Science.gov

Sample records for setting national emission

  1. Setting Emissions Standards Based on Technology Performance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In setting national emissions standards, EPA sets emissions performance levels rather than mandating use of a particular technology. The law mandates that EPA use numerical performance standards whenever feasible in setting national emissions standards.

  2. National emissions report, 1981: national emissions data system of the aerometric and emissions reporting system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, and of EPA Regulations, Title 40. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the nation as a whole, for individual states, for intrastate and individual interstate portions of Air Quality Control Regions, and for total interstate Air Quality Control Regions.

  3. National emissions report, 1985: National Emissions Data Systems (NEDS) of the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The National Emissions Report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended 1977, and EPA regulations, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the Nation as a whole, for individual States, and for Air Quality Control Regions and for individual interstate portions thereof. The data compilations result from the operations of the National Emissions Data System (NED), which functions as a component of the comprehensive EPA air information system--the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). AEROS is managed by the National Air Data Branch, Emissions Standard Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

  4. Improving the temporal and spatial distribution of CO2 emissions from global fossil fuel emission data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Ray; Napier-Linton, Louis; Gurney, Kevin R.; Andres, Robert J.; Oda, Tomohiro; Vogel, Felix R.; Deng, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Through an analysis of multiple global fossil fuel CO2 emission data sets, Vulcan emission data for the United States, Canada's National Inventory Report, and NO2 variability based on satellite observations, we derive scale factors that can be applied to global emission data sets to represent weekly and diurnal CO2 emission variability. This is important for inverse modeling and data assimilation of CO2, which use in situ or satellite measurements subject to variability on these time scales. Model simulations applying the weekly and diurnal scaling show that, although the impacts are minor far away from sources, surface atmospheric CO2 is perturbed by up to 1.5-8 ppm and column-averaged CO2 is perturbed by 0.1-0.5 ppm over some major cities, suggesting the magnitude of model biases for urban areas when these modes of temporal variability are not represented. In addition, we also derive scale factors to account for the large per capita differences in CO2 emissions between Canadian provinces that arise from differences in per capita energy use and the proportion of energy generated by methods that do not emit CO2, which are not accounted for in population-based global emission data sets. The resulting products of these analyses are global 0.25° × 0.25° gridded scale factor maps that can be applied to global fossil fuel CO2 emission data sets to represent weekly and diurnal variability and 1° × 1° scale factor maps to redistribute spatially emissions from two common global data sets to account for differences in per capita emissions within Canada.

  5. National Emissions Report (1978): National Emissions Data Systems (NEDS) of the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The National Emissions Report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended 1977, and EPA Regulations, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for Air Quality Control Regions and individual interstate portions thereof. The data compilations result from the operations of the National Emissions Data System (NEDS), which functions as a component of the comprehensive EPA air information system--the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). AEROS is managed by the National Air Data Branch, Monitoring and Data Analysis Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

  6. National emissions report (1979): National Emissions Data Systems (NEDS) of the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The National Emissions Report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended 1977, and EPA Regulations, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for Air Quality Control Regions and individual interstate portions thereof. The data compilations result from the operations of the National Emissions Data System (NEDS), which functions as a component of the comprehensive EPA air information system--the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). AEROS is managed by the National Air Data Branch, Monitoring and Data Analysis Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

  7. National Emissions Report, 1983: national emissions data systems (neds) of the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    The National Emissions Report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended 1977, and EPA Regulations, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the Nation as a whole, for individual States, and for Air Quality Control Regions and for individual interstate portions thereof. The data compilations result from the operations of the National Emissions Data System (NEDS), which functions as a component of the comprehensive EPA air information system--the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). AEROS is managed by the National Air Data Branch, Monitoring and Data Analysis Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

  8. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM HEAT SETTING CARPET YARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives initial results of a project to determine the nature of emissions resulting from the heat setting of carpet yarn and to identify possible control options. To collect the necessary technical information, two manufacturing facilities were visited: World Carpets in ...

  9. Using National Education Longitudinal Data Sets in School Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia A.; Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    National longitudinal databases hold much promise for school counseling researchers. Several of the more frequently used data sets, possible professional implications, and strategies for acquiring training in the use of large-scale national data sets are described. A 6-step process for conducting research with the data sets is explicated:…

  10. Retrieved Surface Emissivity Impact of New Cloud-Clearing Channel Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, Evan F.; Hook, Simon

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on a proposed new cloud clearing channel set to improve land products and validate surface emissivity is given. The topics include: 1) Methodology; 2) Channel Selection; 3) Temperature Statistics; 4) 850 hPa Temperature Variability; 5) Status of Surface Retrieval; 6) Emissivity at 9 micrometers; 7) Emissivity Spectra; 8) Ha Megev (Israel); 9) Egypt One; 10) Salonga National Park, Zaire; 11) HaGolan (Israel/Syria); 12) Emissivity at 3.75 micrometers; 13) Improving Surface Retrieval; 14) Work Needed for V5 Delivery; 15) Effects of MODIS Emissivity; 16) Channel Selection; 17) 500 hPa Temperature Variability; 18) 850 hPa Temperature Variability; and 19) 850 hPa Temperature Differences;

  11. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  12. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  13. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  14. Elf Atochem sets five-year emission targets

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1993-04-21

    As part of its first annual environmental report, released this month, Elf Atochem (Paris) has set targets for emission reductions at its sites for the next five years. Under the program, the company aims to slash the level of contaminants in discharge water by 30%; cut by half emissions of 17 [open quotes]priority[close quotes] substances-including ammonia, chlorofluorocarbons, vinyl chloride monomer, methyl methacrylate, aromatics, chlorinated solvent, ethylbenzene, and styrene-for which 1992 emissions totaled 15,996 m.t.; reduce nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions by 25%; and increase the proportions of toxic waste treated in installations on the company's own sites, from 90% of 1992's 383,00 m.t., to 95%. Implementation of its environmental policy cost the company about F2 billion ($375 million), or 3.5%-4% of sales, in 1992. The policy focuses on safer and more efficient technologies, toxic emissions and waste, improving energy efficiency, and cooperation with customers and public authorities on the introduction of more environmentally friendly products. Atochem says it has led to a fourfold reduction in accidents at work between 1984 and 1992. Over the same period, water contamination at the company's French sites has been cut by 67%, measured against the French chemical industry association's [open quotes]water index[close quotes]. Some sites did even better than the average, with the Carling steam cracker complex in eastern France registering a drop in water contamination of more than 90% following a F150-million joint project with local French and German water authorities.

  15. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  16. Income-Based Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nations.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Zeqi; Guan, Dabo; Xu, Ming

    2017-01-03

    Accounting for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of nations is essential to understanding their importance to global climate change and help inform the policymaking on global GHG mitigation. Previous studies have made efforts to evaluate direct GHG emissions of nations (a.k.a. production-based accounting method) and GHG emissions caused by the final consumption of nations (a.k.a. consumption-based accounting method), but overlooked downstream GHG emissions enabled by primary inputs of individual nations and sectors (a.k.a. income-based accounting method). Here we show that the income-based accounting method reveals new GHG emission profiles for nations and sectors. The rapid development of mining industries drives income-based GHG emissions of resource-exporting nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, and Russia) during 1995-2009. Moreover, the rapid development of sectors producing basic materials and providing financial intermediation services drives income-based GHG emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, Indonesia, India, and Brazil) during this period. The income-based accounting can support supply side policy decisions and provide additional information for determining GHG emission quotas based on cumulative emissions of nations and designing policies for shared responsibilities.

  17. 76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations... Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations; Pharmaceuticals Production; and the Printing... NESHAP include: National Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber...

  18. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols...

  19. National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NVFEL is the primary EPA research laboratory used for fuel and emissions testing. The laboratory supports emission standards for motor vehicles, engines, and fuels, as well as the development of automotive technology.

  20. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  1. Setting a Standard on the Pilot National Board Dental Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; DeMarais, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced approaches were used to set a minimum passing score for Part II of the pilot National Board Dental Examination. Standards and associated failure rates were found similar for both approaches. This and the advantages of the former approach suggest it is an appropriate method. (Author/MSE)

  2. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) are applicable requirements under the Title V operating permit program. This is a resource for permit writers and reviewers to learn about the rules and explore other helpful tools.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  6. Making metadata usable in a multi-national research setting.

    PubMed

    Ellul, Claire; Foord, Joanna; Mooney, John

    2013-11-01

    SECOA (Solutions for Environmental Contrasts in Coastal Areas) is a multi-national research project examining the effects of human mobility on urban settlements in fragile coastal environments. This paper describes the setting up of a SECOA metadata repository for non-specialist researchers such as environmental scientists and tourism experts. Conflicting usability requirements of two groups - metadata creators and metadata users - are identified along with associated limitations of current metadata standards. A description is given of a configurable metadata system designed to grow as the project evolves. This work is of relevance for similar projects such as INSPIRE.

  7. The 2014 National Emission Inventory for Rangeland Fires ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions Inventory. In the 2011 NEI, Wildland fires, prescribed fires, and crop residue burning collectively were the largest source of PM2.5 This paper summarizes our 2014 NEI method to estimate crop residue burning emissions and grass/pasture burning emissions using remote sensing data and field information and literature-based, crop-specific emission factors. We will focus on both the post-harvest and pre-harvest burning that takes place with bluegrass, corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, sugarcane and wheat. Estimates for 2014 indicate that over the continental United States (CONUS), crop residue burning including all areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay produced 64,994 short tons of PM2.5. This estimate compares with the 2011 NEI and 2008 NEI as follows: 2008: 49,653 short tons and 2011: 141,184 short tons. Note that in the previous two NEI’s rangeland burning was not well-defined and so the comparison is not exact. In addition, the entire database used to estimate this sector of emissions is available on EPA’s Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors (CHIEF http://www3.epa.gov/ttn/chief/index.html The National Emissions Inventory is developed on

  8. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  9. New national emission inventory for navigation in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten

    This article explains the new emission inventory for navigation in Denmark, covering national sea transport, fisheries and international sea transport. For national sea transport, the new Danish inventory distinguishes between regional ferries, local ferries and other national sea transport. Detailed traffic and technical data lie behind the fleet activity-based fuel consumption and emission calculations for regional ferries. For local ferries and other national sea transport, the new inventory is partly fleet activity based; fuel consumption estimates are calculated for single years, and full fuel consumption coverage is established in a time series by means of appropriate assumptions. For fisheries and international sea transport, the new inventory remains fuel based, using fuel sales data from the Danish Energy Authority (DEA). The new Danish inventory uses specific fuel consumption (sfc) and NO x emission factors as a function of engine type and production year. These factors, which are used directly for regional ferries and, for the remaining navigation categories, are derived by means of appropriate assumptions, serve as a major inventory improvement, necessary for making proper emission trend assessments. International sea transport is the most important fuel consumption and emission source for navigation, and the contributions are large even compared with the overall Danish totals. If the contributions from international sea transport were included in the Danish all-sector totals, the extra contributions in 2005 from fuel consumption (and CO 2), NO x and SO 2 would be 5%, 34% and 167%, respectively. The 1990-2005 changes in fuel consumption as well as NO x and SO 2 emissions for national sea transport (-45, -45, -81), fisheries (-18, 6, -18) and international sea transport (-14, 1, -14) reflect changes in fleet activity/fuel consumption and emission factors. The 2006-2020 emission forecasts demonstrate a need for stricter fuel quality and NO x emission

  10. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS) (National) (on diskette). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from this notice letter are used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). These data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created by EPA to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priority List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. These lists represent EPA`s preliminary findings on the identities of PRPs. Inclusion on these lists does not constitute a final determination concerning the liability of any party for the hazard or contamination at any CERCLA site.

  11. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): National PRP listing by site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter are used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data include PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. These lists (updated quarterly) represent EPA's preliminary findings on the identities of potentially responsible parties. The site report is designed to provide PRP information linked by the associated site, which appears according to the state where the site is located.

  12. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): National PRP listing by site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. The listing by site name is organized in the following manner. Sites are sorted by state, as indicated in the site ID number. The first two characters of the site ID number constitute the state abbreviation of the site location. The listing by party name is arranged alphabetically by the name of the party and provides a company contact and address. Within each record, the sites associated with the PRP are listed. The first two characters of the site ID number constitute the state abbreviation of the site location.

  13. Towards national-scale greenhouse gas emissions evaluation with robust uncertainty estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, Matthew; Swallow, Ben; Lunt, Mark; Manning, Alistair; Ganesan, Anita; Stavert, Ann; Stanley, Kieran; O'Doherty, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Through the Deriving Emissions related to Climate Change (DECC) network and the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) programme, the UK's greenhouse gases are now monitored by instruments mounted on telecommunications towers and churches, on a ferry that performs regular transects of the North Sea, on-board a research aircraft and from space. When combined with information from high-resolution chemical transport models such as the Met Office Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME), these measurements are allowing us to evaluate emissions more accurately than has previously been possible. However, it has long been appreciated that current methods for quantifying fluxes using atmospheric data suffer from uncertainties, primarily relating to the chemical transport model, that have been largely ignored to date. Here, we use novel model reduction techniques for quantifying the influence of a set of potential systematic model errors on the outcome of a national-scale inversion. This new technique has been incorporated into a hierarchical Bayesian framework, which can be shown to reduce the influence of subjective choices on the outcome of inverse modelling studies. Using estimates of the UK's methane emissions derived from DECC and GAUGE tall-tower measurements as a case study, we will show that such model systematic errors have the potential to significantly increase the uncertainty on national-scale emissions estimates. Therefore, we conclude that these factors must be incorporated in national emissions evaluation efforts, if they are to be credible.

  14. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  15. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  16. Evaluation of compliance with national legislation on emissions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João F P

    2005-04-01

    More than 13 years after publication of the first air quality laws in Portugal and more than 10 years after the publication of the respective emission limits, it seems appropriate to analyze the degree of compliance by the Portuguese manufacturing industry. Using the data from emission measurements made regularly by the Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, the only officially accredited laboratory according to standard ISO 17025, I analyzed a set of approximately 400 sources in terms of compliance with the emission limits regarding total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. I evaluated compliance through a nondimensional parameter and plotted it versus the emission flow rate to derive conclusions: the results indicate that emission limits are generally met regarding sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides but not for the other pollutants considered in this study. However, noncompliance occurs mainly for very low emission flow rates, which suggests some alterations in the emission limits, which are being revised at the moment. These alterations will include the exemption of measurements in minor sources.

  17. Estimating National-scale Emissions using Dense Monitoring Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Grant, A.; Young, D.; Oram, D.; Sturges, W. T.; Moncrieff, J. B.; O'Doherty, S.

    2014-12-01

    The UK's DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network consists of four greenhouse gas measurement stations that are situated to constrain emissions from the UK and Northwest Europe. These four stations are located in Mace Head (West Coast of Ireland), and on telecommunication towers at Ridge Hill (Western England), Tacolneston (Eastern England) and Angus (Eastern Scotland). With the exception of Angus, which currently only measures carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), the remaining sites are additionally equipped to monitor nitrous oxide (N2O). We present an analysis of the network's CH4 and N2O observations from 2011-2013 and compare derived top-down regional emissions with bottom-up inventories, including a recently produced high-resolution inventory (UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory). As countries are moving toward national-level emissions estimation, we also address some of the considerations that need to be made when designing these national networks. One of the novel aspects of this work is that we use a hierarchical Bayesian inversion framework. This methodology, which has newly been applied to greenhouse gas emissions estimation, is designed to estimate temporally and spatially varying model-measurement uncertainties and correlation scales, in addition to fluxes. Through this analysis, we demonstrate the importance of characterizing these covariance parameters in order to properly use data from high-density monitoring networks. This UK case study highlights the ways in which this new inverse framework can be used to address some of the limitations of traditional Bayesian inverse methods.

  18. Air toxic emissions from snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Shively, David; Mao, Huiting; Russo, Rachel S; Pape, Bruce; Mower, Richard N; Talbot, Robert; Sive, Barkley C

    2010-01-01

    A study on emissions associated with oversnow travel in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) was conducted for the time period of February 13-16, 2002 and February 12-16, 2003. Whole air and exhaust samples were characterized for 85 volatile organic compounds using gas chromatography. The toxics including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (p-, m-, and o-xylene), and n-hexane, which are major components of two-stroke engine exhaust, show large enhancements during sampling periods resulting from increased snowmobile traffic. Evaluation of the photochemical history of air masses sampled in YNP revealed that emissions of these air toxics were (i) recent, (ii) persistent throughout the region, and (iii) consistent with the two-stroke engine exhaust sample fingerprints. The annual fluxes were estimated to be 0.35, 1.12, 0.24, 1.45, and 0.36 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and n-hexane, respectively, from snowmobile usage in YNP. These results are comparable to the flux estimates of 0.23, 0.77, 0.17, and 0.70 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, respectively, that were derived on the basis of (i) actual snowmobile counts in the Park and (ii) our ambient measurements conducted in 2003. Extrapolating these results, annual emissions from snowmobiles in the U.S. appear to be significantly higher than the values from the EPA National Emissions Inventory (1999). Snowmobile emissions represent a significant fraction ( approximately 14-21%) of air toxics with respect to EPA estimates of emissions by nonroad vehicles. Further investigation is warranted to more rigorously quantify the difference between our estimates and emission inventories.

  19. Gridded National Inventory of U.S. Methane Emissions.

    PubMed

    Maasakkers, Joannes D; Jacob, Daniel J; Sulprizio, Melissa P; Turner, Alexander J; Weitz, Melissa; Wirth, Tom; Hight, Cate; DeFigueiredo, Mark; Desai, Mausami; Schmeltz, Rachel; Hockstad, Leif; Bloom, Anthony A; Bowman, Kevin W; Jeong, Seongeun; Fischer, Marc L

    2016-12-06

    We present a gridded inventory of US anthropogenic methane emissions with 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution, monthly temporal resolution, and detailed scale-dependent error characterization. The inventory is designed to be consistent with the 2016 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (GHGI) for 2012. The EPA inventory is available only as national totals for different source types. We use a wide range of databases at the state, county, local, and point source level to disaggregate the inventory and allocate the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions for individual source types. Results show large differences with the EDGAR v4.2 global gridded inventory commonly used as a priori estimate in inversions of atmospheric methane observations. We derive grid-dependent error statistics for individual source types from comparison with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) regional inventory for Northeast Texas. These error statistics are independently verified by comparison with the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) grid-resolved emission inventory. Our gridded, time-resolved inventory provides an improved basis for inversion of atmospheric methane observations to estimate US methane emissions and interpret the results in terms of the underlying processes.

  20. 76 FR 72049 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Shipbuilding and Ship...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... November 21, 2011 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for... Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 224 / Monday, November 21, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part...

  1. 77 FR 58219 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the following source categories regulated under two national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP): hard and decorative chromium electroplating and chromium anodizing tanks, and steel pickling--HCl process facilities and hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. On October 21, 2010, EPA proposed......

  2. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Katherine V; Sundquist, Eric T

    2008-08-01

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

  3. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, K.V.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO 2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

  4. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...-9320-7] RIN 2060-AM37 Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area.... SUMMARY: On June 12, 2008, EPA issued national emission standards for control of hazardous air pollutants...). In today's action, EPA is proposing to amend the national emission standards for control of...

  5. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AN33 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... regarding the EPA's proposed national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants, including data,...

  6. 75 FR 80219 - National Emission Standards for Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating); National Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    .... NRDC v. EPA, 529 F.3d 1077, 1084 (DC Cir. 2008). The second stage in standard-setting focuses on.... EPA, 529 F.3d 1077, 1083 (DC Cir. 2008), ``If EPA determines that the existing technology- based... EPA's interpretation of subsection 112(f)(2) is a reasonable one. See NRDC v. EPA, 529 F.3d 1077,...

  7. National Issues Forums in an ABE Setting. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molek, Carol

    National Issues Forums (NIFs) were conducted for adult basic education (ABE) students in a Pennsylvania adult education and job training center. The forums provide a process of sharing thoughts and opinions about areas of pressing national concerns in an open exchange of everyone's opinion. After instructors participated in NIFs, they developed a…

  8. The PRIMAP-hist national historical emissions time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gütschow, Johannes; Jeffery, M. Louise; Gieseke, Robert; Gebel, Ronja; Stevens, David; Krapp, Mario; Rocha, Marcia

    2016-11-01

    To assess the history of greenhouse gas emissions and individual countries' contributions to emissions and climate change, detailed historical data are needed. We combine several published datasets to create a comprehensive set of emissions pathways for each country and Kyoto gas, covering the years 1850 to 2014 with yearly values, for all UNFCCC member states and most non-UNFCCC territories. The sectoral resolution is that of the main IPCC 1996 categories. Additional time series of CO2 are available for energy and industry subsectors. Country-resolved data are combined from different sources and supplemented using year-to-year growth rates from regionally resolved sources and numerical extrapolations to complete the dataset. Regional deforestation emissions are downscaled to country level using estimates of the deforested area obtained from potential vegetation and simulations of agricultural land. In this paper, we discuss the data sources and methods used and present the resulting dataset, including its limitations and uncertainties. The dataset is available from doi:10.5880/PIK.2016.003 and can be viewed on the website accompanying this paper (http://www.pik-potsdam.de/primap-live/primap-hist/).

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  10. Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.

  11. Unit: Life in Freshwater, Inspection Set, National Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This verion of a unit written by the Australian Science Education project, which is preparing materials for science instruction in grades seven through ten, is available for national testing. It contains two student books, the first providing instruction for six activities considered basic to an understanding of the aquatic habitat, and reading on…

  12. National Integration in Multicultural School Setting in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Abu Bakar; Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is a multicultural country constituting three major ethno-cultural groups, Malay and Bumiputera, Chinese and Indian. Owing to its diverse cultures attempts through a number of channels, politics, economics and social were made to bring about national integration. School is thought to be the most effective platform to bring about national…

  13. Rice cultivation and methane emission: Documentation of distributed geographic data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Elaine; John, Jasmin; Fung, Inez

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution global data bases on the geographic and seasonal distribution of rice cultivation and associated methane emission, compiled by Matthews et al., were archived for public use. In addition to the primary data sets identifying location, seasonality, and methane emission from rice cultivation, a series of supporting data sets is included, allowing users not only to replicate the work of Matthews et al. but to investigate alternative cultivation and emission scenarios. The suite of databases provided, at 1 latitude by 1 longitude resolution for the globe, includes (1) locations of rice cultivation, (2) monthly arrays of actively growing rice areas, (3) countries and political subdivisions, and (4) monthly arrays of methane emission from rice cultivation. Ancillary data include (1) a listing, by country, of harvested rice areas and seasonal distribution of crop cycles and (2) country names and codes. Summary tables of zonal/monthly distributions of actively growing rice areas and of methane emissions are presented. Users should consult original publications for complete discussion of the data bases. This short paper is designed only to document formats of the distributed information and briefly describe the contents of the data sets and their initial application to evaluating the role of rice cultivation in the methane budget.

  14. Simulating ozone concentrations using precursor emission inventories in Delhi - National Capital Region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-02-01

    This study simulates ground level ozone concentrations in a heavily populated and polluted National Capital Region (NCR- Delhi) in India. Multi-sectoral emission inventories of ozone precursors are prepared at a high resolution of 4 × 4 km2 for the whole region covering the capital city of Delhi along with other surrounding towns and rural regions in NCR. Emission inventories show that transport sector accounts for 55% of the total NOx emissions, followed by power plants (23%) and diesel generator sets (7%). In NMVOC inventories, transport sector again accounts for 33%, followed by evaporative emissions released from solvent use and fuel handling activities (30%), and agricultural residue burning (28%). Refuse burning contributes to 73% of CO emissions mainly due to incomplete combustion, followed by agricultural residue burning (14%). These emissions are spatially and temporally distributed across the study domain and are fed into the WRF-CMAQ models to predict ozone concentrations for the year 2012. Model validations are carried out with the observed values at different monitoring stations in Delhi. The performance of the models over various metrics used for evaluation was found to be satisfactory. Summers and post-monsoon seasons were better simulated than monsoon and winter seasons. Simulations have shown higher concentrations of ozone formation during summers and lesser during winters and monsoon seasons, mainly due to varying solar radiation affecting photo-chemical activities. Ozone concentrations are observed lower at those locations where NOx emissions are higher, and concentrations increase close to the boundary of study domain when compared to the center of Delhi city. Downwind regions to Delhi are influenced by the ozone formed due to plume of precursor emissions released from Delhi. Considering significant background contributions, regional scale controls are required for reducing ozone in NCR.

  15. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...EPA is promulgating national emission standards for control of hazardous air pollutants from two area source categories: Industrial boilers and commercial and institutional boilers. The final emission standards for control of mercury and polycyclic organic matter emissions from coal-fired area source boilers are based on the maximum achievable control technology. The final emission standards......

  16. The National Ignition Facility Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign, September 2012

    DOE PAGES

    Kilkenny, J. D.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; ...

    2016-02-01

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), the National Ignition Facility (NIF) had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole U.S. inertial confinement fusion community. In 1994, the Joint Central Diagnostic Team documented a plan for a limited set of NIF diagnostics in the NIF Conceptual Design Report. Two decades later, these diagnostics, and many others, were installed workhorse tools for all users of NIF. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by themore » function of the diagnostics, namely, target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation, and burn. Furthermore, a comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova in 1999. Although NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s, new diagnostics are limited such as the higher-speed X-ray imager. Finally, we discuss recommendations for future diagnostics on the NIF.« less

  17. The National Ignition Facility Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign, September 2012

    DOE PAGES

    Kilkenny, J. D.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; ...

    2016-01-06

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), the National Ignition Facility (NIF) had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole U.S. inertial confinement fusion community. In 1994, the Joint Central Diagnostic Team documented a plan for a limited set of NIF diagnostics in the NIF Conceptual Design Report. Two decades later, these diagnostics, and many others, were installed workhorse tools for all users of NIF. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by themore » function of the diagnostics, namely, target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation, and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova in 1999. Although NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s, new diagnostics are limited such as the higher-speed X-ray imager. Lastly, recommendations for future diagnostics on the NIF are discussed.« less

  18. The National Ignition Facility Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign, September 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J. D.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Kalantar, D. H.; Kauffman, R. L.; Larson, D. J.; Moody, J. D.; Schneider, D. H.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Shelton, R. T.; Stoeffl, W.; Widmann, K.; Yeamans, C. B.; Batha, S. H.; Grim, G. P.; Herrman, H. W.; Merrill, F. E.; Leeper, J.; Oertel, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Edgell, D. H.; Hohenberger, M.; Glebov, V. Yu; Regan, S. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Johnson, M. Gatu-; Petrasso, R. D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Cooper, G. W.; Ruiz, C.

    2016-02-01

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), the National Ignition Facility (NIF) had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole U.S. inertial confinement fusion community. In 1994, the Joint Central Diagnostic Team documented a plan for a limited set of NIF diagnostics in the NIF Conceptual Design Report. Two decades later, these diagnostics, and many others, were installed workhorse tools for all users of NIF. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by the function of the diagnostics, namely, target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation, and burn. Furthermore, a comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova in 1999. Although NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s, new diagnostics are limited such as the higher-speed X-ray imager. Finally, we discuss recommendations for future diagnostics on the NIF.

  19. The National Ignition Facility Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign, September 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J. D.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Kalantar, D. H.; Kauffman, R. L.; Larson, D. J.; Moody, D. L.; Schneider, D. H.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Shelton, R. T.; Stoeffl, W.; Widmann, K.; Yeamans, C. B.; Batha, S. H.; Grim, G. P.; Herrmann, H. W.; Merrill, F. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Oertel, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Edgell, D. H.; Hohenberger, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Regan, S. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Cooper, G. W.; Ruiz, C.

    2016-01-06

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), the National Ignition Facility (NIF) had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole U.S. inertial confinement fusion community. In 1994, the Joint Central Diagnostic Team documented a plan for a limited set of NIF diagnostics in the NIF Conceptual Design Report. Two decades later, these diagnostics, and many others, were installed workhorse tools for all users of NIF. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by the function of the diagnostics, namely, target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation, and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova in 1999. Although NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s, new diagnostics are limited such as the higher-speed X-ray imager. Lastly, recommendations for future diagnostics on the NIF are discussed.

  20. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to..., ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion......

  1. 55 FR 14037 Correction to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Correction to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke Byproduct Recovery Plants.

  2. Technical Capabilities of the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) is a state-of-the-art test facility that conducts a wide range of emissions testing and analysis for EPA’s motor vehicle, heavy-duty engine, and nonroad engine programs.

  3. Ammonia emission factors for the NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) emission inventory. Final report, January 1985-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Misenheimer, D.C.; Warn, T.E.; Zelmanowitz, S.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides information on certain sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere for use in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emission inventories. Major anthropogenic sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere are identified, and emission factors for these sources are presented based on a review of the most recent data available. The emission factors developed are used to estimate nationwide emissions for base year 1980 and are compared to ammonia emission factors used in other emission inventories. Major anthropogenic source categories covered are cropland spreading of livestock wastes, beef cattle feedlots, fertilizer manufacture and use, fuel combustion, ammonia synthesis, petroleum refineries, and coke manufacture. Approximately 840,000 tons of ammonia is estimated to have been emitted in the U.S. in 1980; over 64% of which is estimated to have been from livestock wastes.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  5. A new LDMI decomposition approach to explain emission development in the EU: individual and set contribution.

    PubMed

    Madaleno, Mara; Moutinho, Victor

    2017-04-01

    This study breaks down carbon emissions into six effects within the current 28 European Union (EU) countries group, thereafter, they are divided into two different groups (the first 15 countries (EU-15) and the last 13 entering the EU (EU13)). Country-specific highlights are also examined. It analyses the evolution of the effects using a data span that runs from 1990 to 2014, to determine which of them had more impact on the intensity of emissions, while also breaking down the complete period into two distinct periods (before the Kyoto protocol (1990-2004) and after Kyoto (2005-2014)). In order to add more knowledge to the current literature, both the additive and multiplicative decomposition techniques were used to examine carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the selected six components: carbon intensity, fossil fuel consumption, energy intensity, oil imports intensity, oil dependence, and population effect. Results point to different adapting velocities for Kyoto targets and necessary compromises. The different velocities were translated into different positive and negative impacts in the change of behavior of CO2 emissions throughout Europe. A stress in the fluctuations in CO2 variations before and after Kyoto and between the two different groups of EU countries could be noticed. Moreover, energy intensity and per capita dependence of oil products were identified as the major responsible components for the total and negative changes of emissions in recent years. A decrease in total changes of emissions is observed due to the fossil fuel energy consumption effect and total petroleum products effects. It is possible to infer from here that increased renewable capacity is contributing in a positive way to eco-efficiency, and should therefore be accounted for in national policymakers' decisions in the strongest way possible. Results also seem to indicate that per capita dependence of oil products has decreased, despite oil imports intensity constancy and increased

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1996-06-01

    This report contains National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides lists of figures and tables related to the NTS and includes a Site Description. The Source Description includes current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The Site has been the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. since 1951. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950`s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. At the North Las Vegas Facility, operated for DOE/NV by EG&G Energy Measurements, there was an Unusual Occurrence that led to an insignificant potential exposure to an offsite person. The incident involved the release of tritiated water (HTO), and a description of the incident and the method of calculating the effective dose equivalent for offsite exposure are described. The Source Description further describes Ground Seepage of Noble Gases, Radioactive Waste Management Sites, and Plutonium Contaminated Surface Areas.

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile

  8. 76 FR 29031 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...EPA is proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting to address the results of the residual risk and technology review that EPA is required to conduct by the Clean Air Act. These proposed amendments include revisions to the stack emissions limits for lead; revisions to the fugitive dust emissions control requirements; the......

  9. 76 FR 35744 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...On June 12, 2008, EPA issued national emission standards for control of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) for the plating and polishing area source category under section 112 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). In today's action, EPA is taking direct final action to amend the national emission standards for HAP (NESHAP) for the plating and polishing area source category. These final amendments clarify......

  10. 78 FR 10005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...On July 18, 2012, the EPA proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and the Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants. This final action amends the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for the Portland cement industry. The EPA is also promulgating amendments with respect to......

  11. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  12. 77 FR 65135 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ89 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical... provisions in the final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical...

  13. 77 FR 36248 - National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...-0871; FRL-9688-8] RIN 2060-AR00 National Uniform Emission Standards for Storage Vessel and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks, and Closed Vent Systems and Control Devices; and Revisions to the National... Emission Standards for Storage Vessels and Transfer Operations, Equipment Leaks, and Closed Vent...

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  20. Characterization of emissions from a desktop 3D printer and indoor air measurements in office settings.

    PubMed

    Steinle, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Emissions from a desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology were measured in a test chamber and indoor air was monitored in office settings. Ultrafine aerosol (UFA) emissions were higher while printing a standard object with polylactic acid (PLA) than with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer (2.1 × 10(9) vs. 2.4 × 10(8) particles/min). Prolonged use of the printer led to higher emission rates (factor 2 with PLA and 4 with ABS, measured after seven months of occasional use). UFA consisted mainly of volatile droplets, and some small (100-300 nm diameter) iron containing and soot-like particles were found. Emissions of inhalable and respirable dust were below the limit of detection (LOD) when measured gravimetrically, and only slightly higher than background when measured with an aerosol spectrometer. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were in the range of 10 µg/min. Styrene accounted for more than 50% of total VOC emitted when printing with ABS; for PLA, methyl methacrylate (MMA, 37% of TVOC) was detected as the predominant compound. Two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), fluoranthene and pyrene, were observed in very low amounts. All other analyzed PAH, as well as inorganic gases and metal emissions except iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), were below the LOD or did not differ from background without printing. A single 3D print (165 min) in a large, well-ventilated office did not significantly increase the UFA and VOC concentrations, whereas these were readily detectable in a small, unventilated room, with UFA concentrations increasing by 2,000 particles/cm(3) and MMA reaching a peak of 21 µg/m(3) and still being detectable in the room even 20 hr after printing.

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  2. Two global data sets of daily fire emission injection heights since 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rémy, Samuel; Veira, Andreas; Paugam, Ronan; Sofiev, Mikhail; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Marenco, Franco; Burton, Sharon P.; Benedetti, Angela; Engelen, Richard J.; Ferrare, Richard; Hair, Jonathan W.

    2017-02-01

    The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) assimilates fire radiative power (FRP) observations from satellite-based sensors to produce daily estimates of biomass burning emissions. It has been extended to include information about injection heights derived from fire observations and meteorological information from the operational weather forecasts of ECMWF. Injection heights are provided by two distinct methods: the Integrated Monitoring and Modelling System for wildland fires (IS4FIRES) parameterisation and the one-dimensional plume rise model (PRM). A global database of daily biomass burning emissions and injection heights at 0.1° resolution has been produced for 2003-2015 and is continuously extended in near-real time with the operational GFAS service of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). In this study, the two injection height data sets were compared with the new MPHP2 (MISR Plume Height Project 2) satellite-based plume height retrievals. The IS4FIRES parameterisation showed a better overall agreement than the observations, while the PRM was better at capturing the variability of injection heights. The performance of both parameterisations is also dependent on the type of vegetation. Furthermore, the use of biomass burning emission heights from GFAS in atmospheric composition forecasts was assessed in two case studies: the South AMerican Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) campaign which took place in September 2012 in Brazil, and a series of large fire events in the western USA in August 2013. For these case studies, forecasts of biomass burning aerosol species by the Composition Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) of CAMS were found to better reproduce the observed vertical distribution when using PRM injection heights from GFAS compared to aerosols emissions being prescribed at the surface. The globally available GFAS injection heights introduced and evaluated in this study provide a comprehensive data set for future fire and atmospheric

  3. The Evolution of School Nursing Data Indicators in Massachusetts: Recommendations for a National Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gapinski, Mary Ann; Sheetz, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses' research priorities include the recommendation that data reliability, quality, and availability be addressed to advance research in child and school health. However, identifying a national school nursing data set has remained a challenge for school nurses, school nursing leaders, school nurse professional…

  4. Our Stories about Teaching and Learning: A Pedagogy of Consequence for Yukon First Nation Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Owen, Thomas; Doiron, Ashley; McMillan, Barbara; Renaud, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this study, First Nation community members in Canada's Yukon Territory share their stories about teaching and learning, both in informal and formal settings, in an effort to identify practices that might serve teachers to be more responsive to their First Nation students. In all, 52 community members between the ages of 15 and 82 shared their…

  5. National Emissions Inventory Vehicle Miles Traveled, U.S., 2014, EPA/OAR/OAQPS/AQAD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web service contains layers that depict gridded Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) for 2014 from the National Emission Inventory (NEI).The default 2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) vehicle miles traveled (VMT) data are developed primarily from information provided by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the FHWA??s published Highway Statistics 2014, data from the Bureau of Census, and information provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This 2014 full VMT database was developed to provide default VMT at the county, road type, and vehicle type level of detail, to be used in the 2014 NEI in areas for which no state or local agency provided VMT data. The road types included were the 12 Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) functional roadway types while the vehicle types used were the six MOVES HPMS vehicle types , for a total of 72 records per county. To be compatible with MOVES inputs and for easy import into the MOVES HPMSVtypeYear table, the data were also provided at the level of county and HPMSVtypeID. In both cases, the VMT data provided are annual data in units of millions of vehicle miles.The 2014 VMT database was developed using data supplied directly by FHWA and as well as publicly available data from the 2014 version of FHWA??s Highway Statistics data series (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2014/). The FHWA data sets that were provided include a subset of fields from the 2014 HPMS

  6. Disproportionality in Power Plants’ Carbon Emissions: A Cross-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don

    2016-01-01

    Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity. PMID:27363677

  7. Disproportionality in Power Plants’ Carbon Emissions: A Cross-National Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don

    2016-07-01

    Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity.

  8. National Set of Hydrogen Codes and Standards for the US (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C. H.

    2009-09-16

    The US has a national set of codes and standards that address the use of hydrogen technologies. These documents are published by several organizations and are not all directly adopted by government authorities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has acted as the central organizing group to identify these documents and present them as a coherent and integrated set of requirements.

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  10. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Group IV Polymers and Resins MACT standards, the typical control devices used to reduce organic HAP... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide...

  11. Nitrous oxide emission from cropland and adjacent riparian buffers in contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K; Jacinthe, P A; Vidon, P; Liu, X; Baker, M E

    2014-01-01

    Riparian buffers are important nitrate (NO) sinks in agricultural watersheds, but limited information is available regarding the intensity and control of nitrous oxide (NO) emission from these buffers. This study monitored (December 2009-May 2011) NO fluxes at two agricultural riparian buffers in the White River watershed in Indiana to assess the impact of land use and hydrogeomorphologic (HGM) attributes on emission. The study sites included a riparian forest in a glacial outwash/alluvium setting (White River [WR]) and a grassed riparian buffer in tile-drained till plains (Leary Weber Ditch [LWD]). Adjacent corn ( L.) fields were monitored for land use assessment. Analysis of variance identified season, land use (riparian buffer vs. crop field), and site geomorphology as major drivers of NO fluxes. Strong relationships between N mineralization and NO fluxes were found at both sites, but relationships with other nutrient cycling indicators (C/N ratio, dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C) were detected only at LWD. Nitrous oxide emission showed strong seasonal variability; the largest NO peaks occurred in late spring/early summer as a result of flooding at the WR riparian buffer (up to 27.8 mg NO-N m d) and N fertilizer application to crop fields. Annual NO emission (kg NO-N ha) was higher in the crop fields (WR: 7.82; LWD: 6.37) than in the riparian areas. A significant difference ( < 0.02) in annual NO emission between the riparian buffers was detected (4.32 vs. 1.03 kg NO-N ha at WR and LWD, respectively), and this difference was attributed to site geomorphology and flooding (WR is flood prone; no flooding occurred at tile-drained LWD). The study results demonstrate the significance of landscape geomorphology and land-stream connection (i.e., flood potential) as drivers of NO emission in riparian buffers and therefore argue that an HGM-based approach should be especially suitable for determination of regional NO budget in riparian ecosystems.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Grossman

    2005-06-01

    sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). At the NLVF, parts of Building A-1 were contaminated with tritium by a previous contractor in 1995. The incident involved the release of tritium as HTO. This unusual occurrence led to a very small potential exposure to an offsite person. The HTO emission has continued at lower levels (probably re-emanation from building materials), even after cleanup activities in November and December 1997. A description of the incident and the potential effective dose equivalent (EDE) for offsite exposure are set forth in Appendix A.

  13. Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Compliance Assistance Memoranda for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains three documents, one from 1997, one from 1999, and one from 2001, that provide further clarification on complying with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning.

  14. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Applicability Flowchart

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a January 2005 document that has a flow chart to help you determine if this National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) rule for Surface Coating of Wood Building Products applies to your facility.

  15. 75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Standards of Performance for... the following source categories: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process...

  16. 75 FR 42676 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters; National... Boilers; Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources... Boilers and Process Heaters located at major sources; Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional...

  17. Facilities Potentially Subject to the Secondary Aluminum National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a September 2001 list of sources potentially subject to the secondary aluminum production national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP). This list does not include auto salvage i.e. sweat furnaces.

  18. Paper and Other Web Coating National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Questions and Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This May 2003 document contains questions and answers on the Paper and Web Coating National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulation. The questions cover topics such as compliance, applicability, and initial notification.

  19. Compliance Timeline for Printing, Coating, and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles National Emission Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This August 2003 document contains a diagram of dates and events for compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Printing, Coating, and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles.

  20. Terms and conditions for nonprofits in the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) National Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has determined that all construction, alteration, and repair activity involving the following Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) projects is subject to DB. Use this T&C for nonprofits in the DERA National Program.

  1. 75 FR 37730 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY... air pollutants from heat exchange systems at petroleum refineries. These requirements were published as amendments to the national emission standards for petroleum refineries. In this notice, we...

  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  4. A new global gridded data set of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion: Methodology and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, P. J.; Raupach, M. R.; Paget, M.; Peylin, P.; Koffi, E.

    2010-10-01

    We describe a system for constraining the spatial distribution of fossil fuel emissions of CO2. The system is based on a modified Kaya identity which expresses emissions as a product of areal population density, per capita economic activity, energy intensity of the economy, and carbon intensity of energy. We apply the methodology of data assimilation to constrain such a model with various observations, notably, the statistics of national emissions and data on the distribution of nightlights and population. We hence produce a global, annual emission field at 0.25° resolution. Our distribution of emissions is smoother than that of the population downscaling traditionally used to describe emissions. Comparison with the Vulcan inventory suggests that the assimilated product performs better than downscaling for distributions of either population or nightlights alone for describing the spatial structure of emissions over the United States. We describe the complex structure of uncertainty that arises from combining pointwise and area-integrated constraints. Uncertainties can be as high as 50% at the pixel level and are not spatially independent. We describe the use of 14CO2 measurements to further constrain national emissions. Their value is greatest over large countries with heterogeneous emissions. Generated fields may be found online (http://ffdas.org/).

  5. NATIONAL- AND STATE-LEVEL EMISSIONS ESTIMATES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES (RITGS) FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development of national- and state- level emissions estimates of radiatively important trace gases (RlTGs). Emissions estimates are presented for the principal anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and o...

  6. 76 FR 9409 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...EPA is proposing amendments to the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Primary Lead Smelting to address the results of the residual risk and technology reviews conducted as required under sections 112(d)(6) and (f)(2) of the Clean Air Act (CAA). These proposed amendments include revisions to the emission limits for lead, the addition of a lead concentration in......

  7. Extending the Cumulative Emissions Framework to Non-CO2 Gases: Can This Inform the Allocation of National Emissions Allowances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.

    2014-12-01

    It is now well established that global temperature responds approximately linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions, allowing a finite carbon emissions budget to be defined and associated with a given global temperature target. However, it is less obvious how to incorporate into this framework the other greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions, owing largely to their widely varying atmospheric lifetimes and consequent climate effect. In this presentation, I will propose a new way to compare the climate effect of a range of greenhouse gases and aerosols. I will first assess the lifetime of the temperature response to different types of emissions, which depends on the atmospheric lifetime of the gas in question, as well as the timescale of the climate system response to forcing. I will then use this timescale of temperature decay to weight emissions of a given gas over time, generating an estimate of the effective cumulative emissions that produce a given amount of temperature change at a particular time. Finally, I will illustrate the application of this method to the question of quantifying historical national contributions to global warming and determine future emission allowances for a given climate target.

  8. An algorithm for identification of substances using a finite set of secondary-emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, N. S.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    A problem of identification of chemical composition in the absence of sampling procedures is considered. A method that allows identification using spectra of a desired substance is proposed. The measure of the difference between spectral sets is determined. The method is employed in the experiments using a visible and near-UV Fourier spectrometer. The secondary emission of samples is excited by UV sources with maximum intensities at wavelengths of 280 and 310 nm. Anthracene, POPOP, PPO, stilbene, and tryptophan are used in experiments. The ROC curves are constructed and compared to specify the parameters that are used in the algorithm for searching for substances in the database of reference spectra. The results will make it possible to improve the reliability and applicability of express analyzers of chemical substances.

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2015-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2014 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2014 from PNNL Campus sources is 2E 05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 3E-6 mrem (3E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-6 mrem (1E-8 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2014. The total radiological dose for 2014 to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 3E-5 mrem (3E-7 mSv) EDE, or more than 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2016-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the 2015 highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an offsite member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The dose to the PNNL Campus MEI from routine major and minor point source emissions in 2015 from PNNL Campus sources is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE. The dose from all fugitive sources is 1.8E-6 mrem (1.8E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 4.4E-8 mrem (4.4E-10 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2015. The total radiological dose to the MEI from all PNNL Campus radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2.6E-4 mrem (2.6E-6 mSv) EDE, or more than 10,000 times less than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, with which the PNNL Campus is in compliance.

  11. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Litter-based manure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, B.; Webb, J.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Menzi, H.; Luesink, H. H.; Hutchings, N. J.; Eurich-Menden, B.; Döhler, H.; Dämmgen, U.

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardized inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for emission factors (EFs) (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario for beef cattle produced very similar estimates of total losses of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) (±6% of the mean total), but large differences in NH 3 emissions (±24% of the mean). These differences arose from the different approaches to TAN immobilization in litter, other N losses and mineralization in the models. As a result of those differences estimates of TAN available at spreading differed by a factor of almost 3. Results of the FF scenario for broilers produced a range of estimates of total changes in TAN (±9% of the mean total), and larger differences in the estimate of NH 3 emissions (±17% of the mean). The different approaches among the models to TAN immobilization, other N losses and mineralization, produced estimates of TAN available at spreading which differed by a factor of almost 1.7. The differences in estimates of NH 3 emissions decreased as estimates of immobilization and other N losses increased. Since immobilization and denitrification depend also on the C:N ratio in manure, there would be advantages to include C flows in mass-flow models. This would also provide an integrated model for the estimation of emissions of methane, non-methane VOCs and carbon dioxide. Estimation of these would also enable an estimate of mass loss, calculation of the N and TAN concentrations in litter-based manures and further validation of model outputs.

  12. Agenda-Setting with Bi-Weekly Content Data for Three National Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Howard, Jr.

    Using media content data produced by Issues Management of Alexandria, Virginia (also known as "The Conference on Issues and Media"), a study examined agenda-setting for network television news, newspapers with broad syndication, and national weekly news magazines. Issues Management bi-weekly publishes the combined content for all three…

  13. Alternative Approaches to Setting Performance Standards for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Albert E.; Linn, Robert L.; Bohrnstedt, George W.

    2012-01-01

    The judgmental approaches used by the Governing Board to set National Assessment of Educational Progress achievement levels have been the subject of a great deal of controversy and have sometimes led to results that were considered "unreasonable." The NCES requirement that the achievement levels be used on a trial basis and be…

  14. History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David B.; Smith, Steven M.; Horton, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Six national-scale, or near national-scale, geochemical data sets for soils or stream sediments exist for the United States. The earliest of these, here termed the ‘Shacklette’ data set, was generated by a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project conducted from 1961 to 1975. This project used soil collected from a depth of about 20 cm as the sampling medium at 1323 sites throughout the conterminous U.S. The National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (NURE-HSSR) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted from 1975 to 1984 and collected either stream sediments, lake sediments, or soils at more than 378,000 sites in both the conterminous U.S. and Alaska. The sampled area represented about 65% of the nation. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), from 1978 to 1982, collected samples from multiple soil horizons at sites within the major crop-growing regions of the conterminous U.S. This data set contains analyses of more than 3000 samples. The National Geochemical Survey, a USGS project conducted from 1997 to 2009, used a subset of the NURE-HSSR archival samples as its starting point and then collected primarily stream sediments, with occasional soils, in the parts of the U.S. not covered by the NURE-HSSR Program. This data set contains chemical analyses for more than 70,000 samples. The USGS, in collaboration with the Mexican Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada, initiated soil sampling for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in 2007. Sampling of three horizons or depths at more than 4800 sites in the U.S. was completed in 2010, and chemical analyses are currently ongoing. The NRCS initiated a project in the 1990s to analyze the various soil horizons from selected pedons throughout the U.S. This data set currently contains data from more than 1400 sites. This paper (1) discusses each data set in terms of its purpose, sample collection protocols, and analytical

  15. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... hazardous air pollutant emission standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control...), we established that the application of measurement technology to mercury cell rooms is not... requirements, determines is achievable through application of measures, processes, methods, systems...

  16. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants submittal -- 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in 1996 were releases from the following: evaporation of tritiated water from containment ponds that receive drainage from E tunnel and from wells used for site characterization studies; onsite radioanalytical laboratories; the Area 5 RWMS facility; and diffuse sources of tritium and resuspension of plutonium. Section 1 describes these sources on the NTS. Section 2 tabulates the air emissions data for the NTS. These data are used to calculate the effective dose equivalents to offsite residents. Appendices describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources listed.

  17. Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Florian; Asner, Gregory P; Joseph, Shijo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) - one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government's deforestation map and a global deforestation map.

  18. Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P; Joseph, Shijo

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) – one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government’s deforestation map and a global deforestation map. PMID:25678933

  19. A New National MODIS-Derived Phenology Data Set Every 16 Days, 2002 through 2006

    SciTech Connect

    HargroveJr., William Walter; Spruce, Joe; Gasser, Gerry; Hoffman, Forrest M; Lee, Danny C

    2008-01-01

    A new national phenology data set has been developed, comprised of a series of seamless 231 m national maps, every 16 days from 2001 through 2006. The data set was developed jointly by the Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) of the USDA Forest Service, and contractors of the NASA Stennis Space Center. The data are available now for dissemination and use. The first half of the National Phenology Data Set is the cumulative area under the NDVI curve since Jan 1, and increases monotonically every 16 days until the end of the year. These cumulative data values 'latch' in the event of clouds or snow, remaining at the value when we last saw this cell. The second half is a set of diagnostic parameters fit to the annual NDVI function. The spring minimum, the 20% rise, the 80% rise, the leaf-on maximum, the 80% fall, the 20% fall, and the trailing fall minimum are determined for each map cell. For each parameter, we produce both a national map of the NDVI value, and a map of the day-of-year when that NDVI value was reached. Length of growing season, as the difference between the spring and fall 20% DOYs, and date of middle of growing season can be mapped as well. The new dataset has permitted the development of a set of national phonological ecoregions, and has also proven useful for mapping Gypsy Moth defoliation, simultaneously delineating the aftermath of three Gulf Coast hurricanes, and quantifying suburban/ex-urban development surrounding metro Atlanta.

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  1. Updated national emission of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Ok; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Yu-Mi; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    A nationwide emission estimate of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is required to understand the source-receptor relationship of PFASs and to manage major types of WWTPs. In this study, the concentrations of 13 PFASs (8 perfluorocarboxylic acids, 3 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, and 2 intermediates) in wastewater and sludge from 81 WWTPs in South Korea were collected. The emission pathways of PFASs were redefined, and then the national emission of PFASs from WWTPs was rigorously updated. In addition to the direct calculations, Monte Carlo simulations were also used to calculate the likely range of PFAS emissions. The total (Σ13PFAS) emission (wastewater + sludge) calculated from the direct calculation with mean concentrations was 4.03 ton/y. The emissions of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.19 ton/y) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 1.01 ton/y) were dominant. The Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the realistic national emission of Σ13PFASs is between 2 ton/y and 20 ton/y. Combined WWTPs treating municipal wastewater from residential and commercial areas were identified as a major emission source, contributing 65% to the total PFAS emissions. The Han and Nakdong Rivers were the primary contaminated rivers, receiving 89% of the total PFAS discharge from WWTPs. The results and methodologies in this study can be useful to establish a management policy for PFASs.

  2. The Revised Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer Limb-Sounding Temperature Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) nadir-soundings have been used to derive atmospheric temperatures up to roughly 40 km [Conrath et al., JGR 105 2000, Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001], and MGS-TES limb soundings have been used to extend the atmospheric temperature data set to > 60 km in altitude [Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001]. The ~40 - ~65 km altitude range probed by the MGS-TES limb sounding is particularly important for capturing key dynamical features such as the warm winter polar mesosphere [e.g., Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001; McCleese et al., Nature Geoscience 1, 2008], and the response of thermal tides to dust opacity [e.g. Wilson and Hamilton, J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1996]. Thus accurate and precise temperature profiles at these altitudes are particularly important for constraining global circulation models. They are also critical for interpreting observations of mesospheric condensate aerosols [e.g., Määttänen et al., Icarus 209, 2010; McConnochie et al., Icarus 210, 2010)]. We have revised the limb-sounding portion of the MGS-TES temperature retrievals to account for correlated noise components as well as a slowly variance radiance bias, both of which are significant contributions to TES limb-sounding radiances. See McConnochie and Smith [AGU Fall Meeting ,2011] for further discussion of these issues. We have reprocessed the complete limb-sounding temperature data set and will present an overview of its key features, focusing on the improvements and differences relative to the original version described by Smith et al. [JGR 106, 2001]. One important improvement is a decrease in the statistical uncertainty in individual retrievals at high altitudes. In the original version, uncertainties at the 1.5 Pascal levels increased from 5 - 10 K early in the mission (Mars Year 24) to 10 - 15 K in Mars Year 26 and 27. In the revised version, these uncertainties remain near 2 K throughout the data set. Considering averages of large numbers of

  3. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  4. Quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the UK and Ireland using a national-scale monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A. L.; Manning, A. J.; Grant, A.; Young, D.; Oram, D. E.; Sturges, W. T.; Moncrieff, J. B.; O'Doherty, S.

    2015-06-01

    The UK is one of several countries around the world that has enacted legislation to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we present top-down emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) for the UK and Ireland over the period August~2012 to August~2014. These emissions were inferred using measurements from a network of four sites around the two countries. We used a hierarchical Bayesian inverse framework to infer fluxes as well as a set of covariance parameters that describe uncertainties in the system. We inferred average UK total emissions of 2.09 (1.65-2.67) Tg yr-1 CH4 and 0.101 (0.068-0.150) Tg yr-1 N2O and found our derived UK estimates to be generally lower than the a priori emissions, which consisted primarily of anthropogenic sources and with a smaller contribution from natural sources. We used sectoral distributions from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) to determine whether these discrepancies can be attributed to specific source sectors. Because of the distinct distributions of the two dominant CH4 emissions sectors in the UK, agriculture and waste, we found that the inventory may be overestimated in agricultural CH4 emissions. We found that annual mean N2O emissions were consistent with both the prior and the anthropogenic inventory but we derived a significant seasonal cycle in emissions. This seasonality is likely due to seasonality in fertilizer application and in environmental drivers such as temperature and rainfall, which are not reflected in the annual resolution inventory. Through the hierarchical Bayesian inverse framework, we quantified uncertainty covariance parameters and emphasized their importance for high-resolution emissions estimation. We inferred average model errors of approximately 20 and 0.4 ppb and correlation timescales of 1.0 (0.72-1.43) and 2.6 (1.9-3.9) days for CH4 and N2O, respectively. These errors are a combination of transport model errors as well as errors due to unresolved

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  6. Valuing setting-based recreation for selected visitors to national forests in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Kavita; Bergstrom, John C; Bowker, J M

    2016-12-01

    In this study we estimate selected visitors' demand and value for recreational trips to settings such as developed vs. undeveloped sites in U.S. national forests in the Southern United States using the travel cost method. The setting-based approach allows for valuation of multi-activity trips to particular settings. The results from an adjusted Poisson lognormal estimator corrected for truncation and endogenous stratification reveal that economic value per trip estimates are higher for wilderness compared to day-use developed settings, overnight-use developed settings, and general forest areas. Estimates of these economic values are important to resource managers because their management decisions and actions typically control recreational settings. For example, managers control developed campground capacity in a national forest, but typically not the number of campers below the capacity constraint and the number and types of activities visitors engage in during a multi-activity trip to a developed campground (within limits since some activities such as discharging a firearm are not permitted in a developed campground).

  7. Nurse staffing levels and outcomes - mining the UK national data sets for insight.

    PubMed

    Leary, Alison; Tomai, Barbara; Swift, Adrian; Woodward, Andrew; Hurst, Keith

    2017-04-18

    Purpose Despite the generation of mass data by the nursing workforce, determining the impact of the contribution to patient safety remains challenging. Several cross-sectional studies have indicated a relationship between staffing and safety. The purpose of this paper is to uncover possible associations and explore if a deeper understanding of relationships between staffing and other factors such as safety could be revealed within routinely collected national data sets. Design/methodology/approach Two longitudinal routinely collected data sets consisting of 30 years of UK nurse staffing data and seven years of National Health Service (NHS) benchmark data such as survey results, safety and other indicators were used. A correlation matrix was built and a linear correlation operation was applied (Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient). Findings A number of associations were revealed within both the UK staffing data set and the NHS benchmarking data set. However, the challenges of using these data sets soon became apparent. Practical implications Staff time and effort are required to collect these data. The limitations of these data sets include inconsistent data collection and quality. The mode of data collection and the itemset collected should be reviewed to generate a data set with robust clinical application. Originality/value This paper revealed that relationships are likely to be complex and non-linear; however, the main contribution of the paper is the identification of the limitations of routinely collected data. Much time and effort is expended in collecting this data; however, its validity, usefulness and method of routine national data collection appear to require re-examination.

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Technical Services

    2007-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  10. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  11. 77 FR 6627 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the... Plants 3311, 3312 0310 NESHAP, Subpart CCC \\1\\ North American Industry Classification System. \\2\\ Maximum... electroplating tanks, types of emissions controls, and control system operating parameters; and...

  12. Media Agenda-Setting and Personal Influences in the Promotion of National Issues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Influences in THESIS/DA/TiT/ON the Promotion of National Issues 6. PERFORMING O1G. REPORT NUMBERE I. AU sMOR(eo -,. CONTRACI Of QR ANT NUMSER’y_ 4 Douglas Gene...Wn aetnaaI• -- TC, FILE COPY I ,717 -I MEDIA AGENDA-SETTING AND PERSONAL INFLUENCES I THE PROMOTION OF NATICQNAL ISSUES by DOUGLAS G. DRAPER B.A...Degree MASTER OF ART NTUs " -U D~icl T,’ ATHENS, GEORGIA.. 1983 ’" A’i 7 .- %~%%%.~vor Dist..>. S MEDIA AGENDA-SETTING AND PERSOTI L INFLUENCES IN THE

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Lime Manufacturing Background Information Document (BID): Public Comments and Responses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On December 20, 2002, the EPA proposed national emission standards for HAP emissions from lime manufacturing plants located at major source facilities (67 FR 78046). Summaries of the comments, and the EPA's responses, are presented in this BID.

  14. Use of tool sets by chimpanzees for multiple purposes in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon.

    PubMed

    Wilfried, Ebang Ella Ghislain; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2014-10-01

    We report our recent findings on the use of tool sets by chimpanzees in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Direct observations and evidences left by chimpanzees showed that chimpanzees used sticks as pounders, enlargers, and collectors to extract honey from beehives of stingless bees (Meliponula sp.), which may correspond to those previously found in the same site for fishing termites and to those found in Loango National Park, Gabon. However, we observed chimpanzees using a similar set of tools for hunting a medium-sized mammal (possibly mongoose) that hid inside a log. This is the first report of hunting with tools by a chimpanzee population in Central Africa. Chimpanzees may recognize the multiple functions and applicability of tools (extracting honey and driving prey), although it is still a preliminary speculation. Our findings may provide us a new insight on the chimpanzee's flexibility of tool use and cognitive abilities of complex food gathering.

  15. Assessment of unabated facility emission potentials for evaluating airborne radionuclide monitoring requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Jette, S.J.; Sula, M.J.

    1995-11-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for 31 emission locations at the US DOE`s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the Hanford Site. Four buildings met Sate and Federal critical for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1995.

  16. National Emissions Inventory (NEI), County-Level, US, 2008, 2011, 2014, EPA OAR, OAPQS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This US EPA Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air Quality Assessment Division, Air Quality Analysis Group (OAR, OAQPS, AQAD, AQAG) web service contains the following layers created from the 2008, 2011 and 2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI): Carbon Monoxide (CO), Lead, Ammonia (NH3), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Particulate Matter 10 (PM10), Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Each of these layers conatin county level emissions for 2008, 2011, and 2014. Layers are drawn at all scales. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) is a comprehensive and detailed estimate of air emissions of criteria pollutants, criteria precursors, and hazardous air pollutants from air emissions sources. The NEI is released every three years based primarily upon data provided by State, Local, and Tribal air agencies for sources in their jurisdictions and supplemented by data developed by the US EPA. The NEI is built using the Emissions Inventory System (EIS) first to collect the data from State, Local, and Tribal air agencies and then to blend that data with other data sources.NEI point sources include emissions estimates for larger sources that are located at a fixed, stationary location. Point sources in the NEI include large industrial facilities and electric power plants, airports, and smaller industrial, non-industrial and commercial facilities. A small number of portable sources such as s

  17. The National Emissions Inventory Significantly Overestimates NOx Emissions: Analysis of CMAQ and in situ observations from DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Loughner, C.

    2013-12-01

    NOx and CO not only adversely impact human health, but they, along with associated VOCs, are also important precursors for O3 formation. While ambient NOx and CO concentrations have decreased dramatically over the past 10-20 years, O3 has remained a more recalcitrant problem, particularly in the Baltimore/Washington region. Reduction of O3 production requires that emissions inventories, such as the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), accurately capture total emissions of CO and NOx while also correctly apportioning them among different sectors. Previous evaluations of the NEI paint different pictures of its accuracy, with assertions that it overestimates either one or both of CO and NOx from anywhere between 25 percent to a factor of 2. These conflicting claims warrant further investigation. In this study, measurements of NOx and CO taken aboard the NOAA P3B airplane during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign were used to determine the NOx/CO emissions ratio at 6 locations in the Washington/Baltimore region. An average molar emissions ratio of 12.8 × 1.2 CO/NOx was found by calculating the change in CO over the change in NOx from vertical concentration profiles in the planetary boundary layer. Ratios showed little variation with location. Observed values were approximately a factor of 1.35 - 1.75 times greater than that predicted by the annual, countywide emissions ratio from the 2008 NEI. When compared to a temporalized, gridded version of the inventory processed by SMOKE, ratio observations were greater than that predicted by inventories by up to a factor of 2. Comparison of the in situ measurements and remotely sensed observations from MOPITT of CO to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model agree within 10-35 percent, with the model higher on average. Measurements of NOy by two separate analytical techniques, on the other hand, show that CMAQ consistently and significantly overestimates NOy concentrations. Combined with the CO observations, this

  18. Data sets for snow cover monitoring and modelling from the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, M.; Daniels, K.; Scott, D.; McLean, B.; Weaver, R.

    2003-04-01

    A wide range of snow cover monitoring and modelling data sets are pending or are currently available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). In-situ observations support validation experiments that enhance the accuracy of remote sensing data. In addition, remote sensing data are available in near-real time, providing coarse-resolution snow monitoring capability. Time series data beginning in 1966 are valuable for modelling efforts. NSIDC holdings include SMMR and SSM/I snow cover data, MODIS snow cover extent products, in-situ and satellite data collected for NASA's recent Cold Land Processes Experiment, and soon-to-be-released ASMR-E passive microwave products. The AMSR-E and MODIS sensors are part of NASA's Earth Observing System flying on the Terra and Aqua satellites Characteristics of these NSIDC-held data sets, appropriateness of products for specific applications, and data set access and availability will be presented.

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Black; Yvonne Townsend

    1999-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. F. Grossman

    2000-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km{sup 2} (1,375 mi{sup 2}), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  1. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2007-09-28

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. Modification Number 1 to this Title V Operating Permit was issued on June 15, 2006 (Permit No P-100M1) and includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2006. LANL's 2006 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  2. Emissions inventory report summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for calendar year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory’s potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2008. LANL’s 2008 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  3. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Environmental Stewardship Group

    2010-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2009. LANL's 2009 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  4. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stockton

    2005-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), ''Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements''. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2004. LANL's 2004 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  5. ANAB, Certification and Scope of Accreditation (ISO/IEC 17025:2005) for the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document certifies that the EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory has been assessed by the ANSI-ASQ National Accredation Board and accredited in meeting ISO-IEC 17025:2005 quality standards.

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a

  7. Implementing the Career Domain of the American School Counselor Association's National Model into the Virtual Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Laura Robin

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) national model has not been studied in nontraditional settings such as in virtual schools. The purpose of this quantitative research study was to examine the implementation of the career domain of the ASCA national model into the virtual high school setting. Social cognitive…

  8. The National Occupational Research Agenda: a model of broad stakeholder input into priority setting.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, L; Olenec, C; Wagner, G R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: No single organization has the resources necessary to conduct occupational safety and health research to adequately serve the needs of workers in the United States. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) undertook the task of setting research priorities in response to a broadly perceived need to systematically address those topics most pressing and most likely to yield gains to workers and to the nation. METHODS: NIOSH and its public and private partners used a consensus-building process to set priorities for the next decade for occupational safety and health research--the National Occupational Research Agenda. RESULTS: The process resulted in the identification of 21 research priorities grouped into 3 categories: disease and injury, work environment and workforce, and research tools and approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Although the field of occupational safety and health is often contentious and adversarial, these research priorities reflect a remarkable degree of concurrence among a broad range of stakeholders who provided input into a clearly defined and open process. PMID:9518963

  9. 76 FR 78872 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...The EPA published in the Federal Register on November 25, 2011, the proposed rules, ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing.'' The EPA was asked to hold a public hearing only on the wool fiberglass rule. Therefore, EPA is making two announcements: first, a public hearing for the proposed Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing......

  10. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Lead Smelting; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR...

  11. 77 FR 8575 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ....regulations.gov or email. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which... Information System km kilometer LAER lowest achievable emissions rate lb/yr pounds per year MACT maximum... Substances NAICS North American Industry Classification System NAS National Academy of Sciences NATA...

  12. 77 FR 72294 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AR62 Reconsideration of Certain New Source and Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired...

  13. 75 FR 77799 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources. Among the provisions that EPA is... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources on October 29, 2009. 40...

  14. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... December 21, 2012 Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for.... 77 , No. 246 / Friday, December 21, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Manufacturing Area Sources AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; lift stay of...

  15. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is denying in part and granting in part the petitions to reconsider the final revised National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants emitted by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source Performance Standards for Portland Cement Plants issued under sections 112(d) and 111(b) of the Clean Air Act, respectively. The EPA is also......

  16. The 2014 National Emission Inventory for Rangeland Fires and Crop Residue Burning

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions I...

  17. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; partial withdrawal... Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final notice of the partial withdrawal. DATES: As of August 17... signed a final rule amending the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From...

  18. [The national public discourse on priority setting in health care in German print media].

    PubMed

    Liesching, Florian; Meyer, Thorsten; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Germany's Central Ethics Committee of the Federal Chamber of Physicians (FCP) and other relevant national actors called for a public discourse on priority setting in health care. Politicians, members of a Federal Joint Committee and health insurance representatives, however, refused to promote or participate in the establishment of a public discussion. A change to that attitude only became apparent after former FCP President Hoppe's opening speech at the annual FCP assembly in Mainz in 2009. The present paper applies the Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse, implemented through Qualitative Content Analysis and elements of Grounded Theory, to examine the development of the national public discourse in leading German print media. It creates a matrix that represents the discourse development between May 2009 and May 2010 and reflects central actors, their "communicative phenomena" and their interactions. Additionally, the matrix has been extended to cover the period until December 2011. Hoppe's arguments for priority setting in health care are faced with a wide opposition assuming opposing prerequisites and thus demanding alternative remedies. The lack of interaction between the different parties prevents any development of the speakers' positions. Incorrect accounts, reductions and left-outs in the media representation add to this effect. Consequently, the public discussion on priority setting is far from being an evolving rational discourse. Instead, it constitutes an exchange of preformed opposing positions.

  19. Field Enhancement Properties of Nanotubes in a Field Emission Set-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adessi, Ch.; Devel, M.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the mechanisms of emission of nanotubes. The field enhancement properties of carbon nanotubes, involved in the emission of electrons, is investigated theoretically for various single-wall (SWNT) and multi-wall nanotubes (MWNT). The presentation points out big differences between (n,0) and (n,n) nanotubes, and propose phenomenological laws for the variations of the enhancement factor with length and diameter

  20. Global data set of biogenic VOC emissions calculated by the MEGAN model over the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindelarova, K.; Granier, C.; Bouarar, I.; Guenther, A.; Tilmes, S.; Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Kuhn, U.; Stefani, P.; Knorr, W.

    2014-09-01

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1) together with the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields were used to create a global emission data set of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) available on a monthly basis for the time period of 1980-2010. This data set, developed under the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project (MACC), is called MEGAN-MACC. The model estimated mean annual total BVOC emission of 760 Tg (C) yr-1 consisting of isoprene (70%), monoterpenes (11%), methanol (6%), acetone (3%), sesquiterpenes (2.5%) and other BVOC species each contributing less than 2%. Several sensitivity model runs were performed to study the impact of different model input and model settings on isoprene estimates and resulted in differences of up to ±17% of the reference isoprene total. A greater impact was observed for a sensitivity run applying parameterization of soil moisture deficit that led to a 50% reduction of isoprene emissions on a global scale, most significantly in specific regions of Africa, South America and Australia. MEGAN-MACC estimates are comparable to results of previous studies. More detailed comparison with other isoprene inventories indicated significant spatial and temporal differences between the data sets especially for Australia, Southeast Asia and South America. MEGAN-MACC estimates of isoprene, α-pinene and group of monoterpenes showed a reasonable agreement with surface flux measurements at sites located in tropical forests in the Amazon and Malaysia. The model was able to capture the seasonal variation of isoprene emissions in the Amazon forest.

  1. Quantification of Methane Source Locations and Emissions in AN Urban Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosson, E.; Richardson, S.; Tan, S. M.; Whetstone, J.; Bova, T.; Prasad, K. R.; Davis, K. J.; Phillips, N. G.; Turnbull, J. C.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The regulation of methane emissions from urban sources such as landfills and waste-water treatment facilities is currently a highly debated topic in the US and in Europe. This interest is fueled, in part, by recent measurements indicating that urban emissions are a significant source of Methane (CH4) and in fact may be substantially higher than current inventory estimates(1). As a result, developing methods for locating and quantifying emissions from urban methane sources is of great interest to industries such as landfill and wastewater treatment facility owners, watchdog groups, and the governmental agencies seeking to evaluate or enforce regulations. In an attempt to identify major methane source locations and emissions in Boston, Indianapolis, and the Bay Area, systematic measurements of CH4 concentrations and meteorology data were made at street level using a vehicle mounted cavity ringdown analyzer. A number of discrete sources were detected at concentration levels in excess of 15 times background levels. Using Gaussian plume models as well as tomographic techniques, methane source locations and emission rates will be presented. In addition, flux chamber measurements of discrete sources such as those found in natural gas leaks will also be presented. (1) Wunch, D., P.O. Wennberg, G.C. Toon, G. Keppel-Aleks, and Y.G. Yavin, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from a North American Megacity, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, L15810, doi:10.1029/2009GL)39825, 2009.

  2. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  4. Atmosphere-derived National Emissions of Ozone Depleting Substances and Substitutes for the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Miller, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, B. R.; Lehman, S.; Godwin, D.; Thoning, K. W.; Sweeney, C.; Chen, H.; Fischer, M. L.; Biraud, S.; Torn, M. S.; Mountain, M. E.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Saikawa, E.; Hall, B. D.; Elkins, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) are strong ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). Their production and consumption have been controlled by the Montreal Protocol since 1989 in developed countries and 1999 in developing countries. Although global atmospheric burdens of some of these gases have been declining for the last decade, their emissions continue due to releases from their existing reservoirs. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are transitional substitutes for CFCs; because they also deplete stratospheric ozone, they are also controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. Due to incomplete understanding of the reservoir size and emission rates for ODSs and their substitutes, uncertainty of their national emissions from inventory-based "bottom-up" estimates is undetermined. In this study, we use our atmospheric observations from multiple surface sites and aircraft profiles across the continental US from 2008 to 2012, along with data from remote sites over the Pacific basin, to derive national emissions of ODSs and their substitutes using inverse modeling. The performance of our modeling framework and the sensitivity of derived emissions to prior fluxes and model-data mismatch errors were investigated by conducting a suite of synthetic-data experiments. Sensitivity of derived fluxes to boundary values and transport was explored in real-data inversions. Our preliminary results suggest that (1) US emissions of HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b are currently declining at faster rates than those reported by US EPA; (2) our emission estimate of HFC-134a, the most abundant HFCs in the atmosphere, is consistent with the estimate reported by US EPA, whereas our estimates for some currently minor HFCs (i.e. HFC-125 and HFC-143a) show no significant emission trends during 2008 - 2012, which is inconsistent with a 70 - 120 % increase over this period reported by US EPA; and

  5. Evaluation of the Standard Setting on the 2005 Grade 12 National Assessment of Educational Progress Mathematics Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Hauger, Jeffrey B.; Wells, Craig S.; Shea, Christine; Zenisky, April L.

    2009-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board used a new method to set achievement level standards on the 2005 Grade 12 NAEP Math test. In this article, we summarize our independent evaluation of the process used to set these standards. The evaluation data included observations of the standard-setting meeting, observations of advisory committee meetings…

  6. Agricultural soil greenhouse gas emissions: a review of national inventory methods.

    PubMed

    Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Paustian, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to submit national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories, together with information on methods used in estimating their emissions. Currently agricultural activities contribute a significant portion (approximately 20%) of global anthropogenic GHG emissions, and agricultural soils have been identified as one of the main GHG source categories within the agricultural sector. However, compared to many other GHG sources, inventory methods for soils are relatively more complex and have been implemented only to varying degrees among member countries. This review summarizes and evaluates the methods used by Annex 1 countries in estimating CO2 and N2O emissions in agricultural soils. While most countries utilize the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default methodology, several Annex 1 countries are developing more advanced methods that are tailored for specific country circumstances. Based on the latest national inventory reporting, about 56% of the Annex 1 countries use IPCC Tier 1 methods, about 26% use Tier 2 methods, and about 18% do not estimate or report N2O emissions from agricultural soils. More than 65% of the countries do not report CO2 emissions from the cultivation of mineral soils, organic soils, or liming, and only a handful of countries have used country-specific, Tier 3 methods. Tier 3 methods usually involve process-based models and detailed, geographically specific activity data. Such methods can provide more robust, accurate estimates of emissions and removals but require greater diligence in documentation, transparency, and uncertainty assessment to ensure comparability between countries. Availability of detailed, spatially explicit activity data is a major constraint to implementing higher tiered methods in many countries.

  7. Development of an Optimum Tracer Set for Apportioning Emissions of Individual Power Plants Using Highly Time-Resolved Measurements and Advanced Receptor Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    John Ondov; Gregory Beachley

    2007-07-05

    . (2005), included 6 sources. Herein, we reassessed the number of contributing sources in light of the new data. A comprehensive list of sources was prepared and both our Gaussian Plume model and PMF were used to identify and predict the relative strengths of source contributions at the receptor sites. Additionally, PDRM was modified to apply National Inventory Emissions, Toxic Release Inventory, and Chemical Mass Balance source profile data to further constrain solutions. Both the original Tampa data set (SO{sub 2} plus 11 elements) and the new expanded data set (SO{sub 2} plus 23 elements) were used to resolve the contributions of particle constituents and PM to sources using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and PDRM.

  8. A local space–time kriging approach applied to a national outpatient malaria data set

    PubMed Central

    Gething, P.W.; Atkinson, P.M.; Noor, A.M.; Gikandi, P.W.; Hay, S.I.; Nixon, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in the availability of reliable health data are widely recognised as essential for efforts to strengthen health-care systems in resource-poor settings worldwide. Effective health-system planning requires comprehensive and up-to-date information on a range of health metrics and this requirement is generally addressed by a Health Management Information System (HMIS) that coordinates the routine collection of data at individual health facilities and their compilation into national databases. In many resource-poor settings, these systems are inadequate and national databases often contain only a small proportion of the expected records. In this paper, we take an important health metric in Kenya (the proportion of outpatient treatments for malaria (MP)) from the national HMIS database and predict the values of MP at facilities where monthly records are missing. The available MP data were densely distributed across a spatiotemporal domain and displayed second-order heterogeneity. We used three different kriging methodologies to make cross-validation predictions of MP in order to test the effect on prediction accuracy of (a) the extension of a spatial-only to a space–time prediction approach, and (b) the replacement of a globally stationary with a locally varying random function model. Space–time kriging was found to produce predictions with 98.4% less mean bias and 14.8% smaller mean imprecision than conventional spatial-only kriging. A modification of space–time kriging that allowed space–time variograms to be recalculated for every prediction location within a spatially local neighbourhood resulted in a larger decrease in mean imprecision over ordinary kriging (18.3%) although the mean bias was reduced less (87.5%). PMID:19424510

  9. The effect on highway NO{sub x} emissions of abolishing national speed limits

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, M.A.; Wilson, J.H. Jr.; Gottsman, L.

    1996-12-31

    The National Highway System bill passed by Congress in 1995 abolished the national maximum speed limit. An analysis performed for EPA during the bill debate provides a comprehensive look at the implications of raising speed limits on highway vehicle NO{sub x} emissions. With the passage of the National Highway System Bill, states have the authority to determine the maximum allowable speed limits for all vehicles within their boundaries. The likely effect of the change in the law was-and has turned out to be-raised speed limits on rural freeways. This analysis projects NO{sub x} emissions rising by 5 percent nationally with expected higher speed limits. States such as Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota that have high rural Interstate VMT relative to urban VMT show the highest NO{sub x} increases. By contrast, states like New Jersey, California, and Illinois with a preponderance of urban travel show relatively small projected emission increases from the speed change. This paper also reviews current speed limit status in the fifty states. However, because states may change their limits at any time, it does not analyze an end result of the change in the law.

  10. Global data set of biogenic VOC emissions calculated by the MEGAN model over the last 30 years

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelarova, K.; Granier, Claire; Bouarar, I.; Guenther, Alex B.; Tilmes, S.; Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Kuhn, U.; Stefani, P.; Knorr, W.

    2014-09-09

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1) together with the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields were used to create a global emission dataset of biogenic VOCs available on a monthly basis for the time period of 1980 - 2010. This dataset is called MEGAN-MACC. The model estimated mean annual total BVOC emission of 760 Tg(C) yr1 consisting of isoprene (70%), monoterpenes (11%), methanol (6%), acetone (3%), sesquiterpenes (2.5%) and other BVOC species each contributing less than 2 %. Several sensitivity model runs were performed to study the impact of different model input and model settings on isoprene estimates and resulted in differences of * 17% of the reference isoprene total. A greater impact was observed for sensitivity run applying parameterization of soil moisture deficit that led to a 50% reduction of isoprene emissions on a global scale, most significantly in specific regions of Africa, South America and Australia. MEGAN-MACC estimates are comparable to results of previous studies. More detailed comparison with other isoprene in ventories indicated significant spatial and temporal differences between the datasets especially for Australia, Southeast Asia and South America. MEGAN-MACC estimates of isoprene and*-pinene showed a reasonable agreement with surface flux measurements in the Amazon andthe model was able to capture the seasonal variation of emissions in this region.

  11. How to Collect National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traceable Fluorescence Excitation and Emission Spectra.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Adam Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary spectrofluorimeters comprise exciting light sources, excitation and emission monochromators, and detectors that without correction yield data not conforming to an ideal spectral response. The correction of the spectral properties of the exciting and emission light paths first requires calibration of the wavelength and spectral accuracy. The exciting beam path can be corrected up to the sample position using a spectrally corrected reference detection system. The corrected reference response accounts for both the spectral intensity and drift of the exciting light source relative to emission and/or transmission detector responses. The emission detection path must also be corrected for the combined spectral bias of the sample compartment optics, emission monochromator, and detector. There are several crucial issues associated with both excitation and emission correction including the requirement to account for spectral band-pass and resolution, optical band-pass or neutral density filters, and the position and direction of polarizing elements in the light paths. In addition, secondary correction factors are described including (1) subtraction of the solvent's fluorescence background, (2) removal of Rayleigh and Raman scattering lines, as well as (3) correcting for sample concentration-dependent inner-filter effects. The importance of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable calibration and correction protocols is explained in light of valid intra- and interlaboratory studies and effective spectral qualitative and quantitative analyses including multivariate spectral modeling.

  12. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): National frequency by PRP name report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter are used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data include PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. These lists (updated quarterly) represent EPA's preliminary findings on the identities of potentially responsible parties. The site report is designed to provide PRP information linked by the associated site, which appears according to the state where the site is located.

  13. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS): National PRP listing alphabetically by PRP name

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter are used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data include PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. These lists (updated quarterly) represent EPA's preliminary findings on the identities of potentially responsible parties. The site report is designed to provide PRP information linked by the associated site, which appears according to the state where the site is located.

  14. Use of a national collaborative to improve hospital quality in a low-income setting

    PubMed Central

    Linnander, Erika; McNatt, Zahirah; Sipsma, Heather; Tatek, Dawit; Abebe, Yigeremu; Endeshaw, Abraham; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality improvement collaboratives are a widely used mechanism to improve hospital performance in high-income settings, but we lack evidence about their effectiveness in low-income settings. Methods We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of data from the Ethiopian Hospital Alliance for Quality, a national collaborative sponsored by Ethiopia's Federal Ministry of Health. We identified hospital strategies associated with more positive patient satisfaction using linear regression and assessed changes in patient experience over a 3-year period (2012–2014) using matched t-tests. Results A total of 68 hospitals (response rate 68/120, 56.7%) were included in cross-sectional analysis. Four practices were significantly associated with more positive patient satisfaction (p<0.05): posting a record of cleaning activity in toilets and in patient wards, distributing leaflets in the local language with each prescription, and sharing ideas about patient experience across the hospital. Among hospitals that had complete data for longitudinal analysis (44/68, 65%), we found a 10% improvement in a 10-point measure of patient satisfaction (7.7 vs 8.4, p<0.01) from the start to the end of the study period. Conclusions Quality improvement collaboratives can be useful at scale in low-income settings in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly for hospitals that adopt strategies associated with patient satisfaction. PMID:26796023

  15. DAYCENT national-scale simulations of nitrous oxide emissions from cropped soils in the United States.

    PubMed

    Del Grosso, S J; Parton, W J; Mosier, A R; Walsh, M K; Ojima, D S; Thornton, P E

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission factor methodology, based on simple empirical relationships, has been used to estimate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes for regional and national inventories. However, the 2005 USEPA greenhouse gas inventory includes estimates of N2O emissions from cultivated soils derived from simulations using DAYCENT, a process-based biogeochemical model. DAYCENT simulated major U.S. crops at county-level resolution and IPCC emission factor methodology was used to estimate emissions for the approximately 14% of cropped land not simulated by DAYCENT. The methodology used to combine DAYCENT simulations and IPCC methodology to estimate direct and indirect N2O emissions is described in detail. Nitrous oxide emissions from simulations of presettlement native vegetation were subtracted from cropped soil N2O to isolate anthropogenic emissions. Meteorological data required to drive DAYCENT were acquired from DAYMET, an algorithm that uses weather station data and accounts for topography to predict daily temperature and precipitation at 1-km2 resolution. Soils data were acquired from the State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO). Weather data and dominant soil texture class that lie closest to the geographical center of the largest cluster of cropped land in each county were used to drive DAYCENT. Land management information was implemented at the agricultural-economic region level, as defined by the Agricultural Sector Model. Maps of model-simulated county-level crop yields were compared with yields estimated by the USDA for quality control. Combining results from DAYCENT simulations of major crops and IPCC methodology for remaining cropland yielded estimates of approximately 109 and approximately 70 Tg CO2 equivalents for direct and indirect, respectively, mean annual anthropogenic N2O emissions for 1990-2003.

  16. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    monitoring data on different roads. Depending on the results in this research, the largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. The differences were caused by different driving conditions that we monitored via GPS. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million t and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million t, respectively, via the REIB approach in 2011. Another implication of this research is that different road infrastructure would have different impacts for NOx and PM2.5 emissions. A region with more inter-city freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with former studies, which allocate emissions according to local truck registration number and neglect inter-region long distance transport trips, the REIB approach has advantages regarding the allocation of diesel truck emissions into the provinces. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the different roads types are no longer overlooked with this approach.

  17. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  18. Simulation of multi-photon emission isotopes using time-resolved SimSET multiple photon history generator

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Lin, Chang-Shiun; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2015-07-01

    Abstract-Multiple-photon emitters, such as In-111 or Se-75, have enormous potential in the field of nuclear medicine imaging. For example, Se-75 can be used to investigate the bile acid malabsorption and measure the bile acid pool loss. The simulation system for emission tomography (SimSET) is a well-known Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) code in nuclear medicine for its high computational efficiency. However, current SimSET cannot simulate these isotopes due to the lack of modeling of complex decay scheme and the time-dependent decay process. To extend the versatility of SimSET for simulation of those multi-photon emission isotopes, a time-resolved multiple photon history generator based on SimSET codes is developed in present study. For developing the time-resolved SimSET (trSimSET) with radionuclide decay process, the new MCS model introduce new features, including decay time information and photon time-of-flight information, into this new code. The half-life of energy states were tabulated from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database. The MCS results indicate that the overall percent difference is less than 8.5% for all simulation trials as compared to GATE. To sum up, we demonstrated that time-resolved SimSET multiple photon history generator can have comparable accuracy with GATE and keeping better computational efficiency. The new MCS code is very useful to study the multi-photon imaging of novel isotopes that needs the simulation of lifetime and the time-of-fight measurements. (authors)

  19. A Response to "Setting Reasonable and Useful Performance Standards" in the National Academy of Sciences'"Grading the Nation's Report Card."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Brennan, Robert L.; Brown, William; Dodd, Barbara; Forsyth, Robert A.; Mehrens, William A.; Nellhaus, Jeff; Reckase, Mark; Rindone, Douglas; van der Linden, Wim J.; Zwick, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    Responds to a negative evaluation of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and asserts that a review of the evidence for the NAEP performance standards indicates that there is support for the current approach to NAEP standard setting. Considers the scholarship of the NAS evaluation…

  20. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  1. Comparison of accessions from the UK and US national pear germplasm collections with a standardized set of microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized set of 12 microsatellite markers, previously agreed upon following an ECP/GR workshop in 2006, was used to screen accessions from the UK National Pear Collection at Brogdale and from the US National Pear Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis. Eight standard varieties were chosen from...

  2. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  3. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  4. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Edwards, Daniel L.

    2003-12-05

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.

  5. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  6. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  7. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the transportation sector. However, there are more obstacles to existing estimations of diesel-truck emissions compared with those of cars. The obstacles include both inappropriate methodology and missing basic data in China. According to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance intercity or interprovincial transportation. Thus, the method used by most existing inventories, based on local registration number, is inappropriate. A road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research instead of registration-population-based approach. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected in China. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million tonnes and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million tonnes, respectively, in 2011. The province-based emission inventory is also established using the REIB approach. It was found that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. The largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. A region with more intercity freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with the inventory of the Ministry of Environment Protection, which allocates emissions according to local truck registration number and neglects interregional long-distance transport trips, the differences for NOx and PM2.5 are +28 and -57%, respectively. The REIB approach matches better with traffic statistical data on a provincial level. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the

  8. National Trends in Operative Treatment of Pediatric Fractures in the Ambulatory Setting.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Derek T; Chen, Christopher; Zhang, Wei; McKay, Scott D

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the expanding role of freestanding ambulatory surgery centers in pediatric fracture care based on the only national ambulatory surgery database within the United States. Released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1996 and again in 2006, these reports were used to estimate the volume of outpatient pediatric operative fracture care in the United States over a decade, based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, procedure codes. Particular attention focused on the prevalence of open vs closed vs percutaneous fixation. The estimated number of pediatric patients who presented to outpatient facilities and required operative fracture care between 1996 and 2006 increased by 88%, from 74,577 ± 4663 to 140,152 ± 9138. During this time, the use of outpatient surgical services for pediatric fractures increased threefold, from 10% ± 1% in 1996 to 32% ± 2% in 2006. An even greater preference for freestanding ambulatory surgery centers was observed during this same time by a factor of 7, from 3% ± 1% to 21% ± 4%. Additionally, a trend toward higher volumes of open and percutaneous fixation in freestanding ambulatory surgery centers and not in hospital-associated outpatient centers was observed. This study showed the expanding role of freestanding ambulatory surgery centers in the surgical treatment of pediatric fractures based on data from the only national ambulatory surgery database in the United States. The proportion of open and percutaneous treatment vs closed reduction of fractures in these facilities also greatly increased. Further study is needed to evaluate clinical outcomes and determine which fractures are most appropriately treated in the ambulatory vs hospital setting.

  9. Women's status and carbon dioxide emissions: A quantitative cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Ergas, Christina; York, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Global climate change is one of the most severe problems facing societies around the world. Very few assessments of the social forces that influence greenhouse gas emissions have examined gender inequality. Empirical research suggests that women are more likely than men to support environmental protection. Various strands of feminist theory suggest that this is due to women's traditional roles as caregivers, subsistence food producers, water and fuelwood collectors, and reproducers of human life. Other theorists argue that women's status and environmental protection are linked because the exploitation of women and the exploitation of nature are interconnected processes. For these theoretical and empirical reasons, we hypothesize that in societies with greater gender equality there will be relatively lower impacts on the environment, controlling for other factors. We test this hypothesis using quantitative analysis of cross-national data, focusing on the connection between women's political status and CO(2) emissions per capita. We find that CO(2) emissions per capita are lower in nations where women have higher political status, controlling for GDP per capita, urbanization, industrialization, militarization, world-system position, foreign direct investment, the age dependency ratio, and level of democracy. This finding suggests that efforts to improve gender equality around the world may work synergistically with efforts to curtail global climate change and environmental degradation more generally.

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP); Asbestos NESHAP Revision: 1990 Final Rule (55 FR 48406)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the November 20, 1990 Final Rule of Asbestos National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Revision for the Asbestos NESHAP.

  11. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Questions and Answers (Q&A's)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This September 2004 document contains questions and answers on the Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulation. The questions cover topics such as compliance, and applicability, etc

  12. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (<1%) whilst road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  13. "The Incorporation of National Emission Inventories into Version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory"

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s National Emission Inventory has been incorporated into the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research-Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (EDGAR-HTAP) version 2. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the...

  14. Overview of the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Schoenbeck, N.; Uzun-Kaymak, I.; Winz, G.; Feder, H.; Feder, R.; Labik, G.; Stratton, B. C.

    2010-10-15

    A beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to study ion gyroscale fluctuations. The BES system measures D{sub {alpha}} emission from a deuterium neutral heating beam. The system includes two optical views centered at r/a{approx_equal}0.45 and 0.85 and aligned to magnetic field pitch angles at the neutral beam. f/1.5 collection optics produce 2-3 cm spot sizes at the neutral beam. The initial channel layout includes radial arrays, poloidal arrays, and two-dimensional grids. Radial arrays provide coverage from r/a{approx_equal}0.1 to beyond the last-closed flux surface. Photodetectors and digital filters provide high-sensitivity, low-noise measurements at frequencies of up to 1 MHz. The BES system will be a valuable tool for investigating ion gyroscale turbulence and Alfven/energetic particle modes on NSTX.

  15. Setting priorities for action plans at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C.

    1992-09-30

    This report summarizes work done by Applied Decision Analysis (ADA) for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under Subcontract Number 9-XQ2-Y3837-1 with the University of California. The purpose of this work was to develop a method of setting priorities for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) deficiencies at Los Alamos. The deficiencies were identified by a DOE Tiger Team that visited LANL in the fall of 1991, and by self assessments done by the Laboratory. ADA did the work described here between October 1991 and the end of September 1992. The ADA staff working on this project became part of a Risk Management Team in the Laboratory`s Integration and Coordination Office (ICO). During the project, the Risk Management Team produced a variety of documents describing aspects of the action-plan prioritization system. Some of those documents are attached to this report. Rather than attempt to duplicate their contents, this report provides a guide to those documents, and references them whenever appropriate.

  16. Building capacity for national carbon measurements for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Horning, N.; Pelletier, J.; Jantz, P.; Ndunda, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many tropical countries are now working on developing their strategies for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, including activities that result in conservation or enhancement of forest carbon stocks and sustainable management of forests to effectively decrease atmospheric carbon emissions (i.e. REDD+). A new international REDD+ agreement is at the heart of recent negotiations of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). REDD+ mechanisms could provide an opportunity to not only diminish an important source of emissions, but also to promote large-scale conservation of tropical forests and establish incentives and opportunities to alleviate poverty. Most tropical countries still lack basic information for developing and implementing their forest carbon stock assessments, including the extent of forest area and the rate at which forests are being cleared and/or degraded, and the carbon amounts associated with these losses. These same countries also need support to conduct integrated assessments of the most promising approaches for reducing emissions, and in identifying those policy options that hold the greatest potential while minimizing potential negative impacts of REDD+ policies. The WHRC SERVIR project in East Africa is helping to provide these data sets to countries via best practice tools and methods to support cost effective forest carbon monitoring solutions and more informed decision making processes under REDD+. We will present the results of our capacity building activites in the region and planned future efforts being coordinated with the NASA-SERVIR Hub in Kenya to support to REDD+ decision support.

  17. Uncertainties in the national inventory of methane emissions from rice cultivation: field measurements and modeling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Sun, Wenjuan; Li, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainties in national inventories originate from a variety of sources, including methodological failures, errors, and insufficiency of supporting data. In this study, we analyzed these sources and their contribution to uncertainty in the national inventory of rice paddy methane emissions in China and compared the differences in the approaches used (e.g., direct measurements, simple regressions, and more complicated models). For the 495 field measurements we collected from the scientific literature, the area-weighted 95 % CI (confidence interval) ranged from 13.7 to 1115.4 kg CH4 ha-1, and the histogram distribution of the measurements agreed well with parameterized gamma distributions. For the models, we compared the performance of methods of different complexity (i.e., the CH4MOD model, representing a complicated method, and two less complex statistical regression models taken from literature) to evaluate the uncertainties associated with model performance as well as the quality and accessibility of the regional datasets. Comparisons revealed that the CH4MOD model may perform worse than the comparatively simple regression models when no sufficient input data for the model is available. As simulated by CH4MOD with data of irrigation, organic matter incorporation, and soil properties of rice paddies, the modeling methane fluxes varied from 17.2 to 708.3 kg CH4 ha-1, covering 63 % of the range of the field measurements. When applying the modeling approach to the 10 km × 10 km gridded dataset of the model input variables, the within-grid variations, made via the Monte Carlo method, were found to be 81.2-95.5 % of the grid means. Upscaling the grid estimates to the national inventory, the total methane emission from the rice paddies was 6.43 (3.79-9.77) Tg. The fallacy of CH4MOD contributed 56.6 % of the total uncertainty, with the remaining 43.4 % being attributed to errors and the scarcity of the spatial datasets of the model inputs. Our analysis reveals the

  18. Transient climate and ambient health impacts due to national solid fuel cookstove emissions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Forrest G; Henze, Daven K; Lee, Colin J; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V

    2017-02-07

    Residential solid fuel use contributes to degraded indoor and ambient air quality and may affect global surface temperature. However, the potential for national-scale cookstove intervention programs to mitigate the latter issues is not yet well known, owing to the spatial heterogeneity of aerosol emissions and impacts, along with coemitted species. Here we use a combination of atmospheric modeling, remote sensing, and adjoint sensitivity analysis to individually evaluate consequences of a 20-y linear phase-out of cookstove emissions in each country with greater than 5% of the population using solid fuel for cooking. Emissions reductions in China, India, and Ethiopia contribute to the largest global surface temperature change in 2050 [combined impact of -37 mK (11 mK to -85 mK)], whereas interventions in countries less commonly targeted for cookstove mitigation such as Azerbaijan, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan have the largest per cookstove climate benefits. Abatement in China, India, and Bangladesh contributes to the largest reduction of premature deaths from ambient air pollution, preventing 198,000 (102,000-204,000) of the 260,000 (137,000-268,000) global annual avoided deaths in 2050, whereas again emissions in Ukraine and Azerbaijan have the largest per cookstove impacts, along with Romania. Global cookstove emissions abatement results in an average surface temperature cooling of -77 mK (20 mK to -278 mK) in 2050, which increases to -118 mK (-11 mK to -335 mK) by 2100 due to delayed CO2 response. Health impacts owing to changes in ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) amount to ∼22.5 million premature deaths prevented between 2000 and 2100.

  19. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis for national-level priority-setting in the health sector

    PubMed Central

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Chisholm, Dan; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is potentially an important aid to public health decision-making but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of potential reasons may account for this, among them technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences and systemic barriers to implementation. As a form of sectoral CEA, Generalized CEA sets out to overcome a number of these barriers to the appropriate use of cost-effectiveness information at the regional and country level. Its application via WHO-CHOICE provides a new economic evidence base, as well as underlying methodological developments, concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. The estimated sub-regional costs and effects of different interventions provided by WHO-CHOICE can readily be tailored to the specific context of individual countries, for example by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs) or the coverage, efficacy and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness). The potential usefulness of this information for health policy and planning is in assessing if current intervention strategies represent an efficient use of scarce resources, and which of the potential additional interventions that are not yet implemented, or not implemented fully, should be given priority on the grounds of cost-effectiveness. Health policy-makers and programme managers can use results from WHO-CHOICE as a valuable input into the planning and prioritization of services at national level, as well as a starting point for additional analyses of the trade-off between the efficiency of interventions in producing health and their impact on other key outcomes such as reducing inequalities and improving the health of the poor. PMID:14687420

  20. Assessing Satellite-Based Fire Data for use in the National Emissions Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soja, Amber J.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Giglio, Louis; Randall, Dave; Kittaka, Chieko; Pouliot, George; Kordzi, Joseph J.; Raffuse, Sean; Pace, Thompson G.; Pierce, Thomas E.; Moore, Tom; Biswadev, Roy; Pierce, R. Bradley; Szykman, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass burning is significant to emission estimates because: (1) it can be a major contributor of particulate matter and other pollutants; (2) it is one of the most poorly documented of all sources; (3) it can adversely affect human health; and (4) it has been identified as a significant contributor to climate change through feedbacks with the radiation budget. Additionally, biomass burning can be a significant contributor to a regions inability to achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM 2.5 and ozone, particularly on the top 20% worst air quality days. The United States does not have a standard methodology to track fire occurrence or area burned, which are essential components to estimating fire emissions. Satellite imagery is available almost instantaneously and has great potential to enhance emission estimates and their timeliness. This investigation compares satellite-derived fire data to ground-based data to assign statistical error and helps provide confidence in these data. The largest fires are identified by all satellites and their spatial domain is accurately sensed. MODIS provides enhanced spatial and temporal information, and GOES ABBA data are able to capture more small agricultural fires. A methodology is presented that combines these satellite data in Near-Real-Time to produce a product that captures 81 to 92% of the total area burned by wildfire, prescribed, agricultural and rangeland burning. Each satellite possesses distinct temporal and spatial capabilities that permit the detection of unique fires that could be omitted if using data from only one satellite.

  1. Creating the spatial framework for National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS): Melding National Aquatic Data Sets with Survey Requirements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) require a consistent spatial representation of the resource target populations being monitored (i.e., rivers and streams, lakes, coastal waters, and wetlands). A sample frame is the GIS representation of this target popula...

  2. U.S. onroad transportation CO2 emissions analysis comparing highly resolved CO2 emissions and a national average approach : mitigation options and uncertainty reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    The transportation sector is the second largest CO2 emitting economic sector in the United States, accounting for 32.3% of the total U.S. emissions in 2002. Within the transportation sector, the largest component (80%) is made up of onroad emissions. In order to accurately quantify future emissions and evaluate emissions regulation strategies, analysis must account for spatially-explicit fleet distribution, driving patterns, and mitigation strategies. Studies to date, however, have either focused on one of these three components, have been only completed at the national scale, or have not explicitly represented CO2 emissions instead relying on the use of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) as an emissions proxy. We compare a high resolution onroad emissions data product (Vulcan) to a national averaging of the Vulcan result. This comparison is performed in four groupings: light duty (LD) and heavy duty (HD) vehicle classes, and rural and urban road classes. Two different bias metrics are studied: 1) the state-specific, group-specific bias and 2) the same bias when weighted by the state share of the national group-specific emissions. In the first metric, we find a spread of positive and negative biases for the LD and HD vehicle groupings and these biases are driven by states having a greater/lesser proportion of LD/HD vehicles within their total state fleet than found from a national average. The standard deviation of these biases is 2.01% and 0.75% for the LD and HD groupings, respectively. These biases correlate with the road type present in a state, so that biases found in the urban and LD groups are both positive or both negative, with a similar relationship found between biases of the rural and HD groups. Additionally, the road group bias is driven by the distribution of VMT on individual road classes within the road groupings. When normalized by national totals, the state-level group-specific biases reflect states with large amounts of onroad travel that deviate

  3. 54 FR 38044: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By- Product Recovery Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Final Rule on National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants.

  4. Rehabilitation-Related Research on Disability and Employer Practices Using Individual-Based National and Administrative Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazarov, Zafar E.; Erickson, William A.; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It is useful to examine workplace factors influencing employment outcomes of individuals with disabilities and the interplay of disability, employment-related, and employer characteristics to inform rehabilitation practice. Design: A number of large national survey and administrative data sets provide information on employers and can…

  5. A New Zealand Scientific Perspective on 20+ Years of Efforts to Introduce Policies Setting Limits on Emissions: What's the Way Forward?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Setting limits on pollution is an inherently political process negotiated between stakeholders within society. Science has a critical, but not dominant role in setting environmental limits. Over the past 20 years, nations have had the opportunity to build on a period of major international successes, limiting ozone-depleting chemicals and sulphur emissions causing acid rain. The science and politics of solutions attempted during this time has become vastly more complicated, and the outcome has been disappointing: global greenhouse gas emissions remain at business-as-usual trajectories. It seems logical and timely to examine the landscape before forging onward. In a brief review of lessons learned from the perspective of earth-system science within New Zealand, I highlight key examples and opportunities for creating more promising way forward. Among the lessons are that small-scale limit setting can host important innovation, while collapses can occur when systems that are too-big-to-fail but lack critical pre-requisites. In this sense, implementation of cap-and-trade for water quality may represent the former, while the collapse of C prices highlight the latter. Of critical importance is the simple observation that perceived uncertainties must be brought within bounds that make decisions possible. The way in which system are framed scientifically can be of overarching significance. Cap and trade for nutrients in New Zealand catchments has enabled small-scale illustrations of how the system frame can be vital in successful policy. For example, the N budget of Lake Taupo is simplified by focusing on inputs to the land, while 100-year forcing equivalence still raises questions about managing climate change. Relationships between emissions and activity must be distilled based on sound science, in a manner simple and certain enough for people and businesses to meaningfully consider in decisions that are made every day. With trust becoming a major limiting factor in the

  6. Options for compiling an inventory of mining waste sites throughout Europe by combining Landsat-TM derived information with national and pan-European thematic data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijdea, Anca-Marina; Sommer, Stefan

    2004-10-01

    Presently no reliable synoptic picture of number, extent, distribution and emissions from mining waste sites exists, neither for EU member states, nor for the Accession and Candidate Countries. At EU level, this information is needed to assess the large range of environmental impacts caused by mining wastes and their emissions in a coherent way across the different policies addressing the protection and sustainable use of environmental resources. The core task lies in the harmonised collection and standardised compilation and evaluation of existing data and in connecting them to a geographical reference system compatible with other European data sets. In the proposed approach information from national registers of mining wastes is linked to related standardized spatial data layers such as CORINE Land Cover (the classes of mineral extraction sites, dump sites) or other data sets available in the EUROSTAT GISCO data base, thus adding the spatial dimension at regional scale. Higher level of spatial detail and distinction between mineral extraction site and waste sites with or without accumulation of potentially hazardous material is added by remote sensing, applying a semi-automated principal component analysis (PCA) to selected spectral channels of geo-referenced Landsat-TM full scenes. The method was demonstrated on large areas covering approximately 120000 km2 of Slovakia and Romania and was validated against mining-related features from Pan-European and/or national databases, detailed geological maps, mineral resource maps, as well as by a GIS analysis showing the distribution of anomalous pixels in the above-mentioned features compared to the main land cover classes.

  7. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  8. EPA Sets Schedule to Improve Visibility in the Nation's Most Treasured Natural Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA issued a schedule to act on more than 40 state pollution reduction plans that will improve visibility in national parks and wilderness areas and protect public health from the damaging effects of the pollutants that cause regional haze.

  9. Characteristics of Effective Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Multilevel Analysis of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Beth L.; Everhart, Maria; Gordon, Lyn; Gettman, Maria Garcia

    2006-01-01

    In response to (a) an increasing need to support children with emotional and behavioral challenges in childcare settings and (b) the high rates of expulsion among preschool children, mental health consultation in early childhood settings is becoming an increasingly popular intervention strategy. At the same time, there is little agreement or…

  10. Diagnostic performance of the beam emission spectroscopy system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Thompson, D. S.

    2012-10-15

    The beam emission spectroscopy system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment measures localized density fluctuations on the ion gyroscale. Optical sightlines provide core to edge radial coverage, and the sightlines are aligned to typical pitch angles to maximize cross-field spatial resolution. Sightline images are 2-3 cm, and point spread function calculations indicate image distortion from pitch angle misalignment and atomic state finite lifetimes is minor with a 15% increase in the image size. New generation photodetectors achieve photon noise limited measurements at frequencies up to 400 kHz with refrigerant cooling at -20 Degree-Sign C. Measurements near the pedestal show broadband turbulence up to 100 kHz, and poloidal correlation lengths are about 10 cm. Plasma turbulence signals can be 2-3 orders of magnitude above photon noise and amplifier thermal noise.

  11. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  12. Integrated evaluation of cost, emissions, and resource potential for algal biofuels at the national scale.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ryan E; Fishman, Daniel B; Frank, Edward D; Johnson, Michael C; Jones, Susanne B; Kinchin, Christopher M; Skaggs, Richard L; Venteris, Erik R; Wigmosta, Mark S

    2014-05-20

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr(-1) (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and interannual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, but economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  13. Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal Biofuels at the National Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Ryan; Fishman, Daniel; Frank, Edward D.; Johnson, Michael C.; Jones, Susanne B.; Kinchin, Christopher; Skaggs, Richard; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-04-21

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr-1 (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and inter-annual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, and economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  14. Testing Set-Point Theory in a Swiss National Sample: Reaction and Adaptation to Major Life Events

    PubMed Central

    Anusic, Ivana; Yap, Stevie C. Y.; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Set-point theory posits that individuals react to the experience of major life events, but quickly adapt back to pre-event baseline levels of subjective well-being in the years following the event. A large, nationally representative panel study of Swiss households was used to examine set-point theory by investigating the extent of adaptation following the experience of marriage, childbirth, widowhood, unemployment, and disability. Our results demonstrate that major life events are associated with marked change in life satisfaction and, for some events (e.g., marriage, disability), these changes are relatively long lasting even when accounting for normative, age related change. PMID:25419036

  15. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.; Bell, P. E.; Bradley, D. K.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hsing, W.; Kalantar, H.; Kauffman, R.; Moody, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Shelton, R. T.; Yeamans, C. B.; Batha, S. H.; Grim, G. P.; Herrmann, H. W.; Merrill, F. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Y.; Regan, S. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rindernecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Cooper, G. W.; Ruiz, C.

    2015-01-05

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign NIF had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole US ICF community. A plan for a limited of NIF Diagnostics was documented by the Joint Central Diagnostic Team in the NIF Conceptual Design Report in 1994. These diagnostics and many more were installed diagnostics by two decades later. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by the function of the diagnostics, namely target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova’s in 1999. NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s and the NIF diagnostic suite incorporates some scientific innovation compared to Nova and OMEGA namely one much higher speed x-ray imager. Directions for future NIF diagnostics are discussed.

  16. Setting the Table for Diversity. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lisa L., Ed.; Kotinek, Jonathan D., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph provides a cross section of policy and practice through the voices and experiences of honors faculty, staff, and students from across the nation. While far from comprehensive, this volume does pick up different strands of thinking on diversity to present a rich and complicated understanding of what diversity is, why it is important,…

  17. The Television Framing Methods of the National Basketball Association: An Agenda-Setting Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, John A.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes the exposure and portrayal framing methods that are utilized by the National Basketball Association (NBA). Notes that key informant interviews provide insight into the exposure framing method and reveal two portrayal instruments: cameras and announcers; and three framing strategies: depicting the NBA as a team game,…

  18. Introducing Creativity in the Ensemble Setting: National Standards Meet Comprehensive Musicianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores realistic ways with which ensemble conductors can facilitate the conceptual acquisition of their students via creative activities. Creativity, as included in the National Standards, is presented through the "eyes" of comprehensive musicianship. (Contains 2 figures, 2 tables, and 9 notes.)

  19. Patterns and Predictors of Disciplinary Exclusion over Time: An Analysis of the SEELS National Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Benz, Michael R.; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan; Kwok, Oi-Man; Eisterhold, Leigh Ann; Zhang, Dalun

    2013-01-01

    Disciplinary exclusion practices are on the rise nationally, as are concerns about their disproportionate use and lack of effectiveness. This study used data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study to examine patterns and predictors of disciplinary exclusion over time. Students with emotional/behavioral disorders were most likely…

  20. A Classical Test Theory Analysis of the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory National Study Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.; Brissenden, Gina; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of investigations into the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI). In this paper, we use classical test theory to form a framework of results that will be used to evaluate individual item difficulties, item discriminations, and the overall reliability of the…

  1. Serving English Language Learners in Public School Settings: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Brice, Alejandro; O'Hanlon, Laureen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In 1990, 1,145 public school speech-language pathologists (SLPs) across the United States were surveyed regarding service delivery to English language learner (ELL) students (C. A. Roseberry-McKibbin & G. E. Eicholtz, 1994). In 2001, the survey was replicated with a larger national sample (N=1,736). The first purpose of the current…

  2. NASPE Sets the Standard: 35 Years of National Leadership in Sport and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieff, Susan G.; Lumpkin, Angela; Guedes, Claudia; Eguaoje, Terry

    2009-01-01

    With 17,000 members, NASPE is the largest of the five national associations of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) and comprises six Academy Committees (Biomechanics; Curriculum and Instruction; Exercise Physiology; Motor Development and Learning; Sport and Exercise Psychology; and Sport History,…

  3. The Use of National Data Sets to Baseline Science Education Reform: Exploring Value-Added Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Matt; Ryder, Jim; Donnelly, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses data from the National Pupil Database to investigate the differences in "performance" across the range of science courses available following the 2006 Key Stage 4 (KS4) science reforms in England. This is a value-added exploration (from Key Stage 3 [KS3] to KS4) aimed not at the student or the school level, but rather at…

  4. National Board Certification: Setting High Standards for Teaching, Learning, and Schools--An Administrator's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakowski, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents one administrator's perspective on the importance of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), describing the history of NBPTS certification in Colorado, discussing her experiences as a school administrator supporting teachers through NBPTS certification, examining the NBPTS's five core propositions, describing the…

  5. Early Predictors of ASD in Young Children Using a Nationally Representative Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeans, Laurie M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Laxman, Daniel J.; McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    Current clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) occurs between 3 and 4 years of age, but increasing evidence indicates that intervention begun earlier may improve outcomes. Using secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, the current study identifies early predictors prior to the diagnosis of…

  6. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

  7. Quality indicators for pharmaceutical care: a comprehensive set with national scores for Dutch community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of quality indicators for community pharmacies and to report their scores over 2012. In subanalyses the score development over 5 years was described for those indicators, that have been surveyed before and remained unchanged. Methods Community pharmacists in the Netherlands were invited in 2013 to provide information for the set of 2012. Quality indicators were mapped by categories relevant for pharmaceutical care and defined for structures, processes and dispensing outcomes. Scores for categorically-measured quality indicators were presented as the percentage of pharmacies reporting the presence of a quality aspect. For numerical quality indicators, the mean of all reported scores was expressed. In subanalyses for those indicators that had been questioned previously, scores were collected from earlier measurements for pharmacies providing their scores in 2012. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the consistency of scores within one pharmacy over time by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the set in 2012, 1739 Dutch community pharmacies (88 % of the total) provided information for 66 quality indicators in 10 categories. Indicator scores on the presence of quality structures showed relatively high quality levels. Scores for processes and dispensing outcomes were lower. Subanalyses showed that overall indicators scores improved within pharmacies, but this development differed between pharmacies. Conclusions A set of validated quality indicators provided

  8. Atmosphere-based nation-wide emission estimates of hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons from the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Miller, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Miller, B. R.; Thoning, K. W.; Sweeney, C.; Chen, H.; Bruhwiler, L.; Masarie, K.; Miller, S. M.; Fischer, M. L.; Saikawa, E.; Elkins, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    Limiting the warming influence induced by greenhouse gases (GHGs) ultimately requires reductions in emissions. To evaluate emission magnitudes and their changes over time, we recommend verifying self-reported emission inventories with independent, atmosphere-based, 'top-down' estimates. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are potent GHGs with global warming potentials up to thousands of times larger than CO2 over a 100-year time horizon. Reductions in HCFC production and consumption were required by the Montreal Protocol in developed countries beginning in 2004. However, it is uncertain whether emissions of these gases are declining within the US because emissions are not linearly related to production or consumption due to the existence of substantial 'banks' (stores of in-use chemicals that have not yet escaped to the atmosphere). HFCs are replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. Without regulation, CO2 equivalent emissions of HFCs could become substantial in the future relative to CO2. In this study, we estimated emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a within the US from 2008 - 2012 using a Bayesian approach of a regional inverse model with atmospheric observations from 8 tall-tower sites, 5 surface flask sites and 19 aircraft sites. We used a maximum likelihood estimation to estimate model-data mismatch errors, prior flux uncertainty, and temporal and spatial correlations in flux deviations between prior and posterior fluxes. We optimized our model design and tested our model performance by conducting synthetic data experiments. With this optimized design and boundary mixing ratios calculated with three different approaches, we derived national emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a. This study provides the first multi-year atmosphere-based national emission estimates of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a, derived from multiple sites distributed across the US.

  9. Causes and temporal changes in nationally collected stillbirth audit data in high-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Norris, Tom; Manktelow, Bradley N; Smith, Lucy K; Draper, Elizabeth S

    2017-02-14

    Few high-income countries have an active national programme of stillbirth audit. From the three national programmes identified (UK, New Zealand, and the Netherlands) steady declines in annual stillbirth rates have been observed over the audit period between 1993 and 2014. Unexplained stillbirth remains the largest group in the classification of stillbirths, with a decline in intrapartum-related stillbirths, which could represent improvements in intrapartum care. All three national audits of stillbirths suggest that up to half of all reviewed stillbirths have elements of care that failed to follow standards and guidance. Variation in the classification of stillbirth, cause of death and frequency of risk factor groups limit our ability to draw meaningful conclusions as to the true scale of the burden and the changing epidemiology of stillbirths in high-income countries. International standardization of these would facilitate direct comparisons between countries. The observed declines in stillbirth rates over the period of perinatal audit, a possible consequence of recommendations for improved antenatal care, should serve to incentivise other countries to implement similar audit programmes.

  10. The incorporation of the US national emission inventory into version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of air Pollutants inventory

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's 2008 national emission inventory has been incorporated into version 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Inventory. This work involves the creation of a detailed mapping of EPA Source Classification Codes (SCC) to the International Nomenclature for Reporting Sy...

  11. TRACKING THE EMISSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE BY NATION, SECTOR, AND FUEL TYPE: A TRACE GAS ACCOUNTING SYSTEM (TGAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a new way to estimate an efficient econometric model of global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by nation, sector, and fuel type. Equations for fuel intensity are estimated for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and heat for six sectors: agricultural, indus...

  12. RADIOLOGICAL EMISSIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR BROOKHAV EN NATIONAL LABORATORY, 1947 - 1961.

    SciTech Connect

    MEINHOLD,C.B.; MEINHOLD,A.F.

    2001-05-30

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has monitored its releases to the environment since its inception in 1947. From 1962 to 1966 and from 1971 to the present, annual reports,were published that recorded the emissions and releases to the environment from Laboratory operations. In 1998, a report was written to summarize the environmental data for the years 1967 to 1970. One of the purposes of the current report is to complete BNL's environmental history by covering the period from 1948 through 1961. The activities in 1947 were primarily organizational and there is no information on the use of radiation at the Laboratory before 1948. An additional objective of this report is to provide environmental data to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The report does not provide an estimate of the doses associated with BNL operations. The report is comprised of two parts. The first part is a summary of emissions, releases, and environmental monitoring information including a discussion of the uncertainties in these data. Part two contains the detailed information on the approach taken to estimate the releases from the fuel cartridge failures at the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR). A series of appendices present more detailed information on these events in tabular form. The approach in this report is to be reasonable, conservative, (pessimistic), and transparent in estimating releases from fuel cartridge ruptures. Clearly, reactor stack monitoring records and more extensive records would have greatly improved this effort, but in accordance with Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Appendix 0230 Annex C-9, many of the detailed records from this time were not retained.

  13. Mitigation of agriculture emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S.; Herold, M.; Rufino, M. C.; Neumann, K.; Kooistra, L.; Verchot, L.

    2015-04-01

    Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector can reduce deforestation emissions as well as reducing emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics between 2000 and 2010 are 4.3 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 (97 countries). We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification, and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agriculture emissions on existing agriculture land, interventions that fall under climate-smart agriculture (CSA). The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, where there is a potential for forest-sparing interventions, and where there is a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+), the potential to mitigate is 1.3 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data). For countries where we identify agriculture emissions as priority for mitigation, up to 1 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks to livelihoods from

  14. Capacity of the national influenza surveillance system in Afghanistan, a chronic conflict setting.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, M H; Sahak, M N; Saeed, K I; Krishnan, S K; Khan, W; Hassounah, S

    2016-10-02

    Influenza surveillance is needed to monitor potential public health threats from the emergence of novel influenza viruses. This study assessed the capacity and performance of the national influenza surveillance system in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2014. Data were collected by review of hospital registers and the National Influenza Centre (NIC) database, interviews with influenza focal points at 9 influenza sentinel surveillance sites and the Centre staff, and observation of the sites. Out of 6900 specimens collected, influenza virus was detected in 253 (3.6%), predominantly H1N1 (63%); most of these cases were detected during the 2009 pandemic. The NIC had the capacity for virus isolation and PCR identification and performed reasonably until 2011 when support of the Naval American Medical Research Unit 3 was withdrawn. The limitations identified in the system indicated the need for: more complete data, improved technical competence and trained human resources, updating of the infrastructure/facilities, and the presence of standard operating procedures throughout surveillance.

  15. Global EDGAR greenhouse gas emissions and national emissions reporting under the UN Climate Convention: availability, structure, definitions and role of uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, J. G.; Monni, S.; van Aardenne, J.; Doering, U. M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Peters, J. A.; Pagliari, V.

    2010-12-01

    JRC and PBL have compiled a comprehensive EDGAR v4 dataset for the ‘six’ greenhouse gases included in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6), which were constructed using consistently the 2006 IPCC methodology and combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and for the first time - to the extent possible - emission factors as recommended by the IPCC 2006 guidelines for GHG emission inventories. This dataset, that covers all countries, provides independent estimates for all anthropogenic sources from 1970 onwards that are consistent over time and comparable between countries. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. Of the 220 UN nations only 43 industrialised countries (‘Annex I’) annually report their national GHG emissions in large detail from 1990 up to (presently) 2008, while most developing countries (‘non-Annex I’) for the UN Climate Convention (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol only report a summary table with emissions for one or more years (many only for 1994). All emissions in EDGAR 4 are detailed at country level using the same standard IPCC inventory source categories as used by industrialised countries in their report to the Climate Convention. Thus we provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries that go beyond the mostly very aggregated UNFCCC reports of the developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the UNFCCC trends a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of

  16. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Warren and Robert F. Grossman

    2009-06-30

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo

  17. Mitigation of agricultural emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S.; Herold, M.; Rufino, M. C.; Neumann, K.; Kooistra, L.; Verchot, L.

    2015-08-01

    Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available non-forest land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector could reduce deforestation emissions as well as reduce emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics between 2000 and 2010. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics (97 countries) are 4.3 GtCO2e yr-1. We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agricultural emissions on existing agriculture land. The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, with potential for forest-sparing interventions and a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+), there is a potential to mitigate 1.3 GtCO2e yr-1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data). For countries where we identify agricultural emissions as a priority for mitigation, up to 1 GtCO2e yr-1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks to livelihoods from implementing interventions based on national level data call for detailed

  18. Producing remote sensing-based emission estimates of prescribed burning in the contiguous United States for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J. L.; Pouliot, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Miller, M. E.; Rao, T.

    2013-12-01

    Prescribed fires in agricultural landscapes generally produce smaller burned areas than wildland fires but are important contributors to emissions impacting air quality and human health. Currently, there are a variety of available satellite-based estimates of crop residue burning, including the NOAA/NESDIS Hazard Mapping System (HMS) the Satellite Mapping Automated Reanalysis Tool for Fire Incident Reconciliation (SMARTFIRE 2), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Official Burned Area Product (MCD45A1)), the MODIS Direct Broadcast Burned Area Product (MCD64A1) the MODIS Active Fire Product (MCD14ML), and a regionally-tuned 8-day cropland differenced Normalized Burn Ratio product for the contiguous U.S. The purpose of this NASA-funded research was to refine the regionally-tuned product utilizing higher spatial resolution crop type data from the USDA NASS Cropland Data Layer and burned area training data from field work and high resolution commercial satellite data to improve the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The final product delivered to the EPA included a detailed database of 25 different atmospheric emissions at the county level, emission distributions by crop type and seasonality, and GIS data. The resulting emission databases were shared with the U.S. EPA and regional offices, the National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWGC) Smoke Committee, and all 48 states in the contiguous U.S., with detailed error estimations for Wyoming and Indiana and detailed analyses of results for Florida, Minnesota, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and Oregon. This work also provided opportunities in discovering the different needs of federal and state partners, including the various geospatial abilities and platforms across the many users and how to incorporate expert air quality, policy, and land management knowledge into quantitative earth observation-based estimations of prescribed fire emissions. Finally, this work

  19. 78 FR 25185 - Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Industry... X X X X CCC (Reserved) DDD Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) X X X X Emissions from the Polymer...) DDD Volatile Organic X X Compounds (VOC) Emissions from the Polymer Manufacturing Industry. EEE... Manufacturing Industry. CCC (Reserved) DDD Volatile Organic X X X Compounds (VOC) Emissions from the...

  20. A methodology for a minimum data set for rare diseases to support national centers of excellence for healthcare and research

    PubMed Central

    Choquet, Rémy; Maaroufi, Meriem; de Carrara, Albane; Messiaen, Claude; Luigi, Emmanuel; Landais, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Although rare disease patients make up approximately 6–8% of all patients in Europe, it is often difficult to find the necessary expertise for diagnosis and care and the patient numbers needed for rare disease research. The second French National Plan for Rare Diseases highlighted the necessity for better care coordination and epidemiology for rare diseases. A clinical data standard for normalization and exchange of rare disease patient data was proposed. The original methodology used to build the French national minimum data set (F-MDS-RD) common to the 131 expert rare disease centers is presented. Methods To encourage consensus at a national level for homogeneous data collection at the point of care for rare disease patients, we first identified four national expert groups. We reviewed the scientific literature for rare disease common data elements (CDEs) in order to build the first version of the F-MDS-RD. The French rare disease expert centers validated the data elements (DEs). The resulting F-MDS-RD was reviewed and approved by the National Plan Strategic Committee. It was then represented in an HL7 electronic format to maximize interoperability with electronic health records. Results The F-MDS-RD is composed of 58 DEs in six categories: patient, family history, encounter, condition, medication, and questionnaire. It is HL7 compatible and can use various ontologies for diagnosis or sign encoding. The F-MDS-RD was aligned with other CDE initiatives for rare diseases, thus facilitating potential interconnections between rare disease registries. Conclusions The French F-MDS-RD was defined through national consensus. It can foster better care coordination and facilitate determining rare disease patients’ eligibility for research studies, trials, or cohorts. Since other countries will need to develop their own standards for rare disease data collection, they might benefit from the methods presented here. PMID:25038198

  1. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Grossman; Ronald Warren

    2008-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS from radionuclides emitted to air from the NTS. This limit does not include the radiation doses that members of the public may receive through the intake of radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities, such as those that come from naturally occurring elements in the environment (e.g., naturally occurring radionuclides in soil or radon gas from the earth or natural building materials), or from other man-made sources (e.g., medical treatments). The NTS demonstrates compliance using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole

  2. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries.

    PubMed

    Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa.

  3. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries

    PubMed Central

    Luyirika, Emmanuel BK; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa. PMID:27563347

  4. Evaluation of the causal framework used for setting national ambient air quality standards.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Bailey, Lisa A; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A scientifically sound assessment of the potential hazards associated with a substance requires a systematic, objective and transparent evaluation of the weight of evidence (WoE) for causality of health effects. We critically evaluated the current WoE framework for causal determination used in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of the scientific data on air pollutants for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process, including its methods for literature searches; study selection, evaluation and integration; and causal judgments. The causal framework used in recent NAAQS evaluations has many valuable features, but it could be more explicit in some cases, and some features are missing that should be included in every WoE evaluation. Because of this, it has not always been applied consistently in evaluations of causality, leading to conclusions that are not always supported by the overall WoE, as we demonstrate using EPA's ozone Integrated Science Assessment as a case study. We propose additions to the NAAQS causal framework based on best practices gleaned from a previously conducted survey of available WoE frameworks. A revision of the NAAQS causal framework so that it more closely aligns with these best practices and the full and consistent application of the framework will improve future assessments of the potential health effects of criteria air pollutants by making the assessments more thorough, transparent, and scientifically sound.

  5. National Priority Setting of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development for Chronic Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kim, Dong Ik; Oh, Moo-Kyung

    2015-12-01

    By November 2013, a total of 125 clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed in Korea. However, despite the high burden of diseases and the clinical importance of CPGs, most chronic diseases do not have available CPGs. Merely 83 CPGs are related to chronic diseases, and only 40 guidelines had been developed in the last 5 yr. Considering the rate of the production of new evidence in medicine and the worsening burden from chronic diseases, the need for developing CPGs for more chronic diseases is becoming increasingly pressing. Since 2011, the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been jointly developing CPGs for chronic diseases. However, priorities have to be set and resources need to be allocated within the constraint of a limited funding. This study identifies the chronic diseases that should be prioritized for the development of CPGs in Korea. Through an objective assessment by using the analytic hierarchy process and a subjective assessment with a survey of expert opinion, high priorities were placed on ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, osteoarthritis, neck pain, chronic kidney disease, and cirrhosis of the liver.

  6. Development of the crop residue and rangeland burning in the 2014 National Emissions Inventory using information from multiple sources.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, George; Rao, Venkatesh; McCarty, Jessica L; Soja, Amber

    2017-05-01

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). In the 2011 NEI, wildland fires, prescribed fires, and crop residue burning collectively were the largest source of PM2.5. This paper summarizes our 2014 NEI method to estimate crop residue burning emissions and grass/pasture burning emissions using remote sensing data and field information and literature-based, crop-specific emission factors. We focus on both the postharvest and pre-harvest burning that takes place with bluegrass, corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, sugarcane and wheat. Estimates for 2014 indicate that over the continental United States (CONUS), crop residue burning excluding all areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay occurred over approximately 1.5 million acres of land and produced 19,600 short tons of PM2.5. For areas identified as Pasture/Grass, Grassland Herbaceous, and Pasture/Hay, biomass burning emissions occurred over approximately 1.6 million acres of land and produced 30,000 short tons of PM2.5. This estimate compares with the 2011 NEI and 2008 NEI as follows: 2008: 49,650 short tons and 2011: 141,180 short tons. Note that in the previous two NEIs rangeland burning was not well defined and so the comparison is not exact. The remote sensing data also provided verification of our existing diurnal profile for crop residue burning emissions used in chemical transport modeling. In addition, the entire database used to estimate this sector of emissions is available on EPA's Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors (CHIEF, http://www3.epa.gov/ttn/chief/index.html ).

  7. A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources on the National Ignition Facility laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Jeffrey D.; Fournier, Kevin B.; Kane, Jave; Langer, Steven; May, Mark J.; Scott, Howard A.

    2011-12-01

    We have begun to use 350-500 kJ of 1/3-micron laser light from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser to create millimeter-scale, bright multi-keV x-ray sources. In the first set of shots we achieved 15%-18% x-ray conversion efficiency into Xe M-shell (˜1.5-2.5 keV), Ar K-shell (˜3 keV) and Xe L-shell (˜4-5.5 keV) emission (Fournier et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 082701, 2010), in good agreement with the emission modeled using a 2D radiation-hydrodynamics code incorporating a modern Detailed Configuration Accounting atomic model in non-LTE (Colvin et al., Phys. Plasmas, 17, 073111, 2010). In this paper we first briefly review details of the computational model and comparisons of the simulations with the Ar/Xe NIF data. We then discuss a computational study showing sensitivity of the x-ray emission to various beam illumination details (beam configuration, pointing, peak power, pulse shape, etc.) and target parameters (size, initial density, etc.), and finally make some predictions of how the x-ray conversion efficiency expected from NIF shots scales with atomic number of the emitting plasma.

  8. A Computational Study of X-ray Emissions from High-Z X-ray Sources on the National Ignition Facility Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Jeffrey; Fournier, Kevin; Kane, Jave; May, Mark

    2010-11-01

    We have begun to use 350-500 kJ of 1/3-micron laser light from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser to create millimeter-scale, bright multi-keV x-ray sources. In the first set of shots we achieved 15% -18% x-ray conversion efficiency into Xe M-shell (˜1.5-2.5 keV), Ar K-shell (˜3 keV) and Xe L-shell (˜4-5.5 keV) emission (Fournier et al., Phys. Plasmas July 2010), in good agreement with the emission modeled using a 2D radiation-hydrodynamics code incorporating a modern Detailed Configuration Accounting atomic model in non-LTE (Colvin et al., Phys. Plasmas, July 2010). In this presentation we first briefly review details of the computational model and comparisons of the simulations with the Ar/Xe NIF data. We then discuss a computational study showing sensitivity of the x-ray emission to various beam illumination details (beam configuration, pointing, peak power, pulse shape, etc.) and target parameters (size, initial density, etc.), and finally make some predictions of how the x-ray conversion efficiency expected from NIF shots scales with atomic number of the emitting plasma.

  9. 75 FR 42030 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... not required to install cyclones on their pelleting operations. Third, this action would add language... operate a cyclone to control emissions from pelleting operations must submit documentation of...

  10. 76 FR 72507 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... maximum degree of emissions reduction achievable through the application of measures, processes, methods..., such a conveyance would be inconsistent with law; or (2) the application of measurement methodology...

  11. 76 FR 24975 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ...The United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is proposing national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) from coal- and oil-fired electric utility steam generating units (EGUs) under Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act) section 112(d) and proposing revised new source performance standards (NSPS) for fossil fuel-fired EGUs under CAA section 111(b). The......

  12. Estimation of the carbon monoxide emissions due to Sandia National Laboratories commuter and on-base traffic for conformity determination

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, Y.; Royer, R.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the analysis and conclusion of an investigation of the carbon monoxide emissions resulting from Sandia National Laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) commuter and on-base traffic for the Clean Air Act (CAA) Conformity Determination. Albuquerque/Bernalillo County was classified as a nonattainment area by the Environmental Protection Agency. Nonattainment area is an area which is shown by monitored data or which is calculated by air quality modeling to exceed any National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the pollutant. Albuquerque/Bernalillo County exceeds the NAAQS for carbon monoxide and ozone. The Conformity Determination was needed to complete the CAA Title V Permitting process for SNL and the DOE. The analysis used the EPA approved MOBILE5a Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions modeling program. This analysis will provide a baseline for mobile sources to allow Sandia to estimate any future activity and how that activity will impact CO emissions. The General Conformity Rule (AQCR 43) requires that operations which will increase CO emissions in nonattaimnent or maintenance areas such as Bernalillo County undergo conformity analyses to determine whether or not they will impact ambient air quality in the area.

  13. Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS) (National) EZ-Base (trade name) Version 7. 3 (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number. SETS was created by EPA to track PRP identification at both NPL (National Priorities List) and non-NPL sites. SETS does not address the range of other administrative duties related to tracking the PRP. These lists represent EPA's preliminary findings on the identities of PRPs. EZ-Base(TM) is a relational data base management system that utilizes a WordPerfect(R) interface and requires no programming skills to either convert or input databases. EZ-Base(TM) allows users to output selected records to merge files for reports or directly to printer. Selections may be made on any combination of field content criteria such as: site identification codes; site name; NPL flag; Potentially Responsible Party (PRP); addressee; title; address; city; state; ZIP notification date GNL and SNL.

  14. Experiential Benefits, Place Meanings, and Environmental Setting Preferences Between Proximate and Distant Visitors to a National Scenic Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups.

  15. 78 FR 66107 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Residual Risk and Technology Review for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... or email. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means the... and Emissions Data Reporting Interface CFR Code of Federal Regulations EIS Emission Inventory System... ICR information collection request IRIS Integrated Risk Information System kg kilogram km kilometer...

  16. 78 FR 24073 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... referred to as the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) NESHAP, and the New Source Performance Standards... ), lead (Pb), and selenium emission limits for all new coal-fired EGUs; the mercury (Hg) emission limit... EGUs Filterable particulate Hydrogen chloride, lb/ Subcategory matter, lb/MWh MWh Mercury, lb/GWh...

  17. 75 FR 9647 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Classification System. This table is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide for readers... with a closed crankcase ventilation system: (1) Install a closed crankcase ventilation system that... filtration emission control system that reduces emissions from the crankcase by filtering the exhaust...

  18. Trends of VOC exposures among a nationally representative sample: Analysis of the NHANES 1988 through 2004 data sets.

    PubMed

    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2011-09-01

    Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous due to emissions from personal, commercial and industrial products, but quantitative and representative information regarding long term exposure trends is lacking. This study characterizes trends from1988 to 2004 for the 15 VOCs measured in blood in five cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a large and representative sample of U.S. adults. Trends were evaluated at various percentiles using linear quantile regression (QR) models, which were adjusted for solvent-related occupations and cotinine levels. Most VOCs showed decreasing trends at all quantiles, e.g., median exposures declined by 2.5 (m, p-xylene) to 6.4 (tetrachloroethene) percent per year over the 15 year period. Trends varied by VOC and quantile, and were grouped into three patterns: similar decreases at all quantiles (including benzene, toluene); most rapid decreases at upper quantiles (ethylbenzene, m, p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chloroform, tetrachloroethene); and fastest declines at central quantiles (1,4-dichlorobenzene). These patterns reflect changes in exposure sources, e.g., upper-percentile exposures may result mostly from occupational exposure, while lower percentile exposures arise from general environmental sources. Both VOC emissions aggregated at the national level and VOC concentrations measured in ambient air also have declined substantially over the study period and are supportive of the exposure trends, although the NHANES data suggest the importance of indoor sources and personal activities on VOC exposures. While piecewise QR models suggest that exposures of several VOCs decreased little or any during the 1990's, followed by more rapid decreases from 1999 to 2004, questions are raised concerning the reliability of VOC data in several of the NHANES cohorts and its applicability as an exposure indicator, as demonstrated by the modest correlation between VOC levels in blood and personal

  19. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  20. Importance of Dose Settings in the X-Ray Systems Used for Interventional Radiology: A National Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Vano, E. Sanchez, R.; Fernandez, J. M.; Rosales, F.; Garcia, M. A.; Sotil, J.; Hernandez, J.; Carrera, F.; Ciudad, J.; Soler, M. M.; Ballester, T.

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the differences in dose settings among the X-ray units involved in a national survey of patient doses in interventional radiology (IR). The survey was promoted by the National Society of IR and involved 10 centers. As part of the agreed quality control for the survey, entrance doses were measured in a 20-cm-thick acrylic phantom simulating a medium-sized patient. A standard digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging protocol for the abdomen was used at the different centers. The center of the phantom was placed at the isocenter of the C-arm system during the measurements to simulate clinical conditions. Units with image intensifiers and flat detectors were involved in the survey. Entrance doses for low, medium, and high fluoroscopy modes and DSA acquisitions were measured for a field of view of 20 cm (or closest). A widespread range of entrance dose values was obtained: 4.5-18.6, 9.2-28.4, and 15.4-51.5 mGy/min in low, medium, and high fluoroscopy mode, respectively, and 0.7-5.0 mGy/DSA image. The ratios between the maximum and the minimum values measured (3-4 for fluoroscopy and 7 for DSA) suggest an important margin for optimization. The calibration factor for the dose-area product meter was also included in the survey and resulted in a mean value of 0.73, with a standard deviation of 0.07. It seems clear that the dose setting for the X-ray systems used in IR requires better criteria and approaches.

  1. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the......

  2. Agenda setting for smoking control in Japan, 1945-1990: influence of the mass media on national health policy making.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    Agenda setting is regarded as a key process in policymaking. This study first examines the trends in newspaper articles on smoking and health and the debates on the issue in the Diet in Japan for the period 1945-1990. Then relationships of those articles and debates with national administrative actions are analyzed. Although the media helped set the agenda in the Diet before the emergence of the nonsmokers' rights movement, it did not do so thereafter. On the other hand, media reports continued to be associated with various aspects of administrative policy making throughout the study period and played an important role in mobilizing administrative agencies. Effects of mass media on agencies were regarded as largely independent of the debates in the Diet. It is also noted that simple "scientific" reports on the health hazards of smoking had no association either with agency action or with Diet debates. This indicates that issue building, which consists of creating a package of ideas about the facts, the causal theories, the responsibilities, and the feasible solutions, is important when scientific facts are to be dealt with by policymakers.

  3. Estimating national landfill methane emissions: an application of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Waste Model in Panama.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Melissa; Coburn, Jeffrey B; Salinas, Edgar

    2008-05-01

    This paper estimates national methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites in Panama over the time period 1990-2020 using both the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model spreadsheet and the default emissions estimate approach presented in the 1996 IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. The IPCC Waste Model has the ability to calculate emissions from a variety of solid waste disposal site types, taking into account country- or region-specific waste composition and climate information, and can be used with a limited amount of data. Countries with detailed data can also run the model with country-specific values. The paper discusses methane emissions from solid waste disposal; explains the differences between the two methodologies in terms of data needs, assumptions, and results; describes solid waste disposal circumstances in Panama; and presents the results of this analysis. It also demonstrates the Waste Model's ability to incorporate landfill gas recovery data and to make projections. The former default method methane emissions estimates are 25 Gg in 1994, and range from 23.1 Gg in 1990 to a projected 37.5 Gg in 2020. The Waste Model estimates are 26.7 Gg in 1994, ranging from 24.6 Gg in 1990 to 41.6 Gg in 2020. Emissions estimates for Panama produced by the new model were, on average, 8% higher than estimates produced by the former default methodology. The increased estimate can be attributed to the inclusion of all solid waste disposal in Panama (as opposed to only disposal in managed landfills), but the increase was offset somewhat by the different default factors and regional waste values between the 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines, and the use of the first-order decay model with a time delay for waste degradation in the IPCC Waste Model.

  4. MercNet: a national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schmeltz, David; Evers, David C; Driscoll, Charles T; Artz, Richard; Cohen, Mark; Gay, David; Haeuber, Richard; Krabbenhoft, David P; Mason, Robert; Morris, Kristi; Wiener, James G

    2011-10-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls.

  5. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  6. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pollutants using the "latest scientific knowledge" at levels that, in the judgment of the Administrator, are "requisite to protect public health" while "allowing an adequate margin of safety" without considering the cost of implementing the NAAQS. The NAAQS are set using scientific knowledge to inform the Administrator's policy judgments on each NAAQS. Recently, there has been increasing tension and debate over the role of scientific knowledge versus policy judgment in the setting of NAAQS. This paper reviews key elements of this debate drawing on the opinion of Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, in Whitman v. American Trucking Associations, to resolve the conundrum posed by the CAA language. I conclude that scientists should carefully distinguish between their interpretations of scientific knowledge on specific pollutants and their personal preferences as to a given policy outcome (i.e., specific level and form of the NAAQS), recognizing that these are policy judgments as to acceptable levels of risk if the science does not identify a threshold level below which there are no identifiable health risks. These policy judgments are exclusively delegated by the CAA to the EPA Administrator who needs to articulate the basis for their policy judgments on the level and form of the NAAQS and associated level of acceptable risk.

  7. Applicability Determination Letters for 40 C.F.R. Part 63 Subpart M, National Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This pages contains two letters on the applicability of the National Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities (40 CFR 63, Subpart M). Both letters clarify what constitutes instillation of a dry cleaning machine.

  8. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Source Categories: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaning Facilities - 1993 Final Rule (58 FR 49354)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the September 22, 1993 Final Rule for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaning Facilities.

  9. Summary of 2012 Reconsideration Public Comments and Responses for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers at Area Sources: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has a 12/2012 document that provides EPA’s responses to public comments on EPA’s Proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters

  10. List of Potentially Affected Sources for the Asphalt Processing and Roofing Manufacturing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) November 2001

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a November 2001 list of sources identified by EPA as potentially affected by the Asphalt Processing and Roofing Manufacturing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): Halogenated Solvent Cleaning - 1993 Proposed Rule and Test Method & Notice of Public Hearing (58 FR 62566)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the November 29, 1993 Proposed Rule and Test Method & Notice of Public Hearing for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): Halogenated Solvent Cleaning.

  12. Summary of Public Comments and Responses for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Major Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has a 12/2012 document that provides EPA’s responses to public comments on EPA’s Proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters

  13. Flow Charts for Determining Your Requirements: Nine Metal Fabrication and Finishing Source Categories Area Sources National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Subpart XXXXXX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a July 2008 document that has flow charts to help determine if this National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) rule for Nine metal Fabrication and Finishing Area Source Categories applies to your facility.

  14. Determining national greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy using the Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Rechberger, Helmut; Cencic, Oliver; Fellner, Johann

    2016-03-01

    Different directives of the European Union require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of electricity that is produced from biomass in the waste feed, as well as the amount of fossil CO2 emissions generated by the combustion of fossil waste materials. This paper describes the application of the Balance Method for determining the overall amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions from waste incineration in Austria. The results of 10 Austrian WTE plants (annual waste throughput of around 2,300 kt) demonstrate large seasonal variations in the specific fossil CO2 emissions of the plants as well as large differences between the facilities (annual means range from 32±2 to 51±3 kg CO(2,foss)/GJ heating value). An overall amount of around 924 kt/yr of fossil CO2 for all 10 WTE plants is determined. In comparison biogenic (climate neutral) CO2 emissions amount to 1,187 kt/yr, which corresponds to 56% of the total CO2 emissions from waste incineration. The total energy input via waste feed to the 10 facilities is about 22,500 TJ/yr, of which around 48% can be assigned to biogenic and thus renewable sources.

  15. Isotopic Characterisation of Methane Emissions: use of Keeling-plot Methods to Identify Source Signatures in Boreal Wetlands and Other Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; France, J.; Lanoiselle, M.; Zazzeri, G.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    Different methane sources have different δ13CCH4 and δDCH4 signatures, which potentially provides a powerful constraint on models of methane emission budgets. However source signatures remain poorly known and need to be studied in more detail if isotopic measurements of ambient air are to be used to constrain regional and global emissions. The Keeling plot method (plotting δ13CCH4 or δDCH4 against 1/CH4 concentration in samples of ambient air in the close vicinity of known sources) directly assesses the source signature of the methane that is actually emitted to the air. This contrasts with chamber studies, measuring air within a chamber, where local micro-meteorological and microbiological processes are occurring. Keeling plot methods have been applied to a wide variety of settings in this study. The selection of appropriate background measurements for Keeling plot analysis is also considered. The method has been used on a local scale to identify the source signature of summer emissions from subarctic wetlands in Fennoscandia. Samples are collected from low height (0.3-3m) over the wetlands during 24-hour periods, to collect daily emissions maxima (warm late afternoons), inversion maxima (at the coldest time of the 24hr daylight: usually earliest morning), and ambient minima when mixing occurs (often mid afternoon). Some results are comparable to parallel chamber studies, but in other cases there are small but significant shifts between CH4 in chamber air and CH4 that is dispersing in the above-ground air. On a regional to continental scale the isotopic signature of bulk sources of emissions can be identified using Keeling plots. The methodology is very applicable for use in urban and urban-rural settings. For example, the winter SE monsoon sweeps from inland central Asia over China to Hong Kong. Application of back trajectory analysis and Keeling plot methods implied coal emissions may be a significant Chinese source of methane in January, although in other

  16. Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency under controlled conditions for household biomass cookstoves and implications for metrics useful in setting international test standards.

    PubMed

    Jetter, James; Zhao, Yongxin; Smith, Kirk R; Khan, Bernine; Yelverton, Tiffany; Decarlo, Peter; Hays, Michael D

    2012-10-02

    Realistic metrics and methods for testing household biomass cookstoves are required to develop standards needed by international policy makers, donors, and investors. Application of consistent test practices allows emissions and energy efficiency performance to be benchmarked and enables meaningful comparisons among traditional and advanced stove types. In this study, 22 cookstoves burning six fuel types (wood, charcoal, pellets, corn cobs, rice hulls, and plant oil) at two fuel moisture levels were examined under laboratory-controlled operating conditions as outlined in the Water Boiling Test (WBT) protocol, Version 4. Pollutant emissions (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, total hydrocarbons, and ultrafine particles) were continuously monitored. Fine particle mass was measured gravimetrically for each WBT phase. Additional measurements included cookstove power, energy efficiency, and fuel use. Emission factors are given on the basis of fuel energy, cooking energy, fuel mass, time, and cooking task or activity. The lowest PM(2.5) emissions were 74 mg MJ(delivered)(-1) from a technologically advanced cookstove compared with 700-1400 mg MJ(delivered)(-1) from the base-case open 3-stone cookfire. The highest thermal efficiency was 53% compared with 14-15% for the 3-stone cookfire. Based on these laboratory-controlled test results and observations, recommendations for developing potentially useful metrics for setting international standards are suggested.

  17. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  18. Effects of the updated national emission regulation in China on circulating fluidized bed boilers and the solutions to meet them.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingji; Yang, Hairui; Wu, Yuxin; Lv, Junfu; Yue, Guangxi

    2013-06-18

    The advantage of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in China is their ability to utilize low rank coal with low cost emission control. However, the new National Emission Regulation (NER) issued in early 2012 brings much more stringent challenges on the CFB industries, which also causes much attention from other countries. Based on the principle of a CFB boiler and previous operating experience, it is possible for the CFB boilers to meet the new NER and maintain the advantage of low cost emission control, while, more influences should be considered in their design and operation. To meet the requirement of the new NER, the fly ash collector should adopt a bag house or combination of electrostatic precipitator and bag filter to ensure dust emissions of less than 30 mg · Nm(-3). For SO2 emission control, the bed temperature should be strictly lower than 900 °C to maintain high reactivity and pores. The limestone particle size distribution should be ranged within a special scope to optimize the residence time and gas-solid reaction. At the same time, the injecting point should be optimized to ensure fast contact of lime with oxygen. In such conditions, the desulfurization efficiency could be increased more than 90%. For lower sulfur content fuels (<1.5%, referred value based on the heating value of standard coal of China), increasing Ca/S enough could decrease SO2 emissions lower than that of the new NER, 100 mg · Nm(-3). For fuels with sulfur content higher than 1.5%, some simplified systems for flue gas desulfurization, such as flash dryer absorber (FDA), are needed. And the NOx emissions of a CFB can be controlled to less than 100 mg · Nm(-3) without any equipment at a bed temperature lower than 900 °C for fuels with low volatiles content (<12%), while for fuels with high volatiles, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) should be considered. Due to the unique temperature in CFB as well as the circulating ash, the efficiency of SNCR could reach as high as

  19. 75 FR 67625 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... approval process for future applications, a State or local agency may submit a one-time demonstration that... way to ensure national consistency in the application of the standards or requirements of CAA section... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of...

  20. DOCUMENTATION FOR THE GRIDDED HOURLY ATRAZINE EMISSIONS DATA SET FOR THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY: A FINAL CONTRACT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to develop effective strategies for toxics management, the Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in 1994, launched an ambitious five year program to conduct a mass balance study of selected toxics p...

  1. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous ari pollutants registered and and unregistered stack (powered exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    On February 3, 1993, US DOE Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Div. of US EPA, Region X. The compliance order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford site to determine which are subject to the continuous emission measurement requirements in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required The provision of a written compliance plan to meet the requirements of the compliance order. A compliance plan was submitted to EPA, Region X, on April 30, 1993. It set as one of the milestones, the complete assessment of the Hanford Site 84 stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health, by December 17, 1993. This milestone was accomplished. The compliance plan also called for reaching a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement; this was reached on February 7, 1994, between DOE Richland Operations and EPA, Region X. The milestone to assess the unregistered stacks (powered exhaust) by August 31, 1994, was met. This update presents assessments for 72 registered and 22 unregistered stacks with potential emissions > 0.1 mrem/yr.

  2. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... notification requirements of Sec. 63.6645(f). (i) The stationary RICE is a new or reconstructed emergency stationary RICE with a site rating of more than 500 brake HP located at a major source of HAP emissions. (ii) The stationary RICE is a new or reconstructed limited use stationary RICE with a site rating of...

  3. 75 FR 41991 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... facilities that are not required to install cyclones on their pelleting operations. Third, this action adds... install cyclones on their pelleting operations; and adds language to the regulatory text that was... operate a cyclone to control emissions from pelleting operations must submit documentation of...

  4. 76 FR 29527 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... number of commercial and industrial products. Producing these resins involves batch reactors where vinyl... resin stripper(s) (e.g., the reactor, resin stripper, reactor used as a stripper, storage and feed... exchange system); and other emission sources, such as opening a reactor and other components...

  5. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... addition of total hydrocarbon and dioxin and furan emissions limits for reverberatory and electric furnaces... equivalency quotient THC total hydrocarbons TTN Technology Transfer Network UMRA Unfunded Mandates Reform Act... and technology reviews. Finalizing first-time total hydrocarbon (THC) and dioxin and furan...

  6. 76 FR 81327 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... or email. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means the... Central Data Exchange CEEL Community Emergency Exposure Levels CEMS Continuous Emissions Monitoring System... Information Collection Request IRIS Integrated Risk Information System ISIS Industrial Sectors...

  7. 75 FR 31895 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... mercury emissions from biomass-fired and oil-fired area source boilers and for other hazardous air... of 10 million Btu per hour or greater undergo an energy assessment on the boiler system to identify cost-effective energy conservation measures. DATES: Comments must be received on or before July...

  8. Assessing Satellite-based Fire Data for use in the National Emissions Inventory

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass burning is significant to emission estimated because: (1) it can be a major contributor of particulate matter and other pollutants; (2) it is one of the most poorly documented of all sources; (3) it can adversely affect human health; and (4) it has been identified as a si...

  9. 76 FR 80597 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... or email. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means the... services. \\1\\ North American Industry Classification System. This table is not intended to be exhaustive... EPA Method 10 or install, operate, and maintain CO continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS)...

  10. 77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... or email. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means the... of the best system of emission reductions achievable which, taking into consideration the cost of... System (CEMS) (see section 63.1348 (75 FR 55056)). Based on the information the EPA now has, we...

  11. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... security. \\1\\ North American Industry Classification System. This table is not intended to be exhaustive... operate and maintain the emissions control systems. Consistent with the legislative history, EPA can... systems. The commenters pointed out that unlike engines located at major sources, which are often...

  12. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... oxidation catalyst or NSCR,'' and this action corrects that inadvertent error. Finally, this action corrects... . . . 1. 4SRB stationary RICE complying with the a. Maintain your catalyst so requirement to reduce formaldehyde that the pressure drop emissions by 76 percent or more (or by 75 across the catalyst does...

  13. Modeling the effects of changes in New Source Review on national SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from electricity-generating units

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Evans; Benjamin F. Hobbs; Craig Oren; Karen L. Palmer

    2007-03-15

    The Clean Air Act establishes New Source Review (NSR) programs that apply to the construction or modification of major stationary emissions sources. In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency revised its rules to narrow the applicability of NSR to facility renovations. Congress then mandated a National Research Council study of the effects of the rules. An electricity-sector model - the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) - was used to explore the possible effects of the equipment replacement provision (ERP), the principal NSR change that was to affect the power-generation industry. The studies focused in particular on coal-fired electricity generating units, EGUs, for two reasons. First, coal-fired EGUs are important contributors of these pollutants, accounting for approximately 70 and 20% of nations SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in 2004, respectively. Second, the shares of total capacity of large coal-fired EGUs that lack flue-gas desulfurization to control SO{sub 2} and selective catalytic reduction to reduce NOx emissions are 62 and 63% respectively. Although the analysis cannot predict effects on local emissions, assuming that the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is implemented, we find that stringent enforcement of the previous NSR rules would likely lead to no or limited decreases in national emissions compared to policies such as ERP. Our results indicate that tighter emissions caps could achieve further decreases in national emissions more cost-effectively than NSR programs. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A framework and a set of tools called Nutting models to estimate retention capacities and loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in rivers at catchment and national level (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    The Nutting-N and Nutting-P models (Dupas et al., 2013, 2015) have been developed to estimate Nitrogen and Phosphorus nonpoint-source emissions to surface water, using readily available data. These models were inspired from US model SPARROW (Smith al., 1997) and European model GREEN (Grizzetti et al., 2008), i.e. statistical approaches consisting of linking nitrogen and phosphorus surplus to catchment's land and rivers characteristics to find the catchment relative retention capacities. The nutrient load (L) at the outlet of each catchment is expressed as: L=R*(B*DS+PS) [1] where DS is diffuse sources (i.e. surplus in kg.ha-1/yr-1 for N, P storage in soil for P), PS is point sources from domestic and industrial origin (kg.ha-1.yr-1), R and B are the river system and basin reduction factor, respectively and they combine observed variables and calibrated parameters. The model was calibrated on independent catchments for the 2005-2009 and 2008-2012 periods. Variables were selected according to Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in order to optimize the predictive performance of the models. From these basic models, different improvements have been realized to build a framework and a set of tools: 1) a routing module has been added in order to improve estimations on 4 or 5 stream order, i.e. upscaling the basic Nutting approach; 2) a territorial module, in order to test the models at local scale (from 500 to 5000 km²); 3) a seasonal estimation has been investigated. The basic approach as well territorial application will be illustrated. These tools allow water manager to identify areas at risk where high nutrients loads are estimated, as well areas where retention is potentially high and can buffer high nutrient sources. References Dupas R., Curie F., Gascuel-Odoux C., Moatar F., Delmas M., Parnaudeau, V., Durand P., 2013. Assessing N emissions in surface water at the national level: Comparison of country-wide vs. regionalized models. Science of the Total Environment

  15. National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants compliance verification plan for the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, M.L.

    1986-07-28

    This documentation was prepared for submittal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in order to meet the requirements of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). This document will emphasize the control of radioactive emissions from the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. The TSCA Incinerator is a dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator that is under construction at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant to destroy radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the TSCA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated at the facilities managed by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO). Destruction of the PCBs and the hazardous organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. The incinerator will thermally destroy the organic constituents of the liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incinerator, an extensive off-gas treatment facility is being constructed to remove particulate and acidic gas air emissions.

  16. Non-amplified Quantitative Detection of Nucleic Acid Sequences Using a Gold Nanoparticle Probe Set and Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyonchol Kim,; Atsushi Kira,; Kenji Yasuda,

    2010-06-01

    For the precise detection of the number of expressed biomarkers at the single-cell level, we have developed a method of quantifying and specifying target DNA fragments by using a set of gold nanoparticles as labels and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to measure the number and sizes of gold nanoparticles attached to target samples. One or more target DNAs on a substrate were labeled with a set of different-sized gold nanoparticle probes having complementary sequences to different target candidates. The type and number of the target DNAs having a specific sequence were identified by counting the attached nanoparticles of a specific size in FE-SEM images. The results evaluated using a DNA microarray showed high specificity and sensitivity, and a linear correlation between the number of attached particles and the target DNA concentration, indicating the feasibility of quantitative detection in the femtomolar to nanomolar concentration range.

  17. The relationship between national-level carbon dioxide emissions and population size: an assessment of regional and temporal variation, 1960-2005.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Andrew K; Clark, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the regional and temporal differences in the statistical relationship between national-level carbon dioxide emissions and national-level population size. The authors analyze panel data from 1960 to 2005 for a diverse sample of nations, and employ descriptive statistics and rigorous panel regression modeling techniques. Initial descriptive analyses indicate that all regions experienced overall increases in carbon emissions and population size during the 45-year period of investigation, but with notable differences. For carbon emissions, the sample of countries in Asia experienced the largest percent increase, followed by countries in Latin America, Africa, and lastly the sample of relatively affluent countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania combined. For population size, the sample of countries in Africa experienced the largest percent increase, followed countries in Latin America, Asia, and the combined sample of countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania. Findings for two-way fixed effects panel regression elasticity models of national-level carbon emissions indicate that the estimated elasticity coefficient for population size is much smaller for nations in Africa than for nations in other regions of the world. Regarding potential temporal changes, from 1960 to 2005 the estimated elasticity coefficient for population size decreased by 25% for the sample of Africa countries, 14% for the sample of Asia countries, 6.5% for the sample of Latin America countries, but remained the same in size for the sample of countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania. Overall, while population size continues to be the primary driver of total national-level anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, the findings for this study highlight the need for future research and policies to recognize that the actual impacts of population size on national-level carbon emissions differ across both time and region.

  18. Exploring Summer Medical Care Within the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting: A Perspective From the Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Over the last few decades, the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) has made changes related to the increase in sanctioned team activities during summer athletics. These changes may affect how athletic training services are provided. Objective:  To investigate the methods by which athletic training departments of NCAA institutions manage expectations regarding athletic training services during the summer. Design:  Mixed-methods qualitative and quantitative study. Setting:  The NCAA Division I. Patients or Other Participants:  Twenty-two athletic trainers (13 men, 9 women) participated. All were employed full time within the NCAA Division I setting. Participants were 35 ± 8 years of age (range, 26−52 years), with 12 ± 7 years (range, 3−29 years) of athletic training experience. Data Collection and Analysis:  All participants completed a series of questions online that consisted of closed- (demographic and Likert-scale 5-point) and open-ended items that addressed the research questions. Descriptive statistics, frequency distributions, and phenomenologic analyses were completed with the data. Peer review and multiple-analyst triangulation established credibility. Results:  Summer athletic training services included 3 primary mechanisms: individual medical care, shared medical care, or a combination of the 2. Participants reported working 40 ± 10 hours during the summer. Likert-item analysis showed that participants were moderately satisfied with their summer medical care structure (3.3 ± 1.0) and with the flexibility of summer schedules (3.0 ± 1.2). Yet the qualitative analysis revealed that perceptions of summer medical care were more positive for shared-care participants than for individual- or combination-care participants. The perceived effect on the athletic trainer included increased workload and expectations and a negative influence on work-life balance, particularly in terms of decreased schedule flexibility and

  19. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  20. 75 FR 8807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... approval criteria in 112(l)(5) and Subpart E. To streamline the approval process for future applications, a... Treatment Works. Subpart EEEE--Organic Liquids Distribution (Non- Gasoline). Subpart WWWW--Reinforced... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of...

  1. 76 FR 14807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... for future applications, a State or local agency may submit a one-time demonstration that it has... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those... General Provisions...... X X X X F Synthetic Organic X X X X Chemical Manufacturing Industry. G...

  2. Association between Stroke Status and Depression in a Community Setting: The 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mina; Oh, Gyung-Jae

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Previous studies have examined the risk factors for depression in stroke patients, but little information is available on the relationship between stroke status and depression in the community-dwelling general population. We evaluated the association between stroke status and depression using representative nationwide data. Methods In total, 3,487 subjects (aged ≥40 years) who participated in version VI-2 of the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2014 were included. We compared the prevalence of depression in 120 community-dwelling stroke patients and 3,367 nonstroke controls using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) was 16.7% in stroke patients and 6.4% in controls. In the unadjusted model, depression was more common in stroke patients than in nonstroke controls [odds ratio (OR), 2.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.79–4.86]. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and comorbidities, stroke diagnosis was a significant risk factor for depression (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.06–3.24). Specifically, a diagnosis of stroke in patients aged <60 years (OR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.81–8.09) and the presence of stroke complications (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.25–6.13) remained significant risk factors for depression even after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions In a community setting, poststroke survivors had a higher prevalence of depression, and stroke was an independent risk factor for depression. Public psychosocial interventions are needed to improve the mental health care of community-dwelling stroke survivors. PMID:27868400

  3. Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, C.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Hunt, A.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize and quantify volatile emissions at Hot Spring Basin (HSB), a large acid-sulfate region that lies just outside the northeastern edge of the 640??ka Yellowstone Caldera. Relative to other thermal areas in Yellowstone, HSB gases are rich in He and H2, and mildly enriched in CH4 and H2S. Gas compositions are consistent with boiling directly off a deep geothermal liquid at depth as it migrates toward the surface. This fluid, and the gases evolved from it, carries geochemical signatures of magmatic volatiles and water-rock reactions with multiple crustal sources, including limestones or quartz-rich sediments with low K/U (or 40*Ar/4*He). Variations in gas chemistry across the region reflect reservoir heterogeneity and variable degrees of boiling. Gas-geothermometer temperatures approach 300????C and suggest that the reservoir feeding HSB is one of the hottest at Yellowstone. Diffuse CO2 flux in the western basin of HSB, as measured by accumulation-chamber methods, is similar in magnitude to other acid-sulfate areas of Yellowstone and is well correlated to shallow soil temperatures. The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across all the thermal/altered area suggests that 410 ?? 140??t d- 1 CO2 are emitted at HSB (vent emissions not included). Diffuse fluxes of H2S were measured in Yellowstone for the first time and likely exceed 2.4??t d- 1 at HSB. Comparing estimates of the total estimated diffuse H2S emission to the amount of sulfur as SO42- in streams indicates ~ 50% of the original H2S in the gas emission is lost into shallow groundwater, precipitated as native sulfur, or vented through fumaroles. We estimate the heat output of HSB as ~ 140-370??MW using CO2 as a tracer for steam condensate, but not including the contribution from fumaroles and hydrothermal vents. Overall, the diffuse heat and volatile fluxes of HSB are as great as some active volcanoes, but they are a small fraction (1-3% for CO2, 2-8% for heat) of that estimated for the entire

  4. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part I: study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set.

    PubMed

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Léonardis, Thierry; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    The global objective of this two part study was (1) to conduct VOC measurements in order to further understand VOC behaviour in an urban area influenced by industrial emissions and (2) to evaluate the role of these specific sources relative to urban sources. In this first paper a thorough descriptive and qualitative analysis is performed. A second article will be devoted to the quantitative analysis using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modelling. In the Dunkerque (France) area most industrial sources are situated in the north and the west of the receptor site whereas urban and traffic sources are located in the south and the east. A data set constituted of nearly 330,000 VOC data has been developed from the hourly measurements of 53 VOCs for 1 year from September 2002 to August 2003. It also contains meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind direction and wind speed. Using different graphical methods, the influence of the different sources on the ambient VOC concentrations has been highlighted at different time scales. In this work, the analysis of daily time series for the 53 VOCs shows the influence of traffic exhaust emissions because of the increases at traffic rush hours. Besides, the seasonal evolution of the VOC/acetylene ratio points out the influence of evaporative sources on ambient VOC concentration. Concerning other point sources, the variations of measured VOC concentrations for different wind directions and scatter plots of VOC hourly concentrations highlight the influence of some industrial sources.

  5. 75 FR 22469 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Gold Mine Ore Processing and Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    .... Where can I get a copy of this document? D. When would a public hearing occur? II. Addition to Section... except in accordance with procedures set forth in 40 CFR part 2. C. Where can I get a copy of this... site. If a hearing is requested by May 10, 2010, any persons interested in presenting oral testimony...

  6. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

  7. National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) Position Statement on Early Childhood Certification for Teachers of Children 8 Years Old and Younger in Public School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators' (NAECTE) position statement on early childhood certification for teachers of children 8 years old and younger in public school settings. The association requires public schools to employ and assign teachers with early childhood certification/endorsement to early…

  8. An Analysis of a Selected Set of Exercises from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, Social Studies 1971-1972: Knowledge of Institutions--Task 3. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, C. Benjamin

    The Task 2 report, representing part of an investigation coordinated by a committee working under the auspices of the National Council for the Social Studies, provides an analysis of the responses to a selected set of 48 exercises within the NAEP for Social Studies. One section of the exercises deals with the knowledge of structural elements of…

  9. National Survey of Educational Support Provision to Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education Settings. A Technical Report June 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for the Study of Postsecondary Educational Supports, Honolulu, HI.

    This technical report provides an overview and profile of the provision of educational supports and accommodations to students with disabilities in postsecondary programs across the United States. It is based on an analysis of a national survey conducted by the National Center for the Study of Postsecondary Educational Supports at the University…

  10. Assessment of Microphysical Models in the National Combustion Code (NCC) for Aircraft Particulate Emissions: Particle Loss in Sampling Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2008-01-01

    This paper at first describes the fluid network approach recently implemented into the National Combustion Code (NCC) for the simulation of transport of aerosols (volatile particles and soot) in the particulate sampling systems. This network-based approach complements the other two approaches already in the NCC, namely, the lower-order temporal approach and the CFD-based approach. The accuracy and the computational costs of these three approaches are then investigated in terms of their application to the prediction of particle losses through sample transmission and distribution lines. Their predictive capabilities are assessed by comparing the computed results with the experimental data. The present work will help establish standard methodologies for measuring the size and concentration of particles in high-temperature, high-velocity jet engine exhaust. Furthermore, the present work also represents the first step of a long term effort of validating physics-based tools for the prediction of aircraft particulate emissions.

  11. Meteorological Processes Affecting the Transport of Emissions from the Navajo Generating Station to Grand Canyon National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Charles G.; Chen, Jun; Dye, Timothy S.; Willard Richards, L.; Blumenthal, Donald L.

    1999-08-01

    During the 1990 Navajo Generating Station (NGS) Winter Visibility Study, a network of surface and upper-air meteorological measurement systems was operated in and around Grand Canyon National Park to investigate atmospheric processes in complex terrain that affected the transport of emissions from the nearby NGS. This network included 15 surface monitoring stations, eight balloon sounding stations (equipped with a mix of rawinsonde, tethersonde, and Airsonde sounding systems), three Doppler radar wind profilers, and four Doppler sodars. Measurements were made from 10 January through 31 March 1990. Data from this network were used to prepare objectively analyzed wind fields, trajectories, and streak lines to represent transport of emissions from the NGS, and to prepare isentropic analyses of the data. The results of these meteorological analyses were merged in the form of a computer animation that depicted the streak line analyses along with measurements of perfluorocarbon tracer, SO2, and sulfate aerosol concentrations, as well as visibility measurements collected by an extensive surface monitoring network. These analyses revealed that synoptic-scale circulations associated with the passage of low pressure systems followed by the formation of high pressure ridges accompanied the majority of cases when NGS emittants appeared to be transported to the Grand Canyon. The authors' results also revealed terrain influences on transport within the topography of the study area, especially mesoscale flows inside the Lake Powell basin and along the plain above the Marble Canyon.

  12. Modeling the effects of changes in new source review on national SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from electricity-generating units

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Evans; Benjamin F. Hobbs; Craig Oren; Karen L. Palmer

    2008-01-15

    The Clean Air Act establishes New Source Review (NSR) programs that apply to construction or modification of major stationary sources. In 2002 and 2003, EPA revised its rules to narrow NSR's coverage of renovations. Congress mandated a National Research Council study of the revisions' impacts. In that study, we used an electricity-sector model to explore possible effects of the equipment replacement provision (ERP), the principal NSR change directed at power plants. We find that, assuming implementation of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), tight enforcement of the prerevision NSR rules would likely lead to no or limited decreases in national emissions compared to policies such as ERP. However, emissions might shift forward in time because the previous NSR rules would depress allowance prices, discouraging banking and encouraging allowance use. Only under the most aggressive prerevision NSR enforcement scenario, in which essentially all coal capacity is compelled to retrofit controls by 2020, do NOx emissions fall below ERP levels. Even then, total 2007-2020 SO{sub 2} emissions are unaffected. Further decreases in national emissions could be accomplished more cheaply by tighter emissions caps than through NSR because caps provide incentives for efficient operating strategies, such as fuel switching, as well as retrofits. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Modeling the effects of changes in new source review on national SO2 and NOx emissions from electricity-generating units.

    PubMed

    Evans, David A; Hobbs, Benjamin F; Oren, Craig; Palmer, Karen L

    2008-01-15

    The Clean Air Act establishes New Source Review (NSR) programs that apply to construction or modification of major stationary sources. In 2002 and 2003, EPA revised its rules to narrow NSR's coverage of renovations. Congress mandated a National Research Council study of the revisions' impacts. In that study, we used an electricity-sector model to explore possible effects of the equipment replacement provision (ERP), the principal NSR change directed at power plants. We find that, assuming implementation of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), tight enforcement of the prerevision NSR rules would likely lead to no or limited decreases in national emissions compared to policies such as ERP. However, emissions might shift forward in time because the previous NSR rules would depress allowance prices, discouraging banking and encouraging allowance use. Only under the most aggressive prerevision NSR enforcement scenario, in which essentially all coal capacity is compelled to retrofit controls by 2020, do NOx emissions fall below ERP levels. Even then, total 2007-2020 SO2 emissions are unaffected. Further decreases in national emissions could be accomplished more cheaply by tighter emissions caps than through NSR because caps provide incentives for efficient operating strategies, such as fuel switching, as well as retrofits.

  14. Do forests best mitigate CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by setting them aside for maximization of carbon storage or by management for fossil fuel substitution?

    PubMed

    Taeroe, Anders; Mustapha, Walid Fayez; Stupak, Inge; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2017-03-25

    Forests' potential to mitigate carbon emissions to the atmosphere is heavily debated and a key question is if forests left unmanaged to store carbon in biomass and soil provide larger carbon emission reductions than forests kept under forest management for production of wood that can substitute fossil fuels and fossil fuel intensive materials. We defined a modelling framework for calculation of the carbon pools and fluxes along the forest energy and wood product supply chains over 200 years for three forest management alternatives (FMA): 1) a traditionally managed European beech forest, as a business-as-usual case, 2) an energy poplar plantation, and 3) a set-aside forest left unmanaged for long-term storage of carbon. We calculated the cumulative net carbon emissions (CCE) and carbon parity times (CPT) of the managed forests relative to the unmanaged forest. Energy poplar generally had the lowest CCE when using coal as the reference fossil fuel. With natural gas as the reference fossil fuel, the CCE of the business-as-usual and the energy poplar was nearly equal, with the unmanaged forest having the highest CCE after 40 years. CPTs ranged from 0 to 156 years, depending on the applied model assumptions. CCE and CPT were especially sensitive to the reference fossil fuel, material alternatives to wood, forest growth rates for the three FMAs, and energy conversion efficiencies. Assumptions about the long-term steady-state levels of carbon stored in the unmanaged forest had a limited effect on CCE after 200 years. Analyses also showed that CPT was not a robust measure for ranking of carbon mitigation benefits.

  15. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (``D``) Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ``D`` pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels.

  16. Self-organising maps and correlation analysis as a tool to explore patterns in excitation-emission matrix data sets and to discriminate dissolved organic matter fluorescence components.

    PubMed

    Ejarque-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Butturini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of organic compounds, ubiquitous in marine and freshwater systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy, by means of Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEM), has become an indispensable tool to study DOM sources, transport and fate in aquatic ecosystems. However the statistical treatment of large and heterogeneous EEM data sets still represents an important challenge for biogeochemists. Recently, Self-Organising Maps (SOM) has been proposed as a tool to explore patterns in large EEM data sets. SOM is a pattern recognition method which clusterizes and reduces the dimensionality of input EEMs without relying on any assumption about the data structure. In this paper, we show how SOM, coupled with a correlation analysis of the component planes, can be used both to explore patterns among samples, as well as to identify individual fluorescence components. We analysed a large and heterogeneous EEM data set, including samples from a river catchment collected under a range of hydrological conditions, along a 60-km downstream gradient, and under the influence of different degrees of anthropogenic impact. According to our results, chemical industry effluents appeared to have unique and distinctive spectral characteristics. On the other hand, river samples collected under flash flood conditions showed homogeneous EEM shapes. The correlation analysis of the component planes suggested the presence of four fluorescence components, consistent with DOM components previously described in the literature. A remarkable strength of this methodology was that outlier samples appeared naturally integrated in the analysis. We conclude that SOM coupled with a correlation analysis procedure is a promising tool for studying large and heterogeneous EEM data sets.

  17. Self-Organising Maps and Correlation Analysis as a Tool to Explore Patterns in Excitation-Emission Matrix Data Sets and to Discriminate Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Components

    PubMed Central

    Ejarque-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Butturini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of organic compounds, ubiquitous in marine and freshwater systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy, by means of Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEM), has become an indispensable tool to study DOM sources, transport and fate in aquatic ecosystems. However the statistical treatment of large and heterogeneous EEM data sets still represents an important challenge for biogeochemists. Recently, Self-Organising Maps (SOM) has been proposed as a tool to explore patterns in large EEM data sets. SOM is a pattern recognition method which clusterizes and reduces the dimensionality of input EEMs without relying on any assumption about the data structure. In this paper, we show how SOM, coupled with a correlation analysis of the component planes, can be used both to explore patterns among samples, as well as to identify individual fluorescence components. We analysed a large and heterogeneous EEM data set, including samples from a river catchment collected under a range of hydrological conditions, along a 60-km downstream gradient, and under the influence of different degrees of anthropogenic impact. According to our results, chemical industry effluents appeared to have unique and distinctive spectral characteristics. On the other hand, river samples collected under flash flood conditions showed homogeneous EEM shapes. The correlation analysis of the component planes suggested the presence of four fluorescence components, consistent with DOM components previously described in the literature. A remarkable strength of this methodology was that outlier samples appeared naturally integrated in the analysis. We conclude that SOM coupled with a correlation analysis procedure is a promising tool for studying large and heterogeneous EEM data sets. PMID:24906009

  18. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS AS A BASIS FOR SETTING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  19. Assessment of emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in Indonesia and impacts of national policy for elimination of kerosene use in cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permadi, Didin Agustian; Sofyan, Asep; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2017-04-01

    This study presents an emission inventory (EI) for major anthropogenic sources of Indonesia in 2007 and 2010. The EI was developed using a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches with comprehensive activity data collected at the provincial/district level to produce spatially and temporally distributed emission of toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The sources were categorized into: 1) fuel combustion in power plant, 2) industry, 3) transportation, 4) residential and commercial combustion, 5) biomass open burning, and 6) non-combustion agricultural activity and waste disposal. The best estimates of the 2010 national emissions, in Gg, of toxic pollutants were: 1014 SO2; 3323 NOx; 24,849 CO; 4077 NMVOC; 1276 NH3; 2154 PM10; 1728 PM2.5; 246 BC; 718 OC; and GHGs: 540,275 CO2; 3979 CH4 and 180 N2O. During the period from 2007 to 2010, the national emissions increased by 0.7-8.8% (0.23-2.8% per year), varied with species, with the most significant changes obtained for the biomass open burning emissions. For 2010 results, the low and high emission estimates for different species were ranging from -58% to +122% of the corresponding best estimates. The largest range (high uncertainty) was for BC due to the wide range of the limitedly available emission factors. Spatially, higher emission intensity was seen in large urban areas of Java and Sumatra Islands. Temporally, dry months of August-October had higher emissions. During the first 3 years (2007-2010) of implementation, the national policy of elimination of kerosene use in cooking had successfully replaced 4.9 Tg kerosene with 2.6 Tg LPG in 30 designated provinces. The net emission reductions of different species ranged from 48 Mg (SO2) to 7.6 Tg for CO2. The global warming potential weighted emissions from the residential cooking alone, collectively for GHGs and short-lived climate pollutants in 20-yr CO2 eq., would reduce by 2%. More significant reductions in the residential combustion emissions are

  20. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  1. Estimating nitrate emissions to surface water at regional and national scale: comparison of models using detailed regional and national-wide databases (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupas, R.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.; Durand, P.; Parnaudeau, V.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires River Basin District managers to carry out an analysis of nutrient pressures and impacts, in order to evaluate the risk of water bodies failing to reach "good ecological status" and to identify those catchments where prioritized nonpoint-source control measures should be implemented. A model has been developed to estimate nitrate nonpoint-source emissions to surface water, using readily available data in France. It was inspired from US model SPARROW (Smith al., 1997) and European model GREEN (Grizzetti et al., 2008), i.e. statistical approaches consisting of linking nitrogen sources and catchments' land and rivers characteristics. The N-nitrate load (L) at the outlet of a catchment is expressed as: L= R*(B*Lsgw+Ldgw+PS)-denitlake Where denitlake is a denitrification factor for lakes and reservoirs, Lsgw is the shallow groundwater discharge to streams (derived from the base flow index and N surplus in kgN.ha-1.yr-1), Ldgw is the deep groundwater discharge to streams (derived from total runoff, the base flow index and deep groundwater N concentration), PS is point sources from domestic and industrial origin (kgN.ha-1.yr-1) and R and B are the river system and basin reduction factor, respectively. Besides calibrating and evaluating the model at a national scale, its predictive quality was compared with those of regionalized models in Brittany (Western France) and in the Seine river basin (Paris basin), where detailed regional databases are available. The national-scale model proved to provide robust predictions in most conditions encountered in France, as it fitted observed N-nitrate load with an efficiency of 0.69. Regionalization of the model reduced the standard error in the prediction of N-nitrate loads by about 19 Hence, the development of regionalized models should be advocated only after the trade-off between improvement of fit and degradation of parameters' estimation has come under scrutiny.

  2. A novel 15N tracer approach for the quantification of N2 and N2O emissions from soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; Dannenmann, Michael; Meier, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro-ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification has received great interest by biogeochemists in the last decades, the magnitude of N2lossesand related N2:N2O ratios from soils still are largely unknown due to methodical constraints. We present a novel 15N tracer approach, based on a previous developed tracer method to study denitrification in pure bacterial cultures which was modified for the use on soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up. The method uses a background air in the incubation vessels that is replaced with a helium-oxygen gas mixture with a 50-fold reduced N2 background (2 % v/v). This method allows for a direct and sensitive quantification of the N2 and N2O emissions from the soil with isotope-ratio mass spectrometry after 15N labelling of denitrification N substrates and minimises the sensitivity to the intrusion of atmospheric N2 at the same time. The incubation set up was used to determine the influence of different soil moisture levels on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture soil in Queensland/Australia. The soil was labelled with an equivalent of 50 μg-N per gram dry soil by broadcast application of KNO3solution (4 at.% 15N) and incubated for 3 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS), respectively. The headspace of the incubation vessel was sampled automatically over 12hrs each day and 3 samples (0, 6, and 12 hrs after incubation start) of headspace gas analysed for N2 and N2O with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (DELTA V Plus, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany(. In addition, the soil was analysed for 15N NO3- and NH4+ using the 15N diffusion method, which enabled us to obtain a complete N balance. The method proved to be highly sensitive for N2 and N2O emissions detecting N2O emissions ranging from 20 to 627 μN kg

  3. Between credit claiming and blame avoidance: the changing politics of priority-setting for Korea's National Health Insurance System.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minah; Reich, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Priority-setting involves diverse parties with intense and often conflicting interests and values. Still, the political aspects of priority-setting are largely unexplored in the literature on health policy. In this paper, we examine how policy makers in Korea changed their strategies as the policy context for priority setting changed from only expanding benefits to a double burden of benefit expansion plus cost containment. This analysis shows that priority-setting is a profoundly political process. The policy context shapes how policy makers choose their political strategies. In particular, we find that policy makers sway between "credit claiming" and "blame avoidance" strategies. Korean policy makers resorted to three types of political strategies when confronted with a double burden of benefit expansion and cost containment: delegating responsibility to other institutions (agency strategies), replacing judgment-based decisions with automatic rules (policy strategies), and focusing on the presentation of how decisions are made (presentational strategies). The paper suggests implications for future studies on priority-setting in the Korean health care system and in other countries that face similar challenges, and concludes that Korean policy makers need to put more effort into developing transparent and systematic priority-setting processes, especially in times of double burden of benefit expansion and cost containment.

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel Economy Testing at the U.S. EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (SAE Paper 2004-01-2900)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...

  5. Global Warming and the Neglected Greenhouse Gas: A Cross-National Study of the Social Causes of Methane Emissions Intensity, 1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The human dimensions of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming attract considerable attention in macrosociology. However, cross-national analyses generally neglect greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide. The current study addresses this paucity through the testing of theoretically derived models for the social structural causes of the…

  6. Characterization Of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Emissions During Prescribed Fires Of The Coconino National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M.; Quarterman, M.; Zack, L.; Brindley, C.; Herckes, P.

    2006-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere. In recent years, prescribed fire has become an increasingly important tool for forest management in the Western United States, in order to reduce the risk of catastrophic wildfire. This has led to concerns about the impact of prescribed fire on local and regional air pollution and on human health and visibility. However, in situ characterizations of wildland or prescribed fires are very rare. This is surprising, given that recent studies suggest that biomass burning, including forest fires, is a major source of particulate matter in the Western U.S. A number of laboratory studies exist; however, such studies reflect only poorly the actual fuel composition and burning regimes of authentic forest fires. We will report results that characterize particulate matter (PM2.5) collected during five prescribed fires of the Coconino National Forest, the largest ponderosa pine forest in North America. Samples were collected in situ during the initial (ignition/flaming) stage of the burns and, occasionally, a day later during the smoldering stage of the fire. Samples were analyzed for total, organic, and elemental carbon by a thermo-optical method. Individual organic species, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, anhydrosugars, resin acids, and methoxyphenols were quantified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after solvent extraction. We will discuss the concentrations and emission ratios of individual species as a function of burning regime and type of fuel burned. The resulting emission profiles will be compared to common profiles used in source apportionment studies.

  7. Analysis of the uncertainty associated with national fossil fuel CO2 emissions datasets for use in the global Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) and carbon budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P. J.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution quantification of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions has become essential in research aimed at understanding the global carbon cycle and supporting the verification of international agreements on greenhouse gas emission reductions. The Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) was used to estimate global fossil fuel carbon emissions at 0.25 degree from 1992 to 2010. FFDAS quantifies CO2 emissions based on areal population density, per capita economic activity, energy intensity and carbon intensity. A critical constraint to this system is the estimation of national-scale fossil fuel CO2 emissions disaggregated into economic sectors. Furthermore, prior uncertainty estimation is an important aspect of the FFDAS. Objective techniques to quantify uncertainty for the national emissions are essential. There are several institutional datasets that quantify national carbon emissions, including British Petroleum (BP), the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC). These four datasets have been "harmonized" by Jordan Macknick for inter-comparison purposes (Macknick, Carbon Management, 2011). The harmonization attempted to generate consistency among the different institutional datasets via a variety of techniques such as reclassifying into consistent emitting categories, recalculating based on consistent emission factors, and converting into consistent units. These harmonized data form the basis of our uncertainty estimation. We summarized the maximum, minimum and mean national carbon emissions for all the datasets from 1992 to 2010. We calculated key statistics highlighting the remaining differences among the harmonized datasets. We combine the span (max - min) of datasets for each country and year with the standard deviation of the national spans over time. We utilize the economic sectoral definitions from IEA to disaggregate the national total emission into

  8. EPA and USDA Join Private Sector, Charitable Organizations to Set Nations First Goals to Reduce Wasted Food

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy and U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack announced the United States' first-ever national food waste reduction goal, calling for a 50-percent reduction by 2030. As part of the

  9. Setting the Direction. Partnerships in Action: First Nations, Metis and Inuit Learning Access and Success. A Learning Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Aboriginal Learning Subcommittee looked specifically at developing recommendations that address First Nations, Metis and Inuit learning needs and supports. The Subcommittee proposes policy actions and recommends that all stakeholders work together to implement these actions. The first recommendation for action is to build on partnerships to…

  10. Bringing the World to Our Children: A Model United Nations Security Council High School Classroom Simulation. [Teacher Set].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heistad, Kari A., Ed.

    Designed for high school students, this curriculum program addresses the challenges of cultural and ethnic diversity that many students face, including intolerance, violence, and a lack of hope. The curriculum provides students with an understanding of the United Nations (UN) and its various organizations. The unit teaches them the valuable skills…

  11. Chapter 1: Setting the Stage--Research into Physical Activity Relationships and Children's Progress toward Achievement of the National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Kim C.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded in social cognitive and self-determination theory, one purpose of the large-scale investigation reported in this volume was to determine whether elementary-aged children (7-12 years old) are progressing toward attainment of the psychomotor assessments that have been recommended for predicting achievement of National Association for Sport…

  12. Culturally Responsive Teaching in Yukon First Nation Settings: What Does It Look Like and What Is Its Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Owen, Thomas; Doiron, Ashley; Renaud, Robert; McMillan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a pedagogical framework to inform culturally responsive teaching in a Yukon First Nations community. The paper describes the community-based processes used to develop the framework, and presents accounts from teachers who have used the framework to inform their teaching. Preliminary indications of the adjusted teaching…

  13. Setting Up a Bibliographic Database from National Inventory of Scientific and Technical Literature. The CIDST Experience in Madagascar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriamparany, Louis Marius; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a bibliographic database in Madagascar through a national inventory of scientific and technical literature. The roles of the Ministry of Scientific and Technological Research for Development (MRSTD) and its information service, CIDST, are described; database products are discussed; and future prospects are suggested.…

  14. The Status and Challenges of Higher Education Curricula Reforms in Four Highly Developed Regional/National Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In this article (part one of two) I will consider, using the dramatistic model pioneered by Kenneth Burke, the "scene" or historical cultural ground of each "highly developed' national/regional area (The EU, the USA, Hong Kong [SAR], and Singapore) in terms of their Higher Education (HE) systems. After these analyses, then I look to…

  15. The "Geography" of Child Maltreatment in Israel: Findings from a National Data Set of Cases Reported to the Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Arieh, Asher; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the "geography" of reported cases of child maltreatment in Israel by determining its frequency and rates according to nationality, area of residence, and size and type of locality. Method: The study collected data at the local level in Israel based on reports to social services of cases of child…

  16. Setting a National Agenda for Surgical Disparities Research: Recommendations From the National Institutes of Health and American College of Surgeons Summit.

    PubMed

    Haider, Adil H; Dankwa-Mullan, Irene; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Torain, Maya; Zogg, Cheryl K; Lilley, Elizabeth J; Kodadek, Lisa M; Changoor, Navin R; Najjar, Peter; Rose, John A; Ford, Henri R; Salim, Ali; Stain, Steven C; Shafi, Shahid; Sutton, Beth; Hoyt, David; Maddox, Yvonne T; Britt, L D

    2016-06-01

    Health care disparities (differential access, care, and outcomes owing to factors such as race/ethnicity) are widely established. Compared with other groups, African American individuals have an increased mortality risk across multiple surgical procedures. Gender, sexual orientation, age, and geographic disparities are also well documented. Further research is needed to mitigate these inequities. To do so, the American College of Surgeons and the National Institutes of Health-National Institute of Minority Health and Disparities convened a research summit to develop a national surgical disparities research agenda and funding priorities. Sixty leading researchers and clinicians gathered in May 2015 for a 2-day summit. First, literature on surgical disparities was presented within 5 themes: (1) clinician, (2) patient, (3) systemic/access, (4) clinical quality, and (5) postoperative care and rehabilitation-related factors. These themes were identified via an exhaustive preconference literature review and guided the summit and its interactive consensus-building exercises. After individual thematic presentations, attendees contributed research priorities for each theme. Suggestions were collated, refined, and prioritized during the latter half of the summit. Breakout sessions yielded 3 to 5 top research priorities by theme. Overall priorities, regardless of theme, included improving patient-clinician communication, fostering engagement and community outreach by using technology, improving care at facilities with a higher proportion of minority patients, evaluating the longer-term effect of acute intervention and rehabilitation support, and improving patient centeredness by identifying expectations for recovery. The National Institutes of Health and American College of Surgeons Summit on Surgical Disparities Research succeeded in identifying a comprehensive research agenda. Future research and funding priorities should prioritize patients' care perspectives, workforce

  17. Synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from blazar jets - II. An accelerating jet model with a geometry set by observations of M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, William J.; Cotter, Garret

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we develop the jet model of Potter & Cotter to include a magnetically dominated accelerating parabolic base transitioning to a slowly decelerating conical jet with a geometry set by recent radio observations of M87. We conserve relativistic energy-momentum and particle number along the jet and calculate the observed synchrotron emission from the jet by calculating the integrated line-of-sight synchrotron opacity through the jet in the rest frame of each section of plasma. We calculate the inverse-Compton emission from synchrotron, cosmic microwave background (CMB), accretion disc, starlight, broad-line region (BLR), dusty torus and narrow-line region photons by transforming into the rest frame of the plasma along the jet. We fit our model to simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of the Compton-dominant FSRQ type blazar PKS 0227-369, with a jet geometry set by M87 and an accelerating bulk Lorentz factor consistent with simulations and theory. We investigate models in which the jet comes into equipartition at different distances along the jet and equipartition is maintained via the conversion of jet bulk kinetic energy into particle acceleration. We find that the jet must still be magnetically dominated within the BLR and cannot be in equipartition due to the severe radiative energy losses. The model fits the observations, including radio data, very well if the jet comes into equipartition outside the BLR within the dusty torus (1.5 pc) or at further distances (34 pc). The fits require a high-power jet with a large bulk Lorentz factor observed close to the line of sight, consistent with our expectations for a Compton-dominant blazar. We find that our fit in which the jet comes into equipartition furthest along the jet, which has a jet with the geometry of M87 scaled linearly with black hole mass, has an inferred black hole mass close to previous estimates. This implies that the jet of PKS 0227 might be well described by the same jet geometry as M87.

  18. Radial forearm flaps as durable soft tissue coverage for local nationals being treated in the field hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Kh; Jeffery, Sla

    2013-03-01

    The current conflict in Afghanistan has seen the increasing use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) in insurgency attacks. In addition to the coalition forces killed and injured from these devices, local national civilians are also injured. Injuries often include amputations, open fractures and large areas of skin affected by fragmentation. Local national access to long-term care after an IED injury is limited, and often when the patient leaves a coalition hospital this concludes the care the patient will receive. Definitive, durable treatment options are needed for these patients. In the IED-injured patient with open extremity wounds and open metacarpal fractures, pedicled radial forearm flaps offer a suitable soft tissue coverage option. Four cases are reported on IED- injured Afghan patients treated at a Role 3 hospital facility.

  19. Combining Multilevel Analysis with National Value-Added Data Sets - A Case Study to Explore the Effects of School Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schagen, Ian; Schagen, Sandie

    2005-01-01

    The advent of large-scale matched data sets, linking pupils' attainment across key stages, gives new opportunities to explore the effects of school organisational factors on pupil performance. Combined with currently available sophisticated and efficient software for multilevel analysis, it offers educational researchers the chance to develop…

  20. Social Deterministic Factors to Participation in the National Health Insurance Scheme in the Context of Rural Ghanaian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Alder, Steve; Crookston, Benjamin; Dickerson, Ty; VanDerslice, James; Benson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to identify predictors of complete household enrollment into the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) among inhabitants of the Barekese sub-district in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Heads of households in 20 communities from the Barekuma Collaborative Community Project site were interviewed to gather data on demographic, socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and complete household subscription in the NHIS. Logistic regression model was used to predict enrollment in the NHIS. Of the 3228 heads of households interviewed, 60 percent reported having all members of their respective households enrolled in the NHIS. Residents in the classified Middle and High SES brackets had 1.47 (95% CI: 1.21-1.77) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.27-2.16) times higher odds, respectively, of complete household enrollment compared to their counterparts in the Low SES category. The odds of enrolling in the program tend to increase progressively with the highest level of education attained by the head of the family unit. Eight years after the introduction of the national health insurance policy in Ghana, the reported subscription rate for complete households was about 60 percent in the 20 rural communities that participated in the study. This finding calls for the need to step up further national strategies that will help increase enrollment coverage, especially among the poor and less educated in the rural communities.

  1. Disease management index of potential years of life lost as a tool for setting priorities in national disease control using OECD health data.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung-In; Nam, Jung-Mo; Choi, Jongwon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-03-01

    Limited healthcare resources make it necessary to maximize efficiency in disease management at the country level by priority-setting according to disease burden. To make the best priority settings, it is necessary to measure health status and have standards for its judgment, as well as consider disease management trends among nations. We used 17 International Classification of Diseases (ICD) categories of potential years of life lost (YPLL) from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) health data for 2012, 37 disease diagnoses YPLL from OECD health data for 2009 across 22 countries and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) from the World Health Organization (WHO). We set a range of 1-1 for each YPLL per disease in a nation (position value for relative comparison, PARC). Changes over 5 years were also accounted for in this disease management index (disease management index, DMI). In terms of ICD categories, the DMI indicated specific areas for priority setting for different countries with regard to managing disease treatment and diagnosis. Our study suggests that DMI is a realistic index that reflects trend changes over the past 5 years to the present state, and PARC is an easy index for identifying relative status. Moreover, unlike existing indices, DMI and PARC make it easy to conduct multiple comparisons among countries and diseases. DMI and PARC are therefore useful tools for policy implications and for future studies incorporating them and other existing indexes.

  2. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations to evaluate groundwater influences on GHG emissions at the national research site Skogaryd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Sturkell, Erik; Nyström, Elin; Barthel, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of the presented study is to explore the impact of groundwater fluctuations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands and in particular from drained organic soils. The hypothesis is that drained organic soils react sensitively to changing water content, i.e. that frequent changes of groundwater level enhance the emissions of GHG from these soils and thus contribute significantly to global warming. The area under investigation is based at the Skogaryd Research Catchment (within Swedish Infrastructure for Ecosystem Sciences, SITES) in western Sweden (Meyer, et al., 2013), which was recently assigned the status of a national research site by the Swedish research council (www.vr.se). Skogaryd is a unique place in Sweden for doing research on organic soils as the area was simultaneously afforested in the 1960s and the drained fertile soils have a different land-use history. The ditching for drainage purposes throughout the entire area has had and still has a huge influence on groundwater level, which in turn is assumed to trigger GHG emissions from the organic soils at Skogaryd. To address the influence of groundwater dynamics on GHG emissions in this system, a characterisation of the subsurface using electrical resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements was carried out. These geophysical measurements were combined with drilling along them to allow for ground truthing. An average peat thickness of around 3 m was estimated for the field site. Below the peat follows a fine sand layer, which reaches a maximum thickness of around 1.0 m right at the valley borders and thins out significantly towards the middle of the valley. Below the fine sand layer follows a layer of marine clay, which extends down to the bedrock at depths between 12 and 15 m below ground surface. The results show that the peat layer in Skogaryd forms an isolated hydraulic system without interaction with deeper or regional groundwater systems. The continuously

  3. Experiences of Work-Life Conflict for the Athletic Trainer Employed Outside the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Context The intercollegiate setting receives much of the scholarly attention related to work-life conflict (WLC). However research has been focused on the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Multiple factors can lead to WLC for the athletic trainer (AT), including hours, travel, and lack of flexibility in work schedules. Objective To investigate the experiences of WLC among ATs working in the non-Division I collegiate setting and to identify factors that contribute to fulfillment of work-life balance in this setting. Design Qualitative study. Setting Institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions II and III, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, and the National Junior College Athletic Association. Patients or Other Participants A total of 244 ATs (128 women, 114 men; age = 37.5 ± 13.3 years, experience = 14 ± 12 years) completed phase I. Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men; age = 38 ± 13 years, experience = 13.1 ± 11.4 years) completed phase II. Data Collection and Analysis For phase I, participants completed a previously validated and reliable (Cronbach α > .90) Web-based survey measuring their levels of WLC and work-family conflict (WFC). This phase included 2 WFC scales defining family; scale 1 defined family as having a partner or spouse with or without children, and scale 2 defined family as those individuals, including parents, siblings, grandparents, and any other close relatives, involved in one's life. Phase II consisted of an interview. Qualitative data were evaluated using content analysis. Data source and multiple-analyst triangulation secured credibility. Results The WFC scores were 26.33 ± 7.37 for scale 1 and 20.46 ± 10.14 for scale 2, indicating a moderate level of WFC for scale 1 and a low level of WFC for scale 2. Qualitative analyses revealed that organizational dimensions, such as job demands and staffing issues, can negatively affect WLC, whereas a combination of

  4. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia: comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set.

    PubMed Central

    Hautvast, J. L.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J. J.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L. A.; van Staveren, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition (stunting, underweight, and wasting). A total of 518 infants who were attending mother-and-child health clinics were included. Age, weight and length were recorded. Anthropometric Z-scores were calculated in two ways: by applying the NCHS growth reference and by using the WHO breastfed data set. Anthropometric Z-scores calculated using the breastfed data set were lower during the first 6-7 months of life compared with those calculated by applying the NCHS growth reference. This resulted in a higher proportion of children aged 0-6 months being classified as stunted and underweight using the breastfed data set versus the NCHS growth reference. After the age of 7 months, similar prevalences of stunting or underweight were observed. Relatively few infants were classified as wasted. In order to adequately assess the prevalence of stunting and underweight in breastfed infants, it is recommended that a new growth reference be developed, as has been initiated by WHO. PMID:10885182

  5. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia: comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set.

    PubMed

    Hautvast, J L; Pandor, A; Burema, J; Tolboom, J J; Chishimba, N; Monnens, L A; van Staveren, W A

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition (stunting, underweight, and wasting). A total of 518 infants who were attending mother-and-child health clinics were included. Age, weight and length were recorded. Anthropometric Z-scores were calculated in two ways: by applying the NCHS growth reference and by using the WHO breastfed data set. Anthropometric Z-scores calculated using the breastfed data set were lower during the first 6-7 months of life compared with those calculated by applying the NCHS growth reference. This resulted in a higher proportion of children aged 0-6 months being classified as stunted and underweight using the breastfed data set versus the NCHS growth reference. After the age of 7 months, similar prevalences of stunting or underweight were observed. Relatively few infants were classified as wasted. In order to adequately assess the prevalence of stunting and underweight in breastfed infants, it is recommended that a new growth reference be developed, as has been initiated by WHO.

  6. Improved mapping of National Atmospheric Deposition Program wet-deposition in complex terrain using PRISM-gridded data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latysh, Natalie E.; Wetherbee, Gregory Alan

    2012-01-01

    High-elevation regions in the United States lack detailed atmospheric wet-deposition data. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) measures and reports precipitation amounts and chemical constituent concentration and deposition data for the United States on annual isopleth maps using inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation methods. This interpolation for unsampled areas does not account for topographic influences. Therefore, NADP/NTN isopleth maps lack detail and potentially underestimate wet deposition in high-elevation regions. The NADP/NTN wet-deposition maps may be improved using precipitation grids generated by other networks. The Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) produces digital grids of precipitation estimates from many precipitation-monitoring networks and incorporates influences of topographical and geographical features. Because NADP/NTN ion concentrations do not vary with elevation as much as precipitation depths, PRISM is used with unadjusted NADP/NTN data in this paper to calculate ion wet deposition in complex terrain to yield more accurate and detailed isopleth deposition maps in complex terrain. PRISM precipitation estimates generally exceed NADP/NTN precipitation estimates for coastal and mountainous regions in the western United States. NADP/NTN precipitation estimates generally exceed PRISM precipitation estimates for leeward mountainous regions in Washington, Oregon, and Nevada, where abrupt changes in precipitation depths induced by topography are not depicted by IDW interpolation. PRISM-based deposition estimates for nitrate can exceed NADP/NTN estimates by more than 100% for mountainous regions in the western United States.

  7. Improved mapping of National Atmospheric Deposition Program wet-deposition in complex terrain using PRISM-gridded data sets.

    PubMed

    Latysh, Natalie E; Wetherbee, Gregory Alan

    2012-01-01

    High-elevation regions in the United States lack detailed atmospheric wet-deposition data. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) measures and reports precipitation amounts and chemical constituent concentration and deposition data for the United States on annual isopleth maps using inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation methods. This interpolation for unsampled areas does not account for topographic influences. Therefore, NADP/NTN isopleth maps lack detail and potentially underestimate wet deposition in high-elevation regions. The NADP/NTN wet-deposition maps may be improved using precipitation grids generated by other networks. The Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) produces digital grids of precipitation estimates from many precipitation-monitoring networks and incorporates influences of topographical and geographical features. Because NADP/NTN ion concentrations do not vary with elevation as much as precipitation depths, PRISM is used with unadjusted NADP/NTN data in this paper to calculate ion wet deposition in complex terrain to yield more accurate and detailed isopleth deposition maps in complex terrain. PRISM precipitation estimates generally exceed NADP/NTN precipitation estimates for coastal and mountainous regions in the western United States. NADP/NTN precipitation estimates generally exceed PRISM precipitation estimates for leeward mountainous regions in Washington, Oregon, and Nevada, where abrupt changes in precipitation depths induced by topography are not depicted by IDW interpolation. PRISM-based deposition estimates for nitrate can exceed NADP/NTN estimates by more than 100% for mountainous regions in the western United States.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy and practice effects in the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set neuropsychological battery

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Kryscio, Richard; Jicha, Gregory; Cooper, Gregory; Smith, Charles; Caban-Holt, Allison; Schmitt, Frederick A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Uniform Data Set (UDS) neuropsychological battery is frequently used in clinical studies. However, practice effects, effectiveness as a measure of global cognitive functioning, and detection of mild cognitive impairment have not been examined. Methods A normative total score for the UDS has been developed. Linear discriminant analysis determined classification accuracy in identifying cognitively normal and impaired groups. Practice effects were examined in cognitively normal and cognitively impaired groups. Results The total score differentiates between cognitively normal participants and those with dementia, but does not accurately identify individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Mean total scores for test-exposed participants were significantly higher than test-naive participants in both the normal and MCI groups and were higher, but not significantly so, in the dementia group. Conclusion The total score’s classification accuracy discriminates between cognitively normal versus participants who have dementia. The total score appears subject to practice effects. PMID:24656850

  9. Achieving net-zero emissions through the reframing of UK national targets in the post-Paris Agreement era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, Steve; Li, Francis G. N.; Price, James; Fais, Birgit

    2017-03-01

    The Paris Agreement provides an international framework aimed at limiting average global temperature rise to well below 2 ∘C, implemented through actions determined at the national level. As the Agreement necessitates a 'net-zero' emissions energy system by 2100, decarbonization analyses in support of national climate policy should consider the post-2050 period. Focusing solely on mitigation objectives for 2030 or 2050 could lead to blindsiding of the challenge, inadequate ambition in the near term, and poor investment choices in energy infrastructure. Here we show, using the UK as an example, that even an ambitious climate policy is likely to fall short of the challenge of net-zero, and that analysis of the post-2050 period is therefore critical. We find that the analysis of detailed, longer-term national pathways that achieve net-zero is important for future reassessment of ambition under nationally determined contributions (NDCs).

  10. Evaluation of NOx emission inventories in California using multi-satellite data sets, AMAX-DOAS and in-situ airborne measurements, and regional model simulations during the CalNex field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Baidar, S.; Boersma, F.; Brioude, J.; Bucsela, E. J.; Burrows, J. P.; Celarier, E. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Frost, G. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L. N.; Martin, R. V.; McKeen, S. A.; Oetjen, H.; Pollack, I. B.; Richter, A.; Russell, A. R.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Valin, L. C.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite NO2 column measurements indicate large NOx emissions from urban and agricultural sources in California. In this presentation, we highlight the NOx sources identified in California using the satellite measurements. Comparison of regional model-simulated NO2 columns with satellite retrievals has proven useful in evaluating emission inventories for various sectors. We compare the NO2 columns from the WRF-Chem model with the multi-satellite data sets from different instruments and retrieval groups for a variety of California sources. Use of multiple satellite data sets help to define the uncertainties in the satellite retrievals. In addition, the CalNex 2010 intensive field campaign provides a unique opportunity to independently assess California's emission inventories. CU-AMAX-DOAS and in-situ airborne observations from CalNex 2010 and fine-resolution model simulations are used to estimate the accuracy of the satellite NO2 column retrievals.

  11. Efforts to Find, Recover and Restore "A National Treasure", The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Neal, C. R.; Chi, P. J.; Williams, D. R.; Schmidt, G. K.; Currie, D. G.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Dyal, P.; Freeman, J. W.; Reiff, P. H.; Bates, J.; Hager, M. A.; Kiefer, W. S.; Perkins, D.

    2014-12-01

    ALSEP science stations were deployed by Apollo astronauts at 5 Apollo lunar landing sites and were comprised of 13 active science experiments which were flown 4 to 8 at a time. All ALSEPs were turned-off on 9-30-1977, after they had generated a data set of 31 system data years and an experiment data set of over 100 data years. The 3 passive laser retroreflector experiments are still providing useable return signals. The plan was for NASA to archive the raw data, while PI Teams archived their processed data in GSFC-NSSDC. In 1975 funding for science experiments was drastically reduced. Archiving of experiments data was incomplete and in other cases experiment years of data were never analyzed. JSC's ALSEP operations manager at-end-mission stressed that the 10s of 1,000s of pages of ALSEP operational and background materals be archived in Lunar and Planetary Library for future use. In 2004 there was a renewed interest in old ALSEP science data. However, current investigators found ALSEP data very difficult to use because of its archaic formats, rerecording artifacts, and lack of suitable playback tape transports. In 2007 a group of original ALSEP personnel, current lunar investigators, and personnel from NSSDC began an effort to help solve ALSEP data availability problems. NSSDC PDS established a Lunar Node whose role was to restore the existing ALSEP data into forms which could be used by current lunar investigators. Excellent progress was achieved in several areas*. In 2010 NLSI made the Recovery of Missing ALSEP Data, a NLSI Focus Group. The group estimated 50 percent of ALSEP processed data and 80 percent of ALSEP experiments raw data were never archived with NSSDC. We suspect archival raw data tapes for the first 44 ALSEP mission months (AMM) were degaussed and reused, those for AMM 45 to 79 were lost, misplaced or destroyed in a complex system of NASA, government, industrial storage facilities (except for ~450 tapes located by S. Nagihara). The last 19 AMMs of

  12. Dynamics of shigellosis epidemics: estimating individual-level transmission and reporting rates from national epidemiologic data sets.

    PubMed

    Joh, Richard I; Hoekstra, Robert M; Barzilay, Ezra J; Bowen, Anna; Mintz, Eric D; Weiss, Howard; Weitz, Joshua S

    2013-10-15

    Shigellosis, a diarrheal disease, is endemic worldwide and is responsible for approximately 15,000 laboratory-confirmed cases in the United States every year. However, patients with shigellosis often do not seek medical care. To estimate the burden of shigellosis, we extended time-series susceptible-infected-recovered models to infer epidemiologic parameters from underreported case data. We applied the time-series susceptible-infected-recovered-based inference schemes to analyze the largest surveillance data set of Shigella sonnei in the United States from 1967 to 2007 with county-level resolution. The dynamics of shigellosis transmission show strong annual and multiyear cycles, as well as seasonality. By using the schemes, we inferred individual-level parameters of shigellosis infection, including seasonal transmissibilities and basic reproductive number (R0). In addition, this study provides quantitative estimates of the reporting rate, suggesting that the shigellosis burden in the United States may be more than 10 times the number of laboratory-confirmed cases. Although the estimated reporting rate is generally under 20%, and R0 is generally under 1.5, there is a strong negative correlation between estimates of the reporting rate and R0. Such negative correlations are likely to pose identifiability problems in underreported diseases. We discuss complementary approaches that might further disentangle the true reporting rate and R0.

  13. National Energy with Weather System Simultator (NEWS) Sets Bounds on Cost Effective Wind and Solar PV Deployment in the USA without the Use of Storage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. In 2009, we began a large-scale investigation into the characteristics of weather-driven renewables. The project utilized the best available weather data assimilation model to compute high spatial and temporal resolution power datasets for the renewable resources of wind and solar PV. The weather model used is the Rapid Update Cycle for the years of 2006-2008. The team also collated a detailed electrical load dataset for the contiguous USA from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for the same three-year period. The coincident time series of electrical load and weather data allows the possibility of temporally correlated computations for optimal design over large geographic areas. The past two years have seen the development of a cost optimization mathematic model that designs electric power systems. The model plans the system and dispatches it on an hourly timescale. The system is designed to be reliable, reduce carbon, reduce variability of renewable resources and move the electricity about the whole domain. The system built would create the infrastructure needed to reduce carbon emissions to 0 by 2050. The advantages of the system is reduced water demain, dual incomes for farmers, jobs for construction of the infrastructure, and price stability for energy. One important simplified test that was run included existing US carbon free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an

  14. Towards a measurement-based national verification system for GHG emissions: UK emission estimates of CO2 from the GAUGE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzi, Siegfried; Palmer, Paul; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Stanley, Kieran; Stavert, Ann; Grant, Aoife; Helfter, Carole; Mullinger, Neil; Nemitz, Eiko; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Le Breton, Michael; Bösch, Hartmut; Sembhi, Harjinder; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Parker, Robert; Bauguitte, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    Robust quantification of emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) is central to the success of ongoing international efforts to slow current emissions and mitigate future climate change. The Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project aims to quantify the magnitude and uncertainty of country-scale emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) using concentration measurements from a network of tall towers and mobile platforms (aircraft and ferry) distributed across the UK. The GAUGE measurement programme includes: (a) GHG measurements on a regular ferry route down the North Sea aimed at sampling UK outflow; (b) campaign deployment of the UK BAe-146 research aircraft to provide vertical profile measurements of GHG over and around the UK; (c) a high-density GHG measurement network over East Anglia that is primarily focused on the agricultural sector; and (d) regular measurements of CO2 and CH4 isotopologues used for GHG source attribution. We also use satellite observations from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to provide continental-scale constraints on GHG flux estimates. We present CO2 flux estimates for the UK inferred from GAUGE measurements using a nested, high-resolution (25 km) version of the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemistry and transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter. We will present our current best estimate for CO2 fluxes and a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of individual GAUGE data sources to spatially resolve CO2 flux estimates over the UK. We will also discuss how flux estimates inferred from the different models used within GAUGE can help to assess the role of transport model error and to determine an ensemble CO2 flux estimate for the UK.

  15. The Spanish Translation and Adaptation of the Uniform Data Set of the National Institute on Aging Alzheimer’s Disease Centers

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Amarilis; Krueger, Kristin R.; Navarro, Ellen; Ortiz, Freddy; Manly, Jennifer J.; Padilla-Vélez, Margarita M.; Weintraub, Sandra; López, Oscar L.; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Researchers from Alzheimer’s Disease Centers (ADCs) across the United States with expertise in the assessment of Spanish-speaking elderly collaborated to create the official Spanish version of measures in the Uniform Data Set of the National Institute on Aging Alzheimer’s Disease Center Program. The present article describes this project, whose primary goal was to create Spanish instruments with cultural and linguistic equivalence to the English versions. The resulting Spanish versions make provisions for variations among Spanish-speaking groups in the United States of different nationalities, socio-cultural, linguistic, and educational backgrounds. A consensus-based translation and adaptation approach was used, and guiding principles and specific components of this process are summarized. The Spanish translation and adaptation of the Uniform Data Set measures became available online to ADCs in April 2007. Its creation is important, as the resulting effort provides standardized measures for the collection of cross-sectional and longitudinal data on a large cohort of Spanish-speaking elders across the country and facilitates collaborative research among ADCs. PMID:19474568

  16. Relations of Water Quality to Agricultural Chemical Use and Environmental Setting at Various Scales - Results from Selected Studies of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began studies of 51 major river basins and aquifers across the United States as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to provide scientifically sound information for managing the Nation's water resources. The major goals of the NAWQA Program are to assess the status and long-term trends of the Nation's surface- and ground-water quality and to understand the natural and human factors that affect it (Gilliom and others, 1995). In 2001, the NAWQA Program began a second decade of intensive water-quality assessments. The 42 study units for this second decade were selected to represent a wide range of important hydrologic environments and potential contaminant sources. These NAWQA studies continue to address the goals of the first decade of the assessments to determine how water-quality conditions are changing over time. In addition to local- and regional-scale studies, NAWQA began to analyze and synthesize water-quality status and trends at the principal aquifer and major river-basin scales. This fact sheet summarizes results from four NAWQA studies that relate water quality to agricultural chemical use and environmental setting at these various scales: * Comparison of ground-water quality in northern and southern High Plains agricultural settings (principal aquifer scale); * Distribution patterns of pesticides and degradates in rain (local scale); * Occurrence of pesticides in shallow ground water underlying four agricultural areas (local and regional scales); and * Trends in nutrients and sediment over time in the Missouri River and its tributaries (major river-basin scale).

  17. Metabolic control in a nationally representative diabetic elderly sample in Costa Rica: patients at community health centers vs. patients at other health care settings

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Background Costa Rica, like other developing countries, is experiencing an increasing burden of chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM), especially among its elderly population. This article has two goals: (1) to assess the level of metabolic control among the diabetic population age ≥ 60 years old in Costa Rica, and (2) to test whether diabetic elderly patients of community health centers differ from patients in other health care settings in terms of the level of metabolic control. Methods Data come from the project CRELES, a nationally representative study of people aged 60 and over in Costa Rica. This article analyzes a subsample of 542 participants in CRELES with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Odds ratios of poor levels of metabolic control at different health care settings are computed using logistic regressions. Results Lack of metabolic control among elderly diabetic population in Costa Rica is described as follows: 37% have glycated hemoglobin ≥ 7%; 78% have systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg; 66% have diastolic blood pressure ≥ 80 mmHg; 48% have triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl; 78% have LDL ≥ 100 mg/dl; 70% have HDL ≤ 40 mg/dl. Elevated levels of triglycerides and LDL were higher in patients of community health centers than in patients of other clinical settings. There were no statistical differences in the other metabolic control indicators across health care settings. Conclusion Levels of metabolic control among elderly population with DM in Costa Rica are not that different from those observed in industrialized countries. Elevated levels of triglycerides and LDL at community health centers may indicate problems of dyslipidemia treatment among diabetic patients; these problems are not observed in other health care settings. The Costa Rican health care system should address this problem, given that community health centers constitute a means of democratizing access to primary health care to underserved and poor areas. PMID

  18. Pollutant Emissions and Energy Efficiency under Controlled Conditions for Household Biomass Cookstoves and Implications for Metrics Useful in Setting International Test Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic metrics and methods for testing household biomass cookstoves are required to develop standards needed by international policy makers, donors, and investors. Application of consistent test practices allows emissions and energy efficiency performance to be benchmarked and...

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  20. Coal-fired power plant and its emission reduction in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntjoro, D.

    1994-12-31

    Power generation availability is one important key to the rapid growth of Indonesia`s industrial sector. To secure future national energy needs, coal-fired power generation has been set up as a primary energy source. There are environmental concerns related to the emission of gases, particulates, and ash resulting from coal combustion. This paper discusses emission controls from burning high calorie, low sulfur coal and the national strategy to reduce emissions.

  1. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili

    2016-05-01

    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  2. Patient-centredness as a quality domain in Swedish healthcare: results from the first national surveys in different Swedish healthcare settings

    PubMed Central

    Kandelaki, Ketevan; Marrone, Gaetano; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Schmidt, Ingrid; Björkman, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients’ perception of the quality and patient-centredness of healthcare has gained increasing interest in the last decade in Sweden, as in other countries. The purpose of the study was to evaluate to what extent patients perceived Swedish healthcare as patient-centred and to explore the satisfaction levels related to gender, education level and to having or not having Swedish as one's mother tongue. Design and settings This study has a cross-sectional design. Analyses were based on the first national patient surveys in Sweden, conducted between 2009 and 2010. The surveys included responses from 232 518 patients who had been in contact with primary, outpatient, inpatient, or emergency care units. Survey questions related to indicators of patient-centred care and sociodemographic variables were selected for the analysis. The patients’ level of satisfaction in the selected indicators was analysed and compared by sociodemographic and background factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were used for analysis. Results The patients expressed high levels of satisfaction in questions related to the ‘Respect’ indicator (81–96% satisfied) but lower levels in most of the other indicators of patient-centred care. Only 25–30% of the patients reported they had been told about possible warning signs of their condition or treatment and 58–66% said they had received enough information about their condition. Group differences were detected. The most satisfied patient groups were men, individuals with low levels of education and those with Swedish as their mother tongue. Conclusions According to these first national patient surveys, achieving patient-centred healthcare for all citizens is a challenge for Swedish healthcare authorities. Future analyses of national patient surveys should show whether national efforts to encourage acceptance of patient-centred approaches and strategies for equal care will give intended results. PMID:26747031

  3. Site Specific Landfill CH4 Emissions: Shortcomings of National GHG Inventory Guidelines and a New Process-Based Approach Linked to Climate and Soil Microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, J. E.; Spokas, K.; Corcoran, M.

    2012-12-01

    Current (2006) IPCC national GHG inventory guidelines for landfill CH4, which estimate CH4 generation from the mass of waste in place, have high uncertainties, cannot be reliably related to measured emissions at specific sites, and lack comprehensive field validation. Moreover, measured landfill CH4 emissions vary over a wide range from >1000 g/m2/d down to negative values (uptake of atmospheric CH4). Literature over the last decade has emphasized that the major factors controlling emissions in these highly managed soil systems are gaseous transport rates as affected by the thickness and physical properties of cover soils, methanotrophic CH4 oxidation in cover materials as a function of seasonal soil microclimate. and the presence or absence of engineered gas extraction. Thus we developed and field validated a new site specific annual inventory model that incorporates specific soil profile properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5° scale global climatic models. Based on 1D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventory Model) is a freely available JAVA tool which models a typical annual cycle for CH4 emissions from site specific daily, intermediate, and final landfill cover designs. This new approach, which is compliant with IPCC Tier III criteria, was originally field validated at two California sites (Monterey County; Los Angeles County), with limited field validation at three additional California sites. In addition to regional defaults for inventory purposes, CALMIM permits user selectable parameters and boundary conditions for more rigorous site specific applications where detailed CH4 emissions, meteorological, and soil microclimate data exist. We report here on improvements and expanded international field validation for CALMIM 5.2 in collaboration with research groups in the U.S., Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.odeled and measured annual cycle of landfill CH4 emissions for Austrian site. Cover consists of 50 cm sand & gravel

  4. Use of a Monte Carlo technique to complete a fragmented set of H2S emission rates from a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Schauberger, Günther; Piringer, Martin; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Knauder, Werner; Petz, Erwin

    2013-12-15

    The impact of ambient concentrations in the vicinity of a plant can only be assessed if the emission rate is known. In this study, based on measurements of ambient H2S concentrations and meteorological parameters, the a priori unknown emission rates of a tannery wastewater treatment plant are calculated by an inverse dispersion technique. The calculations are determined using the Gaussian Austrian regulatory dispersion model. Following this method, emission data can be obtained, though only for a measurement station that is positioned such that the wind direction at the measurement station is leeward of the plant. Using the inverse transform sampling, which is a Monte Carlo technique, the dataset can also be completed for those wind directions for which no ambient concentration measurements are available. For the model validation, the measured ambient concentrations are compared with the calculated ambient concentrations obtained from the synthetic emission data of the Monte Carlo model. The cumulative frequency distribution of this new dataset agrees well with the empirical data. This inverse transform sampling method is thus a useful supplement for calculating emission rates using the inverse dispersion technique.

  5. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China: a case study on an industrial city.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jieyun; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Ying; Pu, Li

    2013-08-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction, also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders. The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China, Xuanwei in Yunnan Province, was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system. First, our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10. Second, after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015, ambient concentration of SO2, NOx and PM10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated, and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented. Last but not least, a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation. However, there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future. In spatial allocation, reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx. These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy.

  6. Fatal and non-fatal child maltreatment in the US: an analysis of child, caregiver, and service utilization with the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data Set.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M; Mohn, Brandy L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare children who are fatally and non-fatally maltreated in the United States. In this first national-comparison study, we used the Child Abuse and Neglect Data Set of children and families who encounter/receive support from child welfare services. We found that children who were fatally maltreated were younger, were more likely to live with both their parents, and that their families experienced more financial and housing instability compared to non-fatally maltreated children. Overall, families in which children die use/receive fewer social services, as compared to families in which children live. We discuss the results with regard to child welfare practice and research.

  7. Particulate Emissions Control using Advanced Filter Systems: Final Report for Argonne National Laboratory, Corning Inc. and Hyundai Motor Company CRADA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Hee Je; Choi, Seungmok

    2015-10-09

    This is a 3-way CRADA project working together with Corning, Inc. and Hyundai Motor Co. (HMC). The project is to understand particulate emissions from gasoline direct-injection engines (GDI) and their physico-chemical properties. In addition, this project focuses on providing fundamental information about filtration and regeneration mechanisms occurring in gasoline particulate filter (GPF) systems. For the work, Corning provides most advanced filter substrates for GPF applications and HMC provides three-way catalyst (TWC) coating services of these filter by way of a catalyst coating company. Then, Argonne National Laboratory characterizes fundamental behaviors of filtration and regeneration processes as well as evaluated TWC functionality for the coated filters. To examine aging impacts on TWC and GPF performance, the research team evaluates gaseous and particulate emissions as well as back-pressure increase with ash loading by using an engine-oil injection system to accelerate ash loading in TWC-coated GPFs.

  8. Achieving Work-Life Balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting, Part I: The Role of the Head Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Supervisor support has been identified as key to the fulfillment of work-life balance for the athletic trainer (AT), yet limited literature exists on the perspectives of supervisors. Objective: To investigate how the head AT facilitates work-life balance among staff members within the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Web-based management system. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 18 head ATs (13 men, 5 women; age = 44 ± 8 years, athletic training experience = 22 ± 7 years) volunteered for an asynchronous, Web-based interview. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to a series of questions by journaling their thoughts and experiences. We included multiple-analyst triangulation, stakeholder checks, and peer review to establish data credibility. We analyzed the data via a general inductive approach. Results: Four prevailing themes emerged from the data: modeling work-life balance, encouraging disengagement from the AT role, cooperation and community workplace, and administrative support and understanding. Conclusions: Head ATs at the Division I level recognized the need to promote work-life balance among their staffs. They not only were supportive of policies that promote work-life balance, including spending time away from the role of the AT and teamwork among staff members, but also modeled and practiced the strategies that they promoted. PMID:25343530

  9. The influence of sandstone caprock material on bedrock channel steepness within a tectonically passive setting: Buffalo National River Basin, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, E. A.; Covington, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Bedrock channel profile analysis typically assumes that channels evolve toward a condition of topographic steady state where channel morphology is adjusted to rock erodibility, uplift rates, and stream power. Here we use the integral method of channel profile analysis to quantify channel steepness within a large set of tributary channels that incise through layered rocks in the Buffalo National River Basin in northern Arkansas. Statistical analysis of these channels demonstrates that normalized channel steepness is not a function of local bedrock lithology but is influenced by coarse sediment supply. Specifically, normalized steepness is greatest in reaches of the basin where an interval of Pennsylvanian sandstone forms a caprock on the ridges. Block detachment of the sandstone causes large boulders to be stranded in the upper tributaries where stream power is too low to mobilize or effectively erode the boulders. Within these channels, normalized steepness is correlated with sandstone boulder size and percent boulder coverage rather than local lithology, despite strong contrasts in the mechanical strength of the lithologies incised. This analysis suggests that removal of caprock material is rate limiting within the landscape and may be responsible for the long-term persistence of topography within this tectonically passive setting.

  10. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  11. How emissions, climate, and land use change will impact mid-century air quality over the United States: a focus on effects at national parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. Val; Heald, C. L.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.; Emmons, L. K.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2015-03-01

    We use a global coupled chemistry-climate-land model (CESM) to assess the integrated effect of climate, emissions and land use changes on annual surface O3 and PM2.5 in the United States with a focus on national parks (NPs) and wilderness areas, using the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 projections. We show that, when stringent domestic emission controls are applied, air quality is predicted to improve across the US, except surface O3 over the western and central US under RCP8.5 conditions, where rising background ozone counteracts domestic emission reductions. Under the RCP4.5 scenario, surface O3 is substantially reduced (about 5 ppb), with daily maximum 8 h averages below the primary US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of 75 ppb (and even 65 ppb) in all the NPs. PM2.5 is significantly reduced in both scenarios (4 μg m-3; ~50%), with levels below the annual US EPA NAAQS of 12 μg m-3 across all the NPs; visibility is also improved (10-15 dv; >75 km in visibility range), although some western US parks with Class I status (40-74 % of total sites in the US) are still above the 2050 planned target level to reach the goal of natural visibility conditions by 2064. We estimate that climate-driven increases in fire activity may dominate summertime PM2.5 over the western US, potentially offsetting the large PM2.5 reductions from domestic emission controls, and keeping visibility at present-day levels in many parks. Our study indicates that anthropogenic emission patterns will be important for air quality in 2050. However, climate and land use changes alone may lead to a substantial increase in surface O3 (2-3 ppb) with important consequences for O3 air quality and ecosystem degradation at the US NPs. Our study illustrates the need to consider the effects of changes in climate, vegetation, and fires in future air quality management and planning and emission policy making.

  12. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  13. 77 FR 49489 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... this action the EPA revised the new source performance standards for volatile organic compounds from... covered by the existing standards, the newly established standards will regulate volatile organic compound... Emissions PM Particulate Matter PM 2.5 Particulate Matter (2.5 microns and less) POM Polycyclic...

  14. Is Focus on Prevention Missing in National Health Programs? A Situation Analysis of IEC/BCC/Health Promotion Activities in a District Setting of Punjab and Haryana

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Jaswal, Nidhi; Grover, Ashoo

    2017-01-01

    Context: Health promotion (HP) has been an integral part of all national programs although it has been a low priority in India, which has resulted in a failure to achieve the desired results. Settings and Design: Situation analysis of information education communication (IEC)/behavior change communication (BCC)/HP activities within the existing national health programs was undertaken in the district of Hoshiarpur in Punjab and the district of Ambala in Haryana during 2013-14. Materials and Methods: Facility-based assessments were done by conducting in-depth interviews with stakeholders, program officers, medical officers, health workers, and counselors. Household survey (332 individuals) and exit interview (102 interviews) were conducted to assess the knowledge of the community regarding key risk factors. Results: There was a high vacancy in the mass media division with 40% (2 out of 5) and 89% (8 out of 9) of the sanctioned positions vacant in Hoshiarpur and Ambala, respectively, with low capacity of staff and budget. There was no annual calendar, logbook of activities with poor recording of IEC material received and disseminated. The knowledge of community members regarding key risk factors such as tobacco use, salt intake, blood pressure level, anemia, and tuberculosis was 77.3%, 26.4%, 16.4%, 32.7%, and 91.8%, respectively, in the district of Ambala as compared to 77.5%, 37.5%, 33.3%, 25.8%, and 88.3%, respectively, in the district of Hoshiarpur. The village health and sanitation committee (VHSC) in the district of Hoshiarpur and village level core committee (VLCC) in the district of Ambala were found to be nonfunctional with no Iec/Bcc activities in the covered villages in the last month. Monitoring and supervision of Iec/Bcc activities were poor in both the districts. Conclusions: Iec/Bcc/HP is a neglected area in national health programs in the selected districts with inadequate budget, human resources with poor implementation, and requires strengthening for

  15. The Effects of Daily Intensive Tact Instruction on Preschool Students' Emission of Pure Tacts and Mands in Non-Instructional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistoljevic, Nirvana; Greer, R. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of an intensive tact instruction procedure on numbers of tacts emitted in non-instructional settings (NIS) using a multiple probe design across 3 participants (3- and 4-year old boys with autism). The dependent variable was tacts emitted in NIS before/after the mastery of sets of 5 different stimuli. The non-instructional…

  16. Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory's primary responsibilities include: evaluating emission control technology; testing vehicles, engines and fuels; and determining compliance with federal emissions and fuel economy standards.

  17. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  18. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  19. Design Document for 12th Grade NAEP Preparedness Research Judgmental Standard Setting Studies: Setting Standards on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in Reading and Mathematics for 12th Grade Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment Governing Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board adopted a Program of Preparedness Research in March 2009. Several categories of research studies were recommended to produce results for reporting 12th grade preparedness for the 2009 grade 12 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The categories included content…

  20. 76 FR 52737 - Oil and Natural Gas Sector: New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act J... actions are we proposing? VIII. What are the cost, environmental, energy and economic impacts of the... are the energy impacts? G. What are the cost impacts? H. What are the economic impacts? I. What...

  1. Marine nitrous oxide emissions: An unknown liability for the international water sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable estimates of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are essential for setting effective climate policy at both the sector and national level. Current IPCC Guidelines for calculating nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from sewage management are both highly uncertain and ...

  2. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  3. How to do (or not to do) … translation of national health accounts data to evidence for policy making in a low resourced setting.

    PubMed

    Price, Jennifer A; Guinness, Lorna; Irava, Wayne; Khan, Idrish; Asante, Augustine; Wiseman, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    For more than a decade, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank have promoted the international standardization of National Health Accounts (NHA) for reporting global statistics on public, private and donor health expenditure and improve the quality of evidence-based decision-making at country level. A 2010-2012 World Bank review of NHA activity in 50 countries found structural and technical constraints (rather than cost) were key impediments to institutionalizing NHA in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pilot projects focused resources on data production, neglecting longer-term capacity building for analysing the data, developing ownership among local stakeholders and establishing routine production, utilization and dissemination of NHA data. Hence, genuine institutionalization of NHA in most LMICs has been slow to materialize. International manuals focus on the production of NHA data and do not include practical, incremental and low-cost strategies to guide countries in translating the data into evidence for policy-making. The main aim of this article is to recommend strategies for bridging this divide between production and utilization of NHA data in low-resource settings. The article begins by discussing the origins and purpose of NHA, including factors currently undermining their uptake. The focus then turns to the development and application of strategies to assist LMICs in 'unlocking' the hidden value of their NHA. The article draws on the example of Fiji, a country currently attempting to integrate their NHA data into policy formulation, despite minimal resources, training and familiarity with economic analysis of health systems. Simple, low cost recommendations such as embedding health finance indicators in planning documents, a user-friendly NHA guide for evaluating local health priorities, and sharing NHA data for collaborative research have helped translate

  4. Technology Being Developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Ultra-Low- Emission Combustion Technologies for Heat and Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    The Combustion Technologies Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed simple, low-cost, yet robust combustion technologies that may change the fundamental design concept of burners for boilers and furnaces, and injectors for gas turbine combustors. The new technologies utilize lean premixed combustion and could bring about significant pollution reductions from commercial and industrial combustion processes and may also improve efficiency. The technologies are spinoffs of two fundamental research projects: An inner-ring burner insert for lean flame stabilization developed for NASA- sponsored reduced-gravity combustion experiments. A low-swirl burner developed for Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences research on turbulent combustion.

  5. Electron Density Measurements in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Detached Divertor Region Using Stark Broadening of Deuterium Infrared Paschen Emission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Johnson, D W; Kaita, R; Roquemore, A L

    2007-04-27

    Spatially resolved measurements of deuterium Balmer and Paschen line emission have been performed in the divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiment using a commercial 0.5 m Czerny-Turner spectrometer. While the Balmer emission lines, Balmer and Paschen continua in the ultraviolet and visible regions have been extensively used for tokamak divertor plasma temperature and density measurements, the diagnostic potential of infrared Paschen lines has been largely overlooked. We analyze Stark broadening of the lines corresponding to 2-n and 3-m transitions with principle quantum numbers n = 7-12 and m = 10-12 using recent Model Microfield Method calculations (C. Stehle and R. Hutcheon, Astron. Astrophys. Supl. Ser. 140, 93 (1999)). Densities in the range (5-50) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} are obtained in the recombining inner divertor plasma in 2-6 MW NBI H-mode discharges. The measured Paschen line profiles show good sensitivity to Stark effects, and low sensitivity to instrumental and Doppler broadening. The lines are situated in the near-infrared wavelength domain, where optical signal extraction schemes for harsh nuclear environments are practically realizable, and where a recombining divertor plasma is optically thin. These properties make them an attractive recombining divertor density diagnostic for a burning plasma experiment.

  6. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b)...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313 Emission standards....

  12. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.483 Emission standards. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313 Emission standards....

  14. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.483 Emission standards. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1424 Emission...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1424 Emission...

  17. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.483 Emission standards. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.483 Emission standards....

  19. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.483 Emission standards. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313 Emission standards....

  1. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1424 Emission...

  2. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than

  3. Single Institutional Experience in the Treatment of Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma Treated with Immunochemotherapy in the Setting of Response Assessment by 18Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Ahmed, Mohamed Amin; Chuang, Hubert H.; Costelloe, Collen; Wogan, Christine F.; Reed, Valerie; Romaguera, Jorge E; Neelapu, Sattva; Oki, Yasuhiro; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Fayad, Luis; Hagemeister, Frederick B.; Nastoupil, Loretta; Turturro, Francesco; Fowler, Nathan; Fanale, Michelle A.; Nieto, Yago; Khouri, Issa F.; Ahmed, Sairah; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Davis, Richard Eric; Westin, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Excellent outcomes obtained after infusional dose-adjusted etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (R-EPOCH) alone have led some to question the role of consolidative radiation (RT) in the treatment of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL). We reviewed outcomes of patients treated with one of three rituximab-containing regimens (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone [R-CHOP]; hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone [R-HCVAD], or R-EPOCH) with or without RT, as well as the ability of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) to identify patients at risk of relapse. Materials/Methods We retrospectively identified 97 patients diagnosed with stage I/II PMBCL treated at our institution between 2001–2013. Clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and toxicity were assessed. We analyzed whether post-chemotherapy PET-CT could identify patients at risk for progressive disease according to 5 point scale (5PS) Deauville score assigned. Among 97 patients (median follow-up time 57 months), the 5-year overall survival rate was 99%. Of patients treated with R-CHOP, 99% received RT; R-HCVAD, 82%; and R-EPOCH, 36%. Of 68 patients with evaluable end-of-chemotherapy PET-CT scans, 62% had a positive scan (avidity above that of the mediastinal blood pool [Deauville 5-point scale {5PS} =3]), but only 9 patients experienced relapse (n=1) or progressive disease (n=8), all with a 5PS of 4-5. Of the 25 patients who received R-EPOCH, 4 experienced progression, all with 5PS of 4-5; salvage therapy (RT and autologous stem cell transplant) was successful in all cases. Conclusion Combined modality immunochemotherapy and radiation is well tolerated and effective for treatment of PMBCL. A post-chemotherapy 5PS of 4-5, rather than 3-5, can identify patients at high risk of progression who should be considered for therapy beyond chemotherapy alone after R-EPOCH. PMID

  4. Proton induced γ-ray emission yields for the analysis of light elements in aerosol samples in an external beam set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Portarena, S.

    2010-05-01

    The PIXE technique is a reliable tool for the characterisation of thin aerosol samples, but it can underestimate the lightest measurable elements, like Na, Mg, Al, Si and P, owing to the absorption of their X-rays inside the sample. The PIGE technique is a valid help to determine corrections for such effect: in order to perform PIGE measurements relative to thin reference standards in an external beam set-up, we measured, at the external beam facility of the Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory in Florence, the γ-ray yields as a function of the proton beam energy for the reactions 19F(p,p'γ) 19F ( Eγ = 110 and 197 keV), 23Na(p,p'γ) 23Na ( Eγ = 440 keV) and 27Al(p,p'γ) 27Al ( Eγ = 843 and 1013 keV), in the proton energy range from 3 to 5 MeV. The measured yields are shown, and the determined most suitable energies for performing PIGE quantification of Na and Al are reported, together with the corresponding minimum detection limits (MDLs). The results of some test on PIGE accuracy and an evaluation of self-absorption effects in PIXE measurements on thin aerosol samples are also presented.

  5. HCB, PCB, PCDD and PCDF emissions from ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Since current estimates of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) from ships are based on a relatively limited and old data set, an update of these emission factors has been outlined as a target towards improved Swedish emission inventories. Consequently, a comprehensive study was undertaken focusing on these emissions from three different ships during December 2003 to March 2004. Analyses were performed on 12 exhaust samples, three fuel oil samples and three lubricating oil samples from a representative selection of diesel engine models, fuel types and during different "real-world" operating conditions. The determined emissions corresponded reasonably well with previous measurements. The data suggest however that previous PCDD/PCDF emission factors are somewhat higher than those measured here. As expected the greatest emissions were observed during main engine start-up periods and for engines using heavier fuel oils. Total emissions for 2002, using revised emission factors, have been calculated based on Swedish sold marine fuels and also for geographical areas of national importance. In terms of their toxic equivalence (WHO-TEQ), the PCDD/PCDF emissions from ships using Swedish fuels are small (0.37-0.85 g TEQ) in comparison to recent estimates for the national total (ca. 45 g TEQ). Emissions from other land-based diesel engines (road vehicles, off-road machinery, military vehicles and locomotives) are estimated to contribute a further 0.18-0.42 g TEQ. Similarly, HCB and PCB emissions from these sources are small compared to 1995 national emission inventories.

  6. Optical alignment techniques for line-imaging velocity interferometry and line-imaging self-emission of targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Robert; Celeste, John; Celliers, Peter; Frogget, Brent; Robert Guyton,,; Kaufman, Morris; Lee, Tony; MacGowan, Brian; Ng, Edmend; Reinbachs, Imants; Robinson, Ronald; Tunnell, Thomas; Watts, Phillip

    2007-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 m. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

  7. Optical Alignment Techniques for Line-Imaging Velocity Interferometry and Line-Imaging Self-Emission of Targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R M; Celeste, J R; Celliers, P M; Frogget, B .; Guyton, R L; Kaufman, M I; Lee, T L; MacGowan, B J; Ng, E W; Reinbachs, I P; Robinson, R B; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P W

    2007-07-31

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 meters. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

  8. Technical and Non-Technical Measures for air pollution emission reduction: The integrated assessment of the regional Air Quality Management Plans through the Italian national model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, I.; Bencardino, M.; Ciancarella, L.; Contaldi, M.; Vialetto, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Italian Air Quality legislation underwent sweeping changes with the implementation of the 1996 European Air Quality Framework Directive when the Italian administrative Regions were entrusted with air quality management tasks. The most recent Regional Air Quality Management Plans (AQMPs) highlighted the importance of Non-Technical Measures (NTMs), in addition to Technical Measures (TMs), in meeting environmental targets. The aim of the present work is to compile a list of all the TMs and NTMs taken into account in the Italian Regional AQMPs and to give in the target year, 2010, an estimation of SO 2, NO x and PM 10 emission reductions, of PM 10 concentration and of the health impact of PM 2.5 concentrations in terms of Life Expectancy Reduction. In order to do that, RAINS-Italy, as part of the National Integrated Modeling system for International Negotiation on atmospheric pollution (MINNI), has been applied. The management of TMs and NTMs inside RAINS have often obliged both the introduction of exogenous driving force scenarios and the control strategy modification. This has inspired a revision of the many NTM definitions and a clear choice of the definition adopted. It was finally highlighted that only few TMs and NTMs implemented in the AQMPs represent effective measures in reaching the environmental targets.

  9. Optical alignment techniques for line-imaging velocity interferometry and line-imaging self-emission of targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Robert M.; Celeste, John R.; Celliers, Peter M.; Frogget, Brent C.; Guyton, Robert L.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lee, Tony L.; MacGowan, Brian J.; Ng, Edmund W.; Reinbachs, Imants P.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Watts, Phillip W.

    2007-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator-friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) measures shock velocities and shock breakout times of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. A third imaging system measures self-emission of the targets. These three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 m. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be systematically checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Floating apertures, placed before and after lens groups, display misalignment by showing the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beam splitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment is achieved before each shot.

  10. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Funk, Paul A

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with nonattainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs) detailing measures to reduce regional PM2.5 levels by reducing PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. These plans need to account for increases in emissions caused by operating control technologies. Potential PM2.5 emissions reductions realized by adding a second set of dust cyclones were estimated for the cotton ginning industry. Increases in energy consumption were calculated based on dust cyclone air pressure drop. Additional energy required was translated into increased emissions using published emission factors and state emissions inventories. Reductions in gin emissions were compared with increases in emissions at the power plant. Because of the electrical energy required, reducing one unit of agricultural PM2.5 emissions at a cotton gin results in emitting 0.11-2.67 units of direct PM2.5, 1.39-69.1 units of PM2.5 precursors, 1.70-76.8 units of criteria pollutants, and 692-15,400 units of greenhouse gases at the point where electricity is produced. If regulations designed to reduce rural PM2.5 emissions increase electrical power consumption, the unintended net effect may be more emissions, increased environmental damage, and a greater risk to public health.

  11. A Comparison of Teachers' Perceptions of Principal Effectiveness in National Blue Ribbon Schools and Matched Sets of Selected Non-Blue Ribbon Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffing, Ryan Robert

    2010-01-01

    With a focus on leadership, this study examines the leadership characteristics of principals in schools that are recognized as National Blue Ribbon Schools by the United States Department of Education. This mixed methodology study utilizes the causal comparative method to compare what teachers consider to be effective leadership characteristics of…

  12. A Specific Response to the National Institute of Education Under the Requirements as Set Forth Within Their Document Entitled: "Scope of Work."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, T. R.

    The study sought to document how the National Institute of Education sponsored Mountain-Plains Career Education Model Four (CEM4) is improving on the advancing the family residential approach. This was accomplished by comparing aspects of the seven programs by way of: (1) a collection and review of available literature and reports, (2) site…

  13. Compendium of measures to prevent disease associated with animals in public settings, 2011: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.

    PubMed

    2011-05-06

    Certain venues encourage or permit the public to be in contact with animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, feed stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, educational farms, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools and child-care facilities, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although human-animal contact has many benefits, human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. Infectious disease outbreaks have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Cryptosporidium species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such outbreaks have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the most important for reducing the risk for disease transmission associated with animals in public settings. Other important recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas and include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. These updated 2011 guidelines provide new information on the risks associated with amphibians and with animals in day camp settings, as well as the protective role of zoonotic disease education.

  14. Compendium of measures to prevent disease associated with animals in public settings, 2009: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. (NASPHV).

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    Certain venues encourage or permit the public to be in contact with animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, educational farms, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools and child-care facilities, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although human-animal contact has many benefits, many human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. Infectious disease outbreaks reported during the previous decade have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Cryptosporidium species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such infections have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the most important prevention step for reducing the risk for disease transmission associated with animals in public settings. Other critical recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas, venues include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. These updated 2009 guidelines also emphasize risks associated with baby poultry, reptiles, and rodents in public settings, and information about aquatic animal zoonoses has been incorporated.

  15. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage vessel... vent system shall be designed to collect all benzene vapors and gases discharged from the...

  16. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage vessel... vent system shall be designed to collect all benzene vapors and gases discharged from the...

  17. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage vessel... vent system shall be designed to collect all benzene vapors and gases discharged from the...

  18. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage vessel... vent system shall be designed to collect all benzene vapors and gases discharged from the...

  19. 40 CFR 61.271 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Storage Vessels § 61.271 Emission standard. The owner or operator of each storage vessel... vent system shall be designed to collect all benzene vapors and gases discharged from the...

  20. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1403 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1403 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins § 63.1403...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1382 - Emission standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Emission standards 63.1382 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing § 63.1382 Emission standards...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1403 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1403 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins §...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1652 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1652 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards... Emission standards. (a) New and reconstructed submerged arc furnaces. No owner or operator shall cause...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production §...

  7. 40 CFR 61.107 - Emission determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission determination. 61.107 Section...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From Federal Facilities Other Than Nuclear Regulatory Commission Licensees and Not Covered...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1403 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1403 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins §...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1403 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1403 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins § 63.1403...

  10. 40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standard. 63.112 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards... Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 63.112 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standard. 63.112 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards... Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.112 Emission standard. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production §...

  14. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1403 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1403 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins § 63.1403...

  16. 40 CFR 61.107 - Emission determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission determination. 61.107 Section...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From Federal Facilities Other Than Nuclear Regulatory Commission Licensees and Not Covered...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1382 - Emission standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards 63.1382 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing § 63.1382 Emission standards...

  18. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on...

  19. 40 CFR 61.107 - Emission determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission determination. 61.107 Section...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radionuclide Emissions From Federal Facilities Other Than Nuclear Regulatory Commission Licensees and Not Covered...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313...

  1. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, A.; von Haeseler, F.

    2004-04-01

    Automatic sets D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m to be a Delone set in {\\bb R}^m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples.

  2. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  3. Regional and National Estimates of the PotentialEnergy Use, Energy Cost, and CO{sub 2} Emissions Associated with Radon Mitigation by Sub-slab Depressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1996-03-01

    Active sub-slab depressurization (SSD) systems are an effective means of reducing indoor radon concentrations in residential buildings. However, energy is required to operate the system fan and to heat or cool the resulting increased building ventilation. We present regional and national estimates of the energy requirements, operating expenses, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with using SSD systems at saturation (i.e., in all U.S. homes with radon concentrations above the EPA remediation guideline and either basement or slab-on-grade construction). The primary source of uncertainty in these estimates is the impact of the SSD system on house ventilation rate. Overall, individual SSD system operating expenses are highest in the Northeast and Midwest at about $99 y{sup -1}, and lowest in the South and West at about $66 y{sup -1}. The fan consumes, on average, about 40% of the end-use energy used to operate the SSD system and accounts for about 60% of the annual expense. At saturation, regional impacts are largest in the Midwest because this area has a large number of mitigable houses and a relatively high heating load. We estimate that operating SSD systems in U.S. houses where it is both appropriate and possible (about 2.6 million houses), will annually consume 1.7 x 10{sup 4} (6.4 x 10{sup 3} to 3.9 x 10{sup 4}) TJ of end-use energy, cost $230 (130 to 400) million (at current energy prices), and generate 2.0 x 10{sup 9} (1.2 x 10{sup 9} to 3.5 x 10{sup 9}) kg of CO{sub 2}. Passive or energy efficient radon mitigation systems currently being developed offer opportunities to substantially reduce these impacts.

  4. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon dioxide inventories. Nature Climate Change, 672-675 (2012).

  5. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  6. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  7. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  8. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  9. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  10. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  11. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.52 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period. (b) Emissions to...

  12. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.52 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period. (b) Emissions to...

  13. The management of cytotoxic drug wastes in Shiraz, Iran: an overview of all government and private chemotherapy settings, and comparison with national and international guidelines.

    PubMed

    Askarian, Mehrdad; Momeni, Mohsen; Danaei, Mina

    2013-06-01

    Excessive use of cytotoxic drugs owing to a dramatic increase in malignancy incidence leads to the production of high amounts of cytotoxic wastes. In Iran, management of hazardous wastes has been neglected in recent decades. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of intravenous cytotoxic drug wastes, their collection and disposal status in chemotherapy wards, and to compare the current status with standard guidelines in Shiraz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed using data collected during 2 consecutive months, from 22 June to 22 August 2011, in all 13 chemotherapy wards in Shiraz. The amount of prescribed drugs, drugs waste, collection and disposal status of cytotoxic drugs were recorded. We then compared the current status of waste collection and disposal in our samples with our national guideline. The prescription of cytotoxic drugs and the amount of total drugs waste reached approximately 6 and 0.2 kilograms respectively. Total vials volume was calculated to be approximately 1000 l in order to estimate the volume of containers required for the encapsulation method. The results demonstrated that the current status of cytotoxic waste collection and disposal is inappropriate, and none of the facilities under study followed our guidelines perfectly. The adherence to all recommendations and guidelines was poorer in private wards than in government-run ones. The management of cytotoxic wastes is inappropriate and our existing national guidelines are lacking. Suggestions for the best management of cytotoxic waste are revising the existing guidelines, allocating a sufficient budget, training healthcare workers, providing multiple administration options of cytotoxic drugs and accomplishing a surveillance system.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, prepared for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), identifies the most appropriate ammonia (NH3) emission factors available for inclusion in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. H3 emission factors developed for several new NAPAP source categories...

  15. Set of Comparable Carbon Footprints for Highway Travel in Metropolitan America

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Sonnenberg, Anthon

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a set of carbon dioxide emissions estimates for highway travel by automobile, truck, bus and other public transit vehicle movements within the nation s 100 largest metropolitan areas, in calendar year 2005. Considerable variability is found to exist across metropolitan areas when these greenhouse gas emissions are measured on a per capita and a per gross metropolitan product (GMP) basis. Least square regression modeling shows a relationship between emissions per capita and per GMP with truck traffic share, transit share, employment density, population dispersion within the metro area, and GMP per capita. As a result many of the nation s largest metropolitan areas tend to have lower CO2 emissions per capita and per GMP than smaller and more recently developed metro areas.

  16. Modeling of Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    coagulation oxidation.... carbonization 14 Modeling Particulate Emissions Soot Formation Kinetics 2 1016 1 ]HC[kdt dS = Inception: Dimerization of...simulated with peak size for surface growth Sectional Conservation Equation 16 Modeling Particulate Emissions Soot Kinetics Based on OH, O2 and...and empirical tuning to NOx, CO emissionsFuel-spray shear layer Recirculation zones Quench zones Burn-out zones Full set of reaction kinetics and

  17. Air/Superfund national technical guidance study series, Volume 2. Estimation of baseline air emission at Superfund sites. Interim report(Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This volume is one in a series of manuals prepared for EPA to assist its Remedial Project Managers in the assessment of the air contaminant pathway and developing input data for risk assessment. The manual provides guidance on developing baseline-emission estimates from hazardous waste sites. Baseline-emission estimates (BEEs) are defined as emission rates estimated for a site in its undisturbed state. Specifically, the manual is intended to: Present a protocol for selecting the appropriate level of effort to characterize baseline air emissions; Assist site managers in designing an approach for BEEs; Describe useful technologies for developing site-specific baseline emission estimates (BEEs); Help site managers select the appropriate technologies for generating site-specific BEEs.

  18. ROANOKE WOODSTOVE EMISSION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project Roanoke study, that characterizes and quantifies emissions generated by burning authentic Roanoke cordwood. The burning occurred in a controlled laboratory setting using two woodstoves, each operated at two...

  19. Ready ... set ... grow.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T

    1998-01-05

    Three years after going public, FPA Medical Management rose from obscurity to become the nation's second largest practice manager. Its network of primary care doctors ballooned from only 95 to nearly 6,700. Now, as executives mull over $2 billion in acquisitions, the company is set to bulk up even more.

  20. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry.

  1. Review of the geological and structural setting near the site of the proposed Transuranic Waste Facility (TRUWF) Technical Area 52 (TA-52), Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Gardner, Jamie N.

    2007-10-01

    Because of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s proximal location to active geologic structures, assessment of seismic hazards, including the potential for seismic surface rupture, must occur before construction of any facilities housing nuclear or other hazardous materials. A transuranic waste facility (TRUWF) planned for construction at Technical Area 52 (TA-52) provides the impetus for this report. Although no single seismic hazards field investigation has focused specifically on TA-52, numerous studies at technical areas surrounding TA-52 have shown no significant, laterally continuous faults exhibiting activity in the last 10 ka within 3,000 ft of the proposed facility. A site-specific field study at the footprint of the proposed TRUWF would not yield further high-precision data on possible Holocene faulting at the site because post-Bandelier Tuff sediments are lacking and the shallowest subunit contacts of the Bandelier Tuff are gradational. Given the distal location of the proposed TRUWF to any mapped structures with demonstrable Holocene displacement, surface rupture potential appears minimal at TA-52.

  2. Awareness of the Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad Program and Education Regarding Pharmaceutical Advertising: A National Survey of Prescribers in Ambulatory Care Settings.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Amie C; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Aikin, Kathryn J; Geisen, Emily; Betts, Kevin R; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad program educates health care professionals about false or misleading advertising and marketing and provides a pathway to report suspect materials. To assess familiarity with this program and the extent of training about pharmaceutical marketing, a sample of 2,008 health care professionals, weighted to be nationally representative, responded to an online survey. Approximately equal numbers of primary care physicians, specialists, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners answered questions concerning Bad Ad program awareness and its usefulness, as well as their likelihood of reporting false or misleading advertising, confidence in identifying such advertising, and training about pharmaceutical marketing. Results showed that fewer than a quarter reported any awareness of the Bad Ad program. Nonetheless, a substantial percentage (43%) thought it seemed useful and 50% reported being at least somewhat likely to report false or misleading advertising in the future. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants expressed more openness to the program and reported receiving more training about pharmaceutical marketing. Bad Ad program awareness is low, but opportunity exists to solicit assistance from health care professionals and to help health care professionals recognize false and misleading advertising. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants are perhaps the most likely contributors to the program.

  3. Isotopic and hydrogeochemical characterization of high-altitude karst aquifers in complex geological settings. The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park (Northern Spain) case study.

    PubMed

    Lambán, L J; Jódar, J; Custodio, E; Soler, A; Sapriza, G; Soto, R

    2015-02-15

    The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park, located in the Southern Pyrenees, constitutes the highest karst system in Western Europe. No previous studies regarding its geochemical and isotopic groundwater characterization are available in this area. This work presents the results of field and sampling campaigns carried out between July 2007 and September 2013. The groundwater presents high calcium bicarbonate contents due to the occurrence of upper Cretaceous and lower Paleocene-Eocene carbonate materials in the studied area. Other relevant processes include dissolution of anhydrite and/or gypsum and incongruent dissolution of Mg-limestone and dolomite. The water stable isotopes (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) show that the oceanic fronts from the Atlantic Ocean are responsible for the high levels of precipitation. In autumn, winter, and spring, a deuterium excess is found in the recharge water, which could be related to local atmospheric transport of low-altitude snow sublimation vapour and its later condensation on the snow surface at higher altitude, where recharge is mostly produced. The recharge zones are mainly between 2500m and 3200ma.s.l. The tritium content of the water suggests short groundwater transit times. The isotopic composition of dissolved sulphate points to the existence of regional fluxes mixed with local discharge in some of the springs. This work highlights the major role played by the altitude difference between the recharge and discharge zones in controlling the chemistry and the vertical variability of the isotopic composition in high-altitude karst aquifers.

  4. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine: Remote access and distribution of a multi-gigabyte data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the 1986 Long-Range Plan for the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the Planning Panel on Medical Education wrote that NLM should '...thoroughly and systematically investigate the technical requirements for and feasibility of instituting a biomedical images library.' The panel noted the increasing use of images in clinical practice and biomedical research. An image library would complement NLM's existing bibliographic and factual database services and would ideally be available through the same computer networks as are these current NLM services. Early in 1989, NLM's Board of Regents convened an ad hoc planning panel to explore possible roles for the NLM in the area of electronic image libraries. In its report to the Board of Regents, the NLM Planning Panel on Electronic Image Libraries recommended that 'NLM should undertake a first project building a digital image library of volumetric data representing a complete, normal adult male and female. This Visible Human Project will include digitized photographic images for cryosectioning, digital images derived from computerized tomography, and digital magnetic resonance images of cadavers.' The technologies needed to support digital high resolution image libraries, including rapid development; and that NLM encourage investigator-initiated research into methods for representing and linking spatial and textual information, structural informatics. The first part of the Visible Human Project is the acquisition of cross-sectional CT and MRI digital images and cross-sectional cryosectional photographic images of a representative male and female cadaver at an average of one millimeter intervals. The corresponding cross-sections in each of the three modalities are to be registerable with one another.

  5. Influence of the National Trauma Data Bank on the Study of Trauma Outcomes: Is it Time to Set Research Best Practices to Further Enhance Its Impact?

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Adil H; Saleem, Taimur; Leow, Jeffrey J; Villegas, Cassandra V; Kisat, Mehreen; Schneider, Eric B; Haut, Elliott R; Stevens, Kent A; Cornwell, Edward E; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Efron, David T

    2012-01-01

    Background Risk-adjusted analyses are critical in evaluating trauma outcomes. The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) is a statistically robust registry that allows such analyses; however, analytical techniques are not yet standardized. In this study, we examine peer-reviewed manuscripts published using NTDB data, with particular attention to characteristics strongly associated with trauma outcomes. Our objective is to determine if there are substantial variations in the methodology and quality of risk-adjusted analyses and thus, whether the development of best practices for risk-adjusted analyses is warranted. Study Design A database of all studies utilizing NTDB data published through December 2010 was created by searching Pubmed and Embase. Studies with multivariate risk-adjusted analyses were examined for their central question, main outcome measures, analytical techniques, the co-variates in adjusted analyses, and handling of missing data. Results Of 286 NTDB publications, 122 performed a multivariable adjusted analysis. These studies focused on Clinical Outcomes (51), Public Health Policy or Injury Prevention (30), Quality (16), Disparities (15), Trauma Center Designation (6) or Scoring Systems (4). Mortality was the main outcome in 98 of these studies. There were considerable differences in the co-variates used for case adjustment. The three most frequently controlled for co-variates were age (95%), Injury Severity Score (85%) and gender (78%). Up to 43% of studies did not control for the five basic covariates necessary to conduct a risk-adjusted analysis of trauma mortality. Less than 10% of studies used clustering to adjust for facility differences or imputation to handle missing data. Conclusions There is significant variability in how risk-adjusted analyses using data from the NTDB are performed. Best practices are needed to further improve the quality of research from the NTDB. PMID:22321521

  6. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  7. Importance of Joint Spacing and Rock Hardness on the Pattern and Efficiency of Glacial Erosion in Alpine Settings: an Example From Yosemite National Park, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhnforth, M.; Anderson, R. S.; Ward, D. J.; Stock, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    Two topics of interest in alpine glacial valleys can be explored by sampling glacial polish for cosmogenic 10Be dating. First, deglaciation histories can be reconstructed if the sample surfaces are fully reset by glacial erosion during the last glacial cycle. Second, samples that are not completely reset can be used to document the pattern and rates of glacial erosion. We systematically sampled glacially-polished bedrock surfaces in the Tuolumne River watershed in Yosemite National Park, a landscape renowned for its glacially polished granites and granodiorites, for cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating. The samples were collected along an 80 km transect from the Tuolumne River drainage divide at 4000 m down to an elevation of 730 m just below Hetch Hetchy reservoir. The lowest sample position corresponds to the glacier terminus in the Tuolumne valley during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Samples were taken from at least eight different granitic/granodioritic units, which show differences in their hardness and joint spacing. These included the massive, flawless Cathedral Peak granodiorite and El Capitan granite. When inverted for exposure age, 17 out of our total of 23 measured 10Be samples yield ages between 3 and 20 ka ignoring any correction for snow shielding. These ages young from 15 ka to 3 ka with distance upvalley from the LGM terminal position. These samples constrain the post-LGM deglaciation history of the valley when the snow shielding correction is included. This pattern of fully reset samples is, however, interrupted at six sample locations with anomalously high concentrations of 10Be that far exceed those expected from exposure since deglaciation between 20 and 15 ka. These samples with significant inheritance all come from the poorly jointed, massive Cathedral Peak granodiorite and El Capitan granite. We interpret our results as indicating that rock type plays an important role in glacial erosion, and that in particular joint spacing strongly controls

  8. Development of the First National Mexican Emission Inventories for Ships Using the Waterway Network Ship Traffic, Energy, and Environmental Model (STEEM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this report is to help policy makers and stakeholders understand results, limitations and advantages of the ship emissions estimations that will form the basis of a Mexican ECA designation proposal.

  9. 40 CFR 63.9301 - What are my options for meeting the emission limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test...

  10. 40 CFR 63.9300 - What emission limitations must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands...

  11. 40 CFR 63.9301 - What are my options for meeting the emission limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test...

  12. 40 CFR 63.9300 - What emission limitations must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands...

  13. Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

  14. Historic Patterns of CO{sub 2} Emissions from Fossil Fuels: Implications for Stabilization of Emissions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.

    1994-06-01

    This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

  15. Identifying research priorities in anaesthesia and perioperative care: final report of the joint National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia/James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Boney, Oliver; Bell, Madeline; Bell, Natalie; Conquest, Ann; Cumbers, Marion; Drake, Sharon; Galsworthy, Mike; Gath, Jacqui; Grocott, Michael P W; Harris, Emma; Howell, Simon; Ingold, Anthony; Nathanson, Michael H; Pinkney, Thomas; Metcalf, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify research priorities for Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine. Design Prospective surveys and consensus meetings guided by an independent adviser. Setting UK. Participants 45 stakeholder organisations (25 professional, 20 patient/carer) affiliated as James Lind Alliance partners. Outcomes First ‘ideas-gathering’ survey: Free text research ideas and suggestions. Second ‘prioritisation’ survey: Shortlist of ‘summary’ research questions (derived from the first survey) ranked by respondents in order of priority. Final ‘top ten’: Agreed by consensus at a final prioritisation workshop. Results First survey: 1420 suggestions received from 623 respondents (49% patients/public) were refined into a shortlist of 92 ‘summary’ questions. Second survey: 1718 respondents each nominated up to 10 questions as research priorities. Top ten: The 25 highest-ranked questions advanced to the final workshop, where 23 stakeholders (13 professional, 10 patient/carer) agreed the 10 most important questions: ▸ What can we do to stop patients developing chronic pain after surgery? ▸ How can patient care around the time of emergency surgery be improved? ▸ What long-term harm may result from anaesthesia, particularly following repeated anaesthetics? ▸ What outcomes should we use to measure the ‘success’ of anaesthesia and perioperative care? ▸ How can we improve recovery from surgery for elderly patients? ▸ For which patients does regional anaesthesia give better outcomes than general anaesthesia? ▸ What are the effects of anaesthesia on the developing brain? ▸ Do enhanced recovery programmes improve short and long-term outcomes? ▸ How can preoperative exercise or fitness training, including physiotherapy, improve outcomes after surgery? ▸ How can we improve communication between the teams looking after patients throughout their surgical journey? Conclusions Almost 2000 stakeholders contributed their views

  16. A comparative study of US EPA 1996 and 1999 emission inventories in the west Gulf of Mexico coast region, USA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Jen; Ho, Thomas C; Chu, Hsing-wei; Yang, Heng; Mojica, Martha J; Krishnarajanagar, Nagesh; Chiou, Paul; Hopper, Jack R

    2005-06-01

    Emission inventory is one of the required inputs to air quality models. To assist in the urban and regional modeling efforts, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has compiled a National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criterion pollutants, and the precursors of ozone and particulate matter (PM). In December 2002, EPA released the 1999 NEI estimates (NEI99), which represent the most recent national emission data. However, the data sets are not in model-ready format for air quality simulations. This present work converts the NEI99 Final Version 2 data sets into Inventory Data Analyzer (IDA) format and processes the data using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling system to generate a gridded emission inventory in a domain covering the west Gulf Coast Region, USA. The spatial and diurnal emission characteristics of the gridded emission inventories are then assessed and compared with those of the National Emission Trend 1996 (NET96). The NEI99 database contains more complete emission records in both area and point sources. It is also found that NEI99 data exhibit greater emissions with respect to point and mobile sources but smaller emissions with respect to area sources when compared to the corresponding gridded NET96 data in the same study domain. The most distinct differences between the NEI99 and NET96 databases are CO emission of mobile sources, SO2 emissions of point sources, and VOC/PM/NH3/NOx emissions of area and non-road sources. The gridded NEI99 data show low VOC/NOx ratios (<2-5) in the urban areas of the study domain.

  17. Assessment of surface water chloride and conductivity trends in areas of unconventional oil and gas development-Why existing national data sets cannot tell us what we would like to know

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Cade, Brian S.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Farag, Aida M.; Mott, David N.; Potter, Christopher J.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Clark, Melanie L.; Kappel, William M.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Paschke, Suzanne; Susong, David D.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened concern regarding the potential effects of unconventional oil and gas development on regional water quality has emerged, but the few studies on this topic are limited in geographic scope. Here we evaluate the potential utility of national and publicly available water-quality data sets for addressing questions regarding unconventional oil and gas development. We used existing U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data sets to increase understanding of the spatial distribution of unconventional oil and gas development in the U.S. and broadly assess surface water quality trends in these areas. Based on sample size limitations, we were able to estimate trends in specific conductance (SC) and chloride (Cl-) from 1970 to 2010 in 16% (n=155) of the watersheds with unconventional oil and gas resources. We assessed these trends relative to spatiotemporal distributions of hydraulically fractured wells. Results from this limited analysis suggest no consistent and widespread trends in surface water quality for SC and Cl- in areas with increasing unconventional oil and gas development and highlight limitations of existing national databases for addressing questions regarding unconventional oil and gas development and water quality.

  18. Quantification of Emission Factor Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions factors are important for estimating and characterizing emissions from sources of air pollution. There is no quantitative indication of uncertainty for these emission factors, most factors do not have an adequate data set to compute uncertainty, and it is very difficult...

  19. Emissions Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  20. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  1. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  2. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  3. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  4. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1652 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1652 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Ferroalloys Production: Ferromanganese...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1382 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1382 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing § 63.1382...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1382 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.1382 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing § 63.1382...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1652 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1652 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Ferroalloys Production: Ferromanganese...

  9. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants § 63.846...

  10. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission averaging. 63.846 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants § 63.846...

  11. Antecedents to agenda setting and framing in health news: an examination of priority, angle, source, and resource usage from a national survey of U.S. health reporters and editors.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K

    2010-01-01

    The influence of news media on audience cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors in the realm of politics, race relations, science, and health has been extensively documented.Agenda setting and framing studies show that news media influence how people develop schema and place priorities on issues, with media stories serving as a major source of issue frames. Although news media are an important intermediary in the translation of scientific knowledge to different publics, little has been documented about the production of health news and factors that may predict media agenda setting and framing in health journalism. We used data from a 2005 national survey of U.S. health reporters and editors to examine predictors of source, resource, story angle, and frame usage among reporters and editors by variables such as organizational structure, individual characteristics of respondents (such as education and years working as a journalist),and perceptions of occupational autonomy. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed several differences among U.S. health reports and editors in the likelihood of using a variety of news sources, resources, priorities, and angles in reporting. Media agenda setting and framing theories suggest that practitioners familiar with media processes can work with journalists to frame messages, thereby increasing the probability of accurate and effective reporting. Results from this study may help to inform interactions between public health and medical practitioners and the press [corrected].

  12. Variations of China's emission estimates: response to uncertainties in energy statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chaopeng; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo; Li, Meng; Liu, Fei; Zheng, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of China's energy statistics is of great concern because it contributes greatly to the uncertainties in estimates of global emissions. This study attempts to improve the understanding of uncertainties in China's energy statistics and evaluate their impacts on China's emissions during the period of 1990-2013. We employed the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) model to calculate China's emissions based on different official data sets of energy statistics using the same emission factors. We found that the apparent uncertainties (maximum discrepancy) in China's energy consumption increased from 2004 to 2012, reaching a maximum of 646 Mtce (million tons of coal equivalent) in 2011 and that coal dominated these uncertainties. The discrepancies between the national and provincial energy statistics were reduced after the three economic censuses conducted during this period, and converging uncertainties were found in 2013. The emissions calculated from the provincial energy statistics are generally higher than those calculated from the national energy statistics, and the apparent uncertainty ratio (the ratio of the maximum discrepancy to the mean value) owing to energy uncertainties in 2012 took values of 30.0, 16.4, 7.7, 9.2 and 15.6 %, for SO2, NOx, VOC, PM2.5 and CO2 emissions, respectively. SO2 emissions are most sensitive to energy uncertainties because of the high contributions from industrial coal combustion. The calculated emission trends are also greatly affected by energy uncertainties - from 1996 to 2012, CO2 and NOx emissions, respectively, increased by 191 and 197 % according to the provincial energy statistics but by only 145 and 139 % as determined from the original national energy statistics. The energy-induced emission uncertainties for some species such as SO2 and NOx are comparable to total uncertainties of emissions as estimated by previous studies, indicating variations in energy consumption could be an important source of

  13. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Carbon Emissions to the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broniak, C. T.; Blasing, T. J.; Marland, G.

    2003-12-01

    Data on global fossil-fuel emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere for year 2000 show that the range of national average per capita emissions, in metric tons of carbon per person, includes values of 5.40 for the United States, 2.61 for Germany, 0.29 for India and 0.04 for Liberia. This range is more than two orders of magnitude. Similar data on national fossil-fuel emissions for the United States vary by more than an order of magnitude, from 34.18 metric tons of carbon per person for Wyoming to 2.70 for California. The state data also show differing patterns of change over time. The Kyoto Protocol would require ratifying developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to quantified negotiated targets. The concept of contraction and convergence (C&C) has been widely touted as a possible basis for ultimate, more strict limits on greenhouse gas emissions. The idea of C&C is that per-capita emissions of CO2 for all countries would converge toward some common value that is consistent with stabilization of global climate. The U.S., on the other hand, has proposed intensity-based emissions targets whereby goals would be defined in terms of emissions per unit of gross domestic product, or perhaps emissions per unit of output for specific activities. This paper describes the data set on U.S. CO2 emissions by state, and begins to explore the patterns between states and over time.

  14. An Integrated Modelling Approach to Estimate Urban Traffic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aarshabh

    Vehicular emissions contribute significantly to poor air quality in urban areas. An integrated modelling approach is adopted to estimate microscale urban traffic emissions. The modelling framework consists of a traffic microsimulation model, a microscopic emissions model, and two dispersion models. This framework is applied to a traffic network in downtown Toronto to evaluate summer time morning peak traffic emissions during weekdays for carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. The model predicted results are validated against sensor observations with a reasonably good fit. Availability of local estimates of ambient concentration is useful for accurate comparisons of total predicted concentrations with observed concentrations. Both predicted and observed concentrations are significantly smaller than the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives established by Environment Canada. Sensitivity analysis is performed on a set of input parameters and horizontal wind speed is found to be the most influential factor in pollutant dispersion.

  15. Estimation of carbon emissions from crown fires in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucuk, O.; Bilgili, E.

    2009-04-01

    Forest biomass consumption is an important index for carbon cycling. Forest fire represents one of the important sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to biomass burning processes. Forest fire contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration therefore, role of forest fires in the global carbon cycle has received increasing interest. Various methods were used to estimation of carbon emission. IPCC methodology is commonly used for the calculation of GHG amounts released at forest fire in Europe especially on a national basis. Many European countries have done many studies relation to estimation of carbon emissions from forest fires. However, carbon emissions from forest fires were not estimated in Turkey. The objective of this paper was to estimate carbon emission from forest fires from 1997 to 2006 in three forest district directorate of Turkey. We have used IPCC methodology for estimation of carbon emission form forest fire in Turkey. The emission calculations associated with forest fires were carried out using the IPCC methodology for estimating emissions from biomass burning. According to IPCC methodology, the annual carbon release of gas is the product of parameters: Annual biomass loss by burning (kt), fraction of biomass oxidized on-site, carbon content (CC), emission ratio, N/C ratio. A set of forest fire data during 1997-2006 obtained from the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry-General Directorate of Forestry Service. Fuel biomass and fuel consumption data were provided from experimental fires and biomass studies in Turkey. The highest carbon emission amount was CO2 gas. A wide range in carbon emissions of 0.37-94.85 Gg was caused by variability in pre-fire fuel characteristics (fuel size, distribution, fuel moisture and total load), fire type, fire season and fire weather, which affected fuel moisture and fire behavior. Keywords: Carbon emissions, Forest fire, Fuel consumption, IPCC, Turkey

  16. A reassessment of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for soybean biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the first comprehensive soybean biodiesel (BD) LCA by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 1998, there have been many technological improvements that could change the LCA results. This study updates the GHG emissions for BD using the most current set of agriculture data from the year 20...

  17. 40 CFR 63.802 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission limits. 63.802 Section 63.802... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations § 63.802 Emission limits. (a) Each owner or...

  18. 40 CFR 63.802 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission limits. 63.802 Section 63.802... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations § 63.802 Emission limits. (a) Each owner or...

  19. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed.

  20. Unit: Cells, Inspection Set, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This trial version of a unit is the series being produced by the Australian Science Education Project provides instructions for students to prepare a variety of cell types and examine them with microscopes. It also gives some information about the variety and function of cells. The core of the unit, which all students are expected to complete,…