included observed game play followed by a scripted interview. The staff was trained in observation and interview techniques prior to data collection. Although some difficulties were encountered, alpha testers generally understood goal setting and review components and comprehended they were setting personal goals. Although goal setting and review involved multiple steps, youth were generally able to complete them quickly, with minimal difficulty. Few technical issues arose; however, several usability and comprehension problems were identified. Theory-informed video games may be an effective medium for promoting youth diabetes and obesity prevention. Alpha testing helps identify problems likely to have a negative effect on functionality, usability, and comprehension during development, thereby providing an opportunity to correct these issues prior to final production.
Mair, Frances S; Dowrick, Christopher; Brún, Mary O’Reilly-de; de Brún, Tomas; Burns, Nicola; Lionis, Christos; Saridaki, Aristoula; Papadakaki, Maria; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Gravenhorst, Katja; Cooper, Lucy; Princz, Christine; Teunissen, Erik; Mareeuw, Francine van den Driessen; Vlahadi, Maria; Spiegel, Wolfgang; MacFarlane, Anne
2017-01-01
Objectives To describe and reflect on the process of designing and delivering a training programme supporting the use of theory, in this case Normalisation Process Theory (NPT), in a multisite cross-country health services research study. Design Participatory research approach using qualitative methods. Setting Six European primary care settings involving research teams from Austria, England, Greece, Ireland, The Netherlands and Scotland. Participants RESTORE research team consisting of 8 project applicants, all senior primary care academics, and 10 researchers. Professional backgrounds included general practitioners/family doctors, social/cultural anthropologists, sociologists and health services/primary care researchers. Primary outcome measures Views of all research team members (n=18) were assessed using qualitative evaluation methods, analysed qualitatively by the trainers after each session. Results Most of the team had no experience of using NPT and many had not applied theory to prospective, qualitative research projects. Early training proved didactic and overloaded participants with information. Drawing on RESTORE’s methodological approach of Participatory Learning and Action, workshops using role play, experiential interactive exercises and light-hearted examples not directly related to the study subject matter were developed. Evaluation showed the study team quickly grew in knowledge and confidence in applying theory to fieldwork. Recommendations applicable to other studies include: accepting that theory application is not a linear process, that time is needed to address researcher concerns with the process, and that experiential, interactive learning is a key device in building conceptual and practical knowledge. An unanticipated benefit was the smooth transition to cross-country qualitative coding of study data. Conclusion A structured programme of training enhanced and supported the prospective application of a theory, NPT, to our work but raised
Implementing culture change in long-term dementia care settings.
McGreevy, Jessica
2016-01-06
The approach to nursing in long-term care settings for people living with dementia continues to evolve from a traditional, task-oriented culture to one that is person-centred. Such change can be difficult to manage and may encounter considerable opposition; having an understanding of change management and leadership styles may help to make this transition easier. This article discusses the differences between task-oriented and person-centred care, theories of management, motivation and leadership styles, and focuses on those that are most appropriate for this type of change. An improved understanding of these theories will enable nurses to support others in the delivery of person-centred care.
Personal Goal Setting and Quality of Life: A Mixed Methods Study of Adult Professionals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ingraham, Frank
2017-01-01
This mixed methods study was designed to examine the potential impactful relationship between personal goal setting and the quality of life satisfaction (built upon the Goal Setting Theory of motivation and performance). The study aimed to determine how influential the goal achievement process is (or is not) regarding personal fulfillment and…
The Impact of Technology on Relationships in Educational Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Costabile, Angela, Ed.; Spears, Barbara, Ed.
2012-01-01
As the linguistic, cognitive and social elements of individuals' lives are transformed by new and emerging technologies, educational settings are also challenged to respond to the issues that have arisen as a consequence. This book focuses on that challenge: using psychological theory as a lens to highlight the positive uses of new technologies in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Narli, Serkan; Ozgen, Kemal; Alkan, Huseyin
2011-01-01
The present study aims to identify the relationship between individuals' multiple intelligence areas and their learning styles with mathematical clarity using the concept of rough sets which is used in areas such as artificial intelligence, data reduction, discovery of dependencies, prediction of data significance, and generating decision…
Multi-layered reasoning by means of conceptual fuzzy sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takagi, Tomohiro; Imura, Atsushi; Ushida, Hirohide; Yamaguchi, Toru
1993-01-01
The real world consists of a very large number of instances of events and continuous numeric values. On the other hand, people represent and process their knowledge in terms of abstracted concepts derived from generalization of these instances and numeric values. Logic based paradigms for knowledge representation use symbolic processing both for concept representation and inference. Their underlying assumption is that a concept can be defined precisely. However, as this assumption hardly holds for natural concepts, it follows that symbolic processing cannot deal with such concepts. Thus symbolic processing has essential problems from a practical point of view of applications in the real world. In contrast, fuzzy set theory can be viewed as a stronger and more practical notation than formal, logic based theories because it supports both symbolic processing and numeric processing, connecting the logic based world and the real world. In this paper, we propose multi-layered reasoning by using conceptual fuzzy sets (CFS). The general characteristics of CFS are discussed along with upper layer supervision and context dependent processing.
Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Dowling, Laura; Hiltz, Mary-Ann; Campbell, Matthew; Gujar, Shashi Ashok
2016-01-01
Background: In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA) processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization’s senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams theory – to inform our analysis. Methods: Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process – Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA) – in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon’s model as a template. Results: The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream – defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice – converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Conclusion: Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources PMID:26673646
Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Dowling, Laura; Hiltz, Mary-Ann; Campbell, Matthew; Gujar, Shashi Ashok
2015-09-24
In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA) processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization's senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework - Kingdon's multiple streams theory - to inform our analysis. Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process - Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA) - in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon's model as a template. The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream - defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice - converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Franck, Odile, E-mail: odile.franck@etu.upmc.fr; Mussard, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.mussard@upmc.fr; CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris
2015-02-21
Range-separated density-functional theory (DFT) is an alternative approach to Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The strategy of range-separated density-functional theory consists in separating the Coulomb electron-electron interaction into long-range and short-range components and treating the long-range part by an explicit many-body wave-function method and the short-range part by a density-functional approximation. Among the advantages of using many-body methods for the long-range part of the electron-electron interaction is that they are much less sensitive to the one-electron atomic basis compared to the case of the standard Coulomb interaction. Here, we provide a detailed study of the basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory. Wemore » study the convergence of the partial-wave expansion of the long-range wave function near the electron-electron coalescence. We show that the rate of convergence is exponential with respect to the maximal angular momentum L for the long-range wave function, whereas it is polynomial for the case of the Coulomb interaction. We also study the convergence of the long-range second-order Møller-Plesset correlation energy of four systems (He, Ne, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O) with cardinal number X of the Dunning basis sets cc − p(C)V XZ and find that the error in the correlation energy is best fitted by an exponential in X. This leads us to propose a three-point complete-basis-set extrapolation scheme for range-separated density-functional theory based on an exponential formula.« less
Basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory.
Franck, Odile; Mussard, Bastien; Luppi, Eleonora; Toulouse, Julien
2015-02-21
Range-separated density-functional theory (DFT) is an alternative approach to Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The strategy of range-separated density-functional theory consists in separating the Coulomb electron-electron interaction into long-range and short-range components and treating the long-range part by an explicit many-body wave-function method and the short-range part by a density-functional approximation. Among the advantages of using many-body methods for the long-range part of the electron-electron interaction is that they are much less sensitive to the one-electron atomic basis compared to the case of the standard Coulomb interaction. Here, we provide a detailed study of the basis convergence of range-separated density-functional theory. We study the convergence of the partial-wave expansion of the long-range wave function near the electron-electron coalescence. We show that the rate of convergence is exponential with respect to the maximal angular momentum L for the long-range wave function, whereas it is polynomial for the case of the Coulomb interaction. We also study the convergence of the long-range second-order Møller-Plesset correlation energy of four systems (He, Ne, N2, and H2O) with cardinal number X of the Dunning basis sets cc - p(C)V XZ and find that the error in the correlation energy is best fitted by an exponential in X. This leads us to propose a three-point complete-basis-set extrapolation scheme for range-separated density-functional theory based on an exponential formula.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Won J.
2012-01-01
Reliable measurements for effective teaching are lacking. In contrast, some theories of leadership (particularly transformational leadership) have been tested and found to have efficacy in a variety of organizational settings. In this study, the full-range leadership theory, which includes transformational leadership, was applied to the…
Hydrogen Burning in Low Mass Stars Constrains Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity.
Sakstein, Jeremy
2015-11-13
The most general scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict a weakening of the gravitational force inside astrophysical bodies. There is a minimum mass for hydrogen burning in stars that is set by the interplay of plasma physics and the theory of gravity. We calculate this for alternative theories of gravity and find that it is always significantly larger than the general relativity prediction. The observation of several low mass red dwarf stars therefore rules out a large class of scalar-tensor gravity theories and places strong constraints on the cosmological parameters appearing in the effective field theory of dark energy.
Comparing theories of reference-dependent choice.
Bhatia, Sudeep
2017-09-01
Preferences are influenced by the presence or absence of salient choice options, known as reference points. This behavioral tendency is traditionally attributed to the loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity assumptions of prospect theory. In contrast, some psychological research suggests that reference dependence is caused by attentional biases that increase the subjective weighting of the reference point's primary attributes. Although both theories are able to successfully account for behavioral findings involving reference dependence, this article shows that these theories make diverging choice predictions when available options are inferior to the reference point. It presents the results of 2 studies that use settings with inferior choice options to compare these 2 theories. The analysis involves quantitative fits to participant-level choice data, and the results indicate that most participants are better described by models with attentional bias than they are by models with loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity. These differences appear to be caused by violations of loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity in losses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Berges, J.; Schlichting, S.; Boguslavski, K.; ...
2015-11-05
In [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 061601 (2015)], we reported on a new universality class for longitudinally expanding systems, encompassing strongly correlated non-Abelian plasmas and N-component self-interacting scalar field theories. Using classical-statistical methods, we showed that these systems share the same self-similar scaling properties for a wide range of momenta in a limit where particles are weakly coupled but their occupancy is high. Here we significantly expand on our previous work and delineate two further self-similar regimes. One of these occurs in the deep infrared (IR) regime of very high occupancies, where the nonequilibrium dynamics leads to the formation of amore » Bose-Einstein condensate. The universal IR scaling exponents and the spectral index characterizing the isotropic IR distributions are described by an effective theory derived from a systematic large-N expansion at next-to-leading order. Remarkably, this effective theory can be cast as a vertex-resummed kinetic theory. The other novel self-similar regime occurs close to the hard physical scale of the theory, and sets in only at later times. In this study, we argue that the important role of the infrared dynamics ensures that key features of our results for scalar and gauge theories cannot be reproduced consistently in conventional kinetic theory frameworks.« less
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Berges, J.; Schlichting, S.; Boguslavski, K.
In [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 061601 (2015)], we reported on a new universality class for longitudinally expanding systems, encompassing strongly correlated non-Abelian plasmas and N-component self-interacting scalar field theories. Using classical-statistical methods, we showed that these systems share the same self-similar scaling properties for a wide range of momenta in a limit where particles are weakly coupled but their occupancy is high. Here we significantly expand on our previous work and delineate two further self-similar regimes. One of these occurs in the deep infrared (IR) regime of very high occupancies, where the nonequilibrium dynamics leads to the formation of amore » Bose-Einstein condensate. The universal IR scaling exponents and the spectral index characterizing the isotropic IR distributions are described by an effective theory derived from a systematic large-N expansion at next-to-leading order. Remarkably, this effective theory can be cast as a vertex-resummed kinetic theory. The other novel self-similar regime occurs close to the hard physical scale of the theory, and sets in only at later times. In this study, we argue that the important role of the infrared dynamics ensures that key features of our results for scalar and gauge theories cannot be reproduced consistently in conventional kinetic theory frameworks.« less
Nursing theory: everything the artist spits is art?
Timpson, J
1996-05-01
This paper explores the concept and utility of nursing theory in and for the practice of nursing. Working from the premise that many nurse practitioners appear uncertain as to the value of theory in relation to their everyday working experience, the paper investigates the contribution nursing theory makes in terms of sustaining and developing nursing as a practice discipline. The fact that nursing theory remains at once poorly evaluated, articulated or understood appears to be compounded by a general perception of nurse theorists as being removed from the realities of the practice setting and by the confusion precipitated, not least, by the semantic ambiguity engendered by their writings. The paper reviews the complex relationships extant between the development of nursing theory in regard to its utility for nursing practice, and concludes by suggesting a practice-led perspective by which nursing theory may be better articulated and assimilated within the discipline. In order to facilitate the study, it has been necessary to investigate the historical, theoretical and philosophical imperatives pertaining not only to the development of nursing theory but to nursing research and nursing practice per se.
String-Coupled Pendulum Oscillators: Theory and Experiment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moloney, Michael J.
1978-01-01
A coupled-oscillator system is given which is readily set up, using only household materials. The normal-mode analysis of this system is worked out, and an experiment or demonstration is recommended in which one verifies the theory by measuring two times and four lengths. (Author/GA)
Graph Theory and Its Application in Educational Research: A Review and Integration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tatsuoka, Maurice M.
1986-01-01
A nontechnical exposition of graph theory is presented, followed by survey of the literature on applications of graph theory in research in education and related disciplines. Applications include order-theoretic studies of the dimensionality of data sets, the investigation of hierarchical structures in various domains, and cluster analysis.…
Decision analysis with cumulative prospect theory.
Bayoumi, A M; Redelmeier, D A
2000-01-01
Individuals sometimes express preferences that do not follow expected utility theory. Cumulative prospect theory adjusts for some phenomena by using decision weights rather than probabilities when analyzing a decision tree. The authors examined how probability transformations from cumulative prospect theory might alter a decision analysis of a prophylactic therapy in AIDS, eliciting utilities from patients with HIV infection (n = 75) and calculating expected outcomes using an established Markov model. They next focused on transformations of three sets of probabilities: 1) the probabilities used in calculating standard-gamble utility scores; 2) the probabilities of being in discrete Markov states; 3) the probabilities of transitioning between Markov states. The same prophylaxis strategy yielded the highest quality-adjusted survival under all transformations. For the average patient, prophylaxis appeared relatively less advantageous when standard-gamble utilities were transformed. Prophylaxis appeared relatively more advantageous when state probabilities were transformed and relatively less advantageous when transition probabilities were transformed. Transforming standard-gamble and transition probabilities simultaneously decreased the gain from prophylaxis by almost half. Sensitivity analysis indicated that even near-linear probability weighting transformations could substantially alter quality-adjusted survival estimates. The magnitude of benefit estimated in a decision-analytic model can change significantly after using cumulative prospect theory. Incorporating cumulative prospect theory into decision analysis can provide a form of sensitivity analysis and may help describe when people deviate from expected utility theory.
Prospect Theory for Online Financial Trading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C.; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv
2014-03-01
Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people make decisions based on the potential value of losses and gains rather than the final outcome. People are risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, a phenomenon called ``loss aversion''. Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well studied in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few empirical research and most of them has been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze the trading activities of over 1.5 million members of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behaviour of ``winners'' and ``losers'', i.e., traders with positive or negative final net profit, we find clear evidence of the loss aversion phenomenon, an essence in prospect theory. This work demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory. It has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the effect of loss aversion. It also provides opportunity to augment online social trading, where users are allowed to watch and follow the trading activity of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behaviour.
Organizational Economics: Notes on the Use of Transaction-Cost Theory in the Study of Organizations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robins, James A.
1987-01-01
Reviews transaction-cost approaches to organizational analysis, examines their use in microeconomic theory, and identifies some important flaws in the study. Advocates transaction-cost theory as a powerful tool for organizational and strategic analysis when set within the famework of more general organizational theory. Includes 61 references. (MLH)
Motivational theory applied to hospital pharmacy practice.
Grace, M
1980-12-01
In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.
Time evolution of complexity in Abelian gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji; Iizuka, Norihiro; Sugishita, Sotaro
2017-12-01
Quantum complexity is conjectured to probe inside of black hole horizons (or wormholes) via gauge gravity correspondence. In order to have a better understanding of this correspondence, we study time evolutions of complexities for Abelian pure gauge theories. For this purpose, we discretize the U (1 ) gauge group as ZN and also the continuum spacetime as lattice spacetime, and this enables us to define a universal gate set for these gauge theories and to evaluate time evolutions of the complexities explicitly. We find that to achieve a large complexity ˜exp (entropy), which is one of the conjectured criteria necessary to have a dual black hole, the Abelian gauge theory needs to be maximally nonlocal.
Pluripotential theory and convex bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayraktar, T.; Bloom, T.; Levenberg, N.
2018-03-01
A seminal paper by Berman and Boucksom exploited ideas from complex geometry to analyze the asymptotics of spaces of holomorphic sections of tensor powers of certain line bundles L over compact, complex manifolds as the power grows. This yielded results on weighted polynomial spaces in weighted pluripotential theory in {C}^d. Here, motivated by a recent paper by the first author on random sparse polynomials, we work in the setting of weighted pluripotential theory arising from polynomials associated to a convex body in ({R}^+)^d. These classes of polynomials need not occur as sections of tensor powers of a line bundle L over a compact, complex manifold. We follow the approach of Berman and Boucksom to obtain analogous results. Bibliography: 16 titles.
Mathematical analysis on the cosets of subgroup in the group of E-convex sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbas, Nada Mohammed; Ajeena, Ruma Kareem K.
2018-05-01
In this work, analyzing the cosets of the subgroup in the group of L – convex sets is presented as a new and powerful tool in the topics of the convex analysis and abstract algebra. On L – convex sets, the properties of these cosets are proved mathematically. Most important theorem on a finite group of L – convex sets theory which is the Lagrange’s Theorem has been proved. As well as, the mathematical proof of the quotient group of L – convex sets is presented.
Attentional sets influence perceptual load effects, but not dilution effects.
Benoni, Hanna; Zivony, Alon; Tsal, Yehoshua
2014-01-01
Perceptual load theory [Lavie, N. (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 451-468.; Lavie, N., & Tsal, Y. (1994) Perceptual load as a major determinant of the locus of selection in visual attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 56, 183-197.] proposes that interference from distractors can only be avoided in situations of high perceptual load. This theory has been supported by blocked design manipulations separating low load (when the target appears alone) and high load (when the target is embedded among neutral letters). Tsal and Benoni [(2010a). Diluting the burden of load: Perceptual load effects are simply dilution effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 1645-1656.; Benoni, H., & Tsal, Y. (2010). Where have we gone wrong? Perceptual load does not affect selective attention. Vision Research, 50, 1292-1298.] have recently shown that these manipulations confound perceptual load with "dilution" (the mere presence of additional heterogeneous items in high-load situations). Theeuwes, Kramer, and Belopolsky [(2004). Attentional set interacts with perceptual load in visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 697-702.] independently questioned load theory by suggesting that attentional sets might also affect distractor interference. When high load and low load were intermixed, and participants could not prepare for the presentation that followed, both the low-load and high-load trials showed distractor interference. This result may also challenge the dilution account, which proposes a stimulus-driven mechanism. In the current study, we presented subjects with both fixed and mixed blocks, including a mix of dilution trials with low-load trials and with high-load trials. We thus separated the effect of dilution from load and tested the influence of attentional sets on each component. The results revealed that whereas
Kaluza-Klein theories as a tool to find new gauge symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolan, L.
Non-abelian Kaluza-Klein theories are studied with respect to using the invariances of multi-dimensional general relativity to investigate hidden symmetry, such as Kac-Mody Lie algebras, of the four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. Several properties of the affine transformations on the self-dual set are identified and are used to motivate the Kaluza-Klein analysis. In this context, a system of differential equations is derived for new symmetry transformations which may be extendable to the full gauge theory.
How Fragile Is Consolidated Knowledge? Ben's Comparisons of Infinite Sets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsamir, Pessia; Dreyfus, Tommy
2005-01-01
This article builds on two previous ones in which we presented the processes of construction and consolidation of one student's knowledge structures about comparisons of infinite sets, according to a recently proposed theory of abstraction. In the present article, we show that under slight variations of context, knowledge structures that have…
Item Response Data Analysis Using Stata Item Response Theory Package
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Ji Seung; Zheng, Xiaying
2018-01-01
The purpose of this article is to introduce and review the capability and performance of the Stata item response theory (IRT) package that is available from Stata v.14, 2015. Using a simulated data set and a publicly available item response data set extracted from Programme of International Student Assessment, we review the IRT package from…
USE OF ROUGH SETS AND SPECTRAL DATA FOR BUILDING PREDICTIVE MODELS OF REACTION RATE CONSTANTS
A model for predicting the log of the rate constants for alkaline hydrolysis of organic esters has been developed with the use of gas-phase min-infrared library spectra and a rule-building software system based on the mathematical theory of rough sets. A diverse set of 41 esters ...
Implicit Theories of Ability in Physical Education: Current Issues and Future Directions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Warburton, Victoria Emily; Spray, Christopher Mark
2017-01-01
Purpose: In light of the extensive empirical evidence that implicit theories have important motivational consequences for young people across a range of educational settings we seek to provide a summary of, and personal reflection on, implicit theory research and practice in physical education (PE). Overview: We first provide an introduction to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cole, Henry P.; Lacefield, Warren E.
1982-01-01
Psychoeducational design is a powerful technology with roots in experimental psychology and applied learning research in military, industrial, health care, and educational settings. The users of psychoeducational design should understand its historical, social, and philosophical purposes and significance. (FG)
Extending Item Response Theory to Online Homework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kortemeyer, Gerd
2014-01-01
Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for…
A learning theory account of depression.
Ramnerö, Jonas; Folke, Fredrik; Kanter, Jonathan W
2015-06-11
Learning theory provides a foundation for understanding and deriving treatment principles for impacting a spectrum of functional processes relevant to the construct of depression. While behavioral interventions have been commonplace in the cognitive behavioral tradition, most often conceptualized within a cognitive theoretical framework, recent years have seen renewed interest in more purely behavioral models. These modern learning theory accounts of depression focus on the interchange between behavior and the environment, mainly in terms of lack of reinforcement, extinction of instrumental behavior, and excesses of aversive control, and include a conceptualization of relevant cognitive and emotional variables. These positions, drawn from extensive basic and applied research, cohere with biological theories on reduced reward learning and reward responsiveness and views of depression as a heterogeneous, complex set of disorders. Treatment techniques based on learning theory, often labeled Behavioral Activation (BA) focus on activating the individual in directions that increase contact with potential reinforcers, as defined ideographically with the client. BA is considered an empirically well-established treatment that generalizes well across diverse contexts and populations. The learning theory account is discussed in terms of being a parsimonious model and ground for treatments highly suitable for large scale dissemination. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goal Setting to Promote a Health Lifestyle.
Paxton, Raheem J; Taylor, Wendell C; Hudnall, Gina Evans; Christie, Juliette
2012-01-01
The purpose of this parallel-group study was to determine whether a feasibility study based on newsletters and telephone counseling would improve goal- setting constructs; physical activity (PA); and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in a sample of older adults. Forty-three older adults ( M age = 70 years, >70% Asian, 54% female) living in Honolulu, Hawaii were recruited and randomly assigned to either a PA or F & V intake condition. All participants completed measures of PA, F & V intake, and goal setting mechanisms (i.e., specificity, difficulty, effort, commitment, and persistence) at baseline and 8-weeks. Paired t -tests were used to evaluate changes across time. We found that F & V participants significantly increased F & V intake and mean scores of goal specificity, effort, commitment, and persistence (all p < .05). No statistically significant changes in PA or goal setting mechanisms were observed for participants in the PA condition. Overall, our results show that a short-term intervention using newsletters and motivational calls based on goal- setting theory was effective in improving F & V intake; however, more research is needed to determine whether these strategies are effective for improving PA among a multiethnic sample of older adults.
In Pursuit of Change: Youth Response to Intensive Goal Setting Embedded in a Serious Video Game
Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Juliano, Melissa; Frazior, McKee; Wilsdon, Jon; Jago, Russell
2007-01-01
Background Type 2 diabetes has increased in prevalence among youth, paralleling the increase in pediatric obesity. Helping youth achieve energy balance by changing diet and physical activity behaviors should decrease the risk for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Goal setting and goal review are critical components of behavior change. Theory-informed video games that emphasize development and refinement of goal setting and goal review skills provide a method for achieving energy balance in an informative, entertaining format. This article reports alpha-testing results of early versions of theory-informed goal setting and reviews components of two diabetes and obesity prevention video games for preadolescents. Method Two episodes each of two video games were alpha tested with 9- to 11-year-old youth from multiple ethnic groups. Alpha testing included observed game play followed by a scripted interview. The staff was trained in observation and interview techniques prior to data collection. Results Although some difficulties were encountered, alpha testers generally understood goal setting and review components and comprehended they were setting personal goals. Although goal setting and review involved multiple steps, youth were generally able to complete them quickly, with minimal difficulty. Few technical issues arose; however, several usability and comprehension problems were identified. Conclusions Theory-informed video games may be an effective medium for promoting youth diabetes and obesity prevention. Alpha testing helps identify problems likely to have a negative effect on functionality, usability, and comprehension during development, thereby providing an opportunity to correct these issues prior to final production. PMID:19885165
Mathematical theory of a relaxed design problem in structural optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kikuchi, Noboru; Suzuki, Katsuyuki
1990-01-01
Various attempts have been made to construct a rigorous mathematical theory of optimization for size, shape, and topology (i.e. layout) of an elastic structure. If these are represented by a finite number of parametric functions, as Armand described, it is possible to construct an existence theory of the optimum design using compactness argument in a finite dimensional design space or a closed admissible set of a finite dimensional design space. However, if the admissible design set is a subset of non-reflexive Banach space such as L(sup infinity)(Omega), construction of the existence theory of the optimum design becomes suddenly difficult and requires to extend (i.e. generalize) the design problem to much more wider class of design that is compatible to mechanics of structures in the sense of variational principle. Starting from the study by Cheng and Olhoff, Lurie, Cherkaev, and Fedorov introduced a new concept of convergence of design variables in a generalized sense and construct the 'G-Closure' theory of an extended (relaxed) optimum design problem. A similar attempt, but independent in large extent, can also be found in Kohn and Strang in which the shape and topology optimization problem is relaxed to allow to use of perforated composites rather than restricting it to usual solid structures. An identical idea is also stated in Murat and Tartar using the notion of the homogenization theory. That is, introducing possibility of micro-scale perforation together with the theory of homogenization, the optimum design problem is relaxed to construct its mathematical theory. It is also noted that this type of relaxed design problem is perfectly matched to the variational principle in structural mechanics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makhortov, S. D.
2018-03-01
An algebraic system containing the semantics of a set of rules of the conditional equational theory (or the conditional term rewriting system) is introduced. The following basic questions are considered for the given model: existence of logical closure, structure of logical closure, possibility of equivalent transformations, and construction of logical reduction. The obtained results can be applied to the analysis and automatic optimization of the corresponding set of rules. The basis for the given research is the theory of lattices and binary relations.
Baxter, Pamela E; Boblin, Sheryl L
2007-01-01
Unethical behavior in both classroom and clinical settings is a concern for nurse educators and has the potential to greatly influence the quality of patient care. A review of the literature suggests that students may view unethical clinical behaviors as different from unethical classroom behaviors because they recognize that clinical behaviors may have a direct effect on patient care. An overview of three moral theories, proposed by Kohlberg, Gilligan, and Rest, provides insight into the reasons for unethical behavior. These theories provide the foundation for strategies nurse educators can use to help reduce unethical behavior in both classroom and clinical settings in an attempt to ensure quality patient care.
Goal setting as an outcome measure: A systematic review.
Hurn, Jane; Kneebone, Ian; Cropley, Mark
2006-09-01
Goal achievement has been considered to be an important measure of outcome by clinicians working with patients in physical and neurological rehabilitation settings. This systematic review was undertaken to examine the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal setting and goal attainment scaling approaches when used with working age and older people. To review the reliability, validity and sensitivity of both goal setting and goal attainment scaling when employed as an outcome measure within a physical and neurological working age and older person rehabilitation environment, by examining the research literature covering the 36 years since goal-setting theory was proposed. Data sources included a computer-aided literature search of published studies examining the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal setting/goal attainment scaling, with further references sourced from articles obtained through this process. There is strong evidence for the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal attainment scaling. Empirical support was found for the validity of goal setting but research demonstrating its reliability and sensitivity is limited. Goal attainment scaling appears to be a sound measure for use in physical rehabilitation settings with working age and older people. Further work needs to be carried out with goal setting to establish its reliability and sensitivity as a measurement tool.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.
This course, for individualized or group instruction on ceramic tile setting, was developed from military sources for use in vocational education. The course provides students with skills in mortar preparation, surface preparation, tile layout planning, tile setting, tile cutting, and the grouting of tile joints. Both theory and shop assignments…
Friese, Daniel H; Ringholm, Magnus; Gao, Bin; Ruud, Kenneth
2015-10-13
We present theory, implementation, and applications of a recursive scheme for the calculation of single residues of response functions that can treat perturbations that affect the basis set. This scheme enables the calculation of nonlinear light absorption properties to arbitrary order for other perturbations than an electric field. We apply this scheme for the first treatment of two-photon circular dichroism (TPCD) using London orbitals at the Hartree-Fock level of theory. In general, TPCD calculations suffer from the problem of origin dependence, which has so far been solved by using the velocity gauge for the electric dipole operator. This work now enables comparison of results from London orbital and velocity gauge based TPCD calculations. We find that the results from the two approaches both exhibit strong basis set dependence but that they are very similar with respect to their basis set convergence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van de Werfhorst, Herman G.
2011-01-01
A theoretical approach is formulated that connects various theories of why education has an effect on labour market outcomes with institutional settings in which such theories provide the most likely mechanism. Three groups of mechanisms are distinguished: education as an indicator of productive skills, as a positional good and as a means for…
Prescription Drug Use among College Students: A Test of Criminal Spin Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Wan-Chun
2017-01-01
Criminal spin theory developed by Ronel intends to provide a more comprehensive explanation of criminal behavior. It includes wide-ranging factors that impact human behavior at an individual, group, and cultural level. According to criminal spin theory, an event or a set of events can impact human emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. With the…
Maximum Likelihood Item Easiness Models for Test Theory without an Answer Key
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
France, Stephen L.; Batchelder, William H.
2015-01-01
Cultural consensus theory (CCT) is a data aggregation technique with many applications in the social and behavioral sciences. We describe the intuition and theory behind a set of CCT models for continuous type data using maximum likelihood inference methodology. We describe how bias parameters can be incorporated into these models. We introduce…
Fuzzy pharmacology: theory and applications.
Sproule, Beth A; Naranjo, Claudio A; Türksen, I Burhan
2002-09-01
Fuzzy pharmacology is a term coined to represent the application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory to pharmacological problems. Fuzzy logic is the science of reasoning, thinking and inference that recognizes and uses the real world phenomenon that everything is a matter of degree. It is an extension of binary logic that is able to deal with complex systems because it does not require crisp definitions and distinctions for the system components. In pharmacology, fuzzy modeling has been used for the mechanical control of drug delivery in surgical settings, and work has begun evaluating its use in other pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic applications. Fuzzy pharmacology is an emerging field that, based on these initial explorations, warrants further investigation.
The grounded theory of "trust building".
Ramezani, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
2017-01-01
Despite the growing importance of spiritual care, the delivery of spiritual care is still an area of disagreement among healthcare providers. To develop a grounded theory about spiritual care delivery based on Iranian nurses' perceptions and experiences. A grounded theory approach: A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach. Participants and research context: Data were collected through holding 27 interviews with 25 participants (17 staff nurses, 3 physicians, 3 patients, 1 family member, and 1 nurse assistant). The study setting was the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex. Sampling was started purposively and continued theoretically. Data analysis was performed by the method proposed by Strauss and Corbin. Ethical consideration: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tarbiat Modares University and the agreement of the administrators of the study setting was got before starting the study. The core category of the study was "Trust building" which reflected the nature of spiritual care delivery by nurses. Trust building was the result of eight main categories or strategies including creating a positive mentality at hospital admission, understanding patients in care circumstances, having a caring presence, adhering to care ethics, developing meaningful relationships, promoting positive thinking and energy, establishing effective communication with patients, and attempting to create a safe therapeutic environment. Poor interprofessional coordination negatively affected this process while living toward developing greater cognizance of divinity and adhering to the principles of professional ethics facilitated it. The outcome of the process was to gain a sense of partial psychological security. The "Trust building" theory can be used as a guide for describing and expanding nurses' roles in spiritual care delivery, developing care documentation systems and clinical guidelines, and planning educational programs for nursing students and staff nurses.
Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenson, Cinnamon Ann
2015-01-01
Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…
A Memory-Based Theory of Verbal Cognition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dennis, Simon
2005-01-01
The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…
Trends in modern system theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Athans, M.
1976-01-01
The topics considered are related to linear control system design, adaptive control, failure detection, control under failure, system reliability, and large-scale systems and decentralized control. It is pointed out that the design of a linear feedback control system which regulates a process about a desirable set point or steady-state condition in the presence of disturbances is a very important problem. The linearized dynamics of the process are used for design purposes. The typical linear-quadratic design involving the solution of the optimal control problem of a linear time-invariant system with respect to a quadratic performance criterion is considered along with gain reduction theorems and the multivariable phase margin theorem. The stumbling block in many adaptive design methodologies is associated with the amount of real time computation which is necessary. Attention is also given to the desperate need to develop good theories for large-scale systems, the beginning of a microprocessor revolution, the translation of the Wiener-Hopf theory into the time domain, and advances made in dynamic team theory, dynamic stochastic games, and finite memory stochastic control.
A company I can trust? Organizational lay theories moderate stereotype threat for women.
Emerson, Katherine T U; Murphy, Mary C
2015-02-01
Women remain under-represented in the leadership of corporate America. According to stereotype threat theory, this under-representation may persist because women are concerned about being stereotyped in business settings. Three studies investigated whether an entity (fixed), compared with an incremental (malleable), organizational lay theory is threatening for women evaluating a consulting company. Men and women viewed a company mission statement or website containing an entity or incremental theory. Results revealed that women--more so than men--trusted the entity company less than the incremental company. Furthermore, only women's mistrust of the entity company was driven by their expectations about being stereotyped by its management. Notably, when combined with high or low representations of female employees, only organizational lay theories predicted trust. Finally, people's--particularly women's--mistrust of the entity company led them to disengage more before interacting with a representative. Implications for women's experiences and outcomes in workplace settings are discussed. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
2015-01-01
Health is regulated by homeostasis, a property of all living things. Homeostasis maintains equilibrium at set-points using feedback loops for optimum functioning of the organism. Imbalances in homeostasis causing overweight and obesity are evident in more than 1 billion people. In a new theory, homeostatic obesity imbalance is attributed to a hypothesized ‘Circle of Discontent’, a system of feedback loops linking weight gain, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and over-consumption. The Circle of Discontent theory is consistent with an extensive evidence base. A four-armed strategy to halt the obesity epidemic consists of (1) putting a stop to victim-blaming, stigma and discrimination; (2) devalorizing the thin-ideal; (3) reducing consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and drinks; and (4) improving access to plant-based diets. If fully implemented, interventions designed to restore homeostasis have the potential to halt the obesity epidemic. PMID:28070357
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Gaole; Shang, Jin; Huang, Jiping
2018-02-01
Heat can transfer via thermal conduction, thermal radiation, and thermal convection. All the existing theories of transformation thermotics and optics can treat thermal conduction and thermal radiation, respectively. Unfortunately, thermal convection has seldom been touched in transformation theories due to the lack of a suitable theory, thus limiting applications associated with heat transfer through fluids (liquid or gas). Here, we develop a theory of transformation thermal convection by considering the convection-diffusion equation, the equation of continuity, and the Darcy law. By introducing porous media, we get a set of equations keeping their forms under coordinate transformation. As model applications, the theory helps to show the effects of cloaking, concentrating, and camouflage. Our finite-element simulations confirm the theoretical findings. This work offers a transformation theory for thermal convection, thus revealing novel behaviors associated with potential applications; it not only provides different hints on how to control heat transfer by combining thermal conduction, thermal convection, and thermal radiation, but also benefits mass diffusion and other related fields that contain a set of equations and need to transform velocities at the same time.
Beable-guided quantum theories: Generalizing quantum probability laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, Adrian
2013-02-01
Beable-guided quantum theories (BGQT) are generalizations of quantum theory, inspired by Bell's concept of beables. They modify the quantum probabilities for some specified set of fundamental events, histories, or other elements of quasiclassical reality by probability laws that depend on the realized configuration of beables. For example, they may define an additional probability weight factor for a beable configuration, independent of the quantum dynamics. Beable-guided quantum theories can be fitted to observational data to provide foils against which to compare explanations based on standard quantum theory. For example, a BGQT could, in principle, characterize the effects attributed to dark energy or dark matter, or any other deviation from the predictions of standard quantum dynamics, without introducing extra fields or a cosmological constant. The complexity of the beable-guided theory would then parametrize how far we are from a standard quantum explanation. Less conservatively, we give reasons for taking suitably simple beable-guided quantum theories as serious phenomenological theories in their own right. Among these are the possibility that cosmological models defined by BGQT might in fact fit the empirical data better than any standard quantum explanation, and the fact that BGQT suggest potentially interesting nonstandard ways of coupling quantum matter to gravity.
Topological entropy of catalytic sets: Hypercycles revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sardanyés, Josep; Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno
2012-02-01
The dynamics of catalytic networks have been widely studied over the last decades because of their implications in several fields like prebiotic evolution, virology, neural networks, immunology or ecology. One of the most studied mathematical bodies for catalytic networks was initially formulated in the context of prebiotic evolution, by means of the hypercycle theory. The hypercycle is a set of self-replicating species able to catalyze other replicator species within a cyclic architecture. Hypercyclic organization might arise from a quasispecies as a way to increase the informational containt surpassing the so-called error threshold. The catalytic coupling between replicators makes all the species to behave like a single and coherent evolutionary multimolecular unit. The inherent nonlinearities of catalytic interactions are responsible for the emergence of several types of dynamics, among them, chaos. In this article we begin with a brief review of the hypercycle theory focusing on its evolutionary implications as well as on different dynamics associated to different types of small catalytic networks. Then we study the properties of chaotic hypercycles with error-prone replication with symbolic dynamics theory, characterizing, by means of the theory of topological Markov chains, the topological entropy and the periods of the orbits of unimodal-like iterated maps obtained from the strange attractor. We will focus our study on some key parameters responsible for the structure of the catalytic network: mutation rates, autocatalytic and cross-catalytic interactions.
Impact of Functionally Graded Cylinders: Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This final report summarizes the work funded under the Grant NAG3-2411 during the 04/05/2000-04/04/2001 period. The objective of this one-year project was to generalize the theoretical framework of the two-dimensional higher-order theory for the analysis of cylindrical functionally graded materials/structural components employed in advanced aircraft engines developed under past NASA Glenn funding. The completed generalization significantly broadens the theory's range of applicability through the incorporation of dynamic impact loading capability into its framework. Thus, it makes possible the assessment of the effect of damage due to fuel impurities, or the presence of submicron-level debris, on the life of functionally graded structural components. Applications involving advanced turbine blades and structural components for the reusable-launch vehicle (RLV) currently under development will benefit from the completed work. The theory's predictive capability is demonstrated through a numerical simulation of a one-dimensional wave propagation set up by an impulse load in a layered half-plane. Full benefit of the completed generalization of the higher-order theory described in this report will be realized upon the development of a related computer code.
On twelve types of covering-based rough sets.
Safari, Samira; Hooshmandasl, Mohammad Reza
2016-01-01
Covering approximation spaces are a generalization of equivalence-based rough set theories. In this paper, we will consider twelve types of covering based approximation operators by combining four types of covering lower approximation operators and three types of covering upper approximation operators. Then, we will study the properties of these new pairs and show they have most of the common properties among existing covering approximation pairs. Finally, the relation between these new pairs is studied.
Pathways, Networks, and Systems: Theory and Experiments
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Joseph H. Nadeau; John D. Lambris
2004-10-30
The international conference provided a unique opportunity for theoreticians and experimenters to exchange ideas, strategies, problems, challenges, language and opportunities in both formal and informal settings. This dialog is an important step towards developing a deep and effective integration of theory and experiments in studies of systems biology in humans and model organisms.
Criticism of generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Kerner, Boris S.
It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliable used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (formore » example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular stochastic value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory, we discuss three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.« less
From Darwin to constructivism: the evolution of grounded theory.
Hall, Helen; Griffiths, Debra; McKenna, Lisa
2013-01-01
To explore the evolution of grounded theory and equip the reader with a greater understanding of the diverse conceptual positioning that is evident in the methodology. Grounded theory was developed during the modernist phase of research to develop theories that are derived from data and explain human interaction. Its philosophical foundations derive from symbolic interactionism and were influenced by a range of scholars including Charles Darwin and George Mead. Rather than a rigid set of rules and procedures, grounded theory is a way of conceptualising data. Researchers demonstrate a range of perspectives and there is significant variation in the way the methodology is interpreted and executed. Some grounded theorists continue to align closely with the original post-positivist view, while others take a more constructivist approach. Although the diverse interpretations accommodate flexibility, they may also result in confusion. The grounded theory approach enables researchers to align to their own particular world view and use methods that are flexible and practical. With an appreciation of the diverse philosophical approaches to grounded theory, researchers are enabled to use and appraise the methodology more effectively.
The Theory of Evolution - A Jewish Perspective
Steinberg, Avraham
2010-01-01
All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature—scientific, religious, and lay—in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought—religion and science—are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. Jewish faith perceives the development of the universe in a different way: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new
The theory of evolution - a jewish perspective.
Steinberg, Avraham
2010-07-01
All possible pro and con arguments regarding the theory of evolution have been discussed and debated in the vast literature-scientific, religious, and lay-in the past 150 years. There is usually great zealotry in all debating parties, with mutual intolerance of ideas and concepts, disrespect toward opposing opinions and positions, and usage of very harsh language. This prejudiced approach usually does not allow for a reasonable debate. It is important to look at the facts, assumptions, and beliefs of the theory of evolution in a more calm and humble way. In this article a comparative analysis is offered between the scientific aspects of the theory of evolution and a Judaic approach to these aspects. The two sets of human thought-religion and science-are fundamentally different in their aims and purposes, in their methods of operation, in their scope of interest and issues, and in their origin and ramifications. Whenever science surpasses its limits, or religion exceeds its boundaries, it actually is a form of an abuse of both. This has happened to the theory of evolution in a more powerful mode than any other interaction between science and religion. The agenda of many scientists who promote the theory of evolution is to achieve the goal of understanding the existence of the universe as a random, purposeless, natural development, evolved slowly over billions of years from a common ancestor by way of natural selection, devoid of any supernatural metaphysical power. JEWISH FAITH PERCEIVES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSE IN A DIFFERENT WAY: God created the world, with a purpose known to Him; He established natural laws that govern the world; and He imposed a moral-religious set of requirements upon Man. The discussion and comparative analysis in this article is based upon the current neo-Darwinian theory, although it seems almost certain that even the new and modern assumptions and speculations will continue to be challenged, changed, and revised as new scientific
Quantum mechanics: The Bayesian theory generalized to the space of Hermitian matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benavoli, Alessio; Facchini, Alessandro; Zaffalon, Marco
2016-10-01
We consider the problem of gambling on a quantum experiment and enforce rational behavior by a few rules. These rules yield, in the classical case, the Bayesian theory of probability via duality theorems. In our quantum setting, they yield the Bayesian theory generalized to the space of Hermitian matrices. This very theory is quantum mechanics: in fact, we derive all its four postulates from the generalized Bayesian theory. This implies that quantum mechanics is self-consistent. It also leads us to reinterpret the main operations in quantum mechanics as probability rules: Bayes' rule (measurement), marginalization (partial tracing), independence (tensor product). To say it with a slogan, we obtain that quantum mechanics is the Bayesian theory in the complex numbers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davison, Colleen M.; Hawe, Penelope
2012-01-01
Background: Educational disengagement is a public health concern among Aboriginal populations in many countries. It has been investigated previously in a variety of ways, with the conventional focus being on the children themselves. Activity settings are events and places, theorized in terms of their symbols, roles, time frame, funds, people, and…
Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsukerman, Igor
2017-05-01
Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius-Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kálmán, Csaba; Eugenio, Esther Gutierrez
2015-01-01
Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001) but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students' attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a…
Gassmann Theory Applies to Nanoporous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gor, Gennady Y.; Gurevich, Boris
2018-01-01
Recent progress in extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources has ignited the interest in the studies of nanoporous media. Since many thermodynamic and mechanical properties of nanoscale solids and fluids differ from the analogous bulk materials, it is not obvious whether wave propagation in nanoporous media can be described using the same framework as in macroporous media. Here we test the validity of Gassmann equation using two published sets of ultrasonic measurements for a model nanoporous medium, Vycor glass, saturated with two different fluids, argon, and n-hexane. Predictions of the Gassmann theory depend on the bulk and shear moduli of the dry samples, which are known from ultrasonic measurements and the bulk moduli of the solid and fluid constituents. The solid bulk modulus can be estimated from adsorption-induced deformation or from elastic effective medium theory. The fluid modulus can be calculated according to the Tait-Murnaghan equation at the solvation pressure in the pore. Substitution of these parameters into the Gassmann equation provides predictions consistent with measured data. Our findings set up a theoretical framework for investigation of fluid-saturated nanoporous media using ultrasonic elastic wave propagation.
Polarization functions for the modified m6-31G basis sets for atoms Ga through Kr.
Mitin, Alexander V
2013-09-05
The 2df polarization functions for the modified m6-31G basis sets of the third-row atoms Ga through Kr (Int J Quantum Chem, 2007, 107, 3028; Int J. Quantum Chem, 2009, 109, 1158) are proposed. The performances of the m6-31G, m6-31G(d,p), and m6-31G(2df,p) basis sets were examined in molecular calculations carried out by the density functional theory (DFT) method with B3LYP hybrid functional, Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of the second order (MP2), quadratic configuration interaction method with single and double substitutions and were compared with those for the known 6-31G basis sets as well as with the other similar 641 and 6-311G basis sets with and without polarization functions. Obtained results have shown that the performances of the m6-31G, m6-31G(d,p), and m6-31G(2df,p) basis sets are better in comparison with the performances of the known 6-31G, 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31G(2df,p) basis sets. These improvements are mainly reached due to better approximations of different electrons belonging to the different atomic shells in the modified basis sets. Applicability of the modified basis sets in thermochemical calculations is also discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldfeld, Dahlia A.; Bochevarov, Arteum D.; Friesner, Richard A.
2008-12-01
This paper is a logical continuation of the 22 parameter, localized orbital correction (LOC) methodology that we developed in previous papers [R. A. Friesner et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 124107 (2006); E. H. Knoll and R. A. Friesner, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18787 (2006).] This methodology allows one to redress systematic density functional theory (DFT) errors, rooted in DFT's inherent inability to accurately describe nondynamical correlation. Variants of the LOC scheme, in conjunction with B3LYP (denoted as B3LYP-LOC), were previously applied to enthalpies of formation, ionization potentials, and electron affinities and showed impressive reduction in the errors. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that the B3LYP-LOC scheme is robust across different basis sets [6-31G∗, 6-311++G(3df,3pd), cc-pVTZ, and aug-cc-pVTZ] and reaction types (atomization reactions and molecular reactions). For example, for a test set of 70 molecular reactions, the LOC scheme reduces their mean unsigned error from 4.7 kcal/mol [obtained with B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd)] to 0.8 kcal/mol. We also verified whether the LOC methodology would be equally successful if applied to the promising M05-2X functional. We conclude that although M05-2X produces better reaction enthalpies than B3LYP, the LOC scheme does not combine nearly as successfully with M05-2X than with B3LYP. A brief analysis of another functional, M06-2X, reveals that it is more accurate than M05-2X but its combination with LOC still cannot compete in accuracy with B3LYP-LOC. Indeed, B3LYP-LOC remains the best method of computing reaction enthalpies.
Route constraints model based on polychromatic sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Xianjun; Cai, Chao; Wang, Houjun; Li, Dongwu
2018-03-01
With the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology, the fields of its application are constantly expanding. The mission planning of UAV is especially important, and the planning result directly influences whether the UAV can accomplish the task. In order to make the results of mission planning for unmanned aerial vehicle more realistic, it is necessary to consider not only the physical properties of the aircraft, but also the constraints among the various equipment on the UAV. However, constraints among the equipment of UAV are complex, and the equipment has strong diversity and variability, which makes these constraints difficult to be described. In order to solve the above problem, this paper, referring to the polychromatic sets theory used in the advanced manufacturing field to describe complex systems, presents a mission constraint model of UAV based on polychromatic sets.
Unambiguous formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David; Vankerschaver, Joris
2009-11-01
The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk approach has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.
Algebraic cycles and local anomalies in F-theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bies, Martin; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Weigand, Timo
2017-11-01
We introduce a set of identities in the cohomology ring of elliptic fibrations which are equivalent to the cancellation of gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies in F-theory compactifications to four and six dimensions. The identities consist in (co)homological relations between complex codimension-two cycles. The same set of relations, once evaluated on elliptic Calabi-Yau three-folds and four-folds, is shown to universally govern the structure of anomalies and their Green-Schwarz cancellation in six- and four-dimensional F-theory vacua, respectively. We furthermore conjecture that these relations hold not only within the cohomology ring, but even at the level of the Chow ring, i.e. as relations among codimension-two cycles modulo rational equivalence. We verify this conjecture in non-trivial examples with Abelian and non-Abelian gauge groups factors. Apart from governing the structure of local anomalies, the identities in the Chow ring relate different types of gauge backgrounds on elliptically fibred Calabi-Yau four-folds.
Cosmological solutions of low-energy heterotic M theory
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Copeland, Edmund J.; Ellison, James; Roberts, Jonathan
We derive a set of exact cosmological solutions to the D=4, N=1 supergravity description of heterotic M theory. Having identified a new and exact SU(3) Toda model solution, we then apply symmetry transformations to both this solution and to a previously known SU(2) Toda model, in order to derive two further sets of new cosmological solutions. In the symmetry-transformed SU(3) Toda case we find an unusual bouncing motion for the M5 brane, such that this brane can be made to reverse direction part way through its evolution. This bounce occurs purely through the interaction of nonstandard kinetic terms, as theremore » are no explicit potentials in the action. We also present a perturbation calculation which demonstrates that, in a simple static limit, heterotic M theory possesses a scale-invariant isocurvature mode. This mode persists in certain asymptotic limits of all the solutions we have derived, including the bouncing solution.« less
Emotional coping response to hassles and stress experienced in wilderness settings
Rudy M. Schuster; W. E. Hammitt
2003-01-01
Stress/coping theory was used to understand recreationists' appraisal of stressful situations, coping processes, and the outcomes of the process. Specifically, stress was conceptualized as hassles in recreation settings. Specifically, the objective of this paper was to discuss the emotion focused coping response of visitors to stress encountered while on a...
An experimental test of control theory-based interventions for physical activity.
Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Hurling, Robert; Ayres, Karen; Morris, Ben
2016-11-01
To provide an experimental test of control theory to promote physical activity. Parallel groups, simple randomized design with an equal chance of allocation to any group. Participants not meeting recommended levels of physical activity but physically safe to do so (N = 124) were recruited on a UK university campus and randomized to goal-setting + self-monitoring + feedback (GS + SM + F, n = 40), goal-setting + self-monitoring (GS + SM, n = 40), or goal-setting only (GS, n = 44) conditions that differentially tapped the key features of control theory. Accelerometers assessed physical activity (primary outcome) as well as self-report over a 7-day period directly before/after the start of the intervention. The participants in the GS + SM + F condition significantly outperformed those in the GS condition, d = 0.62, 95% CI d = 0.15-1.08, and marginally outperformed those in the GS + SM condition in terms of total physical activity at follow-up on the accelerometer measure, d = 0.33, 95% CI d = -0.13 to 0.78. The feedback manipulation (GS + SM + F vs. GS + SM and GS) was most effective when baseline intentions were weak. These patterns did not emerge on the self-report measure but, on the basis of this measure, the feedback manipulation increased the risk that participants coasted in relation to their goal in the first few days of the intervention period. Using behaviour change techniques consistent with control theory can lead to significant short-term improvements on objectively assessed physical activity. Further research is needed to examine the underlying theoretical principles of the model. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Interventions incorporating more techniques that are consistent with control theory are associated with larger positive changes in health behaviours and related outcomes (see reviews by Dombrowski et al., ; Michie et al., ). However, none of the studies included in these
Orsini, C; Evans, P; Binnie, V; Ledezma, P; Fuentes, F
2016-05-01
Self-determination theory postulates that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness have to be satisfied for students to achieve intrinsic motivation and internalisation of autonomous self-regulation towards academic activities. Consequently, the influence of the clinical teaching environment becomes crucial when satisfying these needs, particularly when promoting or diminishing students' intrinsic motivation. The aim of this study was to describe and understand how clinical teachers encourage intrinsic motivation in undergraduate dental students based on the three basic psychological needs described by the self-determination theory. A qualitative case study approach was adopted, and data were collected through semistructured interviews with nine experienced undergraduate clinical teachers of one dental school in Santiago, Chile. Interview transcripts were analysed by two independent reviewers using a general inductive approach. Several themes emerged outlining teaching strategies and behaviours. These themes included the control of external motivators; gradual transference of responsibility; identification and encouragement of personal interests; timely and constructive feedback; delivery of a vicarious learning experience; teamwork, team discussion, and presence of a safe environment, amongst others. Overall, teachers stressed the relevance of empowering, supporting and building a horizontal relationship with students. Our findings regarding dental education expand on the research outcomes from other health professions about how teachers may support students to internalise behaviours. An autonomy-supportive environment may lead students to value and engage in academic activities and eventually foster the use of an autonomy-supportive style to motivate their patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Differentiating between precursor and control variables when analyzing reasoned action theories.
Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; Diclemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Salazar, Laura
2010-02-01
This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they are correctly used as precursors. Because control variables do not appear in any form of reasoned action theory, this approach to including background variables is not correct when analyzing data sets based on the theoretical axioms of the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behavior, or the Integrative Model.
Differentiating Between Precursor and Control Variables When Analyzing Reasoned Action Theories
Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; DiClemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Salazar, Laura
2010-01-01
This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they are correctly used as precursors. Because control variables do not appear in any form of reasoned action theory, this approach to including background variables is not correct when analyzing data sets based on the theoretical axioms of the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behavior, or the Integrative Model PMID:19370408
Rational Density Functional Selection Using Game Theory.
McAnanama-Brereton, Suzanne; Waller, Mark P
2018-01-22
Theoretical chemistry has a paradox of choice due to the availability of a myriad of density functionals and basis sets. Traditionally, a particular density functional is chosen on the basis of the level of user expertise (i.e., subjective experiences). Herein we circumvent the user-centric selection procedure by describing a novel approach for objectively selecting a particular functional for a given application. We achieve this by employing game theory to identify optimal functional/basis set combinations. A three-player (accuracy, complexity, and similarity) game is devised, through which Nash equilibrium solutions can be obtained. This approach has the advantage that results can be systematically improved by enlarging the underlying knowledge base, and the deterministic selection procedure mathematically justifies the density functional and basis set selections.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Christophe, Barbara
2011-01-01
Much educational research on globalization aims to prepare students to be successful citizens in a global society. We propose a set of three concepts, drawing on systems theory (Nassehi, Stichweh) and theories of the subject (Butler, Foucault), to think the global which enables educational research to step back from hegemonic discourses and…
Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen
2012-01-01
We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…
Applications of Derandomization Theory in Coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheraghchi, Mahdi
2011-07-01
Randomized techniques play a fundamental role in theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics, in particular for the design of efficient algorithms and construction of combinatorial objects. The basic goal in derandomization theory is to eliminate or reduce the need for randomness in such randomized constructions. In this thesis, we explore some applications of the fundamental notions in derandomization theory to problems outside the core of theoretical computer science, and in particular, certain problems related to coding theory. First, we consider the wiretap channel problem which involves a communication system in which an intruder can eavesdrop a limited portion of the transmissions, and construct efficient and information-theoretically optimal communication protocols for this model. Then we consider the combinatorial group testing problem. In this classical problem, one aims to determine a set of defective items within a large population by asking a number of queries, where each query reveals whether a defective item is present within a specified group of items. We use randomness condensers to explicitly construct optimal, or nearly optimal, group testing schemes for a setting where the query outcomes can be highly unreliable, as well as the threshold model where a query returns positive if the number of defectives pass a certain threshold. Finally, we design ensembles of error-correcting codes that achieve the information-theoretic capacity of a large class of communication channels, and then use the obtained ensembles for construction of explicit capacity achieving codes. [This is a shortened version of the actual abstract in the thesis.
Theoretical Coalescence: A Method to Develop Qualitative Theory
Morse, Janice M.
2018-01-01
Background Qualitative research is frequently context bound, lacks generalizability, and is limited in scope. Objectives The purpose of this article was to describe a method, theoretical coalescence, that provides a strategy for analyzing complex, high-level concepts and for developing generalizable theory. Theoretical coalescence is a method of theoretical expansion, inductive inquiry, of theory development, that uses data (rather than themes, categories, and published extracts of data) as the primary source for analysis. Here, using the development of the lay concept of enduring as an example, I explore the scientific development of the concept in multiple settings over many projects and link it within the Praxis Theory of Suffering. Methods As comprehension emerges when conducting theoretical coalescence, it is essential that raw data from various different situations be available for reinterpretation/reanalysis and comparison to identify the essential features of the concept. The concept is then reconstructed, with additional inquiry that builds description, and evidence is conducted and conceptualized to create a more expansive concept and theory. Results By utilizing apparently diverse data sets from different contexts that are linked by certain characteristics, the essential features of the concept emerge. Such inquiry is divergent and less bound by context yet purposeful, logical, and with significant pragmatic implications for practice in nursing and beyond our discipline. Conclusion Theoretical coalescence is a means by which qualitative inquiry is broadened to make an impact, to accommodate new theoretical shifts and concepts, and to make qualitative research applied and accessible in new ways. PMID:29360688
A Theory of Immersion Freezing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barahona, Donifan
2017-01-01
Immersion freezing is likely involved in the initiation of precipitation and determines to large extent the phase partitioning in convective clouds. Theoretical models commonly used to describe immersion freezing in atmospheric models are based on the classical nucleation theory which however neglects important interactions near the immersed particle that may affect nucleation rates. This work introduces a new theory of immersion freezing based on two premises. First, immersion ice nucleation is mediated by the modification of the properties of water near the particle-liquid interface, rather than by the geometry of the ice germ. Second, the same mechanism that leads to the decrease in the work of germ formation also decreases the mobility of water molecules near the immersed particle. These two premises allow establishing general thermodynamic constraints to the ice nucleation rate. Analysis of the new theory shows that active sites likely trigger ice nucleation, but they do not control the overall nucleation rate nor the probability of freezing. It also suggests that materials with different ice nucleation efficiency may exhibit similar freezing temperatures under similar conditions but differ in their sensitivity to particle surface area and cooling rate. Predicted nucleation rates show good agreement with observations for a diverse set of materials including dust, black carbon and bacterial ice nucleating particles. The application of the new theory within the NASA Global Earth System Model (GEOS-5) is also discussed.
Projective limits of state spaces IV. Fractal label sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas
2018-01-01
Instead of formulating the state space of a quantum field theory over one big Hilbert space, it has been proposed by Kijowski (1977) to represent quantum states as projective families of density matrices over a collection of smaller, simpler Hilbert spaces (see Lanéry (2016) [1] for a concise introduction to this formalism). One can thus bypass the need to select a vacuum state for the theory, and still be provided with an explicit and constructive description of the quantum state space, at least as long as the label set indexing the projective structure is countable. Because uncountable label sets are much less practical in this context, we develop in the present article a general procedure to trim an originally uncountable label set down to countable cardinality. In particular, we investigate how to perform this tightening of the label set in a way that preserves both the physical content of the algebra of observables and its symmetries. This work is notably motivated by applications to the holonomy-flux algebra underlying Loop Quantum Gravity. Building on earlier work by Okołów (2013), a projective state space was introduced for this algebra in Lanéry and Thiemann (2016). However, the non-trivial structure of the holonomy-flux algebra prevents the construction of satisfactory semi-classical states (Lanéry and Thiemann, 2017). Implementing the general procedure just mentioned in the case of a one-dimensional version of this algebra, we show how a discrete subalgebra can be extracted without destroying universality nor diffeomorphism invariance. On this subalgebra, quantum states can then be constructed which are more regular than was possible on the original algebra. In particular, this allows the design of semi-classical states whose semi-classicality is enforced step by step, starting from collective, macroscopic degrees of freedom and going down progressively toward smaller and smaller scales.
Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C.W.
2013-01-01
Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that over time become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this manuscript proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of Expectancy Value Theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically-driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. PMID:23106844
Magidson, Jessica F; Roberts, Brent W; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C W
2014-05-01
Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that, over time, become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this article proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of expectancy value theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance-dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Conformational analysis of cellobiose by electronic structure theories
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Adiabatic phi/psi maps for cellobiose were prepared with B3LYP density functional theory. A mixed basis set was used for minimization, followed with 6-31+G(d) single-point calculations, with and without SMD continuum solvation. Different arrangements of the exocyclic groups (3starting geometries) we...
On the effective field theory of intersecting D3-branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbaspur, Reza
2018-05-01
We study the effective field theory of two intersecting D3-branes with one common dimension along the lines recently proposed in ref. [1]. We introduce a systematic way of deriving the classical effective action to arbitrary orders in perturbation theory. Using a proper renormalization prescription to handle logarithmic divergencies arising at all orders in the perturbation series, we recover the first order renormalization group equation of ref. [1] plus an infinite set of higher order equations. We show the consistency of the higher order equations with the first order one and hence interpret the first order result as an exact RG flow equation in the classical theory.
Britain Between the Wars: The Historical Context of Bowlby's Theory of Attachment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newcombe, Nora; Lerner, Jeffrey C.
John Bowlby's theory of attachment is examined in the cultural and historical context in which it was developed. Bowlby trained as a psychiatrist in England during the 1920's and published the WHO report in 1951. Thus the origins of his theory can be related to events set in motion by the First World War and occurring during the interwar period…
Prospect Theory for Online Financial Trading
Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv
2014-01-01
Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the “reflection effect”. People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called “loss aversion”. Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior. PMID:25330203
Prospect theory for online financial trading.
Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv
2014-01-01
Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the "reflection effect". People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called "loss aversion". Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior.
Quantum power functional theory for many-body dynamics
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Schmidt, Matthias, E-mail: Matthias.Schmidt@uni-bayreuth.de
2015-11-07
We construct a one-body variational theory for the time evolution of nonrelativistic quantum many-body systems. The position- and time-dependent one-body density, particle current, and time derivative of the current act as three variational fields. The generating (power rate) functional is minimized by the true current time derivative. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation, together with the continuity equation for the density, forms a closed set of one-body equations of motion. Space- and time-nonlocal one-body forces are generated by the superadiabatic contribution to the functional. The theory applies to many-electron systems.
Rotor Performance at High Advance Ratio: Theory versus Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Franklin D.
2008-01-01
Five analytical tools have been used to study rotor performance at high advance ratio. One is representative of autogyro rotor theory in 1934 and four are representative of helicopter rotor theory in 2008. The five theories are measured against three sets of well documented, full-scale, isolated rotor performance experiments. The major finding of this study is that the decades spent by many rotorcraft theoreticians to improve prediction of basic rotor aerodynamic performance has paid off. This payoff, illustrated by comparing the CAMRAD II comprehensive code and Wheatley & Bailey theory to H-34 test data, shows that rational rotor lift to drag ratios are now predictable. The 1934 theory predicted L/D ratios as high as 15. CAMRAD II predictions compared well with H-34 test data having L/D ratios more on the order of 7 to 9. However, the detailed examination of the selected codes compared to H-34 test data indicates that not one of the codes can predict to engineering accuracy above an advance ratio of 0.62 the control positions and shaft angle of attack required for a given lift. There is no full-scale rotor performance data available for advance ratios above 1.0 and extrapolation of currently available data to advance ratios on the order of 2.0 is unreasonable despite the needs of future rotorcraft. Therefore, it is recommended that an overly strong full-scale rotor blade set be obtained and tested in a suitable wind tunnel to at least an advance ratio of 2.5. A tail rotor from a Sikorsky CH-53 or other large single rotor helicopter should be adequate for this exploratory experiment.
Some considerations about Gaussian basis sets for electric property calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arruda, Priscilla M.; Canal Neto, A.; Jorge, F. E.
Recently, segmented contracted basis sets of double, triple, and quadruple zeta valence quality plus polarization functions (XZP, X = D, T, and Q, respectively) for the atoms from H to Ar were reported. In this work, with the objective of having a better description of polarizabilities, the QZP set was augmented with diffuse (s and p symmetries) and polarization (p, d, f, and g symmetries) functions that were chosen to maximize the mean dipole polarizability at the UHF and UMP2 levels, respectively. At the HF and B3LYP levels of theory, electric dipole moment and static polarizability for a sample of molecules were evaluated. Comparison with experimental data and results obtained with a similar size basis set, whose diffuse functions were optimized for the ground state energy of the anion, was done.
Lubarsky, Stuart; Dory, Valérie; Audétat, Marie-Claude; Custers, Eugène; Charlin, Bernard
2015-01-01
Script theory proposes an explanation for how information is stored in and retrieved from the human mind to influence individuals' interpretation of events in the world. Applied to medicine, script theory focuses on knowledge organization as the foundation of clinical reasoning during patient encounters. According to script theory, medical knowledge is bundled into networks called 'illness scripts' that allow physicians to integrate new incoming information with existing knowledge, recognize patterns and irregularities in symptom complexes, identify similarities and differences between disease states, and make predictions about how diseases are likely to unfold. These knowledge networks become updated and refined through experience and learning. The implications of script theory on medical education are profound. Since clinician-teachers cannot simply transfer their customized collections of illness scripts into the minds of learners, they must create opportunities to help learners develop and fine-tune their own sets of scripts. In this essay, we provide a basic sketch of script theory, outline the role that illness scripts play in guiding reasoning during clinical encounters, and propose strategies for aligning teaching practices in the classroom and the clinical setting with the basic principles of script theory.
Lopes; Oden
1999-06-01
In recent years, descriptive models of risky choice have incorporated features that reflect the importance of particular outcome values in choice. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) does this by inserting a reference point in the utility function. SP/A (security-potential/aspiration) theory uses aspiration level as a second criterion in the choice process. Experiment 1 compares the ability of the CPT and SP/A models to account for the same within-subjects data set and finds in favor of SP/A. Experiment 2 replicates the main finding of Experiment 1 in a between-subjects design. The final discussion brackets the SP/A result by showing the impact on fit of both decreasing and increasing the number of free parameters. We also suggest how the SP/A approach might be useful in modeling investment decision making in a descriptively more valid way and conclude with comments on the relation between descriptive and normative theories of risky choice. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.; Brissenden, Gina; Rudolph, Alexander L.
2012-01-01
This paper is the first in a series of investigations into the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI). In this paper, we use classical test theory to form a framework of results that will be used to evaluate individual item difficulties, item discriminations, and the overall reliability of the…
Undecidability of the elementary theory of the semilattice of GLP-words
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Pakhomov, Fedor N
The Lindenbaum algebra of Peano PA can be enriched by the n-consistency operators which assign, to a given formula, the statement that the formula is compatible with the theory PA extended by the set of all true {Pi}{sub n}-sentences. In the Lindenbaum algebra of PA, a lower semilattice is generated from 1 by the n-consistency operators. We prove the undecidability of the elementary theory of this semilattice and the decidability of the elementary theory of the subsemilattice (of this semilattice) generated by the 0-consistency and 1-consistency operators only. Bibliography: 16 titles.
Theory-based interventions for contraception.
Lopez, Laureen M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Grimes, David A; Chen-Mok, Mario
2011-03-16
, of which three showed positive results. Two based on other social cognition models had favorable results, as did two of four focused on motivational interviewing. Thirteen trials provided multiple sessions or contacts. Of seven effective interventions, five targeted adolescents, including four with group sessions. Three effective trials had individual sessions. Seven trials were rated as having high or moderate quality; three of those had favorable results. Family planning researchers and practitioners could adapt the effective interventions. Reproductive health needs high-quality research on behavior change, especially for clinical and low-resource settings. More thorough use of single theories would help, as would better reporting on research design and intervention implementation.
Theories of cognitive distortions in sexual offending: what the current research tells us.
O Ciardha, Caoilte; Ward, Tony
2013-01-01
Cognitive distortions in sex offenders are specific or general beliefs/attitudes that violate commonly accepted norms of rationality that have been shown to be associated with the onset and maintenance of sexual offending. In this article, we describe the major theories that have been formulated to explain the role of distorted cognition in initiating and maintaining sexual offending. We evaluate each theory in light of a set of theory appraisal criteria and the available empirical research. Finally, we conclude by drawing together the results of this theory evaluation process and highlight the major implications for treatment and future research.
Wald, Hedy S; George, Paul; Reis, Shmuel P; Taylor, Julie Scott
2014-03-01
While electronic health record (EHR) use is becoming state-of-the-art, deliberate teaching of health care information technology (HCIT) competencies is not keeping pace with burgeoning use. Medical students require training to become skilled users of HCIT, but formal pedagogy within undergraduate medical education (UME) is sparse. How can medical educators best meet the needs of learners while integrating EHRs into medical education and practice? How can they help learners preserve and foster effective communication skills within the computerized setting? In general, how can UME curricula be devised for skilled use of EHRs to enhance rather than hinder provision of effective, humanistic health care?Within this Perspective, the authors build on recent publications that "set the stage" for next steps: EHR curricula innovation and implementation as concrete embodiments of theoretical underpinnings. They elaborate on previous calls for maximizing benefits and minimizing risks of EHR use with sufficient focus on physician-patient communication skills and for developing core competencies within medical education. The authors describe bridging theory into practice with systematic longitudinal curriculum development for EHR training in UME at their institution, informed by Kern and colleagues' curriculum development framework, narrative medicine, and reflective practice. They consider this innovation within a broader perspective-the overarching goal of empowering undergraduate medical students' patient- and relationship-centered skills while effectively demonstrating HCIT-related skills.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Chu Hwan
2002-09-01
Ab initio chemistry has shown great promise in reproducing experimental results and in its predictive power. The many complicated computational models and methods seem impenetrable to an inexperienced scientist, and the reliability of the results is not easily interpreted. The application of midbond orbitals is used to determine a general method for use in calculating weak intermolecular interactions, especially those involving electron-deficient systems. Using the criteria of consistency, flexibility, accuracy and efficiency we propose a supermolecular method of calculation using the full counterpoise (CP) method of Boys and Bernardi, coupled with Moller-Plesset (MP) perturbation theory as an efficient electron-correlative method. We also advocate the use of the highly efficient and reliable correlation-consistent polarized valence basis sets of Dunning. To these basis sets, we add a general set of midbond orbitals and demonstrate greatly enhanced efficiency in the calculation. The H2-H2 dimer is taken as a benchmark test case for our method, and details of the computation are elaborated. Our method reproduces with great accuracy the dissociation energies of other previous theoretical studies. The added efficiency of extending the basis sets with conventional means is compared with the performance of our midbond-extended basis sets. The improvement found with midbond functions is notably superior in every case tested. Finally, a novel application of midbond functions to the BH5 complex is presented. The system is an unusual van der Waals complex. The interaction potential curves are presented for several standard basis sets and midbond-enhanced basis sets, as well as for two popular, alternative correlation methods. We report that MP theory appears to be superior to coupled-cluster (CC) in speed, while it is more stable than B3LYP, a widely-used density functional theory (DFT). Application of our general method yields excellent results for the midbond basis sets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buescher, Thomas M.
1986-01-01
An interview with T. Cook, author of works on the use of research and evaluation theory and design, touches on such topics as practical evaluation, planning programs with evaluation or research design, and evaluation of programs for gifted students. (CL)
Remodelling core group theory: the role of sustaining populations in HIV transmission.
Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy; Foss, Anna M; Hossain, Mazeda; Cox, Andrew; Vickerman, Peter
2010-12-01
Core group theory describes the central role of groups with high rates of sexual partner change in HIV transmission. Research illustrates the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of commercial sex, and that some men involved in the organisation or policing of sex work regularly have sex with sex workers. These findings are used to explore gaps in core group theory. Evidence from developing countries on the duration that women sell and men buy sex was reviewed. Simple compartmental dynamic models were used to derive analytical expressions for the relative HIV equilibrium levels among sex workers and partners, incorporating partner change rates and duration in commercial sex settings. Simulations explored the degree to which HIV infection can be attributable to men with low partner change rates who remain in sex work settings for long periods, and their influence on the impact of HIV intervention. Partner change rates and duration of time in a setting determine equilibrium HIV levels. Modelling projections suggest that men with low mobility can substantially contribute to HIV prevalence among sex workers, especially in settings with prevalences <50%. This effect may reduce the impact of sex-worker interventions on HIV incidence in certain scenarios by one-third. Reductions in impact diminish at higher sex-worker prevalences. In commercial sex settings, patterns of HIV risk and transmission are influenced by both partner change rates and duration in a setting. The latter is not reflected in classic core group theory. Men who control the sex industry and regular clients may form an important 'sustaining population' that increases infection and undermines the impact of intervention. Intervention activities should include these groups, and examine the social organisation of sex work that underpins many of these relationships.
Quantum Theory from Observer's Mathematics Point of View
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Khots, Dmitriy; Khots, Boris
2010-05-04
This work considers the linear (time-dependent) Schrodinger equation, quantum theory of two-slit interference, wave-particle duality for single photons, and the uncertainty principle in a setting of arithmetic, algebra, and topology provided by Observer's Mathematics, see [1]. Certain theoretical results and communications pertaining to these theorems are also provided.
An Expectancy Theory Motivation Approach to Peer Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Friedman, Barry A.; Cox, Pamela L.; Maher, Larry E.
2008-01-01
Group projects are an important component of higher education, and the use of peer assessment of students' individual contributions to group projects has increased. The researchers employed an expectancy theory approach and an experimental design in a field setting to investigate conditions that influence students' motivation to rate their peers'…
Equal Area Logistic Estimation for Item Response Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Shih-Ching; Wang, Kuo-Chang; Chang, Hsin-Li
2009-08-01
Item response theory (IRT) models use logistic functions exclusively as item response functions (IRFs). Applications of IRT models require obtaining the set of values for logistic function parameters that best fit an empirical data set. However, success in obtaining such set of values does not guarantee that the constructs they represent actually exist, for the adequacy of a model is not sustained by the possibility of estimating parameters. In this study, an equal area based two-parameter logistic model estimation algorithm is proposed. Two theorems are given to prove that the results of the algorithm are equivalent to the results of fitting data by logistic model. Numerical results are presented to show the stability and accuracy of the algorithm.
Coupled-cluster and explicitly correlated perturbation-theory calculations of the uracil anion.
Bachorz, Rafał A; Klopper, Wim; Gutowski, Maciej
2007-02-28
A valence-type anion of the canonical tautomer of uracil has been characterized using explicitly correlated second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (RI-MP2-R12) in conjunction with conventional coupled-cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations. At this level of electron-correlation treatment and after inclusion of a zero-point vibrational energy correction, determined in the harmonic approximation at the RI-MP2 level of theory, the valence anion is adiabatically stable with respect to the neutral molecule by 40 meV. The anion is characterized by a vertical detachment energy of 0.60 eV. To obtain accurate estimates of the vertical and adiabatic electron binding energies, a scheme was applied in which electronic energy contributions from various levels of theory were added, each of them extrapolated to the corresponding basis-set limit. The MP2 basis-set limits were also evaluated using an explicitly correlated approach, and the results of these calculations are in agreement with the extrapolated values. A remarkable feature of the valence anionic state is that the adiabatic electron binding energy is positive but smaller than the adiabatic electron binding energy of the dipole-bound state.
Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.
Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf
2014-12-01
The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior.
Computation in generalised probabilisitic theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ciarán M.; Barrett, Jonathan
2015-08-01
From the general difficulty of simulating quantum systems using classical systems, and in particular the existence of an efficient quantum algorithm for factoring, it is likely that quantum computation is intrinsically more powerful than classical computation. At present, the best upper bound known for the power of quantum computation is that {{BQP}}\\subseteq {{AWPP}}, where {{AWPP}} is a classical complexity class (known to be included in {{PP}}, hence {{PSPACE}}). This work investigates limits on computational power that are imposed by simple physical, or information theoretic, principles. To this end, we define a circuit-based model of computation in a class of operationally-defined theories more general than quantum theory, and ask: what is the minimal set of physical assumptions under which the above inclusions still hold? We show that given only an assumption of tomographic locality (roughly, that multipartite states and transformations can be characterized by local measurements), efficient computations are contained in {{AWPP}}. This inclusion still holds even without assuming a basic notion of causality (where the notion is, roughly, that probabilities for outcomes cannot depend on future measurement choices). Following Aaronson, we extend the computational model by allowing post-selection on measurement outcomes. Aaronson showed that the corresponding quantum complexity class, {{PostBQP}}, is equal to {{PP}}. Given only the assumption of tomographic locality, the inclusion in {{PP}} still holds for post-selected computation in general theories. Hence in a world with post-selection, quantum theory is optimal for computation in the space of all operational theories. We then consider whether one can obtain relativized complexity results for general theories. It is not obvious how to define a sensible notion of a computational oracle in the general framework that reduces to the standard notion in the quantum case. Nevertheless, it is possible to define
Theory and operational rules for the discrete Hankel transform.
Baddour, Natalie; Chouinard, Ugo
2015-04-01
Previous definitions of a discrete Hankel transform (DHT) have focused on methods to approximate the continuous Hankel integral transform. In this paper, we propose and evaluate the theory of a DHT that is shown to arise from a discretization scheme based on the theory of Fourier-Bessel expansions. The proposed transform also possesses requisite orthogonality properties which lead to invertibility of the transform. The standard set of shift, modulation, multiplication, and convolution rules are derived. In addition to the theory of the actual manipulated quantities which stand in their own right, this DHT can be used to approximate the continuous forward and inverse Hankel transform in the same manner that the discrete Fourier transform is known to be able to approximate the continuous Fourier transform.
Gene Selection and Cancer Classification: A Rough Sets Based Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Lijun; Miao, Duoqian; Zhang, Hongyun
Indentification of informative gene subsets responsible for discerning between available samples of gene expression data is an important task in bioinformatics. Reducts, from rough sets theory, corresponding to a minimal set of essential genes for discerning samples, is an efficient tool for gene selection. Due to the compuational complexty of the existing reduct algoritms, feature ranking is usually used to narrow down gene space as the first step and top ranked genes are selected . In this paper,we define a novel certierion based on the expression level difference btween classes and contribution to classification of the gene for scoring genes and present a algorithm for generating all possible reduct from informative genes.The algorithm takes the whole attribute sets into account and find short reduct with a significant reduction in computational complexity. An exploration of this approach on benchmark gene expression data sets demonstrates that this approach is successful for selecting high discriminative genes and the classification accuracy is impressive.
A General Theory for the Fusion of Data.
1987-11-01
a real sense the developing a Grand Unified Theory of the Universe. problem of how to model the real world with all of its underscore this quest 1...al (6)h,g.k+l ’ P(Qh,gk+l With Ghg,k+lr ( S ) 8 hgk P(Wg.k+l ,hi?/O); (18)(over l (17,k.(IB)9.k.] dNg’k1 The basic internodal analysis is developed ...set c l t’ bility, developed rather complicated expressions ) o -set camp emene for combining conditional objects, not realizing the s (partial
Nursing intellectual capital theory: testing selected propositions.
Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya
2013-11-01
To test the selected propositions of the middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital. The nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes nursing knowledge's influence on patient and organizational outcomes. The theory proposes nursing human capital, nurses' knowledge, skills and experience, is related to the quality of patient care and nurse recruitment and retention of an inpatient care unit. Two factors in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nurse continuing professional development, are proposed to influence nursing human capital's association with patient and organizational outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design. The study took place in 2008 in six Canadian acute care hospitals. Financial, human resource and risk data were collected from hospital departments and unit managers. Clearly specified empirical indicators quantified the study variables. The propositions of the theory were tested with data from 91 inpatient care units using structural equation modelling. The propositions associated with the nursing human capital concept were supported. The propositions associated with the employer support for nurse continuing professional development concept were not. The proposition that nurse staffing's influences on patient outcomes was mediated by the nursing human capital of an inpatient unit, was partially supported. Some of the theory's propositions were empirically validated. Additional theoretical work is needed to refine the operationalization and measurement of some of the theory's concepts. Further research with larger samples of data from different geographical settings and types of hospitals is required to determine if the theory can withstand empirical scrutiny. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Christopher T.
This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…
Study unique artistic lopburi province for design brass tea set of bantahkrayang community
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pliansiri, V.; Seviset, S.
2017-07-01
The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to study the production process of handcrafted Brass Tea Set; and 2) to design and develop the handcrafted of Brass Tea Set. The process of design was started by mutual analytical processes and conceptual framework for product design, Quality Function Deployment, Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Principles of Craft Design, and Principle of Reverse Engineering. The experts in field of both Industrial Product Design and Brass Handicraft Product, have evaluated the Brass Tea Set design and created prototype of Brass tea set by the sample of consumers who have ever bought the Brass Tea Set of Bantahkrayang Community on this research. The statistics methods used were percentage, mean ({{{\\overline X}} = }) and standard deviation (S.D.) 3. To assess consumer satisfaction toward of handcrafted Brass tea set was at the high level.
Two Methods for Efficient Solution of the Hitting-Set Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatan, Farrokh; Fijany, Amir
2005-01-01
A paper addresses much of the same subject matter as that of Fast Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis (NPO-30582), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. However, in the paper, the emphasis is more on the hitting-set problem (also known as the transversal problem), which is well known among experts in combinatorics. The authors primary interest in the hitting-set problem lies in its connection to the diagnosis problem: it is a theorem of model-based diagnosis that in the set-theory representation of the components of a system, the minimal diagnoses of a system are the minimal hitting sets of the system. In the paper, the hitting-set problem (and, hence, the diagnosis problem) is translated from a combinatorial to a computational problem by mapping it onto the Boolean satisfiability and integer- programming problems. The paper goes on to describe developments nearly identical to those summarized in the cited companion NASA Tech Briefs article, including the utilization of Boolean-satisfiability and integer- programming techniques to reduce the computation time and/or memory needed to solve the hitting-set problem.
Using the Language of Sets to Describe Nested Systems in Emergy Evaluations
The language of set theory has been recently used to describe the emergy evaluation of a process. In this paper this mathematical language is used as a guide to evaluate the emergy of nested systems. We analyze a territorial system on multiple scales as an example of hierarchical...
Constraining alternative theories of gravity using GW150914 and GW151226
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Porth, Oliver; Bovard, Luke; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon
2016-12-01
The recently reported gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 caused by the mergers of binary black holes [Abbott et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 221101 (2016); Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241103 (2016); Phys. Rev. X 6, 041015] provide a formidable way to set constraints on alternative metric theories of gravity in the strong field regime. In this paper, we develop an approach where an arbitrary theory of gravity can be parametrized by an effective coupling Geff and an effective gravitational potential Φ (r ). The standard Newtonian limit of general relativity is recovered as soon as Geff→GN and Φ (r )→ΦN. The upper bound on the graviton mass and the gravitational interaction length, reported by the LIGO-VIRGO Collaboration, can be directly recast in terms of the parameters of the theory that allows an analysis where the gravitational wave frequency modulation sets constraints on the range of possible alternative models of gravity. Numerical results based on published parameters for the binary black hole mergers are also reported. The comparison of the observed phases of GW150914 and GW151226 with the modulated phase in alternative theories of gravity does not give reasonable constraints due to the large uncertainties in the estimated parameters for the coalescing black holes. In addition to these general considerations, we obtain limits for the frequency dependence of the α parameter in scalar tensor theories of gravity.