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Sample records for seven-year follow-up study

  1. Work, Diabetes and Obesity: A Seven Year Follow-Up Study among Danish Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Kjeld; Cleal, Bryan; Clausen, Thomas; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The rise in prevalence of diabetes is alarming and research ascribes most of the increase to lifestyle. However, little knowledge exists about the influence of occupational factors on the risk for developing diabetes. This study estimates the importance of work and lifestyle as risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus among healthcare workers and explores the association of work factors and obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes. Methods Questionnaire-based prospective cohort study among 7,305 health care workers followed for seven years in the Danish National Diabetes Register. We used bivariate comparisons to give an unadjusted estimate of associations, followed by adjusted survival analysis and logistic regression models to estimate the influences of potential risk factors related to job, health and lifestyle on diabetes and obesity. Results During seven years of follow up, 3.5% of participants developed diabetes, associated with obesity (HR  =  6.53; 95% CI 4.68–9.10), overweight (HR  =  2.89; CI 2.11–3.96) age 50–69 y (HR  =  2.27; 95% CI 1.57–3.43) and high quality of leadership (HR  =  1.60; CI 1.19–2.16). Obesity at baseline was most common among the youngest employees, and was mainly associated with developing diabetes (OR  =  3.84; CI 2.85–5.17), impaired physical capacity and physical inactivity. In the occupational setting, obesity was associated with shift work, severe musculoskeletal pain, low influence, but also by good management, fewer role conflicts and a positive work-life balance. Looking only at non-smokers, removed the influence of age and pain. However, non-smokers also had higher depression scores and more role conflicts. Conclusions Confirming obesity as the strongest risk factor for developing diabetes, the present study identified few occupational risk factors. However, obesity, the key risk factor for diabetes, had a more variable relation with work than did diabetes. PMID:25068830

  2. Seven-year follow-up of cardiovascular study and maximal exercise of Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Bruce, R A; Pao, Y L; Ting, N; Chiang, B N; Li, Y B; Alexander, E R; Beasley, R P; Fisher, L D; Chiang, S T

    1975-05-01

    A seven-year follow-up in 1973 of a prospective cardiovascular study of 1820 initially, healthy, middle-aged Chinese men of 40-59 years of age identified 1745 (95.9%) known survivors, 49 (2.7%) interim deaths, and 26 (1.4) who could not be traced. Of the survivors, 1462 (83.8%) were re-examined, 292 (16.7%) had another treadmill test of maximal exercise, and 283 (16.2%) failed to return for re-examination. On the basis of interim surveillance of hospital admissions, questionnaires and re-examination, a greater incidence of noncardiovascular events (338 or 18.6%) than evidence of cardiovascular disease (220 or 12.1%) was found while the majority (1021 or 56.1%) remained healthy. Total mortality was 0.29 for men under 50 and 0.76 per 100 person-years for men of 50 or more years of age. Only nine, or 18.4% of the deaths were due to cardiovascular causes, and unexpectedly for this population sample, only three were attributed to stroke. When cardiovascular morbidity was related to presence of ST depression after maximal exercise, to hypertension at rest by WHO criteria, to both findings, or to absence of either on initial intake examination, incidence increased from 2.3% for NEITHER group, to 5.7% for ST group, to 11.9% for HT group, and to 25.0% for BOTH groups. Re-examination revealed more evidence of cardiovascular disease than did surveillance of hospital admissions. Additional to effects of aging and mild adiposity, longitudinal changes in blood pressure and ST depression, increasing in the NEITHER group, but less frequent in the other groups, showed some evidence of regression toward the mean, as well as emerging disease and the confounding effects of uncontrolled treatment of hypertension in many. The potential for prediction of subsequent cardiovascular morbidity or mortality appeared stronger for hypertension than for postexertional ST depression, although the two were additive in this population, which is more prone to hypertension and stroke but now is

  3. Phyllodes tumor of borderline malignancy: seven year follow up with immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Tatsuo; Ren, Yafei; Davis, Marilyn; Tawfik, Ossama

    2005-09-01

    The patient was 80 years old when she initially presented with a left breast mass. Originally, a needle biopsy showed benign stromal and ductal cells. Five years later, the breast mass increased in size and a core needle biopsy showed a biphasic intraductal papillomatous tumor with cellular stroma. Eighteen months later, another biopsy was taken from the breast mass, revealing a well-developed phyllodes tumor (PT) of borderline malignancy. One month later, a simple mastectomy was performed for this 87-year-old woman. Histolopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, including estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67 and p53, performed on tissues from the different biopsy specimens confirmed the progressive transition of the tumor in a 7 year period. An increase in mitotic activity was noted in the later samples. Similarly, percentages of p53- and Ki-67-positive cells were much higher in the stromal and ductal cells of the later samples compared to the original specimen. These findings support the notion that Ki-67 and p53 immunohistochemical staining may be used as simple and practical markers for the evaluation of the malignant potential of PT.

  4. Cilazapril Treatment in a Cohort of Seven Patients with Congestive Heart Failure: A Seven-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Demirel, Şeref; Erk, Osman; Ünal, Mehmet; Vatansever, Sezai; Oflaz, Hüseyin; Yücesir, İlker; Florinalı, Nursal; Adalet, Kamil

    2003-01-01

    Background: Although angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have been shown to prolong life in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), the prognosis of these patients remains poor. Objective: The purpose of the study was to reevaluate a cohort of patients with CHF after 7 years of follow-up with cilazapril therapy to assess the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), anatomic and functional capacity of the heart, and aldosterone escape. Methods: Surviving patients from a cohort hospitalized for CHF between January 1994 and December 1994 who were treated with cilazapril in our center were included in this study. Exercise testing was carried out using the Kattus protocol, and breath-by-breath oxygen analysis, echocardiography, and hormonal analysis were done. Results: Seven patients (5 men, 2 women; mean [SD] age, 70.6 [4.4]) were included in the study. Compared with the early effects (at 15 days) of cilazapril therapy, only mean (SD) peak exercise time decreased significantly at the 7-year follow-up (8.9 [2.4] minutes vs 5.1 [1.9] minutes; P = 0.02). Mean (SD) anaerobic threshold (AT) oxygen consumption and AT ratio increased slightly from 15 days, although these changes were not statistically significant (12.86 [3.5] mL/kg·min vs 13.57 [2.6] mL/kg·min; 70.3% [7.7%] vs 78.9% [9.8%], respectively). Compared with the early effect of therapy, patients had slightly lower mean (SD) ejection fractions (EFs), but the decrease did not reach statistical significance (52% [4%] vs 48% [4%]). Aldosterone levels were within normal limits in all patients, and 2 patients had increased RAS activity. Conclusions: In this study, the observed lack of aldosterone escape, as well as patient survival during ACEI therapy, may be due to selection bias of the surviving patients, who had better EFs and lack of aldosterone escape. Therefore, the remaining issue seems to be the selection of patients who will not show aldosterone escape during chronic ACEI treatment. PMID:24944363

  5. Seven years follow-up after ankle inversion trauma.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, L; Bech, L; Ehrenbjerg, M; Nickelsen, T

    2002-06-01

    During one year all ankle inversion injuries seen at the acute ward of our institution were divided into grades of severity and classified according to the maximal area of tenderness at the time of clinical examination. Seven years later 648 of the subjects (91%) evaluated their ankle with the help of a questionnaire. Location of maximal tenderness at the time of injury was: lateral fibular ligaments 61%, lateral midfoot ligaments 24%, base of the fifth metatarsal/peroneal tendons 5% and combined lesions 8%. 39% were considered minor, 46% were moderate, and 15% severe. All cases followed a functional treatment protocol. Seven years post- injury 32% reported chronic complaints of pain, swelling or recurrent sprains. 72% of the subjects with residual disability reported that they were functionally impaired by their ankle - in most cases a question of not performing sports at a desired level. 4% experienced pain at rest and were severely disabled. 19% were bothered by repeated inversion injuries - 43% of these subjects felt that they could compensate by using an external ankle support. There was no correlation between the severity of the sprain as judged at the time of injury and the frequency of residual disability or between the area of maximal tenderness at the time of injury and the area of maximal pain at the time of follow-up.

  6. Follow-up study of genotoxic effects in individuals exposed to oil from the tanker Prestige, seven years after the accident.

    PubMed

    Laffon, Blanca; Aguilera, Francisco; Ríos-Vázquez, Julia; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Pásaro, Eduardo

    2014-01-15

    The accident with the oil tanker Prestige in November 2002 resulted in a major spill of about 63,000 tons of heavy fuel oil. More than 300,000 people participated in the clean-up activities, which lasted for up to 10 months. Previous studies reported increases in genotoxicity endpoints in individuals exposed to Prestige oil, both at the moment of exposure [DNA breakage, micronuclei (MN), sister chromatid exchange] and two years later (chromosomal aberrations). In this work we carried out for the first time the follow-up of genotoxic effects in subjects exposed to an oil spill seven years after the exposure. The main objective was to determine the possible persistence of genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to Prestige oil seven years after the accident. The exposed group was composed of 54 residents of Galician villages in Spain that were heavily affected by the spill. This group was involved in clean-up labor for at least two months in the period November 2002-September 2003. They were compared with 50 matched controls. Primary DNA damage was evaluated by the comet assay, mutagenicity by the T-cell receptor (TCR) mutation assay, and MN frequency was determined both by the cytokinesis-block test and by flow cytometry. The results obtained showed no significant differences between the exposed and the controls in the comet assay, the TCR mutation assay and the cytokinesis-block MN test. An unexpected and significant decrease was observed in the exposed group for the results of the MN test evaluated by flow cytometry, probably influenced by modifying factors - other than age, sex and smoking - not considered in this study. Our results show no evidence of the persistence of genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to Prestige oil seven years later. Nevertheless, the need to plan biomonitoring studies on people participating in clean-up activities in case a new oil spill occurs should be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term effects of an intergenerational program on functional capacity in older adults: Results from a seven-year follow-up of the REPRINTS study.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Ryota; Yasunaga, Masashi; Murayama, Yoh; Ohba, Hiromi; Nonaka, Kumiko; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Sakuma, Naoko; Nishi, Mariko; Uchida, Hayato; Shinkai, Shoji; Rebok, George W; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Social engagement activities can help older adults maintain mental and physical functioning levels. This study examined the long-term effects of the intergenerational picture-book reading program "REPRINTS" (Research of Productivity by Intergenerational Sympathy) on older adults. After baseline assessment, participants were allowed to decide which condition they wanted to participate in: the REPRINTS intervention or control group involving only assessments. REPRINTS participants participated in group activities that involved playing a hand game and reading picture books to children at kindergartens, elementary schools, and public childcare centers, once every one-two weeks. A follow-up assessment, which focused on functional capacity (i.e., instrumental activities of daily living, intellectual activity, and social function), was conducted after seven years. The analysis included responses from 62 REPRINTS (mean age [SD]=66.2 [5.7]) and 100 control-group participants (mean age [SD]=68.0 [4.7]). A logistic regression analysis examining intervention effects revealed that control-group participants were more likely to reduce intellectual activity and interactions with children compared to REPRINTS participants (p=.013 and .003, respectively). Furthermore, the REPRINTS group maintained greater functional reach compared to the control group (p<.001). However, the REPRINTS group was likely to stay indoors more often, compared to the control group (p=.045). The present study indicates that the REPRINTS intergenerational program has long-term, positive effects that help maintain and promote intellectual activity, physical functioning, and intergenerational exchange, although the effect of the increasing amount of physical activity is unclear. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Patterns of Change in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Received Community Based Comprehensive Interventions in Their Pre-School Years: A Seven Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magiati, Iliana; Moss, Joanna; Charman, Tony; Howlin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    There are few long-term follow-up studies of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) who attended intensive intervention programmes in their pre-school years. Thirty-six children with ASD enrolled in relatively intensive, specialist pre-school programmes (minimum of 15 h intervention per week for 2 years at a mean age of 3.4 years) were…

  9. Patterns of Change in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Received Community Based Comprehensive Interventions in Their Pre-School Years: A Seven Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magiati, Iliana; Moss, Joanna; Charman, Tony; Howlin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    There are few long-term follow-up studies of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) who attended intensive intervention programmes in their pre-school years. Thirty-six children with ASD enrolled in relatively intensive, specialist pre-school programmes (minimum of 15 h intervention per week for 2 years at a mean age of 3.4 years) were…

  10. New Onsets of Substance Use Disorders in Borderline Personality Disorder Over Seven Years of Follow-ups: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Marc; Gunderson, John G.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Morey, Leslie C.; Yen, Shirley; Stout, Robert L.; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    Aims The purpose of the study was to examine whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have a higher rate of new onsets of substance use disorders (SUD) than do patients with other personality disorders (OPD). Design This study uses data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study (CLPS), a prospective naturalistic study with reliable repeated measures over 7 years of follow-up. Setting Multiple clinical sites in four northeastern US cities. Participants 175 patients with BPD and 396 patients with OPD (mean age 32.5 years), were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 months. Measurements The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were used at baseline, the Follow-Along Version of the DIPD-IV and the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation at the follow-up evaluations. Kaplan-Meier analyses were calculated to generate the time to new onsets. Findings BPD patients showed a shorter time to new onsets of SUD. Thirteen percent of BPD patients developed a new alcohol use disorder, and 11% developed a new drug use disorder, as compared to rates of 6% and 4% respectively for OPD. Non-remitted BPD and remitted BPD patients did not differ significantly in rates of new onsets of SUD. Conclusions BPD patients have a high vulnerability for new onsets of SUDs even when their psychopathology improves. These findings indicate some shared etiological factors between BPD and SUD and underscore the clinical significance of treating SUD when it co-occurs in BPD patients. PMID:19133893

  11. Offspring Number Does Not Influence Reaching the Disability’s Milestones in Multiple Sclerosis: A Seven-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Emanuele; Leone, Carmela; Patti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: data on pregnancy long-term effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) course are still controversial; whether experiencing more than one pregnancy exposes one to risk of the disability‘s accrual is still unknown. We investigated differences existing in terms of disability progression among women with MS (wwMS) who had one or more children after their MS onset. Methods: Monoparous and multiparous wwMS were enrolled from the Catania MS Center, Italy, in a monocenter retrospective study. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the effect of the number of parities on time from MS disease onset to EDSS 4.0 and 6.0. The study protocol was approved by the local Ethical Committee. Results: during the seven years of observation, 32.1% and 23.2% of the monoparous group reached expanded disability disease status (EDSS) 4.0 and 6.0 respectively, compared to 13.3% and 3.3% of the multiparous group (p = 0.057 and p = 0.017; respectively). The Kaplan–Meier curve analysis showed no statistically-significant differences between the two groups in reaching the two milestones. The multiparous group showed a longer time to reach the EDSS 4.0 (3.5 vs. 2.6 years, log-rank 0.57, p = 0.45). The Cox regression analysis showed that the EDSS at the time of first pregnancy (Exp(B) 9.4, CI 4.5–19.7, p < 0.001) and the time from MS onset to first pregnancy (Exp(B) 0.96, CI = 0.93–0.98, p < 0.05) were significant predictors of reaching the EDSS 4.0, whereas a model including only the EDSS one year after the first pregnancy significantly predicted (Exp(B) value of 6.4, CI 2.6–15.4, p < 0.001) the reaching of EDSS 6.0. Conclusions: Our results suggest that experiencing more than one pregnancy could not convey a different clinical outcome in wwMS. Further research is needed to confirm our results. PMID:26907250

  12. [A seven-year follow-up analysis on prognosis factors of stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-xin; Wang, Pei-shan; Tian, Gui-ling; Xu, Wei-li; Liu, Dong; Wu, Jing

    2005-09-01

    To describe survival conditions of patients with stroke and to analyze the factors associated with survival, a seven-year follow-up study was carried out. From Nov. 1995 to Dec. 1996, 189 stroke patients were selected in the Department of Neurology, General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University. Cases were followed up since the onset of stroke. Data collected would include case history, illness and survival conditions. Kaplan-Meier methods were used for survival description. Cox regression was used for prognostic factors analyses. A total number of 82 patients had been dead during the period of study and among them,58 cases died from stroke. The survival rate was 79.86% in one year, 65.46% in three years and 57.46% in seven years. Factors with statistical significance that associated with survival would include: age (RR = 1.065, P < 0.001), physical exercises before stroke (RR = 0.308, P<0.001), hypertension history (RR = 1.785, P < 0.05) and stroke history (RR =2.493, P < 0.001) while factors associated with severity of the illness were: area of cerebral lesion, conditions when discharged from the hospital, rehabilitative treatment of post-discharge and recurrence. We also found that social-psychical factors as rehabilitative confidence, repression, negative event, support from relatives and friends were related to survival of stroke. Histories on hypertension, stroke and brain injury condition were related to the rate survival on stroke. Patients persisting physical exercises before stroke had better prognosis. The survival rate of patients with recurrence was lower than those without while social psychic factors might be related to survival.

  13. Blood pressure outcomes of dental patients screened chronobiologically: a seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, E M; Cornélissen, G; Rhodus, N; Halhuber, M; Watanabe, Y; Halberg, F

    2001-07-01

    This article is a follow-up on a 1998 article in JADA. The blood pressure, or BP, of 23 of 24 normotensive patients was monitored at 15-minute intervals for a total of nine days, in three consecutive sessions of four, two and three days, respectively, separated by a few weeks. Twelve patients were reached by phone seven years after the prior chronobiologically interpreted monitoring to ascertain their cardiovascular status since the initial monitoring. Only two of the 12 patients reached in follow-up had abnormalities in all three sessions, and only these two patients reported having experienced an adverse vascular event (one a myocardial infarction, the other coronary artery bypass graft surgery). The difference in outcome between the patients with chronobiological abnormality in all three sessions vs. the pool of those with abnormality in only two, one or none of the sessions is statistically significant. Even a five-day (and sometimes a longer) profile, while greatly preferred to single measurements, may not suffice for a definitive diagnosis of certain patients. Retrospectively, the 864 measurements, on the average, on each person in our study could have served for a recommendation to each person. Chronobiologically interpreted BP and heart rate monitoring for a week or longer as a start detects high-risk states that may be missed by conventional casual measurements that are rarely accompanied by one-day profiles. The dentist has an important opportunity for conveying the importance of monitoring BP and heart rate for a week to detect an abnormal variability, and for implementing this monitoring. Dentists can educate patients regarding the need for screening and for interpreting the results for variability, and contribute to their overall health by referring them to their physicians when treatment is indicated.

  14. Seven-year follow-up of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) femoropopliteal bypass grafts.

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, C E; Steed, D L; Webster, M W

    1984-01-01

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts have proven to be an acceptable short-term alternative for femoropopliteal reconstruction in those patients without suitable autologous saphenous vein. One hundred and twenty-seven femoropopliteal arterial bypass operations utilizing PTFE grafts were performed in 105 patients. Seven-year follow-up is now available for 20 grafts, 6-year follow-up for 47 grafts, and 5-year follow-up for 62 grafts. Graft occlusion was determined by angiography, Doppler assessment, loss of previously palpable pulses, or return of symptoms. Thirty nonocclusive graft losses were due to death, infection, aneurysm, amputation, or proximal occlusive disease. Overall cumulative patency rate, according to occlusive criteria alone and calculated by the life-table method, was 74% at 6 months, 63% at 1 year, 48% at 3 years, 40% at 5 years, and 35% at 7 years. Excluding early bypass failures (less than 1 year patency), 75% of grafts were patent at 3 years, 63% at 5 years, and 55% patent 7 years following operation. Diabetes mellitus was associated with a significantly lower patency rate. Patency rates were not adversely affected by graft diameter, distal popliteal anastomotic site, number of patent runoff vessels, preoperative symptoms, or prior arterial reconstruction. In patients without suitable autologous saphenous vein, the PTFE graft has proven to be a durable and dependable long-term alternative for femoropopliteal reconstruction. PMID:6691731

  15. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in only one of identical twins. A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Houff, S A; Madden, D L; Sever, J L

    1979-12-01

    We report a seven-year follow-up of identical twins, in one of whom subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) developed. Primary measles infection occurred simultaneous in both twins at age 4. The affected twin sustained a grade 1 closed head injury within six months of her primary measles infection. At age 13, SSPE was diagnosed following the onset of personality change and myoclonic seizures. Measles antibody level was elevated in the serum and CSF. After remaining in stage 2 for five years, rapid mental and neurological deterioration occurred. Measles antibody level remained elevated, and oligoclonal IgG was present in both serum and CSF. Results of neurological examination as well as virological and immunological tests were normal in the unaffected twin. Besides the occurrence of head injury, factors known to be associated with SSPE were not obviously different in the twins. We have been unable to determine a difference that would easily explain the occurrence of SSPE in only one of two identical twins.

  16. A Seven-Year Follow-Up of Intelligence Test Scores of Foster Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    After seven years, a group (N=32) of originally nonemployed poverty-level older people (over 60) now employed as foster grandparents were retested with the WAIS. Three subtest scores showed stability and Digit Span showed a statistically significant drop. Neither age nor initial level of health or WAIS scores was related to test-score changes over…

  17. Seven-year follow-up for energy/vitality outcomes in early stage Hodgkin's disease patients treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation versus chemotherapy plus radiation: SWOG S9133 and its QOL companion study, S9208.

    PubMed

    Moinpour, Carol M; Unger, Joseph M; Ganz, Patricia A; Kornblith, Alice B; Gaynor, Ellen R; Bowers, Mindy Ann; Gatti, Gretchen S; Kaminski, Mark S; Erba, Harry Paul; Wang, Ting; Yoon, Jihye; Press, Oliver W; Fisher, Richard I

    2017-02-01

    We describe 7 years of follow-up for the energy/vitality outcome in early-stage Hodgkin's disease patients treated on a randomized clinical trial that compared subtotal lymphoid irradiation (STLI) with combined modality treatment (CMT) (SWOG 9133). Survivorship research questions involved the extent to which symptoms/side effects endured over a follow-up period of 7 years for this early-stage patient group. Two hundred thirty-nine patients participated in the quality of life (QOL) companion study (SWOG 9208) and completed the SF-36 vitality scale, SF-36 health perception item, Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System-Short Form (CARES-SF), and symptom distress scale. This paper reports vitality outcome results obtained from randomization, 6 months, and annually for 7 years. To assess changes in vitality over time, we used linear mixed models with patient as a random effect. Patients receiving CMT had lower observed vitality at 6 months than did the STLI patients (p < .0001). However, beginning at year 1, vitality results did not differ significantly by treatment over the 5-year (p = .13) and 7-year (p = .16) follow-up periods. Vitality only slightly improved over baseline in either group after treatment. The results were similar after accounting for patterns of recurrence and missing data. This study demonstrated that patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease experience a short-term (at 6 months) decrease in vitality with treatment, which is more severe with CMT, but that after the first year, vitality scores were similar between the two treatment groups. Enduring fatigue results for patients receiving these therapies were not observed. Implications for cancer survivors These data provide comprehensive 7-year follow-up vitality information, an important symptom for early-stage lymphoma survivors.

  18. Hypofractionation in post-mastectomy breast cancer patients: seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Eldeeb, Hany; Awad, Iman; Elhanafy, Osman

    2012-12-01

    To compare three fractionation schedules in post-mastectomy patients treated with radiotherapy as regard acute and early late effects as well as local recurrence rates. One hundred and seven breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy±adjuvant systemic treatments between November 2001 and July 2004 were enrolled in this study. Patients were categorized into three groups. Group A (41 patients) received conventional fractionation 50 Gy over 25 fractions. Group B (36 patients) received other fractionation regimen 45 Gy over 17 fractions. Group C (30 patients) received 40 Gy over 15 fractions. The median follow-up period was 23 months. There has been no statistical significant difference in local control (P=0.88), pain (P=0.98), telangectasis (P=0.23), fibrosis (P=0.13), arm oedema (P=0.96) or pigmentation (P=0.80) between the three groups. GII-III Erythema was significantly higher in the two hypofractionation arms compared to the control arm (P=0.001). Although acute skin reactions were higher in the hypofractionated arms, there was no significant difference in the local recurrence rates or late radiation effects. A national randomized multicentre study is recommended to explore this further.

  19. First line treatment of pemphigus vulgaris with a novel protocol in patients with contraindications to systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents: Preliminary retrospective study with a seven year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A Razzaque; Nguyen, Tegan; Kaveri, Srini; Spigelman, Zachary S

    2016-05-01

    Conventional therapy for pemphigus vulgaris (PV) consists of high-dose systemic corticosteroids (CS) and immunosuppressive agents (ISA). This combination may be ineffective, cause serious adverse events or relapses in some patients. To determine if the combination of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy and rituximab (RTX) can be used as first-line therapy in PV patients in whom systemic CS and ISA are contraindicated and evaluate its ability to produce long-term sustained remissions. This a retrospective study of five male and five female patients (mean age 47.87 years). RTX was administered once weekly for eight consecutive weeks, followed by once monthly for four months (dose 375 mg/m(2)). Since CD20(+) B cells were undetectable, IVIg was infused until they reached normal levels (dose 2 g/kg/cycle). IVIg was then continued according to published protocol. Initial clinical response and complete disease resolution occurred in a mean of 3.2 weeks and 7.4 weeks, respectively. Mean duration of rituximab therapy was 6.09 months and 33.7 months for IVIg therapy. Mean duration of follow-up after the last dose of rituximab was 86.08 months, during which all patients remained in complete remission. Mean length of total follow-up was 103.99 months. No relapses, infections, or hospitalizations were reported. When systemic CS and ISA are contraindicated in PV patients, combination RTX and IVIg therapy can produce a prolonged, sustained remission without additional systemic therapy. This positive clinical outcome could be the consequence of pathogenic B cell depletion and restoration of immune regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ten-digit replantation with seven years follow-up: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cong, Haibo; Sui, Haiming; Wang, Chenlin; Wang, Zhumin; Yang, Qingmin; Wang, Buxing

    2010-07-01

    In this report, we present a case of successful replantation of 10-digit complete amputation and results of postoperative rehabilitation in 7 years follow-up. The rehabilitation program included psychotherapy, physical therapy, sensory re-education, and measurements. At the 7 years postoperatively, the static two-point discriminations of replanted digits ranged from 4 to 11 mm. Grasping powers ranged from 69 to 81 lb, and pinching powers ranged from 13 to 19 lb. The patient returned to the previous employment. Our experience has demonstrated that systemic postoperative rehabilitation and measurements could achieve satisfactory recovery of the sensory and motor functions of multiple-digit replantation.

  1. Joint preservation after hip arthroscopy in patients with FAI. Prospective analysis with a minimum follow-up of seven years.

    PubMed

    Comba, Fernando; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Ali, Pablo J; Zanotti, Gerardo; Buttaro, Martin; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes, radiological degenerative progression and the joint preservation rate in a series of patients with Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) treated with hip arthroscopy at a minimum follow-up of 7 years. The predictive factors for total hip arthroplasty (THA) requirement were analyzed. Between February 2008 and February 2009, 42 consecutive patients treated with hip arthroscopy due to FAI syndrome were included. There were 15 women and 27 men with an average age of 38 years (range 23 to 56 years). The surgery involved joint damage stabilization (labral tears and/or chondrolabral injuries) and correction of associated bony deformities (cam and/or pincer lesions). A prospective clinical follow-up was made with no patient lost. We specifically addressed the need for THA. Predictive factors for THA were also analyzed. At final follow up, joint preservation rate was 83.33% (CI 95% 68,64%-93,03%). Probability of evolving to a THA in patients with radiographic preoperative Tonnis grades 0 and I was of 0% (CI 95%: 0-12.77). Probability of evolving to a THA in patients with preoperative Tonnis grades II and III was 46,67% (CI 95%21.27%-73,41%). A statistically significant difference was present between both groups (p= 0.002). Patients older than 45 years at the time of hip arthroscopy were at significant risk of evolving to a THA (p=0.0012). Excluding those patients who undergone a THA: modified HHS was 88.25 points (80-96) and radiographic analysis addressed a 14,29% (IC95% 4,81%-30,26%) of progressive degenerative changes without affecting clinical results. Hip arthroscopy for the treatment of patients with FAI syndrome showed favorable results regarding joint preservation. Patients with preoperative radiographic evidence of advanced-stage osteoarthritis and those older than 45 years at the time of surgery have higher risk of requiring THA. IV.

  2. Intervention on early-onset conduct problems as indicated prevention for substance use: A seven-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Romero, Estrella; Rodríguez, Concepción; Villar, Paula; Gómez-Fraguela, X Antón

    2017-06-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of a manualised program which intervenes on children with early-onset conduct problems, their families and teachers. The program evaluation involved 14 primary schools which were randomly assigned to the intervention (45 participating families) and control (30 families) conditions during 2007-2008. After a screening process which identified children with significant conduct problems both at home with their family and at school, the program was implemented in eight schools. Seven years later, 58 families (37 from the intervention group and 21 from the control group), with characteristics equivalent to those of the study's entire initial group, were contacted again. With measures administered to the children and their parents, comparisons through multivariate analyses of variance between intervention and control groups supported the program's efficacy in reducing both conduct problems and relations with antisocial peers. Furthermore, the program fostered social and communication skills. As regards drug use, the intervention group showed less favourable attitudes towards drugs, lower intention of drug use, lower frequency of tobacco use and lower intensity of alcohol use. These results support the usefulness of multicomponent programs for conduct problems as a way to prevent, in the long term, unfavourable developmental trajectories, where drug use is a key element.

  3. Peer Reputation in Middle Childhood as a Predictor of Adaptation in Adolescence: A Seven-Year Follow-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morison, Patricia; Masten, Ann S.

    1991-01-01

    A sample of 183 third through sixth grade students were administered the Revised Class Play (RCP). Seven years later, these children and their parents completed a questionnaire measuring the students' behavioral symptoms and social, athletic, and academic competence. The RCP scores were related to adolescent competence and psychopathology. (BC)

  4. Peer Reputation in Middle Childhood as a Predictor of Adaptation in Adolescence: A Seven-Year Follow-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morison, Patricia; Masten, Ann S.

    1991-01-01

    A sample of 183 third through sixth grade students were administered the Revised Class Play (RCP). Seven years later, these children and their parents completed a questionnaire measuring the students' behavioral symptoms and social, athletic, and academic competence. The RCP scores were related to adolescent competence and psychopathology. (BC)

  5. Joint preservation after hip arthroscopy in patients with FAI. Prospective analysis with a minimum follow-up of seven years

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Fernando; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Ali, Pablo J.; Zanotti, Gerardo; Buttaro, Martin; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes, radiological degenerative progression and the joint preservation rate in a series of patients with Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) treated with hip arthroscopy at a minimum follow-up of 7 years. The predictive factors for total hip arthroplasty (THA) requirement were analyzed. Materials and methods Between February 2008 and February 2009, 42 consecutive patients treated with hip arthroscopy due to FAI syndrome were included. There were 15 women and 27 men with an average age of 38 years (range 23 to 56 years). The surgery involved joint damage stabilization (labral tears and/or chondrolabral injuries) and correction of associated bony deformities (cam and/or pincer lesions). A prospective clinical follow-up was made with no patient lost. We specifically addressed the need for THA. Predictive factors for THA were also analyzed. Results At final follow up, joint preservation rate was 83.33% (CI 95% 68,64%–93,03%). Probability of evolving to a THA in patients with radiographic preoperative Tonnis grades 0 and I was of 0% (CI 95%: 0–12.77). Probability of evolving to a THA in patients with preoperative Tonnis grades II and III was 46,67% (CI 95%21.27%–73,41%). A statistically significant difference was present between both groups (p= 0.002). Patients older than 45 years at the time of hip arthroscopy were at significant risk of evolving to a THA (p=0.0012). Excluding those patients who undergone a THA: modified HHS was 88.25 points (80–96) and radiographic analysis addressed a 14,29% (IC95% 4,81%–30,26%) of progressive degenerative changes without affecting clinical results. Conclusions Hip arthroscopy for the treatment of patients with FAI syndrome showed favorable results regarding joint preservation. Patients with preoperative radiographic evidence of advanced-stage osteoarthritis and those older than 45 years at the time of surgery have higher risk of requiring THA

  6. Peer reputation in middle childhood as a predictor of adaptation in adolescence: a seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Morison, P; Masten, A S

    1991-10-01

    This investigation examines the predictive significance of peer reputation in elementary school for the quality of adaptation in adolescence. A normative sample (N = 207) of third to sixth graders was administered the Revised Class Play (RCP). Each received 3 scores (Sociability-Leadership, Aggression-Disruption, and Sensitivity-Isolation). 7 years later, 88% of these children and their parents participated in a questionnaire follow-up study utilizing a broad range of adolescent outcome measures (e.g., social and athletic competence, academic performance, behavioral symptoms, well-being). The 3 RCP scores were significantly related to both adolescent competence and psychopathology, supporting the predictive validity of the RCP as well as the continuity of general adaptation. Each dimension of peer reputation had a different pattern of prediction depending on the outcome criteria under consideration, suggesting the importance of a multidimensional approach to peer reputation. Positive peer reputation proved to be an important predictor of later adjustment. Sex differences were examined; results suggested somewhat different patterns of prediction for boys and girls, especially for the sensitive-isolated dimension.

  7. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Aging of Cerebral White Matter in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Seven-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrew R.; Völkle, Manuel C.; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effects models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 65.4, SD = 9.0 years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  9. Follow-up Cost Study. TEX-SIS FOLLOW-UP SC5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, Ronald C.

    This report presents data on the costs of follow-up studies, based on 29 separate follow-up studies conducted by eight public community/junior colleges in Texas. The purpose of this study, conducted by Navarro College as a subcontractor of Project FOLLOW-UP, was to provide data and information regarding the cost of follow-up studies that would be…

  10. Fifty seven years of follow-up of the Israeli cohort of Laron Syndrome patients-From discovery to treatment.

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi; Kauli, Rivka

    2016-06-01

    Clinical and laboratory investigations of dwarfed children newly Jewish immigrants from Yemen and Middle East and who resembled patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency were started by our group in 1958. In 1963 when we found that they have high serum levels of hGH, we knew that we had discovered a new disease of primary GH insensitivity. It was subsequently coined Laron Syndrome (LS, OMIM #262500). The etiopathogenesis was disclosed by 2 liver biopsies demonstrating a defect in the GH receptor. Subsequent investigations demonstrated deletions or mutations in the GHR gene. The defect lead to an inability of IGF-I generation, resulting in severe dwarfism, obesity, and other morphologic and biochemical pathologies due to IGF-I deficiency. With the biosynthesis of IGF-I in 1986, therapeutic trials started. Following closely our cohort of 69 patients with LS enabled us to study its features in untreated and IGF-I treated patients. This syndrome proved to be a unique model to investigate the effects of IGF-I dissociated from GH stimulation. In recent studies we found that homozygous patients for the GHR mutations are protected lifelong from developing malignancies, opening new directions of research.

  11. A Multidisciplinary Approach to a Seven Year-Old Patient with Incontinentia Pigmenti: A Case Report and Five-Year Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Rafatjou, Rezvan; Vafaee, Fariborz; Allahbakhshi, Hanif; Mahjoub, Porousha

    2016-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare inherited disorder involving abnormalities of the skin, hair, eyes, musculoskeletal system, central nervous system, and the teeth. Dental abnormalities are the most common manifestations of this disorder. The purpose of this case report was to present the clinical and radiological findings of a seven-year-old girl as well as the results of her five-year follow up. The patient showed faded linear pigmented macular lesions on the trunk and on upper and lower limbs. Dental examination was notable for conical and peg-shaped anterior teeth as well as delayed eruption of primary and permanent teeth. In addition to conservative treatments, prosthetic treatments such as interim removable partial dentures were indicated for the patient. PMID:28127322

  12. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of a Cluster-Randomized Prenatal Lifestyle Counseling Trial: A Seven-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Puhkala, Jatta; Tuominen, Pipsa; Husu, Pauliina; Luoto, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    There is a link between the pregnancy and its long-term influence on health and susceptibility to future chronic disease both in mother and offspring. The objective was to determine whether individual counseling on physical activity and diet and weight gain at five antenatal visits can prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and overweight or improve glycemic parameters, among all at-risk-mothers and their children. Another objective was to evaluate whether gestational lifestyle intervention was cost-effective as measured with mother’s sickness absence and quality-adjusted life years (QALY). This study was a seven-year follow-up study for women, who were enrolled to the antenatal cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT). Analysis of the outcome included all women whose outcome was available, in addition with subgroup analysis including women adherent to all lifestyle aims. A total of 173 women with their children participated to the study, representing 43% (173/399) of the women who finished the original RCT. Main outcome measures were: T2DM based on medication use or fasting blood glucose or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), body mass index (BMI), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). None of the women were diagnosed to have T2DM. HbA1c or fasting blood glucose differences were not found among mothers or children. Differences in BMI were non-significant among mothers (Intervention 27.3, Usual care 28.1 kg/m2, p = 0.33) and children (I 21.3 vs U 22.5 kg/m2, p = 0.07). Children’s BMI was significantly lower among adherent group (I 20.5 vs U 22.5, p = 0.04). The mean total cost per person was 30.6% lower in the intervention group than in the usual care group (I €2,944 vs. U €4,243; p = 0.74). Intervention was cost-effective in terms of sickness absence but not in QALY gained i.e. if society is willing to pay additional €100 per one avoided sickness absence day; there is a 90% probability of the intervention arm to be cost-effective. Long-term effectiveness of

  13. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of a Cluster-Randomized Prenatal Lifestyle Counseling Trial: A Seven-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Puhkala, Jatta; Tuominen, Pipsa; Husu, Pauliina; Luoto, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    There is a link between the pregnancy and its long-term influence on health and susceptibility to future chronic disease both in mother and offspring. The objective was to determine whether individual counseling on physical activity and diet and weight gain at five antenatal visits can prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and overweight or improve glycemic parameters, among all at-risk-mothers and their children. Another objective was to evaluate whether gestational lifestyle intervention was cost-effective as measured with mother's sickness absence and quality-adjusted life years (QALY). This study was a seven-year follow-up study for women, who were enrolled to the antenatal cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT). Analysis of the outcome included all women whose outcome was available, in addition with subgroup analysis including women adherent to all lifestyle aims. A total of 173 women with their children participated to the study, representing 43% (173/399) of the women who finished the original RCT. Main outcome measures were: T2DM based on medication use or fasting blood glucose or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), body mass index (BMI), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). None of the women were diagnosed to have T2DM. HbA1c or fasting blood glucose differences were not found among mothers or children. Differences in BMI were non-significant among mothers (Intervention 27.3, Usual care 28.1 kg/m2, p = 0.33) and children (I 21.3 vs U 22.5 kg/m2, p = 0.07). Children's BMI was significantly lower among adherent group (I 20.5 vs U 22.5, p = 0.04). The mean total cost per person was 30.6% lower in the intervention group than in the usual care group (I €2,944 vs. U €4,243; p = 0.74). Intervention was cost-effective in terms of sickness absence but not in QALY gained i.e. if society is willing to pay additional €100 per one avoided sickness absence day; there is a 90% probability of the intervention arm to be cost-effective. Long-term effectiveness of

  14. Neonatal follow-up programs and follow-up studies: Historical and current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sauve, Reg; Lee, Shoo K

    2006-01-01

    The present report reviews some highlights in the history of neonatal intensive care and neonatal follow-up programs, particularly developments and reports that were based on experiences in Canada. Early outcomes reported from ‘preemie baby units’ were distressing, but attention has consistently been paid to preterm infant outcomes, even from the early days of neonatal intensive care units. Most current follow-up programs have goals related to ‘audit’ functions, education and clinical roles, but existing literature related to these functions is limited. Several reports have provided guidance in terms of neonatal follow-up research issues, and these strengthen the place of follow-up studies in outcomes research. PMID:19030284

  15. In vivo wear performance of highly cross-linked polyethylene vs. yttria stabilized zirconia and alumina stabilized zirconia at a mean seven-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zirconia was introduced as an alternative to alumina for use in the femoral head. The yttria stabilized zirconia material was improved by adding alumina. We evaluated highly cross-linked polyethylene wear performance of zirconia in total hip arthroplasty. The hypothesis was that alumina stabilized zirconia could decrease highly cross-linked polyethylene wear. Methods Highly cross-linked polyethylene wear was measured with a computerized method (PolyWare) in 91 hips. The steady-state wear rates were measured based on the radiographs from the first year postoperatively to the final follow-up and were compared between hips with yttria stabilized zirconia and alumina stabilized zirconia. Results The steady-state wear rate of highly cross-linked polyethylene against zirconia was 0.02 mm/year at a mean follow-up of 7 years. No significant difference was observed between groups with yttria stabilized zirconia and alumina stabilized zirconia. Conclusions Addition of alumina to the zirconia material failed to show further reduction of highly cross-linked polyethylene wear and our hypothesis was not verified. PMID:23634809

  16. Graduate Follow-Up Studies: How Useful Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedley, Rande H.; Olson, George H.

    Follow-up surveys may fall prey to several sources of bias and error, among them lack of control over independent variables, lack of item validity and reliability, sampling biases, and observation bias. Two follow-up studies have been dissected to expose inherent limitations: the Texas Education Product Study (TEPS) and Project TALENT. The…

  17. The transitioning from trials to extended follow-up studies

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Casper, Anne S.; Sternberg, Alice L.; Holbrook, Janet T.; Jenkins, Gabrielle; Meinert, Curtis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigators may elect to extend follow-up of participants enrolled in a randomized clinical trial after the trial comes to its planned end. The additional follow-up may be initiated to learn about longer term effects of treatments including adverse events, costs related to treatment, or for reasons unrelated to treatment such as to observe the natural course of the disease using the established cohort from the trial. Purpose We examine transitioning from trials to extended follow-up studies when the goal of additional follow-up is to observe longer term treatment effects. Methods We conducted a literature search in selected journals from 2000–2012 to identify trials that extended follow-up for the purpose of studying longer term treatment effects and extracted information on the operational and logistical issues in the transition. We also draw experience from three trials coordinated by the Johns Hopkins Coordinating Centers that made transitions to extended followup: the Alzheimer’s Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT); Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) trial; and Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Results Transitions are not uncommon in multicenter clinical trials, even in trials that continued to the planned end of the trial. Transitioning usually necessitates new participant consents. If study infrastructure is not maintained during the transition, participants will be lost and re-establishing the staff and facilities will be costly. Merging data from the trial and follow-up study can be complicated by changes in data collection measures and schedules. Limitations Our discussion and recommendations are limited to issues that we have experienced in transitions from trials to follow-up studies. Discussion We discuss issues such as maintaining funding, IRB and consent requirements, contacting participants, and combining data from the trial and follow-up phases. We conclude with a list of recommendations to

  18. Relationship between polyethylene wear and osteolysis in hips with a second-generation porous-coated cementless cup after seven years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Orishimo, Karl F; Claus, Alexandra M; Sychterz, Christi J; Engh, Charles A

    2003-06-01

    The development of osteolysis, a commonly reported complication after total hip arthroplasty without cement, is perceived to be related to the amount of polyethylene particles generated from the bearing surfaces. Although the literature has suggested that the prevalence of osteolysis increases with increasing rates of polyethylene wear, this relationship has never been quantified. The goals of this study were to quantify the relationship between the prevalence of osteolysis and both linear and volumetric wear and to evaluate the risk of osteolysis as a function of wear in a currently used, porous-coated cup design. Polyethylene wear and osteolysis were examined in fifty-six hips with a Duraloc-100 acetabular cup articulating with a 28-mm femoral head. Penetration of the prosthetic head into the polyethylene liner was measured, with use of a validated computer-assisted technique, from anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of each patient. From these measurements, linear and volumetric wear rates were calculated. Each patient's series of radiographs was examined independently for the presence of osteolysis. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk of osteolysis associated with a given change in linear or volumetric wear rate. Osteolysis was found in twenty-three of the fifty-six hips. The hips with osteolysis had significantly higher linear (p < 0.001) and volumetric (p = 0.003) wear rates than the hips without osteolysis. Logistic regression revealed that every 0.1-mm/yr increase in the linear wear rate increased the likelihood of the development of osteolysis by a factor of four. Each 40-mm (3) /yr increase in volumetric wear raised the risk of osteolysis by about three times. To our knowledge, this study represents the first time that the relationship between polyethylene wear, as determined by both linear wear and volumetric wear, and the prevalence of osteolysis has been quantified. The use of the linear wear rate as a predictor of

  19. Superior Disembedding Performance in Childhood Predicts Adolescent Severity of Repetitive Behaviors: A Seven Years Follow-Up of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eussen, Mart L J M; Van Gool, Arthur R; Louwerse, Anneke; Verhulst, Frank C; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2016-02-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a detail-focused cognitive style. The aim of the current longitudinal study was to investigate whether this detail-focused cognitive style in childhood predicted a higher symptom severity of repetitive and restrictive behaviors and interests (RRBI) in adolescence. The Childhood Embedded Figures Test (CEFT) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) were administered in 87 children with ASD at the age of 6-12 years old (T1), and the ADOS was readministered 7 years later when the participants were 12-19 years old (T2). Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate whether accuracy and reaction time in the complex versus simple CEFT condition and performance in the complex condition predicted T2 ADOS RRBI calibrated severity scores (CSS), while taking into consideration relevant covariates and ADOS RRBI CSS at T1. The CEFT performance (accuracy in the complex condition divided by the time needed) significantly predicted higher ADOS RRBI CSS at T2 (ΔR(2)  = 15%). This finding further supports the detail-focused cognitive style in individuals with ASD, and shows that it is also predictive of future RRBI symptoms over time. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Follow-up Study of Secretarial Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Robert L.; Bleil, David F.

    To determine how effectively the Secretarial Studies Department's program was meeting the needs of its students, a follow-up study was conducted of former Montgomery Community College Secretarial Studies students. The survey sought to determine, in particular, if the students had secured employment that was related to their course work at the…

  1. Acromegalic patients lost to follow-up: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kasuki, Leandro; Marques, Nelma Verônica; Nuez, Maria José Braga La; Leal, Vera Lucia Gomes; Chinen, Renata N; Gadelha, Mônica R

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 50 % of all acromegalic patients will require lifelong medical treatment to normalize mortality rates and reduce morbidity. Thus, adherence to therapy is essential to achieve treatment goals. To date, no study has evaluated the frequency and reasons for loss to follow-up in the acromegalic population. The current study aimed at evaluating the frequency of acromegalic patient loss to follow-up in three reference centers and the reasons responsible for their low compliance with treatment. All of the files for the acromegalic patients in the three centers were reviewed. Those patients, who had not followed up with the hospital for more than a year, were contacted via phone and/or mail and invited to participate. Patients who agreed to participate were interviewed, and blood samples were collected. A total of 239 files were reviewed; from these 42 patients (17.6 %) were identified who were lost to follow-up. It was possible to contact 27 of these patients, 10 of whom did not attend the appointments for more than one time and 17 of whom agreed to participate in the study. Fifteen of these 17 patients had active disease (88.2 %), and all of the patients restarted treatment in the original centers. The main reason for loss to follow-up was an absence of symptoms. High-quality follow-up is important in acromegaly to successfully achieve the aims of the treatment. An active search for patients may allow the resumption of treatment in a significant proportion of these cases, contributing to reduced morbidity and mortality in this patient population.

  2. Follow-Up Study of 1994 Dental Hygiene Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of its dental hygiene program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, conducted a follow-up study of program graduates from 1994. Surveys were mailed to all 30 1994 dental hygiene associate degree graduates, receiving responses from 77% (n=23). Study findings included the following: (1) all…

  3. Follow-up Studies at Regional State Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Sylvester, Jr.

    At regional state universities, teacher education is usually a university-wide endeavor. The majority of American public school teachers are prepared at regional state universities. This paper describes a successful, low-cost follow-up study model at a regional state university, Kutztown University (Pennsylvania) Since 1952, the university has…

  4. Internet of things and bariatric surgery follow-up: Comparative study of standard and IoT follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Lecube, Albert; Fort, José Manuel; Boleko, Maria Angeles; Hidalgo, Marta; Armengol, Manel

    2013-09-01

    Follow-up of obese patient is difficult. There is no literature related to patient follow-up that incorporates the concept of Internet of Things (IoT), use of WiFi, Internet, or portable devices for this purpose. This prospective observational study commenced in June 2011. Patients were prospectively offered to participate in the IoT study group, in which they received a WiFi scale (Withing®, Paris) that provides instant WiFi data to the patient and surgeon. Other patients were admitted to the standard follow-up group at the outpatient clinic. A total of 33 patients were included in our study (ten in the IoT group). Twelve patients did not have WiFi at home, ten lacked of computer knowledge, and seven preferred standard for follow-up. All patients underwent different surgical procedures. There were no complications. Excess weight loss (EWL) was similar in both groups. More than 90% of patients were satisfied. In the IoT group, patients considered it valuable in saving time, and considered seeing their evolution graphics extremely motivating. IoT technology can monitor medical parameters remotely and collect data. A WiFi scale can facilitate preoperative and follow-up. Standard follow-up in a classical outpatient clinic setting with the surgeon was preferred globally.

  5. Ute Unit: Study Guide and Follow Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Conejos School District, Capulin, CO.

    The study guide and follow-up activities were designed primarily to give students a feeling of Ute life in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The unit begins with six Southern Ute stories about the wolf and coyote, the race between the skunk and the coyote, the frog and the eagle, why the frog croaks, the bear (Que Ye Qat), and the two Indian…

  6. A follow-up study of attempted railway suicides.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Arthur, A J; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    This paper reports the subsequent mortality of 94 persons who attempted suicide by jumping in front of London Underground trains between 1977 and 1979. The follow-up period was 10 yr. Despite the apparent seriousness of the method, completion of suicide was not found to be higher than in previous studies of attempted suicide by other methods. By the end of the follow-up period 18 persons had died, nine of natural causes. Coroners' inquests were held for the unnatural deaths. Seven verdicts of suicide and two of accidental death were recorded. Of the nine unnatural deaths four were from multiple injuries, three from drowning, one from asphyxia and one from acute narcotic poisoning. All four multiple injury deaths were women, three of these were from repeated incidents involving London Underground trains. The time interval between the index attempt and eventual death for the suicide/accident group ranged from 1 day to 43 months. For ethical reasons it was not possible to follow-up attempted suicides who were presumed to have remained alive.

  7. Results and implications of the INCAP follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Martorell, R

    1995-04-01

    This article is a critical synthesis of 12 papers included in this supplement. The set deals with the short- and long-term effects of improving nutrition in Guatemalan villages characterized by deficient diets, high rates of infection and pronounced growth retardation in the first 3 y of life. The data reviewed come from two studies carried out over two decades: the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) longitudinal study (1966-1977) and its follow-up (1988-1989). The longitudinal study included a nutrition intervention that improved the energy and nutrient intakes of women and preschool children. Its effects included improved birthweights, reduced infant mortality rates and improved growth rates in children < 3 y of age. Growth rates from 3 to 7 y of age, similar to those of well-nourished children, were not affected by the intervention. The follow-up study was conducted when the subjects were 11-27 y old. Among the long-term effects found were greater stature and fat-free mass, particularly in females, improved work capacity in males and enhanced intellectual performance in both genders. The nutrition intervention did not, on the other hand, accelerate maturation during adolescence, as measured by skeletal age or age at menarche. It is concluded that improved nutrition in early childhood has important long-term effects in the adolescent and adult.

  8. Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; van der Meulen, Marjon F G; van der Pol, W-Ludo; Vrancken, Alexander F J E; Franssen, Hessel; Notermans, Nicolette C

    2010-08-01

    Migrant sensory neuropathy (Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis) is characterized by sudden numbness in the distribution of one or multiple cutaneous nerves. To study disease course and outcome, we prospectively followed 12 patients who presented to our tertiary referral neuromuscular outpatient clinic between January 2003 and January 2004. Medical history, neurological, laboratory and electrophysiological examinations were obtained from all patients. All patients were reviewed a second time in 2007, and five had a follow-up electrophysiological examination. At the first visit, 50% described an episode of stretching preceding the sensory complaints. All but three described pain in the affected area before or concomitant with sensory loss. At clinical examination a median of six skin areas were affected, and in 75% this could be confirmed by nerve conduction studies in at least one nerve. Forty-two percent had involvement of the trigeminal nerve. After a mean disease duration of 7.5 years, three patients reported a complete disappearance of sensory complaints and five that the pain had disappeared, but numbness remained. Three patients still had both painful and numb sensory deficits. One patient developed a distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy. In conclusion, Wartenberg's sensory neuritis is a distinct, exclusively sensory, neuropathy, marked by pain preceding numbness in affected nerves. An episode of stretching preceding pain is not necessary for the diagnosis. Wartenberg's sensory neuritis often retains its spotty, exclusively sensory characteristics after long term follow-up.

  9. Long thoracic nerve palsy: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C E; Kenrick, M M; Blum, M V

    1975-08-01

    Twelve patients who had previously been treated for palsy of the long thoracic nerve of Bell and resultant serratus anterior paralysis were examined in a follow-up study designed to determine their extent of recovery and/or residual disability. The patients' histories were reviewed, following which they were recalled for updating of the history and reexamination. It was found that those patients whose lesions were due to acute trauma had only partial or no recovery of serratus function, while those with infectious, toxic, allergic or idiopathic etiologies had partial or complete recovery. The occurrence of a prolonged interval between onset of symptoms and institution of therapy was found to adversely affect prognosis. Among those patients with no recovery of serratus anterior function, some were able to maintain relatively good active motion in the affected shoulder by substituting with the trapezius.

  10. Hydrotherapy after total knee arthroplasty. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Giaquinto, S; Ciotola, E; Dall'Armi, V; Margutti, F

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the subjective functional outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in participants who underwent hydrotherapy (HT) six months after discharge from a rehabilitation unit. A total of 70 subjects, 12 of which were lost at follow-up, were randomly assigned to either a conventional gym treatment (N=30) or HT (N=28). A prospective design was performed. Participants were interviewed with Western-Ontario McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) at admission, at discharge and six months later. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were applied for statistical analysis. Both groups improved. The WOMAC subscales, namely pain, stiffness and function, were all positively affected. Statistical analysis indicates that scores on all subscales were significantly lower for the HT group. The benefits gained by the time of discharge were still found after six months. HT is recommended after TKA in a geriatric population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Maindreville, Anne Doé; Fénelon, Gilles; Mahieux, Florence

    2005-02-01

    To study prevalence of hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during a 1-year period, and identify factors predictive of the onset of hallucinations in patients who were hallucination-free at baseline, 141 unselected outpatients with PD were evaluated prospectively for a set of demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables and the presence of hallucinations during the previous 3 months. Patient groups were compared with nonparametric tests, and logistic regression was applied to significant data. Follow-up data were available for 127 patients. The hallucination prevalence rates (%) at the first and second evaluation were, respectively, 41.7 and 49.6 for hallucinations of all types (NS), 29.1 and 40.2 for minor hallucinations (i.e., presence or passage hallucinations, and illusions) (P = 0.02), 22.8 and 21.2 for formed visual hallucinations (NS), and 8.7 and 8.7 for auditory hallucinations (NS). Hallucinations rarely started or ceased during the study. The most labile forms were minor hallucinations, which developed in 20% of patients and ceased in 9%. During follow-up, 15% of patients started to hallucinate. Three factors, all present at the first evaluation, independently predicted the onset of hallucinations in patients previously free of hallucinations at baseline (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval): severe sleep disturbances (14.3; 2.5-80.9), ocular disorders (9.1; 1.6-52.0), and a high axial motor score (5.7; 1.2-27.4). Hallucinations have a chronic course in most parkinsonian patients. Factors predicting the onset of hallucinations point to a role of extranigral brainstem involvement and a nonspecific, facilitating role of ocular disorders. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Trajectories of Nutritional Risk: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, C O; Jiang, D; Tate, R B

    2017-01-01

    To identify patterns of nutritional risk among older men over a four-year period and to project their survival rates over the next two and a half years. A prospective longitudinal study. Canada. Three hundred and thirty-six male survivors of the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) cohort with an average age of 90 years in 2011. Four years of nutritional risk SCREEN II scores (five waves) from the male survivors of the MFUS cohort. The semi-parametric group-based trajectory approach and survival analysis were used to investigate the trajectories of nutritional risk. Of the participants, 30% lived alone. Five distinct developmental trajectory groups for nutritional risk score were identified. Significant statistical differences were found among the five trajectory groups for SF-36 mental health (p=.02), SF-36 physical health (p=<.001), perception of aging successfully (p=.04) and living alone (p=<.001). Among the five groups, the most pairwise differences were found in appetite, intake of meat and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, weight change, skipping meals and eating with others. Men in the poorest nutritional risk trajectory group were two times more likely to die within a 2 1/2 year period compared to men in the best nutritional risk trajectory group (hazard rate = 2.33, p=.07). Distinct nutritional risk trajectories were found for older men over a four year period. Poor nutritional risk trajectories are associated with higher risk of mortality for very old men over a short period of time. Timely nutritional assessments by health professionals are needed to identify older men at nutritional risk. Subsequent nutrition education and follow-up may be important in preventing further decline.

  13. Detailed Follow-up Study of Pediatric Orofacial Granulomatosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Haaramo, Anu; Alapulli, Heikki; Aine, Liisa; Saarnisto, Ulla; Tuokkola, Jetta; Ruuska, Tarja; Sipponen, Taina; Pitkäranta, Anne; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2017-10-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the orofacial area. Its connection to Crohn disease (CD) is debated. Our aim was to describe a cohort of pediatric patients with OFG in detail, study the long-term behavior of OFG, and evaluate factors predicting CD in patients with OFG. We invited patients diagnosed with OFG at 2 university hospitals, Finland for a follow-up appointment. Patients (n = 29) were examined by a dentist and an otorhinolaryngologist using a structural schema. Orofacial findings were also recorded using digital photographing. Patients filled in questionnaires about general health and special diets. Patients' nutrition was evaluated from food records. The findings were compared between patients with OFG only and OFG with CD. Patients with CD had more findings in the orofacial area (total score for orofacial findings median 11) compared to patients with OFG only (total score median 7.5). There was no statistically significant difference in the type of lesions between these groups, except the upper lip was more often affected in patients with CD (n = 11) than in patients with OFG only (n = 0). Most of the patients had normal otorhinolaryngological findings. All patients with elevated anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody A levels had CD (n = 6) and they presented with more orofacial findings (total score) than patients with normal levels of anti-S cerevisiae antibody A (P = 0.0311). Long-term follow-up of pediatric-onset patients with OFG shows good prognosis. Patients with OFG do not seem to have otorhinolaryngological comorbidity. Anti-S cerevisiae antibody A may serve as a factor to indicate the possible presence of underlying CD in patients with OFG, but further studies are requested.

  14. Benzene-induced chromosome aberrations: A follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Forni, A.

    1996-12-01

    To study the evolution of cytogenetic damage from past exposure to high concentrations of benzene and its health significance, chromosome aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes were reinvestigated after approximately 20 years in four subjects with past severe hemopathy and in seven controls studied in the late 1960s. Increased chromosome-type aberrations were still present up to 30 years after benzene toxicity, but blood counts were normal. The vital status at the end of 1993 was ascertained for 32 subjects with a history of benzene toxicity and for 31 controls studied for CA from 1965 to 1970, who differed significantly for CA rates. Of the 32 benzene-exposed subjects, 1 was lost to follow-up, 20 were still alive, and 11 had died at ages 36 to 83, between 1 and 20 years after the last CA study. Five deaths were from neoplasia (acute erythroleukemia, brain tumor, cancer of lung, paranasal cavity, esophagus). The deceased subjects had significantly higher rates of chromosome-type aberrations than those alive, and those who died of neoplasia had the highest rates of these aberrations in the last study before death or diagnosis of cancer. Out of the 31 controls, 12 had died from 4 to 23 years after the CA study. Three deaths were from neoplasia (two lung cancer, one brain tumor). Even if this is a small sample, the results suggest a higher risk of cancer for the benzene-exposed cohort, who had persistently high CA rates in lymphocytes. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Cohort Profile: The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS).

    PubMed

    Tate, Robert B; Cuddy, T Edward; Mathewson, Francis A L

    2015-10-01

    The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) is Canada's longest running study of cardiovascular disease and ageing. The MFUS cohort consists of 3983 men recruited from the Royal Canadian Air Force at the end of World War II. At entry to the study, 1 July 1948, their mean age was 31 years, with 90% between ages 20 and 39 years. All study members were free of clinical evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The protocol of MFUS was to obtain routine medical examinations from these men at regular intervals over time. The research goal of the study was to examine the role that any abnormalities detected on routine electrocardiograms from apparently healthy men might play in the prediction of subsequent diagnoses of cardiovascular disease. Over the course of 65 years, about 35% of the cohort has documented evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The research focus was expanded in 1996 to explore the roles of physical, mental and social functioning in support of healthy and successful ageing. On 1 July 2013, 429 original cohort members were alive with a mean age of 92 years. Collaborative research with others outside the in-house team is welcomed.

  16. Follow up study of workers manufacturing chrysotile asbestos cement products.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Powell, C A

    1986-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2167 subjects employed between 1941 and 1983 at an asbestos cement factory in England. The production process incorporated the use of chrysotile asbestos fibre only, except for a small amount of amosite during four months in 1976. Measured airborne fibre concentrations available since 1970 from personal samplers showed mean levels below 1 fibre/ml, although higher levels had probably occurred previously in certain areas of the factory. No excess of lung cancer was observed in the mortality follow up by comparison with either national or local death rates, and analyses of subgroups of the workforce by job, exposure level, duration of employment, duration since entry, or calendar years of employment gave no real suggestion of an asbestos related excess for this cause of death. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma and one with asbestosis mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate, but neither is thought to be linked to asbestos exposure at this factory. Other suggested asbestos related cancers, such as laryngeal and gastrointestinal, did not show raised risks. Although the durations of exposure were short in this study, the findings are consistent with two other studies of workers exposed to low concentrations of chrysotile fibre in the manufacture of asbestos cement products which reported no excess mortality. PMID:3024695

  17. COPD and microalbuminuria: a 12-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Romundstad, Solfrid; Naustdal, Thor; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Sorger, Hanne; Langhammer, Arnulf

    2014-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), low lung function independent of diagnosis and markers of inflammation are all associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Microalbuminuria, reflecting endothelial dysfunction, could be a relevant inflammatory marker of potential systemic effects of COPD. We hypothesised that there was a positive association between microalbuminuria and mortality in individuals with COPD. We conducted a 12-year follow-up study of 3129 participants in the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway. At baseline, albuminuria was analysed in three urine samples and spirometry was performed. Among the participants, 136 had COPD and microalbuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio between 2.5 and 30.0 mg·mmol(-1). The main outcome measures were hazard ratio of all-cause mortality according to microalbuminuria. Compared to those with COPD without microalbuminuria, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality in those with COPD and microalbuminuria was 1.54, 95% CI 1.16-2.04. This result was similar after excluding cardiovascular disease at baseline. Classifying COPD severity by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, there was a positive association trend with increasing severity stages. Microalbuminuria is associated with all-cause mortality in individuals with COPD and could be a relevant tool in identification of patients with poor prognosis.

  18. A follow-up study on three caries activity tests.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sizhen; Deng, Qing; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Yakushiji, Masashi; Machida, Yukio; Liang, Qin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the efficacy of three CAT's (Dentocult SM, Dentocult LB and Dentobuff Strip) in revealing caries condition and predicting caries progress, and provide a reference for application by comparing the three tests. Oral condition and results of the three CAT's of 82 children aged 3 to 4 were recorded and followed up. The examination was checked again two years later. The caries incidence, dft and CSI data from the two examinations were analyzed statistically. The results were that each Dentocult SM degree showed significant variances in incidence rate, as did the dft and CSI results in the second examination. The dft and CSI of both examinations exhibited a high degree of statistical significance. The same may be said of the Dentocult LB findings for the two years. No noticeable variances in caries incidence rate, dft and CSI from the Dentobuff Strip test were observed in both years' study, nor was there any statistical significance drawn from the findings, except for those of the second exam. No gender differences were observed in the distribution by degree with the three CATs The conclusion is that Dentocult SM is the best of the three tests for the diagnosis of the presence of caries and prognosis of its progress, Dentocult LB is second best whereas the Dentobuff Strip shows no detection capability. The findings serve as an application reference.

  19. A Follow-Up Study of the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, P. A.; Reich, C. M.

    Followed up through interviews and questionnaires were 278 former students, average age 28 years, of two residential schools and one day school for the deaf in Ontario. Data was collected on the degree of hearing loss, use of a hearing aid, educational and occupational history, social integration, methods of communication, and attitudes toward…

  20. Clozapine and anemia: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimmy; Bies, Robert; Bhaloo, Amaal; Powell, Valerie; Remington, Gary

    2015-12-01

    Clozapine's association with agranulocytosis led to the implementation of stringent and mandatory hematologic monitoring guidelines in most countries. Although other hematologic aberrations such as eosinophilia and neutropenia have been previously described, clozapine's impact on the erythroid lineage has not been studied. There is a suspicion that a higher rate of anemia is observed in patients receiving clozapine; therefore, we hypothesized that there would be a higher rate of anemia in patients receiving clozapine therapy. All individuals initiated on clozapine at our center from 2009 to 2010 were recruited. Information on age, gender, medical comorbidities, and smoking status was extracted from the medical records. Data from complete blood counts over a 2-year follow-up period were extracted, with anemia defined as a hemoglobin value below 120 g/L for women and 130 g/L for men. Time to anemia event was calculated and Cox regression was employed to identify predictors of anemia. We found a high incidence of anemia in the first 2 years following clozapine initiation; of the 94 individuals (68 men, 26 women) recruited, 23 (24.5%) developed anemia. Higher baseline hemoglobin level (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86, P = .002) and smoking status (HR = 0.21, P = .021) were identified as significant protective factors against anemia in men but not in women (HR = 0.92, P = .184, and HR = 0.52, P = .467 for baseline hemoglobin and smoking, respectively). Although smoking appears to lower the risk of anemia, we believe this is due to smoking's up-regulation of hemoglobin levels. Further studies are warranted in light of the present findings; for example, we cannot exclude the possibility that anemia was an epiphenomenon, characterizing instead a population with severe mental illness. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Latex allergy: a follow up study of 1040 healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Filon, F Larese; Radman, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Natural rubber latex allergy can cause skin and respiratory symptoms The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of latex related symptoms and sensitisation among a large group of healthcare workers in Trieste hospitals, followed for three years before and after the introduction of powder‐free gloves with low latex release. Methods In the years 1997–99 the authors evaluated 1040 healthcare workers exposed to latex allergen for latex related symptoms and sensitisation by means of a questionnaire, a medical examination, skin prick tests, and IgE specific antibody assay. The second evaluation was carried out in the years 2000–02, subsequent to the changeover to a powder‐free environment. Results Glove related symptoms were seen in 21.8% of the nurses (227), mostly consisting of mild dermatitis: 38 (3.6%) complaining of contact urticaria and 24 (2.3%) of asthma and/or rhinitis. These symptoms were significantly related to skin prick tests positive to latex (OR = 9.70; 95% CI 5.5 to 17) and to personal atopy (OR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Follow up was completed in 960 subjects (92.3%): 19 new subjects (2.4%) complained of itching erythema when using gloves, but none was prick positive to latex. Symptoms significantly improved and in most cases disappeared (p<0.0001). Conclusions Simple measures such as the avoidance of unnecessary glove use, the use of non‐powdered latex gloves by all workers, and use of non‐latex gloves by sensitised subjects can stop the progression of latex symptoms and can avoid new cases of sensitisation. PMID:16421390

  2. A Follow-up Study: The Registered Nurses Program, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondwros, Jerry M.

    Twenty-seven (77.1%) of the thirty-five 1977 graduates of the South Georgia Colleges' Division of Nursing responded to a follow-up survey, producing the following information: (1) 17 were employed full-time, two were employed part-time, and eight were unemployed; (2) 88.9% agreed they were prepared adequately for the state board examination; (3)…

  3. A Follow-up Study: The Registered Nurses Program, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondwros, Jerry M.

    Twenty-seven (77.1%) of the thirty-five 1977 graduates of the South Georgia Colleges' Division of Nursing responded to a follow-up survey, producing the following information: (1) 17 were employed full-time, two were employed part-time, and eight were unemployed; (2) 88.9% agreed they were prepared adequately for the state board examination; (3)…

  4. Follow-up study of small-for-dates babies.

    PubMed

    Fancourt, R; Campbell, S; Harvey, D; Norman, A P

    1976-06-12

    A group of small-for-dates full-term babies whose intra-uterine growth was followed by serial ultrasonic cephalometry were examined at a mean age of 4 years. Those children whose skull growth had begun to slow in utero before 34 weeks' menstrual age were more likely to have a height and weight less than the 10th centile. When the onset of growth failure had occurred before 26 weeks there was a lower developmental quotient at follow-up using the Griffiths extended scales. Prolonged slow growth in utero therefore seems to be followed by slow growth and development after birth.

  5. Seven-year follow-up study after the replacement of the esophagus with an artificial esophagus in the dog.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Kako, N; Chiba, K; Kawaguchi, T; Kimura, Y; Sato, M; Yamauchi, M; Koie, H

    1983-01-01

    An artificial esophagus was made of silicone rubber (Phycon) tube covered with a Dacron mesh. A segment of thoracic esophagus of 16 dogs was replaced with this graft using three different types of anastomosis--overlayer end-to-end anastomosis with flanged tube, two-layer end-to-end anastomosis with flanged tube, and monolayer end-to-end anastomosis with no flange tube. Seven of 16 dogs (44%) survived more than 12 months without complications, four of them surviving more than 6 years. In six of seven of the prolonged survivors, extrusion of the graft was recognized in the 3 to 6 months after operation. Esophageal stricture increased slightly up to 6 months after extrusion of the graft, but it did not further advance until sacrifice. In these dogs, mucosal regeneration of the neoesophagus was complete with muscle layers and mucous glands in the submucosa recognized microscopically. Proximal esophagus from the replaced portion was apparently dilatated more than that of the distal portion. There was no definite difference between the anastomotic techniques with regard to complication or prognosis. These results suggest that this artificial esophagus should be considered as a possibility for clinical trials in the future.

  6. Ablative radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism: long term follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Kendall-Taylor, P; Keir, M J; Ross, W M

    1984-01-01

    A total of 225 patients were treated for hyperthyroidism with 555 MBq (15 mCi) radioiodine to ablate the thyroid and induce early hypothyroidism. The efficacy of this treatment in eradicating hyperthyroidism and problems of follow up were assessed one to six years later from case records and questionnaires. Information was received from 197 out of 219 live patients (90%) and from 160 doctors concerning 207 patients (92%). Only three patients were not traced and six had died since treatment. The modal time to hypothyroidism was three months, and 64% of patients were hypothyroid at one year; 5.6% had failed to become euthyroid within one year. Ninety five per cent of patients had been seen by the doctor and 82% had had a thyroid test done within the past two years. Most doctors preferred patients to be returned to their care once thyroxine treatment was stabilised. An ablative dose of 131I is recommended as an effective means of treatment which has clear advantages over conventional methods. Good communications and effective follow up should ensure success. PMID:6432100

  7. Cold urticaria: a 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jain, S V; Mullins, R J

    2016-12-01

    Chronic cold urticaria results in significant morbidity, yet information on its natural history is limited. We examined the natural history of chronic cold urticaria and its impact on quality of life. We analysed the characteristics of patients diagnosed with cold urticaria at a community-based specialist allergy practice in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) between 1995 and 2015. Follow-up data were obtained using a mailed questionnaire. Possible predictive factors of disease severity and symptom duration were evaluated. A total of 99 patients were assessed with a median age of 42 (range 5-81 years); 63% were female and the median age of onset of symptoms was 22 years. Of 41 questionnaire responders (14 ± 10.9 years follow-up; median 12 years), 5- and 10-year resolution rates were 17.9% ± 6.2% and 24.5% ± 7.2%, respectively. Whereas 22% reported resolution and 23% described improvement, the remaining 55% reported stable or worsening disease. Most individuals relied on lifestyle modification to ameliorate symptoms rather than medication. Risk factors for persistent disease were intercurrent atopic disease (P = 0.025) and those with longer duration of symptoms at the time of initial assessment (P < 0.001). Secondary causes of cold urticaria were identified in only two patients, both with B-cell malignancy. In a subset of patients, cold urticaria has low rates of spontaneous resolution and results in lifestyle changes and impaired quality of life. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. [Intracranial stenosis. Study and follow-up of 38 patients].

    PubMed

    Palomeras Soler, E; Fossas Felip, P; Cano Orgaz, A; Sanz Cartagena, P

    2004-06-01

    To describe vascular risk factors of patients harboring intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS) as well their final outcome. We reviewed clinical reports of all patients admitted to our Institution from April 1, 1999 to November 30, 2001 with the diagnosis of IAS. Diagnosis was made by means of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or four-vessels digital subtraction angiography. Thirty-eight patients harboring 56 IAS were identified. Mean follow-up was 18 months. Two control groups were selected: one was a group of 44 patients with stroke and embolic cardiopathy (EC) and the other was a group of 67 patients with stroke and extracranial stenosis without IAS. Mean age was 69.7 years, with male preponderance (76.3 %). Seventeen cases (44.7 %) had associated extracranial carotid stenosis greater than 50 %. Multiple IAS were found in 12 patients. Diabetes mellitus was significantly more frequent in the IAS group than in both control groups. On the other hand, cigarette smoking was more common in the IAS group with respect to the EC group. IAS was symptomatic in 25 cases, whereas in 13 patients IAS was found in the work-up for cerebral ischemia in another territory. From the group of symptomatic patients, 22 (88 %) had a Rankin scale 2 or lower on discharge and, in the long term follow-up, their incidence rate of recurrent ischemic stroke was 15 per 100 patients/year. Diabetes mellitus was the most specific risk factor for IAS. IAS was multiple in 32% of patients and in extracranial stenosis from moderate to severe degree was found in 44.7% of the cases. Stroke secondary to IAS caused a low dependency level at discharge. Incidence rate of recurrent ischemic stroke was 15 % patients/ year.

  9. [Surgery for phimosis with Plastibell. A follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Jensen, M K

    1998-06-22

    Fifty-three boys were interviewed 11 years (9-14 years) after an operation for phimosis using the Plastibell technique. The interview concentrated on the cosmetic result, sexual function and late complications. Seventeen patients (31%) experienced cosmetic complications, and 11 patients (21%) claimed to have experienced psycho-social problems due to the appearance of the penis after the operation. Nonetheless an overall of 44 patients (83%) were fully satisfied/satisfied with the cosmetic result. Four patients (8%) claimed to have pain or discomfort on erection or intercourse. One patient (2%) was re-operated three years after the primary operation because of a recurrence of the symptoms. Overall 48 patients (91%) were fully satisfied or satisfied with the result after the operation. In conclusion we find the Plastibell procedure to be a safe and reliable method in treating phimosis. There are some minor technical pitfalls that have to be addressed in learning the technique, but performed in trained hands, the technique offers a very high satisfaction rate at long term follow-up.

  10. Seven-year follow-up of allogeneic transplant using BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan chemotherapy in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma after autograft failure: importance of minimal residual disease.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Urszula; Rodriguez, Tulio; Smith, Scott; Go, Aileen; Vimr, Ross; Parthasarathy, Mala; Guo, Rong; Stiff, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Allogeneic transplant using reduced intensity conditioning is a therapeutic option for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who relapse after an autograft. This was a prospective study of 31 consecutive eligible patients with HL who relapsed after an autograft and underwent an allograft using BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) conditioning. At a median follow-up of 7 years the progression-free survival (PFS) was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19-54%) and overall survival (OS) was 42% (95% CI 23-59%). In multivariate analysis only residual disease at the time of transplant predicted outcome, with a 4-year PFS and OS of 62% and 75% for patients with minimal residual disease versus 8% and 8% for patients with gross residual disease, respectively (p = 0.005 and p = 0.001, respectively). This benefit seemed to be irrespective of chemosensitivity, with an OS for patients with chemorefractory yet minimal disease of 71% at 4 years. BEAM allogeneic transplant is effective in producing long-term remissions after autograft failure. Regardless of chemosensitivity, minimizing tumor burden pre-transplant may improve long-term outcome.

  11. Nurse-led follow-up at home vs. conventional medical outpatient clinic follow-up in patients with incurable upper gastrointestinal cancer: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, Madeleen J; van Putten, Paul G; van Eijck, Casper H J; Verschuur, Els M L; van der Gaast, Ate; Pek, Chulja J; van der Rijt, Carin C D; de Man, Rob A; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Laheij, Robert J F; Siersema, Peter D; Spaander, Manon C W; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2014-03-01

    Upper gastrointestinal cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. The multidimensional problems of incurable patients require close monitoring and frequent support, which cannot sufficiently be provided during conventional one to two month follow-up visits to the outpatient clinic. To compare nurse-led follow-up at home with conventional medical follow-up in the outpatient clinic for patients with incurable primary or recurrent esophageal, pancreatic, or hepatobiliary cancer. Patients were randomized to nurse-led follow-up at home or conventional medical follow-up in the outpatient clinic. Outcome parameters were quality of life (QoL), patient satisfaction, and health care consumption, measured by different questionnaires at one and a half and four months after randomization. As well, cost analyses were done for both follow-up strategies in the first four months. In total, 138 patients were randomized, of which 66 (48%) were evaluable. At baseline, both groups were similar with respect to clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and health-related QoL. Patients in the nurse-led follow-up group were significantly more satisfied with the visits, whereas QoL and health care consumption within the first four months were comparable between the two groups. Nurse-led follow-up was less expensive than conventional medical follow-up. However, the total costs for the first four months of follow-up in this study were higher in the nurse-led follow-up group because of a higher frequency of visits. The results suggest that conventional medical follow-up is interchangeable with nurse-led follow-up. A cost utility study is necessary to determine the preferred frequency and duration of the home visits. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. GuLF Study: The Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Investigator for the GuLF STUDY The Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study ( GuLF STUDY ) is the largest ... in Spain and South Korea – included any long-term follow-up. Early data from these studies suggested ...

  13. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  14. 3-Year Follow-up of the NIMH MTA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Peter S.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Pelham, William E.; Wells, Karen C.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; March, John S.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In the intent-to-treat analysis of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA), the effects of medication management (MedMgt), behavior therapy (Beh), their combination (Comb), and usual community care (CC) differed at 14 and 24 months due to superiority of treatments that used the MTA medication algorithm (Comb+MedMgt)…

  15. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  16. Nine-Year Follow-Up Study of Montessori Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarra, Dorothy June; Dorsey, Anne

    Results of an earlier six-year followup study demonstrated that a group of children with four years of Montessori education, including preschool and primary . school, score best on all seven variables of the third grade level Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). The group with no preschool experience scored lowest on five of seven variables of the…

  17. Post-Secondary Vocational Education: Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Jo

    A study examined whether the Minnesota State Board of Vocational Education has adequately implemented recommendations made in a 1983 evaluation of postsecondary vocational education programs. It focused particularly on how the board and its management have responded to problems of low job placement rates and low student-teacher ratios in some…

  18. Oregon High School Follow-up Study. Statewide Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.

    A followup study collected data from and concerning 1981 high school graduates and early leavers from 19 schools throughout Oregon in order to determine the effects of vocational training on employment and further education beyond high school. Data from 1,296 former students, 672 of whom had taken at least one year of vocational cluster courses,…

  19. MCC Instruction in Sustainable Technologies. Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Donald

    The purposes of this study were to collect feedback from Sustainable Technologies interns regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of their education and training from the Maui Community College Instruction in Sustainable Technologies (MIST) program, and to further assess community need for a new Associate Degree program in Sustainable…

  20. Morning Star Students: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Leroy V.

    Findings of two followup studies of Morning Star (a 2-year Native teacher education program established in 1975 at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre, leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta) are examined in relation to the program's assumptions, organization, and delivery systems. The teacher certification of…

  1. PROJECT TALENT, 1-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COOLEY, WILLIAM W.; FLANAGAN, JOHN C.

    THE "PROJECT TALENT" FOLLOWUP STUDIES WERE CONCERNED WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN YOUTH, CONSISTING PRIMARILY OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL PLANS AND DECISIONS WHICH ONE MAKES DURING HIGH SCHOOL AND IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING HIGH SCHOOL. RELATIONSHIPS WERE SOUGHT BETWEEN TRAITS EXHIBITED BY STUDENTS IN HIGH…

  2. Hydrotherapy after total hip arthroplasty: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Giaquinto, S; Ciotola, E; Dall'armi, V; Margutti, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the subjective functional outcome of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients who underwent hydrotherapy (HT) 6 months after discharge. A prospective randomized study was performed on 70 elderly inpatients with recent THA, who completed a rehabilitation program. After randomization, 33 of them were treated in conventional gyms (no-hydrotherapy group=NHTG) and 31 received HT (hydrotherapy group=HTG). Interviews with the Western-Ontario MacMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were performed at admission, at discharge and 6 months later. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were applied for statistical analysis. Both groups improved. Pain, stiffness and function were all positively affected. Statistical analysis indicated that WOMAC sub-scales were significantly lower for all patients treated with HT. The benefits at discharge still remained after 6 months. We conclude that HT is recommended after THA in a geriatric population.

  3. Workers exposed to ethylene oxide: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Gardner, M J; Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Harris, E C

    1989-12-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2876 men and women with potential exposure to ethylene oxide. Subjects were identified from employment records at four companies that have produced or used ethylene oxide since the 1950s and at eight hospitals which have had ethylene oxide sterilising units since the 1960s. The cohort represents a substantial proportion of the British workforce with a history of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Industrial hygiene data were not available before 1977, but since then time weighted average exposures have been less than 5 ppm in almost all jobs and less than 1 ppm in many. Past exposures were probably somewhat higher. In contrast to some previous studies, no clear excess of leukaemia (three deaths observed, 2.09 expected) and no increase in stomach cancer (five deaths observed, 5.95 expected) were found. This discrepancy with earlier reports may be due in part to differences in levels of exposure. Total cancer mortality was similar to that expected from national and local death rates. Some specific cancers showed small excesses but their relevance to ethylene oxide exposure is doubtful. Again, contrary to some earlier reports, no excess of cardiovascular disease was found. This study does not exclude the possibility that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen but suggests that any risk of cancer from currently permitted occupational exposures is small.

  4. Workers exposed to ethylene oxide: a follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Harris, E C

    1989-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2876 men and women with potential exposure to ethylene oxide. Subjects were identified from employment records at four companies that have produced or used ethylene oxide since the 1950s and at eight hospitals which have had ethylene oxide sterilising units since the 1960s. The cohort represents a substantial proportion of the British workforce with a history of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Industrial hygiene data were not available before 1977, but since then time weighted average exposures have been less than 5 ppm in almost all jobs and less than 1 ppm in many. Past exposures were probably somewhat higher. In contrast to some previous studies, no clear excess of leukaemia (three deaths observed, 2.09 expected) and no increase in stomach cancer (five deaths observed, 5.95 expected) were found. This discrepancy with earlier reports may be due in part to differences in levels of exposure. Total cancer mortality was similar to that expected from national and local death rates. Some specific cancers showed small excesses but their relevance to ethylene oxide exposure is doubtful. Again, contrary to some earlier reports, no excess of cardiovascular disease was found. This study does not exclude the possibility that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen but suggests that any risk of cancer from currently permitted occupational exposures is small. PMID:2611160

  5. Scala tympani cochleostomy survey: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Iseli, Claire; Adunka, Oliver F; Buchman, Craig A

    2014-08-01

    To reassess cochleostomy techniques among North American cochlear implant surgeons after a 6-year period of widespread education and research on the topic. Prospective cohort study. A multiple-choice survey of cochlear implant techniques was distributed to surgeons attending the William House Cochlear Implant Study Group in 2006 and 2012. This survey contained questions regarding routine surgical access and cochleostomy techniques. Responses were anonymous, and >50% were repeat respondents. Statistical analysis sought changes in technique in the past 6 years. Comparisons between 2006 and 2012 responses revealed no significant changes in the proportion of surgeons identifying the facial nerve or chorda tympani. By contrast, respondents in 2012 were more likely to drill off the round window niche overhang (P < .001), use a round window insertion (P < .001), or make a smaller cochleostomy (P = .003). In two images of a transfacial recess approach, there was a significant increase in the proportion choosing an inferior or anterior cochleostomy site over a superior location (image 1, 76% in 2006 to 92% in 2012, P = .003; image 3, 78% to 90%, respectively, P = .044). This repeat survey documents a change in practice among cochlear implant surgeons. Specifically, scala tympani access techniques now appear to be more consistent with known anatomical relationships in the round window region. These findings may have resulted from the concerted education and research efforts over the past 6 years. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Gamma-ray follow-up studies on η Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitberger, K.; Reimer, O.; Reimer, A.; Werner, M.; Egberts, K.; Takahashi, H.

    2012-12-01

    The increased exposure in conjunction with the improved instrumental response functions of the Fermi-LAT now allows a more detailed investigation of location, spectral shape and flux time history of the observed γ-ray emission at the position of η Carinae. We detect a weak but regular flux decrease over time. This can be understood and interpreted in a colliding-wind binary scenario for orbital modulation of the γ-ray emission. We find that the spectral shape of the γ-ray signal agrees with a single emitting particle population in combination with significant absorption by γ-γ pair production. Concluding, we are able to report on the first unambiguous detection of GeV γ-ray emission from a colliding-wind massive star binary. Studying the correlation of the flux decrease with the orbital separation of the binary components allows us to predict the behaviour up to the next periastron passage in 2014.

  7. Crossed aphasia: a PET follow up study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cappa, S F; Perani, D; Bressi, S; Paulesu, E; Franceschi, M; Fazio, F

    1993-06-01

    Two cases of aphasia after right hemispheric stroke in right handed patients are described. The first patient had a severe mixed transcortical aphasia, apraxia and neglect after a lesion involving the right lenticular nucleus and periventricular white matter; aphasia was still present after three months. The second patient had a mild, transient fluent aphasia after a small right hemispheric periventricular lesion. Studies with [18F]FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) showed functional depression extending to the structurally unaffected left hemisphere in both patients in the acute stage. After three months, in the patient with persistent aphasia, metabolism was still reduced in the right hemisphere, with some recovery of hypometabolism on the left, while metabolic values had returned to normal in the patient with full language recovery. A close parallelism between glucose metabolism and clinical course in crossed aphasia is shown, as well as the presence of a functional involvement of the structurally unaffected left hemisphere in the acute stage.

  8. Periapical endodontic surgery: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Maddalone, M; Gagliani, M

    2003-03-01

    To monitor the outcome of periradicular surgery in a group of teeth treated with microsurgical technology and ultrasonic root-end preparation. One hundred and twenty-eight teeth with failed conventional root canal treatment were included. The surgical procedure was completed using ultrasonic retrotips and a zinc oxide-EBA (Super Seal, Ogna Pharmaceuticals. Milan, Italy)-reinforced material was used to seal the root end cavities. Lesions were examined radiologically at 1. 3. 6. 12, 24 and 36-month intervals. Radiographs were independently analysed according to a previously published classification. Eight teeth were extracted due to fracture or perforations undetected radiologically: these cases were excluded from the study. Of the 120 teeth examined. the overall success rate was 92.5%; 94 healed with complete bone filling of the surgical cavity, 17 were considered to have healed by apical scar formation, four demonstrated uncertain healing and five were considered failures. Eighty of 120 teeth examined had successfully healed from a radiological point of view within 12 months. No differences in outcome occurred between anterior, premolar and molar teeth. Although all failures occurred in teeth with posts, no statistically significant difference was noted (Mann-Whitney U-test, P = 0.37). Modern surgical endodontic procedures associated and ERA (Super Seal, Ogna Pharmaceuticals, Milan, Italy) root end fillings were successful over 3 years in 92.5% of cases.

  9. Crossed aphasia: a PET follow up study of two cases.

    PubMed Central

    Cappa, S F; Perani, D; Bressi, S; Paulesu, E; Franceschi, M; Fazio, F

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of aphasia after right hemispheric stroke in right handed patients are described. The first patient had a severe mixed transcortical aphasia, apraxia and neglect after a lesion involving the right lenticular nucleus and periventricular white matter; aphasia was still present after three months. The second patient had a mild, transient fluent aphasia after a small right hemispheric periventricular lesion. Studies with [18F]FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) showed functional depression extending to the structurally unaffected left hemisphere in both patients in the acute stage. After three months, in the patient with persistent aphasia, metabolism was still reduced in the right hemisphere, with some recovery of hypometabolism on the left, while metabolic values had returned to normal in the patient with full language recovery. A close parallelism between glucose metabolism and clinical course in crossed aphasia is shown, as well as the presence of a functional involvement of the structurally unaffected left hemisphere in the acute stage. Images PMID:8509781

  10. Follow-up Study of Patients With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Peter; Kohn, Jean G.

    1979-01-01

    Of 319 patients with cerebral palsy recalled for reevaluation 15 years after the initial visit, 10 percent had died. Of the living, 55 percent had spasticity, 32 percent had athetosis, 4 percent had ataxia and 9 percent had mixed spasticity and athetosis; 38 percent had an intelligence quotient (IQ) less than 50, 24 percent between 50 and 79, and 38 percent had IQ above 80. There was a high correlation between overall functional outcome and intellectual level. Severity of physical disability, as measured by hand use, mobility and speech, also correlated with dependence, in part because increased severity of the disability was associated with decreased intellectual capacity generally. Twenty-five years after the initial visit, parental attitudes and personality intactness were evaluated (using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]) and were correlated with satisfaction with status in life in 28 persons predicted to be independent on the 15-year study. Twenty (72 percent) of the 28 were satisfied with their status in life and of these, 16 were evaluated (with the MMPI) with 70 percent scoring in the normal range; 13 (65 percent) had parents with a positive attitude. Positive attitude was defined as parental feelings that the handicapped child was a worthy, valuable person, to be encouraged and assisted but not isolated from the world of nonhandicapped people. Careful serial assessment by professional teams combined with repeated long-term counseling of families can result in optimal outcome for the disability level involved, due to the primary role parents play in the development of a child's character and behavior. PMID:154207

  11. Gamma-ray follow-up studies on η Carinae

    DOE PAGES

    Reitberger, K.; Reimer, O.; Reimer, A.; ...

    2012-08-01

    Observations of high-energy γ-rays recently revealed a persistent source in spatial coincidence with the binary system η Carinae. Since modulation of the observed γ-ray flux on orbital time scales has not been reported so far, an unambiguous identification was hitherto not possible. In particular, the observations made by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) posed additional questions regarding the actual emission scenario. Analyses show two energetically distinct components in the γ-ray spectrum, which are best described by an exponentially cutoff power-law function (CPL) at energies below 10 GeV and a power-law (PL) component dominant at higher energies. The increased exposuremore » in conjunction with the improved instrumental response functions of the LAT now allow us to perform a more detailed investigation of location, spectral shape, and flux time history of the observed γ-ray emission. Furthermore, we detect a weak but regular flux decrease over time. This can be understood and interpreted in a colliding-wind binary scenario for orbital modulation of the γ-ray emission. We find that the spectral shape of the γ-ray signal agrees with a single emitting particle population in combination with significant absorption by γ-γ pair production. We are able to report on the first unambiguous detection of GeV γ-ray emission from a colliding-wind massive star binary. By studying the correlation of the flux decrease with the orbital separation of the binary components allows us to predict the behaviour up to the next periastron passage in 2014.« less

  12. Patients lost to follow-up in acromegaly: results of the ACROSPECT study.

    PubMed

    Delemer, B; Chanson, Ph; Foubert, L; Borson-Chazot, F; Chabre, O; Tabarin, A; Weryha, G; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Raingeard, I; Reznik, Y; Reines, C; Bisot-Locard, S; Castinetti, F

    2014-05-01

    The complex management of acromegaly has transformed this disease into a chronic condition, with the risk of patients being lost to follow-up. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of acromegalic patients lost to follow-up in France and to determine the impact that abandoning follow-up has on the disease and its management. ACROSPECT was a French national, multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study. Acromegalic patients were considered lost to follow-up if no new information had been entered in their hospital records during the previous 2 years. They were traced where possible, and data were collected by means of a recall visit or questionnaire. In the study population, 21% of the 2392 acromegalic patients initially followed in 25 tertiary endocrinology centres were lost to follow-up. At their last follow-up visit, 30% were uncontrolled, 33% were receiving medical therapy and 53% had residual tumour. Of the 362 traced, 62 had died and 77% were receiving follow-up elsewhere; the leading reason for abandoning follow-up was that they had not been informed that it was necessary. Our analysis of the questionnaires suggests that they were not receiving optimal follow-up. This study underlines the need to better inform acromegalic patients of the need for long-term follow-up, the absence of which could be detrimental to patients' health, and to develop shared care for what must now be regarded as a chronic disease.

  13. History and design of the INCAP longitudinal study (1969-77) and its follow-up (1988-89).

    PubMed

    Martorell, R; Habicht, J P; Rivera, J A

    1995-04-01

    This is an overview of the design and methods of the INCAP longitudinal study (1969-77) and its follow-up study (1988-89). The first study had the objective of assessing the effects of intrauterine and preschool malnutrition on growth and mental development. To achieve this, food supplements were provided to pregnant women and young children residing in four Gautemalan villages. Two villages were given a high-protein, high-energy drink and two were provided a no-protein, low-energy drink. Both supplements contained vitamins and minerals. Longitudinal information was collected during the first seven years of life on physical growth, mental development, attendance and consumption of supplement, home diet, morbidity and on characteristics of the family. Health and nutrition data on mothers also were collected. The INCAP follow-up study was a cross-sectional evaluation of former participants of the first study and was carried out when the subjects were 11-27 y old. The hypothesis of the INCAP follow-up study was that improved nutrition in early childhood leads to enhanced human capital formation in adolescents and adults. Data were collected on physical growth and body composition, maturation, work capacity, intellectual performance and school achievement.

  14. Socializing Intellectual Talk: A Case Study of Instructor Follow-Up Statements in Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Caroline S.

    2017-01-01

    By analyzing the audio recording and transcription of classroom discourse, this case study focused on the ways in which the instructor used follow-up statements to socialize students into intellectual talk. Four relevant categories of follow-up statements emerged: (a) revoicing, (b) contextualization, (c) parallel elaboration, and (d) assistive…

  15. Follow Up Study of Non College Bound Somerset County High School Graduates June 1990, New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Charles R.

    A follow-up study sought to determine what happened to the 1990 noncollege-bound graduates of all the high schools in Somerset County, New Jersey. Data were gathered through a mailed survey and telephone follow-up (approximately 45 percent response) of the 408 graduates of the 12 of 13 high schools providing names. Some of the findings from…

  16. Career Program Completers. 1989-90 Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In summer 1994, a long-term follow-up study was conducted of 1989-90 graduates of career programs at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) in Kansas. A survey was mailed to 536 graduates, certificate holders, and students who left JCCC with marketable skills to assess their satisfaction with JCCC and their jobs. With telephone follow-up, a…

  17. Follow-Up Genotoxic Study: Chromosome Damage Two and Six Years after Exposure to the Prestige Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Hildur, Kristin; Templado, Cristina; Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Frances, Alexandra; Monyarch, Gemma; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Emma; Souto, Ana; Gómez, Federico P; Antó, Josep M; Barberà, Joan Albert; Fuster, Carme

    2015-01-01

    The north-west coast of Spain was heavily contaminated by the Prestige oil spill, in 2002. Individuals who participated in the clean-up tasks showed increased chromosome damage two years after exposure. Long-term clinical implications of chromosome damage are still unknown. To realize a follow-up genotoxic study to detect whether the chromosome damage persisted six years after exposure to the oil. Follow-up study. Fishermen cooperatives in coastal villages. Local fishermen who were highly exposed (n = 52) and non-exposed (n = 23) to oil seven years after the spill. Chromosome damage in circulating lymphocytes. Chromosome damage in exposed individuals persists six years after oil exposure, with a similar incidence than those previously detected four years before. A surprising increase in chromosome damage in non-exposed individual was found six years after Prestige spill vs. those detected two years after the exposure. The sample size and the possibility of some kind of selection bias should be considered. Genotoxic results cannot be extrapolated to the approximately 300,000 individuals who participated occasionally in clean-up tasks. The persistence of chromosome damage detected in exposed individuals six years after oil exposure seems to indicate that the cells of the bone marrow are affected. A surprising increase in chromosome damage in non-exposed individuals detected in the follow-up study suggests an indirect exposition of these individuals to some oil compounds or to other toxic agents during the last four years. More long-term studies are needed to confirm the presence of chromosome damage in exposed and non-exposed fishermen due to the association between increased chromosomal damage and increased risk of cancer. Understanding and detecting chromosome damage is important for detecting cancer in its early stages. The present work is the first follow-up cytogenetic study carried out in lymphocytes to determine genotoxic damage evolution between two and six

  18. Typologies and precursors of career adaptability patterns among emerging adults: a seven-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Shmuel; Vasalampi, Kati; Barr, Tamuz; Livne, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Pratt, Michael W

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined career adaptability in 100 Israeli emerging adults who were followed from ages 22 to 29. Participants were given an in depth interview and were asked to talk about their current work, difficulties they might have had in the past and how they coped with them. In addition they were asked to elaborate on the extent to which their job fits their interests and is meaningful to them. Analyses of interviews yielded three distinctive career adaptability patterns that were associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Integrated, Compromised, and Vague. A lower level of identified motivation measured seven years earlier predicted membership in the Compromised pattern. A higher level of extrinsic motivation combined with decreased parental support predicted membership in the Vague pattern. Findings are discussed within the framework of the occupational adaptations and compromises that young people must make when approaching the age of 30.

  19. Maturation rate and spatial, verbal, and musical abilities: a seven-year-longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1991-06-01

    We traced spatial, verbal and musical abilities through a seven-year period of adolescence. When we started our study, 60 boys had reached a mean age of 11.72, 60 girls were 11.52 on average. Menarche and mutation served as markers for maturation. We found that early, mid, and late maturers differed on spatial orientation and on tactile-visual discrimination as measured with the Witelson task. No differences between the maturational groups emerged on verbal fluency and on Wing's Standardized Tests of Musical Intelligence. At some stages, sex differences on spatial, verbal, and musical tests emerged, and disappeared at others. The sex differences in performance levels were not associated with a sex-specific relationship between maturation rate and performance levels. We found indications of the usefulness of sex hormone measurement in relation to cognitive and musical development in adolescence.

  20. Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Follow-up Study

    Cancer.gov

    A follow-up study on women with breast cancer who participated in the parent population-based case-control study of Long Island women to determine whether environmental and other lifestyle factors influence breast cancer survival.

  1. Seven-year follow-up of the immune response after one or two doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine given at 1 year of age in the Mendoza Province of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Espul, Carlos; Benedetti, Laura; Linares, Mariela; Cuello, Hector; Castro, Ivana Lo; Thollot, Yaël; Rasuli, Anvar

    2017-09-21

    This monocentre, descriptive, prospective, non-interventional study evaluated the long-term immune responses following routine vaccination with one or two doses of a licensed inactivated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine (Avaxim® 80U Pediatric) at age 11-23 months in a cohort of children from Mendoza, Argentina. Antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) were quantified annually up to Y5, and at Y7. Children whose titer decreased to below the seroprotection threshold (defined as an anti-HAV antibody concentration of ≥10 mIU/inmL in a microparticle enzyme immunoassay up to Y5, or ≥3 mIU/mL in an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay at Y7) received a routine booster dose of the same HA vaccine. This report summarizes the data at 7 years after the first vaccination. Of 546 participants initially included, 266 participants remained at Year 7. Of these, 206 having received one HA primary dose as a toddler were still seroprotected at Y7; titers for a further 7 also having received one HA dose as a toddler fell to below the seroprotection threshold and they therefore received a booster; all 53 having received two HA doses as a toddler and still present at Y7 remained seroprotected at Y7. One or two primary doses of this HA vaccine in toddlers result in very good persistence of anti-HAV up to 7 years post-first vaccination.

  2. Cohort profile of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study at final follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Koji; Sakata, Kiyomi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shogo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sakauchi, Fumio; Motohashi, Yutaka; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Mikami, Haruo; Kurosawa, Michiko; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hashimoto, Shuji; Wada, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu; Date, Chigusa; Kurozawa, Yoichi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shibata, Akira; Okamoto, Naoyuki; Shio, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s to evaluate the risk impact of lifestyle factors and levels of serum components on human health. During the 20-year follow-up period, the results of the study have been published in almost 200 original articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals. However, continued follow-up of the study subjects became difficult because of the retirements of principal researchers, city mergers throughout Japan in the year 2000, and reduced funding. Thus, we decided to terminate the JACC Study follow-up at the end of 2009. As a final point of interest, we reviewed the population registry information of survivors. A total of 207 (0.19%) subjects were ineligible, leaving 110 585 eligible participants (46 395 men and 64 190 women). Moreover, errors in coding date of birth and sex were found in 356 (0.32%) and 59 (0.05%) cases, respectively, during routine follow-up and final review. Although such errors were unexpected, their impact is believed to be negligible because of the small numbers relative to the large total study population. Here, we describe the final cohort profile at the end of the JACC Study along with selected characteristics of the participants and their status at the final follow-up. Although follow-up of the JACC Study participants is finished, we will continue to analyze and publish study results.

  3. Socioeconomic position and participation in baseline and follow-up visits: the Inter99 study.

    PubMed

    Bender, Anne M; Jørgensen, Torben; Helbech, Bodil; Linneberg, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify the extent of socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline and follow-up visits. The Inter99 study is a randomized intervention with the aim of investigating the effects of an individualized lifestyle consultation on ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The study comprised 61,301 persons of which 13,016 were assigned to the intervention group. The rest formed the control group. All those in the intervention group were invited to participate in health examinations, risk assessments, and lifestyle consultations. Participants at high risk of IHD were invited to follow-up visits after 1, 3, and 5 years. Data on five socioeconomic factors were retrieved from nationwide registers. For each socioeconomic factor we estimated the relative risks and relative index of inequality of participation at the baseline visit and among high-risk participants at follow-up visits. In addition, we conducted analyses of trends in socioeconomic inequality in participation across follow-up visits. Participation rates were 53% at baseline and 61-65% at the three follow-up visits. There was strong socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline, with increasing probability of participation found with increasing level of socioeconomic position. This was smaller at follow-up visits. Except for education and housing tenure, there was an increase in socioeconomic inequality in participation across follow-up visits. We found strong socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline and follow-up visits. Effort should be made to increase participation in individualized lifestyle interventions among persons of low socioeconomic position. Otherwise, the consequence may be increased socioeconomic inequality in IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Neonates and its Risk Factors: A Seven Year Study in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulinejad, Seyed Ahmad; Montazeri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: An important cause of avoidable childhood blindness is retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in countries with high human development index and also in some emerging economies countries. To date, no research have been conducted on analyzing data of ROP prevalence in Babol, and this is the first research performed on ROP in this area. Methods: All VLBW babies who referred to Babol ophthalmology center over the seven years, from February 2007 to December 2013 were enrolled in this descriptive cross-sectional research. A team of researchers recorded patients’ information completely in check lists. A single experienced ophthalmologist performed ophthalmologic examination of patients. Result: The incidence of ROP of any stage in Babol was determined to be 306 (45%) of all babies enrolled in this study. In present study, key risk factors of ROP were low gestational age, oxygen therapy more than five days and low birth weight. Conclusion: The findings of current study demonstrate that the main risk factors of developing ROP in newborns are multiple gestation, low birth weight, oxygen therapy for more than five day. Therefore, the progression of ROP to blindness will be prevented by a high index of suspicion, suitable screening, prompt diagnosis, and early treatment. PMID:27014382

  5. Behavior Problems and Psychiatric Diagnoses in Girls with Gender Identity Disorder: A Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Kelley D; Bradley, Susan J; Peterson-Badali, Michele; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2017-06-08

    This study evaluated the presence of clinical range behavior problems and psychiatric diagnoses in 25 girls referred for gender identity disorder (GID) in childhood (mean age: 8.88 years) at the time of follow-up in adolescence or adulthood (mean age: 23.2 years). At follow-up, three (12%) of the girls were judged to have persistent GID based on DSM-IV criteria. With regard to behavior problems at follow-up, 39.1% of the girls had a clinical range score on either the Child Behavior Checklist or Adult Behavior Checklist as rated by their mothers, and 33.3% had a clinical range score on either the Youth Self-Report or the Adult Self-Report. On either the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents or the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the girls had, on average, 2.67 diagnoses (range: 0-10); 46% met criteria for three or more diagnoses. From the childhood assessment, five variables were significantly associated with a composite Psychopathology Index (PI) at follow-up: a lower IQ, living in a non-two-parent or reconstituted family, a composite behavior problem index, and poor peer relations. At follow-up, degree of concurrent homoeroticism and a composite index of gender dysphoria were both associated with the composite PI. Girls with GID show a psychiatric vulnerability at the time of follow-up in late adolescence or adulthood, although there was considerable variation in their general well-being.

  6. Automated telecommunication to obtain longitudinal follow-up in a multicenter cross-sectional COPD study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jeffrey I; Moyle, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J; Wilson, Carla; Tanner, Ron; Bowler, Russell P; Crapo, James D; Zeldin, Robert K; Make, Barry J; Regan, Elizabeth A; For The Copdgene Investigators

    2012-08-01

    It can be challenging to maintain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in clinical studies. COPDGene is a multicenter, observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD and to characterize COPD-related phenotypes. To obtain follow-up data on patient's vital status and outcomes, the COPDGene Longitudinal Follow-up (LFU) Program was developed to supplement its parent study. We used a telecommunication system that employed automated telephone contact or web-based questions to obtain longitudinal follow-up data in our subjects. A branching questionnaire asked about exacerbations, new therapies, smoking status, development of co-morbid conditions, and general health status. Study coordinators contacted subjects who did not respond to one of the automated methods. We enrolled 10,383 subjects in the COPDGene study. As of August 29, 2011, 7,959 subjects completed 19,955 surveys. On the first survey, 68.8% of subjects who completed their survey did so by electronic means, while 31.3% required coordinator phone follow-up. On each subsequent survey the number of subjects who completed their survey by electronic means increased, while the number of subjects who required coordinator follow-up decreased. Despite many of the patients in the cohort being chronically ill and elderly, there was broad acceptance of the system with over half the cohort using electronic response methods. The COPDGene LFU Study demonstrated that telecommunications was an effective way to obtain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in a large multicenter study. Web-based and automated phone contacts are accepted by research subjects and could serve as a model for LFU in future studies.

  7. Automated Telecommunication to Obtain Longitudinal Follow-up in a Multicenter Cross-sectional COPD Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jeffrey I.; Moyle, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J.; Wilson, Carla; Tanner, Ron; Bowler, Russell P.; Crapo, James D.; Zeldin, Robert K.; Make, Barry J.; Regan, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background It can be challenging to maintain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in clinical studies. COPDGene is a multicenter, observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD and to characterize COPD-related phenotypes. To obtain follow-up data on patient's vital status and outcomes, the COPDGene Longitudinal Follow-up (LFU) Program was developed to supplement its parent study. Methods/Results We used a telecommunication system that employed automated telephone contact or web-based questions to obtain longitudinal follow-up data in our subjects. A branching questionnaire asked about exacerbations, new therapies, smoking status, development of co-morbid conditions, and general health status. Study coordinators contacted subjects who did not respond to one of the automated methods. We enrolled 10,383 subjects in the COPDGene study. As of August 29, 2011, 7,959 subjects completed 19,955 surveys. On the first survey, 68.8% of subjects who completed their survey did so by electronic means, while 31.3% required coordinator phone follow-up. On each subsequent survey the number of subjects who completed their survey by electronic means increased, while the number of subjects who required coordinator follow-up decreased. Despite many of the patients in the cohort being chronically ill and elderly, there was broad acceptance of the system with over half the cohort using electronic response methods. Conclusions The COPDGene LFU Study demonstrated that telecommunications was an effective way to obtain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in a large multicenter study. Web-based and automated phone contacts are accepted by research subjects and could serve as a model for LFU in future studies. PMID:22676387

  8. Medication overuse headache: a critical review of end points in recent follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Knut; Jensen, Rigmor; Bøe, Magne Geir; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2010-10-01

    No guidelines for performing and presenting the results of studies on patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) exist. The aim of this study was to review long-term outcome measures in follow-up studies published in 2006 or later. We included MOH studies with >6 months duration presenting a minimum of one predefined end point. In total, nine studies were identified. The 1,589 MOH patients (22% men) had an overall mean frequency of 25.3 headache days/month at baseline. Headache days/month at the end of follow-up was reported in six studies (mean 13.8 days/month). The decrease was more pronounced for studies including patients with migraine only (-14.6 days/month) compared to studies with the original diagnoses of migraine and tension-type headache (-9.2 days/month). Six studies reported relapse rate (mean of 26%) and/or responder rate (mean of 28%). Medication days/month and change in headache index at the end of follow-up were reported in only one and two of nine studies, respectively. The present review demonstrated a lack of uniform end points used in recently published follow-up studies. Guidelines for presenting follow-up data on MOH are needed and we propose end points such as headache days/month, medication days/month, relapse rate and responder rate defined as ≥50% reduction of headache frequency and/or headache index from baseline.

  9. A Seven-Year Longitudinal Study of the Research Outcomes for the CASPER Physics Circus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Land-Zandstra, Anna; Stark, Gary; Tarman, Lisa; Menefee, Matt; Wang, Li; Cook, Mike; Schmoke, Jimmy; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2014-10-01

    The CASPER Physics Circus was specifically designed to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers where the current generation of scientists and engineers is rapidly approaching retirement age. The Physics Circus followed Waco and LaVega ISD students starting in the sixth grade and ending in the twelfth grade with this cohort group attending the Physics Circus event on the Baylor University campus, interacting with CASPER graduate students and participating in hands-on instructional activities. The event was designed as an informal learning environment intervention and operated under the discovery, project and guided-inquiry base framework wrapped in a learner-center ideology. Participating students were allowed to experiment with hands-on manipulatives while interacting with physicists, science educators and graduate students in both STEM and science education fields. Professional Development was also a part of the Physics Circus for all science teachers within the cohort. This paper presents the results of a seven-year longitudinal study on the Physics Circus and presents future plans to expand the program's effectiveness and impact.

  10. Attitude and CAS Use in Senior Secondary Mathematics: A Case Study of Seven Year 11 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Scott; Ball, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible influence of attitude on seven Year 11 students' use of a Computer Algebra System (CAS) during a class activity where students could choose to use CAS or pen-and-paper in solving a range of problems. Investigation of anxiety, confidence, liking and usefulness through a survey and interview revealed that these…

  11. Attitude and CAS Use in Senior Secondary Mathematics: A Case Study of Seven Year 11 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Scott; Ball, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible influence of attitude on seven Year 11 students' use of a Computer Algebra System (CAS) during a class activity where students could choose to use CAS or pen-and-paper in solving a range of problems. Investigation of anxiety, confidence, liking and usefulness through a survey and interview revealed that these…

  12. Health locus of control in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery - changes and associated outcomes: a seven-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Andrew; Tolmie, Elizabeth; Lindsay, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Health locus of control is a measure of an individual's beliefs in factors that are thought to determine health experiences. Scores are generated and form a graduated linear scale from external to internal control, with respect to their views on health causality. Health locus of control has been considered to be a relatively stable entity. However, it is not clear if this status changes in the advent of serious health challenges, such as coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The aim of this study is to explore the variability of health locus of control and its association with postoperative health in this context. In a longitudinal cohort study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, a purposive sample ( n=215) were recruited from the waiting list and followed up postoperatively, at approximately one year and seven years later. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery demonstrated marked fluctuations in health locus of control in their peri-operative and rehabilitative phases. Mean health locus of control became more external (often associated with poorer outcomes) peri-operatively, and more internal (generally associated with better health outcomes) in the rehabilitative period. Health locus of control scores were shown to be changeable during a major health care intervention, with possible consequences for patient outcomes and care needs. The significant health belief upheaval demonstrated in this cohort should be considered in assessing patients preoperatively, and managed as part of the patients' clinical journey by both acute and rehabilitation staff. It is likely to have particular importance in individualised assessment and management of future prevention advice for patients.

  13. What patients think about ICU follow-up services: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Prinjha, Suman; Field, Kate; Rowan, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Introduction UK policy recommendations advocate the use of intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up services to help detect and treat patients' physical and emotional problems after hospital discharge and as a means of service evaluation. This study explores patients' perceptions and experiences of these services. Methods Thirty-four former ICU patients were recruited throughout the UK, using maximum variation sampling to achieve as broad a range of experiences of the ICU as possible. Participants were interviewed at home by a qualitative researcher unconnected to their hospital care. Interviews were recorded and transcribed for analysis. We report a qualitative thematic analysis of patients' experiences of ICU follow up. Results Former patients said they valued ICU follow-up services, which had made an important contribution to their physical, emotional and psychological recovery in terms of continuity of care, receiving information, gaining expert reassurance and giving feedback to ICU staff. Continuity of care included having tests and being monitored, referrals to other specialists and ICU follow-up appointments soon after hospital discharge. Information about physical, emotional and psychological recovery was particularly important to patients, as was information that helped them make sense of their ICU experience. Those without access to ICU follow-up care often felt abandoned or disappointed because they had no opportunity to be monitored, referred or get more information. Conclusions Former patients value having ICU follow-up services but many found that their healthcare needs were unmet because hospitals were unable to provide the aftercare they required. Most participants were aware of the financial constraints on the health system. Although they valued ICU follow-up care, they did not want it to continue indefinitely, with many of them declining appointment invitations when they themselves felt they no longer needed them. PMID:19338653

  14. What patients think about ICU follow-up services: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Prinjha, Suman; Field, Kate; Rowan, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    UK policy recommendations advocate the use of intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up services to help detect and treat patients' physical and emotional problems after hospital discharge and as a means of service evaluation. This study explores patients' perceptions and experiences of these services. Thirty-four former ICU patients were recruited throughout the UK, using maximum variation sampling to achieve as broad a range of experiences of the ICU as possible. Participants were interviewed at home by a qualitative researcher unconnected to their hospital care. Interviews were recorded and transcribed for analysis. We report a qualitative thematic analysis of patients' experiences of ICU follow up. Former patients said they valued ICU follow-up services, which had made an important contribution to their physical, emotional and psychological recovery in terms of continuity of care, receiving information, gaining expert reassurance and giving feedback to ICU staff. Continuity of care included having tests and being monitored, referrals to other specialists and ICU follow-up appointments soon after hospital discharge. Information about physical, emotional and psychological recovery was particularly important to patients, as was information that helped them make sense of their ICU experience. Those without access to ICU follow-up care often felt abandoned or disappointed because they had no opportunity to be monitored, referred or get more information. Former patients value having ICU follow-up services but many found that their healthcare needs were unmet because hospitals were unable to provide the aftercare they required. Most participants were aware of the financial constraints on the health system. Although they valued ICU follow-up care, they did not want it to continue indefinitely, with many of them declining appointment invitations when they themselves felt they no longer needed them.

  15. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, T. Hatch; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (n=156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the two-year period of follow up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape had higher levels of anxiety and hostility, but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes. PMID:20636683

  16. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a follow-up study of psychosocial adjustment and community reintegration.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T; Whitfield, Theodore H; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape not only had higher levels of anxiety and hostility but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow-up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow-up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes.

  17. Timing of discharge follow-up for acute pulmonary embolism: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vinson, David R; Ballard, Dustin W; Huang, Jie; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Reed, Mary E; Mark, Dustin G

    2015-01-01

    Historically, emergency department (ED) patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) have been admitted for several days of inpatient care. Growing evidence suggests that selected ED patients with PE can be safely discharged home after a short length of stay. However, the optimal timing of follow up is unknown. We hypothesized that higher-risk patients with short length of stay (<24 hours from ED registration) would more commonly receive expedited follow up (≤3 days). This retrospective cohort study included adults treated for acute PE in six community EDs. We ascertained the PE Severity Index risk class (for 30-day mortality), facility length of stay, the first follow-up clinician encounter, unscheduled return ED visits ≤3 days, 5-day PE-related readmissions, and 30-day all-cause mortality. Stratifying by risk class, we used multivariable analysis to examine age- and sex-adjusted associations between length of stay and expedited follow up. The mean age of our 175 patients was 63.2 (±16.8) years. Overall, 93.1% (n=163) of our cohort received follow up within one week of discharge. Fifty-six patients (32.0%) were sent home within 24 hours and 100 (57.1%) received expedited follow up, often by telephone (67/100). The short and longer length-of-stay groups were comparable in age and sex, but differed in rates of low-risk status (63% vs 37%; p<0.01) and expedited follow up (70% vs 51%; p=0.03). After adjustment, we found that short length of stay was independently associated with expedited follow up in higher-risk patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5; 95% CI [1.0-11.8]; p=0.04), but not in low-risk patients (aOR 2.2; 95% CI [0.8-5.7]; p=0.11). Adverse outcomes were uncommon (<2%) and were not significantly different between the two length-of-stay groups. Higher-risk patients with acute PE and short length of stay more commonly received expedited follow up in our community setting than other groups of patients. These practice patterns are associated with low rates of

  18. Adolescents' Declining Motivation to Learn Science: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder-Weiss, Dana; Fortus, David

    2012-01-01

    This is a mix methods follow-up study in which we reconfirm the findings from an earlier study [Vedder-Weiss & Fortus [2011] "Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(2)", 199-216]. The findings indicate that adolescents' declining motivation to learn science, which was found in many previous studies [Galton [2009] "Moving to…

  19. Nursing Education Follow-Up Study--1982 R.N.'s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David C.

    In 1982, a follow-up study of nursing graduates of the Bakersfield College Registered Nursing (RN) program was conducted to obtain information that would lead to improvement in program quality and to a better match between supply and demand in the local nursing labor market. In addition, the study compared results with similar studies conducted…

  20. Nursing Education Follow-Up Study--1982 R.N.'s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David C.

    In 1982, a follow-up study of nursing graduates of the Bakersfield College Registered Nursing (RN) program was conducted to obtain information that would lead to improvement in program quality and to a better match between supply and demand in the local nursing labor market. In addition, the study compared results with similar studies conducted…

  1. Diagnosis delay and follow-up strategies in colorectal cancer. Prognosis implications: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Controversy exists with regard to the impact that the different components of diagnosis delay may have on the degree of invasion and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. The follow-up strategies after treatment also vary considerably. The aims of this study are: a) to determine if the symptoms-to-diagnosis interval and the treatment delay modify the survival of patients with colorectal cancer, and b) to determine if different follow-up strategies are associated with a higher survival rate. Methods/Design Multi-centre study with prospective follow-up in five regions in Spain (Galicia, Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Aragón and Valencia) during the period 2010-2012. Incident cases are included with anatomopathological confirmation of colorectal cancer (International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes 153-154) that formed a part of a previous study (n = 953). At the time of diagnosis, each patient was given a structured interview. Their clinical records will be reviewed during the follow-up period in order to obtain information on the explorations and tests carried out after treatment, and the progress of these patients. Symptoms-to-diagnosis interval is defined as the time calculated from the diagnosis of cancer and the first symptoms attributed to cancer. Treatment delay is defined as the time elapsed between diagnosis and treatment. In non-metastatic patients treated with curative intention, information will be obtained during the follow-up period on consultations performed in the digestive, surgery and oncology departments, as well as the endoscopies, tumour markers and imaging procedures carried out. Local recurrence, development of metastases in the follow-up, appearance of a new tumour and mortality will be included as outcome variables. Actuarial survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression and competitive risk survival analysis will be performed. Discussion This study will make it possible to verify if the different

  2. A four-year follow-up study in fibromyalgia. Relationship to chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Prescott, E; Jacobsen, S; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to examine to what extent fibromyalgia patients later on developed presumpted causative somatic diseases and to examine symptoms and muscle strength some years after the diagnosis of fibromyalgia was established. A secondary objective was to describe the overlap between fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Only in two of 91 the muscle pain was found to be caused by another somatic disease during the median 4 year follow-up period. In one of the 83 attending subjects a somatic disease associated with muscle symptoms was established at the follow-up visit. 60 out of 83 reported increased pain, 8 reported improvement of pain. The 83 subjects showed no significant fall in muscle strength during the follow-up period. The majority reported severe fatigue but only one fifth fulfilled the proposed chronic fatigue syndrome criteria.

  3. Follow-Up Genotoxic Study: Chromosome Damage Two and Six Years after Exposure to the Prestige Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Hildur, Kristin; Templado, Cristina; Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Frances, Alexandra; Monyarch, Gemma; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Emma; Souto, Ana; Gómez, Federico P.; Antó, Josep M.; Barberà, Joan Albert; Fuster, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Background The north-west coast of Spain was heavily contaminated by the Prestige oil spill, in 2002. Individuals who participated in the clean-up tasks showed increased chromosome damage two years after exposure. Long-term clinical implications of chromosome damage are still unknown. Objective To realize a follow-up genotoxic study to detect whether the chromosome damage persisted six years after exposure to the oil. Design Follow-up study. Setting Fishermen cooperatives in coastal villages. Participants Local fishermen who were highly exposed (n = 52) and non-exposed (n = 23) to oil seven years after the spill. Measurements Chromosome damage in circulating lymphocytes. Results Chromosome damage in exposed individuals persists six years after oil exposure, with a similar incidence than those previously detected four years before. A surprising increase in chromosome damage in non-exposed individual was found six years after Prestige spill vs. those detected two years after the exposure. Limitations The sample size and the possibility of some kind of selection bias should be considered. Genotoxic results cannot be extrapolated to the approximately 300,000 individuals who participated occasionally in clean-up tasks. Conclusion The persistence of chromosome damage detected in exposed individuals six years after oil exposure seems to indicate that the cells of the bone marrow are affected. A surprising increase in chromosome damage in non-exposed individuals detected in the follow-up study suggests an indirect exposition of these individuals to some oil compounds or to other toxic agents during the last four years. More long-term studies are needed to confirm the presence of chromosome damage in exposed and non-exposed fishermen due to the association between increased chromosomal damage and increased risk of cancer. Understanding and detecting chromosome damage is important for detecting cancer in its early stages. The present work is the first follow-up cytogenetic

  4. Consistent detection of mid-sagittal planes for follow-up MR brain studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Li

    2008-03-01

    The mid-sagittal plane (MSP) is a commonly used anatomic landmark for standardized MR brain acquisition. In addition to the requirement of accurate detection of the MSP geometry, it is also imperative from clinical point of view to consistently prescribe scan planning for evaluation of pathology process in follow-up studies. In this work, an adaptive technique of scan planning has been developed to enforce the consistency among scans acquired at different time points from the same patient by maximizing image similarity in the proximity of MSP. The geometry parameters of the MSP of current study are optimized by simplex algorithm to achieve better similarity to the reference study. Meanwhile different similarity measures are studied and evaluated within the region of the interest of each MSP. The method is successfully tested on self-reference consistency study by manually setting the reference sagittal image. It is also tested with clinical follow-up studies of MR images acquired from 30 patients. By visual inspection, the adaptive consistency method improves the similarity to the reference images in 22 follow-up studies evidently, while the similarity to the reference images in 7 studies improves slightly. This result demonstrates the efficacy of our method on consistent detection of mid-sagittal planes for follow-up MR brain study.

  5. Follow-up study using iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in a patient with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikekubo, K.; Habuchi, Y.; Jeong, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Saiki, Y.; Ito, H.; Hino, M.; Higa, T.

    1986-11-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) was used to determine the location and to follow-up tumors in a 13-month-old girl with neuroblastoma. I-131 MIBG imaging revealed both a primary abdominal tumor and a distant metastatic orbital tumor. Follow-up study with I-131 MIBG imaging demonstrated significant resolution of tumors after external radiotherapy and chemotherapy. I-131 MIBG imaging is a simple, safe, and specific method of determining the location of tumors and also is clinically useful in the evaluation and management of patients with neuroblastoma.

  6. [Peculiarities of social adaptation in adolescents with schizoid personality disorder: a follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Borisova, D Iu

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 63 adolescents with schizoid personality disorder, aged 15-17 years, 58 males and 5 females, was followed up for a period of 3-8 years and re-examined at the age of 20-25. The patients were examined in a psychoneurologic out-patient center due to social maladaptation. The follow-up study revealed the improvement of social adaptation with an extremely low percent (5%) of schizophrenia manifestations. A number of clinical factors significant for the future social functioning of schizoid adolescents was found. A strategy of psychocorrection and sociotherapeutic care for the patients is worked out.

  7. A follow up study of vascular disorders in vibration-exposed forestry workers.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, Massimo

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and the cold response of digital arteries in a group of forestry workers, most of whom had used anti-vibration (AV) chain saws solely. One hundred and twenty-eight forestry workers underwent initially a medical examination and a standardized cold test with measurement of the change in finger systolic blood pressure after finger cooling from 30 to 10 degrees C (FSBP%(10 degrees )). They were re-examined two or three times over the calendar period 1990-1999. Seventy-one forestry workers were active over the entire follow up period, while 57 retired after 1-8 years from the initial investigation. The initial prevalence and the cumulative incidence of VWF over the follow up period were 26.6 and 11.7%, respectively. In the retired workers, the new cases of VWF occurred before their retirement, that is when they were still active. There were no significant changes in FSBP%(10 degrees ) in the active forestry workers over the follow up period. A significant increased in FSBP%(10 degrees ) (i.e. improvement) was observed in the retired workers at the end of the follow up. FSBP%(10 degrees ) at the cross-sectional investigation was significantly lower in the forestry workers who developed VWF during the follow up than in those who never experienced finger blanching over the study period. The findings of this follow up study suggest that forestry workers with work experience limited to AV chain saws are still at risk of developing VWF. Cessation of vibration exposure in the retired workers was associated with a beneficial effect on the cold response of digital arteries. Cold-induced digital arterial hyperresponsiveness at the initial investigation was a predictive factor for the onset of VWF over time.

  8. A Qualitative Follow-Up Study of a Training Program in Curriculum-Based Vocational Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safarik, Lynn

    A qualitative follow-up study was conducted to determine the impacts of a program to train teachers in the use of curriculum-based vocational assessment (CBVA) for students with handicaps. The study examined the extent to which CBVA training content was used in the organization and delivery of assessment services to students with handicaps at the…

  9. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  10. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  11. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  12. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri

    2010-01-01

    This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

  13. Pre-Placement Anxiety among Foundation-Year MSW Students: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal Gelman, Caroline; Lloyd, Chrishana M.

    2008-01-01

    This Field Note presents a follow-up to a pilot study that explored pre-field placement anxiety for 1st-year MSW students. Previous studies report that students experience significant anxiety as they anticipate their field placement, and research indicates that anxiety has the potential to affect learning. A sample of 204 students reported…

  14. Personnel Needs in School Psychology: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study on Predicted Personnel Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published…

  15. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  16. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  17. A Follow-up Study of Returning Students--A Concentration on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotsky, Frances; Ohm, Susan

    The office of Services for Returning Students (SRS) at the University of Texas (U.T.) at Austin conducted a follow-up study of men and women students who had visited the office from February 1969 to the end of 1971. The study ascertained the average interval between periods of formal education, the fulfillment of educational goals, and the use of…

  18. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri

    2010-01-01

    This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

  19. Perceived Levels of Cultural Competence for School Social Workers: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell L.; Archuleta, Adrian; Miller, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on findings from a follow-up study that examined the relationship among social work education programs, postgraduate professional development, and school social workers' perceived levels of cultural competence in practice with urban minority youth. The initial study demonstrated that African Americans…

  20. Dr. Leary's Concord Prison Experiment: a 34-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Doblin, R

    1998-01-01

    This study is a long-term follow-up to the Concord Prison Experiment, one of the best-known studies in the psychedelic psychotherapy literature. The Concord Prison Experiment was conducted from 1961 to 1963 by a team of researchers at Harvard University under the direction of Timothy Leary. The original study involved the administration of psilocybin-assisted group psychotherapy to 32 prisoners in an effort to reduce recidivism rates. This follow-up study involved a search through the state and federal criminal justice system records of 21 of the original 32 subjects, as well as personal interviews with two of the subjects and three of the researchers: Timothy Leary, Ralph Metzner and Gunther Weil. The results of the follow-up study indicate that published claims of a treatment effect were erroneous. This follow-up study supports the emphasis in the original reports on the necessity of embedding psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy with inmates within a comprehensive treatment plan that includes post-release, nondrug group support programs. Despite substantial efforts by the experimental team to provide post-release support, these services were not made sufficiently available to the subjects in this study. Whether a new program of psilocybin-assisted group psychotherapy and post-release programs would significantly reduce recidivism rates is an empirical question that deserves to be addressed within the context of a new experiment.

  1. A five-year follow-up study of Swedish adults with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Annika; Sundbom, Elisabet; Höjerback, Torvald; Bodlund, Owe

    2010-12-01

    This follow-up study evaluated the outcome of sex reassignment as viewed by both clinicians and patients, with an additional focus on the outcome based on sex and subgroups. Of a total of 60 patients approved for sex reassignment, 42 (25 male-to-female [MF] and 17 female-to-male [FM]) transsexuals completed a follow-up assessment after 5 or more years in the process or 2 or more years after completed sex reassignment surgery. Twenty-six (62%) patients had an early onset and 16 (38%) patients had a late onset; 29 (69%) patients had a homosexual sexual orientation and 13 (31%) patients had a non-homosexual sexual orientation (relative to biological sex). At index and follow-up, a semi-structured interview was conducted. At follow-up, 32 patients had completed sex reassignment surgery, five were still in process, and five-following their own decision-had abstained from genital surgery. No one regretted their reassignment. The clinicians rated the global outcome as favorable in 62% of the cases, compared to 95% according to the patients themselves, with no differences between the subgroups. Based on the follow-up interview, more than 90% were stable or improved as regards work situation, partner relations, and sex life, but 5-15% were dissatisfied with the hormonal treatment, results of surgery, total sex reassignment procedure, or their present general health. Most outcome measures were rated positive and substantially equal for MF and FM. Late-onset transsexuals differed from those with early onset in some respects: these were mainly MF (88 vs. 42%), older when applying for sex reassignment (42 vs. 28 years), and non-homosexually oriented (56 vs. 15%). In conclusion, almost all patients were satisfied with the sex reassignment; 86% were assessed by clinicians at follow-up as stable or improved in global functioning.

  2. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Hans; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. A total of 299 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed for depressive symptoms with PANSS depression item (g6) at baseline, and 1, 2, 5 and 10 years of follow up. At 10 years, depressive symptoms were also assessed with Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). A PANSS g6 ≥ 4 and CDSS score ≥ 6 were used as a cut-off score for depression. A total of 122 (41%) patients were scored as depressed at baseline, 75 (28%) at 1 year, 50 (20%) at 2 years, 33 (16%) at 5 years, and 35 (19%) at 10 years of follow up. Poor childhood social functioning and alcohol use at baseline predicted depression at 10 years of follow up. Thirty-eight patients were depressed at both baseline and 1 year follow up. This group had poorer symptomatic and functional outcome in the follow-up period compared to a group of patients with no depression in the first year of treatment. Depressive symptoms are frequent among FEP patients at baseline but decrease after treatment because their general symptoms have been initiated. Patients with poor social functioning in childhood and alcohol use at baseline are more prone to have depressive symptoms at 10 years of follow up. Patients struggling with depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment should be identified as having poorer long-term prognosis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. A follow-up study of heroin addicts (VEdeTTE2): study design and protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D; Mathis, Federica; Diecidue, Roberto; Burroni, Paola; Iannaccone, Antonio; Lampis, Fabio; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pacifici, Roberta; Versino, Elisabetta; Davoli, Marina; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    Background In Italy, a large cohort study (VEdeTTE1) was conducted between 1998–2001 to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments in reducing mortality and increasing treatment retention among heroin addicts. The follow-up of this cohort (VEdeTTE2) was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments on long-term outcomes, such as rehabilitation and social re-integration. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of the VEdeTTE2 study, and to present the results of the pilot study carried out to assess the feasibility of the study and to improve study procedures. Methods The source population for the VEdeTTE2 study was the VEdeTTE1 cohort, from which a sample of 2,200 patients, traced two or more years after enrolment in the cohort, were asked to participate. An interview investigates drug use; overdose; family and social re-integration. Illegal activity are investigated separately in a questionnaire completed by the patient. Patients are also asked to provide a hair sample to test for heroin and cocaine use. Information on treatments and HIV, HBV and HCV morbidity are obtained from clinical records. A pilot phase was planned and carried out on 60 patients. Results The results of the pilot phase pointed out the validity of the procedures designed to limit attrition: the number of traced subjects was satisfactory (88%). Moreover, the pilot phase was very useful in identifying possible causes of delays and attrition, and flaws in the instruments. Improvements to the procedures and the instruments were subsequently implemented. Sensitivity of the biological test was quite good for heroin (78%) but lower for cocaine (42.3%), highlighting the need to obtain a hair sample from all patients. Conclusion In drug addiction research, studies investigating health status and social re-integration of subjects at long-term follow-up are lacking. The VEdeTTE2 study aims to investigate these outcomes at long-term follow-up. Results of the pilot phase underline the

  4. Follow-Up Study of 1990 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XX, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1990 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper (WRHC) College in Palatine, Illinois. A survey was mailed to all 30…

  5. Follow-Up Study of 1989 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XIX, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1989 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper College (WRHC). A survey was mailed to all 29 associate degree…

  6. Follow-Up Study of 1988 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XVII, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Flaherty, Toni

    In 1989, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1988 graduates of William Rainey Harper College's (WRHC's) Dental Hygiene program in order to measure the quality of the program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards. A survey was mailed to all 27 associate degree graduates, requesting…

  7. Follow-Up Study of 1991 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXI, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1991 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois. Surveys were mailed to all 28…

  8. Follow-Up Study of 1992 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXII, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1992 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois. Surveys were mailed to all 29…

  9. Follow-Up Study of 1987 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XVII, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Flaherty, Toni

    In 1988, a follow-up study was performed of the 1987 graduates of the Dental Hygiene program of William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, in order to determine the quality of the program and the need for changes, and to substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards. A survey was mailed to all of the 1987 dental hygiene…

  10. Follow-Up Study of 1993 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXII, Number 17, June 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of its dental hygiene program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Palatine, Illinois, conducted a follow-up study of its dental hygiene students. The survey instrument was mailed to all 31 1993 dental hygiene associate degree graduates, and a response rate of 97% (n=30) was attained. Results of the…

  11. A Follow-Up Study of Veterans Two Years After Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nace, Edgar P.; And Others

    This follow-up study of 202 Vietnam veterans from the Philadelphia Metropolitan area focuses on: (1) the current level of alcohol use; (2) depressive symptomatology as measured by a standardized and validated instrument; and (3) the relationship between preservice variables and addiction status in Vietnam to postservice adjustment. Data pertaining…

  12. Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Disadvantaged Children: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia P.

    In a follow-up study of curiosity and exploratory behavior, subjects were 18 disadvantaged inner-city black children who had been observed at age four in their first year of a Head Start program, and who were now finishing first grade. Data were obtained from teachers, observations in the classrooms, and an individual session with each child. Each…

  13. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  14. Self-Assessment for Career Change: Does It Really Work? A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiant, Allen A.; Hutchinson, Ronald C.

    To examine the impact of evaluating one's transferable skills on subsequent employment experiences, a follow-up study compared past participants in Columbia University's Deep Investigation of Growth (DIG) program with a group of non-participants and a pre-program group. The program guides participants through a self-analysis process to identify…

  15. Follow-Up Study of Dietetic Technician Graduates 1980-1982. Volume 12, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Henriette D.; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to evaluate and obtain externally required information about the dietetic technician program. Surveys were mailed to all 47 of the students who graduated from the program between 1980 and 1982 to obtain information on their employment status, job title, length of service,…

  16. Exploring "Successful" Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Kapasi, Isla; Whittam, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-2006 entrepreneurship students in several UK universities completed a survey about their background and career intentions. This paper reports, eight years on, on a follow-up study with ten of these participants, with the aim of exploring the students' intentions and subsequent actions since graduating. Using a qualitative methodology,…

  17. A Follow-Up Study of the Oregon Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Janet; And Others

    In 1973 the Children's Services Division (Oregon State) initiated a project to reduce the backlog of children in indeterminate status by developing more Permanent alternative placements. This follow-up study evaluates the placements of foster children who returned to their parents, were adopted, or remained in foster care. A literature review…

  18. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  19. Follow-Up Study of the Fall 1984 Sierra College Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Donald A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at Sierra College (California) to determine why students who dropped out of all of their classes during fall 1984 left the college. The dropout population included 1,549 students, of whom only 374 (27%) returned to college in spring 1985. A survey instrument was sent to all withdrawing students, requesting…

  20. Long-Term Follow-up Study of Children Developmentally Retarded by Early Environmental Deprivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujinaga, Tamotsu; And Others

    This paper reports on a 14-year follow-up study of two developmentally retarded Japanese children, a brother and sister, who had been kept shut up in a small shack before being rescued (at ages 5 and 6 respectively). Following birth they consistently suffered malnutrition, maternal deprivation, social isolation from adults, language deprivation,…

  1. Follow-Up Study of Children Referred to Developmental Evaluation Services for Children (DESC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Judith A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.

    Developmental Evaluation Services for Children (DESC) provides in-depth medical and educational diagnostic services for children in Montgomery County, Maryland, who are under 6 years of age and who are suspected of having handicapping conditions in two or more areas of development. This follow-up study was designed to determine the progress of…

  2. Handbook of Instructions for Conducting Follow-Up Studies of High School Graduates. Book I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Evelyn T. Comp.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to enable high schools to conduct follow-up studies on their graduates for 5 years after graduation. The information gathered should give schools pertinent data about: (1) post high school activities of graduates; (2) reactions of graduates to counseling and guidance opportunities; (3) reactions of graduates to…

  3. A Follow-Up Study of the ABRACADABRA Web-Based Literacy Intervention in Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Stasio, Maria Rosaria; Savage, Robert; Abrami, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the follow-up of a randomised control trial study of the ABRACADABRA web-based literacy intervention that contrasted synthetic versus analytic phonics (Comaskey, Savage & Abrami, 2009) in kindergarten children from urban low-SES backgrounds. Participants who received a "synthetic" phonics+phoneme awareness training (n = 26) or…

  4. A Follow-Up Study of Girls with Gender Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Kelley D.; Bradley, Susan J.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60%…

  5. Five Year Follow-up Evaluation of a Faculty Development Program: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennill, Marcia Marie

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative follow-up evaluation explored the long-term impact of a faculty development program on participants who were five years post program. This study focused on 12 faculty members who participated in the University of Missouri's New Faculty Teaching Scholars program. The nine month program focused on creating a culture of teaching…

  6. JCCC Career Program Completers 1986-87: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In 1990, a follow-up study was conducted of 1986-87 Johnson County Community College (JCCC) career program completers to assess their career and educational experiences over an extended period of time. Data from 128 returned mail surveys and 166 completed telephone interviews represented responses from 86.2% of the 462 students who left JCCC with…

  7. JCCC Career Program Completers 1986-87: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In 1990, a follow-up study was conducted of 1986-87 Johnson County Community College (JCCC) career program completers to assess their career and educational experiences over an extended period of time. Data from 128 returned mail surveys and 166 completed telephone interviews represented responses from 86.2% of the 462 students who left JCCC with…

  8. A Follow-Up Study of the ABRACADABRA Web-Based Literacy Intervention in Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Stasio, Maria Rosaria; Savage, Robert; Abrami, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the follow-up of a randomised control trial study of the ABRACADABRA web-based literacy intervention that contrasted synthetic versus analytic phonics (Comaskey, Savage & Abrami, 2009) in kindergarten children from urban low-SES backgrounds. Participants who received a "synthetic" phonics+phoneme awareness training (n = 26) or…

  9. Family Literacy Lasts. The NFER Follow-up Study of the Basic Skills Agency's Demonstration Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Greg; Gorman, Tom; Harman, John; Hutchison, Dougal; Kinder, Kay; Moor, Helen; Wilkin, Anne

    The benefits of family literacy programs for children were examined in a 1997 follow-up study in which 154 parents and 237 children who had participated in a family literacy demonstration program in 1994-1995 were interviewed along with the teachers of a subsample of the children and the demonstration program coordinators. The demonstration…

  10. Colorado Even Start Follow-Up Study: Trinidad State Junior College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    Even Start family literacy programs are integrated adult education, early childhood education, and parent support components intended to break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and low literacy. In Spring of 2002, a follow-up study of one Even Start project was conducted to assess the long-term effects of Even Start programming for families.…

  11. Leadership Challenges Converting a Large High School to Small Schools: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehring, James H.; Lohmeier, Jill H.

    2010-01-01

    This follow-up study presents findings from 11 structured interviews that were conducted with principals engaged in a conversion from a large comprehensive high school to six small schools. Key findings are (a) the greatest barrier to improvement was entrenched instructional patterns and (b) goals of college readiness and social/emotional…

  12. Secondary Preventive Interventions with Preschool Children: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickel, Annette U.; Dyhdalo, Louise L.

    The long term effects of a preschool intervention program for an experimental group of high-risk, black, low income children were assessed and compared to a high-risk placebo control group and low-risk "normal" controls. Seventy first grade children were involved in this 2-year follow-up study. Of these children, 42 were involved in the…

  13. Reversible Autism among Congenitally Blind Children? A Controlled Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter; Lee, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Background: Atypical forms of autism may yield insights into the development and nature of the syndrome. Methods: We conducted a follow-up study of nine congenitally blind and seven sighted children who, eight years earlier, had satisfied formal diagnostic criteria for autism and had been included in groups matched for chronological age and verbal…

  14. A Follow-Up Study of Girls with Gender Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Kelley D.; Bradley, Susan J.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60%…

  15. Follow-Up Study of 1983 Legal Technology Graduates. Volume 12, No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Sharrie; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to determine the employment and educational status of graduates of the Legal Technology (LTE) program 6 months after receiving their degree. Attempts were made to contact all 59 1983 LTE graduates for telephone interviews and compare their responses to findings from previous…

  16. Follow-Up Study of 1986 Nursing Graduates. Volume XVI, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincher, J.; Flaherty, A.

    In spring 1987, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to examine employment patterns, further education plans, and graduates' evaluation of particular aspects of their WRHC experience. Questionnaires were mailed to 112 nursing students who graduated with an associate degree in 1986.…

  17. Follow-Up Study of 1990 Nursing Graduates. Volume XX, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, J.; Meltesen, C.

    In 1990, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. All 98 nursing students who earned 48 credit hours in 1990 were mailed questionnaires 1 year…

  18. Follow-Up Study of 1988 Nursing Graduates. Volume XVIII, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincher, J.; Meltesen, Cal

    In 1989, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. Questionnaires were mailed to 105 nursing students who graduated in 1988. Results were compared with previous surveys…

  19. Follow-up Study of Special Education Graduates: Class of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Joseph A., Jr.

    The Montgomery County Public Schools, (MCPS), Maryland, annually surveys its graduating classes to help determine whether MCPS adequately prepares its graduates. This is the first follow-up study of MCPS's 10 special education schools' graduates (class of 1983). It investigates: (1) postsecondary education and employment activities; (2) students'…

  20. Exploring "Successful" Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Kapasi, Isla; Whittam, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-2006 entrepreneurship students in several UK universities completed a survey about their background and career intentions. This paper reports, eight years on, on a follow-up study with ten of these participants, with the aim of exploring the students' intentions and subsequent actions since graduating. Using a qualitative methodology,…

  1. Reversible Autism among Congenitally Blind Children? A Controlled Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter; Lee, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Background: Atypical forms of autism may yield insights into the development and nature of the syndrome. Methods: We conducted a follow-up study of nine congenitally blind and seven sighted children who, eight years earlier, had satisfied formal diagnostic criteria for autism and had been included in groups matched for chronological age and verbal…

  2. Follow-Up Study of 1990 Nursing Graduates. Volume XX, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, J.; Meltesen, C.

    In 1990, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. All 98 nursing students who earned 48 credit hours in 1990 were mailed questionnaires 1 year…

  3. Evolution of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results of a multicenter study at 20 years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pesenti, S; Jouve, J-L; Morin, C; Wolff, S; Sales de Gauzy, J; Chalopin, A; Ibnoulkhatib, A; Polirsztok, E; Walter, A; Schuller, S; Abelin-Genevois, K; Leroux, J; Lechevallier, J; Kabaj, R; Mary, P; Fuentes, S; Parent, H; Garin, C; Bin, K; Peltier, E; Blondel, B; Chopin, D

    2015-09-01

    To date there is no consensus on therapeutic indications in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with curvature between 30° and 60° at the end of growth. The objective of this study was to assess outcome in patients with moderate AIS. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: Cobb angle, 30-60° at end of growth; and follow-up > 20 years. The data collected were angular values in adolescence and at last follow-up, and quality of life scores at follow-up. A total of 258 patients were enrolled: 100 operated on in adolescence, 116 never operated on, and 42 operated on in adulthood. Mean follow-up was 27.8 years. Cobb angle progression significantly differed between the 3 groups: 3.2° versus 8.8° versus 23.6°, respectively; P < 0.001. In lumbar scoliosis, the risk of progression to ≥ 20° was significantly higher for initial Cobb angle > 35° (OR=4.278, P=0.002). There were no significant differences in quality of life scores. Patients operated on in adolescence showed little radiological progression, demonstrating the efficacy of surgical treatment for curvature greater than 50°. Curvature greater than 40° was progressive and may require surgery in adulthood. Lumbar scoliosis showed greater potential progression than thoracic scoliosis in adulthood, requiring fusion as of 35° angulation. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise capacity, muscle strength, and fatigue in sarcoidosis: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Marcellis, Rik G J; Lenssen, Antoine F; Kleynen, Stephan; De Vries, Jolanda; Drent, Marjolein

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of exercise intolerance, reduced muscle strength, and fatigue and the changes in these parameters in individual patients during a 2-year follow-up study. Ninety sarcoidosis patients (62 males and 28 females; mean age: 46.0 ± 10.2 years) participated in a 2-year follow-up study. At the baseline and follow-up measurements, patients performed a 6-min walk test and elbow flexor muscle strength, quadriceps peak torque, and hamstrings peak torque tests. Maximal inspiratory pressure was recorded. All patients completed the Fatigue Assessment Scale. Both at baseline and follow-up, a substantial proportion of the patients showed a reduced 6-minute walk test (41.6 and 34.8 %, respectively), elbow flexor muscle strength (6.7 and 14.6 %), quadriceps peak torque (21.3 and 18 %), hamstrings peak torque (13.5 and 12.4 %), and maximal inspiratory pressure (45.9 and 48.6 %). The majority of the patients reported fatigue (86 and 77 %). These physical impairments remained stable during the follow-up period. The prevalence of these physical impairments in patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis <2 years before inclusion in this study was similar to that in patients with a longer history of the disease. Exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and fatigue are frequent problems in symptomatic sarcoidosis patients with a stable and persistent character. This study highlights that beyond medical treatment a rehabilitation program should be considered as adjunct therapy in the multidisciplinary management of sarcoidosis patients even though the achieved benefit needs future studies.

  5. Augmented Cross-Sectional Studies with Abbreviated Follow-up for Estimating HIV Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Claggett, B.; Lagakos, S.W.; Wang, R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010) propose an augmented cross-sectional design which provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population who remain negative permanently and subsequently incorporate this information in the cross-sectional incidence estimator. In an augmented cross-sectional study, subjects who test negative on the less-sensitive test in the cross-sectional survey are followed forward for transition into the nonrecent state, at which time they would test positive on the less-sensitive test. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate length of follow-up and the size of the infected population who remain nonreactive permanently to the less-sensitive test. In this paper, we assess the impact of varying follow-up time on the resulting incidence estimators from an augmented cross-sectional study, evaluate the robustness of cross-sectional estimators to assumptions about the existence and the size of the subpopulation who will remain negative permanently, and propose a new estimator based on abbreviated follow-up time (AF). Compared to the original estimator from an augmented cross-sectional study, the AF Estimator allows shorter follow-up time and does not require estimation of the mean window period, defined as the average time between detectability of HIV infection with the sensitive and less-sensitive tests. It is shown to perform well in a wide range of settings. We discuss when the AF Estimator would be expected to perform well and offer design considerations for an augmented cross-sectional study with abbreviated follow-up. PMID:21668904

  6. Methods used for successful follow-up in a large scale national cohort study in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ensuring successful follow-up is essential when conducting a prospective cohort study. Most existing literature reviewing methods to ensure a high response rate is based on experience in developed nations. Findings We report our 4-year follow-up success for a national cohort study examining the health transition underway in Thailand. We began the cohort study in 2005 with a baseline postal questionnaire sent to all 200,000 Thais enrolled as distance learning students at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University and residing all over Thailand; 87,134 or 44% of the students responded. Subsequently we used University and national media to inform cohort members of study progress. Also, we prepared a health book with study results and health advice which was distributed to all cohort members. After 4 years we repeated the survey and achieved a 71% response rate. In this paper we report the methods used to achieve this response The initial follow-up mail-out generated a response rate of about 48% reflecting the extensive preparatory work between baseline and follow-up. After 4 rounds of telephone contact (more than 100,000 phone calls) and 4 related mail-out rounds progressively over 16 months an overall response rate was achieved of just over 71% (n = 60,774). The total cost was US$4.06/respondent - 19% for printing, 21% for postage, 14% for tape measures (included in mail-out), 18% for data processing 22% for prizes and 6% for telephone. Conclusions Many of the methods reported as effective for mail questionnaire and cohort response rates held true for Thailand. These included being associated with a university, incentivating cooperation, follow-up contact, providing a second copy of questionnaire where necessary, and assurance of confidentiality. Telephone contact with the cohort and the small prizes given to responders were particularly important in the Thai context as was Thai leadership of the research team. PMID:21615963

  7. A longitudinal study on lung disease in dental technicians: what has changed after seven years?

    PubMed

    Dogan, Derya Özdemir; Berk, Serdar; Gumus, Cesur; Ozdemir, Ali Kemal; Akkurt, Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this 7-year follow-up study was to determine respiratory changes in dental technicians. In our region, in the year 2005, 36 dental technicians were evaluated with a cross-sectional study on respiratory occupational diseases, and in 2012 we evaluated them again. Inclusion of information on respiratory symptoms and demographic features questionnaires was applied. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed. Chest X-rays (CXR) were evaluated according to the ILO-2000 classification. For the comparisons of the technicians' findings in 2005 and 2012, data analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon test in addition to descriptive statistical procedures. In 2012, 19 out of the 36 technicians continued to work in the same place, so we were able to evaluate their findings. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in dental technician was as follows: dyspnea 7 (37%), cough 6 (32%), and phlegm 5 (26%). According to ILO classifications in 2005, among the 36 technicians, 5 (13.8%) had pneumoconiosis. At the end of 7 years, there were 9 pneumoconiosis cases among the 19 remaining technicians (47%). Thus, there was a statistically significant progression on the profusion of the radiologic findings (p < 0.005). Also there was a significant worsening on spirometric findings (p < 0.05). In dental technicians, a determination of both radiologic and functional progressions at the end of 7 years demonstrate that the primary and secondary preventive measures are necessary for these workplaces. Workplaces must be regularly controlled for worker health and hygiene.

  8. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  9. [Follow-up study of HIV-infected patients with prior cerebral toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Ermak, T N; Peregudova, A B

    2015-01-01

    To assess follow-up study results in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with prior cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT). Follow-up study results were assessed in HIV-infected patients with prior CT. The fate of only 97 out of 137 (66% of the hospitalized) patients discharged from hospital is known, as 40 convalescents have been lost to follow up. Thereafter, relapses developed in 19 patients, of whom 6 died. Eleven more patients with HIV infection died due to its progression and development of other secondary lesions. Five more patients died from narcotic overdose, staphylococcal sepsis, and acute pancreatic necrosis. The main peak of fatal outcomes was within the first 2 years after discharge. 3.5-year survival rates after TC were 75%. The causes of recurrent and progressive HIV infection were non-compliance with secondary prevention of CT and low adherence to an antiretroviral therapy regimen, the blame of which fell not only on the patients, but also their attending physicians and specialists who had advised how to enhance treatment motivation. Further follow-up of convalescent CT patients calls for closer attention to the possible development of recurrences within the first three years after discharge in particular, regardless of CD4 cell counts.

  10. Long-term follow-up study of radial forearm free flap reconstruction after hemiglossectomy.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Masaya; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Sakakibara, Akiko; Komori, Takahide; Terashi, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on postoperative long-term results in patients who underwent reconstructive free flap transfer following hemiglossectomy had some issues, including the heterogeneity of the patient population and the observation period. The present study aimed to evaluate changes of reconstructed tongues in patients who underwent radial forearm free flap (RFFF) after hemiglossectomy with long-term follow-up. We enrolled 23 patients who underwent RFFF after hemiglossectomy with a postoperative follow-up of 5 years or more. Postoperative status (eating, speech, sensation function) was assessed by concise medical inquiries. Morphological changes of flaps were evaluated by reviewing clinical photographs. Hemiglossectomy involving the base of the tongue was performed in 4 cases (17.4%) and was limited to the mobile tongue in 19 cases (82.6%). The mean follow-up was 85.4 months (range, 60-122 months). All patients experienced gradually improved postoperative status. The most significant improvement was found between 1 and 5 years after surgery (P = 0.007), but not between 1 and 3 years (P = 0.075) or between 3 and 5 years (P = 0.530). In almost all of the flaps, there were few morphological changes throughout the follow-up period. Postoperative status in patients who underwent reconstructive RFFF following hemiglossectomy improved sequentially.

  11. A follow-up study of women in the synthetic rubber industry: study methods.

    PubMed

    Sathiakumar, Nalini; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2007-03-20

    Concerns about the possible toxic effects of workplace exposures in the synthetic rubber industry have centered on 1,3-butadiene (BD), styrene and dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC). Our previous mortality studies of over 17,000 male synthetic rubber workers found an excess of leukemia that may be due to BD or BD plus other chemicals. Experimental studies have shown that BD produces mammary tumors in female mice and rats and ovarian tumors in female mice. This paper presents the methods of a follow-up study that evaluates the mortality experience of women employed in the North American synthetic rubber industry. Women employed for at least 1 day at any of eight North American styrene-butadiene rubber plants were followed up from 1943 to 2002. Identifying and work history information were obtained from personnel records. Estimated quantitative exposure to BD, styrene and DMDTC, developed for our previous study of men, were used in this study. External analyses use the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare the cohort's cause-specific mortality rates to the rates of the female general population of the states or the province where the plants are located. Internal analyses use the Poisson regression and Cox proportional hazards models to examine specific cancer mortality rates in relation to BD, styrene and DMDTC exposure, by comparing an exposed cohort subgroup with the rate of unexposed cohort members.

  12. Scabies increased the risk of chronic kidney disease: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chung, S-D; Wang, K-H; Huang, C-C; Lin, H-C

    2014-03-01

    The most documented complication of scabies has been reported to be infection by group A streptococci, which has in turn been suggested to contribute to the development of glomerulonephritis. This study aimed to investigate the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) subsequent to scabies utilizing a population-based dataset in Taiwan. This retrospective matched-cohort study included 5071 subjects with scabies and 25 355 randomly selected comparison subjects. We individually tracked each subject for a 5-year period to identify those who subsequently received a diagnosis of CKD during the follow-up period. Stratified Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of CKD during the 5-year follow-up period. The incidence rate of CKD during the 5-year follow-up period was 9.66 (8.51-10.93) per 1,000 person-years and 6.24 (5.82-6.69) per 1000 person-years for subjects with and without scabies respectively. The HR for CKD during the 5-year follow-up period for subjects with scabies was 1.34 (95% CI = 1.15-1.56) that of comparison subjects after adjusting for monthly income, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, stroke, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tobacco use disorder, hyperlipidemia and alcohol abuse during the 5-year follow-up period. Male subjects with scabies were 1.40 (95% CI = 1.14-1.71) times more likely than comparison subjects to suffer from subsequent CKD, and female study subjects were 1.27 (95% CI = 1.05-1.61) times more likely. We concluded that there was an increased risk for CKD among patients suffering from scabies. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Loss to follow-up in a randomized controlled trial study for pediatric weight management (EPOC).

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kröller, Katja

    2016-11-14

    Attrition is a serious problem in intervention studies. The current study analyzed the attrition rate during follow-up in a randomized controlled pediatric weight management program (EPOC study) within a tertiary care setting. Five hundred twenty-three parents and their 7-13-year-old children with obesity participated in the randomized controlled intervention trial. Follow-up data were assessed 6 and 12 months after the end of treatment. Attrition was defined as providing no objective weight data. Demographic and psychological baseline characteristics were used to predict attrition at 6- and 12-month follow-up using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Objective weight data were available for 49.6 (67.0) % of the children 6 (12) months after the end of treatment. Completers and non-completers at the 6- and 12-month follow-up differed in the amount of weight loss during their inpatient stay, their initial BMI-SDS, educational level of the parents, and child's quality of life and well-being. Additionally, completers supported their child more than non-completers, and at the 12-month follow-up, families with a more structured eating environment were less likely to drop out. On a multivariate level, only educational background and structure of the eating environment remained significant. The minor differences between the completers and the non-completers suggest that our retention strategies were successful. Further research should focus on prevention of attrition in families with a lower educational background. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN24655766 . Registered 06 September 2008, updated 16 May 2012.

  14. Metabolically healthy obesity and depressive symptoms: 16-year follow-up of the Gazel cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hinnouho, Guy-Marino; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gueguen, Alice; Matta, Joane; Lemogne, Cedric; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The health correlates of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype, particularly in relation to depressive symptoms remains unclear. Accordingly, we examined the risk of depressive symptoms in this phenotype using a 16-year follow-up prospective study. A sample of 14 475 participants (75% men), aged 44-59 years in 1996, was drawn from the Gazel cohort. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and metabolic health as having none of the self-reported following cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2012. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to estimate the risk of depressive symptoms during a follow-up of 16 years. In multivariate analyses, metabolically unhealthy normal weight [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.25-1.51], overweight [1.44 (1.31-1.59)] and obese [1.30 (1.10-1.54)] but not MHO participants [1.04 (0.81-1.32)] had higher risk of depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up compared to metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. Depressive symptoms decreased over time in metabolically healthy normal weight individuals [0.52 (0.50-0.55)], this decrease was less marked only in metabolically unhealthy obese participants [1.22 (1.07-1.40)]. Compared to MHO participants, metabolically unhealthy obese individuals were at increased risk of depression at the start of follow-up, but with a similar reduction of this risk over time. Poor metabolic health, irrespective of BMI was associated with greater depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up, whereas a poorer course of depressive symptoms over time was observed only in those with both obesity and poor metabolic health.

  15. Hand eczema—prognosis and consequences: a 7-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, A H; Johansen, J D; Hald, M

    2014-12-01

    Hand eczema is recognized as a long-lasting disease with personal and societal repercussions. Long-term studies are required to generate information on factors contributing to a poor outcome. The aims of this 7-year follow-up study were to evaluate the clinical course of patients with hand eczema, the occupational consequences and to identify risk factors associated with a poor prognosis. In all, 536 patients with hand eczema participated and were examined by a dermatologist. The clinical severity was assessed at baseline and 7 years later using a self-administrated photographic guide. Additional information was obtained from a questionnaire. Based on the photographic guide, 73% experienced a clinical improvement. Notably, 20% had moderate to very severe hand eczema at follow-up. Severe hand eczema or frequent eruptions at baseline and eczema in other body locations during the follow-up period were risk factors of a poor prognosis. The same factors, as well as being a woman, were associated with occupational consequences and low health-related quality of life. Of those with persistent hand eczema only 40% had visited a dermatologist during the follow-up period and 7% had oral treatment. The disease had improved 7 years later; nevertheless, many patients continued to have considerable symptoms. Patients with a greater risk of a poor outcome are characterized by frequent eruptions, severe hand eczema and more widespread eczema. It should be questioned if more aggressive therapy and closer medical follow-up would be beneficial. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Proliferative retinopathy predicts nephropathy: a 25-year follow-up study of type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Charlotte; Falk, Christine; Green, Anders; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Grauslund, Jakob

    2012-08-01

    We wanted to examine proliferative retinopathy as a marker of incident nephropathy in a 25-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Danish type 1 diabetic patients and to examine cross-sectional associations between nephropathy and retinopathy in long-term surviving patients of the same cohort. All type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark, were identified as of 1 July 1973. One hundred and eighty four patients were examined in 1981-1982 (baseline) and in 2007-2008 (follow-up). The level of retinopathy was graded by ophthalmoscopy at baseline and nine-field digital colour fundus photographs at follow-up. Single spot urine was used to evaluate nephropathy at both examinations. Proliferative retinopathy was present in 29 patients (15.8%) at baseline. At follow-up, these patients were more likely to macroalbuminuria (20.7% vs. 6.5%) than patients without proliferative retinopathy at baseline. In a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for baseline age, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking, HbA(1,) systolic and diastolic blood pressure, odds ratio of nephropathy (micro- and macroalbuminuria combined) was 2.98 (95% confidence interval 1.18-7.51, p = 0.02) for patients with proliferative retinopathy at baseline as compared to those without. At follow-up, there was a close relation between retinopathy and nephropathy. The level of macroalbuminuria was 4.3, 4.6 and 13.0% for patients with no or mild non-proliferative retinopathy, moderate non-proliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy, respectively. In conclusion, proliferative retinopathy is an independent marker of long-term nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. Upcoming studies should examine whether these microvascular complications are also causally linked in type 1 diabetes.

  17. Follow-up after acute poisoning by substances of abuse: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind; Brekke, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Objective To chart follow-up of patients after acute poisoning by substances of abuse, register whether patients referred to specialist health services attended, and whether patients contacted a general practitioner (GP) after the poisoning episode. Design Observational cohort study. Setting A primary care emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo, Norway. Subjects Patients ≥12 years treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse were included consecutively from October 2011 to September 2012. Main outcome measures Follow-up initiated at discharge, proportion of cases in which referred patients attended within three months, and proportion of cases in which the patient consulted a GP the first month following discharge. Results There were 2343 episodes of acute poisoning by substances of abuse. In 391 (17%) cases the patient was hospitalised, including 49 (2%) in psychiatric wards. In 235 (10%) cases the patient was referred to specialist health services, in 91 (4%) advised to see their GP, in 82 (3%) to contact social services, in 74 (3%) allotted place in a homeless shelter, and in 93 (4%) other follow-up was initiated. In 1096 (47%) cases, the patient was discharged without follow-up, and in a further 324 (14%), the patient self-discharged. When referred to specialist health services, in 200/235 (85%) cases the patient attended within three months. Among all discharges, in 527/1952 (27%) cases the patient consulted a GP within one month. When advised to see their GP, in 45/91 (49%) cases the patient did. Conclusion Attendance was high for follow-up initiated after acute poisoning by substances of abuse. Key Points Despite poor long-term prognosis, patients treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse are frequently not referred to follow-up.Nearly all patients referred to specialist health services attended, indicating the acute poisoning as an opportune moment for intervention.Advising patients to contact their GP was significantly associated with

  18. Prevalence of postherpetic neuralgia after a first episode of herpes zoster: prospective study with long term follow up

    PubMed Central

    Helgason, Sigurdur; Petursson, Gunnar; Gudmundsson, Sigurdur; Sigurdsson, Johann A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency, duration, and clinical importance of postherpetic neuralgia after a single episode of herpes zoster. Design Prospective cohort study with long term follow up. Setting Primary health care in Iceland. Participants 421 patients with a single episode of herpes zoster. Main outcome measures Age and sex distribution of patients with herpes zoster, point prevalence of postherpetic neuralgia, and severity of pain at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and up to 7.6 years after the outbreak of zoster. Results Among patients younger than 60 years, the risk of postherpetic neuralgia three months after the start of the zoster rash was 1.8% (95% confidence interval 0.59% to 4.18%) and pain was mild in all cases. In patients 60 years and older, the risk of postherpetic neuralgia increased but the pain was usually mild or moderate. After three months severe pain was recorded in two patients older than 60 years (1.7%, 2.14% to 6.15%). After 12 months no patient reported severe pain and 14 patients (3.3%) had mild or moderate pain. Seven of these became pain free within two to seven years, and five reported mild pain and one moderate pain after 7.6 years of follow up. Sex was not a predictor of postherpetic neuralgia. Possible immunomodulating comorbidity (such as malignancy, systemic steroid use, diabetes) was present in 17 patients. Conclusions The probability of longstanding pain of clinical importance after herpes zoster is low in an unselected population of primary care patients essentially untreated with antiviral drugs. PMID:11009518

  19. Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies - patterns and implications.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Ane; Verlato, Giuseppe; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Forsberg, Bertil; Franklin, Karl; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Janson, Christer; Jögi, Rain; Lindberg, Eva; Macsali, Ferenc; Omenaas, Ernst; Real, Francisco Gomez; Saure, Eirunn Waatevik; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Svanes, Cecilie; Torén, Kjell; Waatevik, Marie; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-04-16

    Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Logistic regression identified predictors for follow-up participation. Baseline prevalence of 9 respiratory symptoms (asthma attack, asthma medication, combined variable with asthma attack and/or asthma medication, wheeze, rhinitis, wheeze with dyspnea, wheeze without cold, waking with chest tightness, waking with dyspnea) and 9 exposure-outcome associations (predictors sex, age and smoking; outcomes wheeze, asthma and rhinitis) were compared between all baseline participants and long-term participants. Bias was measured as ratios of relative frequencies and ratios of odds ratios (ROR). Follow-up response rates after 10 years were 75% in RHINE, 64% in I-ECRHS and 53% in ISAYA. After 20 years of follow-up, response was 53% in RHINE and 49% in I-ECRHS. Female sex predicted long-term participation (in RHINE OR (95% CI) 1.30(1.22, 1.38); in I-ECRHS 1.29 (1.11, 1.50); and in ISAYA 1.42 (1.25, 1.61)), as did increasing age. Baseline prevalence of respiratory symptoms were lower among long-term participants (relative deviations compared to total baseline population 0-15% (RHINE), 0-48% (I-ECRHS), 3-20% (ISAYA)), except rhinitis which had a slightly higher prevalence. Most exposure-outcome associations did not differ between long-term participants and all baseline participants, except lower OR for rhinitis among ISAYA

  20. A practical approach to remote longitudinal follow-up of Parkinson's disease: the FOUND study.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Caroline M; Meng, Cheryl C; Ravina, Bernard; Lang, Anthony; Kurlan, Roger; Marek, Kenneth; Oakes, David; Seibyl, John; Flagg, Emily; Gauger, Lisa; Guest, Dolores D; Goetz, Christopher G; Kieburtz, Karl; DiEuliis, Diane; Fahn, Stanley; Elliott, Robin A; Shoulson, Ira

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine a remote method for maintaining long-term contact with Parkinson's disease (PD) patients participating in clinical studies. Long-term follow-up of PD patients is needed to fill critical information gaps on progression, biomarkers, and treatment. Prospective in-person assessment can be costly and may be impossible for some patients. Remote assessment using mail and telephone contact may be a practical follow-up method. Patients enrolled in the multi-center Longitudinal and Biomarker Study in Parkinson's Disease (LABS-PD) in-person follow-up study in 2006 were invited to enroll in Follow-up of Persons With Neurologic Diseases (FOUND), which is overseen by a single center under a separate, central institutional review board protocol. FOUND uses mailed questionnaires and telephone interviews to assess PD status. FOUND follow-up continued when LABS-PD in-person visits ended in 2011. Retention and agreement between remote and in-person assessments were determined. In total, 422 of 499 (84.5%) of eligible patients volunteered, AND 96% of participants were retained. Of 60 patients who withdrew consent from LABS-PD, 51 were retained in FOUND. Of 341 patients who were active in LABS-PD, 340 were retained in FOUND (99.7%) when the in-person visits ceased. Exact agreement between remote and in-person assessments was ≥ 80% for diagnosis, disease features (eg, dyskinesias), and PD medication. Correlation between expert-rated and self-reported Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, which were examined at times separated by several months, was moderate or substantial for most items. Retention was excellent using remote follow-up of research participants with PD, providing a safety net when combined with in-person visits, and also is effective as a stand-alone assessment method, providing a useful alternative when in-person evaluation is not feasible. © 2014

  1. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. [Application of spline-based Cox regression on analyzing data from follow-up studies].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Yu, Jin-ming; Hu, Da-yi

    2012-09-01

    With R, this study involved the application of the spline-based Cox regression to analyze data related to follow-up studies when the two basic assumptions of Cox proportional hazards regression were not satisfactory. Results showed that most of the continuous covariates contributed nonlinearly to mortality risk while the effects of three covariates were time-dependent. After considering multiple covariates in spline-based Cox regression, when the ankle brachial index (ABI) decreased by 0.1, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause death was 1.071. The spline-based Cox regression method could be applied to analyze the data related to follow-up studies when the assumptions of Cox proportional hazards regression were violated.

  3. Compilation of Case Studies: Exemplary Placement and Follow-Up Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack

    Examples of placement and follow-up conceptual models developed for a program of vocational education (kindergarten through university) are presented. Section 1 contains a historical overview of placement and follow-up activities in Florida and describes a comprehensive model. Section 2, describing a model for utilizing community resources for the…

  4. Compilation of Case Studies: Exemplary Placement and Follow-Up Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack

    Examples of placement and follow-up conceptual models developed for a program of vocational education (kindergarten through university) are presented. Section 1 contains a historical overview of placement and follow-up activities in Florida and describes a comprehensive model. Section 2, describing a model for utilizing community resources for the…

  5. Regional sympathetic denervation after myocardial infarction: a follow-up study using [123I]MIBG.

    PubMed

    Podio, V; Spinnler, M T; Spandonari, T; Moretti, C; Castellano, G; Bessone, M; Brusca, A

    1995-12-01

    Previous studies in dogs have shown that experimental infarction produces myocardial sympathetic denervation not only in the infarcted area, but also in a region apical to the infarction. In these dogs MIBG myocardial scintigraphy detected denervation but returned to normal in a few months at which time reinnervation was shown to have occurred. Myocardial sympathetic denervation was studied with MIBG scintigraphy in ten patients after their first acute transmural myocardial infarction; scans were repeated at 4 months, one year and 30 months to follow the time course of possible reinnervation. Except during the first 48 hours following the infarction, no therapy except for antiaggregants was administered to the patients; during this follow-up period no cardiac events were seen. One week after infarction, comparison of MIBG images with perfusion scans revealed that the denervated area was larger than the infarcted area; no difference in MIBG uptake by the infarcted myocardium was found during the 30 months follow-up.

  6. The US Department of Defense Millennium Cohort Study: career span and beyond longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C

    2009-10-01

    To describe current and future career-span health research in the US Department of Defense Millennium Cohort Study. Collaborating with all military service branches and the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Millennium Cohort Study launched in 2001, before September 11 and the start of deployments in Afghanistan and Iraq, to conduct coordinated strategic research to determine any effects of military occupational and deployment-related exposures, on long-term health. More than 150,000 consenting members represent demographic, occupational, military, and health characteristics of the US military. More than 70% of the first two panels have submitted follow-up questionnaires and >50% have deployed since 2001. Prospective cohort data have identified subgroups of military populations at higher risk or more resilient to decrements in mental and physical health. Continued career span and beyond follow-up will answer long-term health questions related to military service.

  7. ADOLECSENT MANIA, EEG ABNORMALITY AND RESPONSE TO ANTICONVULSANTS: A THREE - YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Tapas K.; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Nizami, Hauque S.

    2001-01-01

    We had reported earlier (1998) a high percentage of moderate to severe EEG abnormalities (43.75% of cases) amongst adolescent manic population. Sixteen adolescent manics, with a mean age of 14 9 years, diagnosed according to ICD-10 were taken up for the initial study. Present study is the three-year follow-up report of 67.75% (11 out of 16) of the original patient population. All these patients were subjected fc 21-channel EEG and anticonvulsant drugs were started to all. Follow-up data showed that 3 out of 6 patients, who discontinued medications, were relapsed during this 3 years period. But none of the 5 patients, who regularly took prescribed medicines, relapsed during the same period. Significance of these findings in relapse prevention and the role of anticonvulsants, particularly in relation to adolescent mania, have been emphasized. PMID:21407863

  8. Rationale for a follow-up study focusing on economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Behrman, Jere R; Flores, Rafael; Stein, Aryeh D

    2005-06-01

    Past studies of nutrition, human capital formation, and economic productivity have been limited by the fact that biomedical researchers and economists work largely in isolation, with loss of complementarity. Biomedical researchers are faulted for not adequately addressing bias and measurement issues and for naive analyses and interpretation of results, whereas economists are criticized for using simplistic nutrition and physiological measures and for relying on statistical methods rather than experimental designs. To avoid these problems, a multidisciplinary team of biomedical investigators and economists undertook a follow-up study in 2002-04 of a cohort of young men and women, who participated as young children in a randomized community trial of nutrition supplementation carried out from 1969-77 Previous studies, particularly the original trial and a 1988-89 follow- up, are described to provide an overview of the data available for linkage with the 2002-04 follow-up. Key results from these earlier studies are reviewed but judged inconclusive because the data used were collected when many subjects were still growing and developing physically, in school, unmarried, and/or not yet settled into occupations. The subjects were 26 to 41 years of age in 2003, permitting a more complete assessment of human capital and economic productivity. The experimental design of the 1969-77 original study, 35 years of follow-up, use of robust methods of data collection, and the participation of a multidisciplinary team will likely lead to the most comprehensive assessment to date of the importance of nutrition for economic productivity.

  9. A web-based image viewer for multiple PET-CT follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Daiki; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Constantinescu, Liviu; Wen, Lingfeng; Feng, David Dagan

    2011-01-01

    There exist many viewers for single-modal medical images that are efficient and are equipped with powerful analysis tools. However, there is a distinct lack of efficient image viewers for multi-modality images, particularly for displaying multiple follow-up studies that depict a patient's response to treatment over time. Such viewers would be required to display large amounts of image data. In this study, we present the TAGIGEN viewer--a web-based image viewer designed specifically for the visualisation of multi-modality follow-up studies. We innovate by defining a series of dynamically generated image grid layouts that display sets of related images together in order to improve the ability to compare and assimilate the myriad images. We adopted a web-based client-server image streaming technology, thus enabling interactive navigation of the images in a computationally efficient manner. Furthermore, our web-based approach is interoperable and requires no software installation. We evaluated the ability of our viewer in displaying and understanding a patient's follow-up images in a case study with combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) follow-up scans. We conducted a usability survey on 10 participants to measure the usefulness of our viewer, used as an outpatient viewer e.g. viewer designed for use by the patients, in tracking a patient's disease state across four PET-CT studies. Our initial results suggest that our viewer was able to efficiently visualise the patient data over time, and that the web-based implementation was fast (loading on average within 5.6 seconds with real-time navigation) and easy to use (overall survey score higher than 4 / 5).

  10. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of 284 Adults Classified as Learning Disabled When They Were Second Graders. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingey, Carol; Mortensen, Lance

    A follow-up study was undertaken of 284 adults who were diagnosed as learning disabled during second grade in 1968. At the time of follow up, the sample was 26 to 27 years old; 91 of these individuals were located by telephone and 4 were contacted by mail. The follow-up study used a questionnaire to determine participants' current status in five…

  11. Depression after stroke at 12-month follow-up: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Limampai, Patchara; Wongsrithep, Wanpen; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai

    2017-10-01

    To study the prevalence of depression at 12 months after stroke and to analyze factors associated with depression. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among nine tertiary hospitals in Thailand. Stroke patients from the Thai Stroke Rehabilitation Registry who were admitted in inpatient rehabilitation wards were recruited for evaluation at the 12-month follow-up time point. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate depression in stroke. A score of ≥11 was considered as having depression. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to investigate factors related with depression in stroke. Two hundred stroke patients with a mean age of 62.1±12.5 years were recruited. Approximately 60% were male. The number of stroke patients with depression at the 12-month follow-up was 42 (21.0%, 95%CI 15.9%-27.2%). Mean HADS score at 12-month follow-up was not significantly different from those at discharge. However, 28 (16.5%) stroke patients who did not have depression at discharge developed depression during the 12-month period. From multivariate analysis, complications and urinary incontinence were found to be significantly associated with depression after stroke with adjusted odds ratio of 3.65 (95%CI 1.11-12.06) and 4.82 (95%CI 1.74-13.38), respectively. Depression is a common complication after stroke. This study found one-fifth of stroke survivors developed depression at the 12-month follow-up. Complications at discharge and urinary incontinence were significantly correlated with depression in multivariate analysis. Further study concerning interventions in decreasing depression should be performed in order to improve the quality of life of those stroke patients.

  12. Panic disorder and subthreshold panic in the light of comorbidity: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Oral, Elif; Aydin, Nazan; Gulec, Mustafa; Oral, Meltem

    2012-10-01

    Especially in the presence of agoraphobia and comorbid conditions, panic disorder causes significant impairment in life quality. Although there are several studies about epidemiology and clinical features, subthreshold symptoms and courses of comorbidity have not been studied sufficiently in panic disorder. The current study assessed the courses of panic disorder and subthreshold panic symptoms in consideration of the major and subthreshold comorbid conditions. Patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-diagnosed panic disorder were assessed using the panic disorder follow-up questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was used to determine comorbidity, and all participants were received to 1-year follow-up. Comorbidity assessment showed that the threshold comorbidity decreased, while the subthreshold comorbidity increased at 1-year follow-up. Panic disorder symptom severity was decreased, but subthreshold panic symptoms continued to be present within the course of the illness. Presence of agoraphobia and duration of disease were significantly related with higher Panic and Agoraphobia Scale scores in the second assessment, and these relationships were independent from the treatment process. Even if the comorbidity and the severity of panic decrease with treatment, subthreshold panic and comorbid symptoms may still resist in panic disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Five-year follow-up by transesophageal echocardiographic studies in primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Maurizio; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Peretti, Rossana; Bonizzato, Sara; Muzzupappa, Sabrina; Atzeni, Fabiola; Rossi, Edoardo; Doria, Andrea

    2005-08-15

    This prospective study describes valvular abnormalities assessed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) over a 5-year follow-up. Of the 56 patients with APLS evaluated at baseline, 47 (84%) had repeat TEE examinations, including 3 patients who died before the end of the follow-up. The first TEE study showed cardiac involvement (thickening or vegetations and embolic sources) in 34 subjects (61%), with mitral valve thickening, the most common abnormality, present in 30 patients (54%). Embolic sources were found in 14 patients (25%; 9 severe spontaneous echocardiographic contrast, 5 Libman-Sacks endocarditis), associated with mitral valve thickening or stenosis in 10 patients. Over the 5-year follow-up, cardiac involvement was unchanged in 30 subjects (64%). New cardiac abnormalities were observed in 17 patients (36%), 15 (88%) with high immunoglobulin-G (IgG) anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) titers and 2 (12%) with low IgG aCL titers. In conclusion, this study showed that mitral valve thickening and embolic sources are frequently observed in patients with APLS. Anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet treatment was ineffective in terms of valvular lesion regression. New appearances of cardiac involvement are significantly related to high IgG aCL titers.

  14. Increased risk of cancer after Bell's palsy: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-11-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been recognized as the most common pathomechanism underlying Bell's palsy. There is also increased reactivation of HSV or VZV in patients with immunosuppressed states and in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk for cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis of Bell's palsy by using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We used data from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified 2,618 patients with Bell's palsy as the study cohort and randomly selected 13,090 patients to be used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to compare the 5-year risk of subsequent cancer between the study and comparison cohorts. We found that the incidence of cancer was 1.55 (95 % CI 1.35-1.78) per 100 person-years for patients with Bell's palsy and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.18) per 100 person-years for comparison patients. After censoring cases that died from non-cancer causes during the follow-up period and adjusting for urbanization, monthly income, geographic region, and diabetes, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with Bell's palsy was 1.43 times that for comparison patients (95 % CI 1.22-1.73). There was a particularly increased risk of oral cancer (HR = 2.49; 95 % CI 1.54-4.03) for patients with Bell's palsy compared with the other patients. We conclude that patients with Bell's palsy were at significant risk of cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis.

  15. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still

  16. Seven-year prospective clinical study on zirconia-based single crowns and fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Sidoti, Ernesto; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-06-01

    Zirconia-based prostheses are used for esthetic crown and fixed restorations, but follow-ups are still limited. The authors evaluated the 7-year clinical results of 303 zirconia core restorations, performed in a general dental private practice. Clinical events (fracture and loss of retention, gingivitis, tenderness, excess cement, and temporary pain) were recorded in 303 zirconia core restorations positioned in 88 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival probability estimates were computed for failures (needed the replacement or removal of the prosthesis) and complications (resolved without replacing the prosthesis). One hundred and fifty single crowns (130 tooth-supported, 20 implant-supported) and 153 multiple units up to 6 elements (49 tooth-supported, 104 implant-supported) were followed-up for 7 years in 88 patients (40 men, 48 women), aged 35-89 years (mean 57). During the follow-up period, there were no complications for 287 (95 %) of the restorations. Sixteen restorations/abutment teeth (5 %) had some complication: extraction of abutment tooth (7, 2 %); caries (2, 1 %), porcelain veneer fracture (3, 1 %), loss of retention (4, 1 %). Nine (3 %) restorations were recorded as failures. The overall 7-year survival probability estimate for failures was 0.966 (95 % confidence limits, 0.932 and 0.983), for complications was 0.976 (95 % confidence limits 0.947 and 0.989), with a cumulative survival rate of 94.7 %. Within the analyzed follow-up, zirconia core restorations appear a good clinical solution, with favorable functional properties. All ceramic restorations can be successfully used for both single-and multiple-unit prostheses, either teeth or implants supported.

  17. Discovering physical abuse: insights from a follow-up study of delinquents.

    PubMed

    Stein, A; Lewis, D O

    1992-01-01

    In a follow-up study of incarcerated Connecticut youth, 66 subjects participated in extensive personal interviews. This paper documents discrepancies between early data regarding abuse and retrospective self-reports of abuse given at the time of follow-up. It describes the development of an interview protocol in which inquiries regarding medical history, the general temperament of caretakers and their behaviors when intoxicated, and instruments and methods of punishment used in the home enabled subjects to describe abusive experiences not disclosed in response to direct questions about maltreatment. The paper also discusses the use of explicitly worded probes to flesh out a clear picture of subjects' experiences. The conflicts that underlie denial or minimization of abuse are discussed, along with interviewing strategies for overcoming them.

  18. The Bologna-Oxford total ankle replacement: a mid-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A; Martinelli, N; Sartorelli, E; Malerba, F

    2012-06-01

    The Bologna-Oxford (BOX) total ankle replacement (TAR) was developed with the aim of achieving satisfactory pain-free movement of the ankle. To date, only one single multicentre study has reported its clinical results. The aim of this study was to conduct an independent review of its mid-term results. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 60 prospectively followed patients in whom 62 BOX TARs had been implanted between 2004 and 2008. We used the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score to assess the clinical results. Standardised radiographs taken at the time of final follow-up were analysed by two observers. The overall survival was 91.9% at a mean follow-up of 42.5 months (24 to 71). The mean AOFAS score had improved from 35.1 points (sd 16.6; 4 to 73) pre-operatively to 78.0 (sd 10.7; 57 to 100) at final follow-up (p < 0.01). Tibial radiolucencies < 2 mm in width were seen around 16 TARs. Talar radiolucencies < 2 mm were seen around four TARs. A total of 47 patients (78.3%) were very satisfied or satisfied with the outcome. Five patients required revision for functional limitation or continuing pain.

  19. [Mortality of chromium plating workers in Japan--a 16-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Itoh, T; Takahashi, K; Okubo, T

    1996-03-01

    Health hazards due to exposure to chromium in the chromium plating industry has been documented in only a few epidemiological studies. A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the health hazards of chromium plating with a follow-up period of over sixteen years. Subjects were 1193 male metal platers in the small-scale chromium plating plants in Tokyo. They were divided into a chromium plater subgroup (n = 623) and non-chromium plater subgroup (n = 567) and were followed up from October 1976 through December 1992. The 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was used to evaluate statistical significance. In the chromium plating subgroup, the risk of chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis was significantly elevated (SMR 2.34; 95%CI 1.17-4.19) and a trend toward statistical significance was seen for the risk of lung cancer (SMR 1.18; 95%CI 0.99-3.04). No significantly elevated risk was seen in the non-chromium plating subgroup. We concluded that, as the number of disease-specific deaths was small, further follow-up is necessary.

  20. A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Kelley D; Bradley, Susan J; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2008-01-01

    This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60% of the girls met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for GID, and 40% were subthreshold for the diagnosis. At follow-up, 3 participants (12%) were judged to have GID or gender dysphoria. Regarding sexual orientation, 8 participants (32%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in fantasy, and 6 (24%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior. The remaining participants were classified as either heterosexual or asexual. The rates of GID persistence and bisexual/homosexual sexual orientation were substantially higher than base rates in the general female population derived from epidemiological or survey studies. There was some evidence of a "dosage" effect, with girls who were more cross-sex typed in their childhood behavior more likely to be gender dysphoric at follow-up and more likely to have been classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior (but not in fantasy). Copyright (c) 2008 APA.

  1. The prognosis of pediatric headaches--a 30-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Joseph M; Augustine, Haley F; Brna, Paula M; Digby, Alyson M

    2014-07-01

    Although headaches in childhood are common, there are few data available on their long-term prognosis. We have monitored a group of patients since diagnosis in 1983. Patients who were part of the 20-year follow-up study in 2003 were contacted, and data were collected using a standardized telephone interview. Details of headache characteristics and identified precipitants and alleviating factors were gathered. The most effective means of controlling the headaches were also recorded. Follow-up was achieved for 28 of 60 patients (47%). Over the 30 years since diagnosis, eight patients (29%) reported a complete resolution of headaches, including three whose headaches resolved between the 20- and 30-year follow-up studies. The type of headache varied over the 30-year time interval with only three patients maintaining the same headache type at all four time periods of 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013. Only one patient used prescription medication as the primary method for controlling headaches. The most commonly used intervention was nonprescription analgesia, self-relaxation and/or hypnosis, and precipitant avoidance. Headaches persist in approximately 70% of children 30 years after diagnosis. Encouraging children to manage their headaches with simple analgesia and precipitant avoidance appears to have long-term benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic community drug treatment success in Peru: a follow-up outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Knowlton; Pan, Zhenfeng; Young, Linda; Vanderhoff, Jude; Shamblen, Steve; Browne, Thom; Linfield, Ken; Suresh, Geetha

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of drug abuse treatment in Peru that used the therapeutic community (TC) model. Program directors and several staff members from all study treatment facilities received two to eight weeks of in-country training on how to implement the TC treatment model prior to the follow-up study. Methods This outcome study involved 33 TC treatment facilities and 509 former clients in Lima and other cities in five providences across Peru. A retrospective pre-test (RPT) follow-up design was employed in which 30-day use of illegal drugs and alcohol to intoxication was measured at baseline retrospectively, at the same time of the six-month follow-up. In-person interview data were collected from directors of 73 percent of the eligible TC organizations in January and February 2003 and from former 58 percent of the eligible TC former clients between October 2003 and October 2004. Drug testing was conducted on a small sample of former clients to increase the accuracy of the self-reported drug use data. Results Medium to large positive treatment effects were found when comparing 30-day illegal drug and alcohol use to intoxication before and six months after receiving treatment. As a supplemental analysis, we assumed the 42 percent of the former clients who were not interviewed at the six month assessment had returned to drugs. These results showed medium treatment effects as well. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling (HGLM) results showed higher implementation fidelity, less stigma after leaving treatment, and older clients, singly or in combination are key predictors of treatment success. Conclusion This study found that former clients of drug and alcohol treatment in facilities using the TC model reported substantial positive change in use of illegal drugs and alcohol to intoxication at a six-month follow-up. The unique contribution of this study is that the results also suggest attention should be placed on the

  3. Characteristics and follow-up of postmarketing studies of conditionally authorized medicines in the EU.

    PubMed

    Hoekman, Jarno; Klamer, Thea T; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubert G M; De Bruin, Marie L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide an insight into the characteristics and follow-up of postmarketing studies of medicines that were conditionally authorized in the European Union (EU). We compiled a list of all postmarketing studies attached as specific obligations to the licence of medicines that were granted conditional marketing authorization from January 2006 to April 2014. Studies were characterized based on their objective, design, status upon marketing authorization (MA) and due data set by authorities. They were linked to online study registrations (Clinicaltrials.gov, ENCePP) to determine completion date. We described and associated characteristics of studies and medicines, and determined whether studies were completed on time. A total of 59 postmarketing studies were requested for 21 conditionally authorized medicines. Most studies had an interventional study design (73%), were ongoing upon MA (61%) and aimed to provide additional data on efficacy (45%). Interventional studies were more often ongoing and providing efficacy data, while observational and other studies were more often new and providing safety data. Frequent grounds for requesting postmarketing studies were 'long-term follow-up' and 'increase data on subpopulations'. Of the 34 studies eligible for follow-up analysis, 26 (76%) were completed and 17 (50%) completed on time. Actual completion time took a median (interquartile range) of 274 (-121 to 556) days longer than expected. Our results indicated that most postmarketing studies attached to a conditional marketing authorization were eventually completed but that half were completed with a substantial delay. The observations suggest caution when broadening the use of postmarketing studies for resolving uncertainties about benefits and risks after MA. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Frequent Respiratory Viral Infections in Children with Febrile Neutropenia - A Prospective Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Söderman, Martina; Rhedin, Samuel; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Rotzén-Östlund, Maria; Albert, Jan; Broliden, Kristina; Lindblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is common in children undergoing chemotherapy for the treatment of malignancies. In the majority of cases, the cause of the fever is unknown. Although respiratory viruses are commonly associated with this condition, the etiologic significance of this finding remains unclear and is therefore the subject of this study. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected during 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia in children age 0-18 years, being treated at a children's oncology unit between January 2013 and June 2014. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the presence of 16 respiratory viruses. Follow-up samples were collected from children who tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses. Rhinoviruses were genotyped by VP4/VP2 sequencing. Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for group comparisons. At least one respiratory virus was detected in samples from 39 of 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia (45%), with rhinoviruses the most frequently detected. Follow-up samples were collected after a median of 28 days (range, 9-74 days) in 32 of the 39 virus-positive episodes. The respiratory viral infection had resolved in 25 episodes (78%). The same virus was detected at follow-up in one coronavirus and six rhinovirus episodes. Genotyping revealed a different rhinovirus species in two of the six rhinovirus infections. The frequency of respiratory viral infections in this group of patients suggests an etiologic role in febrile neutropenia. However, these findings must be confirmed in larger patient cohorts.

  5. Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss: a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hvidtjørn, D; Wu, C; Schendel, D; Thorlund Parner, E; Brink Henriksen, T

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether mothers who lost a child from stillbirth or in the first week of life have an increased overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. A population based follow-up study. Data from Danish national registers. All mothers in Denmark were included in the cohort at time of their first delivery from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008 and followed until 31 December 2009 or death, whichever came first. The association between perinatal loss and total and cause-specific mortality in mothers was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. During the follow-up period, 838,331 mothers in the cohort gave birth to one or more children and 7690 mothers (0.92%) experienced a perinatal loss. During follow-up, 8883 mothers (1.06%) died. There was an increased overall mortality for mothers who experienced a perinatal loss adjusted for maternal age and educational level, hazard ratio (HR) 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.17]. The strongest association was seen in mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with an HR of 2.29 (95% CI 1.48-3.52) adjusted for CVD at time of delivery. We found no association between a perinatal loss and mortality from traumatic causes. Mothers who experience a perinatal loss have an increased mortality, especially from CVD. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Data linkage reduces loss to follow-up in an observational HIV cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Teresa; Bansi, Loveleen; Sabin, Caroline; Phillips, Andrew; Dunn, David; Anderson, Jane; Easterbrook, Philippa; Fisher, Martin; Gazzard, Brian; Gilson, Richard; Johnson, Margaret; Leen, Clifford; Orkin, Chloe; Schwenk, Achim; Walsh, John; Winston, Alan; Babiker, Abdel; Delpech, Valerie

    2010-10-01

    To ascertain the degree of loss to follow-up in a cohort and to identify its predictors. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals without CD4 cell counts for a year or more were defined as potentially lost to follow-up (LFU). Multivariable Poisson regression models identified the risk factors for potential LFU. Multivariable logistic regression models compared demographic and clinical characteristics of those who returned for care and those permanently LFU. Of 16,595 patients under follow-up, 43.6% were potentially LFU at least once. Of these, 39.8% were considered permanently LFU and 60.2% were seen again after 1 year. Of 9,766 episodes when patients were potentially LFU, 59% resulted in the patient returning for care at the same clinic or at a different clinic. Compared with those permanently LFU, patients returning were more likely to have started highly active antiretroviral therapy, to have higher CD4 counts and viral loads, to be younger, and to have had more CD4 tests before LFU. They were less likely to have had a previous episode of potential LFU. A substantial proportion of patients in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort study are potentially LFU. Data linkage identifies patients returning for care at different centers. Recognition of factors associated with LFU may help reduce this important source of bias in observational databases. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What happens to opiate addicts immediately after treatment: a prospective follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Gossop, M; Green, L; Phillips, G; Bradley, B

    1987-01-01

    In the first British study to investigate systematically what happens to opiate addicts after treatment 50 opiate addicts admitted for inpatient treatment of their drug dependence were followed up for six months after discharge. All had been withdrawn from opiates before follow up. Six months later 26 were not using opiates: 12 had not used opiates at any time since discharge. When subjects in hospital or in prison were excluded from the analysis 21 (47%) of the subjects living in the community were not taking opiates. Many subjects used opiates within days of leaving the inpatient unit, but this first lapse did not necessarily lead to a full relapse into addictive use. During the six months after discharge several subjects used opiates on a less than daily basis. During each two month period throughout the six months of follow up the proportion of subjects who were occasional users fell, the proportion of abstinent subjects grew, and the proportion of daily users (assumed to be readdicted) remained constant. Although many of the addicts relapsed soon after treatment, it was encouraging that almost half were opiate free after six months. These results have important implications for the treatment of drug addicts. PMID:3109662

  8. Post-bronchiolitis Use of Asthma Medication: A Prospective 1-year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Bergroth, Eija; Aakula, Matilda; Korppi, Matti; Remes, Sami; Kivistö, Juho E; Piedra, Pedro A; Camargo, Carlos A; Jartti, Tuomas

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the association between viral findings during bronchiolitis and the use of asthma controller medication (primary outcome) and systemic corticosteroids (secondary outcome) during the first post-bronchiolitis year. We enrolled 408 children hospitalized for bronchiolitis at <24 months of age in a prospective, 3-center, 1-year follow-up study in Finland. Viruses were detected with polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The parents underwent a structured interview during hospitalization. Twelve months later, the use of asthma medication was asked in a structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. In total, 365 (89%) children completed the 1-year follow-up. The use of long-term asthma controller medication was highest in the rhinovirus-positive group (61% vs. 15% in respiratory syncytial virus-positive group; adjusted odd ratios, 7.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.7-15.3), followed by children negative for both respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus (36%; adjusted odd ratios, 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-5.3). Likewise, rhinovirus etiology was associated with more courses of systemic corticosteroids during the follow-up. The main findings were similar in a subset of infants aged <12 months with first wheezing. Children hospitalized for rhinovirus-positive bronchiolitis used long-term asthma controller medication more often than those hospitalized for rhinovirus-negative bronchiolitis during first year after hospitalization.

  9. Patient relationship management: an overview and study of a follow-up system.

    PubMed

    Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Räisänen, Teppo; Hummastenniemi, Niko

    2008-01-01

    Customer relationship management research is utilized to explain the need for a more patient-oriented support in patient care. This article presents a European study on how various hospital units of a single healthcare organization have utilized a patient relationship management system--in particular a patient treatment follow-up system--and how it affects patient care and the knowledge work performed by the medical staff. Eight physicians were interviewed at a university hospital on whether patient treatment was improved through a follow-up system that had been in use in the case organization for three years. The interviewees represented various hospital units, and all of them had used the system at their own unit. The results indicate that it is possible to improve patient care through more personalized treatment. The follow-up treatment system seems to be a tool to create and maintain better communication with the patients rather than just a technological solution. It may help better understand and analyze both individual patients and patient groups. For individual physicians it provides a way to reflect professional skills. The system was lacking in its support for one-to-one communication with patients. Nevertheless, the system is an example of patient relationship management which may help healthcare units to move towards a more patient-oriented care.

  10. Stability of alexithymia in late adolescence: results of a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Saikkonen, Suvi; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the stability of alexithymia in adolescents and the effects of parental factors and social support thereon. The sample comprised 315 late adolescents, of whom 259 were female and 56 male. At baseline, the mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The follow-up period was 4 years (2008-2012). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for the assessment of alexithymia both at baseline and follow-up. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were used as measures at baseline. Regarding absolute stability, the changes in the TAS-20 total scores and two subscales (DIF and EOT) were statistically significant but the effect sizes for the changes were small (Cohen׳s d 0.21-0.24). The test-retest correlations for the TAS-20 total and subscale scores were high (ρ=0.50-0.64, P<0.001), indicating relative stability. While several parental and social support variables were associated with alexithymia at baseline, low social support from friends was the only to predict higher alexithymia at follow-up. Alexithymia is a stable personality trait also in late adolescence. Low social support from friends is related to alexithymia in young adulthood.

  11. Alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasty. A five-year minimum follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Young-Min; Yoon, Kang Sup; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Song, Won Seok; Kim, Hee Joong

    2005-03-01

    Ceramic-on-ceramic couplings are attractive alternative bearing surfaces that have been reported to eliminate or reduce problems related to polyethylene wear debris. Disappointing experiences with alumina ceramic bearings in the past have led to many improvements in the manufacture and design of ceramic implants. The purpose of the present study was to report the results of contemporary alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasties with regard to wear, osteolysis, and fracture of the ceramic after a minimum duration of follow-up of five years. We evaluated the results of a consecutive series of 100 primary alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasties that had been performed with use of a metal-backed socket and a cementless stem in eighty-four patients. All of the patients were sixty-five years of age or younger (mean age, forty-one years), and a single surgeon performed all of the procedures. After a minimum duration of follow-up of sixty months, one patient (one hip) had died and four patients (six hips) had been lost to follow-up, leaving a total of seventy-nine patients (ninety-three hips) available for study. All of these patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically with special attention to wear, periprosthetic osteolysis, and ceramic failure. The mean Harris hip score was 97 points at the time of the latest follow-up evaluation. All prostheses demonstrated radiographic evidence of bone ingrowth. No implant was loose radiographically, and no implant was revised. Ceramic wear was not detectable in the thirty-seven hips in which the femoral head could be differentiated from the cup on radiographs. Periprosthetic osteolysis was not observed in any hip. A fracture of the alumina femoral head and a peripheral chip fracture of the alumina insert occurred in one hip following a motor-vehicle accident. The results of contemporary alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasty with a metal-backed socket and a cementless stem were encouraging after a minimum

  12. Metabolically healthy obesity and depressive symptoms: 16-year follow-up of the Gazel cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Alice; Matta, Joane; Lemogne, Cedric; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Aims The health correlates of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype, particularly in relation to depressive symptoms remains unclear. Accordingly, we examined the risk of depressive symptoms in this phenotype using a 16-year follow-up prospective study. Methods A sample of 14 475 participants (75% men), aged 44–59 years in 1996, was drawn from the Gazel cohort. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and metabolic health as having none of the self-reported following cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2012. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to estimate the risk of depressive symptoms during a follow-up of 16 years. Results In multivariate analyses, metabolically unhealthy normal weight [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.25–1.51], overweight [1.44 (1.31–1.59)] and obese [1.30 (1.10–1.54)] but not MHO participants [1.04 (0.81–1.32)] had higher risk of depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up compared to metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. Depressive symptoms decreased over time in metabolically healthy normal weight individuals [0.52 (0.50–0.55)], this decrease was less marked only in metabolically unhealthy obese participants [1.22 (1.07–1.40)]. Compared to MHO participants, metabolically unhealthy obese individuals were at increased risk of depression at the start of follow-up, but with a similar reduction of this risk over time. Conclusion Poor metabolic health, irrespective of BMI was associated with greater depressive symptoms at the start of follow-up, whereas a poorer course of depressive symptoms over time was observed only in those with both obesity and poor metabolic health. PMID:28384219

  13. Breast cancer survivorship--intersecting gendered discourses in a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Monika; Magnusson, Eva; Egberg Thyme, Karin; Åström, Sture; Lindh, Jack; Öster, Inger

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors present a follow-up study of women's interview narratives about life 5 to 7 years after a breast cancer operation. The women had taken part in a study during the 6-month postoperation period. Art therapy contributed to well-being, including strengthening personal boundaries. In the new study, interview analysis informed by critical discursive psychology indicated three problematic discourses that the women still struggled with several years after the operation: the female survivor, the "good woman," and individual responsibility. We concluded that many women with a history of breast cancer need support several years after their medical treatment is finished.

  14. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years. PMID:19775475

  15. Yoga for Adult Women with Chronic PTSD: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alison; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel

    2016-03-01

    Yoga-the integrative practice of physical postures and movement, breath exercises, and mindfulness-may serve as a useful adjunctive component of trauma-focused treatment to build skills in tolerating and modulating physiologic and affective states that have become dysregulated by trauma exposure. A previous randomized controlled study was carried out among 60 women with chronic, treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated mental health problems stemming from prolonged or multiple trauma exposures. After 10 sessions of yoga, participants exhibited statistically significant decreases in PTSD symptom severity and greater likelihood of loss of PTSD diagnosis, significant decreases in engagement in negative tension reduction activities (e.g., self-injury), and greater reductions in dissociative and depressive symptoms when compared with the control (a seminar in women's health). The current study is a long-term follow-up assessment of participants who completed this randomized controlled trial. Participants from the randomized controlled trial were invited to participate in long-term follow-up assessments approximately 1.5 years after study completion to assess whether the initial intervention and/or yoga practice after treatment was associated with additional changes. Forty-nine women completed the long-term follow-up interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine whether treatment group status in the original study and frequency of yoga practice after the study predicted greater changes in symptoms and PTSD diagnosis. Group assignment in the original randomized study was not a significant predictor of longer-term outcomes. However, frequency of continuing yoga practice significantly predicted greater decreases in PTSD symptom severity and depression symptom severity, as well as a greater likelihood of a loss of PTSD diagnosis. Yoga appears to be a useful treatment modality; the greatest long-term benefits are derived from

  16. CORONIS - International study of caesarean section surgical techniques: the follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The CORONIS Trial was a 2×2×2×2×2 non-regular, fractional, factorial trial of five pairs of alternative caesarean section surgical techniques on a range of short-term outcomes, the primary outcome being a composite of maternal death or infectious morbidity. The consequences of different surgical techniques on longer term outcomes have not been well assessed in previous studies. Such outcomes include those related to subsequent pregnancy: mode of delivery; abnormal placentation (e.g. accreta); postpartum hysterectomy, as well as longer term pelvic problems: pain, urinary problems, infertility. The Coronis Follow-up Study aims to measure and compare the incidence of these outcomes between the randomised groups at around three years after women participated in the CORONIS Trial. Methods/Design This study will assess the following null hypotheses: In women who underwent delivery by caesarean section, no differences will be detected with respect to a range of long-term outcomes when comparing the following five pairs of alternative surgical techniques evaluated in the CORONIS Trial: 1. Blunt versus sharp abdominal entry 2. Exteriorisation of the uterus for repair versus intra-abdominal repair 3. Single versus double layer closure of the uterus 4. Closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum (pelvic and parietal) 5. Chromic catgut versus Polyglactin-910 for uterine repair The outcomes will include (1) women’s health: pelvic pain; dysmenorrhoea; deep dyspareunia; urinary symptoms; laparoscopy; hysterectomy; tubal/ovarian surgery; abdominal hernias; bowel obstruction; infertility; death. (2) Outcomes of subsequent pregnancies: inter-pregnancy interval; pregnancy outcome; gestation at delivery; mode of delivery; pregnancy complications; surgery during or following delivery. Discussion The results of this follow-up study will have importance for all pregnant women and for health professionals who provide care for pregnant women. Although the results will

  17. Cancer and bone fractures in observational follow-up of the RECORD study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nigel P; Curtis, Paula S; Home, Philip D

    2015-06-01

    The RECORD study evaluated the effects of rosiglitazone on cardiovascular outcomes. A 4-year observational follow-up was added to the study to monitor the occurrence of cancer and bone fractures. We present the cancer and bone fracture data aggregated across the main study and its observational follow-up. RECORD was a multicentre, open-label trial in people with type 2 diabetes on metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy randomly assigned to addition of rosiglitazone (n = 2,220) or to a combination of metformin and sulfonylurea (n = 2,227). At the end of the main study, patients stopped study drug and were invited to enter the observational follow-up during which glucose-lowering treatment was selected by the patient's physician. Serious adverse events of cancer and serious and non-serious events of bone fracture were recorded. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00379769. Of the 4,447 patients comprising the intent-to-treat population, 2,546 entered the observational follow-up (1,288 rosiglitazone, 1,258 metformin/sulfonylurea) and added 9,336 patient-years experience to the main RECORD study, making an aggregate of 33,744 patient-years. Based on the totality of follow-up, malignancies were reported in 179 of 2,220 patients (8.1 %) in the group originally randomised to rosiglitazone and in 195 of 2,227 patients (8.8 %) in the group allocated metformin/sulfonylurea [relative risk, RR, 0.92 (95 % CI 0.76-1.12)]. More patients reported bone fractures in the rosiglitazone group (238, 10.7 %) than in the metformin/sulfonylurea control [151, 6.8 %; RR 1.58 (1.30-1.92)]. For women, the corresponding figures were rosiglitazone 156 (14.5 %), metformin/sulfonylurea 91 (8.5 %), RR 1.71 (1.34-2.18), and for men, the corresponding figures were rosiglitazone 82 (7.2 %), metformin/sulfonylurea 60 (5.2 %), RR 1.37 (0.99-1.90). Potentially high-morbidity fractures (hip, pelvis, femur, and spine) occurred in the same number of patients (31, 1.4

  18. Psychosocial impact of repeat HIV-negative testing: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Karen; Haubrich, Dennis J; Callà, Domenico; Myers, Ted; Burchell, Ann N; Calzavara, Liviana

    2005-12-01

    Continued sexual risk behavior following repeatedly testing HIV-negative in the Polaris HIV Seroconversion Study (Ontario, Canada) led to this follow-up study which identifies the impact of repeat negative testing among 64 men and women. Repeat HIV-negative testing frequently results in confusion as to what constitutes risk and occasionally to thoughts of HIV immunity. Narrative accounts include beliefs that monogamy constitutes safety from HIV, that psychosocial factors other than repeatedly testing negative leads to risk, and that sexual risk reduction is unsustainable. In conclusion, the repeat negative test experience for some neither clarifies risk behavior nor reinforces sustained risk reduction.

  19. Workplace bullying and common mental disorders: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Laaksonen, Mikko; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2012-06-01

    Workplace bullying has been associated with mental health, but longitudinal studies confirming the association are lacking. This study examined the associations of workplace bullying with subsequent common mental disorders 5-7 years later, taking account of baseline common mental disorders and several covariates. Baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000-2002 among municipal employees, aged 40-60 years (n=8960; 80% women; response rate 67%). Follow-up data were collected in 2007 (response rate 83%). The final data amounted to 6830 respondents. Workplace bullying was measured at baseline using an instructed question about being bullied currently, previously or never. Common mental disorders were measured at baseline and at follow-up using the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Those scoring 3-12 were classified as having common mental disorders. Covariates included bullying in childhood, occupational and employment position, work stress, obesity and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used. After adjusting for age, being currently bullied at baseline was associated with common mental disorders at follow-up among women (OR 2.34, CI 1.81 to 3.02) and men (OR 3.64, CI 2.13 to 6.24). The association for the previously bullied was weaker. Adjusting for baseline common mental disorders, the association attenuated but remained. Adjusting for further covariates did not substantially alter the studied association. CONCLUSION The study confirms that workplace bullying is likely to contribute to subsequent common mental disorders. Measures against bullying are needed at workplaces to prevent mental disorders.

  20. Longitudinal follow-up of SWEDD subjects in the PRECEPT Study.

    PubMed

    Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Eberly, Shirley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Lang, Anthony E; Hyson, Chris; Jennings, Danna

    2014-05-20

    To compare the clinical and imaging characteristics of those PRECEPT (Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 Trial) subjects with a scan without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD) to those with dopamine transporter (DAT) deficit scans at study baseline and during a 22-month follow-up. Baseline (n = 799) and 22-month follow-up (n = 701) [(123)I] β-CIT SPECT scans were acquired. The percent change in [(123)I] β-CIT striatal binding ratio, the percentage of subjects requiring dopaminergic therapy, the change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score, and the PRECEPT Study investigators' diagnosis at study termination were compared between SWEDD and DAT deficit subjects. SWEDD subjects (n = 91) compared with DAT deficit subjects (n = 708) showed reduced UPDRS score at baseline (18.7 [SD 8.5] vs 25.5 [SD 10.5], p < 0.05) and minimal change in both [(123)I] β-CIT striatal binding ratio (-0.2% [SD 12.2] vs -8.5% [SD 11.9], p < 0.0001) and UPDRS score (0.5 [SD 6.9] vs 10.5 [SD 8.9], p < 0.0001) at follow-up assessments. At PRECEPT termination, the diagnosis by study investigators was changed from Parkinson disease (PD) to other disorders not associated with DAT deficit in 44% (95% confidence interval 34.2, 54.7) of SWEDD subjects compared with 3.6% (95% confidence interval 2.3, 5.1) of DAT deficit subjects. These results indicate that subjects identified as having a SWEDD, with DAT imaging within the normal range, have minimal evidence of clinical or imaging PD progression. These data strongly suggest that SWEDD subjects are unlikely to have idiopathic PD. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Longitudinal follow-up of SWEDD subjects in the PRECEPT Study

    PubMed Central

    Seibyl, John; Eberly, Shirley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Lang, Anthony E.; Hyson, Chris; Jennings, Danna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical and imaging characteristics of those PRECEPT (Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 Trial) subjects with a scan without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD) to those with dopamine transporter (DAT) deficit scans at study baseline and during a 22-month follow-up. Methods: Baseline (n = 799) and 22-month follow-up (n = 701) [123I] β-CIT SPECT scans were acquired. The percent change in [123I] β-CIT striatal binding ratio, the percentage of subjects requiring dopaminergic therapy, the change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score, and the PRECEPT Study investigators’ diagnosis at study termination were compared between SWEDD and DAT deficit subjects. Results: SWEDD subjects (n = 91) compared with DAT deficit subjects (n = 708) showed reduced UPDRS score at baseline (18.7 [SD 8.5] vs 25.5 [SD 10.5], p < 0.05) and minimal change in both [123I] β-CIT striatal binding ratio (−0.2% [SD 12.2] vs −8.5% [SD 11.9], p < 0.0001) and UPDRS score (0.5 [SD 6.9] vs 10.5 [SD 8.9], p < 0.0001) at follow-up assessments. At PRECEPT termination, the diagnosis by study investigators was changed from Parkinson disease (PD) to other disorders not associated with DAT deficit in 44% (95% confidence interval 34.2, 54.7) of SWEDD subjects compared with 3.6% (95% confidence interval 2.3, 5.1) of DAT deficit subjects. Conclusion: These results indicate that subjects identified as having a SWEDD, with DAT imaging within the normal range, have minimal evidence of clinical or imaging PD progression. These data strongly suggest that SWEDD subjects are unlikely to have idiopathic PD. PMID:24759846

  2. Substance use among Dutch homeless people, a follow-up study: prevalence, pattern and housing status.

    PubMed

    Van Straaten, Barbara; Rodenburg, Gerda; Van der Laan, Jorien; Boersma, Sandra N; Wolf, Judith R L M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that substance use among homeless people is a prevalent problem that is associated with longer durations of homelessness. Most studies of substance use among the homeless were carried out outside Europe and have limited generalizability to European countries. This study therefore aimed to address the prevalence of substance use among homeless people in the Netherlands, the pattern of their use and the relationship with housing status at follow-up. This study included 344 participants (67.1% of the initial cohort) who were followed from baseline to 18 months after the baseline interview. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between substance use and housing status. The most reported substances which were used among these homeless people were cannabis (43.9%) and alcohol (≥5 units on one occasion) (30.7%). Other substances were used by around 5% or less of the participants. Twenty-seven percent were classified as substance misuser and 20.9% as substance dependent. The odds to be marginally housed (4.14) or institutionalized (2.12) at follow-up compared to being housed of participants who were substance users were significantly higher than those of participants who did not use substances. The odds to be homeless were more than twice as high (2.80) for participants who were substance dependent compared with those who were not. Homeless people who use substances have a more disadvantageous housing situation at follow-up than homeless people who do not use substances. Attention is needed to prevent and reduce long-term homelessness among substance-using homeless people. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Saliva in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women. A 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tarkkila, Laura; Furuholm, Jussi; Tiitinen, Aila; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to investigate salivary flow and biochemical constituents of menopausal-age women with the hypothesis that women using hormone therapy (HT) might present better saliva values than non-users. Two hundred HT users and 200 non-users were selected at random from a cohort study of 3,173 peri- and postmenopausal women and invited to a 2-year clinical follow-up study. Clinical examination with saliva sampling was made at baseline and 2 years later. Salivary total protein, albumin, and immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations were analyzed. Final material included 106 consistent HT users and 55 non-users. Backward logistic regression analysis was made to determine the risk factors for higher or lower than medium salivary protein values. No difference was seen in salivary flow rate, total protein, and IgA values between baseline and follow-up measurements or between the groups. Albumin, IgG, and IgM concentrations were significantly lower in the 2-year samples of the HT group when compared with baseline. IgA and IgM values were higher in the non-HT 2-year samples when compared with the corresponding HT samples. The only significant explanatory factor for higher than median salivary albumin concentration was the number of teeth both at baseline and 2 years later. HT possibly improved epithelial integrity since the concentrations of serum components albumin, IgG, and IgM decreased during the follow-up. HT as such does not seem to affect saliva, although it may modify it. The clinical relevance of these results needs to be assessed in future studies.

  4. Treatment of retinal detachment due to macular holes without chorio-retinal lesions. A seven-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Theodossiadis, G P

    1982-04-01

    For the treatment of retinal detachment arising from macular holes we do not apply cryotherapy, light-coagulation, or diathermy in the area of the macula. Our method involves merely the fixation of a silastic sponge of 14-17 mm length and 7.5 mm diameter at the posterior part of the eyeball corresponding to macula and along the meridian of 12-6 o'clock axis. The sponge is stretched and then fixed at both ends to the sclera away from the posterior pole. The stretching and fixation of the sponge creates the proper indentation which closes the macular hole. By avoiding energy application we obtain better visual acuity. The present paper describes the results we have had in the last 7 years exclusively using this technique.

  5. A Prospective, 1-Year Follow-up Study of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimpinski, Kurt; Figueroa, Juan J.; Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M.; Iodice, Valeria; Sandroni, Paola; Fischer, Philip R.; Opfer-Gehrking, Tonette L.; Gehrking, Jade A.; Low, Phillip A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate patients who met standard criteria for postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), at baseline and 1-year follow-up, using standard clinical and laboratory methods to assess autonomic function. Methods Fifty-eight patients met the study criteria (orthostatic symptoms and a heart rate increment of ≥30 beats/min on head-up tilt) and completed 12 months of follow-up. All patients were enrolled and completed the study from January 16, 2006, through April 15, 2009. Patients underwent standardized autonomic testing, including head-up tilt, clinical assessment, and validated questionnaires designed to determine the severity of autonomic symptoms. Results Patients were predominantly young females (n=49, 84%), with 20 patients (34%) reporting an antecedent viral infection before onset of symptoms. More than one-third (37%) no longer fulfilled tilt criteria for POTS on follow-up, although heart rate increment on head-up tilt did not differ significantly at 1 year (33.8±15.1 beats/min) compared with baseline (37.8±14.6 beats/min) for the entire cohort. Orthostatic symptoms improved in most patients. Autonomic dysfunction was mild as defined by a Composite Autonomic Severity Score of 3 or less in 55 patients (95%) at baseline and 48 patients (92%) at 1 year. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study of the clinical outcomes of patients with POTS. Orthostatic symptoms improved in our patients, with more than one-third of patients no longer fulfilling tilt criteria for POTS, although the overall group change in heart rate increment was modest. Our data are in keeping with a relatively favorable prognosis in most patients with POTS. PMID:22795533

  6. Electrophysiological detection of scalar changing perimodiolar cochlear electrode arrays: a long term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, Philipp; Todt, I; Ernst, A; Rademacher, G; Mutze, S; Göricke, S; Schlamann, M; Ramalingam, R; Lang, S; Christov, F; Arweiler-Harbeck, D

    2016-12-01

    The position of the cochlear electrode array within the scala tympani is essential for an optimal hearing benefit. An intraoperative NRT-ratio was established, which can provide information about the intraoperative intracochlear electrode array position for perimodiolar electrodes. The aims of this study were to verify the longterm reliability for the NRT-ratio in perimodiolar electrodes. In a retrospective controlled study in a Tertiary Referral Center the electrophysiological data sets of 123 patients with implanted Nucleus Contour Advance electrodes were enclosed. Intraoperative and up to 1 year follow-up Auto-NRTs were evaluated. A NRT-ratio was calculated by dividing the average Auto-NRT data from electrode 16 to 18 with the average from electrode 5 to 7. Using a flat panel tomography system, the position of the electrode array was certified radiological. 31 patients with perimodiolar electrodes with 1 year follow-up data were included in the study. Eleven patients showed regular follow-up NRT-ratio with a correlated and radiologically confirmed electrode position. 20 patients showed mismatches between the NRT-ratio and the radiological position. These patients were highly variable in terms of duration of deafness and neural spectrum disorders. The NRT-ratio can be used to determine the intracochlear position of the electrode array for perimodiolar electrodes. Intraoperatively the NRT-ratio predicts the array position within the cochlea highly reliable for perimodiolar electrodes. We showed that after 6 months and a year, the NRT-ratio remains unchanged in most of the cases and shows a good correlation to the radiological determined position of the array. Nevertheless, the condition of the neural structures is highly important for reproducible responses. Limited validity is given in patients with degenerative and structural neural disorders.

  7. The role of alexithymia: An 8-year follow-up study of chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Joukamaa, Matti I; Karukivi, Max

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this 8-year follow-up study was to ascertain changes in alexithymia, depressiveness and pain situation in a sample of chronic pain patients and to explore the impact of alexithymia and depression on the outcome. Participants (n=83) were chronic non-malignant pain patients who completed self-report study questionnaires before their first visit to the pain clinic and again 8years later. Study variables consisted of pain intensity measured by the Visual Analogous Scale, the Pain Disability Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. The moderate improvement in the pain situation was estimated as a decrease of 30% or more in pain intensity or pain disability. In the whole sample there was a significant decrease in pain intensity, pain disability and depressiveness, but only some of the patients achieved moderate improvement in their pain situation. Alexithymia remained stable during the 8-year period. The alexithymic patients had poorer pain situation and more depressiveness both at baseline and at follow-up. Unfavorable outcome in the pain situation was connected with male gender and alexithymia at baseline but not with depressiveness. Alexithymia and depressiveness were closely related to each other and the connection strengthened during the follow-up period. Alexithymic depressive chronic pain patients represent a special, more disabled subgroup among chronic pain patients. The authors recommend screening for and identifying alexithymia and depression in chronic pain patients. Structural treatment protocols such as cognitive-behavioral therapy may benefit these patients. More research is needed to develop treatment interventions for alexithymic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  9. Optical Studies of Space Debris at GEO: Survey and Follow-up with Two Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, P.; Abercomby, K. J.; Rodriquez, H. M.; Barker, E. S.

    2007-01-01

    For 14 nights in March 2007, we used two telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile to study the nature of space debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). In this project one telescope was dedicated to survey operations, while a second telescope was used for follow-up observations for orbits and colors. The goal was to obtain orbital and photometric information on every faint object found with the survey telescope. Thus we concentrate on objects fainter than R = 15th magnitude.

  10. Self-inflicted injury: a follow-up study of 43 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, I; Sneddon, J

    1975-01-01

    Forty-three patients, 38 women and 5 men, with self-inflicted skin lesions were studied. Thirty-three were followed up for up to 22 years. In most cases dermatitis artefacta was only one incident in a long history of psychogenic illness. Of the 43 patients, 13 (30%), 12 women and one man, continued to produce lesions or were disabled with other psychiatric disorders more than 12 years after the onset of symptoms. Prognosis was difficult but recovery seemed to occur when the patient's life circumstances changed rather than as a result of treatment. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1164617

  11. Long-term follow-up of heel spur surgery. A 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Vohra, P K; Giorgini, R J; Sobel, E; Japour, C J; Villalba, M A; Rostkowski, T

    1999-02-01

    A comparative retrospective study of 48 open heel spur surgeries and 20 endoscopic plantar fasciotomies was conducted involving 59 patients over a 10-year period. There was a significant reduction in heel pain at the time of follow-up (average, 3 years) for both groups. Overall, 85% of procedures were associated with patient satisfaction with the results, and patients said that they would recommend heel spur surgery for relief of severe heel pain in 94% of cases. Factors influencing the postoperative outcome, such as duration of preoperative symptoms, extent of conservative care, and obesity, are discussed.

  12. The outcome of children with selective mutism following cognitive behavioral intervention: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lang, Claudia; Nir, Ziv; Gothelf, Ayelet; Domachevsky, Shoshi; Ginton, Lee; Kushnir, Jonathan; Gothelf, Doron

    2016-04-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a relatively rare childhood disorder and is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The purpose of the retrospective naturalistic study was to examine the long-term outcome of children with SM who were treated with specifically designed modular cognitive behavioral therapy (MCBT). Parents of 36 children who met diagnostic criteria of SM that received MCBT treatment were invited for a follow-up evaluation. Parents were interviewed using structured scales and completed questionnaires regarding the child, including the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ). Twenty-four subjects were identified and evaluated. Their mean age ± SD of onset of SM symptoms, beginning of treatment, and age at follow-up were 3.4 ± 1.4, 6.4 ± 3.1, and 9.3 ± 3.4 years, respectively. There was robust improvement from beginning of treatment to follow-up evaluation in SM, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia symptoms. The recovery rate from SM was 84.2 %. SM-focused MCBT is feasible in children and possibly effective in inducing long-term reduction of SM and comorbid anxiety symptoms. • There are limited empirical data on selective mutism (SM) treatment outcome and specifically on cognitive-behavioral therapy, with the majority of studies being uncontrolled case reports of 1 to 2 cases each. • There is also limited data on the long-term outcome of children with SM following treatment. What is New: • Modular cognitive behavioral treatment is a feasible and possibly effective treatment for SM. Intervention at a younger age is more effective comparing to an older age. • Treatment for SM also decreases the rate of psychiatric comorbidities, including separation anxiety disorder and specific phobia.

  13. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. Results: At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P < 0.001). Twelve patients (4%) had no change in Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion: Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions. PMID:26958048

  14. [Professional outcomes and psychological health after workplace bullying: an exploratory follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Fiabane, Elena; Flachi, Daniela; Giorgi, Ines; Crepaldi, Ilaria; Candura, Stefano M; Mazzacane, Fulvio; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-07-08

    The literature shows that workplace bullying can lead to negative consequences for both individuals' health and professional outcomes. Most of these studies used cross-sectional designs and self-report questionnaires and further research is needed in order to explore long-term effects of workplace bullying. This follow-up study aimed to explore professional and psychological outcomes in a sample of subjects who required a specialized and multidisciplinary assessment for psychological problems related, in their opinion, to workplace bullying. The sample includes 71 patients with a baseline diagnosis of work-related psychological disorder who were assessed at follow-up by means of a structured telephone interview. The interview included structured questions about professional career developments and psycho-somatic health, and administration of the General Health Questionnaire-12. 62.0% of the participants were currently working and, of these, 59.1% had changed workplace after experiencing mobbing. Patients who changed workplace scored significantly higher on job satisfaction levels (p<0.01) and showed lower levels of social dysfunction (p<0.01) compared to those who did not change their job. Patients with a baseline diagnosis of Adjustment disorder/Post-Traumatic Stress disorder had higher levels of general dysphoria (p<0.04) and social dysfunction (p<0.01) at follow-up than other patients. These findings  stress the importance of an accurate diagnostic assessment of mobbing-related psychopathological disorder. Victims of workplace bullying require early and continuous psychological support in order to promote their psychological well-being and work reinstatement.

  15. Alterations in visual and auditory processing in hemispatial neglect: an evoked potential follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tarkka, Ina M; Luukkainen-Markkula, Riitta; Pitkänen, Kauko; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Hemispatial neglect is common after cerebrovascular stroke in the right hemisphere. Cortical electrophysiological studies, especially investigations of both visual and auditory processing in subjects with neglect are sparse. Our purpose was to assess whether and to which extent subjects with neglect may show impairments in both visual and auditory processing. Thereby, we assessed the evolution of changes in sensory processing and neglect symptoms over a 6 month follow-up period. Twenty-one stroke subjects with hemispatial neglect were studied at baseline, 3 weeks later and at 6 months follow-up. At enrollment, 12 patients were in Acute/subacute and 9 were in the chronic stage of stroke. Visual and auditory evoked potentials (EP) were elicited with unilateral stimulations and electrophysiologic data were registered with high-density EEG. Primary visual and auditory cortex activations seen in EP components were analyzed at three time points in order to detect alterations. Both sensory modalities revealed differences between hemispheres in processing stimuli coming from a unilateral source. Amplitudes of visual and auditory EP components elicited by left-sided stimuli were smaller compared to those elicited by right-sided stimuli in the Acute/subacute group. The behavioral neglect was more severe in those who had smaller EP amplitudes (e.g. EP amplitude after the right auditory stimulus was significantly associated with total behavioral neglect score, r=0.57). The main hemispheric differences diminished by the follow-up 6 months later along with the decreasing severity of neglect in the Acute/subacute group.

  16. Frequent Respiratory Viral Infections in Children with Febrile Neutropenia - A Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Söderman, Martina; Rhedin, Samuel; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Rotzén-Östlund, Maria; Albert, Jan; Broliden, Kristina; Lindblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Febrile neutropenia is common in children undergoing chemotherapy for the treatment of malignancies. In the majority of cases, the cause of the fever is unknown. Although respiratory viruses are commonly associated with this condition, the etiologic significance of this finding remains unclear and is therefore the subject of this study. Study design Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected during 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia in children age 0–18 years, being treated at a children’s oncology unit between January 2013 and June 2014. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the presence of 16 respiratory viruses. Follow-up samples were collected from children who tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses. Rhinoviruses were genotyped by VP4/VP2 sequencing. Fisher’s exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for group comparisons. Results At least one respiratory virus was detected in samples from 39 of 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia (45%), with rhinoviruses the most frequently detected. Follow-up samples were collected after a median of 28 days (range, 9–74 days) in 32 of the 39 virus-positive episodes. The respiratory viral infection had resolved in 25 episodes (78%). The same virus was detected at follow-up in one coronavirus and six rhinovirus episodes. Genotyping revealed a different rhinovirus species in two of the six rhinovirus infections. Conclusion The frequency of respiratory viral infections in this group of patients suggests an etiologic role in febrile neutropenia. However, these findings must be confirmed in larger patient cohorts. PMID:27309354

  17. Back posture education in elementary schoolchildren: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Geldhof, Elisabeth; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Clercq, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of primary prevention regarding back functioning in children, research on the stability of intervention effects is indispensable. Along this line, the transition from childhood to adolescence is an important phase to evaluate the potential stability of intervention effects because of the typically mechanical and psychological demands related to adolescence. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a back education program at 2-year follow-up, in youngsters aged 13–14 years, on back posture knowledge, fear-avoidance beliefs and self-reported pain. An additional purpose was to evaluate which aspects of postural behavior were integrated in youngsters’ lifestyles. At 2-year follow-up, the study sample included 94 secondary schoolchildren in the intervention group (mean age 13.3 ± 0.8 years) and 101 controls (mean age 13.2 ± 0.7 years). The back posture program that had been implemented for two school years consisted of back education and the stimulation of postural dynamism in the class through support and environmental changes. A questionnaire was completed comparable to the pretest, posttest and follow-up evaluations. The current study demonstrated at 2-year follow-up stability of the improved general (F = 1.590, ns) and specific (F = 0.049, ns) back posture knowledge in children who had received early back posture education. Back posture education did not result in increased fear-avoidance beliefs (F = 1.163, ns) or mounting back and/or neck pain reports (F = 0.001, ns). Based on self-reports for postural behavior, youngsters who had received the back posture program in the elementary school curriculum integrated crucial sitting and lifting principles conform to biomechanical favorable postural behavior. The steady intervention effects 2-year post-intervention demonstrated that intensive back posture education through the elementary school curriculum is effective till adolescence. Future research on

  18. Back posture education in elementary schoolchildren: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Geldhof, Elisabeth; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Clercq, Dirk

    2007-06-01

    Within the scope of primary prevention regarding back functioning in children, research on the stability of intervention effects is indispensable. Along this line, the transition from childhood to adolescence is an important phase to evaluate the potential stability of intervention effects because of the typically mechanical and psychological demands related to adolescence. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a back education program at 2-year follow-up, in youngsters aged 13-14 years, on back posture knowledge, fear-avoidance beliefs and self-reported pain. An additional purpose was to evaluate which aspects of postural behavior were integrated in youngsters' lifestyles. At 2-year follow-up, the study sample included 94 secondary schoolchildren in the intervention group (mean age 13.3 +/- 0.8 years) and 101 controls (mean age 13.2 +/- 0.7 years). The back posture program that had been implemented for two school years consisted of back education and the stimulation of postural dynamism in the class through support and environmental changes. A questionnaire was completed comparable to the pretest, posttest and follow-up evaluations. The current study demonstrated at 2-year follow-up stability of the improved general (F = 1.590, ns) and specific (F = 0.049, ns) back posture knowledge in children who had received early back posture education. Back posture education did not result in increased fear-avoidance beliefs (F = 1.163, ns) or mounting back and/or neck pain reports (F = 0.001, ns). Based on self-reports for postural behavior, youngsters who had received the back posture program in the elementary school curriculum integrated crucial sitting and lifting principles conform to biomechanical favorable postural behavior. The steady intervention effects 2-year post-intervention demonstrated that intensive back posture education through the elementary school curriculum is effective till adolescence. Future research on the impact of early

  19. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-04-20

    Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still needed to confirm our findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  20. A 4-year follow-up study of a rural community with endemic Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Yépez, C. Gil

    1968-01-01

    The paper reports on a 4-year follow-up study that represents the continuation of a previous cross-sectional study on Chagas' disease carried out in a rural community (Belén) in Venezuela. The earlier study included 1210 persons all over 5 years of age out of a total of 1656 inhabitants and demonstrated a high prevalence of Chagas' infection (47.3%) and a high rate of Chagas' disease seropositivity among those with chronic myocardial heart disease (84.8%); heart disease was found in 17.3% of persons studied. The follow-up study was based on 812 persons and established that in the sample the frequency of Chagas' infection was 16.3% and that of heart disease 2.2%. Clinical, electrocardiographic and radiological analyses were made on patients with previous heart disease as well as on new patients. Different evolutive electrocardiographic patterns have been found, including variations ranging from normal to definitively abnormal. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4974002

  1. Neonatal and prospective follow-up study of infants delivered by vacuum extraction (VE).

    PubMed

    Blennow, G; Svenningsen, N W; Gustafson, B; Sundén, B; Cronquist, S

    1977-01-01

    Forty infants delivered by vacuum extraction have been studied in the neonatal period--neurological examination, neonatal CSF-examinations, skull X-ray examination, transillumination and sonoencephalography --and at 14 months of age--developmental and behavioural evaluation, neurological examination, skull X-ray examination, sonoencephalography and electroencephalography. Two infants died in the neonatal period but in both cases a life-threatening situation of the fetus required immediate delivery. CSF cytological signs of haemorrhage were observed in 42% of the 26 infants who had a successful lumbar tap, compared to 10% found in normal deliveries. The result of the neonatal neurological study did not differ from that in a control group. The result of the skull X-ray examination and sonoencephalography were also within normal limits. In the follow-up study behavioural problems were found in 25%, but otherwise very few abnormalities were found. The deviatiosn found do not for the present indicate any later signs of brain lesions. It is concluded that this prospective study has shown that VE-delivery in fullterm babies seem to imply no risk fo serious cerebral sequelae. Further follow-up studies at a later age in order to evaluate the incidence of so-called minimal brain damage in VE-delivered children are required.

  2. Predictors of Attendance and Dropout at the Lung Health Study 11-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Wanda M.; Connett, John E.; Sharma, Shweta; Murray, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Participant attrition and attendance at follow-up were examined in a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial. The Lung Health Study (LHS) enrolled a total of 5, 887 adults to examine the impact of smoking cessation coupled with the use of an inhaled bronchodilator on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Of the initial LHS 1 volunteers still living at the time of enrolment in LHS 3 (5,332), 4,457 (84%) attended the LHS 3 clinic visit, a follow-up session to determine current smoking status and lung function. The average period between the beginning of LHS 1 and baseline interview for LHS 3 was 11 years. In univariate analyses, attenders were older, more likely female, more likely to be married, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, and were more likely to have children who smoked at the start of LHS 1 than non-attenders. Attenders were also less likely to experience respiratory symptoms, such as cough, but had decreased baseline lung function compared with non-attenders. Volunteers recruited via mass mailing were more likely to attend the long-term follow-up visit. Those recruited by public site, worksite, or referral methods were less likely to attend. In multivariate models, age, gender, cigarettes smoked per day, married status, and whether participants’ children smoked were identified as significant predictors of attendance versus non-attendance at LHS 3 using stepwise logistic regression. Treatment condition (smoking intervention or usual care) was not a significant predictor of attendance at LHS 3. Older females who smoked less heavily were most likely to participate. These findings may be applied to improve participant recruitment and retention in future clinical trials. PMID:17015043

  3. Asthma and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Platz, Elizabeth A.; Drake, Charles G.; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Giovannucci, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation, and more generally, the immune response are thought to influence the development of prostate cancer. To determine components of the immune response that are potentially contributory, we prospectively evaluated the association of immune-mediated conditions, asthma and hayfever, with lethal prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We included 47,880 men ages 40-75 years with no prior cancer diagnosis. On the baseline questionnaire in 1986 the men reported diagnoses of asthma and hayfever and year of onset. On follow-up questionnaires, they reported new asthma and prostate cancer diagnoses. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RR). 9.2% reported ever having been diagnosed with asthma. 25.3% reported a hayfever diagnosis at baseline. During 995,176 person-years of follow-up by 2012, we confirmed 798 lethal prostate cancer cases (diagnosed with distant metastases, progressed to distant metastasis, or died of prostate cancer [N=625]). Ever having a diagnosis of asthma was inversely associated with risk of lethal (RR=0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-1.00) and fatal (RR=0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.96) disease. Hayfever with onset in the distant past was possibly weakly positively associated with risk of lethal (RR=1.10, 95% CI 0.92-1.33) and fatal (RR=1.12, 95% CI 0.91-1.37) disease. Men who were ever diagnosed with asthma were less likely to develop lethal and fatal prostate cancer. Our findings may lead to testable hypotheses about specific immune profiles in the etiology of lethal prostate cancer. PMID:25648070

  4. Asthma and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Platz, Elizabeth A; Drake, Charles G; Wilson, Kathryn M; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Kenfield, Stacey A; Mucci, Lorelei A; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C; Camargo, Carlos A; Giovannucci, Edward

    2015-08-15

    Inflammation, and more generally, the immune response are thought to influence the development of prostate cancer. To determine the components of the immune response that are potentially contributory, we prospectively evaluated the association of immune-mediated conditions, asthma and hayfever, with lethal prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We included 47,880 men aged 40-75 years with no prior cancer diagnosis. On the baseline questionnaire in 1986, the men reported diagnoses of asthma and hayfever and year of onset. On the follow-up questionnaires, they reported new asthma and prostate cancer diagnoses. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RRs). In total, 9.2% reported ever having been diagnosed with asthma. In all, 25.3% reported a hayfever diagnosis at baseline. During 995,176 person-years of follow-up by 2012, we confirmed 798 lethal prostate cancer cases (diagnosed with distant metastases, progressed to distant metastasis or died of prostate cancer [N = 625]). Ever having a diagnosis of asthma was inversely associated with risk of lethal (RR = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51-1.00) and fatal (RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.96) disease. Hayfever with onset in the distant past was possibly weakly positively associated with risk of lethal (RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.92-1.33) and fatal (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.37) disease. Men who were ever diagnosed with asthma were less likely to develop lethal and fatal prostate cancer. Our findings may lead to testable hypotheses about specific immune profiles in the etiology of lethal prostate cancer. © 2015 UICC.

  5. Corneal Astigmatism in Patients After Cataract Surgery: A 10-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Whang, Woong-Joo; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2016-06-01

    To report the long-term outcomes of corneal astigmatism after cataract surgery. The study included 55 eyes of 46 patients who underwent cataract surgery with temporal 3-mm clear corneal incisions from January 2001 to December 2003. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination including keratometry at the preoperative visit and at 2 months and 10 years after surgery. Only those eyes that underwent a follow-up of 10 years or longer from the time of cataract surgery were enrolled. Arithmetic and vector analyses were performed to obtain the change in corneal astigmatism with advancing age. The mean age of the patients was 59.11 ± 12.33 years (range: 18 to 75 years), and 58.7% of the patients were women. The mean follow-up period was 131.28 ± 14.36 months. The average magnitudes of surgically induced astigmatism and long-term astigmatism change were 0.66 ± 0.42 and 0.57 ± 0.47 diopters (D), respectively. The vector difference was 0.56 ± 0.55 D at 90° ± 0° between the preoperative and 2-month visits. However, there was no difference in vector values between postoperative 2 months and 10 years (0.00 ± 0.74 D at 0° ± 0°). Patients with corneal astigmatism who underwent cataract surgery did not show a long-term against-the-rule change in corneal astigmatism during a 10-year follow-up. These results provide useful information when planning toric intraocular lens implantation in patients with corneal astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(6):404-409.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. A follow-up study of pulpotomies and root canal treatments performed under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Cousson, Pierre-Yves; Nicolas, Emmanuel; Hennequin, Martine

    2014-05-01

    A previous study considered whether the proportions of clinically satisfactory root canal treatments (RCT) done under general anaesthesia (GA) or under local anaesthesia were equivalent, but the proportion of treatment with long-term satisfactory endodontic outcomes remains unknown. Moreover, no evaluation of pulpotomies performed under GA has been reported. From 614 endodontic treatments (ETs) performed on permanent teeth under GA, 225 [193 RCT and 32 pulpotomies (P)] were examined after follow-up periods of 1-6 months (71 cases), 6-24 months (77 cases) and over 2 years (77 cases). Changes in the periapical index between the treatment date (T0) and the control time (T1) allowed the treatment to be classified as "success," "uncertain outcome" or "failure." Explicative variables for success of ET were the duration of follow-up and tooth-related criteria expected to affect the outcomes of endodontic treatment. Overall, 87 % of ETs were scored as "success," while 9 % were uncertain and 4 % were failures. There was no difference in the distribution of success in relation with the type of tooth, the pulpal status, the level of endodontic difficulty, the periapical status or the technical quality of RCT. The proportion of endodontic cases with high level of difficulties was higher in the P group than in the RCT group. Longer follow-ups and higher numbers of cases are needed to analyse the factors affecting success and failure in endodontic treatments performed under GA. The relatively high rates of success of pulpotomies and RCT support undertaking endodontic treatment under GA.

  7. Long-term trajectories of back pain: cohort study with 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kate M; Campbell, Paul; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe long-term trajectories of back pain. Design Monthly data collection for 6 months at 7-year follow-up of participants in a prospective cohort study. Setting Primary care practices in Staffordshire, UK. Participants 228 people consulting their general practitioners with back pain, on whom information on 6-month back pain trajectories had been collected during 2001–2003, and who had valid consent and contact details in 2009–2010, were contacted. 155 participants (68% of those contacted) responded and provided sufficient data for primary analyses. Outcome measures Trajectories based on patients’ self-reports of back pain were identified using longitudinal latent class analysis. Trajectories were characterised using information on disability, psychological status and presence of other symptoms. Results Four clusters with different back pain trajectories at follow-up were identified: (1) no or occasional pain, (2) persistent mild pain, (3) fluctuating pain and (4) persistent severe pain. Trajectory clusters differed significantly from each other in terms of disability, psychological status and other symptoms. Most participants remained in a similar trajectory as 7 years previously (weighted κ 0.54; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.65). Conclusions Most people with back pain appear to follow a particular pain trajectory over long time periods, and do not have frequently recurring or widely fluctuating patterns. The results are limited by lack of information about the time between data collection periods and by loss to follow-up. However, findings do raise questions about standard divisions into acute and chronic back pain. A new framework for understanding the course of back pain is proposed. PMID:24334157

  8. Delivery by caesarean section and childhood cancer: a nationwide follow-up study in three countries.

    PubMed

    Momen, N C; Olsen, J; Gissler, M; Cnattingius, S; Li, J

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the association between delivery by caesarean section and risk of childhood cancer. A population-based, follow-up study using register data from three countries. Denmark, Sweden and Finland. Children born in Denmark (1973-2007), Sweden (1973-2006) and Finland (randomly selected sample of 90%, 1987-2007; n = 7,029,843). Exposure was delivery by caesarean section and the outcome was childhood cancer diagnosis. Follow-up started from birth and ended at the first of the following dates: cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, day before 15th birthday or end of follow-up. Cox regression was used to obtain hazard ratios. Childhood cancer diagnosis. A total of 882,907 (12.6%) children were delivered by caesarean section. Of these, 30.3% were elective (n = 267,603), 35.9% unplanned (n = 316,536) and 33.8% had no information on planning (n = 298,768). Altogether, 11,181 children received a cancer diagnosis. No evidence of an increased risk of childhood cancer was found for children born by caesarean section (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.99, 1.11). No association was found for any major type of childhood cancer, or when split by the type of caesarean section (elective/unplanned). The evidence does not suggest that caesarean section is a risk factor for the overall risk of childhood cancer and possibly not for subtypes of childhood cancer either. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Survival times in people with dementia: analysis from population based cohort study with 14 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To provide estimates of survival after onset of dementia by age, sex, self reported health, disability, and severity of cognitive impairment. Design Analysis of participants from prospective population based cohort study in 1991-2003, with follow-up of dementia status in all individuals after two and six years (in one centre) and 10 years and in subsamples additionally at six and eight years and mortality until 2005. Setting Multicentre population based study in England and Wales: two rural and three urban centres. Participants 438 participants who developed dementia from a population based study of 13 004 individuals aged 65 years and over drawn from primary care population registers. Main outcome measures Sociodemographic factors, cognitive function, specific health conditions, and self reported health collected at each interview. Cox’s proportional hazards regression models were used to identify predictors of mortality from the selected variables in people who received diagnosis of dementia according the study’s criteria. Results By December 2005, 356 of the 438 (81%) participants who developed dementia during the study had died. Estimated median survival time from onset of dementia to death was 4.1 years (interquartile range 2.5-7.6) for men and 4.6 years (2.9-7.0) for women. There was a difference of nearly seven years in survival between the younger old and the oldest people with dementia: 10.7 (25th centile 5.6) for ages 65-69; 5.4 (interquartile range 3.4-8.3) for ages 70-79; 4.3 (2.8-7.0) for ages 80-89, and 3.8 (2.3-5.2) years for ages ≥90. Significant factors that predicted mortality in the presence of dementia during the follow-up included sex, age of onset, and disability. Conclusion These analyses give a population based estimated median survival for incident dementia of 4.5 years. Such estimates can be used for prognosis and planning for patients, carers, service providers, and policy makers. PMID:18187696

  10. Patient location strategies for pediatric long-term follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Matthew E; Morcuende, Jose A

    2006-01-01

    Poor follow-up rates greatly diminish the validity of prospective and long-term studies. Therefore, locating patients is of critical importance. This is especially true in populations treated during childhood because addresses will change several times in intervening years. Recent publications have reported new strategies for patient location. The purpose of this study is to test an algorithm proposed by King et al., as well as other search methods, using a cohort of patients treated for clubfoot in childhood The study population included 126 patients with clubfeet treated between 1950 and 1967. We followed the search algorithm proposed by King et al. In addition, we used state driver's license records, Reunitetonight.com, and Intelius.com. Patients were considered to be found when they returned a postage-paid reply letter or were contacted by phone. Using web pages recommended by King et al. we located 26 of 126 (21 percent) patients. Operator directory assistance failed to locate any patients not located by free internet sources. Additional websites had varied results. State driver's license records found 25 patients. Reunitetonight.com found none with thirty attempted. The best search engine was Intelius.com which located 68 out of 126 (54 percent) patients. The algorithm proposed by King et al. is not effective for long-term follow-up studies of pediatric populations. Intelius.com is worth the small fee charged (dollar 22.45) as it was the most effective method of locating patients.

  11. Reconstructive surgery after burns: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hop, M J; Langenberg, L C; Hiddingh, J; Stekelenburg, C M; van der Wal, M B A; Hoogewerf, C J; van Koppen, M L J; Polinder, S; van Zuijlen, P P M; van Baar, M E; Middelkoop, E

    2014-12-01

    There is minimal insight into the prevalence of reconstructive surgery after burns. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence, predictors, indications, techniques and medical costs of reconstructive surgery after burns. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the three Dutch burn centres. Patients with acute burns, admitted from January 1998 until December 2001, were included. Data on patient and injury characteristics and reconstructive surgery details were collected in a 10-year follow-up period. In 13.0% (n=229/1768) of the patients with burns, reconstructive surgery was performed during the 10-year follow-up period. Mean number of reconstructive procedure per patient were 3.6 (range 1-25). Frequently reconstructed locations were hands and head/neck. The most important indication was scar contracture and the most applied technique was release plus random flaps/skin grafting. Mean medical costs of reconstructive surgery per patient over 10-years were €8342. With this study we elucidated the reconstructive needs of patients after burns. The data presented can be used as reference in future studies that aim to improve scar quality of burns and decrease the need for reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. The depression in women in pregnancy and postpartum period: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kirkan, Tulay Sati; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Esra; Aslan, Puren Akcali; Acemoglu, Hamit; Daloglu, Ali Gokhan

    2015-06-01

    This was a follow-up study to determine postpartum depression (PPD) and its causes in a population previously evaluated in the first trimester of pregnancy. The study sample consisted of pregnant women who were evaluated in the first trimester and 360 women who were re-evaluated in the postpartum period. Detailed sociodemographic data were obtained from the women, and depression was assessed with the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression scale (EPDS) and Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). In this follow-up study, the prevalence of PPD was 35% (n = 126). A depressive disorder in the first trimester of pregnancy, previous mental disorder, somatic disorder, exposure to domestic violence during pregnancy, baby's staying in the incubator and not breastfeeding were predictors of PPD. Exposure to violence and a history of previous depression predicted depression both in pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Depression rates are high in Eastern Turkey. Exposure to violence during pregnancy and the existence of a previous mental disorder were risk factors for perinatal depression in this study. Performing screening tests can identify women at risk of pregnancy-related depression. Prevention programs should be established in areas where the prevalence of depression is high. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers: a one-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an important cause of functional impairments and disability among construction workers. An improved understanding of MSDs in different construction occupations is likely to be of value for selecting preventive measures. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of symptoms of MSDs, the work-relatedness of the symptoms and the problems experienced during work among two construction occupations: bricklayers and supervisors. Methods We randomly selected 750 bricklayers and 750 supervisors resident in the Netherlands in December 2009. This sample was surveyed by means of a baseline questionnaire and a follow-up questionnaire one year later. The participants were asked about complaints of the musculoskeletal system during the last six months, the perceived work-relatedness of the symptoms, the problems that occurred during work and the occupational tasks that were perceived as causes or aggravating factors of the MSD. Results Baseline response rate was 37%, follow-up response was 80%. The prevalence of MSDs among 267 bricklayers and 232 supervisors was 67% and 57%, respectively. Complaints of the back, knee and shoulder/upper arm were the most prevalent among both occupations. Irrespective of the body region, most of the bricklayers and supervisors reported that their complaints were work-related. Complaints of the back and elbow were the most often reported among the bricklayers during work, whereas lower arm/wrist and upper leg complaints were the most often reported among the supervisors. In both occupations, a majority of the participants perceived several occupational physical tasks and activities as causes or aggravating factors for their MSD. Recurrent complaints at follow-up were reported by both bricklayers (47% of the complaints) and supervisors (31% of the complaints). Participants in both occupations report that mainly back and knee complaints result in additional problems during work, at the time

  14. Mortality in myasthenia gravis: A nationwide population-based follow-up study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Julie S; Danielsen, Ditte H; Somnier, Finn E; Frøslev, Trine; Jakobsen, Johannes; Johnsen, Søren P; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies of myasthenia gravis (MG), increased mortality has been reported. The aim of this study was to estimate mortality in patients with acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR-Ab-seropositive) MG in a nationwide population-based, long-term follow-up study. All AChR-Ab-seropositive MG patients, diagnosed between 1985 and 2005, were identified. Defined by age at diagnosis (≤ 50 or >50 years), patients were classified as having early- or late-onset MG. For comparison, 10 non-MG individuals from the general population were matched with each patient. All patients and controls were followed until January 1, 2009. Mortality rates and estimated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were calculated. Of 702 AChR-Ab-seropositive MG patients, 302 died during follow-up. Overall mortality was higher for patients with MG (MRR = 1.41, range 1.24-1.60). In late-onset women and men, the MRRs were 1.64 (1.36-1.99) and 1.22 (1.02-1.46), respectively. Total MRR was highest during the first 5 years after diagnosis. MG diagnosis is still associated with increased mortality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Periodontal parameters of osseointegrated dental implants. A 4-year controlled follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, K; Itoh, T; Takaki, K; Hosokawa, R; Naito, T; Yokota, M

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal parameters of osseointegrated dental implants. The condition of the peri-implant mucosa was assessed using periodontal parameters, i.e., of plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, probing attachment level and Periotest scores as well as a radiographic parameter, over a 4-year follow-up period. 32 non-submerged ITI dental implants, all placed in the mandible, were studied in 12 patients who had good oral hygiene. All patients were regularly recalled at 6-month intervals. The overall implant success rate was 100%. None of the implants showed any signs of inflammation, radiographic bone loss or any detectable mobility during the follow-up period. Methods similar to those used to evaluate the natural dentition were effectively employed to assess the clinical status of the dental implants. The diagnostic value of these parameters could not, however, be determined from this study due to the absence of any peri-implant tissue complications. The results indicated that some periodontal parameters of healthy peri-implant mucosa might be slightly different from healthy periodontal tissue.

  16. [The Octabaix study. Baseline assessment and 5 years of follow-up].

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Padrós, Gloria; Badia, Teresa; Almeda, Jesús; Octabaix, Grupo Estudio

    This is a review of a prospective, community-based study with a follow-up period of 5years. It is a study of 328 participants aged 85 at baseline, of which 62% were female, 53% widows, and a third of them living alone. High blood pressure was observed in 75.9%, dyslipidaemia in 51.2%, and diabetes in 17.7%. At baseline the median Barthel Index was 95, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was 28, the Charlson index 1, the Mini Nutritional Assessment 25, the Gijón test 10, the visual analogue scale of the Quality of Life Test was 60, and with a mean of 6.1 prescription drugs. A lower quality of life was also associated with female gender, a phenotype of frailty, heart failure, and a high level of social risk. At 5years of follow-up, the mortality rate was high, with 138 (42.1%) of the population sample dying at the end of the period. It represents an annual mortality rate of 8.4%. Thus, a common denominator of this review has been the high importance of functionality and overall comorbidity factors associated with mortality in this very old age group, compared to other more traditional factors in younger populations. Several studies of frailty have also been assessed in this group, as well as falls, nutritional risk, diabetes and successful aging, including important aspects to better understand this population group.

  17. Disability in young people and adults after head injury: 5-7 year follow up of a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Whitnall, L; McMillan, T M; Murray, G D; Teasdale, G M

    2006-05-01

    Improvement 1-2 years after head injury is well established but the pattern thereafter is unclear. Past studies have not examined representative head injury populations and typically report findings in terms of functioning across social, psychological, neurobehavioural, or cognitive domains rather than global outcome. To determine the late outcome of a representative cohort of participants admitted to hospital after a head injury 5-7 years previously and to identify early and late factors correlating with persisting disability and change between one and 5-7 years. A representative cohort of head injured people whose outcome one year after injury was reported previously, were followed up 5-7 years after injury. Participants were assessed using structured and validated measures of global outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended), cognitive impairment, psychological wellbeing, health status, and social factors. Of 475 survivors studied at one year, 115 (24%) had died by seven years. In survivors at 5-7 years, disability remained frequent (53%); and the rate, similar to that found at one year (57%). Sixty three participants (29%) had improved but 55 (25%) deteriorated. The persistence of disability and its development after previous recovery each showed stronger associations with indices of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem than with initial severity of injury or persisting cognitive impairment. Admission to hospital after head injury is followed 5-7 years later by disability in a high proportion of survivors. Persistence of disability and development of new disability are strongly associated with psychosocial factors that may be open to remediation, even late after injury.

  18. Transcranial sonography in the evaluation of pineal lesions: two-year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Budisić, Mislav; Bosnjak, Jelena; Lovrencić-Huzjan, Arijana; Strineka, Maja; Bene, Raphael; Azman, Drazen; Bedek, Darko; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Demarin, Vida

    2008-12-01

    We have recently reported that transcranial sonography (TCS) is a method competitive to magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) in the evaluation of pineal gland lesions. The aim of the present is study was to assess the usefulness of TCS in a larger patient sample during a two-year follow up. Twenty patients with incidental pineal gland cyst (PGC) detected by MRI scan of the brain and 40 healthy controls without any previous documented data on a disease related to pineal gland were evaluated by TCS and compared with MRI scans. There were no statistically significant differences in PGC size measured by TCS by two observers (p = 0.475), PGC size measured by TCS and MRI (first observer, p = 0.453; and second observer, p = 0.425), size of the pineal gland measured by TCS and MRI in control group (first observer, p = 0.497; and second observer, p = 0.370), and pineal gland size measured by TCS by two observers in control group (p = 0.473). Study results suggested TCS to be a suitable method in the evaluation of pineal gland lesions. Although its resolution cannot match the MRI resolution, its repeatability and accuracy might add to its practical value. We suggest that the repeat MRI scan of such lesions might be replaced by clinical and TCS follow up.

  19. Explaining educational differences in sickness absence: a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, Risto; Härkänen, Tommi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Gould, Raija; Koskinen, Seppo

    2015-07-01

    There is a marked socioeconomic gradient in sickness absences, but the causes of this gradient are poorly understood. This study examined the role of health and work-related factors as determinants of educational differences in long-term sickness absence in an 8-year follow-up. The study comprised a population-based sample of 5835 Finns aged 30-64 years (participation 89%, N=3946) in a register-based 8-year follow-up. This is a novel method to predict the population average of sickness absence days per working year (DWY) based on the expected outcome values using Poisson and gamma regression models. The difference in the DWY between the lowest and highest educational level was clear among both men (3.2 days/year versus 8.0 days/year) and women (women 4.4 days/year versus 10.1 days/year). Adjusting for physical working conditions, health status and health behavior, and obesity attenuated the differences. Psychosocial working conditions had only a minor effect on the association. After adjusting for health and work-related factors, the difference attenuated by 1.8 days and 2.6 days among men and women, respectively. Our results suggest that improvements in physical working conditions and reducing smoking, particularly among employees with a low level of education, may markedly reduce educational differences in sickness absence.

  20. Silicosis Appears Inevitable Among Former Denim Sandblasters: A 4-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Metin; Araz, Omer; Ucar, Elif Yilmazel; Karaman, Adem; Alper, Fatih; Gorguner, Metin; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-09-01

    The course of denim sandblasting silicosis is unknown. We aimed to reevaluate former sandblasters studied in 2007 for incident silicosis, radiographic progression, pulmonary function loss, and mortality and to examine any associations between these outcomes and previously demonstrated risk factors for silicosis. We defined silicosis on chest radiograph as category 1/0 small opacity profusion using the International Labor Organization classification. We defined radiographic progression as a profusion increase of two or more subcategories, development of a new large opacity, or an increase in large opacity category. We defined pulmonary function loss as a ≥ 12% decrease in FVC. Among the 145 former sandblasters studied in 2007, 83 were reassessed in 2011. In the 4-year follow-up period, nine (6.2%) had died at a mean age of 24 years. Of the 74 living sandblasters available for reexamination, the prevalence of silicosis increased from 55.4% to 95.9%. Radiographic progression, observed in 82%, was associated with younger age, never smoking, foreman work, and sleeping at the workplace. Pulmonary function loss, seen in 66%, was positively associated with never smoking and higher initial FVC % predicted. Death was associated with never smoking, foreman work, number of different denim-sandblasting places of work, sleeping at the workplace, and lower pulmonary function, of which only the number of different places worked remained in multivariate analyses. This 4-year follow-up suggests that almost all former denim sandblasters may develop silicosis, despite short exposures and latency.

  1. Reversible autism among congenitally blind children? A controlled follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hobson, R Peter; Lee, Anthony

    2010-11-01

    Atypical forms of autism may yield insights into the development and nature of the syndrome. We conducted a follow-up study of nine congenitally blind and seven sighted children who, eight years earlier, had satisfied formal diagnostic criteria for autism and had been included in groups matched for chronological age and verbal ability. In keeping with the original study, we met with teachers to discuss a DSM-based checklist of clinical features of autism, and conducted direct observations of the children to complete assessments on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler, Reichler, and Renner, 1986) and the Behavior Checklist for Disordered Preschoolers (BCDP; Sherman, Shapiro, & Glassman, 1983). As predicted, a substantially higher proportion of blind (eight out of nine) than sighted (none out of seven) children now failed to meet formal DSM criteria for autism, and in keeping with BCDP ratings, they had significantly lower CARS scores. Follow-up of nine congenitally blind children with autism revealed that, in adolescence, only one still satisfied diagnostic criteria for the syndrome. We consider the implications for theoretical perspectives on the development of autism. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Reduced prepulse inhibition in adolescents at risk for psychosis: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Ziermans, Tim; Schothorst, Patricia; Magnée, Maurice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle reflex is a hallmark feature of attention-processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that these deficits may also be present before the onset of psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) and become progressively worse as psychosis develops. We conducted a longitudinal follow-up study to observe the development of PPI over time in UHR adolescents and healthy controls. Methods Two-year follow-up data of PPI measures were compared between UHR adolescents and a matched control group of typically developing individuals. Results We included 42 UHR adolescents and 32 matched controls in our study. Compared with controls, UHR individuals showed reduced PPI at both assessments. Clinical improvement in UHR individuals was associated with an increase in PPI parameters. Limitations A developmental increase in startle magnitude partially confined the interpretation of the association between clinical status and PPI. Furthermore, post hoc analyses for UHR individuals who became psychotic between assessments had limited power owing to a low transition rate (14%). Conclusion Deficits in PPI are present before the onset of psychosis and represent a stable vulnerability marker over time in UHR individuals. The magnitude of this marker may partially depend on the severity of clinical symptoms. PMID:21266126

  3. Fish intake and venous thromboembolism: a Danish follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Overvad, Kim; Andersen, Vibeke Ladefoged; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2014-03-01

    Data on the association between fish intake and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is sparse and inconsistent. To investigate whether intake of total, lean or fatty fish is associated with development of incident VTE. This study is based on the Danish follow-up study Diet, Cancer and Health including 27,178 men and 29,876 women aged 50-64 with no history of cancer. Participants were included between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2006. Information on fish intake and potential confounders was obtained from baseline questionnaires. The outcome was incident VTE (all) and idiopathic VTE. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as time axis. Separate analyses were performed for men and women. Adjustment was made for BMI, smoking, physical activity, energy intake and women's use of hormone replacement therapy. During follow-up, 641 incident VTE events were verified. We found no association between total fish intake and VTE, but moderate intake of fatty fish was associated with a statistically non-significant 20-40% lower risk of idiopathic VTE compared with consumption of a low intake (less than 8g) of fatty fish per day. Intake of neither total nor fatty fish was statistically significantly associated with the incidence rate of VTE. However, intake of fatty fish may be associated with a reduction of the risk of idiopathic VTE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure on Infant Language Development: A Cohort Follow Up Study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Voltas Moreso, Núria; Ribot Serra, Blanca; Arija Val, Victoria; Escribano Macías, Joaquín; Canals Sans, Josefa

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To study the longitudinal effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on cognitive development, taking into consideration prenatal and postnatal second-hand smoke exposure. Methods A cohort follow up study was carried out. One hundred and fifty-eight pregnant women and their infants were followed during pregnancy and infant development (at 6, 12, 30 months). In each trimester of pregnancy and during postnatal follow-up, a survey was administered to obtain sociodemographic data and the details of maternal and close familial toxic habits. Obstetric and neonatal data were obtained from hospital medical records. To assess cognitive development, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were applied at 6, 12 and 30 months; to assess language development, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories were applied at 12 months and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 30 months. Results After adjustment for confounding variables, the results showed that infants prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke recorded poor cognitive development scores. Language development was most consistently affected, specifically those aspects related to auditory function (vocalizations, sound discrimination, word imitation, prelinguistic vocalizations, and word and sentence comprehension). Conclusions for Practice Irrespective of prenatal, perinatal and sociodemographic data (including infant postnatal nicotine exposure), prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and second-hand smoke affect infant cognitive development, especially language abilities.

  5. Controlled trial of antituberculous chemotherapy in Crohn's disease: a five year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G; Swift, G; Green, J; Newcombe, R; Braniff-Mathews, C; Rhodes, J; Wilkinson, S; Strohmeyer, G; Kreuzpainter, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—It has been suggested that Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is the cause of Crohn's disease. In a previous report the immediate effect of two years treatment with antituberculous chemotherapy showed no clinical benefit. 
Aims—To assess both the immediate and longer term effect of treatment on the disease. 
Methods—Patients were followed for five years from their date of entry to the study. One hundred and thirty patients entered the initial study, and of these 111 (81%) were followed regularly. 
Results—Overall, there was no evidence of consistent benefit or disadvantage from antituberculous chemotherapy in any of the assessments made, including the number of acute relapses, surgical episodes, hospital admissions, disease activity, blood tests, or medication required for Crohn's disease during the follow up period. 
Conclusion—The absence of any benefit at the end of the initial two year trial period, and during the three year subsequent follow up, fails to support the hypothesis that mycobacteria play an important part in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, or that antituberculous chemotherapy may be of benefit. 

 Keywords: Crohn's disease; mycobacteria; antituberculus chemotherapy PMID:9616310

  6. Recovery of aphasia after stroke: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    El Hachioui, Hanane; Lingsma, Hester F; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; Visch-Brink, Evy G

    2013-01-01

    Semantics, phonology, and syntax are essential elements of aphasia diagnosis and treatment. Until now, these linguistic components have not been specifically addressed in follow-up studies of aphasia recovery after stroke. The aim of this observational prospective follow-up study was to investigate semantic, phonological, and syntactic recovery in aphasic stroke patients. In addition, we investigated the recovery of verbal communication and of aphasia severity. We assessed 147 aphasic patients at 1, 2, and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 year after stroke with the ScreeLing, a screening test for detecting deficits on the three main linguistic components, the aphasia severity rating scale (ASRS), a measure of verbal communication, and the Token test, a measure of aphasia severity. We investigated the differences in scores between the six time points with mixed models. Semantics and syntax improved up to 6 weeks (p < 0.001) after stroke, and phonology up to 3 months (p ≤ 0.001). ASRS improved up to 6 months (p < 0.05) and the Token test up to 3 months (p < 0.001). We conclude that in aphasia after stroke, various linguistic components have a different recovery pattern, with phonology showing the longest period of recovery that paralleled aphasia severity, as measured with the Token test. The improvement of verbal communication continues after the stabilization of the recovery of the linguistic components.

  7. Follow-up study of four cases of pervasive refusal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, Suzy; Reid, Corrine; Rao, Sushma; Grahame, Victoria; Kaplan, Carole

    2011-05-01

    The term pervasive refusal syndrome was first mentioned in a paper detailing a sample study of four children by Bryan Lask and colleagues in 1991. This article presents a sample of four children diagnosed with Pervasive Refusal Syndrome, three girls and a boy, seen within a specialist NHS inpatient unit in the North East of England, and describes the main features presented. The main focus of the article will be on long-term prognosis and outcome in relation to day to day functioning and activities. Each of the cases has been followed up once at an interval of between 3 and 16 years after discharge, and the outcomes are presented here. Results suggest that two of the young people with PRS made a complete recovery in the long term, that one was impaired by anorexia nervosa at follow-up, and the remaining young person was reluctant to be interviewed, so it is unclear how well she has maintained her initial discharge recovery.

  8. Motor development in children at risk of autism: a follow-up study of infant siblings.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Hayley C; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2014-04-01

    Recently, evidence of poor or atypical motor skills in autism spectrum disorder has led some to argue that motor impairment is a core feature of the condition. The current study uses a longitudinal prospective design to assess the development of motor skills of 20 children at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder, who were recruited and tested at 9 and 40 months of age, on the basis of having an older sibling diagnosed with the condition. All children completed a range of motor, face processing, IQ and diagnostic assessments at a follow-up visit (aged 5-7 years), providing a detailed profile of development in this group from a number of standardised, parental report and experimental measures. A higher proportion of children than expected demonstrated motor difficulties at the follow-up visit and those highlighted by parental report as having poor motor skills as infants and toddlers were also more likely to have lower face processing scores and elevated autism-related social symptoms at 5-7 years, despite having similar IQ levels. These data lend support to the argument that early motor difficulties may be a risk factor for later motor impairment as well as differences in social communication and cognition, traits that are related to autism spectrum disorder.

  9. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene; Persson, Roger

    2014-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied/witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health. The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. Bullied persons and witnesses reported more sleep difficulties than those who were neither bullied nor witnesses to bullying at baseline. Frequently bullied/witnesses reported more sleep difficulties than respondents who were occasionally bullied or witnessing bullying at baseline. Further, odds ratios for subsequent sleep difficulties were increased among the occasionally bullied, but not among witnesses. However, the associations weakened when adjusting for sleep difficulties at baseline. Being subjected to occasional bullying at baseline was predictive of subsequent sleep difficulties. Witnessing bullying at baseline did not predict sleep difficulties at follow-up.

  10. Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents with first episode psychosis: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, M; Zabala, A; Robles, O; Bombín, I; Andrés, P; Parellada, M; Moreno, D; Graell, M; Medina, O; Arango, C

    2008-08-01

    Cognitive deficits are a core feature of psychotic disorders. Both in adult and adolescent populations, studies have shown that patients with psychosis have poorer cognitive functioning than controls. The cognitive domains that seem to be affected are mainly attention, working memory, learning and memory, and executive function. However, with regard to the trajectory of cognitive function throughout the illness, there is still a dearth of prospective data in patients who develop psychosis during adolescence. In this article, neuropsychological functioning was assessed in a sample of 24 first episodes of early onset psychosis (EOP) and 29 healthy adolescents at baseline and after a two-year follow-up. Patients with EOP showed lower scores than controls in overall cognitive functioning and in all specific domains assessed (attention, working memory, executive function, and learning and memory) both at baseline and the two-year follow-up. When changes in cognitive functioning over two years were assessed, patients and controls showed significant improvement in almost all cognitive domains. However, this improvement disappeared in the patient group after controlling for improvement in symptomatology. Our findings support a neurodevelopmental pathological process in this sample of adolescents with psychosis.

  11. Pectus excavatum. A clinical study with long-term postoperative follow-up.

    PubMed

    Morshuis, W J; Mulder, H; Wapperom, G; Folgering, H T; Assman, M; Cox, A L; van Lier, H J; Vincent, J G; Lacquet, L K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1972 and 1987, 192 patients have been operated upon for pectus excavatum of which 152 patients were included in the study (79%). Mean age at operation was 15.3 +/- 5.5 years; 117 were male. Mean follow-up was 8.1 +/- 3.6 years. The deformity was noted before the age of 5 in 90%. Type I symmetrical and localized deformity was seen in 33.2%, type II symmetrical but diffuse depression in 23.7% and type III localized or diffuse asymmetrical deformity in 43.1%. It was considered severe in 68.9%, fair in 16.9% and mild in 14.2%. There were significantly more asymmetrical defects in the older age groups. The operation consisted of subperichondral chondrectomy, transverse sternotomy and division of the intercostal bundles at the outer limit of the chondrectomy and suturing the edge of this broad sheet of muscle and perichondrium to the anterior surface of the chest wall more laterally and under tension, elevating and stabilizing the sternum. Results were satisfactory in 83.6% (excellent 44.1%, good 39.5%). Results were not significantly influenced by age, sex, severity, type, symmetry, the extent of cartilage resection or follow-up. Results were inversely influenced by the occurrence of wound problems. The optimal age for operation is considered to be between 5 and 10 years. Both physical as well as psychological cosmetic factors may serve as an indication for operation.

  12. Recidivism Patterns Among Two Types of Juvenile Homicide Offenders: A 30-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V

    2016-07-01

    Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Stroke in parents who lost a child: a nationwide follow-up study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiong; Johnsen, Søren P; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The association between psychological stress and stroke remains uncertain. We therefore examined whether or not one of the most extreme psychological stressors, the death of a child, was associated with the risk of stroke in a nationwide population-based follow-up study. All 21,062 parents who lost a child in Denmark during 1980-1996 were compared with 293,745 parents who had not lost a child. The overall adjusted relative risk (RR) of stroke was 1.00 (95% CI = 0.83-1.20) among the exposed after up to 18 years of follow-up. The RRs for fatal stroke and nonfatal stroke were 0.69 (95% CI = 0.37-1.26) and 1.03 (95% CI = 0.85-1.24), respectively. The RRs for hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic stroke were 1.02 (95% CI = 0.77-1.36) and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.74-1.20), respectively. The risk of stroke did not differ irrespective of whether the death of the child was unexpected or not. The death of a child was not associated with any substantially increased risk of stroke in the bereaved parents.

  14. Feasibility of epilepsy follow-up care through telemedicine: a pilot study on the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Nizamuddin; Mann, Carly; Sinclair, D Barry; Heino, Angela; Iskiw, Blayne; Quigley, Daphne; Ohinmaa, Arto

    2008-04-01

    Cost analysis and patient satisfaction with telemedicine in epilepsy care. This controlled study included out-of-town epilepsy patients coming to follow-up at the University of Alberta hospital epilepsy clinic. After an informed consent, patients were randomized to either conventional (n = 18) or telemedicine (n = 23) clinics. Patients or caregivers filled patient satisfaction and travel cost questionnaires in both alternatives. Cost per visit analysis included costs of traveling, lodging, and lost productivity. Average age of the population was 41 years (range 19-73; 45% women). Eighty-three percent of patients preferred their next visit through telemedicine. About 90% of patients indicated a need for companion travel (mainly by car) to conventional clinic. For the conventional group patients the value of lost productivity was CAD $201, hotel cost CAD $8.50, and the value of car mileage CAD $256.50, totaling about CAD $466.00. Patient costs for telemedicine were CAD $35.85. Telemedicine production costs are similar to the patients' savings in traveling and lost productivity. About 90% of patients in both groups were satisfied with the quality of the service. Telemedicine can play a role in follow-up care of epilepsy patients, reduce patient costs, and improve patient satisfaction. This is the first full-time epilepsy telemedicine clinic in Western Canada.

  15. Anterior tibia spine fracture in children: follow-up evaluation by biomechanical studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Chin, L S; Wang, N H; Hou, C H; Lo, W H

    1996-09-01

    The treatment of anterior tibial spine (ATS) fracture in children is in controversy. Previous studies have shown that most of the children who sustained ATS fractures have objective evidence of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) laxity at follow-up, but detailed biomechanical analysis of the knee joint has seldom been performed. Eight ATS fractures in children at a mean age of 12 years were treated from 1989 to 1994. Two were of Meyer's classification type I, 3 were of type II, and 3 were of type III. The treatment varied from casting to open reduction & internal fixation (ORIF) by pulling through suture or biofix absorbable screw. Patients were followed with radiological, clinical and biomechanical analysis. KT 1000 knee arthrometer was used to evaluate the laxity of ACL. Cybex isokinetic machine was used to evaluate knee extensor and flexor strength. During an average follow-up period of 47 months, all fractures showed to unite well on X-ray except 1 untreated type I fracture who had malunion. Only one had subjective complaint of instability, but 3 had clinical signs of instability. Objective evidence of laxity, determined by KT-1000 arthrometer, was noted in 4 patients. Decreased muscle strength, determined by Cybex isokinetic machine, was more prominent in hamstrings than in quadriceps. Patients with milder ATS fracture (type I & II), if treated inappropriately, may still result in ACL laxity and knee muscle strength deficiency. Type III ATS fractures, if treated well by ORIF, tend to recover nearly normal ACL function and muscle strength.

  16. Efficacy of transconjunctival excision of orbital fat prolapse: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Siban, Michael; Weijtens, Olga; van den Bosch, Willem; Paridaens, Dion

    2014-05-01

    To describe the long-term efficacy of transconjunctival excision of subconjunctival orbital fat prolapse. Retrospective study of consecutive cases of orbital fat prolapse treated with transconjunctival resection between December 2002 and December 2011. Thirty-two eyes of 23 patients (19 males and four females) were included. The lesion was unilateral in 14 and bilateral in nine cases. It was located superotemporally in a majority of cases. Excision was performed by opening the conjunctiva and excising the prolapsing orbital fat. The conjunctival wound was closed with 1-2 interrupted sutures. With an average follow-up of 29 months (range 4-108), a recurrence was seen in three cases. The average time to recurrence was 46 months (range 40-52 months). Transconjunctival excision is a simple, safe and effective primary surgical procedure to treat subconjunctival fat prolapse. In our series, the recurrence rate was 9%, but no additional surgery was required. As the average time to recurrence was longer than our average follow-up, more patients may develop a recurrence in future. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  17. Follow-up study of young stress-affected and stress-resilient urban children.

    PubMed

    Cowen, E L; Wyman, P A; Work, W C; Kim, J Y; Fagen, D B; Magnus, K B

    1997-01-01

    Reports follow-up study of 181 young highly stressed urban children, classified as stress-resilient (SR) and stress-affected (SA) 1 1/2-2 years earlier. At follow-up (T2), children were retested on five initial (T1) test measures: self-rated adjustment, perceived competence, social problem solving, realistic control attributions, and empathy; parents and teachers did new child adjustment ratings, and parents participated in a phone interview focusing on the T1-T2 interval. Child test and adjustment measures and parent interview responses at T2 sensitively differentiated children classified as SR and SA at T1. Test and interview variables used at T1 and T2 correlated moderately across time periods. At T2, four child test indicators (i.e., rule conformity, global self-worth, social problem solving, and realistic control attributions) and four parent interview variables (positive future expectations for the child, absence of predelinquency indicators, good parent mental health in the past year, and adaptive parent coping strategies) sensitively differentiated children classified as SR and SA at T1. No relationship was found between family stress experienced in the T1-T2 interval and changes in children's adjustment during that period.

  18. Risk Factors for Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients: Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    do Sameiro-Faria, Maria; Costa, Elísio; Mendonça, Denisa; Teixeira, Laetitia; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Fernandes, João; Kohlova, Michaela; Reis, Flávio; Amado, Leonilde; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Miranda, Vasco; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Belo, Luís; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Background. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients under hemodialysis (HD) have high mortality rate. Inflammation, dyslipidemia, disturbances in erythropoiesis, iron metabolism, endothelial function, and nutritional status have been reported in these patients. Our aim was to identify any significant association of death with these disturbances, by performing a two-year follow-up study. Methods and Results. A large set of data was obtained from 189 HD patients (55.0% male; 66.4 ± 13.9 years old), including hematological data, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory, and endothelial (dys)function markers, and dialysis adequacy. Results. 35 patients (18.5%) died along the follow-up period. Our data showed that the type of vascular access, C-reactive protein (CRP), and triglycerides (TG) are significant predictors of death. The risk of death was higher in patients using central venous catheter (CVC) (Hazard ratio [HR] =3.03, 95% CI = 1.49–6.13), with higher CRP levels (fourth quartile), compared with those with lower levels (first quartile) (HR = 17.3, 95% CI = 2.40–124.9). Patients with higher TG levels (fourth quartile) presented a lower risk of death, compared with those with the lower TG levels (first quartile) (HR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.05–0.58). Conclusions. The use of CVC, high CRP, and low TG values seem to be independent risk factors for mortality in HD patients. PMID:24347799

  19. Depression and Cognitive Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seoyoung; Shin, Cheolmin; Han, Changsu

    2017-09-01

    The coexistence of depression with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) seems to increase the risk of dementia. However, the explanations of that relationship have been inconsistent. We investigated cognitive profiles in patients with MCI with and without depression and whether changes in depression symptoms affect cognition longitudinally. For the study, 161 patients with MCI were divided into a depressed group (D+) and a nondepressed group (D-). After 1 year, we redivided the original D- group into D- and newly developed depression (Dd) groups and the D+ group into improved depression (Di) and nonimproved depression (Dn) groups. Neuropsychological tests assessing depression and cognitive domains were performed at baseline and follow-up. When age-adjusted, the D+ group showed significantly poorer performance in general cognition and some subtests regarding memory, executive function, and attention. At the 1-year follow-up, changes in the calculation test ( P = .005) and Controlled Oral Word Test (COWAT; P = .048) were significantly different between groups. Only the Di group showed significant improvement in calculation. The Dn group showed significant decrement in COWAT that was significantly different from that of the Di group, which showed no significant change. Patients with depression having MCI showed poorer cognitive function than nondepressed patients with MCI in some cognitive domains. Improvement in depression was related to improvement or prevention of decline in cognitive measures.

  20. Neuropsychological predictors of powered wheelchair use: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Breda; O'Neill, Brian; Evans, Jonathan J

    2008-09-01

    To investigate (1) rates of powered wheelchair use and level of user-rated functional performance at one-month follow-up, and (2) whether psychological variables were prospectively predictive of outcome. Prospective follow-up study. UK hospital-based regional rehabilitation and mobility centre. Volunteer adults with impaired mobility. Of 155 approached, 103 had baseline assessments. Of these, 81 (79%) provided outcome data. Mean age was 65.6 years (SD = 13.5); 55% were male. Rate of day-to-day powerchair use, and users' perceptions of how well the powerchair allowed them to perform functional tasks. Among those with indoor-only chairs, 48% were 'less frequent' users; this rose to 72% among those with indoor/outdoor chairs. Excluding environmental reasons, rate of indoor use was predicted by baseline measures of verbal recall (P<0.001), figure copying (P=0.003) and global cognition (P=0.021). Among those with indoor/outdoor chairs, total rate of use was predicted by verbal recall (P= 0.001). Participants reported that the powerchair was effective in meeting their functional needs. Powered wheelchair use was predicted by cognitive measures. Rates of use were relatively low, despite users' reports that the powerchair facilitated their everyday functioning well.

  1. [A clinical follow-up study of premature thelarche in infants under two years of age].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Min; Liang, Li; Fang, Yan-Lan; Fu, Jun-Fen; Dong, Guan-Ping; Wang, Chun-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the clinical status and natural course of premature thelarche (PT) in infants under 2 years of age and to analyze the predictive factors for regression of thelarche. The clinical and laboratory data of 863 infants under 2 years of age, who visited the department of endocrinology in our hospital due to PT between October 2009 and September 2010, were analyzed. A a longitudinal follow-up study was performed. Of the infants under 2 years of age with isolated PT, 89.3% showed a regression before the age of 3 years (mean 17±5.6 months), 10.7% had recurrent or persistent thelarche, with no regression after the age of 3 years, and some even developed into central precocious puberty. The independent predictive factors for regression of thelarche were Tanner stage at the first visit and whether baseline estradiol level had increased. PT in infants under 2 years of age is not rare in the clinical setting, and it usually runs a self-limited course, subsiding before the age of 3 years. However, regular follow-ups should be performed for infants aged over 2 years with persistent thelarche.

  2. A follow-up study of the community near the McColl waste disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J A; Goldman, L R; Satin, K P; Smith, D F; Vance, W A; Neutra, R R

    1991-01-01

    To assess the effect of interim clean-up measures on the current health of a community, we conducted a follow-up survey of 193 residents living near the McColl waste disposal site and a comparison area located approximately 5 miles from the site. Results from this survey were compared with results from a similar survey conducted 7 years earlier. Odors were detected at least once per week by 32.7% of "high-exposed" respondents in 1988 compared with 68.5% in 1981, but prevalence odds ratios (PORs) comparing symptom reporting between "high-exposed" and comparison-area respondents were greater than that of the 1981 survey for 89% of symptoms. PORs comparing symptom reporting between these two areas were greater than 2.0 for 64% of symptoms assessed in the current survey. Symptoms reported in excess did not represent a single organ system or suggest a mechanism of response. PORs comparing respondents who were very worried about the environment and those reporting no worry were greater than 2.0 for 86% of symptoms. These finding, along with environmental data from the area, suggest that living near the waste disposal site and being very worried about the environment, rather than a toxicologic effect of chemical from the site, explain excess symptom reporting found in this follow-up study. PMID:1954927

  3. One-year follow-up study of psychotic patients treated with blonanserin: a case series.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sakae; Suzuki, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2013-09-01

    Blonanserin is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic drug, and has been used in Korea and Japan for 1 and 3 years, respectively. Therefore, the clinical characteristics of blonanserin remain unclear. In this study, to clarify the features of blonanserin, we performed prospective and long-term comparative investigations of patients treated with blonanserin. We followed 10 psychiatric patients who were switched to blonanserin from other antipsychotics for 1 year (schizophrenia: 8; mental retardation: 2). In the light of quality of life, we focused on adverse effects of patients during the follow-up. In the long-term follow-up, (i) hyperprolactinemia is more frequently in risperidone than in blonanserin; however, it is more often in blonanserin than in olanzapine; and (ii) weight gain is more common in olanzapine than in blonanserin. We switched to blonanserin from other antipsychotic drugs within the same case, and then followed the case for 1 year. We consider that long-term observations within the same case lead to obvious comparisons among drugs. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that blonanserin may be useful for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia without inducing hyperprolactinemia and weight gain. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Assessing Implicit Cognition Among Patients Lost to Follow-up for HIV Care: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Eric; Lyons, Thomas; Wolfe, Brenda; Rolfsen, Norma; Williams, Maryanne; Rucker, Monique; Glick, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While a growing body of research indicates that implicit cognitive processes play an important role in a range of health behaviors, the assessment of these impulsive, associative mental processes among patients living with HIV has received little attention. This preliminary study explored how multidimensional scaling (MDS) could be used to assess implicit cognitive processes among patients lost to follow-up for HIV care and develop interventions to improve their engagement. Method: The sample consisted of 33 patients who were identified as lost to follow up for HIV care at two urban hospitals. Participants were randomly assigned to either the MDS assessment program or control group. All participants underwent measures designed to gauge behavioral change intentions and treatment motivation. Assessment group participants were interviewed to determine their reactions to the assessment program. Results: The MDS assessment program identified cognitive processes and their relationship to treatment-related behaviors among assessment group participants. Assessment group participants reported significantly greater behavior change intentions than those in the control group (p =.02; Cohen’s d = 0.84). Conclusion: MDS shows promise as a tool to identify implicit cognitive processes related to treatment-related behaviors. Assessments based on MDS could serve as the basis for patient-centered clinical interventions designed to improve treatment adherence and HIV care engagement in general. PMID:27347274

  5. Evaluation of smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external microphones – A follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kardous, Chucri A.; Shaw, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    This follow-up study examines the accuracy of selected smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external calibrated microphones. The initial study examined 192 apps on the iOS and Android platforms and found four iOS apps with mean differences of ±2 dB of a reference sound level measurement system. This study evaluated the same four apps using external microphones. The results showed measurements within ±1 dB of the reference. This study suggests that using external calibrated microphones greatly improves the overall accuracy and precision of smartphone sound measurements, and removes much of the variability and limitations associated with the built-in smartphone microphones. PMID:27794313

  6. Evaluation of smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external microphones-A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kardous, Chucri A; Shaw, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    This follow-up study examines the accuracy of selected smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external calibrated microphones. The initial study examined 192 apps on the iOS and Android platforms and found four iOS apps with mean differences of ±2 dB of a reference sound level measurement system. This study evaluated the same four apps using external microphones. The results showed measurements within ±1 dB of the reference. This study suggests that using external calibrated microphones greatly improves the overall accuracy and precision of smartphone sound measurements, and removes much of the variability and limitations associated with the built-in smartphone microphones.

  7. Optimal selection of individuals for repeated covariate measurements in follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Karvanen, Juha; Tolonen, Hanna

    2016-12-01

    Repeated covariate measurements bring important information on the time-varying risk factors in long epidemiological follow-up studies. However, due to budget limitations, it may be possible to carry out the repeated measurements only for a subset of the cohort. We study cost-efficient alternatives for the simple random sampling in the selection of the individuals to be remeasured. The proposed selection criteria are based on forms of the D-optimality. The selection methods are compared with the simulation studies and illustrated with the data from the East-West study carried out in Finland from 1959 to 1999. The results indicate that cost savings can be achieved if the selection is focused on the individuals with high expected risk of the event and, on the other hand, on those with extreme covariate values in the previous measurements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Results of the seven-year prospective study of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Scmidt, E V; Smirnov, V E; Ryabova, V S

    1988-08-01

    Using the registry method, 1,538 stroke patients were detected in one district of Moscow between January 1, 1972, and December 31, 1974. Of the 965 patients who survived the acute stage of stroke (the first 3 weeks after onset), 941 (505 women and 436 men) were followed for the next 7 years. We analyzed incidence and types of recurrent strokes. During this 7-year follow-up, we recorded 32.1% of the patients as having recurrent strokes, most of which developed in the first 3 years and especially during the first year after the index stroke. The majority of recurrent strokes were of the same type as the index stroke and were localized in the same area of the brain. The cumulative mortality rates for the initial 1,538 patients were 37.3% dead by 3 weeks, 63.6% dead by 3 years, 72.1% dead by 5 years, and 76.5% dead by 7 years. In the first 3 months (excluding the first 3 weeks), most patients who died died of pulmonary thromboembolism. The mortality rate from recurrent strokes and pneumonia was higher than that from cardiovascular mortality. Transient ischemic attacks occurred in 49.5% of all patients and myocardial infarction in 16.4%. Functional prognosis was determined mainly by age, motor function, and concomitant diseases. After 1 year, 68.2% of the surviving patients were fully independent, while 81% of those surviving 7 years had reached this level. A significant number of patients were capable of returning to their previous work.

  9. Seven-year mortality in heart failure patients with undiagnosed diabetes: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart failure have adverse clinical outcomes, but the characteristics and prognosis of those with undiagnosed diabetes in this setting has not been established. Methods In total, 400 patients admitted consecutively with acute heart failure were grouped in three glycaemic categories: no diabetes, clinical diabetes (previously reported or with hypoglycaemic treatment) and undiagnosed diabetes. The latter was defined by the presence of at least two measurements of fasting plasma glycaemia ≥ 7 mmol/L before or after the acute episode.Group differences were tested by proportional hazards models in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality during a 7-year follow-up. Results There were 188 (47%) patients without diabetes, 149 (37%) with clinical diabetes and 63 (16%) with undiagnosed diabetes. Patients with undiagnosed diabetes had a lower prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, peripheral vascular disease and previous myocardial infarction than those with clinical diabetes and similar to that of those without diabetes. The adjusted hazards ratios for 7-year total and cardiovascular mortality compared with the group of subjects without diabetes were 1.69 (95% CI: 1.17-2.46) and 2.45 (95% CI: 1.58-3.81) for those with undiagnosed diabetes, and 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) and 2.01 (95% CI: 1.40-2.89) for those with clinical diabetes. Conclusions Undiagnosed diabetes is common in patients requiring hospitalization for acute heart failure. Patients with undiagnosed diabetes, despite having a lower cardiovascular risk profile than those with clinical diabetes, show a similar increased mortality. PMID:21569580

  10. Effect of Safe Water on Arsenicosis: A Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Kunal K; Ghose, Aloke; Ghose, Nilima; Biswas, Anirban; Mazumder, D N Guha

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic pollution in groundwater, used for drinking purposes, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. Treatment options for the management symptoms of chronic arsenicosis are limited. Mitigation option available for dealing with the health problem of ground water arsenic contamination rests mainly on supply of arsenic safe water in arsenic-endemic region of Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. Limited information is available regarding the long-term effect of chronic arsenic toxicity after stoppage of consumption of arsenic-containing water. The current study was, therefore, done to assess, objectively, the effect of drinking arsenic safe water (<50 μg/L) on disease manifestation of arsenicosis. Manifestations of various skin lesions and systemic diseases associated with chronic arsenic exposure were ascertained initially by carrying on baseline study on 208 participants in Nadia (Cohort-I, with skin lesion and Cohort-II, without skin lesion) using a scoring system, as developed by us, and compared objectively at the end of each year for 3 year follow-up period. All the participants who had arsenic contaminated drinking water source in their houses were supplied with arsenic removal filters for getting arsenic-free water during the follow-up period. In participants belonging to Cohort-I, the skin score was found to improve significantly at the end of each year, and it was found to be reduced significantly from 2.17 ± 1.09 to 1.23 ± 1.17; P < 0.001 at the end of 3 year's intervention study indicating beneficial effect of safe water on skin lesions. The systemic disease symptom score was also found to improve, but less significantly, at the end of 3 years in both the cohorts. Most important observation during the follow-up study was persistence of severe symptoms of chronic lung disease and severe skin lesion including Bowen's disease in spite of taking arsenic-safe water. Further, death could not be prevented to occur because of lung cancer and severe lung

  11. A prospective follow-up study of first-episode acute transient psychotic disorder in Latvia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD) has been described as an acute psychosis with brief onset and polymorphous symptomatology (WHO, 1993). The study of ATPD is growing increasingly relevant as scientists start an active discussion of the possibility of changing the ATPD classification in the next International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The aims of this study were to describe the clinical features of the index episode of ATPD in patients in Latvia, to analyse the stability and longitudinal changes of the diagnosis, to explore potential correlations between the sociodemographic and disease characteristics and to describe stressful life events before the first ATPD episode. Methods A prospective follow-up study of all first-time admitted patients from the Riga Centre of Psychiatry and Addiction Disorders who fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for ATPD (WHO, 1993) during the 15-month period from 9 January 2010 to 30 March 2011 and followed up until 31 October 2012. Stressful life events, demographics and clinical features during the index episode were assessed. Results One hundred two patients were admitted with first-episode ATPD. The majority were females (60.7%). Over an average 26.5-month follow-up period, 59.8% of the patients were not readmitted. The overall stability rate of ATPD diagnosis in our sample was 67.4% (p = 0.0001). In the subgroup of patients who were readmitted, 70.7% had their diagnosis converted to schizophrenia in subsequent visits. Stressful life events before the first episode were found in 49.0% of first-episode ATPD patients. Thought disorder was found to be the strongest statistically significant predictor of ATPD diagnosis conversation to schizophrenia (odds ratio 4.3), with high Wald's criterion (9.435) in binary logistic regression. Conclusions ATPD is prevalent in Latvia, with rather high overall stability rate. Combining these data from first-episode ATPD patients in Latvia with data from other countries

  12. Micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT): A phase II clinical study with 12 months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio Maria; Bosone, Alex; Rolle, Teresa; Brogliatti, Beatrice; Grignolo, Federico Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective This pilot study evaluates the pressure lowering potential of subthreshold micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT) for a clinically meaningful duration in patients with medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma (OAG). Design prospective interventional case series. Participants Thirty-two eyes of 20 consecutive patients with uncontrolled OAG (12 bilateral and 8 unilateral). Methods Confluent subthreshold laser applications over the inferior 180° of the anterior TM using an 810 nm diode laser in a micropulse operating mode. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured at baseline and at 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-treatment. Flare was measured with a Kowa FM 500 flare-meter at baseline and at 3 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 12 months post-treatment. After treatment, the patients were maintained on their pre-treatment drug regimen. Main outcome measures Criteria for treatment response were IOP reduction ≥3 mm Hg and IOP ≤21 mm Hg within the first week after MDLT. Eyes not complying to the above criteria during the follow-up were considered treatment failure. Mean IOP change and percentage of IOP reduction during the follow-up were calculated. Results One eye was analyzed for bilateral patients. A total of 20 eyes were thus included. Four eyes (20%) did not respond to treatment during the first week. One additional eye failed at the 6 month visit. The treatment was successful in 15 eyes (75%) at 12 months. The IOP was significantly lower throughout follow-up (p < 0.01). At 12 months, the mean percentage of IOP reduction in the 15 respondent eyes was 22.1% and 12 eyes (60%) had IOP reduction higher than 20%. During the first two postoperative days, one eye with pigmentary glaucoma experienced a significant increase of flare associated with an IOP spike (34 mm Hg) that was controlled with systemic drugs; afterwards it qualified as a respondent and completed the study. No increase of flare was found in any other patient. No

  13. Lexical access changes in patients with multiple sclerosis: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sepulcre, Jorge; Peraita, Herminia; Goni, Joaquin; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Martincorena, Inigo; Duque, Beatriz; Velez de Mendizabal, Nieves; Masdeu, Joseph C; Villoslada, Pablo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze lexical access strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their changes over time. We studied lexical access strategies during semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tests and also confrontation naming in a 2-year prospective cohort of 45 MS patients and 20 healthy controls. At baseline, switching lexical access strategy (both in semantic and in phonemic verbal fluency tests) and confrontation naming were significantly impaired in MS patients compared with controls. After 2 years follow-up, switching score decreased, and cluster size increased over time in semantic verbal fluency tasks, suggesting a failure in the retrieval of lexical information rather than an impairment of the lexical pool. In conclusion, these findings underline the significant presence of lexical access problems in patients with MS and could point out their key role in the alterations of high-level communications abilities in MS.

  14. Enhancing the validity of foster care follow-up studies through multiple alumni location strategies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jason; McWilliams, Alisa; Mainieri, Tina; Pecora, Peter J; La Belle, Karin

    2006-01-01

    While family-based placement prevention services, family reunification programs, subsidized guardianship, and aggressive adoption programs are reducing the numbers of children spending long periods of time in substitute care, a significant number of America's children will come of age in foster care. Agencies and policymakers should use research and evaluation to assess the effectiveness of foster care in nurturing healthy adults and to explore ways to improve services. Outcome studies that have focused on locating and interviewing young or middle-aged adults emancipated from foster care have been hampered by modest response rates, limiting the field's ability to evaluate the efficacy of foster care programs. This article describes a set of strategies that were used to achieve higher response rates in two recent follow-up studies.

  15. A follow-up study of children with phonologic disorders of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Shriberg, L D; Kwiatkowski, J

    1988-05-01

    Recent emphasis on early intervention programming for children with speech delays of unknown origin has yielded considerable literature on alternative forms of assessment and management. Less is known about the long-term special educational needs of such children. This study reviews the exceptional educational needs histories of 36 children who had received preschool speech services at a phonology clinic. Findings indicate that a high percentage of children continued to have speech and language and other special educational needs as they neared middle school and beyond. Many children eventually required special class placements. Discussion focuses on issues in classification, prediction, and management. On the bases of both original and follow-up data in this and other studies, the term phonological disorder appears to be appropriate for approximately 75%-80% of children referred early for speech disorders of unknown origin.

  16. The effectiveness of dementia care mapping in intellectual disability residential services: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jaycock, Sue; Persaud, Michelle; Johnson, Robert

    2006-12-01

    This article is presented as a follow-up to exploratory work published in this journal in 2001. It describes a study that aimed to assess the effectiveness of dementia care mapping in supporting practice improvement in intellectual disability residential services. An average of 9 hours of observational data was collected using dementia care mapping in relation to 14 adults with severe or profound intellectual disabilities. Sixteen interviews were also undertaken with staff over a 4 month period.The findings provided a detailed picture of the activities and interactions between the participants involved in the study and raised some issues about 'organizational culture' when developing person-centred approaches. They have helped strengthen the case that care mapping has the potential to be a useful addition to the existing repertoire of tools to support effective practice improvement and person-centred planning.

  17. A follow-up study of family burden in patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Maji, K R; Sood, Mamta; Sagar, Rajesh; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2012-03-01

    Research in the last two decades has documented a high level of burden in caregivers of bipolar disorder. The present study is aimed at studying family burden among relatives of patients with bipolar affective disorder. Thirty four consecutive hospitalized patients with bipolar affective disorder currently in mania and their relatives were assessed twice: at the time of admission and during follow-up four weeks after discharge. A semi-structured performa designed for the study was completed. Patients were assessed on Young's Mania Rating Scale and relatives were assessed on Family Burden Assessment Scale. More than 90% of family members reported severe subjective (rated by relative) and objective burden (rated by interviewer) at admission; none of them was free of burden. At the time of follow-up, about one quarter (23.5%) and two thirds (64.7%) of family members did not experience any objective and subjective burden respectively; subjective and objective family burden was moderate in about one third (35.3%) and a half (52.9%), respectively. None of the family members reported severe burden subjectively, while the objective burden was rated to be severe in a quarter (23.5%) of family members. The study was limited by the lack of a control group from an outpatient setting as hospitalization increases family burden. Also, the rater at the second assessment was not blind to ratings at the first assessment. Almost all the family members experienced severe burden initially. Even when symptoms subsided, family members continued to experience burden specifically related to finances. burden was significantly higher than subjective burden.

  18. Progression of motor subtypes in Huntington's disease: a 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M; Hart, E P; van Zwet, E W; Bentivoglio, A R; Burgunder, J M; Craufurd, D; Reilmann, R; Saft, C; Roos, R A C

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the progression of predominantly choreatic and hypokinetic-rigid signs in Huntington's disease (HD) and their relationship with cognitive and general functioning over time. The motor signs in HD can be divided into predominantly choreatic and hypokinetic-rigid subtypes. It has been reported in cross-sectional studies that predominantly choreatic HD patients perform better on functional and cognitive assessments compared to predominantly hypokinetic-rigid HD patients. The course of these motor subtypes and their clinical profiles has not been investigated longitudinally. A total of 4135 subjects who participated in the European HD Network REGISTRY study were included and classified at baseline as either predominantly choreatic (n = 891), hypokinetic-rigid (n = 916), or mixed-motor (n = 2328), based on a previously used method. The maximum follow-up period was 6 years. The mixed-motor group was not included in the analyses. Linear mixed models were constructed to investigate changes in motor subtypes over time and their relationship with cognitive and functional decline. Over the 6-year follow-up period, the predominantly choreatic group showed a significant decrease in chorea, while hypokinetic-rigid symptoms slightly increased in the hypokinetic-rigid group. On the Total Functional Capacity, Stroop test, and Verbal fluency task the rate of change over time was significantly faster in the predominantly choreatic group, while on all other clinical assessments the decline was comparable for both groups. Our results suggest that choreatic symptoms decrease over time, whereas hypokinetic-rigid symptoms slightly increase in a large cohort of HD patients. Moreover, different motor subtypes can be related to different clinical profiles.

  19. Four-year follow-up study of pharmacological treatment in pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Oded; Dinur, Limor Klein; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, we have witnessed the emergence of pharmacological treatments for pathological gambling with some success but many question marks. We aimed to explore pharmacological treatments that have been previously explored with some success, with the intent of comparing their efficacy and pave the way to larger placebo-controlled trials. In this study, we allocated 78 patients to 4 different types of psychotropic medications: naltrexone, topiramate, bupropion, and escitalopram. We treated patients for more than 2 years, with additional 2-year follow-ups without medication. The sample was evaluated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Visual Analog Scale to measure general well-being before enrollment as well as at 1 month, 6 months, 24 months, and 48 months after beginning medication treatment. During the first 2 years of treatment, 34 patients dropped out, with one more dropping out during the additional 2 years of follow-up. Significant improvement on all rating scales was seen in all groups after 2 years, except HAMD in the group that received topiramate. We found the naltrexone-treated group of patients to have a statistically significant lower dropout rate compared with other groups, statistically significant lower HAMD scores in comparison to the group treated with bupropion, statistically significant lower Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score compared to the groups treated with escitalopram and topiramate, and significantly higher Visual Analog Scale scores compared to the groups treated with bupropion and topiramate. Pathological gambling is essentially a biopsychological disorder that may be attenuated provided that patients adhere to medication. In our study, among 4 medications with different mechanisms of action, naltrexone was found to be the most effective. Placebo-controlled studies involving large numbers of subjects are required before

  20. Nutritional status and eating habits of the institutionalised elderly in Turkey: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rakıcıoğlu, N; Aksoy, B; Tamer, F; Yıldız, E Akal; Samur, G; Pekcan, G; Besler, H T

    2016-04-01

    As the elderly population increases in Turkey, so do the associated health and nutritional problems. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the nutritional status of elderly individuals who live in institutions. A total of 102 elderly volunteers was recruited from seven residential homes of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies in Ankara. In the consecutive years of 2007, 2008 and 2009, dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h food recall. Nutritional status was screened using a questionnaire from the Mini-Nutritional Assessment, basic characteristics were determined and anthropometric measurements were assessed. The percentage of elderly participants who were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition increased by the completion of the follow-up (P < 0.05). It was found that energy, total protein, animal proteins, carbohydrates, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc intake of men decreased significantly over the years studied (P < 0.05). A significant decrease occurred among women in animal protein, vitamin B1 , niacin and the percentage of energy from proteins (P < 0.05); however, an increase in energy from fat (P < 0.05) was determined. Within the years studied, the percentage of nutrients meeting the Turkish recommended daily allowances decreased from 2007 to 2009 both in men and women. During the years 2007 to 2009, the percentage of waist circumferences >102 cm for men was 46.4%, 45.6% and 48.1%, respectively, and the percentage of waist circumferences for women >88 cm was 75.6%, 75.6% and 81.8%, respectively. During the follow-up, significant nutritional changes were determined. To prevent malnutrition, periodical screening of nutritional status should be a priority and a standard policy for elderly people, especially for those institutionalised. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Follicular mucinosis presenting as an acneiform eruption: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Brau-Javier, Cristina N; Santos-Arroyo, Aileen E; De Sanctis-González, Ivette M; Sánchez, Jorge L

    2013-12-01

    It has been proposed by many authors that follicular mucinosis is directly associated with mycosis fungoides (MF). Follicular mucinosis may be classified into 3 main clinical variants: a benign idiopathic form in children and young adults, which includes an acneiform presentation; an idiopathic form in older patients with a benign course; and a third variant that occurs in adults and is associated with MF. Our goal was to study the relationship between the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis and MF. Eight patients previously diagnosed with the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis were identified. Biopsy specimens were reviewed to evaluate the histopathologic attributes that characterize the disease and the infiltrate's immunohistochemistry. Also, patient follow-up was assessed to evaluate the clinical course of the disease. Median age of onset of disease was 29.5 years; 95% of lesions were located in the head and neck region. Biopsy specimens showed a moderate to dense perivascular, perifollicular, and interstitial infiltrate of lymphocytes with mucinous deposits within the follicular epithelium. On immunohistochemistry, the infiltrate showed prominent leukocyte common antigen (LCA) positivity and a CD3-positive and CD4-positive infiltrate with rare CD20-positive cells. None of the study patients showed evidence of MF after a mean follow-up of 3 years. The benign course of disease demonstrated in the study patients suggests that the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis probably represents a subpopulation of the benign idiopathic form of the disease. However, given that histopathologically this variant cannot be distinguished from the lymphoma-associated variant of follicular mucinosis, longitudinal evaluation is still warranted in these patients.

  2. Incidence of glaucomatous visual field loss after two decades of follow-up: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Wolfs, Roger C; Ramdas, Wishal D; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Klaver, Caroline C; Jansonius, Nomdo M

    2017-06-12

    To determine the incidence of glaucomatous visual field loss (GVFL) two decades after the start of the Rotterdam Study, and to compare known risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) between different clinical manifestations of OAG. Of 6806 participants aged 55 years and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study, 3939 underwent visual field testing at baseline and at least one follow-up round. The ophthalmic examinations included optic disc assessment and measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive error, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and height and weight. The incidence rate of GVFL was calculated. Associations with the risk factors age, gender, baseline IOP, family history, myopia, DBP, and body-mass index [BMI] were assessed using Cox regression, with different clinical manifestations of OAG as outcome measure (glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), GVFL, GVFL and GON, GVFL without GON, and GON without GVFL). Median follow-up was 11.1 (IQR 6.8-17.2; range 5.0-20.3) years. The incidence rate of GVFL was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.4-3.4) per 1000 person years (140 cases with incident GVFL in one (n = 113) or both (n = 27) eyes). Baseline IOP and age were significantly associated with all OAG outcomes (all p < 0.001); BMI showed a non-significant protective effect in all outcomes (p = 0.01 to p = 0.09). Gender, myopia, and DBP were not associated with any outcome. Our study provides an estimate of the long-term incidence of GVFL in a predominantly white population. The development of GVFL was strongly associated with baseline IOP and age. Risk factor profiles were similar for the different outcomes.

  3. Sleep and Sickness Absence: A Nationally Representative Register-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lallukka, Tea; Kaikkonen, Risto; Härkänen, Tommi; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We aimed to examine various sleep measures as determinants of sickness absence while considering confounders. Design: Nationally representative Health 2000 Survey linked with sickness absence data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Setting: Finland. Participants: Working-aged women (n = 1,875) and men (n = 1,885). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired during daytime than other people of same age, use of sleeping pills, excessive daytime sleepiness, probable sleep apnea (4 items about snoring/apnea), and reporting that sleep duration varies between different seasons were examined as determinants of sickness absence over a 7.2 year follow-up. Poisson and gamma regression models were fitted. After adjusting age, all examined sleep disturbances except excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with sickness absence among men (RRs 1.3-2.5). Among women, after adjusting for age, insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired than others, and use of sleeping pills were associated with sickness absence (RRs 1.4-1.8). After further adjustments for education, working conditions, health behaviors, and objectively measured mental and somatic health, the associations somewhat attenuated but mainly remained. The optimal sleep duration with the lowest risk of sickness absence was 7.6 hours for women and 7.8 hours for men. Although persistence of other health problems could affect the estimates, direct costs due to sickness absence could decrease by up to 28% if sleep disturbances could be fully addressed. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for prevention of sleep disturbances and promotion of optimal sleep length to prevent sickness absence. Citation: Lallukka T, Kaikkonen R, Härkänen T, Kronholm E, Partonen T, Rahkonen O, Koskinen S. Sleep and sickness absence: a nationally representative register-based follow-up study. SLEEP 2014

  4. Hand-arm vibration syndrome among travertine workers: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M; Franzinelli, A; Scattoni, L; Vannuccini, L

    1994-06-01

    In a six year follow up study of the handarm vibration syndrome, 62 stoneworkers operating hand held vibrating tools in 10 travertine quarries and mills were first investigated in 1985 and then in 1991. The frequency weighted acceleration of vibration from the rock drills and stone hammers used by the travertine workers exceeded 20 m/s2, indicating a hazardous work activity according to the proposal of the EC directive for physical agents. A clinical examination and a cold provocation test were repeated with the same procedures as those adopted at the time of the first survey. The stoneworkers were divided into groups according to current work state: active stoneworkers who continued to use powered tools during the follow up (n = 21, median exposure time 22 years), and ex-stoneworkers with retirement vibration free intervals of three years (n = 22, median exposure time 27.5 years) and of six years (n = 19, median exposure time 20 years). In the group of active stoneworkers, a 38% onset a new cases of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) was found during the follow up (p < 0.01). Among the retired stoneworkers affected with VWF (n = 24), one recovered from VWF, one showed improvement, 20 remained stationary, and two deteriorated. The ex-stoneworkers experienced no significant change in sensorineural disturbances and a decrease in musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper limbs. At the cold provocation test, the currently active stoneworkers with VWF showed, on a group basis, a delayed finger rewarming time between the two examinations (p = 0.002). An abnormal response to cold provocation persisted in the fingers of the ex-stoneworkers with VWF, even in those reporting subjective improvement. These findings indicate a tendency towards the irreversibility of sensorineural and VWF symptoms in a group of ex-stoneworkers with prolonged exposure to high vibration levels in the past. The increased occurrence of VWF in the active stone workers after a few extra years of

  5. Nursing home staff's views on quality improvement interventions: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Grando, Victoria T; Rantz, Marilyn J; Maas, Meridean

    2007-01-01

    Ongoing problems with nursing home care mandates understanding nursing home staff's perspectives on innovative quality improvement programs. This follow-up study used focus groups to examine the experiences of staff who participated in a clinical trial that involved Quality Indicator (QI) feedback reports, quality improvement training, and APN consultation. The authors found that QI reports provided staff with a benchmark to judge their care and a means to track problems; APN consultation was essential for staff to learn best practices; and staff questioned the validity of the QI reports, which hindered them from seeking new solutions to problems identified in the QI reports. Findings indicate that innovative QI programs and APN consultation can positively influence nursing home quality improvement efforts and improve care.

  6. Mononucleosis and chronic daytime sleepiness. A long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, C; Mondini, S

    1986-07-01

    Twelve patients between 14 and 26 years of age, ten with infectious mononucleosis and two with Guillain-Barré syndrome, all of whom were suspected of having had Epstein-Barr viral infection, developed daytime sleepiness. The daytime somnolence was confirmed objectively by polygraphic monitoring seven weeks to 4 1/2 months after the onset of clinical symptoms. The patients have been followed up for three to 12 years. None has had any other neurologic sequelae, but all have disabling daytime sleepiness. Treatment brings only mild relief. A retrospective chart study of 35 patients with infectious mononucleosis did not identify, on the basis of initial clinical symptoms, those patients who developed chronic impairment.

  7. Suicide intent among parasuicide patients in Nicaragua: a surveillance and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Caldera, Trinidad; Herrera, Andrés; Kullgren, Gunnar; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2007-01-01

    This study examines suicide intent among parasuicide patients in a low-income country, Nicaragua, with special reference to gender patterns and future suicidal behavior. Using the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), suicide intent was assessed in 204 persons presenting to hospital after parasuicide. Repetition was checked after a mean follow-up period of three years. The total SIS scores did not differ between women and men. However, a higher SIS score among women was significantly associated with older age, having children and use of pesticide as the parasuicide method. The overall method of suicide intent was low in Nicaragua compared to other countries, as was the nonfatal repetition rate (4.8% after three years). Subsequent suicides were found only in three men. Factor structures within the SIS disclosed supported the cross-cultural validity of the instrument. The level of suicide intent at the index attempt did not show any association with future suicidal behavior.

  8. Relationships in couples treated with sperm donation - a national prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term follow-up on relationship quality in couples who use sperm donation is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse changes over time in satisfaction with relationship in heterosexual couples who were scheduled for treatment with sperm donation and IVF couples treated with their own gametes and to compare the two groups undergoing different treatment for infertility. Method A prospective follow-up study in which data were collected twice on two groups; couples receiving sperm donation and IVF couples using their own gametes. The ENRICH instrument was used to gain information about the individuals’ subjective experience of their relationship at the time of acceptance for treatment and again 2–5 years later. Results At the time of acceptance for treatment the men and women in the two groups assessed their relationships as being very solid on all dimensions and that there were no differences between the two groups. At the second assessment there was a decline in the satisfaction scores on the dimensions “Children and parenting” and “Egalitarian”, while an increase in scores was observed on “Conception of life” and “Conflict resolution” both for men and woman and also for the two groups. For the couples that had a successful treatment and gave birth to a child/children there was a decrease in satisfaction of the relation in the sperm donation group as well as in the group of couples having IVF with own gametes. Conclusion In conclusion, the overall quality of relationship is stable in couples receiving donated sperm and does not differ from couples undergoing IVF-treatment with own gametes. PMID:25100133

  9. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: a prospective follow up study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Alice P S; Choi, Kai-Chow; Ho, Chung Shun; Chan, Michael H M; Wong, Chun Kwok; Liu, Eric K H; Chu, Winnie C W; Chow, Viola C Y; Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Juliana C N

    2011-05-20

    In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects). The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol). Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%). We invited 47 (9%) subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months). None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years) had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol). Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level.

  10. A prospective follow-up study of younger and older subjects with pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a common and costly public health problem associated with impaired quality of life and high suicide rates. Despite its frequency in the general population, PG course is poorly understood in older adults who are especially vulnerable to its devastating consequences. We enrolled 175 subjects in a longitudinal study of gambling behavior: our case group of 53 older adults with PG (≥ 60 years), and two comparison groups including 72 younger adults with PG (< 40 years) and 50 older adults without PG (≥ 60 years). Subjects with PG met lifetime criteria for DSM-IV PG and had a South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS) scores ≥ 5. Subjects were evaluated at intake and reassessed every 6 months and drop outs were replaced. Follow-up lasted a mean (SD) of 2.6 (1.4) years. At intake older PGs were more likely to be female, Caucasian, divorced, and to have a lower level of education. Older and younger PGs were similar in gambling severity, but older PGs were more likely to have sought PG treatment. Older PGs had lower rates of lifetime drug use disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. They preferred slots, were more likely to receive PG treatment, and were less likely to discontinue participation in the study. Week by week gambling activity levels showed a significant general downward movement for older and younger PGs, although there were no differences between the groups. Elders without PG had no change in their level of gambling activity. We conclude that younger and older PGs moved toward a reduced level of gambling activity during follow-up. Our data challenge the notion that PG is chronic and progressive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgical management of neuroma pain: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stokvis, Annemieke; van der Avoort, Dirk-Jan J C; van Neck, Johan W; Hovius, Steven E R; Coert, J Henk

    2010-12-01

    Painful neuromas can cause severe loss of function and have great impact on the daily life of patients. Surgical management remains challenging; despite improving techniques, success rates are low. To accurately study the success of surgical neuroma treatment and factors predictive of outcome, a prospective follow-up study was performed. Between 2006 and 2009, pre- and post-operative questionnaires regarding pain (VAS, McGill), function (DASH), quality of life (SF-36), symptoms of psychopathology (SCL-90), epidemiologic determinants and other outcome factors were sent to patients surgically treated for upper extremity neuroma pain. Pain scores after diagnostic nerve blocks were documented at the outpatient clinic before surgery. Thirty-four patients were included, with an average follow up time of 22 months. The mean VAS score decreased from 6.8 to 4.9 after surgery (p<0.01), 19 (56%) of patients were satisfied with surgical results. Upper extremity function improved significantly (p=0.001). Neuroma patients had significantly lower quality of life compared to a normal population. Employment status, duration of pain and CRPS symptoms were found to be prognostic factors. VAS scores after diagnostic nerve block were predictive of post-operative VAS scores (p=0.001). Furthermore, smoking was significantly related to worse outcome (relative risk: 2.10). The results could lead to improved patient selection and treatment strategies. If a diagnostic nerve block is ineffective in relieving pain, patients will most likely not benefit from surgical treatment. Patients should be encouraged to focus on activity and employment instead of their symptoms. Smoking should be discouraged in patients who will undergo surgical neuroma treatment.

  12. Incidence of skeletal fractures after traumatic spinal cord injury: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Gifre, Laia; Vidal, Joan; Carrasco, Josep; Portell, Enric; Puig, Josep; Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Núria; Peris, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    To analyse the incidence and factors related to the development and clinical evolution of fractures in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. A retrospective 10-year follow-up study. Neurorehabilitation centre. Sixty-three patients (50M/13F) with a mean age of 36 ± 20 years with recent traumatic spinal cord injury attended over a one-year period (January to December 2000). Medical reports were reviewed, evaluating risk factors for osteoporosis, fracture incidence during the 10 years following spinal cord injury, severity (ASIA score) and level of spinal cord injury (paraplegia/tetraplegia), type of lesion (spastic/flaccid), weight-bearing standing activity, and the cause, location and evolution of the fracture. Of the 129 patients attending during the study period, 75 had traumatic spinal cord injury (7 died and 5 had no follow-up). Finally, 63 patients were included. Fifty-four per cent had complete motor injury (ASIA A). Twenty-five per cent of these patients developed fractures, with 2.9 fractures per 100 patient-years. The femur was the most frequent location of the fractures. Fractures were observed 6.4 ± 2.4 years after spinal cord injury (range 2-10 years), all in males. Most fractures (70%) were related to low-impact injuries. Fifty per cent presented with associated clinical complications and only 20% of the patients had received anti-osteoporotic treatment. Spinal cord injury severity was the only risk factor for the development of fractures (complete spinal cord injury (ASIA A)) (RR 4.043; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.081-23.846, P = 0.037). The incidence of fractures after spinal cord injury is high, with severity and time since spinal cord injury being the main determinants for their development. Fractures were frequently associated with clinical complications. However, the use of anti-osteoporotic treatment was uncommon.

  13. Prevalence of celiac disease in Germany: A prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kibele, Monika; Akinli, Atilla; Porzner, Marc; Boehm, Bernhard O; Koenig, Wolfgang; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Mason, Richard A; Mao, Ren; Haenle, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a randomly selected population sample. METHODS: A total of 2157 subjects (1036 males; 1121 females) participating in a population-based cross-sectional study underwent laboratory testing for tissue transglutaminase and antibodies to immunoglobulin A, endomysium and antigliadin. In a second step, all subjects who had been examined serologically were surveyed using a questionnaire that included questions specific to celiac disease. Subjects with positive antibody titers and those with histories positive for celiac disease then underwent biopsy. At the first follow up, antibody titers were again determined in these subjects and subjects were questioned regarding symptoms specific for celiac disease and disorders associated with celiac disease. The second follow up consisted of a telephone interview with subjects positive for celiac disease. RESULTS: Antibody tests consistent with celiac disease were reported in eight subjects, corresponding to an overall prevalence of 1:270 (8/2157). The prevalence among women was 1:224 and 1:518 in men. Classical symptoms were observed in 62.5% of subjects. Atypical celiac disease was present in 25.0%, and transient celiac disease in 12.5%. False-negative test results were returned in three subjects. This yields a sensitivity and specificity of 62.5% and 50.0%, respectively, for tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin-A antibody; of 62.5% and 71.4% respectively, for endomysium antibody; and of 62.5% and 71.4%, respectively, for antigliadin antibody. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate in our collective lies within the middle tertile of comparable studies in Europe. The use of a single antibody test for screening purposes must be called into question. PMID:23674868

  14. Tooth loss, periodontitis, and statins in a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Nauck, Matthias; Holtfreter, Birte; Kocher, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Statins, frequently prescribed in lipid-lowering therapies, seem to have additional beneficial effects on periodontitis and tooth loss. If this is true, then chronic treatment with statins should also result in diminished tooth loss as a long-term response. A 5-year population-based follow-up study of tooth loss was performed comparing participants treated with statins (n = 134) with those not on the drugs (Study of Health in Pomerania). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyze the count variable of the outcome, including risk factors for tooth loss and measures of cholesterol metabolism. When adjusted for age and sex, statins were associated with reduced tooth loss during the follow-up period (incidence risk ratio [IRR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50 to 0.99, P = 0.04). When additionally adjusted for risk factors of periodontal breakdown, IRR was 0.72 (95% CI = 0.52 to 1.01). There was significant interaction with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) at baseline. After stratification by LDL-c, statins were associated with reduced tooth loss, resulting in IRR = 0.89 (95% CI = 0.44 to 1.83) and 0.64 (95% CI = 0.43 to 0.95), P = 0.03, at LDL-c concentrations ≤100 mg/dL and >100 mg/dL (2.58 mmol/L), respectively. The data also showed reduced tooth loss associated with the 5-year reduction in LDL-c levels on a mmol/L basis and independently of statins (IRR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.96, P = 0.004). Long-term treatment with systemically administered statins may have the beneficial effect of protecting against tooth loss.

  15. Adamantinoma of long bones: a long-term follow-up study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Szendroi, Miklós; Antal, Imre; Arató, Gabriella

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features and prognostic significances of 11 histologically proven adamantinoma cases based on an average 12,7 year long follow-up. The male: female ratio was 8:3, aged between 4 and 80 years (mean 29,3 years). The initial diagnosis at referral was other than adamantinoma in six patients (fibrous dysplasia, carcinoma metastasis, osteofibrous dysplasia, bone cyst, non-ossifying fibroma), referring to the differential diagnostic problems. All tumors were localized to the mid part of tibia. By histological evaluation, basaloid pattern on a background of fibrotic stroma dominated in six patients, while spindle and squamous features were less frequently seen. All adamantinoma were positive for cytokeratins often in coexpression with vimentin. No correlation was experienced between histology and clinical outcome. Intralesional curettage (2 pts) was followed by recurrence of the tumor. Wide resection was performed in eight patients with reconstruction using intercalary fibula autografts in seven patients. Reconstruction-related complications occurred in two third of the cases, all of them could however be controlled by repeated surgery. Six recurrences occurred in four patients, two of these recurrences occurred 20 and 16 years after initial surgery. One patient died 9 years after recognition of the tumor of pulmonary metastases. Adamantinoma of the long bones is a low grade malignant tumor, which clinical outcome is difficult to predict based on histology or surgical stage of the tumor. Wide surgical margin, e.g. resection the tumor reduces the rate of recurrence. This study underlines that recurrences do occur even decades after recognition the tumor, therefore a life-long follow-up of the patient is necessary.

  16. Wilson's disease in southern Brazil: a 40-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bem, Ricardo Schmitt de; Muzzillo, Dominique Araujo; Deguti, Marta Mitiko; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Werneck, Lineu César; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni

    2011-01-01

    Long-term data on the clinical follow-up and the treatment effectiveness of Wilson's disease are limited because of the low disease frequency. This study evaluated a retrospective cohort of Wilson's disease patients from southern Brazil during a 40-year follow-up period. Thirty-six Wilson's disease patients, diagnosed from 1971 to 2010, were retrospectively evaluated according to their clinical presentation, epidemiological and social features, response to therapy and outcome. Examining the patients' continental origins showed that 74.5% had a European ancestor. The mean age at the initial symptom presentation was 23.3 ± 9.3 years, with a delay of 27.5 ± 41.9 months until definitive diagnosis. At presentation, hepatic symptoms were predominant (38.9%), followed by mixed symptoms (hepatic and neuropsychiatric) (30.6%) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (25%). Kayser-Fleischer rings were identified in 55.6% of patients, with a higher frequency among those patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (77.8%). Eighteen patients developed neuropsychiatric features, most commonly cerebellar syndrome. Neuroradiological imaging abnormalities were observed in 72.2% of these patients. Chronic liver disease was detected in 68% of the patients with hepatic symptoms. 94.2% of all the patients were treated with D-penicillamine for a mean time of 129.9 ± 108.3 months. Other treatments included zinc salts, combined therapy and liver transplantation. After initiating therapy, 78.8% of the patients had a stable or improved outcome, and the overall survival rate was 90.1%. This study is the first retrospective description of a population of Wilson's disease patients of mainly European continental origin who live in southern Brazil. Wilson's disease is treatable if correctly diagnosed, and an adequate quality of life can be achieved, resulting in a long overall survival.

  17. Usefulness of adrenal scintigraphy in the follow-up of adrenocortical incidentalomas: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Fagour, Cédric; Bardet, Stéphane; Rohmer, Vincent; Arimone, Yannick; Lecomte, Pierre; Valli, Nathalie; Tabarin, Antoine

    2009-02-01

    Prognostic factors for progression of benign adrenocortical adenomas (AI) remain poorly known. We assessed the usefulness of (131)I-6-beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol scintigraphy (IMS) to predict the occurrence of adrenal hyperfunction or mass enlargement. Fifty-one consecutive inpatients with unilateral AI and normal 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) were enrolled in a multicenter observational prospective study to investigate the relationship between the scintigraphic pattern and the progression of biological abnormalities of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis or tumor size. Biochemically defined 'subclinical' Cushing's syndrome (SCS) was found at baseline in 47% of patients. Unilateral uptake (UU) was significantly associated with SCS (P<0.05). During the follow-up (4.3+/-1.6-year): 53% of patients showed unchanged hormonal evaluation, 29% displayed intermittent SCS and 18% showed definitive hormonal progression of SCS but without overt biochemical hypercortisolism. UU was associated with persistence of SCS and hormonal progression (P<0.01). In multivariate analysis, UU and impaired 1 mg dexamethasone suppression were independently associated with hormonal progression. Three patients with UU developed clinical CS despite persistently normal UFC. Tumor size increased in 10% patients and was not associated with any scintigraphic pattern. Evolution of SCS toward overt biochemical CS in patients with AI is a rare event during a 4-year follow-up. UU is predictive for the occurrence of SCS, its persistence and progression within the spectrum of SCS. Further studies aiming to establish the clinical consequences of SCS are needed to recommend IMS as a complementary evaluation in patients with AI and biochemical SCS.

  18. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: A prospective follow up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. Methods In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. Results The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects). The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol). Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%). We invited 47 (9%) subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months). None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years) had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol). Conclusions Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level. PMID:21599964

  19. Postoperative Complications in the Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study during Five Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Donald L.; Feuer, William J.; Barton, Keith; Schiffman, Joyce; Costa, Vital P.; Godfrey, David G.; Buys, Yvonne M.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the late complications in the Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study during 5 years of follow-up. DESIGN Multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical trial. METHODS SETTINGS Sixteen international clinical centers. STUDY POPULATION Two hundred seventy six subjects aged 18 to 85 years with previous intraocular surgery or refractory glaucoma with intraocular pressure of > 18 mmHg. INTERVENTIONS Ahmed Glaucoma Valve FP7 or Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant BG 101-350. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Late postoperative complications (beyond 3 months), reoperations for complications, and decreased vision from complications. RESULTS Late complications developed in 56 subjects (46.8 ± 4.8 5 year cumulative % ± SE) in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group and 67 (56.3 ± 4.7 5 year cumulative % ± SE) in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant group (P = 0.082). The cumulative rates of serious complications were 15.9% and 24.7% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant groups respectively (P = 0.034) although this was largely driven by subjects who had tube occlusions in the two groups (0.8% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group and 5.7% in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant group, P = 0.037). Both groups had a relatively high incidence of persistent diplopia (12%) and corneal edema (20%), although half of the corneal edema cases were likely due to pre-existing causes other than the aqueous shunt. The incidence of tube erosion was 1% and 3% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant groups, respectively (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Long term rates of vision threatening complications and complications resulting in reoperation were higher in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant than the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group over 5 years of follow-up. PMID:26596400

  20. The posterior iris-claw lens outcome study: 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jare, Nana Madhukar; Kesari, Ashwini Ganesh; Gadkari, Salil S; Deshpande, Madan D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional and anatomical outcomes of posterior iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implant for correction of aphakia in eyes with inadequate capsular support. Materials and Methods: Prospective case series of 108 aphakic eyes with inadequate capsular support which underwent posterior iris-claw IOL with a 6-month follow-up period was conducted. The cases belonged to two clinical settings: elective secondary implantation and those with intraoperative posterior dislocation of cataractous lens or IOL. Main outcome measures were visual acuity, anterior chamber reaction, stability of IOL, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure (IOP), and cystoid macular edema (CME). Results: The mean best-corrected visual acuity was LogMAR 0.25. None had chronic anterior chamber inflammation. The mean difference in central endothelial counts before surgery and 1 month after surgery was 104.21 cell/mm2 (4.92%). There was no statistically significant difference in central endothelial cell count at 1 and 6 months (P = 0.91) and also in the central macular thickness at preoperative and after 6 months suggestive of CME (P = 0.078). Three eyes had raised IOP which were managed with neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser peripheral iridotomy. There were no IOL dislocations or other adverse events in our series. Conclusion: Posterior chamber iris-claw lenses are a good option in eyes with inadequate posterior capsular support. Chronic inflammation, poor lens stability, or significant central endothelial cell loss was not observed during the 6-month follow-up period. PMID:28112126

  1. Hb level, iron intake and mortality in Chinese adults: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Zhou, Yonglin; Taylor, Anne W

    2017-02-01

    Anaemia is prevalent in developing countries and is commonly Fe deficiency related. We aimed to assess the association between Fe status, Fe intake and mortality among Chinese adults. We prospectively studied 8291 adults aged 20-98 years with a mean follow-up of 9·9 years. All participants were measured for Hb at baseline in 2002. Food intake, measured by 3-d weighed food record (n 2832), and fasting serum ferritin were measured. We documented 491 deaths (including 192 CVD and 165 cancer deaths) during 81 527 person-years of follow-up. There was a U-shaped association between Hb levels and all-cause mortality. Compared with the second quartile of Hb (121 g/l), the first (105) and fourth quartile (144) had hazard ratios (HR) of 2·29 (95 % CI 1·51, 3·48) and 2·31 (95 % CI 1·46, 3·64) for all-cause mortality in women. In men, compared with third quartile of Hb (143 g/l), first (122) and fourth quartiles (154) had 61 and 65 % increased risk of all-cause mortality. Anaemia was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in men but not in women after adjusting for potential confounders. Low and high Fe intake as percentage of Chinese recommended nutrient intake (RNI) were positively associated with all-cause mortality in women but not in men. In women, across quartiles of relative Fe intake, HR for all-cause mortality were 2·55 (95 % CI 0·99, 6·57), 1·00, 3·12 (95 % CI 1·35, 7·18) and 2·78 (95 % CI 1·02, 7·58). Both low and high Hb levels are related to increased risk of all-cause mortality. Both low and high intake of Fe as percentage of RNI was positively associated with mortality in women.

  2. MR Imaging of nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunjiu; Jin, Lirong; Fei, Guoqiang

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the correlation of MR imaging features with the pathological evolution and prognosis of nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy. A retrospective review and analysis was conducted of 6 cases of nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy, consisting of MR imaging features, clinical characteristics, and outcomes after thiamine administration. One patient died, 1 patient entered a persistent vegetative state, and the others recovered fully from Wernicke encephalopathy within 2 weeks to 1 year after thiamine administration. Typical MR imaging showed areas of increased T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signals symmetrically surrounding the aqueduct and the third ventricle, at the floor of fourth ventricle, in the medial thalami, and in the capita of caudate nuclei. Two patients presenting without coma showed increased T2-weighted and FLAIR signals of the periaqueductal area only. All 4 patients presenting with coma showed increased T2-weighted and FLAIR signals symmetrically in the medial thalami and in the capita of caudate nuclei. Of the 4 patients with coma, 2 patients with deep coma showed increased T2-weighted and FLAIR signals in the medial thalami and caudate nuclei as well as in the frontal and parietal cortices. According to the follow-up results, increased T2-weighted and FLAIR signals in the 4 patients without cortical damage decreased in intensity, consistent with clinical recovery within 2 weeks to 1 year. The patient in a persistent vegetative state exhibited progressive atrophy of the whole brain during the 2 years of the follow-up study. MR imaging is helpful not only to diagnose acute nonalcoholic Wernicke encephalopathy but also to evaluate the pathologic evolution and prognosis of the disorder.

  3. Pune low birth weight study--a six year follow up.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, S; Bhalerao, M R; Chitale, A; Pandit, A N; Nene, U

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate the intelligence, visuo-motor perception, emotional problems and preschool skills in low birth weight (LBW) infants and the impact of social and environmental factors on their development. A prospective cohort study. Infants discharged from a Neonatal Special Care Unit of a referral hospital with birth weight less than 2000 g followed up in the High Risk Clinic. Low birth weight infants were assessed by Stanford Binet Scales of intelligence, Bender Gestalt Test for visuo-motor perception, Human Figure Drawing for emotional indicators and occupational therapy assessment. A detailed evaluation of their environment and socio-economic status was done. Hearing and ophthalmic assessment was also done and the school progress report was scrutinized. Two hundred and one LBW and seventy one control children were assessed. The mean IQ of LBW children was within normal limits (94.3), though significantly lower than controls (101.3). Preterm SGA children had the lowest mean IQ. Visuo-motor perception and preschool skills and language development was poorer in LBW children. There was no difference in the emotional indicators. Thirteen per cent of LBW children had borderline IQ, as compared to 5.6% in controls (p<0.05). Mother's education and spaciousness of the house had a positive impact and chronic medical problems had a negative impact on the IQ. The mean IQ of LBW children was within normal limits. The incidence of children with borderline intelligence (IQ 70-85) was significantly higher than controls. Mother's education had a positive impact on the intelligence of the children. A longer follow up is necessary to identify "slow learners".

  4. Subjective quality of life in first-episode psychosis. A ten year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Romm, Kristin Lie; Friis, Svein; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Melle, Ingrid; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

    2016-04-01

    Subjective quality of life (S-QoL) is an important outcome measure in first episode psychosis (FEP). The aims of this study were to describe S-QoL-development the first 10-years in FEP patients and to identify predictors of this development. A representative sample of 272 patients with a first episode psychotic disorder was included from 1997 through 2000. At 10 year follow-up 186 patients participated. QoL was measured by the Lehman's Quality of Life Interview. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to investigate longitudinal effects of baseline psychiatric symptoms and socio-economic variables and the effects of changes in the same variables on S-QoL-development. S-QoL improved significantly over the follow-up period. More contact with family and a better financial situation at baseline had a positive and longstanding effect on S-QoL-development, but changes in these variables were not associated with S-QoL-development. Higher depressive symptoms and less daily activities at baseline both had a negative independent effect, but a positive interaction effect with time on S-QoL-development indicating that the independent negative effect diminished over time. In the change analysis, increased daily activities and a decrease in depressive symptoms were associated with a positive S-QoL-development. Treatment of depressive symptoms and measures aimed at increasing daily activities seem important to improve S-QoL in patients with psychosis. More contact with family and a better financial situation at baseline have a long-standing effect on S-QoL-development in FEP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Apathy in first episode psychosis patients: a ten year longitudinal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene; Haahr, Ulrik; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Velden; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Larsen, T K; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaglum, Per; Friis, Svein; McGlashan, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to examine prevalence and predictors of apathy at 10 years, and 2) to examine the relationship between apathy at 10 years and concurrent symptoms, functioning and outcome, including subjective quality of life. Three-hundred-and-one patients with FEP were included at baseline, 186 participated in the 10 year follow-up. Of these, 178 patients completed the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S-Apathy). Patients were classified as having apathy (AES-S-Apathy≥27) or not. The relationship between apathy and baseline variables (Demographics, Diagnosis, Duration of Untreated Psychosis), measures of symptomatology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia), functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, Strauss Carpenter Level of Functioning Scale) and subjective quality of life (Lehman's Quality of Life Interview) were estimated through correlation analyses and blockwise multiple hierarchical regression analysis. Nearly 30% of patients met the threshold for being apathetic at follow-up. No baseline variables predicted apathy significantly at 10 years. Apathy was found to contribute independently to functioning and subjective quality of life, even when controlling for other significant correlates. Apathy is a common symptom in a FEP cohort 10 years after illness debut, and its presence relates to impaired functioning and poorer subjective quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions among children with refractory seizures: A 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Deepak, Sai; Teja, Ravi; Kuruthukulangara, Seby

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Epilepsy accounts for 1% of the global disease burden and about 8–10 million epilepsy patients live in India. About 30–40% of these patients become drug-resistant and land up with palliative or disease-modifying surgeries. This is a situation causing great concern in view of the psychosocial and economic burden on the patient and the family apart from severe cognitive and motor consequences, especially in children. Therefore, it is mandatory to have an insight into the wide spectrum of causes with reference to refractoriness to antiepileptic medications in children with epilepsy. Patients and Methods: Children admitted under our team with refractory epilepsy as per the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria in the last 3 years were included in the study. Results: Refractory epilepsy constituted 13.3% of inpatients in the pediatric group. Males dominated with 68.9% of these patients. Nearly 34.4% of these patients were found to suffer from various neurometabolic diseases. Almost 3.5% were due to pyridoxine-dependent convulsions. This group of patients showed an excellent response to dietary manipulation, disease-modifying treatment for the metabolic disorder, and supportive small-dose anticonvulsants. During follow-up, they showed very good response with reference to global development and seizure control. Conclusion: Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions are relatively rare forming about 3.5% of refractory epilepsies in this series. With initiation of appropriate therapy, results with reference to seizure control as well as neurodevelopment became evident within 2 weeks, and at 1-year follow-up, complete independence for majority of the needed activities is achieved with minimum cost, almost zero side effects, and absolute elimination of the need for palliative surgery. PMID:27857784

  7. Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the affecting factors: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li Ya; Song, Zhi Qiang; Xue, Yan; Li, Xiao; Li, Yan Qing; Qian, Jia Ming

    2017-01-01

    Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection weakens the protective effect and long-term prognosis of eradication. With the widespread therapies, decreasing prevalence of H. pylori infection and improvement in living conditions, the recurrence of H. pylori infection may present with new features. We conducted this prospective, large-scale, multicenter follow-up study to determine the recurrence rate of H. pylori infection and its affecting factors. A total of 827 patients receiving successful H. pylori eradication in our previous randomized controlled trial were enrolled. (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) was repeated one year after the eradication therapy to determine its recurrence. Moreover, a questionnaire survey was performed to explore the potential factors affecting the recurrence. A total of 743 patients completed (13) C-UBT (follow-up rate 89.8%), and the result was positive in 13 patients one year after eradication therapy, with an annual recurrence rate of 1.75% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-2.69%). Six hundred and ninety-two patients (13 with recurrence and 679 without recurrence) returned their questionnaires, with a response rate of >80%. Multivariate analysis revealed that peptic ulcer (odds ratio [OR] 3.385, 95% CI 1.016-11.274), close contact with individuals having H. pylori infection (OR 4.231, 95% CI 1.201-14.911), and hospitalization (OR 9.302, 95% CI 2.441-35.440) were independent risk factors of H. pylori infection recurrence. The recurrence of H. pylori infection one year after eradication therapy is low in urban population of China. Peptic ulcer, contact history with individuals having H. pylori infection and hospitalization are risk factors. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective: a nationwide follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Feodor Nilsson, S; Andersen, P K; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Nybo Andersen, A-M

    2014-10-01

    To identify modifiable risk factors for miscarriage and to estimate the preventable proportion of miscarriages that could be attributed to these. Nationwide observational follow-up study. Denmark. Ninety-one thousand four hundred and twenty seven pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Information on potentially modifiable risk factors before and during pregnancy was collected by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews and linkage with Danish registers, ensuring almost complete follow-up of pregnancy outcome. Modifiable risk factors for miscarriage were identified by multiple Cox regression analysis, which provided the background for our estimations of population attributable fractions. In all, 88,373 pregnancies had full information on all covariates and were included in this analysis. Miscarriage before 22 completed weeks of gestation. The potentially modifiable pre-pregnant risk factors associated with increased miscarriage risk were: age of 30 years or more at conception, underweight, and obesity. During pregnancy the modifiable risk factors were: alcohol consumption, lifting of >20 kg daily, and night work. We estimated that 25.2% of the miscarriages might be prevented by reduction of all these risk factors to low risk levels. Modification of risk factors acting before and during pregnancy could lead to prevention of 14.7 and 12.5%, respectively, of the miscarriages. Maternal age at conception and alcohol consumption were the most important risk factors. Miscarriage risk is increased by multiple potentially modifiable risk factors and a considerable proportion of miscarriages may be preventable. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Ferric sulphate and formocresol in pulpotomy of primary molars: long term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ibricevic, H; Al-Jame, Q

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of ferric sulphate (FS) to that of the full strength of formocresol (Buckley's formula) (FC) as pulpotomy agents in primary human molar teeth 42-48 months after treatment. This was to assess the succeeding premolar teeth for decalcification, abnormal morphology or any other defect. Seventy children, ranging in age from 3 to 6 years, mean 4.3 years, were treated for pulpotomy of primary molars. Ferric sulphate 15.5% solution (applied for 15 seconds for 84 teeth) and formocresol solution (5 minutes procedure for next the 80 teeth) were used as pulpotomy agents. In both groups, pulp stumps were covered with zinc oxide eugenol paste. Permanent restorations were, in most cases, stainless steel crowns and in some of them amalgams. Follow-up clinical assessments were every 3 months and the radiographic follow-up time was 6, 20 and 42-48 months after treatment. The differences were statistically analyzed using the Chi square test. These revealed 96.4% clinical success rate in the FS and 97.5% in the FC groups. Radiographic success rate in the FS group was 92.0%, while 94.6% in the FC group. No statistical significant differences were found between the radiographic assessment of the two pulpotomy agents. Ferric sulphate showed similar clinical and radiographic success rate as a pulpotomy agent for primary molar teeth after long term evaluation period, compared with formocresol. Ferric sulphate, because of its lower toxicity, may become a replacement for formocresol in primary molar teeth.

  10. Cancer-related follow-up care among Hispanic and non-Hispanic childhood cancer survivors: The Project Forward study.

    PubMed

    Milam, Joel E; Meeske, Kathleen; Slaughter, Rhona I; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Kuperberg, Aura; Freyer, David R; Hamilton, Ann S

    2015-02-15

    Follow-up care is critical for childhood cancer survivors (CCS), who are at high risk for comorbidities and late effects of cancer treatments. Understanding the factors associated with maintaining follow-up care is needed, especially for Hispanic CCS, who have been under-represented in previous studies. Risk factors and protective factors for receiving cancer-related follow-up care were examined among 193 Los Angeles County CCS diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 (54% Hispanic; mean ± standard deviation age, 19.9 ± 2.8 years; age at diagnosis, 12.1 ± 3.0 years; time since diagnosis, 7.8 ± 2.0 years). Self-report surveys were used to assess follow-up care, insurance status, demographics, clinical factors, and psychosocial risk (eg, depression) and protective (eg, self-efficacy [SE]) factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the previous receipt of cancer-related follow-up care (in prior 2 years) and the intent to seek future cancer-related follow-up care. Seventy-three percent of CCS reported a cancer follow-up visit in the previous 2 years, which was positively associated (P < .05) with having health insurance, white ethnicity (vs Hispanic), younger age, and greater treatment intensity. Sixty-nine percent reported an intent to receive follow-up care in the next 2 years, which was positively associated (P < .05) with having health insurance and greater SE. Hispanics and older CCS were more likely to lack previous follow-up care. Because health insurance was strongly associated with both previous follow-up care and the intent to seek care, the current results indicate that recent changes in health coverage may improve follow-up among CCS. Interventions targeting improved SE may help increase intent to receive follow-up care for this population. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  11. What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured…

  12. What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured…

  13. 75 FR 54965 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era... problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent...

  14. 75 FR 54445 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era... problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent...

  15. Regular aquatic exercise for chronic kidney disease patients: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pechter, Ülle; Raag, Mait; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai

    2014-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not yet in dialysis can benefit from increased physical activity; however, the safety and outcomes of aquatic exercise have not been investigated in observational studies. The aim of this study was to analyze association of 10 years of regularly performed aquatic exercise with the study endpoint--that is, all-cause death or start of dialysis. Consecutive CKD patients were included in the study in January 2002. The exercise group (n=7) exercised regularly under the supervision of physiotherapist for 10 years; the control group (n=9), matched in terms of age and clinical parameters, remained sedentary. Low-intensity aerobic aquatic exercise was performed regularly twice a week; 32 weeks or more of exercise therapy sessions were conducted annually. None of the members of the aquatic exercise group reached dialysis or died in 10 years. In the sedentary control group, 55% reached the study endpoint--renal replacement therapy (n=2) or all-cause death (n=3). Occurrence of the study endpoint, compared using the exact multinomial test with unconditional margins, was statistically significantly different (P-value: 0.037) between the study groups. Regular supervised aquatic exercise arrested CKD progression. There was a statistically significant difference between the sedentary group and the exercise group in reaching renal replacement therapy or all-cause death in a follow-up time of 10 years.

  16. Popularity of less frequent follow up for breast cancer in randomised study: initial findings from the hotline study.

    PubMed Central

    Gulliford, T.; Opomu, M.; Wilson, E.; Hanham, I.; Epstein, R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of patients with breast cancer who were conventionally monitored with those in whom routine follow up was restricted to the time of mammography. DESIGN: Randomisation to conventional schedule of clinic visits or to visits only after mammography. Both cohorts received identical mammography and were invited to telephone for immediate appointments if they detected symptoms. SETTING: Combined breast clinic, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. SUBJECTS: 211 eligible outpatients with a history of breast cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Acceptability of randomisation, interim use of telephone and general practitioner, satisfaction with allocation to follow up. RESULTS: Of 211 eligible patients, 196 (93%) opted for randomisation in the study. Of these, 55 were under 50 years, 78 were diagnosed fewer than five years before, 90 had stage T2-4 tumours, and 71 had involved axillary nodes. Patients who did not participate were more likely to be under 50 years, to be two to five years after diagnosis, and to have had aggressive primary disease. Twice as many patients in both groups expressed a preference for reducing rather than increasing follow up. No increased use of local practitioner services or telephone triage was apparent in the cohort randomised to less frequent follow up by specialists. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing the frequency of routine follow up has so far proved popular among patients with breast cancer at standard risk in this cohort. A multicentre study is needed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine follow up with respect to disease outcomes. PMID:9022429

  17. Reducing pharmacy wait time to promote customer service: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Slowiak, Julie M; Huitema, Bradley E

    2015-01-01

    The present study had 3 objectives: (1) to evaluate the effects of 2 different interventions (feedback regarding customer satisfaction with wait time and combined feedback and goal setting) on wait time in a hospital outpatient pharmacy; (2) to assess the extent to which the previously applied interventions maintained their effects; and (3) to evaluate the differences between the effects of the original study and those of the present follow-up study. Participants were 10 employees (4 pharmacists and 6 technicians) of an outpatient pharmacy. Wait times and customer satisfaction ratings were collected for "waiting customers." An ABCB within-subjects design was used to assess the effects of the interventions on both wait time and customer satisfaction, where A was the baseline (no feedback and no goal setting); B was the customer satisfaction feedback; and C was the customer satisfaction feedback, the wait time feedback, and the goal setting for wait time reduction. Wait time decreased after baseline when the combined intervention was introduced, and wait time increased with the reintroduction of satisfaction feedback (alone). The results of the replication study confirm the pattern of the results of the original study and demonstrate high sensitivity of levels of customer satisfaction with wait time. The most impressive result of the replication is the nearly 2-year maintenance of lower wait time between the end of the original study and the beginning (baseline) of the replication.

  18. Curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis: follow-up study to skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken-Jin; Moe, Maung Maung; Vaithinathan, Rose; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2009-04-01

    This is a follow-up study to skeletal maturity on a cohort of students screened for a 1-year prospective epidemiological prevalence study for scoliosis. This study aims to identify the prognostic factors for curve progression to a magnitude of 30 degrees at skeletal maturity in skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis is not well understood. Previous reports have focused on the characteristics of curve progression where progression has been predefined at specific angles of 5 degrees to 6 degrees. However, the absolute curve magnitude at skeletal maturity is more predictive of long-term curve behavior rather than curve progression of a defined magnitude over shorter periods of skeletal growth. It is generally agreed that curves less than 30 degrees are highly unlikely to progress after skeletal maturity. Hence, defining the factors that influence curve progression to an absolute magnitude of more than 30 degrees at skeletal maturity would more significantly aid clinical practice. One hundred eighty-six patients who fulfilled the study criteria were selected from an initial 279 patients with idiopathic scoliosis detected by school screening, and who were followed-up till skeletal maturity. The initial age, gender, pubertal status, and initial curve magnitude were used as risk factors to predict the probability of curve progression to more than 30 degrees at skeletal maturity. Curve magnitude at first presentation was the most important predictive factor for curve progression to a magnitude of more than 30 degrees at skeletal maturity. An initial Cobb angle of 25 degrees had the best receiver-operating characteristic of 0.80 with a positive predictive value of 68.4% and a negative predictive value of 91.9% for curve progression to 30 degrees or more at skeletal maturity. Initial Cobb angle magnitude is the most important predictor of long-term curve progression and behavior past skeletal maturity

  19. Asperger Syndrome and Autism: A Comparative Longitudinal Follow-Up Study More than 5 Years after Original Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Prospective follow-up study of 70 males with Asperger syndrome (AS), and 70 males with autism more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Instruments used at follow-up included overall clinical assessment, the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Global…

  20. Childhood Predictors of Male Criminality: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. Method: The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national…

  1. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) Third Follow-up Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-364

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Alexander, Christopher P.; Jewell, Donna M.; Lauff, Erich; Mattox, Tiffany L.; Wilson, David

    2014-01-01

    This report provides guidance and documentation for users of the combined base-year to third follow-up data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). ELS:2002 is sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. The base-year and follow-up studies…

  2. Childhood Predictors of Male Criminality: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. Method: The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national…

  3. Asperger Syndrome and Autism: A Comparative Longitudinal Follow-Up Study More than 5 Years after Original Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Prospective follow-up study of 70 males with Asperger syndrome (AS), and 70 males with autism more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Instruments used at follow-up included overall clinical assessment, the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Global…

  4. Determinants of mortality in elderly patients with tuberculosis: a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Y-F; Feng, J-Y; Pan, S-W; Chuang, P-H; Su, V Y-F; Su, W-J

    2017-05-01

    Elderly individuals with tuberculosis (TB) are more likely to have a non-specific clinical presentation of TB and high mortality. However, factors associated with mortality in elderly TB patients have not been extensively studied. This retrospective cohort study aimed to identify factors associated with death among elderly Taiwanese with TB. All elderly patients with TB from 2006 to 2014 in Taipei, Taiwan, were included in a study. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with death in elderly TB patients. The mean age of the 5011 patients was 79·7 years; 74·1% were men; 32·7% had mortality during the study follow-up period. After controlling for potential confounders, age ⩾75 years (reference: 65-74 years), male sex, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), malignancy, acid-fast bacilli-smear positivity, TB-culture positivity, pleural effusion on chest radiograph and notification by an ordinary ward or intensive care unit were associated with a higher risk of all-cause death; while high school, and university or higher education, cavity on chest radiograph and directly observed therapy were associated with a lower risk of all-cause death. This study found that the proportion of death among elderly patients with TB in Taipei, Taiwan, was high. To improve TB treatment outcomes, future control programmes should particularly target individuals with comorbidities (e.g. ESRD and malignancy) and those with a lower socio-economic status (e.g. not educated).

  5. Removable dental prostheses and cardiovascular survival: a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Janket, S J; Surakka, M; Jones, J A; Lam, A; Schnell, R A; Rose, L M; Walls, A W G; Meurman, J H

    2013-08-01

    In previous studies, increasing number of teeth predicted better survival and the acute needs for dental treatment predicted mortality. We sought to investigate whether restored dentitions by various removable dental prostheses impact cardiovascular (CVD) longevity. Kuopio Oral Health and Heart study was initiated as a cross-sectional investigation with 256 subjects with diagnosed coronary artery disease [CAD] and 250 age- and sex-matched controls without CAD in 1995-1996. The mean age of both groups was 61, 30% were females. We appended mortality follow-up records to the baseline data and formulated this 15-year follow-up study. We examined the relationship between various types of dental prostheses and cardiovascular mortality by proportional hazard regression analyses. We also explored their correlation to oral and systemic inflammatory markers such as asymptotic dental score and C-reactive protein. In a model adjusted for age, sex and smoking, groups having only natural teeth (NT), removable partial denture(s) [PD] and NT, a PD and a full denture [FD], and FD/FD or FD/NT demonstrated the following hazard ratios for mortality (95% confidence interval). NT both arches: 1.00 [reference]; PD and NT: 0.75 [0.22-2.56]; PD and FD: 1.99 [1.05-3.81]; and FD opposed by FD or NT: 1.71 [0.93-3.13], respectively [p for trend=0.05]. Although statistically not significant, those with PD and NT with mean a number of teeth [Nteeth] of 15.4 had better survival compared with those who had all NT [Nteeth=22.5]; while those who had FD and PD [Nteeth=6.5] had shorter longevity than those with FD/FD or FD/NT [Nteeth=3.5]. Although not all subgroups of dental prostheses reached significant relationship with CVD mortality, our study suggests that not only the number [quantity] of remaining teeth but their maintenance [quality] removing potential inflammatory foci, such as pericoronitis or retained root tips, may positively impact on cardiovascular survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  6. Cancer Related Follow-up Care among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Childhood Cancer Survivors: The Project Forward Study

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Joel; Meeske, Kathleen; Slaughter, Rhona; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Kuperberg, Aura; Freyer, David R.; Hamilton, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Follow-up care is critical for childhood cancer survivors (CCS) who are at high risk for co-morbidities and late effects of cancer treatments. Understanding factors associated with maintaining follow-up care is needed, especially for Hispanic CCS who are underrepresented in previous studies. Methods Risk and protective factors for receiving cancer-related follow-up care were examined among 193 Los Angeles County CCS diagnosed between 2000–2007 (54% Hispanic; mean age=19.9, SD=2.8; mean age at diagnosis=12.1, SD=3.0; mean years since diagnosis=7.8, SD=2.0). Self-report surveys assessed follow-up care, insurance status, demographics, clinical factors, and psychosocial risk (e.g., depression) and protective [e.g., self-efficacy (SE)] factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with previous (in prior 2 years) and intent for future cancer-related follow-up care. Results Seventy-three percent of CCS reported a cancer follow-up visit in the prior 2 years, which was positively associated (p’s<.05) with having health insurance, White ethnicity (vs. Hispanic), younger age and greater treatment intensity. Sixty-nine percent reported intent for follow-up care in the next two years, which was positively associated (p’s<.05) with having health insurance and greater SE. Conclusions Hispanics and older CCS are more likely to lack previous follow-up care. Because health insurance was strongly associated with both previous follow-up care and intent to seek care, recent changes in health coverage may improve follow-up among CCS. Interventions targeting improved SE may help increase intent to receive follow-up care for this population. PMID:25345867

  7. What Does Depression Mean for Korean American Elderly?: A Qualitative Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Han, Haera; Lee, Hochang B.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Joo, Jin Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Korean American Elderly (KAE) have high rates of depression but underuse mental health services. The purpose of this study was to assess the meaning of depression and help seeking among KAE residing in the United States who have clinically significant depressive symptoms. Methods As a follow up to the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK; n=1,118), a descriptive epidemiological study which showed that only one in four of KAE with clinically significant depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) used mental health services, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the meaning of depression and beliefs about help seeking. Ten participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms were approached and 8 were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Results KAE did not identify themselves as depressed though experiencing clinically significant depressive symptoms. They associated depression with social discrimination, social isolation, and suicide in the extreme circumstance. They attributed depression to not achieving social and material success in America and strained relationships with their children. Participants attempted to self-manage distress without telling others in their social network. However, KAE were willing to consult with mental health professionals if the services were bilingual, affordable, and confidential. Conclusion KAE with clinically significant depressive symptoms are a vulnerable group with need and desire for linguistically and culturally relevant mental health services who are isolated due to a complex array of psychological and social factors. PMID:27757135

  8. Incident hypertension associated with depression in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment area follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christina M; Armenian, Haroutune K; Eaton, William W; Ford, Daniel E

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluates the role of depression as a specific risk factor for hypertension. This study analyzed the prospective data in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Follow-up Study (n=1920), a longitudinal population-based study of mental illness in East Baltimore. Incident cases of hypertension as assessed by self-report (n=148) in 1993 were compared to the remaining cohort without hypertension (n=901) across three waves of ECA interviews (1981, 1982, 1993). Depression and related symptoms were measured at baseline (1981) by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and categorized as dysphoria, dysthymia, or major depressive episode (MDE) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) III criteria. Individuals with a major depressive episode compared to those who reported never having dysphoria had a marginally significant increased risk for hypertension (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.16; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.94,4.98)) after adjustment for age, gender, race, body mass index, Nam-Powers socioeconomic score, alcohol usage, smoking, exercise, diabetes status, and number of general medical visits. MDE reported to have begun more than a year before the baseline measurement was associated with an increased risk for incident hypertension (Adjusted OR=3.67, 95% CI (1.25,10.79). Potential misclassification of self-reported hypertension outcome. Even though the data are based on self-report of hypertension, these findings suggest that depression may be an independent risk factor for hypertension particularly for those with recurrent episodes or a long term history of the disease.

  9. A follow up study of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disease in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Candler, P; Hart, P; Barnett, M; Weil, R; Rees, J

    2004-01-01

    associated with a stable or improved neurological outcome at last follow up (Fisher‘s exact test = 4.7, p<0.03). Median survival time was 43 months (95% CI 28 to 57) from onset of neurological disease as calculated using the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Conclusions: PND has a striking female preponderance usually affecting patients in their sixth decade and above. The median survival in our study was 43 months. The majority of patients with PND are not known to have cancer at the time of diagnosis. Our study confirms the importance of diagnosing and treating the underlying tumour. PMID:15377687

  10. Relationships in oocyte recipient couples – a Swedish national prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-term effect of treatment with donated oocytes on women’s and men’s perception of their relationship has been little studied. Thus the aim of this study was to analyse satisfaction with relationships in couples at the time of acceptance for treatment and 2–5 years after treatment with donated gametes and to compare them with IVF couples treated with their own gametes. Method A prospective follow-up study in which data were collected twice on two groups; cohabitating couples receiving oocyte donation and cohabitating IVF couples using their own gametes. A standardised instrument, the ENRICH inventory, was used to gain information about the couples’ subjective experience of their relationships. Results At acceptance for treatment the couples in the two groups assessed their relationships as being very solid on all dimensions and that the women receiving treatment with oocyte showed a higher satisfaction compared to women treated with own gametes. For couples that did have a child, the group of women who had been through the oocyte donating program reported a better quality of their relationship than women in the control group. There were no significant differences in perceived relationship quality between men in the different groups, whether they had a child or not. Conclusions From a long-term perspective couples using oocyte donation treatment have a balanced and solid view of their relationship and treatment, having children or not after treatment did not affect the nature of the relationships. PMID:24885541

  11. Deviation-Amplification: Two Case Studies in Cognitive Development, A Seven Year Report (1969-1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steg, D. R.; And Others

    Findings of a longitudinal study of early intervention are presented in this report of two case studies of low socioeconomic status black children. A girl and boy, approximately three years old when first enrolled in the educational day care program, exhibited severe behavior problems. Intellectual, emotional, psycholinguistic and perceptual…

  12. Radioactive iodine therapy and breast cancer. A follow-up study of hyperthyroid women

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.B.; Maloof, F.; Monson, R.R.; Aschengrau, A.; Cooper, D.S.; Ridgway, E.C.

    1988-05-01

    A follow-up study of 1762 hyperthyroid women who were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital Thyroid Unit between 1946 and 1964 was conducted. The average length of follow-up was 17.2 years. A 1978 mailing address or a death certificate was located for 92% of the women, and 88% of 1058 living patients responded to a mail questionnaire. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes of death was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.4). The standardized mortality ratios for all malignant neoplasms and for breast cancer were 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) and 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-1.9), respectively. More deaths than expected were observed from endocrine and metabolic diseases (SMR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), circulatory system diseases (SMR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), and respiratory system diseases (SMR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for all malignant neoplasms and for breast cancer were 0.9 (95% CI 0.8-1.1) and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.5), respectively. A nonsignificant excess breast cancer risk was observed 10 years after the onset of thyroid symptoms and was present at the end of 30 years of observation. A statistically significant excess number of pancreatic cancer cases (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7) and a nonsignificant excess of brain cancer cases (SIR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.7-5.3) were observed. Eighty per cent of the women were treated with radioactive iodine. When age at treatment and year of treatment were controlled, women who were ever treated with radioactive iodine had a standardized rate ratio for breast cancer of 1.9 (95% CI 0.9-4.1), compared with those who were never treated with radioactive iodine. Women who developed hypothyroidism as a result of their treatment for hyperthyroidism did not have an increased risk of developing breast cancer (SIR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.6).

  13. Changes of systemic microinflammation after weight loss and regain - a five-year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy; Szromek, Adam; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body mass changes on plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in obese women after the initially obtained weight reduction in a five-year follow-up period. Thirty out of 42 women with simple obesity (age 41.8 ± 11.9 years; BMI 36.5 ± 4.6 kg/m2) who achieved a greater than 5% weight loss at the end of a three-month weight loss programme were re-examined after five years. In addition to anthropometric and body composition measurements, plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha, sTNFRs and IL-6 were determined. The mean weight loss after the three-month weight loss programme was 7.9 ± 4.4 kg. After five years, body mass was still lower than initially in 14 women, while in 16 it was higher (the so-called 'yo-yo effect'). A significant decrease of plasma TNF-alpha and IL-6 and increase of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels obtained after weight loss therapy were maintained after five years, including in the subgroup with the yo-yo effect. During the follow-up period, the increase of body fat mass was similar in the subgroup that maintained reduced weight (+4.4 ± 10.7 kg) and in the subgroup with the yo-yo effect (+4.1 ± 7.1 kg), while a significant difference was found in changes of body free fat mass (-7.1 ± 7.1 v. -0.7 ± 4.5 kg, respectively). The yo-yo effect has a modest influence on systemic microinflammation and seems not to abolish the benefit achieved via a weight loss programme. This may suggest that the persistence of changes in lifestyle implemented during the programme such as regular physical activity and diet composition may have a significant impact on the level of systemic microinflammation in the obese. (Endokrynol Pol 2012; 63 (6): 432-438).

  14. Glucocorticoid insensitive asthma: a one year clinical follow up pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Demoly, P.; Jaffuel, D.; Mathieu, M.; Sahla, H.; Godard, P.; Michel, F.; Bousquet, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Glucocorticoid resistant or insensitive asthmatic subjects are usually defined as patients whose baseline pre-bronchodilation forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of less than 70-80% predicted improves significantly in response to β2 agonists but by less than 15% following 1-2 weeks of 40 mg prednisolone daily. Since there is little long term clinical information on these patients, a one year prospective study was performed to assess whether glucocorticoid sensitivity may vary over time.
METHODS—Nineteen severe asthmatic subjects were studied and received 40 mg prednisolone daily for seven days. Prednisolone was given for a further seven days in glucocorticoid insensitive asthmatics and then stopped. Patients were followed up for one year and the glucocorticoid test was repeated on five patients in each group six months later.
RESULTS—Eleven patients were classified as glucocorticoid insensitive and eight as glucocorticoid sensitive on day 7. The demographic characteristics of the patients were similar in both groups. Four glucocorticoid insensitive patients became responsive after one further week of prednisolone treatment. Six months later, four of five glucocorticoid sensitive patients and three of five previously glucocorticoid insensitive patients were glucocorticoid sensitive.
CONCLUSIONS—Glucocorticoid sensitivity varies over time.

 PMID:10195080

  15. Course and moderators of emotional eating in anorectic and bulimic patients: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Giulia; Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Ianni, Sirio; Montanelli, Luca; Rotella, Francesco; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

    2014-04-01

    Emotion dysregulation has been found to be associated with specific eating attitudes and behavior in Eating Disorder (ED) patients. The present study evaluated whether emotional eating profile of ED patients changes over time and the possible effects of a psychotherapeutic intervention on the emotional eating dimension. One hundred and two ED patients (28 with Anorexia Nervosa restricting type [AN-R], 35 with Anorexia Nervosa binge/purging subtype [AN-B/P] and 39 with Bulimia Nervosa [BN]) were evaluated at baseline, at the end of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, at 3 and 6 year follow-up. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders, the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) and several self-reported questionnaires for eating specific and general psychopathology were applied. A control group of 86 healthy subjects was also studied, in order to compare psychopathological variables at baseline. A significant EES total score reduction was observed among AN-B/P and BN patients, whereas no significant change was found in the AN-R group. Mixed Models analyses showed that a significant effect on EES total score variation was found for cocaine or amphetamine abuse (b = .25; p < .01). Patients who assumed these substances reported no significant EES reduction across time, unlike other patients. The present results suggest that ED patients with a history of cocaine or amphetamine abuse represent a sub-population of patients with lasting dysfunctional mood modulatory mechanisms.

  16. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation.

  17. Motor complications in Parkinson's disease: ten year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    López, Iria Cabo; Ruiz, Pedro J García; Del Pozo, Silvia Vázquez Fernández; Bernardos, Vicenta Sánchez

    2010-12-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can be symptomatically controlled with standard treatments; however, after a few years, this response typically declines and most patients develop motor complications. We carried out a prospective practice-based study to evaluate the evolution appearance and evolution of motor complications in 64 de novo PD patients over 5 years and in 38 PD patients over 10 years. We studied untreated patients from initial assessment at basal conditions and evaluated every 6 months thereafter with treatment (levodopa versus other drugs). The follow-up assessments were performed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). At each assessment, patients were monitored regarding the development of dyskinesias, motor fluctuations, freezing, loss of postural reflexes, and cognitive impairment. We observed a significant improvement in UPDRS scores during the first year, then a progressive decline, more evident after the third year. Motor complications increased after the third year, and at the end of the survey (tenth year); drug-induced dyskinesias and motor fluctuations were experienced (71.1 and 94.7%, respectively). After the first decade, many complications arose from the non-levodopa-responsive features of the disease (cognitive impairment was present in 52.6% and gait freezing in 71.1%). Initial medication may influence medium-term complications but not long-term problems. Most long-term disabling problems of PD were related to non-levodopa-responsive features.

  18. Client experiences in work rehabilitation in Sweden: a one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wallstedt-Paulsson, Eva; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona

    2007-01-01

    This study, carried out in a work rehabilitation unit in Sweden, investigated how clients perceived their work experiences after a one-year follow up. A semi-structured interview was administered to 14 former clients and a content analysis was applied. Seven categories were derived from the results: 'Expectations of the rehabilitation process'; 'Social relationships'; 'Client influences on the rehabilitation process'; 'Occupations engaged in during the rehabilitation programme'; 'Perceived outcome'; 'Current occupations'; and 'Future aspirations'. The dominating expectations were to find a job, with an overall desire for change. The social relationships with the staff and other clients were of great importance. The positive outcome of the rehabilitation was described as feeling better or having new skills. The perceived negative outcome was that the rehabilitation programme had not turned out as the client expected. The clients reported varying daily occupations after the rehabilitation experience and a majority were contented and optimistic about their future. The main conclusions of the study are that when planning a work rehabilitation programme, efforts have to be made to examine clients' interests and skills, and to develop a dialogue between clients and staff. Further research is needed to evaluate the work rehabilitation experience from the clients' perspective.

  19. Dietary Acid-Base Balance in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in adolescent sprint athletes. Seven-day food diaries and anthropometrics of 60 adolescent sprint athletes (mean age at start 14.7 ± 1.9 years) were collected every six months over a three year period. Comparisons were made between athletes with a negative (PRAL(−)) versus positive PRAL (PRAL(+)). For the entire sample, mean PRAL values of up to 6 mEq/day were slightly positive despite a relatively high protein intake of around 1.5 g/kg. The NEAP ranging between 42 and 46 mEq/day remained stable during the study period. Athletes with a PRAL(−) (−8 to −10 mEq/day) consumed significantly more fruit and fruit juice than athletes with a PRAL(+) (+9 to 14 mEq/day). Athletes with a PRAL(+) did not consume more meat, fish and poultry than athletes with a PRAL(−). Grains and dairy products were only discriminative between the two groups on one measurement occasion. Lowering the PRAL can be obtained by increasing the consumption of potatoes, fruits, vegetables and vegetable soup. PMID:22254092

  20. Inpatient rehabilitation for hip or knee osteoarthritis: 2 year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Weigl, M; Angst, F; Stucki, G; Lehmann, S; Aeschlimann, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of pain, physical function, and other health dimensions after a comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation intervention in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Methods: An observational, prospective cohort study with assessments at baseline (entry into clinic), 1 (discharge from inpatient rehabilitation), 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months after baseline. Consecutively referred patients to an inpatient rehabilitation centre fulfilling the inclusion criteria were studied. 3–4 week comprehensive rehabilitation intervention, including strengthening exercise, flexibility training, endurance training, relaxation strategies, and consultations for preventive measures, was carried out. Individual home rehabilitation programmes were taught. Generic health status was measured using the SF-36, condition specific health was measured with the WOMAC questionnaire. Effects were analysed with sensitivity statistics (effect size, ES) and non-parametric tests. Results: Data from 128 patients with complete follow up data were analysed. Both pain and physical function improved moderately (WOMAC pain: ES = 0.56, WOMAC function ES = 0.44) until discharge. Although the effect in pain reduction remained significant by month 24 (WOMAC: ES = 0.26), physical function deteriorated close to baseline values after 12 months. Conclusions: Comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation of patients with OA of the hip or knee may improve pain and physical function in the mid-term, and pain in the long term. PMID:15020328

  1. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer mortality: extended follow-up of the original Whitehall study

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G. David; Kivimaki, Mika; Morrison, David; Huxley, Rachel; Smith, George Davey; Clarke, Robert; Marmot, Michael G.; Shipley, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the well-established links between diabetes and elevated rates of pancreatic cancer, there are reasons to anticipate that other markers of metabolic abnormality (raised body mass index, plasma cholesterol, and blood pressure) and their correlates (physical activity and socio-economic status) may also confer increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, to date, the results of a series of population-based cohort studies are inconclusive. We examined these associations in the original Whitehall cohort study of 17,898 men. A maximum of thirty-eight years of follow-up gave rise to 163 deaths due to carcinoma of the pancreas. While Poisson regression analyses confirmed established risk factor disease associations for increasing age, smoking and type II diabetes, there was essentially no evidence that body mass index (rate ratio; 95% confidence interval per one SD increase: 1.01; 0.86, 1.18), plasma cholesterol (per one SD increase: 0.91; 0.78, 1.07), diastolic blood pressure (per one SD increase: 0.93; 0.78, 1.09), systolic blood pressure (per one SD increase: 0.98; 0.83, 1.15), physical activity (sedentary vs. high: 1.37; 0.89, 2.12), or socio-economic status (clerical[low] vs. professional/executive: 0.95; 0.59, 1.51) offered any predictive value for pancreatic cancer mortality. These results were unchanged following control for a range of covariates. PMID:19190162

  2. Intracorneal ring segment depth in keratoconus patients: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shahhoseini, Saied; Hashemi, Hassan; Asgari, Soheila

    2017-06-12

    To compare the actual depth of the tunnel created with femtosecond laser for intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation with the target depth in keratoconus patients. In this mix design study, eligible keratoconus patients were identified through chart review. The inclusion criterion was a history of ICRS implantation with femtosecond laser more than 6 months prior to enrollment. Participants underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography using Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) for depth measurement defined as the distance from the anterior corneal surface to anterior rim of the ring. The mean age of the 30 participants was 31.4 ± 7.9 years, and 58.6% were male. Mean follow-up time after ring implantation was 25.8 ± 10.0 (range 7-41) months. Mean actual depth was 59.9% (42.4-86.8%), and the target depth was 85.0% (74.8-90.0%) (P < 0.001). The ring was at a depth of less than 70% in 25 eyes of the 30 (83.3%) studied eyes. The mean 26 months after implantation, ring segments are placed at a shallower depth than originally intended. Therefore, although femtosecond laser technology is an acceptable method for the surgeon, it is necessary to revisit the depth calculator of the device.

  3. Fiber technology in space maintainer: a clinical follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, M S; Siddaramayya, Jayaraman; Sajjanar, Arunkumar B; Godhi, Brinda Suhas; Reddy, N Simhachalam; Krishnam, Raju P

    2013-11-01

    Various space maintainers are used in pediatric dentistry. However, their construction requires time consuming laboratory procedures. Recently fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRCR) has been introduced for various application in dentistry. Polyethylene fibers appear to have the best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, resistance to traction and to impact. The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the long-term effect of FRCR space maintainer made with Ribbond(®) bondable reinforcement ribbon in children over a period of 18 months. A total of thirty FRCR space maintainers were applied to 30 children between the age group of 6 to 9 years old, follow-up visits were done at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Maxillary appliances survived more than mandibular appliances. Mean survival time of space maintainer were found to be 12 months (minimum 1 and maximum 18 months). The present study suggested that FRCR space maintainers (Ribbond(®)), which was observed for up to 18 months, can be accepted as a successful alternative to conventional band-loop space maintainer only for short periods.

  4. Dietary acid-base balance in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in adolescent sprint athletes. Seven-day food diaries and anthropometrics of 60 adolescent sprint athletes (mean age at start 14.7 ± 1.9 years) were collected every six months over a three year period. Comparisons were made between athletes with a negative (PRAL(-)) versus positive PRAL (PRAL(+)). For the entire sample, mean PRAL values of up to 6 mEq/day were slightly positive despite a relatively high protein intake of around 1.5 g/kg. The NEAP ranging between 42 and 46 mEq/day remained stable during the study period. Athletes with a PRAL(-) (-8 to -10 mEq/day) consumed significantly more fruit and fruit juice than athletes with a PRAL(+) (+9 to 14 mEq/day). Athletes with a PRAL(+) did not consume more meat, fish and poultry than athletes with a PRAL(-). Grains and dairy products were only discriminative between the two groups on one measurement occasion. Lowering the PRAL can be obtained by increasing the consumption of potatoes, fruits, vegetables and vegetable soup.

  5. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome into adulthood: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Leen, W G; Taher, M; Verbeek, M M; Kamsteeg, E J; van de Warrenburg, B P; Willemsen, M A

    2014-03-01

    GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) is a treatable neurometabolic disorder in which glucose transport into the brain is disturbed. Besides the classic phenotype of intellectual disability, epilepsy, and movement disorders, other phenotypes are increasingly recognized. These include, for example, idiopathic generalized epilepsy and paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia. Since the disorder has only been recognized for two decades and is mostly diagnosed in children, little is known about the disease course. Our purpose was to investigate the disease course of GLUT1DS patients with the classic, complex phenotype from infancy into adulthood. We performed a systematic literature review as well as a cohort study, including GLUT1DS patients aged 18 years and older. The literature search yielded a total of 91 adult GLUT1DS patients, of which 33 patients (one-third) had a complex phenotype. The cohort study included seven GLUT1DS patients with a complex phenotype who were prospectively followed up in our clinic from childhood into adulthood. Our results show that epilepsy is a prominent feature during childhood in classic GLUT1DS patients. During adolescence, however, epilepsy diminishes or even disappears, but new paroxysmal movement disorders, especially paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia, either appear or worsen if already present in childhood. Intellectual disability was not systematically assessed, but cognitive functions appeared to be stabile throughout life. Like children, adolescents may benefit from a ketogenic diet or variants thereof.

  6. Adherence to vaccination guidelines post splenectomy: A five year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Boam, Tristan; Sellars, Peter; Isherwood, John; Hollobone, Chloe; Pollard, Cristina; Lloyd, David M; Dennison, Ashley R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    2017-02-08

    Following a splenectomy patients are at increased risk of significant infections. In its most severe form, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) has a mortality rate of up to 80%. In this study we aim to establish the adherence to vaccination and antibiotic national guidelines in splenectomised patients. A retrospective study of 100 patients who underwent splenectomy (21 emergency, 79 elective), in two teaching hospitals was undertaken over a five-year period. Patients were followed up for five years. Hospital and GP records were reviewed for adherence to pre, intra and postoperative vaccination, thromboprophylaxis and antibiotic guidance. Eighty-six eligible patients (91.5%) received their Haemophilus influenzae B, meningococcal C and pneumococcus vaccinations peri-operatively. Eighty-one (86%) received post-operative antibiotics. Ninety-nine percent of patients received thromboprophylaxis treatment. Eighty-nine (95%) were treated with long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. Only 20 patients (23%) had an emergency supply of antibiotics. Ninety-five percent of patients were administered an annual influenza vaccination and 84% of eligible patients received a five-year pneumococcal booster vaccination. Improvement in the management of this patient cohort can be achieved by a multidisciplinary approach involving adherence to national guidelines, standardised trust protocols, patient information leaflets and advice detailing risk of infection, standardised GP letters and a splenectomy register to monitor and manage this vulnerable group of patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on the high-energy follow-up of gravitational wave transient events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzano, Massimiliano; Patricelli, Barbara; Cella, Giancarlo; Fidecaro, Francesco; Pian, Elena; Stamerra, Antonio; Branchesi, Marica

    2016-05-01

    Second-generation gravitational wave interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, will soon reach sensitivities sufficient to first detect gravitational waves and open a new era in the multi-messenger investigations of the cosmos. The most violent and energetic astrophysical phenomena, including the mergers of compact objects or the core collapse of massive stars, are promising sources of gravitational waves, and are thought to be connected with transient phenomena such as Gamma Ray Bursts and supernovae. Combined observations of gravitational and electromagnetic signals from these events will thus provide a unique opportunity to unveil their progenitors and study the physics of compact objects. In particular, gamma-ray ground-based and space observatories such as Fermi or the Air Cherenkov Telescopes will be crucial to observe the high-energy electromagnetic counterparts of transient gravitational wave signals and provide a robust identification based on a precise sky localization. We will report on our studies of possible joint observation strategies carried on by gravitational interferometers and gamma-ray telescopes, with particular attention to the high-energy follow-up of Gamma Ray Bursts.

  8. Long-term importance of fundamental motor skills: a 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Meghann; Saunders, Travis J; Bremer, Emily; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential long-term association of motor skill proficiency at 6 years of age and self-reported physical activity (PA) at age 26. Direct motor performance data were collected in 1991 with a follow-up study occurring in 1996, and then indirect questionnaires (self-report) administered in 2001 and 2011. In 2011, 17 participants who were identified as either having high motor proficiency (HMP) or low motor proficiency (LMP) in 1991 completed a series of 4 questionnaires. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences between groups for motor skill proficiency, PA, or sedentary behavior, and whether these outcomes were related across ages. Motor skill proficiency at age 6 was related to self-reported proficiency at age 16 (r = .77, p = .006), and self-reported proficiency between 16 and 26 years (r = .85, p = .001). Motor skill proficiency at age 6 was positively associated with leisure time PA at age 26 in females and participants in the HMP group. The results may provide preliminary evidence about the importance of how early motor skill proficiency relates to long-term PA. More research with larger sample sizes is needed to investigate the importance of motor skills over time.

  9. Prosthetic rehabilitation of geriatric amputee patients: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, F U; Sunwoo, I; Roettger, R F

    1985-11-01

    During a four-year period, 116 lower extremity amputee patients older than 65 years were evaluated and treated by our department. Fifty-nine patients with below-knee (BK) amputations, 22 with above-knee (AK) amputations, and 15 with bilateral amputations were fitted with prostheses and trained in their use. A follow-up study on all patients was done at an average of 22 months after they had completed their training program but not earlier than after 6 months. Of all BK amputees who had been fitted with a prosthesis, 73% were using it fulltime and as their main mode of locomotion; 25% were using it part of the time. The results were less favorable for AK and for bilateral amputee patients: 50% of AK amputees and 33% of the bilateral amputees had become fulltime users of their prostheses. Age alone was not a major determining factor in success or failure of prosthetic rehabilitation. Failures usually were due to concurrent medical disease or mental deterioration. The study indicates that the effort and expense of fitting and training geriatric patients with prostheses may be well worthwhile.

  10. Follow-up study of heroin-addicted persons admitted for treatment in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Guardia Serecigni, J; Masip Vidal, J; Viladrich Segues, M C

    1988-01-01

    A follow-up study of 73 heroin-addicted persons three years after their first visit for treatment in 1981 to the Department of the Prevention of Drug Dependence and Guidance and Treatment of Drug Dependent Persons at Barcelona, Spain, was compared to a study of the same persons carried out after one year. The comparison showed that after one year 37 per cent of the cases had a favourable and 36 per cent an unfavourable outcome; for 27 per cent of the cases, information was lacking. After three years, 56 per cent showed a favourable and 30.3 per cent an unfavourable outcome; for 13.7 per cent information was lacking. Certain factors, such as a longer duration of treatment, a change in residence from an urban to a rural environment and treatment in a therapeutic community, were found to have enhanced the likelihood of achieving favourable results. Detoxification when not supplemented with supportive measures aimed at rehabilitation had a poor outcome.

  11. A Prospective Follow-Up Study on Transmission of Campylobacter from Poultry to Abattoir Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  12. Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Khamisa, Natasha; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan; Oldenburg, Brian

    2016-12-01

    Nurses experience high levels of work related stress and burnout as well as low job satisfaction and poor general health owing to the nature of their work. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of the nature of relationships between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses over one year. This study involved a longitudinal design. Two hundred and seventy seven nurses from four hospitals completed a follow up survey consisting of five questionnaires. Data were collected between 2013 and 2014. The data were analysed using generalized estimation equation analysis. Lack of support was associated with burnout, patient care was associated with job satisfaction and staff issues were associated with general health of nurses. Burnout is more strongly related to job satisfaction than general health. The findings of this study could inform evidence based policy and practice through interventions aimed at improving job satisfaction and reducing the impact of burnout on general health of nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Cause-specific mortality by income adequacy in Canada: A 16-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Long, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    People with lower incomes tend to have less favourable health outcomes than do people with higher incomes. Because death registrations in Canada do not contain information about the income of the deceased, vital statistics cannot be used to examine mortality by income at the individual level. However, through record linkage, information on the individual or family income of people followed for mortality can be obtained. Recently, a large, population-based sample of Canadian adults was linked to almost 16 years of mortality data. This study examines cause-specific mortality rates by income adequacy among Canadian adults. It is based on data from the 1991 to 2006 Canadian census mortality and cancer follow-up study, which followed 2.7 million people aged 25 or older at baseline, 426,979 of whom died during the 16-year period. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), rate ratios, rate differences and excess mortality were calculated by income adequacy quintile for various causes of death. For most causes examined, ASMRs were clearly graded by income: highest among people in the in the lowest income quintile, and lowest among people in the highest income quintile. Inter-quintile rate ratios (quintile 1/quintile 5) were greater than 2.00 for HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, suicide, cancer of the cervix, and causes of death closely associated with smoking and alcohol. These individually based results provide cause-specific information by income adequacy quintile that was not previously available for Canada.

  14. Cause-specific mortality by education in Canada: a 16-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Long, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    People with lower levels of education tend to have higher rates of disease and death, compared with people who have higher levels of education. However, because death registrations in Canada do not contain information on the education of the deceased, unlinked vital statistics cannot be used to examine mortality differentials by education. This study examines cause-specific mortality rates by education in a broadly representative sample of Canadians aged 25 or older. The data are from the 1991 to 2006 Canadian census mortality follow-up study, which included about 2.7 million people and 426,979 deaths. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated by education for different causes of death. Rate ratios, rate differences and excess mortality were also calculated. All-cause ASMRs were highest among people with less than secondary graduation and lowest for university degree-holders. If all cohort members had the mortality rates of those with a university degree, the overall ASMRs would have been 27% lower for men and 22% lower for women. The causes contributing most to that "excess" mortality were ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, diabetes, injuries (men), and respiratory infections (women). Causes associated with smoking and alcohol abuse had the steepest gradients. A mortality gradient by education was evident for many causes of death.

  15. Sibling effects, environmental influences, and university attendance: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2004-12-01

    In 2002 Marjoribanks examined relations among sibling variables, environmental influences, and school dropout. In this follow-up study, relations were examined between sibling variables (number of children in the family, birth order position) and university attendance. Data were collected from 8,005 (4,116 women, 3,889 men) Australian young adults (M age=20.1 yr., SD=0.5). Logistic regression analyses in the two studies indicated that (a) young adults from Asian, Middle Eastern, and middle-class families were less likely to drop out of school and more likely to attend a university than were young Australians from Anglo-Australian, English, European, and working-class backgrounds, and (b) after taking into account differences in family background and learning environment measures, there continued to be small but significant relations between the number of children in families, birth-order position, and the likelihood that young people would drop out of school or attend a university.

  16. [Gender dysphoria in children and adolescents - treatment guidelines and follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg, Bernd; Kröger, Anne; Neugebauer, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Treatment guidelines for transidentity in children and adolescents are presently under discussion. We present an overview of the various treatment modalities. Further, follow-up data on children and adolescents referred for gender-identity problems are presented. Of the 84 patients seen for the first time more than 3 years before follow-up, 37 mailed in the completed questionnaires. In addition, 33 patients agreed to answer some short follow-up questions. We assessed steps of treatment, gender role, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. We compared differences in psychopathology in patients with vs. without gender role change and in patients with intense vs. less intense psychotherapy. A total of 22 patients had completely changed gender role, and some had started hormonal treatment und sex reassignment surgery. Most patients were satisfied with the treatment results. All patients showed less psychopathology on follow-up, independent of role change or intensity of psychotherapy. In general, the patients reported little psychopathology. Our follow-up results support the present treatment approach. In patients with little psychopathology, low-frequency supportive treatment appears sufficient to obtain safe judgement on hormonal of surgical treatment.

  17. Program of Policy Studies in Science and Technology, supplement to seven year review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The activities of the Program of Policy Studies are described and evaluated. Awards, seminars, publications are included along with student researcher profiles, graduate program in science, technology, and public policy, and a statement of program capability.

  18. Demographic factors associated with loss to follow up in the management of chronic otitis media: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nash, R; Fox, R; Srinivasan, R; Majithia, A; Singh, A

    2016-02-01

    The likelihood of a patient attending regular follow up can affect decision making when planning and performing tympanomastoid surgery. This study investigated whether demographic factors were associated with loss to follow up. A database of patients who had been investigated and treated for chronic otitis media was searched. Patients lost to follow up and a matching sample of patients who were formally discharged were identified. The demographic factors of age, sex and postcode were compared between the two groups. The information collected was also used to provide measures of deprivation. Fifty patients in each group were identified. Patients lost to follow up were significantly younger than patients formally discharged (p < 0.02), and were more likely to live in an area of education and training deprivation (p < 0.05). Younger patient age, and living in an area of education and training deprivation, are associated with a higher incidence of loss to follow up.

  19. Venous coronary artery bypass surgery: a more than 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    van Brussel, B L; Voors, A A; Ernst, J M P G; Knaepen, P J; Plokker, H W M

    2003-05-01

    Atherosclerosis in venous coronary artery bypass grafts begins early and accelerates from the fifth post-operative year. We studied the influence of 18 variables existing at the time of operation, and of 'classical' risk factors present at 1 and 5 years after operation on the long-term outcome of this type of surgery. Four hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients who underwent isolated venous coronary bypass surgery between April 1, 1976 and April 1, 1977 were followed prospectively. Follow-up was 99.3% complete with a mean duration of 22.8 years for the survivors. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression model. Actuarial survival after 5, 10, 15 and 20 years is 95, 83, 63 and 47%, respectively. The cumulative probability of event-free survival for cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction and re-intervention at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years, respectively, are 98, 90, 74, 60%; 99, 91, 83, 77%; and 97, 86, 67, 57%. Age and left ventricular functions are continuous incremental risk factors for mortality. Left ventricular function and completeness of revascularization, and age and vessel disease are independent predictors of cardiac death and re-intervention, respectively. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and smoking, present after operation have an independent influence on the occurrence of cardiac events. Risk factors (still) existing 1 and 5 years after operation have a negative influence on the long-term results. This emphasizes the need of treatment of these 'classical' risk factors still present after operation.

  20. Personality as a predictor of depression symptoms in burn patients: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Giannoni-Pastor, A; Gomà-i-Freixanet, M; Valero, S; Fidel Kinori, S G; Tasqué-Cebrián, R; Arguello, J M; Casas, M

    2015-02-01

    There is empirical evidence that having some personality characteristics increases the risk of developing depression. This is the first study which analyses the role of personality dimensions, assessed by the Alternative Five Factor Model, in the development of depressive symptoms in adult burn survivors across time. Participants were 109 adult burn survivors admitted to a Burns Unit. Personality was assessed by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire and depression symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory. After adjusting by age, gender and burn size, results showed that high Neuroticism-Anxiety (N-Anx) and Aggression-Hostility (Agg-Host) were related to higher depression scores when compared with low N-Anx and Agg-Host groups along the six months follow-up. Moreover, Activity and Impulsive-Sensation Seeking factors were involved in statistically significant different depressive symptom development trajectories during the six months after burn. These findings suggest that personality factors could be used to identify the most vulnerable patients, who could develop severe mood symptoms at different points in their recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Older men's lay definitions of successful aging over time: the Manitoba follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tate, Robert B; Swift, Audrey U; Bayomi, Dennis J

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "successful aging" has become widely accepted in gerontology, yet continues to have no common underlying definition. Researchers have increasingly looked to older individuals for their lay definitions of successful aging. The present analysis is based on responses to five questionnaires administered to surviving participants of the male Manitoba Follow-up Study cohort (www.mfus.ca) in 1996, 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 (n = 2,043 men were alive at a mean age of 78 years in 1996). One question on each survey asked: "What is YOUR definition of successful aging?" Applying content analysis to the 5,898 narratives received over the 11 years, we developed a coding system encompassing 21 main themes and 86 sub-themes defining successful aging. We quantitatively analyzed trends in prevalence of themes of successful aging prospectively over time. Our findings empirically support colleagues' past suggestions to shift from defining successful aging in primarily biomedical terms, by taking lay views into account.

  2. The man-made mineral fiber European historical cohort study. Extension of the follow-up.

    PubMed

    Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Cherrie, J; Andersen, A; Bertazzi, P A; Charnay, N; Claude, J; Dodgson, J; Estève, J; Frentzel-Beyme, R

    1986-01-01

    The study concentrated on 21,967 workers producing rock wool/slag wool, glass wool or continuous filament in 13 European factories. The expected deaths and incident cancer cases were derived from multiplying the accumulated person-years by national reference rates across sex, age, and calendar-year strata, correction factors for regional lung cancer mortality also being used. Exposure assessment was based on the results of a historical environmental investigation reported elsewhere. There were 189 deaths (151.2 expected), and for rock-wool/slag-wool and glass-wool workers the standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer showed a pattern of increasing mortality with time since first exposure but not duration of employment. There was an excess of lung cancer among rock-wool/slag-wool workers employed during an early technological phase before the introduction of dust-suppressing agents, and fiber exposure, either alone on in combination with other exposures, may have contributed to the elevated risk. No excess of the same magnitude was evident for glass-wool production, and the follow-up of the continuous filament cohort was too short to allow for an evaluation of possible long-term effects. There was no evidence of an increased risk for pleural tumors or nonmalignant respiratory diseases.

  3. Follow up study of 70 patients with renal artery stenosis treated by percutaneous transluminal dilatation.

    PubMed Central

    Geyskes, G G; Puylaert, C B; Oei, H Y; Mees, E J

    1983-01-01

    Between April 1978 and April 1981, 70 patients with hypertension and renal artery stenosis were treated by percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation. Selection of the patients was based solely on arteriographic criteria. Arteriography after dilatation showed considerable widening of the stenosed area in all patients. In 65 patients the effect of treatment on the blood pressure was assessed during follow up periods of one to four years. In 14 of these patients the hypertension was cured, in 29 it was improved, and in 22 there was no change. Patients with fibromuscular lesions benefited distinctly more than did those with atheromatous stenosis, only one of the 21 patients with fibromuscular lesions showing no change as compared with 21 of the 44 patients with atheromatous lesions. The only serious complication encountered was microcholesterol emboli, which developed in two patients with severe atheromatous lesions of the aorta. In the atheromatous group age and overall renal function had no influence on the blood pressure response. In the subgroup of patients with a unilateral lesion the renal vein renin ratios and asymmetrical curves obtained by renography had only a very limited predictive value. In experienced hands percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation is relatively safe, and this study suggests that it should be attempted in all patients with renal artery stenosis. Only in patients with severe atheromatosis of the aorta should the risk associated with the catheterisation be weighed against the 50% or so chance of benefit from the procedure. PMID:6223685

  4. Conflict resolution patterns and longevity of adolescent romantic couples: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Shmuel; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Levran, Elisheva; Anbar, Shmuel

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the predictors of longevity among 40 late adolescent romantic couples (mean age males=17.71 years; mean age females=17.18 years). Subjects were given a revealed differences task where they were asked to solve their disagreements. The joint task was recorded, transcribed and analysed by two raters. At 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after this procedure, partners were contacted by telephone and asked whether their relationship was still intact. A cluster analysis was performed on couples' interaction indices and yielded three distinctive conflict resolution patterns. The Downplaying pattern was characterized by a high tendency to minimize the conflict. The relationships of the adolescents displaying this pattern stayed intact for a period of 9 months. Half of them were still together after 24 months. The adolescents displaying the Integrative pattern, which shows a good ability to negotiate differences tended to stay together over a period of 24 months. Those showing the Conflictive pattern, characterized by a confrontative interaction, were separated by the 3 months follow-up. Results are discussed within the context of developmental perspectives of conflict resolution tendencies and adolescent romance.

  5. Follow-up study of renal transplant recipients treated at the Guatemalan Social Security Hospital.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Polo, V; Lou-Meda, R; Castillo, M; Herrera, C; Mollinedo, A

    2004-03-01

    Guatemala is Central America's westernmost country, with a ratio of 500,000 inhabitants per nephrologist. Yearly reports show an average of 150 new end-stage renal disease patients and 40 renal transplants, which are performed at two public health care facilities. The aim of this study was to describe the results of the transplant program at one of these centers (Social Security Hospital of Guatemala). Our program began in 1986, performing an average of 17 transplants per year. Cyclosporine has been used since 1992, and since 2001, C2 has been routinely monitored. Data on 255 patients (of 293) were available for analysis. Male-to-female ratio was 7:1, with 94% having received hemodialysis as their replacement therapy. The mean age at transplant was 35 years and living related donors used in 95%. The average duration of follow-up was 7 years. The mean creatinine and C2 level at most recent visit were 1.36 mg/dL and 864 ng/mL, respectively. A significant reduction in the incidence of acute rejection episodes was seen after the initiation of C2 monitoring (3% vs 1.2%). In general, these results are similar to data in other countries. The number of transplants performed must be increased to meet the current demand, and the cadaveric source of donation is the obvious way to do so. C2 monitoring is an example of technical improvements directed to optimize available resources.

  6. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease: a one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Asunción; Cardona, Xavier; Martín-Baranera, Montse; Bello, Juan; Sastre, Francesc

    2011-11-15

    Impulsive and compulsive behaviors (ICBs) have been reported to occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include impulse control disorders (ICDs), punding and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (SSD). We report on the outcomes of 25 PD patients who developed ICBs. Information was collected on changes in parkinsonian and psychiatric medication follow-up (median=12.1 months). At time 1, only 18 patients (72%) were taking dopamine agonists (DA). At time 2, fifteen patients (83.33%) either discontinued or decreased their DA treatment. Of these patients, thirteen (86.67%) reported experiencing full or partial remission of their ICBs symptoms. When analyzing separately the 11 patients with punding, these symptoms remained unchanged in 9 patients (81.82%) independently of changes in dopaminergic drugs. In conclusion, the current study suggests that there are clear similarities, but also important differences, between punding and ICDs over time. Pathological gambling, binge or compulsive eating, pathological hypersexuality and compulsive shopping in PD were robustly associated with the use of DA but the relationship between dopaminergic medications and punding is less clear. It is important to determine if other treatment strategies may be effective for punding in PD.

  7. What happens to children who move off the autism spectrum? Clinical follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Mutluer, Tuba; Ayik, Basak; Umut, Ayla

    2017-04-01

    There is controversial information on outcome of school age individuals who lose the diagnosis of autism and achieve "optimal outcome" (OO). The present study assessed the autism symptoms and other psychiatric disorders in a group of children with a past history of autism. The subjects consisted of 26 individuals who had lost the diagnosis of autism 2-8 years previously. Clinical assessment was done with both parents and children. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn; DSM-V) criteria were used for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition, Childhood Autism Rating Scale and Social Communication Questionnaire (current version) were used. Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). None of the participants met the criteria for ASD. Ninety-two percent had a lifetime diagnosis and 81% had a present psychiatric disorder based on the K-SADS. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder were the most common disorders. Improved status with regard to autism symptomatology is maintained over time, but these individuals are vulnerable to developing other psychiatric disorders. It is crucial to maintain psychiatric follow up of children who move off the autism spectrum. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Counselling for Patients and Family Members: A Follow-Up Study in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Paavilainen, Eija; Salminen-Tuomaala, Mari; Leikkola, Päivi

    2012-01-01

    Although the research indicates that patients and family members are not fully satisfied with the counselling they receive, little is known about the quality of counselling in more detail. The purpose of the study was to describe patients' and their family members' experiences about counselling in emergency department, and follow how these experiences possibly change after the educational intervention for the whole nursing staff of the ED ward. The pre-test-post-test follow-up design was implemented including online continuing education for ED staff. The data were collected via questionnaires from patients and their family members in two phases and analyzed statistically. After online education of staff, experiences of patients and family members concerning counselling were better than before the education. Especially, family members' satisfaction had increased. However, our results also indicated that patients and family members desire more information for example, regarding medications. Care practices had developed towards family-centeredness, which patients and family members appreciate. Online education proved also in some degree its usefulness in educating ED staff, by offering the same education to a staff which works in shifts. Furthermore, family presence and participation practices should be developed by offering possibilities for families to stay with each other on ED ward. PMID:23008782

  9. Social functioning and survival: A 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Arve, Seija; Lavonius, Sirkku; Savikko, Niina; Lehtonen, Aapo; Isoaho, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Although otherwise extensively researched, one aspect of social functioning in older people that has received less attention is its association with staying at home for as long as possible. This 10-year follow-up examines factors of social functioning that support older people's independent living in their own homes and that reduce the risk of mortality. The data were collected in 1991 by a postal questionnaire that was sent to all residents of Turku, Finland, born in 1920. A physical examination was also conducted. Ten years later, in 2001, the mortality rate of this population was determined. The data were examined statistically. Female gender reduced the risk of mortality. In addition, daily outdoor activities, and not needing help (from different sources) were associated with a reduced risk of mortality. No need for help and a more positive attitude towards life reduced the risk of mortality of women. There were found only non-significant trends for men. Having plans for the future also reduced the risk of mortality. The findings of this study offer useful clues for planning the services provided by home health care personnel. In planning these services it is important that home health care workers take into account the differences between women and men customers: men may need and want different things from the home health care service than women do.

  10. Patient-based outcomes following clubfoot surgery: a 16-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Michael G; Choe, Julie C; Vitale, Mark A; Lee, Francis Y; Hyman, Joshua E; Roye, David P

    2005-01-01

    The ongoing controversy regarding the appropriate treatment of clubfoot has resulted in much variability in practice patterns, making the assessment of long-term outcomes a difficult one. Recently, new patient-based measures of outcomes have allowed for improved methods of assessing health outcomes in children. The purpose of this study was to follow up on a cohort of adolescents who underwent surgical repair at the authors' institution. Traditional (radiographs) and patient-based measures were obtained from 24 patients. The Child Health Questionnaire showed that the quality of life of these patients was relatively high after surgery, and these scores were comparable to those of age-matched young athletes with healthy feet. The disease-specific instrument, which was also administered, showed similar results. The role of radiographic measures was limited, as they did not reflect patient-based outcomes after clubfoot surgery. Both generic and disease-specific measures should be used as primary endpoints in evaluating treatment results in this area.

  11. Afterglow Population Studies from Swift Follow-Up Observations of Fermi LAT GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; McEnery, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    The small population of Fermi LAT detected GRBs discovered over the last year has been providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 5 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into other components of GRB emission structure. We explore the new ability to utilize both of these observatories to study the same GRBs over 10 orders of magnitude in energy, although not always concurrently. Almost all LAT GRBs that have been followed-up by Swift within 1-day have been clearly detected and carefully observed. We will present the context of the lower-energy afterglows of this special subset of GRBs that has > 100 MeV emission compared to the hundreds in the Swift database that may or may not have been observed by LAT, and theorize upon the relationship between these properties and the origin of the high energy gamma-ray emission.

  12. [Prognosis of patients with irritable intestine syndrome. A prospective study with 1 year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Linares Rodríguez, A; Rodrigo Sáez, L; Pérez Alvarez, R; Sánchez Lombraña, J L; Rodríguez Pérez, A; Arribas Castrillo, J M

    1990-01-01

    An analysis was made of the prognosis over a one-year follow-up period of a consecutive series of 86 out patients with irritable bowel syndrome (SII) who were treated randomly with an antispasmodic (otilonium) or a tranquilizer (clobazam), and the existence of factors, mainly psychological, that could worsen it was determined with the Zung anxiety test and the Hamilton depression scale. We confirmed that irritable intestine syndrome is a chronic disease, with a mean course of 13 +/- 12.5 years at the time of consultation. A large proportion of patients had permanent problems (58.1%) and did not experience important changes in the intensity of symptoms throughout evolution (68.6%). Although most improved initially with the treatment instated (76.7%), the improvement was rarely complete (11.8%). A year after beginning treatment, 61.6% were the same or worse than before the index consultation. In the group of patients with a good course, the proportion of those that correctly followed medical treatment and of those who had experienced more or less lengthy asymptomatic periods before consultation was significantly larger. In the group of patients with poor evolution, the scores on the Zung anxiety test and Hamilton depression scale were significantly higher than in those who evolved favorably. Neither consultation of a specialist nor the treatment used in this study seem to have contributed to an evident improvement in the prognosis.

  13. Afterglow Population Studies from Swift Follow-Up Observations of Fermi LAT GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; McEnery, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    The small population of Fermi LAT detected GRBs discovered over the last year has been providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 5 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into other components of GRB emission structure. We explore the new ability to utilize both of these observatories to study the same GRBs over 10 orders of magnitude in energy, although not always concurrently. Almost all LAT GRBs that have been followed-up by Swift within 1-day have been clearly detected and carefully observed. We will present the context of the lower-energy afterglows of this special subset of GRBs that has > 100 MeV emission compared to the hundreds in the Swift database that may or may not have been observed by LAT, and theorize upon the relationship between these properties and the origin of the high energy gamma-ray emission.

  14. Preprosthetic mandibular vestibuloplasty with split-skin graft. A 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hillerup, S

    1987-06-01

    17 patients with lower denture malfunction problems related to insufficient residual ridges had a vestibuloplasty with split-skin graft performed in the mandible under local analgesia on an out-patient basis. The patients were followed-up for 2 years and records of vestibular extension showed a maximum of relapse at the 1-month control (24%). Most of the lost extension was regained at the 6-month check, and the 2-year outcome was 92% of the surgically-created vestibular sulcus extension as a mean value of records obtained at the midline and canine regions. A comparison with a previous study on buccal mucosal graft vestibuloplasty led to the conclusion that free grafts of skin and buccal mucosa prevent a relapse equally well under the same circumstances. 13 patients were satisfied with the improvement achieved, 3 reported fair, and 1 was dissatisfied with the result of the operation. The split-skin graft underwent a change of appearance in 5 cases interpreted as a skin graft candidosis. Indication of this condition accelerating the residual ridge resorption is discussed.

  15. Follow-up of children exposed to ionising radiation from cardiac catheterisation: the Coccinelle study

    PubMed Central

    Baysson, H.; Nkoumazok, B.; Barnaoui, S.; Réhel, J. L.; Girodon, B.; Milani, G.; Boudjemline, Y.; Bonnet, D.; Laurier, D.; Bernier, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac catheterisation has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and treatment of children with a wide variety of congenital and acquired forms of cardiovascular disease. Despite the clear clinical benefit to the patient, radiation exposure from paediatric cardiac catheterisation procedures (CCPs) may be substantial. Given children's greater sensitivity to radiation and the longer life span during which radiation health effects can develop, an epidemiological cohort study, named Coccinelle or ‘Ladybird’ (French acronym for ‘Cohorte sur le risque de cancer après cardiologie interventionnelle pédiatrique’), is carried out in France to evaluate the risks of leukaemia and solid cancers in this population. A total number of 8000 included children are expected. Individual CCP-related doses will be assessed for each child included in the cohort. For each CCP performed, dosimetric parameters (dose–area product, fluoroscopy time and total number of cine frames) are retrieved retrospectively. Organ doses, especially to the lung, the oesophagus and the thyroid, are calculated with PCXMC software. The cohort will be followed up through linkage with French paediatric cancer registries. PMID:25833897

  16. Maintenance immunotherapy in recurrent ovarian cancer: long term follow-up of a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Di Orio, Ferdinando; Candeloro, Giampiero; Guerriero, Gabriele; Piazze, Juan; Rea, Silvio

    2010-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a mediator of tumor-associated immunodeficiency, plays a key role in angiogenesis and is a prognostic factor in advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). Previously, we showed that low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA) improved the tumor-associated immunodeficiency and decreased VEGF in patients with AOC. Here, we report long term follow-up of a group of patients with platinum-sensitive AOC who were treated with IL-2 and RA. Sixty-five patients with AOC who had a clinical benefit from second line chemotherapy and elevated serum levels of VEGF were entered into the study from 04/98 to 04/05. Therapy consisted of low-dose subcutaneous IL-2 and oral RA, administered on intermittent schedules for up to 5 years. A statistically significant improvement in lymphocyte and NK counts and a decrease in VEGF levels were observed with respect to baseline values among the 65 evaluable patients. Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival rate were 29% and 38%, respectively. These data show that patients treated with low-dose IL-2 and RA have a statistically significant improvement in their lymphocyte and NK counts, a decrease in VEGF, and seem to have an improved clinical outcome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for criminal recidivism - a prospective follow-up study in prisoners with substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Anders; Berglund, Mats

    2012-08-15

    Substance use in general has been shown to predict criminal recidivism. The present study aimed to examine potential predictors of criminal recidivism, including substance-specific substance use patterns, in prisoners with substance use. A cohort of prisoners with substance use problems (N = 4,152) were assessed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in the Swedish criminal justice system. Clients were followed for an average of 2.7 years. Criminal recidivism was defined as any return to the criminal justice system. During follow-up, 69 percent (n = 2,862) returned to the criminal justice system. Recidivism was associated with amphetamine and heroin use, with an additive risk for injectors, and with polysubstance use. Also, recidivism was negatively associated with alcohol, other opioids than heroin/methadone and with hallucinogenic drugs, and positively associated with previous psychiatric in-patient treatment, violent behaviour, and with a shorter index sentence. Associations remained when controlling for type of crime. Even when controlling for type and severity of crime, and for psychiatric problems, risk of criminal relapse was increased by substance use variables, including amphetamine, heroin and polysubstance use, and an additional risk was shown for injection drug users. These findings have implications for the need for substance abuse treatment after release from prison.

  18. Child Witness to Domestic Abuse: Baseline Data Analysis for a Seven-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Blair, Faye; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2015-01-01

    Children who witness the abuse of their mother by an intimate partner suffer negative effects on behavioral functioning. In this study, 300 abused women seeking services for abuse were interviewed regarding how often their child had witnessed the abuse. Baseline data for this study found that boys who witnessed abuse had externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems comparable to boys in clinical treatment. Girls did not display clinically significant behaviors. For evidence-based programs to interrupt the effect of witness to violence on children, empirical data that are gender-specific are needed. Findings support the need to screen mothers for abuse during well-child visits and offer education to all mothers on the possible effects of child witness to violence in the home.

  19. Incidence of chronic atrophic gastritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Mariam Abdullahi; Weck, Melanie Nicole; Gao, Lei; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-07-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an important precursor lesion of intestinal gastric cancer. As it is typically asymptomatic, epidemiological data on the incidence of CAG are sparse. We aimed to provide an overview of published data on CAG incidence (overall and according to risk factors) from follow-up studies. Articles with information on incidence of CAG published in English until 26th of July 2009 were identified through a systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE search. Data extracted include study characteristics and key findings regarding the incidence of CAG. A meta-analysis was performed on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and CAG incidence. Overall, data on CAG incidence were available from 14 studies, in 7 studies incidence could be estimated according to H. pylori infection. Most studies were conducted in symptomatic or high risk populations and the maximum number of incident cases was 284. Incidence estimates ranged from 0 to 11% per year and were consistently below 1% in patients not infected with H. pylori. The highest incidence was observed in a special study conducted on ulcer patients treated by proximal gastric vagotomy. Rate ratios for the association between H. pylori infection and CAG incidence ranged from 2.4 to 7.6 with a summary estimate of 5.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.1-8.3). Incidence of CAG is very low in the absence of H. pylori infection. There is a need for more population-based studies to provide comparable estimates of incidence and the impact of risk factors in the development of CAG.

  20. Occurrence and prognosis of hand eczema in the car industry: results from the PACO follow-up study (PACO II).

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, Christian J; Radulescu, Magda; Diepgen, Thomas L; Funke, Ulrich

    2008-06-01

    Only a few epidemiological studies on hand eczema (HE) in the metalworking industry have been conducted, and no study has attempted a long-term follow-up. In the Prospective Audi Cohort (PACO) II follow-up study, we aimed to estimate burden and prognosis of HE in a car industry setting (follow-up > 10 years). Eligible participants were individuals who had been examined in the original PACO study (1990-1998) and had been followed through until the end of their apprenticeship (n = 1909). Participants were interviewed and underwent dermatological examination. An exposure assessment was carried out according to a pre-defined algorithm. The follow-up rate was 78.3% (1494/1909). Mean follow-up time was 13.3 [standard deviation 1.3] years. The period prevalence of HE in the follow-up period was 21.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19.0-23.1%], yielding a cumulative incidence of 29.3% (95% CI 26.9-31.6%) in the entire study period. HE persisted after the end of apprenticeship in 40.0% (95% CI 33.3-46.7%) of subjects who had had HE during apprenticeship (n = 205). 18.0% (95% CI 15.9-20.1%) developed HE in the follow-up period (n = 1289). Around 30% of subjects were affected by HE at least once during the study period. HE persisted in 40% of the participants affected during apprenticeship.

  1. Telemedicine Consultations in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: A Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric W; Strauss, Robert A; Janus, Charles; Carrico, Caroline K

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to follow up on the previous study in evaluating the efficiency and reliability of telemedicine consultations for preoperative assessment of patients. A retrospective study of 335 patients over a 6-year period was performed to evaluate success rates of telemedicine consultations in adequately assessing patients for surgical treatment under anesthesia. Success or failure of the telemedicine consultation was measured by the ability to triage patients appropriately for the hospital operating room versus the clinic, to provide an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan, and to provide a sufficient medical and physical assessment for planned anesthesia. Data gathered from the average distance traveled and data from a previous telemedicine study performed by the National Institute of Justice were used to estimate the cost savings of using telemedicine consultations over the 6-year period. Practitioners performing the consultation were successful 92.2% of the time in using the data collected to make a diagnosis and treatment plan. Patients were triaged correctly 99.6% of the time for the clinic or hospital operating room. Most patients (98.0%) were given sufficient medical and physical assessment and were able to undergo surgery with anesthesia as planned at the clinic appointment immediately after telemedicine consultation. Most patients (95.9%) were given an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. The estimated amount saved by providing consultation by telemedicine and eliminating in-office consultation was substantial at $134,640. This study confirms the findings from previous studies that telemedicine consultations are as reliable as those performed by traditional methods. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term follow-up study of patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen; Fallon, Brian A; Petkova, Eva; Feinstein, Suzanne; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The authors prospectively followed patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Between 1988 and 1995, 56 patients with a history of inadequate response to oral clomipramine received 14 infusions of intravenous clomipramine. The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 11 years after treatment. Of the 44 subjects interviewed at follow-up, 70.5% had current OCD and 29.5% had sub-threshold OCD. Almost half reported feeling much improved or very much improved compared to their state prior to treatment with intravenous clomipramine.

  3. Seven years of teenage pregnancy in an inner London genitourinary medicine service - a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Aseel; Daley, Natalie; Williams, Elizabeth; McLeod, Felicity; Rafiezadeh, Saba; Prime, Katia

    2014-12-01

    Young people attending genitourinary medicine services are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy. We performed a retrospective cohort study to identify characteristics of pregnant teenagers accessing an inner London genitourinary medicine service. There were 481 pregnancies in 458 teenagers with 54 previous pregnancies and 46 previous terminations of pregnancy. The under-18 and under-16 teenage pregnancy rates were 92.1 and 85.8 per 1000 age-matched clinic attendees, respectively. Median age was 17.1 years. 'Black Other' teenagers ('Black British', 'Mixed White-Black Caribbean' and 'Mixed White-Black African') were over-represented, compared to our clinic population, while those of White ethnicity were under-represented. Few pregnancies (1.5%) were planned with the majority (64%) intending terminations of pregnancy. Most teenagers did not use consistent contraception. Two-thirds of patients had attended genitourinary medicine services in the past and sexually transmitted infection prevalence at presentation was high. Effectively targeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of teenage genitourinary medicine clinic attendees may have a significant impact on reducing sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy and terminations of pregnancy in this group.

  4. Six-year follow-up of the treatment of patients with dissociative disorders study.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Amie C; Webermann, Aliya R; Loewenstein, Richard J; Lanius, Ruth; Putnam, Frank W; Brand, Bethany L

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Literature on the treatment of dissociative disorders (DDs) suggests that these individuals require long-term and specialized treatment to achieve stabilization and functionality. There is considerable empirical support for specialized phasic, dissociation-focused treatment in reducing a myriad of psychological symptoms and self-harm in this population. However, until recently, there has been a paucity of longitudinal treatment research on DD patients. Method: In the present six-year follow-up study, 61 therapists who participated in the initial phase of the Treatment of Patients with Dissociative Disorders (TOP DD) study answered questionnaires about their study patient's stressors, quality of life, global functioning, victimization, and safety. These results provided a view of patients' progress six years since the beginning of the TOP DD study. Results: Longitudinal analyses demonstrated patients had significantly fewer stressors (Χ(2) (6) = 18.76, p < .01, canonical r = .48, N = 76), instances of sexual revictimization (X(2)(1) = 107.05, p < .001) and psychiatric hospitalizations (t(54) = 2.57, p < .05, Cohen's d = .43), as well as higher global functioning (Χ(2) (2) = 59.27, p < .001, canonical r = .65, N = 111). Conclusions: These findings continue to support the initial results of the TOP DD study that, despite marked initial difficulties and functional impairment, DD patients benefit from specialized treatment.

  5. Six-year follow-up of the treatment of patients with dissociative disorders study*

    PubMed Central

    Myrick, Amie C.; Webermann, Aliya R.; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Lanius, Ruth; Putnam, Frank W.; Brand, Bethany L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Literature on the treatment of dissociative disorders (DDs) suggests that these individuals require long-term and specialized treatment to achieve stabilization and functionality. There is considerable empirical support for specialized phasic, dissociation-focused treatment in reducing a myriad of psychological symptoms and self-harm in this population. However, until recently, there has been a paucity of longitudinal treatment research on DD patients. Method: In the present six-year follow-up study, 61 therapists who participated in the initial phase of the Treatment of Patients with Dissociative Disorders (TOP DD) study answered questionnaires about their study patient’s stressors, quality of life, global functioning, victimization, and safety. These results provided a view of patients’ progress six years since the beginning of the TOP DD study. Results: Longitudinal analyses demonstrated patients had significantly fewer stressors (Χ2(6) = 18.76, p < .01, canonical r = .48, N = 76), instances of sexual revictimization (X 2(1) = 107.05, p < .001) and psychiatric hospitalizations (t(54) = 2.57, p < .05, Cohen’s d = .43), as well as higher global functioning (Χ2(2) = 59.27, p < .001, canonical r = .65, N = 111). Conclusions: These findings continue to support the initial results of the TOP DD study that, despite marked initial difficulties and functional impairment, DD patients benefit from specialized treatment. PMID:28680542

  6. Long term functioning in early onset psychosis: Two years prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There were few studies on the outcome of schizophrenia in developing countries. Whether the outcome is similar to or different from developed world is still a point for research. The main aim of the current study was to know if patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from start of the illness or not. Other aims included investigation of possible predictors and associated factors with remission and outcome. Method The study prospectively investigated a group of 56 patients with onset of psychosis during childhood or adolescence. Diagnosis made according to DSM-IV criteria and included; schizophrenia, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and acute psychosis. Severity of psychosis was measured by PANSS. Measures of the outcome included; remission criteria of Andreasen et al 2005, the children's global assessment scale and educational level. Results Analysis of data was done for only 37 patients. Thirty patients diagnosed as schizophrenia and 7 with Psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Mean duration of follow up was 38.4 +/- 16.9 months. At the end of the study, 6 patients (16.2%) had one episode, 23(62.1%) had multiple episodes and 8 (21.6%) continuous course. Nineteen patients (51.4%) achieved full remission, and only 11(29.7%) achieved their average educational level for their age. Twenty seven percent of the sample had good outcome and 24.3% had poor outcome. Factors associated with non remission and poor outcome included gradual onset, low IQ, poor premorbid adjustment, negative symptoms at onset of the illness and poor adherence to drugs. Moreover, there was tendency of negative symptoms at illness start to predict poor outcome. Conclusion Some patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from the start of the illness. Although remission is a difficult target in childhood psychosis, it is still achievable. PMID:21801438

  7. Singapore Malay Eye Study: rationale and methodology of 6-year follow-up study (SiMES-2).

    PubMed

    Rosman, Mohamad; Zheng, Yingfeng; Wong, Wanling; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tay, Wan-Ting; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien Y

    2012-08-01

      To describe the rationale and study design of a follow-up epidemiological eye study among Singaporean Malay adults.   Follow-up prospective population-based study.   Participants of the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES-1), which was conducted from August 2004 to June 2006.   This is a follow-up study of the 3280 participants who participated in the SiMES-1 and are residing in Singapore. All participants of this follow-up study will undergo various standardized validated questionnaires on socio-demographics, quality of life and impact of visual impairment. Participants will undergo assessment of blood pressure, anthropometry, presenting and best corrected visual acuity, subjective refraction, ocular biometry, slit lamp and dilated eye examination, Goldmann tonometry, optic disc imaging, digital lens and retinal photography. Retinal tomography, retinal optical coherence topography and fundus autofluorescence will also be performed. Gonioscopy and visual fields examination will be performed on selected individuals.   Incidence, risk factors and impact of visual impairment and major eye diseases.   A total of 3280 people who participated in the SiMES-1 will be contacted and invited to participate in this follow-up study. It is estimated that 12.8% of the participants will be deceased and there will be an 80% participation rate for the survivors of SiMES-1 (approximately 2288 participants).   SiMES-2 will be one of the few follow-up epidemiological eye studies among Asians and will determine the cumulative 6-year incidence, progression, risk factors and impact of major eye diseases in Singaporean Malay adults. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  8. Forgotten antibiotics: a follow-up inventory study in Europe, the USA, Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, Céline; Mohrs, Simone; Beovic, Bojana; Gyssens, Inge; Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Cars, Otto

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to update a 2011 survey, conducted on behalf of the ESCMID Study Group for Antibiotic Policies (ESGAP), studying the availability of old but clinically useful antibiotics in North America, Europe and Australia. This follow-up survey was performed in 2015 in 40 countries among specialists from the pharmaceutical, infectious diseases and microbiology sectors in North America, Europe and Australia in order to assess the availability through usual marketing processes of 36 systemic antibiotics (addition of 3 antibiotics compared with the 2011 survey) selected for their ability to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria and their unique value for specific criteria. The questionnaire was sent by e-mail to national contacts belonging to ESGAP and ReAct networks. In all, 39 of the 40 countries participated in this survey. The number of available antibiotics differed considerably from one drug to another as well as from one country to another (e.g. 7 antibiotics available in Estonia, 24 in France). Overall, 25/36 selected antibiotics were marketed in 20/39 countries or less. From 2011 to 2015 (data available for both periods in 37 countries for 33 antibiotics), the number of available selected antibiotics increased in 13 countries and decreased in 17. In conclusion, despite the ongoing bacterial resistance crisis, the situation regarding the availability of 'forgotten antibiotics' has worsened since 2011. Urgent measures are needed to ensure better availability of these antibiotics on a global scale as a conservation measure to ensure sustainable and responsible use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Overweight in Midlife and Risk of Dementia: A 40-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassing, Linda B.; Dahl, Anna K.; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Berg, Stig; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Johansson, Boo

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examines if overweight in midlife increases dementia risk later in life. Methods In 1963 Body Mass Index was assessed in 1152 participants of The Swedish Twin Registry, then at the age of 45 to 65 years. These participants were later screened for dementia in a prospective study with up to 40 years follow-up. A total of 312 participants were diagnosed with dementia. Results Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking and alcohol habits, indicated that men and women categorized as overweight in their midlife had an elevated risk of dementia (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.07, p = .002), Alzheimer’s disease (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.35, p = .003), and vascular dementia (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 0.98 to 2.47, p = .059). Further adjustments for diabetes and vascular diseases did not substantially affect the associations, except for vascular dementia (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 0.82 to 2.56, p = .116), reflecting the significance of diabetes and vascular diseases in the aetiology of vascular dementia. There was no significant interaction between overweight and APOE ε4 status, indicating that having both risk factors does not have a multiplicative effect concerning dementia risk. Conclusions This study gives further support to the notion that overweight in midlife increases later risk of dementia. The risk is increased for both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, and follows the same pattern for men and women. PMID:19506566

  10. Selection bias due to loss to follow up in cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Chanelle J.; Cole, Stephen R.; Lau, Bryan; Napravnik, Sonia; Eron, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Selection bias due to loss to follow up represents a threat to the internal validity of estimates derived from cohort studies. Over the last fifteen years, stratification-based techniques as well as methods such as inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation have been more prominently discussed and offered as a means to correct for selection bias. However, unlike correcting for confounding bias using inverse weighting, uptake of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation as well as competing methods has been limited in the applied epidemiologic literature. To motivate greater use of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation and competing methods, we use causal diagrams to describe the sources of selection bias in cohort studies employing a time-to-event framework when the quantity of interest is an absolute measure (e.g. absolute risk, survival function) or relative effect measure (e.g., risk difference, risk ratio). We highlight that whether a given estimate obtained from standard methods is potentially subject to selection bias depends on the causal diagram and the measure. We first broadly describe inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation and then give a simple example to demonstrate in detail how inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation mitigates selection bias and describe challenges to estimation. We then modify complex, real-world data from the University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research HIV clinical cohort study and estimate the absolute and relative change in the occurrence of death with and without inverse probability-of-censoring weighted correction using the modified University of North Carolina data. We provide SAS code to aid with implementation of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted techniques. PMID:26484424

  11. Selection Bias Due to Loss to Follow Up in Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Howe, Chanelle J; Cole, Stephen R; Lau, Bryan; Napravnik, Sonia; Eron, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Selection bias due to loss to follow up represents a threat to the internal validity of estimates derived from cohort studies. Over the past 15 years, stratification-based techniques as well as methods such as inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation have been more prominently discussed and offered as a means to correct for selection bias. However, unlike correcting for confounding bias using inverse weighting, uptake of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation as well as competing methods has been limited in the applied epidemiologic literature. To motivate greater use of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation and competing methods, we use causal diagrams to describe the sources of selection bias in cohort studies employing a time-to-event framework when the quantity of interest is an absolute measure (e.g., absolute risk, survival function) or relative effect measure (e.g., risk difference, risk ratio). We highlight that whether a given estimate obtained from standard methods is potentially subject to selection bias depends on the causal diagram and the measure. We first broadly describe inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation and then give a simple example to demonstrate in detail how inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation mitigates selection bias and describe challenges to estimation. We then modify complex, real-world data from the University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research HIV clinical cohort study and estimate the absolute and relative change in the occurrence of death with and without inverse probability-of-censoring weighted correction using the modified University of North Carolina data. We provide SAS code to aid with implementation of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted techniques.

  12. Protocol for follow up of hip arthroplasty in the long term: effect on revision (WHISTLER study).

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsay K; Lenguerrand, Erik; Blom, Ashley; Powell, Jane; Palmer, Shea

    2017-04-10

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is highly successful for reducing pain and improving function, providing health-related quality of life benefit. Demand for THA is increasing with associated increase in revision hip surgery. Hip arthroplasty surveillance (long-term follow up) can identify asymptomatically failing THA to prepare for revision surgery, reducing potential for complications or complexity of surgery. However, it is unknown whether the surveillance of THA can be shown to improve the patient outcomes or reduce costs around revision surgery. With the current need to reduce unnecessary health consultations and to show the economic advantages of any service, the purpose of this study is to consider the relative effectiveness of hip arthroplasty surveillance on revision hip arthroplasty. This is a single-centre, observational study in which consecutive patients undergoing aseptic revision of THA over 12 months in a large orthopaedic unit will be considered for participation. Primary outcome measures will be change in each of three valid patient-reported scores from pre-operatively to 12 months post-surgery. Secondary outcomes will be the costs of treatment calculated using data obtained from the participants' hospital records and a self-report questionnaire. An exploratory approach will be used to investigate the effect of surveillance on the outcomes of interest. A linear mixed method model will be used to study the change in scores between baseline and 12 months. The economic evaluation will be a cost-utility analysis, which compares the value of alternative interventions by attaching costs to the quality-adjusted life years produced by each intervention.

  13. Health factors and longevity in men and women: a 26-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Axel C; Theobald, Holger; Wändell, Per E

    2010-08-01

    Health factors have the power to prevent and postpone diseases and death; however, studies using the same methodology in both men and women are sparse. We aimed to study the ability of health factors to prevent mortality in a population-based, 26-year follow-up of Swedish men and women. During 1969-70, a health-screening programme was offered to a stratified sample of 3,064 individuals aged 18-64 years to estimate health-care needs. Missing data (largely according to protocol) for physical fitness, BMI, and smoking habits left 935 subjects, 463 men and 472 women. Alcohol consumption in grams per week and BMI was calculated. Tobacco smoking was recorded as yes/no. Multivariate analysis was performed by Cox regression with age adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Moderate alcohol consumption did not lead to any decrease in mortality. Having two health factors halved the mortality risk in men and women (hazard ratio (HR) 0.52, confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.70). A further risk reduction was seen in men with three health factors (HR 0.17, CI 0.074-0.41). Men had about 70 per cent higher risk of mortality compared with women after adjustments for all health factors (HR 1.67, CI 1.26-2.23). Men compared to women had greater benefit of all three health factors. This in combination with the overall higher mortality risk in men makes a healthy lifestyle more important for them. The benefit of moderate alcohol consumption could not be detected in this study, and may be explained by an unhealthy drinking pattern in Sweden.

  14. Personality and cognitive decline in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hock, Rebecca S; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Nestadt, Gerald; Samuels, Jack F; Parisi, Jeanine M; Costa, Paul T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-01

    To determine the association between personality domains and 11-year cognitive decline in a sample from a population-based study. Data from Waves 3 (1993-1996) and 4 (2003-2004) of the Baltimore cohort of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study were used for analyses. The sample included 561 adults (mean age ± SD: 45.2 ± 10.78 years) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised prior to Wave 4. Participants also completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and immediate and delayed word recall tests at Wave 3, and at Wave 4, 10.9 ± 0.6 years later. In models adjusted for baseline cognitive performance, demographic characteristics, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, and psychotropic medication use, each 10-point increase in Neuroticism T-scores was associated with a 0.15-point decrease in MMSE scores (B = -0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.30, -0.01), whereas each 10-point increase in Conscientiousness T-scores was associated with a 0.18-point increase on the MMSE (B = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) and a 0.21-point increase in immediate recall (B = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.41) between baseline and follow-up. Findings suggest that greater Neuroticism is associated with decline, and greater Conscientiousness is associated with improvement in performance on measures of general cognitive function and memory in adults. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which personality traits in midlife are associated with clinically significant cognitive outcomes in older adults, such as mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and to identify potential mediators of the association between personality and cognitive trajectories. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neonatal and infantile erythroderma: a clinical and follow-up study of 42 cases.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhalimi, Muhsin A A

    2007-05-01

    Erythroderma in neonates and infants is a frequently encountered problem in the daily practice of pediatric dermatology. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of various causes of this clinical entity, as well as which clinical and laboratory findings are useful in the differentiation of these causes, and to assess the evolution of this disease in this age group. Forty-two patients with erythroderma under 1 year of age were included in this study. A follow-up period of 3-5 years was completed. The study was performed in the Department of Dermatology, Al-Sadr and Alhakeem teaching hospitals and a private section in Najaf governorate, Iraq during the period 1998-2006. The diagnosis was made at an average of 3 months after the onset of the disease. The underlying causes included seborrheic dermatitis in 21.4%, atopic dermatitis in 14.3%, different types of Ichthyoses in 31.5%, psoriasis in 4.7%, pityriasis rubra pilaris in 2.4%, Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in 7.14%, Netherton syndrome in 4.7%, immune deficiency syndromes in 4.8% and undetermined erythroderma in 9.5% of the patients. Of 29 cases, histopathological examination of skin biopsy showed non-specific features in 58.7% and could confirm the diagnosis in 41.3% cases. The prognosis was poor with a mortality rate of 26.2% and severe dermatoses persisted in 60% of the survivors. It is difficult to make the etiological diagnosis of neonatal erythroderma from the first examination. Associated immune deficiency should be suspected if the condition associated with skin indurations, severe alopecia, failure to thrive and/or have infectious complications. The prognosis is poor especially in those with immune deficiency or a chronic persistent course.

  16. Follow-Up Study of Students Who Exited School 1988-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemeth, Evalie; O'Connor-Meyer, Susan

    A follow-up survey was conducted in St. Cloud, Minnesota, of 127 (from a total of 357 students) former special education students who left school between 1988 and 1992. Respondents, most of whom completed the survey by phone, were predominantly male (69 percent), and most (63 percent) had been classified as learning disabled, with 29 percent…

  17. Improving Library Services to Satellite Campuses: A Follow-Up Study at the University of Lethbridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to provide better service to the University of Lethbridge satellite campus locations, a survey was done of instructors on the northern campuses regarding their knowledge and use of the University of Lethbridge Library services available to them. This was a follow-up to a survey conducted in 2011, at which time it was found that many…

  18. A Follow-Up Study of Standing Rock Community College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katus, Jean

    Using personal interviews, telephone interviews, and, when necessary, mailed questionnaires, Standing Rock Community College (SRCC) conducted follow-up surveys with 64 of the 68 students who had graduated from SRCC between May 1976 and December 1979. The interviews or questionnaires solicited information concerning demographic characteristics,…

  19. Follow-Up Study of a School-Based Scalds Prevention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Julie; Morath, Karen; Harre, Niki

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the follow-up evaluation of a school-based scalds prevention programme designed to teach children about scalds hazards and encourage safe family practices. It involved two classroom sessions and a homework exercise that targeted five safety practices. The programme was taught to 28 classes in 14 schools in Waitakere City, New…

  20. Resilience dimensions and mental health outcomes in bipolar disorder in a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Echezarraga, A; Calvete, E; González-Pinto, A M; Las Hayas, C

    2017-06-22

    The individual process of resilience has been related to positive outcomes in mental disorders. We aimed (a) to identify the resilience domains from the Resilience Questionnaire for Bipolar Disorder that are associated cross sectionally and longitudinally with mental health outcomes in bipolar disorder (BD) and (b) to explore cross-lagged associations among resilience factors. A clinical adult sample of 125 patients diagnosed with BD (62.10% female, mean age = 46.13, SD = 10.89) gave their informed consent and completed a battery of disease-specific tools on resilience, personal recovery, symptomatology, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life, at baseline and at follow-up (n = 63, 58.10% female, mean age = 45.13, SD = 11.06, participation rate = 50.40%). Resilience domains of self-management of BD, turning point, self-care, and self-confidence were significantly associated with mental health indicators at baseline. In addition, self-confidence at baseline directly predicted an increase in personal recovery at follow-up, and self-confidence improvement mediated the relationship between interpersonal support and self-care at baseline and personal recovery at follow-up. These findings highlight that resilience domains are significantly associated with positive mental health outcomes in BD and that some predict personal recovery at follow-up. Moreover, some resilience factors improve other resilience factors over time. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Improving Library Services to Satellite Campuses: A Follow-Up Study at the University of Lethbridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to provide better service to the University of Lethbridge satellite campus locations, a survey was done of instructors on the northern campuses regarding their knowledge and use of the University of Lethbridge Library services available to them. This was a follow-up to a survey conducted in 2011, at which time it was found that many…

  2. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Data Processing Program. Volume XVI, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilki, Ernest; Lucas, John A.

    In spring 1987, a follow-up survey was conducted of former William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) students who had taken five or more data processing courses at the college between 1980 and 1986. The survey focused on the students' employment status and educational intent while attending WRHC, their present employment situation, and their evaluation…

  3. Health correlates of workplace bullying: a 3-wave prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias; Persson, Roger; Hogh, Annie; Willert, Morten Vejs; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the course of workplace bullying and health correlates among Danish employees across a four-year period. In total, 7502 public service and private sector employees participated in a 3-wave study from 2006 through 2011. Workplace bullying over the past 6-12 months and data on health characteristics were obtained by self-reports. We identified major depression using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interviews and the Major Depression Inventory. We performed cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of outcomes according to self-labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses adjusting for bullying during follow-up, all health correlates except poor sleep quality persisted up to four years. Self-reported health correlates of workplace bullying including sick-listing, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and a diagnosis of depression tend to persist for several years regardless of whether bullying is discontinued or not. Independent measures of bullying and outcomes are needed to learn whether these findings reflect long lasting health consequences of workplace bullying or whether self-labelled workplace bullying and health complaints are correlated because of common underlying factors.

  4. [Cardiac rehabilitation in patients with myocardial infarction: a 10-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Maroto Montero, José M; Artigao Ramírez, Rosario; Morales Durán, María D; de Pablo Zarzosa, Carmen; Abraira, Víctor

    2005-10-01

    Very little information is available on the effect of cardiac rehabilitation programs on long-term survival. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of a structured cardiac rehabilitation program on mortality in patients who had suffered acute myocardial infarction. The secondary endpoint was the effect on morbidity. The study included 180 low-risk male patients aged under 65 years. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: 90 entered into a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program, and 90 served as a control group. The mean follow-up period was 10 years. All-cause mortality was significantly lower in the intervention group: the 10-year survival rate was 91.8% in the intervention group compared with 81.7% in the control group (P=.04). There was also a decrease in cardiovascular mortality, though it was not statistically significant: the 10-year survival rate was 91.8% in the intervention group compared with 83.8% in the control group (P=.10). The incidence of non-fatal complications was lower in the intervention group (35.2% vs 63.2%, P=.03), as was the incidence of unstable angina (15.7% vs 33.9%, P =.02) and cardiac heart failure (3.0% vs 14.4%, P=.02), and the need for coronary intervention (8.4% vs 22.9%, P=.02). The application of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program significantly decreased long-term mortality and morbidity in low-risk patients after acute myocardial infarction.

  5. Occupational lifting and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a follow-up study of Swedish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Farioli, Andrea; Kriebel, David; Mattioli, Stefano; Kjellberg, Katarina; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the association between occupational lifting and the risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) using data from a large population of men. We used data from a national cohort of 49 321 Swedish men conscripted for compulsory military service in 1969-1970. We collected information on surgically treated RRD from the National Patient Register and we followed up the cohort between 1991 and 2009 at ages 40-60 years. Exposure to occupational lifting was assessed by applying a job exposure matrix to occupational data from the 1990 census. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs were estimated through Poisson regression models adjusted by degree of myopia, income and education level. We observed 217 cases of RRD in 7 80 166 person-years. In univariate analyses we did not observe an association between occupational lifting and RRD. However, after adjustment for myopia and socioeconomic factors, we found an increased risk of RRD (IRR 2.38, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.93) for subjects in the highest category of exposure compared with those in the lowest one. The incidence rate of RRD among subjects lifting heavy loads at least twice per week, aged between 50 years and 59 years, and affected by severe myopia was as high as 7.9 cases per 1000 person-years, compared with an overall rate of 0.28. Our study supports the hypothesis that heavy occupational lifting is a risk factor for RRD. Information on myopia degree and socioeconomic status is necessary when studying the association between occupational lifting and RRD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Self-rated health and mortality: a follow-up study of a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Fonseca, N; Quesada, J A; Nolasco, A; Melchor, I; Moncho, J; Pereyra-Zamora, P; López, R; Calabuig, J; Barber, X

    2013-12-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is known to be a valid indicator for the prediction of health outcomes. The aims of this study were to describe and analyse the associations between SRH and health status, socio-economic and demographic characteristics; and between SRH and mortality in a Spanish population. Longitudinal study. A sample of 5275 adults (age ≥21 years) residing in the Valencian Community (Spanish Mediterranean region) was surveyed in 2005 and followed for four years. SRH was categorized into good and poor health. The response variable was mortality (dead/alive), obtained from the local mortality register. Logistic regression models were adjusted in order to analyse the associations between SRH and health status, socio-economic and demographic characteristics; odds ratios were calculated to measure the associations. Poisson regression models were adjusted in order to analyse the associations between mortality and explanatory variables; the relative risk of death was calculated to measure the associations. Poor SRH was reported by 25.9% of respondents, and the mortality rate after four years of follow-up was 3.6%. An association was found between SRH and the presence of chronic disease and disability in men and women. A perception of poor health vs good health led to a mortality risk of 3.0 in men and 2.7 in women. SRH was predictive of mortality, even after adjusting for all other variables. In men and women, the presence of disability provided additional predictive ability. SRH was predictive of mortality in both men and women, and acted as a mediator between socio-economic, demographic and health conditions and mortality. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-y follow-up study123

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Irene M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Giovannucci, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been associated with an increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade prostate cancer. Several studies have found a positive association between phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk. Objective: We investigated the joint association between calcium and phosphorus and risk of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, with a focus on lethal and high-grade disease. Design: In total, 47,885 men in the cohort reported diet data in 1986 and every 4 y thereafter. From 1986 to 2010, 5861 cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 789 lethal cancers (fatal or metastatic). We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer, with adjustment for potential confounding. Results: Calcium intakes >2000 mg/d were associated with greater risk of total prostate cancer and lethal and high-grade cancers. These associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when phosphorus intake was adjusted for. Phosphorus intake was associated with greater risk of total, lethal, and high-grade cancers, independent of calcium and intakes of red meat, white meat, dairy, and fish. In latency analysis, calcium and phosphorus had independent effects for different time periods between exposure and diagnosis. Calcium intake was associated with an increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade disease 12–16 y after exposure, whereas high phosphorus was associated with increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade disease 0–8 y after exposure. Conclusions: Phosphorus is independently associated with risk of lethal and high-grade prostate cancer. Calcium may not have a strong independent effect on prostate cancer risk except with long latency periods. PMID:25527761

  8. Information-seeking behaviour and information needs of LGBTQ health professionals: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martin; Roberto, K R

    2016-09-01

    Except for one study in 2004, the literature has no data on the information-seeking behaviour of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) health professionals. After a decade of change for LGBTQ people, and the growth of electronic information sources and social networks, it is appropriate to revisit this subject. To gain an updated understanding of the information-seeking behaviour of LGBTQ health professionals and of how medical libraries can provide a culturally competent service to such users. A mixed-methods approach was adopted combining a Web-based questionnaire with email follow-up discussions. One hundred and twenty-three complete responses were received, mostly from the USA and Canada, between November 2012 and October 2013. LGBTQ health professionals remain more comfortable seeking LGBTQ health information from a medical librarian whom they know to be LGBTQ because they perceive LGBTQ librarians as more likely to have specialist knowledge, or through concern that non-LGBTQ librarians may be more likely to react in a stigmatising or discriminatory way. The study also provides evidence suggesting that online chat has marginal appeal for respondents seeking LGBTQ health information, despite its anonymity. Medical libraries seeking to demonstrate their cultural competency should provide visible evidence of this, such as through the creation of dedicated resource lists, promotion of LGBTQ literature on the library's website, and display of other symbols or statements supporting diversity. Opportunities exist for LGBTQ health professionals and medical librarians to work together to ensure that medical libraries are culturally competent and welcoming spaces for LGBTQ patrons, that library collections match their needs, and in the creation of guides to ensure maximum access to the results of LGBTQ health research. Medical libraries should also consider nominating and, if necessary, training a specialist in LGBTQ health information. Such

  9. Shaken baby syndrome in Switzerland: results of a prospective follow-up study, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Fanconi, Manuela; Lips, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Since the incidence of shaken baby syndrome in Switzerland was not known, we conducted a nationwide prospective follow-up study for a 5-year period (from 2002 to 2007). The data were collected through the Swiss Pediatric Surveillance Unit. Inclusion criteria were the presence, in a child 6 years or documented accident/disease explaining symptoms/findings. To describe outcome, we used the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI). 56 cases were reported from 13 of 26 Swiss cantons, representing 80% of the Swiss population; 49 cases met the inclusion criteria. Preponderance of male infants was high (31 male and 18 female); median age at admission was 4 months (1-58). Clinical symptoms were present in 42 infants, retinal/vitreous hemorrhages in 39 infants, and pathological brain/head imaging in 46 infants. In 13 cases, the caregivers admitted shaking the child. Outcomes (KOSCHI 1-5; n = 47 patients) were death (KOSCHI 1) 8 (17.7%), vegetative state (KOSCHI 2) 0, severe disability (KOSCHI 3) 11 (22.2%), moderate disability (KOSCHI 4) 14 (31.1%), and good recovery (KOSCHI 5) 14 (28.8%). Based on these data, the incidence of shaken baby syndrome in Switzerland is 14 per 100 000 live births, which corresponds to the incidence in other Western countries. Demographic characteristics and outcomes of Swiss patients were comparable to published studies.

  10. New BPD predicts lung function at school age: Follow-up study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Eveliina; Dunder, Teija; Peltoniemi, Outi; Kaukola, Tuula; Marttila, Riitta; Hallman, Mikko

    2015-11-01

    New treatment practices have improved survival of preterm infants and decreased airway pathology in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Our aim was to investigate whether preterm birth, BPD, and the severity of BPD predict lung function in school children that are born in surfactant era. We studied pulmonary function of 88 school-aged children born very preterm (gestational age <32 weeks) and paired them with 88 age- and sex-matched controls born at term. Spirometry and diffusion capacity were recorded. We also performed a meta-analysis covering the era of antenatal corticosteroid and surfactant treatment. BPD was defined as oxygen dependence for ≥ 28 days and it was severity-graded by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (mild, none; moderate, FiO2 = 0.22-0.29; severe, FiO2 ≥ 0.30). Preterm children had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ) 86.4 ± 11.8 versus 94.9 ± 10.1 (mean % predicted ± SD; P < 0.001), and lower diffusion capacity (DLCO) 87.6 ± 13.9 versus 93.7 ± 12.0 (P = 0.005) compared with term controls. BPD group differed in both FEV1 (P = 0.037) and DLCO (P = 0.018) from those without BPD. For meta-analysis, search identified 210 articles. Together with present results, six articles met the inclusion criteria. FEV1 of no BPD, all BPD, and moderate to severe BPD groups differed from that in term controls by -7.4, -10.5, and -17.8%, respectively. According to meta-analysis and follow-up study, the adverse effects of prematurity on pulmonary function are still detectable in school-age. BPD was associated with reductions in both diffusion capacity and spirometry. New interventions are required to document a further decrease in the life-long consequences of prematurity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Medical students' research productivity and career preferences; a 2-year prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Möller, Riitta; Shoshan, Maria

    2017-03-03

    Linking undergraduate medical education to scientific research is necessary for the quality of future health care, and students´ individual research projects are one way to do so. Assessment of the impact of such projects is of interest for both educational and research-oriented segments of medical schools. Here, we examined the scholarly products and medical students' career preferences 2 years after a mandatory research project course. A prospective cross-sectional questionnaire study. All 581 students registered on a 20-week research project course between September 2010 through September 2012 were e-mailed a questionnaire 2 years after completing the course. In total, 392 students (mean age 27 years; 60% females) responded (67% response rate). 59 students (15%) were co-authors on a scientific paper published in an international journal, 6 students had published in a national journal, and 57 students had co-authored a paper submitted for publication. Totally, 122 scientific papers had been submitted. Moreover, 67 (17%) students had given 107 oral or poster presentations nationally or internationally during the follow-up. Career-wise, 36 students (9%) had been registered as PhD students and an additional 127 students (34%) were planning to register. Those who did not plan doctoral studies were significantly older (p = 0.013) than those who did. However, 35% reported that they would in the coming 5 years prefer to work as clinicians only, and this group was significantly younger than those who envisaged participation in research. There were no significant gender differences. Approximately a third of the students had authored papers and/or public presentations, and a similar fraction had career plans involving a PhD degree. The results indicate that the project course had a positive impact on continued supervisor-student collaboration on a professional level, but also that strategies to encourage young doctors to perform clinical research may be needed.

  12. Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-y follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Shui, Irene M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Giovannucci, Edward

    2015-01-01

    High calcium intake has been associated with an increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade prostate cancer. Several studies have found a positive association between phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk. We investigated the joint association between calcium and phosphorus and risk of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, with a focus on lethal and high-grade disease. In total, 47,885 men in the cohort reported diet data in 1986 and every 4 y thereafter. From 1986 to 2010, 5861 cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 789 lethal cancers (fatal or metastatic). We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer, with adjustment for potential confounding. Calcium intakes >2000 mg/d were associated with greater risk of total prostate cancer and lethal and high-grade cancers. These associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when phosphorus intake was adjusted for. Phosphorus intake was associated with greater risk of total, lethal, and high-grade cancers, independent of calcium and intakes of red meat, white meat, dairy, and fish. In latency analysis, calcium and phosphorus had independent effects for different time periods between exposure and diagnosis. Calcium intake was associated with an increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade disease 12-16 y after exposure, whereas high phosphorus was associated with increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade disease 0-8 y after exposure. Phosphorus is independently associated with risk of lethal and high-grade prostate cancer. Calcium may not have a strong independent effect on prostate cancer risk except with long latency periods. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. A Follow-up Study of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shanti; Hassan, Ehmer; Ghaziuddin, Neera

    2017-09-20

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective and a safe treatment for several severe psychiatric disorders across the age span. However, its use remains controversial and highly stigmatized especially among patients under 18 years. In this study, we examined current symptoms, attitudes, perception, and functioning of patients treated with ECT when they were less than 18 years old. Participants had received ECT before age 18, between 1989 and 2015, at a tertiary medical center. Institutional review board-approval was obtained, and study documents (cover letter, consent, self-ratings scales for depression, anxiety, global functioning, and suicidality) were mailed. Based on self-rated depression, 59.1% (13/22) participants indicated mild or no depression; 65% (13/20) reported mild or no anxiety; the majority, 84.3% (16/19) perceived ECT as having improved their overall illness; and 27.3% (6/22) among the respondents reported no clinical impairment on a global functioning scale, whereas 72.7% (16/22) reported significant or severe impairment. Despite reports of ongoing impaired global functioning among some participants, adequate academic performance (83.3%, 5/6) and mild or no suicidality (78.3%, 18/23) were endorsed by the majority reported. The majority of participants who had received ECT before age 18 years reported mild or absence of depression and anxiety on self-rated follow-up measures after treatment with ECT. Most notably, the majority reported absence of suicidality and adequate academic performance. A number of respondents, however, continued to endorse global impairment, which may be a reflection of their baseline severe illness, which had warranted treatment with ECT.

  14. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  15. Ergonomic stressors and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in automobile manufacturing: a one year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Punnett, L; Gold, J; Katz, J N; Gore, R; Wegman, D H

    2004-08-01

    To estimate the one year cumulative incidence and persistence of upper extremity (UE) soft tissue disorders, in a fixed cohort of automotive manufacturing workers, and to quantify their associations with ergonomic exposures. At baseline and at follow up, cases of UE musculoskeletal disorders were determined by interviewer administered questionnaire and standardised physical examination of the upper extremities. The interview obtained new data on psychosocial strain and updated the medical and work histories. An index of exposure to ergonomic stressors, obtained at baseline interview, was the primary independent variable. Cumulative incidence and persistence of UE disorders (defined both by symptoms and by physical examination plus symptoms) were analysed in relation to baseline ergonomic exposures, adjusting for other covariates. The incidence of new disorders was modelled using multivariate proportional hazards regression among workers who were not cases in the first year and the prevalence on both occasions was modelled by repeated measures analysis. A total of 820 workers (69% of eligible cohort members) was examined. Follow up varied slightly by department group but not by baseline exposure level or other characteristics. Among the non-cases at baseline, the cumulative incidence of UE disorders was 14% by symptoms and 12% by symptoms plus examination findings. These rates increased with index of physical exposures primarily among subjects who had the same jobs at follow up as at baseline. Increased exposure during follow up increased risk of incidence. The persistence of UE disorders from baseline to follow up examination was nearly 60% and somewhat associated with baseline exposure score. These longitudinal results confirm the previous cross sectional associations of UE musculoskeletal disorders with exposure to combined ergonomic stressors. The exposure-response relation was similar for incident cases defined by symptoms alone and those confirmed by physical

  16. Ergonomic stressors and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in automobile manufacturing: a one year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Punnett, L; Gold, J; Katz, J; Gore, R; Wegman, D

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the one year cumulative incidence and persistence of upper extremity (UE) soft tissue disorders, in a fixed cohort of automotive manufacturing workers, and to quantify their associations with ergonomic exposures. Methods: At baseline and at follow up, cases of UE musculoskeletal disorders were determined by interviewer administered questionnaire and standardised physical examination of the upper extremities. The interview obtained new data on psychosocial strain and updated the medical and work histories. An index of exposure to ergonomic stressors, obtained at baseline interview, was the primary independent variable. Cumulative incidence and persistence of UE disorders (defined both by symptoms and by physical examination plus symptoms) were analysed in relation to baseline ergonomic exposures, adjusting for other covariates. The incidence of new disorders was modelled using multivariate proportional hazards regression among workers who were not cases in the first year and the prevalence on both occasions was modelled by repeated measures analysis. Results: A total of 820 workers (69% of eligible cohort members) was examined. Follow up varied slightly by department group but not by baseline exposure level or other characteristics. Among the non-cases at baseline, the cumulative incidence of UE disorders was 14% by symptoms and 12% by symptoms plus examination findings. These rates increased with index of physical exposures primarily among subjects who had the same jobs at follow up as at baseline. Increased exposure during follow up increased risk of incidence. The persistence of UE disorders from baseline to follow up examination was nearly 60% and somewhat associated with baseline exposure score. Conclusions: These longitudinal results confirm the previous cross sectional associations of UE musculoskeletal disorders with exposure to combined ergonomic stressors. The exposure-response relation was similar for incident cases defined by symptoms

  17. Flat affect and social functioning: a 10 year follow-up study of first episode psychosis patients.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene; Haahr, Ulrik; Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Larsen, T K; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2012-08-01

    Affective flattening has been described as enduring, but long term follow-up studies of first episode psychosis patients are lacking. The aim of this study was to follow the symptom development of flat affect (FA), over a 10 year follow-up period, with focus on prevalence, predictors and outcome factors including social functioning. Three-hundred-and-one patients with FEP were included at baseline, 186 participated in the 10 year follow-up. These were followed on PANSS item N1 (FA) from baseline through 5 follow-up assessments over 10 years. Patients were grouped as having never-present, improving, deteriorating, fluctuating or enduring FA. The groups were compared on baseline variables, variables at 10 year follow-up, and social functioning throughout the follow-up period. Twenty nine percent never displayed FA, 66% had improving, deteriorating or fluctuating FA, while 5% of patients had enduring FA. Premorbid social function predicted enduring FA. The patients with enduring, fluctuating and deteriorating FA did poorer on all outcome variables, including remission and recovery rates. The enduring FA group did significantly poorer in social functioning over the 10 year period. FA is expressed at some point of time in the majority of FEP patients in a 10 year follow-up period, and appears more fluctuant than expected from the relevant literature. FA is associated with poorer outcome after 10 years, and enduring FA to poorer social function at all points of assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Postpartum physiology, psychology and paediatric follow up study (P4 Study) - Study protocol.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gregory K; Roberts, Lynne; Mangos, George; Henry, Amanda; Pettit, Franziska; O'Sullivan, Anthony; Homer, Caroline S E; Craig, Maria; Harvey, Samuel B; Brown, Mark A

    2016-10-01

    Women who have had hypertension in pregnancy are at greater risk of long term cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about their cardiovascular risk postpartum or the effects on the woman's mental health and the outcomes of their infants. In this project we will study the physiological and psychological health of women and the physical health and development of their infants six months, two years and five years after birth. We will establish normal blood pressure (BP) and metabolic function for women who were normotensive in pregnancy and use these to assess women who had gestational hypertension (GH) or preeclampsia (PE). Women will be asked to participate if they have given birth in the preceding six months. They will be excluded if they had diabetes, hypertension, renal or other serious maternal disease prior to pregnancy or congenital anomaly in the pregnancy. We will recruit 292 women who were normotensive and their babies, 100 who had GH and 100 who had PE and their babies. They will be assessed at six months, two and five years after birth. At each assessment mothers will have their blood pressure (BP) assessed peripherally with a liquid crystal sphygmomanometer and 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and centrally with non-invasive applanation tonometry. Additional physiological testing will include: body composition; energy balance; vascular compliance; cardiac function; liver and renal function, lipids and biochemistry; glucose and insulin; and urinalysis. Psychological status will be assessed with validated self-report questionnaires for depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mother-infant bonding. The babies will have a medical examination by a paediatrician at each assessment. Their behavioural development will be assessed with an Ages and Stages Questionnaire completed by their mother at each assessment and a developmental assessment by a child psychologist at two and five years. This study will re

  19. Follow-up studies on genome damage in children after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Fucic, Aleksandra; Aghajanyan, Anna; Druzhinin, Vladimir; Minina, Varvara; Neronova, Elizaveta

    2016-09-01

    As children are more susceptible to ionizing radiation than adults, each nuclear accident demands special attention and care of this vulnerable population. The Chernobyl nuclear disaster occurred in a region populated with a large number of children, but despite all efforts and expertise of nuclear specialists, it was not possible to avoid casualties. As vast regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia were exposed to doses of ionizing radiation, which are known to be related with different diseases, shortly after the accident medical surveillance was launched, which also included analysis of genome damage. Child population affected by internal and external radiation consisted of subjects exposed prenatally, postnatally (both evacuated and non-evacuated), born by irradiated fathers who worked as liquidators, and parents exposed environmentally. In all groups of children during the last 30 years who were exposed to doses which were significantly higher than that recommended for general population of 1 mSv per year, increased genome damage was detected. Increased genome damage includes statistically higher frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes, chromated and chromosome breaks, acentric fragments, translocations, and micronuclei. The presence of rogue cells confirmed internal contamination. Genome instability and radiosensitivity in children was detected both in evacuated and continuously exposed children. Today the population exposed to ionizing radiation in 1986 is in reproductive period of life and follow-up of this population and their offspring is of great importance. This review aims to give insight in results of studies, which reported genome damage in children in journals without language restrictions.

  20. Violent Recidivism: A Long-Time Follow-Up Study of Mentally Disordered Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Thomas; Wallinius, Märta; Gustavson, Christina; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Kerekes, Nóra

    2011-01-01

    Background In this prospective study, mentally disordered perpetrators of severe violent and/or sexual crimes were followed through official registers for 59 (range 8 to 73) months. The relapse rate in criminality was assessed, compared between offenders sentenced to prison versus forensic psychiatric care, and the predictive ability of various risk factors (criminological, clinical, and of structured assessment instruments) was investigated. Method One hundred perpetrators were consecutively assessed between 1998 and 2001 by a clinical battery of established instruments covering DSM-IV diagnoses, psychosocial background factors, and structured assessment instruments (HCR-20, PCL-R, and life-time aggression (LHA)). Follow-up data was collected from official registers for: (i) recidivistic crimes, (ii) crimes during ongoing sanction. Results Twenty subjects relapsed in violent criminality during ongoing sanctions (n = 6) or after discharge/parole (n = 14). Individuals in forensic psychiatric care spent significantly more time at liberty after discharge compared to those in prison, but showed significantly fewer relapses. Criminological (age at first conviction), and clinical (conduct disorder and substance abuse/dependence) risk factors, as well as scores on structured assessment instruments, were moderately associated with violent recidivism. Logistic regression analyses showed that the predictive ability of criminological risk factors versus clinical risk factors combined with scores from assessment instruments was comparable, with each set of variables managing to correctly classify about 80% of all individuals, but the only predictors that remained significant in multiple models were criminological (age at first conviction, and a history of substance abuse among primary relatives). Conclusions Only one in five relapsed into serious criminality, with significantly more relapses among subjects sentenced to prison as compared to forensic psychiatric care

  1. Atrial fibrillation and cycling: six year follow-up of the Taupo bicycle study.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Alistair; Tin Tin, Sandar; Doughty, Rob N; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2015-01-21

    Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, and the incidence of AF is increased markedly among elite athletes. It is not clear how lesser levels of physical activity in the general population influence AF. We asked whether participation in the Taupo Cycle Challenge was associated with increased hospital admissions due to AF, and within the cohort, whether admissions for AF were related to frequency and intensity of cycling. Participants in the 2006 Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge, New Zealand's largest mass cycling event, were invited to complete an on-line questionnaire. Those who agreed (n = 2590, response rate = 43.1%) were followed up by record linkage via the National Minimum Health Database from December 1 2006 until June 30 2013, to identify admissions to hospital due to AF. The age and gender standardized admission rate for AF was similar in the Taupo cohort (19.60 per 10,000 per year) and the national population over the same period (2006-2011) (19.45 per 10,000 per year). Within the study cohort (men only), for every additional hour spent cycling per week the risk changed by 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.79 - 1.01). This result did not change appreciably after adjustment for age and height. Hospital admission due to AF was not increased above the national rate in this group of non-elite cyclists, and within the group the rate of AF did not increase with amount of cycling. The level of activity undertaken by this cohort of cyclists was, on average, not sufficient to increase the risk of hospitalization for AF.

  2. Three cases of CLIPPERS: a serial clinical, laboratory and MRI follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, O; van de Nes, J; Gasser, T; Keyvani, K

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to further determine the pathophysiology, clinical course, MRI-features and response to therapy of chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS), which has recently been proposed as a rare chronic inflammatory central nervous system disorder responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. Three patients with this rare entity underwent serial clinical and bimonthly MRI follow-up over a period of up to 16 months. Extensive laboratory work-up and brain biopsy were performed. Intravenous methylprednisolone or oral dexamethasone was administered as treatment, additionally cyclophosphamide in one patient. Clinically, diplopia, nystagmus, ataxia and facial paresthesia were the cardinal symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed patchy spot-like gadolinium enhancement in a "salt-and-pepper like appearance" in the pons, midbrain and cerebellum, in two cases with thalamic and in the other with spinal involvement. Brain biopsies demonstrated a predominantly angiocentric but also diffuse infiltration pattern by small mature lymphocytes. Treatment with steroids led to rapid clinical improvement and marked resolution of MRI lesions. As discontinuation of steroids led to clinical relapse, one patient was treated with a further course of steroids and the other with steroids and cyclophosphamide as immunosuppressive therapy. This led to stable remission with only mild clinical residue and normalization of MRI. Extensive laboratory and radiological work-up could not identify any other cause of the disease. Of note, in two cases a marked elevation of IgE in serum was found initially and throughout the course. CLIPPERS seems to be a distinct inflammatory central nervous system disorder. It shows characteristic MRI core features. Extrapontine involvement seems to be frequent. Histologically it is characterised by predominantly angiocentric infiltration by small mature lymphocytes. A pathogenetic

  3. Antecedents of teenage pregnancy from a 14-year follow-up study using data linkage.

    PubMed

    Gaudie, Jennifer; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Stanley, Fiona J; Silburn, Sven R; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2010-02-11

    Many western nations continue to have high rates of teenage pregnancies and births, which can result in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. This study identified possible antecedents of teenage pregnancy using linked data from administrative sources to create a 14-year follow-up from a cross-sectional survey. Data were drawn from two sources - the 1993 Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS), a population-based representative sample of 2,736 children aged 4 to 16 years (1,374 girls); and administrative data relating to all their subsequent births and hospital admissions. We used weighted population estimates to examine differences between rates for teenage pregnancy, motherhood and abortion. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model risk for teenage pregnancy. There were 155 girls aged less than 20 years at the time of their first recorded pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with: family type; highest school year completed by primary carer; combined carer income; whether the primary carer was a smoker; and whether the girl herself displayed aggressive and delinquent behaviours. An age-interaction analysis on the association with aggressive and delinquent behaviours found that while girls with aggressive and delinquent behaviours who were older at the time of the survey were at highest risk of teenage pregnancy, there was elevated risk for future teenage pregnancy across all ages. Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy rates could be introduced during primary school years, including those that are focused on the prevention and management of aggressive and delinquent behaviour.

  4. Language exposure induced neuroplasticity in the bilingual brain: a follow-up fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tu, Liu; Wang, Junjing; Abutalebi, Jubin; Jiang, Bo; Pan, Ximin; Li, Meng; Gao, Wei; Yang, Yuchen; Liang, Bishan; Lu, Zhi; Huang, Ruiwang

    2015-03-01

    Although several studies have shown that language exposure crucially influence the cerebral representation of bilinguals, the effects of short-term change of language exposure in daily life upon language control areas in bilinguals are less known. To explore this issue, we employed follow-up fMRI to investigate whether differential exposure induces neuroplastic changes in the language control network in high-proficient Cantonese (L1)-Mandarin (L2) early bilinguals. The same 10 subjects underwent twice BOLD-fMRI scans while performing a silent narration task which corresponded to two different language exposure conditions, CON-1 (L1/L2 usage percentage, 50%:50%) and CON-2 (L1/L2 usage percentage, 90%:10%). We report a strong effect of language exposure in areas related to language control for the less exposed language. Interestingly, these significant effects were present after only a 30-day period of differential language exposure. In detail, we reached the following results: (1) the interaction effect of language and language exposure condition was found significantly in the left pars opercularis (BA 44) and marginally in the left MFG (BA 9); (2) in CON-2, increases of activation values in L2 were found significantly in bilateral BA 46 and BA 9, in the left BA44, and marginally in the left caudate; and (3) in CON-2, we found a significant negative correlation between language exposure to L2 and the BOLD activation value specifically in the left ACC. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that even short periods of differential exposure to a given language may induce significant neuroplastic changes in areas responsible for language control. The language which a bilingual is less exposed to and is also less used will be in need of increased mental control as shown by the increased activity of language control areas.

  5. The Effect of Clozapine on Hematological Indices: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimmy; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Powell, Valerie; Bhaloo, Amaal; Bies, Robert; Remington, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Clozapine is the antipsychotic of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is linked to a need for mandatory hematological monitoring. Besides agranulocytosis, other hematological aberrations have resulted in premature termination in some cases. Considering clozapine's role in immunomodulation, we proceeded to investigate the impact of clozapine on the following 3 main hematological cell lines: red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), and its differential counts. Data were extracted from patients initiated on clozapine between January 2009 and December 2010 at a single hospital. Patients with a preclozapine complete blood count, who were receiving clozapine during the 1-year follow-up period, were included in the present investigation. Counts of red blood cells, platelets, WBC, and its differential including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils were extracted and trajectories plotted. One hundred one patients were included in this study and 66 remained on clozapine at the end of 1 year. There was a synchronized but transient increase in WBC, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and platelets beginning as early as the first week of clozapine treatment. There were no cases of agranulocytosis reported in this sample, and five developed neutropenia. A spike in neutrophils immediately preceded the onset of neutropenia in three of the five. The cumulative incidence rates were 48.9% for neutrophilia, 5.9% for eosinophilia, and 3% each for thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia. Early hematological aberrations are visible across a range of cell lines, primarily of the myeloid lineage. These disturbances are transient and are probably related to clozapine's immunomodulatory properties. We do not suggest discontinuing clozapine as a consequence of the observed aberrations.

  6. Five-year Nationwide Follow-up Study of Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Makarov, Danil V.; Bratt, Ola; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Stattin, Pár

    2014-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) is an important yet underutilized strategy to reduce prostate cancer (PCa) overtreatment. Objective To examine the 5-yr outcomes of AS in a population-based setting. Design, setting, and participants From the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, we identified 11 726 men ≤70 yr diagnosed with very low-risk to intermediate-risk PCa from 2003 to 2007 who completed 5 yr of follow-up. Of these men, 1729 (15%) chose AS the primary management strategy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis We calculated the probability of discontinuation of AS over time, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine factors associated with discontinuation. Reasons for discontinuation were assessed by data extraction from medical charts. Results and limitations By 5 yr, 64% of the men remained on AS. Predictors of discontinuation were younger age, fewer comorbidities, more education, higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and clinical stage T2 disease; marital status did not predict discontinuation. In a subset with data on the reason for discontinuation (86%), 20% of men discontinued because of patient preference, 52% because of PSA progression, 24% because of biopsy progression, and 3% for other reasons. Conclusions In a population-based setting, the majority of men remained on AS at 5 yr. However, one-fifth of the men who discontinued AS did so for nonbiologic reasons. Thus, there is a need for support and counseling for men to continue AS in the absence of signs of progression to improve adherence to AS and decrease overtreatment. Patient summary Active surveillance (AS) is an important option to delay or avoid treatment for men with favorable prostate cancer features. This study shows that at 5 yr, 64% of men across an entire population remained on AS. We concluded that AS is a durable option and that counseling may be useful to promote adherence for men without progression. PMID:24993868

  7. Sleep and sickness absence: a nationally representative register-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Kaikkonen, Risto; Härkänen, Tommi; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to examine various sleep measures as determinants of sickness absence while considering confounders. Nationally representative Health 2000 Survey linked with sickness absence data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Finland. Working-aged women (n = 1,875) and men (n = 1,885). N/A. Insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired during daytime than other people of same age, use of sleeping pills, excessive daytime sleepiness, probable sleep apnea (4 items about snoring/apnea), and reporting that sleep duration varies between different seasons were examined as determinants of sickness absence over a 7.2 year follow-up. Poisson and gamma regression models were fitted. After adjusting age, all examined sleep disturbances except excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with sickness absence among men (RRs 1.3-2.5). Among women, after adjusting for age, insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired than others, and use of sleeping pills were associated with sickness absence (RRs 1.4-1.8). After further adjustments for education, working conditions, health behaviors, and objectively measured mental and somatic health, the associations somewhat attenuated but mainly remained. The optimal sleep duration with the lowest risk of sickness absence was 7.6 hours for women and 7.8 hours for men. Although persistence of other health problems could affect the estimates, direct costs due to sickness absence could decrease by up to 28% if sleep disturbances could be fully addressed. This study highlights the need for prevention of sleep disturbances and promotion of optimal sleep length to prevent sickness absence. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Antecedents of teenage pregnancy from a 14-year follow-up study using data linkage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many western nations continue to have high rates of teenage pregnancies and births, which can result in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. This study identified possible antecedents of teenage pregnancy using linked data from administrative sources to create a 14-year follow-up from a cross-sectional survey. Methods Data were drawn from two sources - the 1993 Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS), a population-based representative sample of 2,736 children aged 4 to 16 years (1,374 girls); and administrative data relating to all their subsequent births and hospital admissions. We used weighted population estimates to examine differences between rates for teenage pregnancy, motherhood and abortion. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model risk for teenage pregnancy. Results There were 155 girls aged less than 20 years at the time of their first recorded pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with: family type; highest school year completed by primary carer; combined carer income; whether the primary carer was a smoker; and whether the girl herself displayed aggressive and delinquent behaviours. An age-interaction analysis on the association with aggressive and delinquent behaviours found that while girls with aggressive and delinquent behaviours who were older at the time of the survey were at highest risk of teenage pregnancy, there was elevated risk for future teenage pregnancy across all ages. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy rates could be introduced during primary school years, including those that are focused on the prevention and management of aggressive and delinquent behaviour. PMID:20149221

  9. [Five-year follow up of lipid profile in children in the Rivas-Vaciamadrid study].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bayle, M; Sánchez Bernardo, A; Asensio Antón, J; Ruiz-Jarabo Quemada, C; Baeza Mínguez, J; Morales San José, M T

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate lipid balance in children after a 5-year follow-up and tracking between initial and final levels. Two hundred eighty-one children included in the Rivas-Vaciamadrid study were evaluated at the ages of 6 and 11 years. In all children, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and apoproteins A1 (Apo A) and B100 (Apo B) were measured. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was determined and the Apo B/Apo A, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios and the atherogenic index were calculated. At 11 years of age, lipid balance was worse in girls than in boys. Levels of TG and HDL-C were significantly higher at the age of 11 years than those at the age of 6 years, but levels of the remaining variables analyzed were lower, except for Apo A and TC, which showed a non-significant increase. The correlation coefficients between values at the ages of 6 and 11 years were significant for all variables and the highest was LDL-C in girls (0.711). Kappa and Nishio tracking indexes were significant for all variables and were highest for the atherogenic index (0.431 and 6.71 respectively) and lowest for TG (0.129 and 2.85 respectively). Subjects in the highest quartile at 6 years old had a relative risk of 8.04 (CI 4.34-14.88) for having the same atherogenic index at the age of 11 years and a relative risk of 1.91 (CI 1.05-3.46) for having the same TG value. There is a significant correlation between lipid profile values in children at the ages of 6 and 11 years. The best tracking was found in the atherogenic index.

  10. Specific antibody deficiency in children with recurrent respiratory infections: a controlled study with follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ruuskanen, O; Nurkka, A; Helminen, M; Viljanen, M K; Käyhty, H; Kainulainen, L

    2013-01-01

    Specific antibody deficiency (SAD) to unconjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) is an established primary B cell immunodeficiency. The occurrence and natural history of SAD in children is unclear. We conducted an observational study to identify SAD in children with recurrent respiratory infections. Ninety-nine children, mean age 5·9 (range 2–16) years, with recurrent or severe infections were vaccinated with PPV; serum antibody concentrations for serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F were measured before and 2 weeks after vaccination with enzyme immunoassay. The retrospective control group consisted of 89 healthy children matched for age and gender. No children had received previous conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) or PPV. The structured history of infectious diseases of all participants was collected. Ten of 91 (11%) children (eight excluded due to immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency) with recurrent respiratory infections had SAD. In the control group, three children (3%) responded inadequately to PPV (P = 0·05). Most children with SAD also had many other minor immune defects. After 0·5–5 years (medium 3·8), eight children with SAD were revaccinated with PPV; five responded adequately and three inadequately. Two SAD children were revaccinated with PCV, one developed an adequate and one an inadequate response. Two children with SAD received treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin; the remaining eight children recovered without replacement therapy during the follow-up. SAD is common in young children with recurrent respiratory infections, but it is often transient and resolves itself within a few years without specific treatment. PMID:23574320

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of gamma knife radiosurgery in acromegaly: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Cristina L; Attanasio, Roberto; Verrua, Elisa; Cozzi, Renato; Ferrante, Emanuele; Loli, Paola; Montefusco, Laura; Motti, Enrico; Ferrari, Daniela I; Giugni, Enrico; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Arosio, Maura

    2009-12-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery by gamma knife (GK) still remain unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of GK in acromegalic patients. Retrospective analysis for a median follow-up of 10 years. Thirty-five acromegalic patients from two referral centres in Milan submitted to GK (median margin dose: 20 Gy, median % isodose: 50) between 1995 and 2004. GH/IGF-I secretion, anterior pituitary function, radiological imaging and ophthalmological data. Cure rate improved over time (up to 46% at 10 years), as did the proportion of patients achieving control on somatostatin analogues (from 12.5% at baseline to 50% at 10 years). Normal IGF-I values were observed in 82% of patients at their last visit. No visual impairment, disease recurrence, tumour growth or secondary cerebral tumour occurred. Half of the patients developed one or more new deficiencies, while two patients normalized their prior failures. In particular, new onset of clinical or subclinical hypoadrenalism occurred in 12/30 patients (40%), hypothyroidism in 3/28 (11%), hypogonadism in 2/15 (13%) and GH deficiency in 2/35 (6%). GH value at the time of GK was the best negative predictor of cure and margin dose was the best positive predictor of new hypopituitarism. Over a 10-year period after GK radiosurgery, an increasing percentage of patients achieve cure, or adequate control of the disease on pharmacological therapy, at the expense of increasing novel pituitary deficiencies. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-up Study: Methods and Screening Results.

    PubMed

    Hark, Lisa A; Katz, L Jay; Myers, Jonathan S; Waisbourd, Michael; Johnson, Deiana; Pizzi, Laura T; Leiby, Benjamin E; Fudemberg, Scott J; Mantravadi, Anand V; Henderer, Jeffrey D; Zhan, Tingting; Molineaux, Jeanne; Doyle, Vance; Divers, Meskerem; Burns, Christine; Murchison, Ann P; Reber, Shae; Resende, Arthur; Bui, Thien Dan V; Lee, Jane; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Lee, Paul P; Pasquale, Louis R; Haller, Julia A

    2017-09-01

    To describe methodology and screening results from the Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-up Study. Screening program results for a prospective randomized clinical trial. Individuals were recruited who were African-American, Hispanic/Latino, or Asian over age 40 years; white individuals over age 65 years; and any ethnicity over age 40 years with a family history of glaucoma or diabetes. Primary care offices and Federally Qualified Health Centers were used for telemedicine (Visit 1). Two posterior fundus photographs and 1 anterior segment photograph were captured per eye in each participant, using a nonmydriatic, autofocus, hand-held fundus camera (Volk Optical, Mentor, Ohio, USA). Medical and ocular history, family history of glaucoma, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure measurements using the ICare rebound tonometer (ICare, Helsinki, Finland) were obtained. Images were read remotely by a trained retina reader and a glaucoma specialist. From April 1, 2015, to February 6, 2017, 906 individuals consented and attended Visit 1. Of these, 553 participants were female (61.0%) and 550 were African-American (60.7%), with a mean age of 58.7 years. A total of 532 (58.7%) participants had diabetes, and 616 (68%) had a history of hypertension. During Visit 1, 356 (39.3%) participants were graded with a normal image. Using image data from the worse eye, 333 (36.8%) were abnormal and 155 (17.1%) were unreadable. A total of 258 (28.5%) had a suspicious nerve, 62 (6.8%) had ocular hypertension, 102 (11.3%) had diabetic retinopathy, and 68 (7.5%) had other retinal abnormalities. An integrated telemedicine screening intervention in primary care offices and Federally Qualified Health Centers detected high rate of suspicious optic nerves, ocular hypertension, and retinal pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. One-year follow-up of Chinese people with spinal cord injury: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sam Chi Chung; Chan, Alice Po Shan

    2013-01-01

    Background A tertiary spinal cord injury (SCI) center was established in the northern region of Hong Kong, China and a multidisciplinary SCI rehabilitation program was developed to reintegrate patients into the community. Objective To investigate functional outcomes for Chinese people with SCI across a 1-year period. Design Longitudinal prospective design. Methods Thirty community-dwelling participants with traumatic SCI were recruited. Functional status was measured using functional independence measure (FIM) on admission, upon discharge, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year post-discharge. Information on use of assistive devices and life role were also obtained. Results Twenty-three (76.67%) participants were men. Seventeen participants (10 with tetraplegia and 7 with paraplegia) were classified ASIA A, B, or C; 13 (7 with tetraplegia and 6 with paraplegia) were classified as ASIA D. Significant differences in FIM motor scores were only found between the tetraplegia group and three other diagnostic groups using Bonferroni post-hoc tests of repeated measure ANOVA (analysis of variance) (P < 0.05). Longitudinally, contrast tests of repeated measure ANOVA showed significant differences during the hospitalization period for all diagnostic groups. People in the ASIA D group showed significant functional improvement even after 1-year post-discharge (P < 0.05). At 1-year post-discharge, only two participants were engaged in either remunerative employment or academic pursuit. Conclusion Despite functional status improvement, few people with traumatic SCI were re-engaged in productive life role 1 year after discharge. Studies with longer follow-up would be beneficial. PMID:23433330

  14. WHI and WHIMS follow-up and human studies of soy isoflavones on cognition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqin; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2007-11-01

    Recent follow-up analyses of the previous findings from the Women's Health Initiative and the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study confirmed some health benefits of estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) in women within 10 years from the onset of menopause. However, the potential risks associated with long-term administration of HT, such as breast cancer and stroke, remain a concern for therapy recipients, underlying the need for an alternative treatment that is functionally equivalent but with a greater safety profile. Owing to their structural and functional resemblance to mammalian estrogens and lack of evident adverse effects, research interest in plant-derived phytoestrogens has increased in the past decade. While multiple health-promoting benefits of phytoestrogens have been proposed from basic science, the clinical data remain inconclusive. This review provides a comparative analysis of human studies on the effects of soy-based isoflavones on cognition. Of the eight studies published in 2000-2007, seven were conducted in postmenopausal women, four of which revealed a positive impact of isoflavones on cognitive function. Multiple factors could have contributed to the discrepant outcomes across studies, such as variation in the composition of phytoestrogen interventions and the heterogeneous characteristics of the study population. Thus, a well-designed clinical study based on a standardized stable formulation in a well-characterized study population is required in order to reach a clinical consensus. A formulation composed of select estrogen receptor beta-selective phytoestrogens with a rationally designed composition would avoid the potential antagonism present in a mixture and thus enhance therapeutic efficacy. In addition, inclusion of equol in a study formulation offers a potential synergistic effect from equol in both equol-producing and nonproducing individuals, as well as added benefits for men. With respect to the design of study population, a

  15. Treatment of missing data in follow-up studies of randomised controlled trials: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Thomas R; Yelland, Lisa N; Lee, Katherine J; Ryan, Philip; Salter, Amy B

    2017-08-01

    After completion of a randomised controlled trial, an extended follow-up period may be initiated to learn about longer term impacts of the intervention. Since extended follow-up studies often involve additional eligibility restrictions and consent processes for participation, and a longer duration of follow-up entails a greater risk of participant attrition, missing data can be a considerable threat in this setting. As a potential source of bias, it is critical that missing data are appropriately handled in the statistical analysis, yet little is known about the treatment of missing data in extended follow-up studies. The aims of this review were to summarise the extent of missing data in extended follow-up studies and the use of statistical approaches to address this potentially serious problem. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed to identify extended follow-up studies published from January to June 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the original randomised controlled trial results were also published and if the main objective of extended follow-up was to compare the original randomised groups. We recorded information on the extent of missing data and the approach used to treat missing data in the statistical analysis of the primary outcome of the extended follow-up study. Of the 81 studies included in the review, 36 (44%) reported additional eligibility restrictions and 24 (30%) consent processes for entry into extended follow-up. Data were collected at a median of 7 years after randomisation. Excluding 28 studies with a time to event primary outcome, 51/53 studies (96%) reported missing data on the primary outcome. The median percentage of randomised participants with complete data on the primary outcome was just 66% in these studies. The most common statistical approach to address missing data was complete case analysis (51% of studies), while likelihood-based analyses were also well represented (25%). Sensitivity analyses around

  16. Long-Term follow up after intra-Uterine transfusionS; the LOTUS study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) is the Dutch national referral centre for pregnancies complicated by haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) caused by maternal alloimmunization. Yearly, 20-25 affected fetuses with severe anaemia are transfused with intra-uterine blood transfusions (IUT). Mothers of whom their fetus has undergone IUT for HDFN are considered high responders with regard to red blood cell (RBC) antibody formation. Most study groups report high perinatal survival, resulting in a shift in attention towards short- and long-term outcome in surviving children. Methods/Design We set up a large long-term observational follow-up study (LOTUS study), in cooperation with the Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation and the LUMC departments of Obstetrics, Neonatology and ImmunoHematology & Bloodtransfusion. The first part of this study addresses several putative mechanisms associated with blood group alloimmunization in these mothers. The second part of this study determines the incidence of long-term neurodevelopment impairment (NDI) and associated risk factors in children treated with IUT. All women and their life offspring who have been treated with IUT for HDFN in the LUMC from 1987-2008 are invited to participate and after consent, blood or saliva samples are taken. RBC and HLA antigen profile and antibodies are determined by serologic or molecular techniques. Microchimerism populations are tested by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR). All children are tested for their neurological, cognitive and psychosocial development using standardised tests and questionnaires. The primary outcome is neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), a composite outcome defined as any of the following: cerebral palsy, cognitive or psychomotor development < 2 standard deviation, bilateral blindness and/or bilateral deafness. Discussion The LOTUS study includes the largest cohort of IUT patients ever studied and is the first to investigate post

  17. Grammont inverted prosthesis for the treatment of cuff tear arthropathy: a 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Cupis, Vincenzo; Chillemi, Claudio; Marinelli, Mario

    2008-05-01

    This study evaluated mid-term functional results of the Grammont inverted prosthesis for the treatment of shoulder osteoarthritis associated with massive cuff rupture. Twenty-eight patients with a minimum of 6 years of follow-up were evaluated. Clinical evaluation was performed on all patients preoperatively and at follow-up using the Constant score. Radiologic assessment included radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively and radiographs at follow-up. Constant score improved from 27.4 preoperatively to 64.6 postoperatively. The inverted prosthesis is attractive and remains one of the options for treating cuff tear arthropathy. However, glenoid loosening remains a serious problem.

  18. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98) Methodology Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, J. S.; Whitmore, R. W.; Heuer, R. E.; Biber, M.; Pratt, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the design and methodology of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-up, including overall outcomes of data collection and evaluations of the quality of data collected. (SLD)

  19. Relationships between Reading, Phonological Skills and Language Development in Individuals With Down Syndrome: A Five Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; Gunn, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Details language, memory, and reading information gathered for a five year follow up study of 30 children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Concludes that early learning skills may be significant predictors of mean length of utterance five years later. (PM)

  20. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98) Methodology Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, J. S.; Whitmore, R. W.; Heuer, R. E.; Biber, M.; Pratt, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the design and methodology of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-up, including overall outcomes of data collection and evaluations of the quality of data collected. (SLD)

  1. Association of Sasang Constitutional Types with Incident Hypertension: A 12-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Chol

    2016-09-01

    Sasang constitutional types (SCTs) are four distinct classifications of people based on physiologic and physical characteristics. The different types have been reported to have different disease susceptibility, but there are no studies reporting the association of SCT and hypertension (HTN) over a long-term follow-up period. This study prospectively investigated the association between SCT and incidence of HTN. This was a prospective study in a population-based cohort study in Korea. Data from two independent population-based cohorts that are embedded within the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were used. A total of 2083 subjects who were free of HTN at baseline were selected for the analysis. HTN was diagnosed as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, use of antihypertensive medication, or diagnosis by doctor. The SCTs were classified using an integrated diagnostic method that included facial features, body shape, voice, and questionnaire responses. The association between the SCT and the incidence of HTN was investigated by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis and calculation of estimated survival functions. The Tae-eum (TE) type showed a significantly increased risk for HTN (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-2.10; p = 0.005), even after adjusting for all possible confounders. In a stratified analysis by body mass index (BMI) conducted only in the TE type, even those in the TE type with normal BMI had a significantly higher risk for HTN (HR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.07-2.03; p = 0.016). Furthermore, survival analysis showed that the TE type had a higher rate of developing HTN than the So-eum and So-yang types had, regardless of obesity status. These results show that the TE type is an independent risk factor for HTN. Thus, early prevention and treatment for HTN in this type are needed.

  2. The effects of traumatic brain injury on patients and their families. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Inzaghi, M G; De Tanti, A; Sozzi, M

    2005-12-01